Science.gov

Sample records for closed form model

  1. Closed-form solution of decomposable stochastic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, Jon A.

    1990-01-01

    Markov and semi-Markov processes are increasingly being used in the modeling of complex reconfigurable systems (fault tolerant computers). The estimation of the reliability (or some measure of performance) of the system reduces to solving the process for its state probabilities. Such a model may exhibit numerous states and complicated transition distributions, contributing to an expensive and numerically delicate solution procedure. Thus, when a system exhibits a decomposition property, either structurally (autonomous subsystems), or behaviorally (component failure versus reconfiguration), it is desirable to exploit this decomposition in the reliability calculation. In interesting cases there can be failure states which arise from non-failure states of the subsystems. Equations are presented which allow the computation of failure probabilities of the total (combined) model without requiring a complete solution of the combined model. This material is presented within the context of closed-form functional representation of probabilities as utilized in the Symbolic Hierarchical Automated Reliability and Performance Evaluator (SHARPE) tool. The techniques adopted enable one to compute such probability functions for a much wider class of systems at a reduced computational cost. Several examples show how the method is used, especially in enhancing the versatility of the SHARPE tool.

  2. Idealized Closed Form Performance Modeling of a Closed Cycle Joule-Thomson Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytal, B.-Z.

    2004-06-01

    The characteristic parameters of a closed cycle Joule-Thomson cryocooler would be: the charging pressure, discharge and suction volumes of the loop, volumetric displacement of the compressor and the extent of throttling restriction. A series of idealizing assumption are applied. The volumetric behavior of the coolant is assumed to obey the ideal gas equation. The recuperator and compressor's volumetric delivery are completely efficient. There are no pressure losses along the circulating path. On this basis is developed a closed form model of the system, interrelating the relevant parameters. Performance at steady state is expressed in terms of the circulating flow rate, discharge and suction pressures and cooling power. The model predicts the optimal size of equivalent orifice and the maximized cooling power. Also derived is the hydrodynamic time constant of building up the discharge pressure. This analysis is relevant for mixed coolants as well as for pure coolants closed cycles. The former typically employ lower pressure and therefore the idealized assumptions are even more applicable.

  3. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 1026 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H Appendix H to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. H Appendix H to Part 1026—Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H-1Credit Sale Model Form (§ 1026.18) H-2Loan Model Form (§ 1026.18)...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H Appendix H... RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. H Appendix H to Part 226—Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H-1—Credit Sale Model Form (§ 226.18) H-2—Loan Model Form (§ 226.18)...

  5. Closed-form impulse response model of non-line-of-sight single-scatter propagation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-04-01

    For optical scattering communication, a closed-form expression of channel impulse response (CIR) is favorable for further system design and channel capacity analysis. Combining the mean value theorem of integrals and L'Hôpital's rule, the exact non-line-of-sight (NLOS) single-scatter propagation model is simplified to a closed-form CIR model for a laser source with a narrow beam. Based on this model, by joint geometrical and empirical approaches, a piecewise CIR expression is presented under certain system NLOS geometries. Through numerical results on CIR for various NLOS geometries, the proposed model is verified with the exact NLOS single-scatter propagation model and the previous Gamma fitting model, showing that our model agrees better with the former than the latter. PMID:27140787

  6. Closed-form impulse response model of non-line-of-sight single-scatter propagation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-04-01

    For optical scattering communication, a closed-form expression of channel impulse response (CIR) is favorable for further system design and channel capacity analysis. Combining the mean value theorem of integrals and L'Hôpital's rule, the exact non-line-of-sight (NLOS) single-scatter propagation model is simplified to a closed-form CIR model for a laser source with a narrow beam. Based on this model, by joint geometrical and empirical approaches, a piecewise CIR expression is presented under certain system NLOS geometries. Through numerical results on CIR for various NLOS geometries, the proposed model is verified with the exact NLOS single-scatter propagation model and the previous Gamma fitting model, showing that our model agrees better with the former than the latter.

  7. Closed-form solutions of performability. [modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Methods which yield closed form performability solutions for continuous valued variables are developed. The models are similar to those employed in performance modeling (i.e., Markovian queueing models) but are extended so as to account for variations in structure due to faults. In particular, the modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system is considered whose performance Y is the (normalized) average throughput rate realized during a bounded interval of time. To avoid known difficulties associated with exact transient solutions, an approximate decomposition of the model is employed permitting certain submodels to be solved in equilibrium. These solutions are then incorporated in a model with fewer transient states and by solving the latter, a closed form solution of the system's performability is obtained. In conclusion, some applications of this solution are discussed and illustrated, including an example of design optimization.

  8. A simple, closed-form, mathematical model for gas exchange in microchannel artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Potkay, Joseph A

    2013-06-01

    Microfabrication techniques are attractive for constructing artificial lungs due to the ability to create features similar in size to those in the natural lung. However, a simple and intuitive mathematical model capable of accurately predicting the gas exchange performance of microchannel artificial lungs does not currently exist. Such a model is critical to understanding and optimizing these devices. Here, we describe a simple, closed-form mathematical model for gas exchange in microchannel artificial lungs and qualify it through application to experimental data from several research groups. We utilize lumped parameters and several assumptions to obtain a closed-form set of equations that describe gas exchange. This work is intended to augment computational models by providing a more intuitive, albeit potentially less accurate, understanding of the operation and trade-offs inherent in microchannel artificial lung devices.

  9. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A novel closed-form resistance model for trapezoidal interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baojun, Chen; Zhen'an, Tang; Tiejun, Yu

    2010-08-01

    A closed-form model for the frequency-dependent per-unit-length resistance of trapezoidal cross-sectional interconnects is presented. The frequency-dependent per-unit-length resistance R(f) of a trapezoidal interconnect line is first obtained by a numerical method. Using the method we quantify the trapezoid edge effect on the resistance of the interconnect and the current density distribution in the cross section. Based on this strict numerical result, a novel closed-form model R(f) for a single trapezoidal interconnect is fitted out using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. This R(f) can be widely used for analyzing on-chip interconnects when the frequency is changing. The model is computationally very efficient with respect to the numerical method, and the results are found to be accurate.

  10. Closed-form solution of the Ogden-Hill's compressible hyperelastic model for ramp loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezvai, Szabolcs; Kossa, Attila

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with the visco-hyperelastic modelling approach for compressible polymer foam materials. Polymer foams can exhibit large elastic strains and displacements in case of volumetric compression. In addition, they often show significant rate-dependent properties. This material behaviour can be accurately modelled using the visco-hyperelastic approach, in which the large strain viscoelastic description is combined with the rate-independent hyperelastic material model. In case of polymer foams, the most widely used compressible hyperelastic material model, the so-called Ogden-Hill's model, was applied, which is implemented in the commercial finite element (FE) software uc(Abaqus). The visco-hyperelastic model is defined in hereditary integral form, therefore, obtaining a closed-form solution for the stress is not a trivial task. However, the parameter-fitting procedure could be much faster and accurate if closed-form solution exists. In this contribution, exact stress solutions are derived in case of uniaxial, biaxial and volumetric compression loading cases using ramp-loading history. The analytical stress solutions are compared with the stress results in uc(Abaqus) using FE analysis. In order to highlight the benefits of the analytical closed-form solution during the parameter-fitting process experimental work has been carried out on a particular open-cell memory foam material. The results of the material identification process shows significant accuracy improvement in the fitting procedure by applying the derived analytical solutions compared to the so-called separated approach applied in the engineering practice.

  11. Closed-form model for the analysis of W-type shaped charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, A.; Ghayour, M.; Liaghat, G. H.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a closed-form model for the analysis of symmetric planar W-type shaped charges (WSCs) with two V-sections, which produce two primary cores and two primary jets. If these two V-sections have proper asymmetry, these primary cores will force two primary jets into a secondary core formed on the axis of symmetry of a planar symmetric WSC. For the analysis of such a planar WSC, a complete generalized model for an asymmetric planar V-shaped charge (VSC) with any desired order of asymmetry is mandatory. In this paper, the model is applied to describe the secondary jet formation in the WSC. By presenting a closed-form analysis of the WSC, the secondary jet specifications can be easily evaluated and, thus, can be compared with respect to the jet quantities in symmetric or asymmetric VSCs. Finally, for the primary and secondary jets, the coherency conditions are investigated, and the critical parameters responsible for these conditions are determined.

  12. Generalized closed-form model for analysis of asymmetric shaped charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, A.; Liaghat, G. H.; Ghayour, M.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a model that has less constraints than similar models and explains the collapse phenomenon in any desired order of geometrical asymmetries and in the presence of symmetric and asymmetric general-form wave fronts. It seems that, in this model, a complete generalized form of the classical jet formation theory has been developed. Available models that describe the symmetric jet and slug formation phenomenon are very good in such conditions. But the liner and confinement asymmetries, detonation wave front asymmetries, and other specifications, such as manufacturing tolerances, can affect the collapse and the behavior of the jet and slug. Some proposed models that describe asymmetric cases are not closed-form models or are only applicable for limited conditions, such as small asymmetries and a planar wave front. With the presented model, effects of concave, plane, and convex wave fronts on the off-axis velocity of the jet, other parameters of the jet and slug, and effects of an asymmetric wave front on jet formation for a completely symmetric liner and confinement geometry can be evaluated.

  13. A model for closing the inviscid form of the average passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Mulac, R. A.; Celestina, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for closing or mathematically completing the system of equations is proposed. The model describes the time average flow field through the blade passages of multistage turbomachinery. These average-passage equation systems govern a conceptual model useful in turbomachinery aerodynamic design and analysis. The closure model was developed to insure a consistency between these equations and the axisymmetric through-flow equations. The closure model was incorporated into a calculation code for use in the simulation of the flow field about a high-speed counter rotating propeller and a high-speed fan stage.

  14. A model for closing the inviscid form of the average-passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Mulac, R. A.; Celestina, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed for closing or mathematically completing the system of equations which describes the time average flow field through the blade passages of multistage turbomachinery. These equations referred to as the average passage equation system govern a conceptual model which has proven useful in turbomachinery aerodynamic design and analysis. The closure model is developed so as to insure a consistency between these equations and the axisymmetric through flow equations. The closure model was incorporated into a computer code for use in simulating the flow field about a high speed counter rotating propeller and a high speed fan stage. Results from these simulations are presented.

  15. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....002 EC27SE91.030 H-9—Rescission Model Form (Refinancing with Original Creditor) NOTICE OF RIGHT TO CANCEL Your Right To Cancel You are entering into a new transaction to increase the amount of credit... received your new Truth in Lending disclosures; or (3) the date you received this notice of your right...

  16. Path integral approach to closed-form option pricing formulas with applications to stochastic volatility and interest rate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, D.; Wouters, M.; Tempere, J.; Foulon, S.

    2008-07-01

    We present a path integral method to derive closed-form solutions for option prices in a stochastic volatility model. The method is explained in detail for the pricing of a plain vanilla option. The flexibility of our approach is demonstrated by extending the realm of closed-form option price formulas to the case where both the volatility and interest rates are stochastic. This flexibility is promising for the treatment of exotic options. Our analytical formulas are tested with numerical Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Fourier domain closed-form formulas for estimation of kinetic parameters in reversible multi-compartment models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Compared with static imaging, dynamic emission computed tomographic imaging with compartment modeling can quantify in vivo physiologic processes, providing useful information about molecular disease processes. Dynamic imaging involves estimation of kinetic rate parameters. For multi-compartment models, kinetic parameter estimation can be computationally demanding and problematic with local minima. Methods This paper offers a new perspective to the compartment model fitting problem where Fourier linear system theory is applied to derive closed-form formulas for estimating kinetic parameters for the two-compartment model. The proposed Fourier domain estimation method provides a unique solution, and offers very different noise response as compared to traditional non-linear chi-squared minimization techniques. Results The unique feature of the proposed Fourier domain method is that only low frequency components are used for kinetic parameter estimation, where the DC (i.e., the zero frequency) component in the data is treated as the most important information, and high frequency components that tend to be corrupted by statistical noise are discarded. Computer simulations show that the proposed method is robust without having to specify the initial condition. The resultant solution can be fine tuned using the traditional iterative method. Conclusions The proposed Fourier-domain estimation method has closed-form formulas. The proposed Fourier-domain curve-fitting method does not require an initial condition, it minimizes a quadratic objective function and a closed-form solution can be obtained. The noise is easier to control, simply by discarding the high frequency components, and emphasizing the DC component. PMID:22995548

  18. Hydraulic fracturing model based on a three-dimensional closed form

    SciTech Connect

    Bouteca, M.J. )

    1988-11-01

    The numerical model described in this paper was designed to provide a realistic three-dimensional (3D) solution for fracture propagation in minimal computation time. Comparisons with available results show good concordance for a wide range of data. The results of a parametric study are compared with the Nolte analysis of the propagation pressure.

  19. Non-dimensionalised closed-form parametric analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions using a quarter-car model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Blanchard, Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    This article provides a non-dimensionalised closed-form analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions, using a quarter-car model. The derivation of the closed-form solutions for three indices that can be used for ride comfort, vehicle handling, and stability are presented based on non-dimensionalised suspension parameters. The behaviour of semi-active vehicle suspensions is evaluated using skyhook, groundhook, and hybrid control policies, and compared with passive suspensions. The relationship between vibration isolation, suspension deflection, and road holding is studied, using three performance indices based on the mean square of the sprung mass acceleration, rattle space, and tyre deflection, respectively. The results of the study indicate that the hybrid control policy yields significantly better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement for typical passenger cars. The results also indicate that for typical passenger cars, the hybrid control policy results in a better compromise between comfort, road holding and suspension travel requirements than both the skyhook and groundhook control methods.

  20. A copula-based closed-form binary logit choice model for accommodating spatial correlation across observational units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Chandra R.; Sener, Ipek N.

    2009-09-01

    This study focuses on accommodating spatial dependency in data indexed by geographic location. In particular, the emphasis is on accommodating spatial error correlation across observational units in binary discrete choice models. We propose a copula-based approach to spatial dependence modeling based on a spatial logit structure rather than a spatial probit structure. In this approach, the dependence between the logistic error terms of different observational units is directly accommodated using a multivariate logistic distribution based on the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstein (FGM) copula. The approach represents a simple and powerful technique that results in a closed-form analytic expression for the joint probability of choice across observational units, and is straightforward to apply using a standard and direct maximum likelihood inference procedure. There is no simulation machinery involved, leading to substantial computation gains relative to current methods to address spatial correlation. The approach is applied to teenagers’ physical activity participation levels, a subject of considerable interest in the public health, transportation, sociology, and adolescence development fields. The results indicate that failing to accommodate heteroscedasticity and spatial correlation can lead to inconsistent and inefficient parameter estimates, as well as incorrect conclusions regarding the elasticity effects of exogenous variables.

  1. Exact model reduction with delays: closed-form distributions and extensions to fully bi-directional monomolecular reactions

    PubMed Central

    Leier, Andre; Barrio, Manuel; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.

    2014-01-01

    In order to systematically understand the qualitative and quantitative behaviour of chemical reaction networks, scientists must derive and analyse associated mathematical models. However, biochemical systems are often very large, with reactions occurring at multiple time scales, as evidenced by signalling pathways and gene expression kinetics. Owing to the associated computational costs, it is then many times impractical, if not impossible, to solve or simulate these systems with an appropriate level of detail. By consequence, there is a growing interest in developing techniques for the simplification or reduction of complex biochemical systems. Here, we extend our recently presented methodology on exact reduction of linear chains of reactions with delay distributions in two ways. First, we report that it is now possible to deal with fully bi-directional monomolecular systems, including degradations, synthesis and generalized bypass reactions. Second, we provide all derivations of associated delays in analytical, closed form. Both advances have a major impact on further reducing computational costs, while still retaining full accuracy. Thus, we expect our new methodology to respond to current simulation needs in pharmaceutical, chemical and biological research. PMID:24694895

  2. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  3. Closed-form solutions for the hollow sphere model with Coulomb and Drucker-Prager materials under isotropic loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoré, Philippe; Pastor, Franck; Pastor, Joseph; Kondo, Djimedo

    2009-05-01

    Though the solution to the limit analysis problem of the hollow sphere model—with a von Mises matrix and under spherical symmetry—is well known, it is not available, to our knowledge, for both isotropic loadings (tension and compression) in the case of a Coulomb matrix and partially for a Drucker-Prager matrix. In the present Note, we establish in a unified framework, for this class of materials, closed-form solutions for stress and strain fields in a hollow sphere under external isotropic tension and compression. These analytical results not only give useful reference solutions, but can also be considered as a part of a trial velocity field in the hollow sphere submitted to an arbitrary loading. Comparisons with 3D finite element-based limit analysis approaches and with recent results in the literature are provided. In addition to the established analytical results, we present a rigorous evaluation of a recent Gurson-type macroscopic criterion corresponding to the Drucker-Prager hollow sphere under an arbitrary loading, by means of the previous 3D limit analysis codes. To cite this article: Ph. Thoré et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  4. Optimal Mortgage Refinancing: A Closed Form Solution

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sumit; Driscoll, John C.; Laibson, David I.

    2013-01-01

    We derive the first closed-form optimal refinancing rule: Refinance when the current mortgage interest rate falls below the original rate by at least 1ψ[ϕ+W(−exp(−ϕ))]. In this formula W(.) is the Lambert W-function, ψ=2(ρ+λ)σ,ϕ=1+ψ(ρ+λ)κ∕M(1−τ), ρ is the real discount rate, λ is the expected real rate of exogenous mortgage repayment, σ is the standard deviation of the mortgage rate, κ/M is the ratio of the tax-adjusted refinancing cost and the remaining mortgage value, and τ is the marginal tax rate. This expression is derived by solving a tractable class of refinancing problems. Our quantitative results closely match those reported by researchers using numerical methods. PMID:25843977

  5. Closed-form formulas for the effective properties of random particulate nanocomposites with complete Gurtin-Murdoch model of material surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, Lidiia; Bargmann, Swantje; Stolarski, Henryk

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present an approach allowing for inclusion of the complete Gurtin-Murdoch material surface equations in methods leading to closed-form formulas defining effective properties of particle-reinforced nanocomposites. Considering that all previous developments of the closed-form formulas for effective properties employ only some parts of the Gurtin-Murdoch model, its complete inclusion constitutes the main focus of this work. To this end, the recently introduced new notion of the energy-equivalent inhomogeneity is generalized to precisely include all terms of the model. The crucial aspect of that generalization is the identification of the energy associated with the last term of the Gurtin-Murdoch equation, i.e., with the surface gradient of displacements. With the help of that definition, the real nanoparticle and its surface possessing its own distinct elastic properties and residual stresses are replaced by an energy-equivalent inhomogeneity with properties incorporating all surface effects. Such equivalent inhomogeneity can then be used in combination with any existing homogenization method. In this work, the method of conditional moments is used to analyze composites with randomly dispersed spherical nanoparticles. Closed-form expressions for effective moduli are derived for both bulk and shear moduli. As numerical examples, nanoporous aluminum is investigated. The normalized bulk and shear moduli of nanoporous aluminum as a function of residual stresses are analyzed and evaluated in the context of other theoretical predictions.

  6. Closed-form analytical model of static noise margin for ultra-low voltage eight-transistor tunnel FET static random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuketa, Hiroshi; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Fukuda, Koichi; Mori, Takahiro; Morita, Yukinori; Masahara, Meishoku; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Variations of eight-transistor (8T) tunnel FET (TFET) static random access memory (SRAM) cells at ultra-low supply voltage (V DD) of 0.3 V are discussed. A closed-form analytical model for the static noise margin (SNM) of the TFET SRAM cells is proposed to clarify the dependence of SNM on device parameters and is verified by simulations. The SNM variations caused by process variations are investigated using the proposed model, and we show a requirement for the threshold voltage (V TH) variation in the TFET SRAM design, which indicates that the V TH variation must be reduced as the subthreshold swing becomes steeper. In addition, a feasibility of the TFET SRAM cells operating at V DD = 0.3 V in two different process technologies is evaluated using the proposed model.

  7. Closed-form inverse kinematics for interventional C-arm X-ray imaging with six degrees of freedom: modeling and application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lejing; Fallavollita, Pascal; Zou, Rui; Chen, Xin; Weidert, Simon; Navab, Nassir

    2012-05-01

    For trauma and orthopedic surgery, maneuvering a mobile C-arm fluoroscope into a desired position to acquire an X-ray is a routine surgical task. The precision and ease of use of the C-arm becomes even more important for advanced interventional imaging techniques such as parallax-free X-ray image stitching. Today's standard mobile C-arms have been modeled with only five degrees of freedom (DOF), which definitely restricts their motions in 3-D Cartesian space. In this paper, we present a method to model both the mobile C-arm and patient's table as an integrated kinematic chain having six DOF without constraining table position. The closed-form solutions for the inverse kinematics problem are derived in order to obtain the required values for all C-arm joint and table movements to position the fluoroscope at a desired pose. The modeling method and the closed-form solutions can be applied to general isocentric or nonisocentric mobile C-arms. By achieving this we develop an efficient and intuitive inverse kinematics-based method for parallax-free panoramic X-ray imaging. In addition, we implement a 6-DOF C-arm system from a low-cost mobile fluoroscope to optimally acquire X-ray images based solely on the computation of the required movement for each joint by solving the inverse kinematics on a continuous basis. Through simulation experimentation, we demonstrate that the 6-DOF C-arm model has a larger working space than the 5-DOF model. C-arm repositioning experiments show the practicality and accuracy of our 6-DOF C-arm system. We also evaluate the novel parallax-free X-ray stitching method on phantom and dry bones. Using five trials, results show that parallax-free panoramas generated by our method are of high visual quality and within clinical tolerances for accurate evaluation of long bone geometry (i.e., image and metric measurement errors are less than 1% compared to ground-truth).

  8. Closed-form solutions of performability. [in computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that if computing system performance is degradable then system evaluation must deal simultaneously with aspects of both performance and reliability. One approach is the evaluation of a system's performability which, relative to a specified performance variable Y, generally requires solution of the probability distribution function of Y. The feasibility of closed-form solutions of performability when Y is continuous are examined. In particular, the modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system is considered whose performance Y is the (normalized) average throughput rate realized during a bounded interval of time. Employing an approximate decomposition of the model, it is shown that a closed-form solution can indeed be obtained.

  9. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closing report, Form MA-313. 308.533 Section 308.533 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313....

  10. A New Closed-Form Information Metric for Shape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Adrian; Rangarajan, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Shape matching plays a prominent role in the analysis of medical and biological structures. Recently, a unifying framework was introduced for shape matching that uses mixture-models to couple both the shape representation and deformation. Essentially, shape distances were defined as geodesics induced by the Fisher-Rao metric on the manifold of mixture-model represented shapes. A fundamental drawback of the Fisher-Rao metric is that it is NOT available in closed-form for the mixture model. Consequently, shape comparisons are computationally very expensive. Here, we propose a new Riemannian metric based on generalized ϕ- entropy measures. In sharp contrast to the Fisher-Rao metric, our new metric is available in closed-form. Geodesic computations using the new metric are considerably more efficient. Discriminative capabilities of this new metric are studied by pairwise matching of corpus callosum shapes. Comparisons are conducted with the Fisher-Rao metric and the thin-plate spline bending energy. PMID:17354897

  11. On computing closed forms for summations. [polynomials and rational functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moenck, R.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of finding closed forms for a summation involving polynomials and rational functions is considered. A method closely related to Hermite's method for integration of rational functions derived. The method expresses the sum of a rational function as a rational function part and a transcendental part involving derivatives of the gamma function.

  12. Closed Forms for 4-Parameter Families of Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.

    2009-01-01

    We compute closed forms for two multiparameter families of definite integrals, thus obtaining combinatorial formulas. As a consequence, a surprising formula is derived between a definite integral and an improper integral for the same parametric function.

  13. A Systematic Approach for Multidimensional, Closed-Form Analytic Modeling: Effective Intrinsic Carrier Concentrations in Ga 1-x Al x As Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Herbert S; Filliben, James J

    2002-01-01

    A critical issue identified in both the technology roadmap from the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association and the roadmaps from the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Inc. is the need for predictive computer simulations of processes, devices, and circuits. The goal of this paper is to respond to this need by representing the extensive amounts of theoretical data for transport properties in the multi-dimensional space of mole fractions of AlAs in Ga1- x Al x As, dopant densities, and carrier densities in terms of closed form analytic expressions. Representing such data in terms of closed-form analytic expressions is a significant challenge that arises in developing computationally efficient simulations of microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we present a methodology to achieve the above goal for a class of numerical data in the bounded two-dimensional space of mole fraction of AlAs and dopant density. We then apply this methodology to obtain closed-form analytic expressions for the effective intrinsic carrier concentrations at 300 K in n-type and p-type Ga1- x Al x As as functions of the mole fraction x of AlAs between 0.0 and 0.3. In these calculations, the donor density N D for n-type material varies between 10(16) cm(-3) and 10(19) cm(-3) and the acceptor density N A for p-type materials varies between 10(16) cm(-3) and 10(20) cm(-3). We find that p-type Ga1- x Al x As presents much greater challenges for obtaining acceptable analytic fits whenever acceptor densities are sufficiently near the Mott transition because of increased scatter in the numerical computer results for solutions to the theoretical equations. The Mott transition region in p-type Ga1- x Al x As is of technological significance for mobile wireless communications systems. This methodology and its associated principles, strategies, regression analyses, and graphics are expected to be applicable to other problems beyond the specific case of effective

  14. Regge calculus models of closed lattice universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rex G.; Williams, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the behavior of closed "lattice universes" wherein masses are distributed in a regular lattice on the Cauchy surfaces of closed vacuum universes. Such universes are approximated using a form of Regge calculus originally developed by Collins and Williams to model closed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes. We consider two types of lattice universes, one where all masses are identical to each other and another where one mass gets perturbed in magnitude. In the unperturbed universe, we consider the possible arrangements of the masses in the Regge Cauchy surfaces and demonstrate that the model will only be stable if each mass lies within some spherical region of convergence. We also briefly discuss the existence of Regge models that are dual to the ones we have considered. We then model a perturbed lattice universe and demonstrate that the model's evolution is well behaved, with the expansion increasing in magnitude as the perturbation is increased.

  15. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313. This form, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD, shall be filed...

  16. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313. This form, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD, shall be filed...

  17. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313. This form, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD, shall be filed...

  18. Single-spin precessing gravitational waveform in closed form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Andrew; O'Shaughnessy, R.

    2014-02-01

    In coming years, gravitational-wave detectors should find black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries, potentially coincident with astronomical phenomena like short gamma ray bursts. These binaries are expected to precess. Gravitational-wave science requires a tractable model for precessing binaries, to disentangle precession physics from other phenomena like modified strong field gravity, tidal deformability, or Hubble flow; and to measure compact object masses, spins, and alignments. Moreover, current searches for gravitational waves from compact binaries use templates where the binary does not precess and are ill-suited for detection of generic precessing sources. In this paper we provide a closed-form representation of the single-spin precessing waveform in the frequency domain by reorganizing the signal as a sum over harmonics, each of which resembles a nonprecessing waveform. This form enables simple analytic calculations of the Fisher matrix for use in template bank generation and coincidence metrics, and jump proposals to improve the efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We have verified that for generic BH-NS binaries, our model agrees with the time-domain waveform to 2%. Straightforward extensions of the derivations outlined here (and provided in full online) allow higher accuracy and error estimates.

  19. Closed form low-thrust trajectories for Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Several closed form trajectory solutions have been developed for low-thrust interplanetary flight and used with patched conics for analysis of combined propulsion systems. The solutions provide insight into alternative types of Mars missions, and show considerable mass savings for fast crewed missions with outbound trip times on the order of 90--100 days. 7 refs.

  20. Closed form low-thrust trajectories for Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    Several closed form trajectory solutions have been developed for low-thrust interplanetary flight and used with patched conics for analysis of combined propulsion systems. The solutions provide insight into alternative types of Mars missions, and show considerable mass savings for fast crewed missions with outbound trip times on the order of 90--100 days. 7 refs.

  1. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  2. A Closed Form Solution for an Unorthodox Trigonometric Integral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    A closed form solution for the trigonometric integral [integral]sec[superscript 2k+1]xdx, k=0,1,2,..., is presented in this article. The result will fill the gap in another trigonometric integral [integral]sec[superscript 2m+1] x tan[superscript 2n]xdx, which is neglected by most of the calculus textbooks due to its foreseeable unorthodox solution…

  3. Jet-boundary and Plan-form Corrections for Partial-Span Models with Reflection-Plane, End-Plate, or No End-Plate in a Closed Circular Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Deters, Owen J

    1946-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the jet-boundary and plan-form corrections necessary for application to test data for a partial-span model with a reflection plane, an end plate, or no end plate in a closed circular wind tunnel. Examples are worked out for a partial-span model with each of the three end conditions in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel and the corrections are applied to measured values of lift, drag, pitching-moment, rolling-moment, and yawing-moment coefficients.

  4. Relativistic geocentric satellite equations of motion in closed form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumberg, V. A.

    1992-04-01

    In extending the results of Brumberg & Kopejkin (1989) the relativistic (post-Newtonian) geocentric satellite equations of motion are given in closed form avoiding expansion in geocentric coordinates of a satellite. These equations may be applied for the description of motion of a distant Earth's satellite in DGRS or KGRS (dynamically or kinematically non-rotating geocentric reference system, respectively). As by-product of the transformation between BRS and GRS (barycentric and geocentric reference system, respectively) one obtains the relationship between BRS and GRS angular velocity of rotation of the Earth.

  5. Closed-form expressions for ray geometries on a cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Rakesh Mohan; Bokhari, S. A.; Sudhakar, V.; Balakrishnan, N.

    Closed-form expressions for the geometric parameters required in the UTD (uniform geometric theory of diffraction) analysis are derived which are readily suited for the mutual coupling computations. The derivation is based upon the theory of differential geometry, and does not require the use of the developability property of the surface. It is demonstrated that the number of geodesics between any two points on a cone is finite. The inclusion of the second order geodesics results in considerable improvement in the results in certain regions, and in a closer match with the experimental results. The regions in which the mutual coupling and field computations are most affected have been identified.

  6. A simple closed-form solution for assessing concentration uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F. P. J.; Fiori, Aldo; Bellin, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    We propose closed-form approximate solutions for the moments of a nonreactive tracer that can be used in applications, such as risk analysis. This is in line with the tenet that analytical solutions provide useful information, with minimum cost, during initial site characterization efforts and can serve as a preliminary screening tool when used with prior knowledge. We show that with the help of a few assumptions, the first-order solutions of the concentration moments proposed by Fiori and Dagan (2000) can be further simplified to assume a form similar to well-known deterministic solutions, therefore facilitating their use in applications. A highly anisotropic formation is assumed, and we neglect the transverse components of the two-particle correlation trajectory. The proposed solution compares well with the work of Fiori and Dagan while presenting the same simplicity of use of existing solutions for homogeneous porous media.

  7. Stresses in adhesively bonded joints - A closed-form solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.; Aydinoglu, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    The general plane strain problem of adhesively bonded structures consisting of two different, orthotropic adherends is considered, under the assumption that adherend thicknesses are constant and small in relation to the lateral dimensions of the bonded region, so that they may be treated as plates. The problem is reduced to a system of differential equations for the adhesive stresses which is solved in closed form, with a single lap joint and a stiffened plate under various loading conditions being considered as examples. It is found that the plate theory used in the analysis not only predicts the correct trend for adhesive stresses but gives surprisingly accurate results, the solution being obtained by assuming linear stress-strain relations for the adhesive.

  8. A subsequent closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendy, Robert. F.

    2016-05-01

    I recently introduced a closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon [R.F. Melendy, Journal of Applied Physics 118, 244701 (2015)]. Those results demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation, function together in generating an action potential in a unified, closed-form description. At present, I report on a subsequent closed-form model that unifies intracellular conductance and the thermodynamics of magnetization, with the membrane electric field, Em. It's anticipated this work will compel researchers in biophysics, physical biology, and the computational neurosciences, to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling, informed by the computational features of this subsequent model.

  9. Molecular clock fork phylogenies: closed form analytic maximum likelihood solutions.

    PubMed

    Chor, Benny; Snir, Sagi

    2004-12-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM) are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model-three-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. Quoting Ziheng Yang, who initiated the analytic approach,"this seems to be the simplest case, but has many of the conceptual and statistical complexities involved in phylogenetic estimation."In this work, we give general analytic solutions for a family of trees with four-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. The change from three to four taxa incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system, and requires novel techniques and approaches. We start by presenting the general maximum likelihood problem on phylogenetic trees as a constrained optimization problem, and the resulting system of polynomial equations. In full generality, it is infeasible to solve this system, therefore specialized tools for the molecular clock case are developed. Four-taxa rooted trees have two topologies-the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock fork trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations for the fork. We finally employ symbolic algebra software to obtain closed formanalytic solutions (expressed parametrically in the input data). In general, four-taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that each fork topology has a unique(local and global) ML point.

  10. path integral approach to closed form pricing formulas in the Heston framework.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Damiaan; Wouters, Michiel; Tempere, Jacques; Foulon, Sven

    2008-03-01

    We present a path integral approach for finding closed form formulas for option prices in the framework of the Heston model. The first model for determining option prices was the Black-Scholes model, which assumed that the logreturn followed a Wiener process with a given drift and constant volatility. To provide a realistic description of the market, the Black-Scholes results must be extended to include stochastic volatility. This is achieved by the Heston model, which assumes that the volatility follows a mean reverting square root process. Current applications of the Heston model are hampered by the unavailability of fast numerical methods, due to a lack of closed-form formulae. Therefore the search for closed form solutions is an essential step before the qualitatively better stochastic volatility models will be used in practice. To attain this goal we outline a simplified path integral approach yielding straightforward results for vanilla Heston options with correlation. Extensions to barrier options and other path-dependent option are discussed, and the new derivation is compared to existing results obtained from alternative path-integral approaches (Dragulescu, Kleinert).

  11. Looking Closely at "Medusa": Star Forming Regions in NGC 4194

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The "Medusa" (NGC 4194, Mrk 201) is a blue compact galaxy, with strong far infrared and radio emission. Ground-based observations exhibit a distorted image with a tidal tail and regions of strong star formation. A population of massive O and early B stars is evident from the IUE spectra HST survey of Seyfert and starburst galaxies notes NCG 4194 is an HII galaxy with lumpy HII regions and knots. The central starburst is apparently produced by a galaxy merger. As part of an investigation of star formation in interacting galaxies, we have obtained ultraviolet and visible images of the central regions of NGC 4194 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. Imaging was obtained in two ultraviolet (FUV-MAMA+F25QTZ, NUV-MAMA+F25CN182) and one visible (CCD+F28X50LP) band. Individual star forming knots (at HST resolution) have been identified. We present sized and luminosities for the individual knots, and the knot luminosity function. We compare our data to current starburst models to constrain stellar ages and populations. Knot characteristics as a function of location in the galaxy will also be discussed.

  12. Mathematical modeling relevant to closed artificial ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The mathematical modeling of ecosystems has contributed much to the understanding of the dynamics of such systems. Ecosystems can include not only the natural variety, but also artificial systems designed and controlled by humans. These can range from agricultural systems and activated sludge plants, down to mesocosms, microcosms, and aquaria, which may have practical or research applications. Some purposes may require the design of systems that are completely closed, as far as material cycling is concerned. In all cases, mathematical modeling can help not only to understand the dynamics of the system, but also to design methods of control to keep the system operating in desired ranges. This paper reviews mathematical modeling relevant to the simulation and control of closed or semi-closed artificial ecosystems designed for biological production and recycling in applications in space. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  13. Reverse engineering of free-form surface based on the closed-loop theory.

    PubMed

    He, Xue Ming; He, Jun Fei; Wu, Mei Ping; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Xiao Gang

    2015-01-01

    To seek better methods of measurement and more accurate model of reconstruction in the field of reverse engineering has been the focus of researchers. Based on this, a new method of adaptive measurement, real-time reconstruction, and online evaluation of free-form surface was presented in this paper. The coordinates and vectors of the prediction points are calculated according to a Bézier curve which is fitted by measured points. Final measured point cloud distribution is in agreement with the geometric characteristics of the free-form surfaces. Fitting the point cloud to a surface model by the nonuniform B-spline method, extracting some check points from the surface models based on grids and a feature on the surface, review the location of these check points on the surface with CMM and evaluate the model, and then update the surface model to meet the accuracy. Integrated measurement, reconstruction, and evaluation, with the closed-loop reverse process, established an accurate model. The results of example show that the measuring points are distributed over the surface according to curvature, and the reconstruction model can be completely expressed with micron level. Meanwhile, measurement, reconstruction and evaluation are integrated in forms of closed-loop reverse system.

  14. Reverse Engineering of Free-Form Surface Based on the Closed-Loop Theory

    PubMed Central

    He, Xue Ming; He, Jun Fei; Wu, Mei Ping; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Xiao Gang

    2015-01-01

    To seek better methods of measurement and more accurate model of reconstruction in the field of reverse engineering has been the focus of researchers. Based on this, a new method of adaptive measurement, real-time reconstruction, and online evaluation of free-form surface was presented in this paper. The coordinates and vectors of the prediction points are calculated according to a Bézier curve which is fitted by measured points. Final measured point cloud distribution is in agreement with the geometric characteristics of the free-form surfaces. Fitting the point cloud to a surface model by the nonuniform B-spline method, extracting some check points from the surface models based on grids and a feature on the surface, review the location of these check points on the surface with CMM and evaluate the model, and then update the surface model to meet the accuracy. Integrated measurement, reconstruction, and evaluation, with the closed-loop reverse process, established an accurate model. The results of example show that the measuring points are distributed over the surface according to curvature, and the reconstruction model can be completely expressed with micron level. Meanwhile, measurement, reconstruction and evaluation are integrated in forms of closed-loop reverse system. PMID:25879078

  15. A Closed Form Vectorial Solution to the Relative Orbital Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condurache, C.; Martinuşi, V.

    2007-05-01

    Time-explicit solutions for relative Keplerian dynamics are presented for the general case in which the reference trajectory is elliptic, parabolic or hyperbolic. The non-linear differential equation modeling the motion is solved by means of tensorial and vectorial regularization methods. This regularizing procedure extends the approaches of Levi-Civita and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel in the case of Kepler problem in rotating reference frames. The solution generalizes the approximate results obtained from Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire, Lawden and Tschauner-Hempel equations. The approximate solutions derived from the liniarized models are in fact the first linear approximation of the exact solution the authors have found.

  16. Accuracy and effectualness of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for nonspinning black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro; Trias, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    The coalescences of binary black hole systems, here taken to be nonspinning, are among the most promising sources for gravitational wave (GW) ground-based detectors, such as LIGO and Virgo. To detect the GW signals emitted by binary black holes and measure the parameters of the source, one needs to have in hand a bank of GW templates that are both effectual (for detection) and accurate (for measurement). We study the effectualness and the accuracy of the two types of parametrized banks of templates that are directly defined in the frequency domain by means of closed-form expressions, namely, “post-Newtonian” (PN) and “phenomenological” models. In the absence of knowledge of the (continuous family of) exact waveforms, our study assumes as fiducial, target waveforms the ones generated by the most accurate version of the effective-one-body formalism, calibrated upon a few high-accuracy numerical-relativity (NR) waveforms. We find that, for initial GW detectors the use, at each point of parameter space, of the best closed-form template (among PN and phenomenological models) leads to an effectualness >97% over the entire mass range and >99% in an important fraction of parameter space; however, when considering advanced detectors, both of the closed-form frequency-domain models fail to be effectual enough in significant domains of the two-dimensional [total mass and mass ratio] parameter space. Moreover, we find that, for both initial and advanced detectors, the two closed-form frequency-domain models fail to satisfy the minimal required accuracy standard in a very large domain of the two-dimensional parameter space. In addition, a side result of our study is the determination, as a function of the mass ratio, of the maximum frequency at which a frequency-domain PN waveform can be “joined” onto a NR-calibrated effective-one-body waveform without undue loss of accuracy. In the case of mass ratios larger than 4∶1 this maximum frequency occurs well before the

  17. A Simplified, Closed-Form Method for Screening Spacecraft Orbital Heating Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, S. L.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-form analytical technique has been developed to screen orbital average heating variations as a function of beta angle, altitude, surface area, and surface optical properties. Using planetary view factor equations for surfaces parallel-to and normal-to the local vertical, a cylindrical umbral shadow approximation, and a simplified albedo flux model, heating rate equations are formulated and then integrated to obtain orbital average heating. The results are compared to detailed analytical predictions using Monte Carlo integration and an assessment of error is presented.

  18. Closed-form solutions for atomspheric flight with applications to shuttle guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Closed-form solutions for the motion of a rocket-powered vehicle during atmospheric ascent and closed-form solutions for unpowered atmospheric reentry are developed. These closed-form solutions are then used to develop a simplified guidance scheme and to develop a variation-of-parameters integration of more accurate equations of motion with the closed-form solutions as base solutions. The variation-of-parameters integration of the more accurate equations of motion also allows the transition partial derivative matrices associated with these equations to be easily developed. Then the partial derivative transition matrices are used to develop a guidance scheme based on the more accurate equations of motion instead of the less accurate closed-form solutions.

  19. Resolving the biophysics of axon transmembrane polarization in a single closed-form description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendy, Robert F.

    2015-12-01

    When a depolarizing event occurs across a cell membrane there is a remarkable change in its electrical properties. A complete depolarization event produces a considerably rapid increase in voltage that propagates longitudinally along the axon and is accompanied by changes in axial conductance. A dynamically changing magnetic field is associated with the passage of the action potential down the axon. Over 75 years of research has gone into the quantification of this phenomenon. To date, no unified model exist that resolves transmembrane polarization in a closed-form description. Here, a simple but formative description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon is presented in closed-form. The focus is on using both biophysics and mathematical methods for elucidating the fundamental mechanisms governing transmembrane polarization. The results presented demonstrate how to resolve electromagnetic and thermodynamic factors that govern transmembrane potential. Computational results are supported by well-established quantitative descriptions of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon. The findings demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation function together in generating an action potential in a unified closed-form description. The work presented in this paper provides compelling evidence that three basic factors contribute to the propagated signaling in the membrane of an axon. It is anticipated this work will compel those in biophysics, physical biology, and in the computational neurosciences to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling. It is hoped that subsequent investigations of this sort will be advanced by the computational features of this model without having to resort to numerical methods of analysis.

  20. Resolving the biophysics of axon transmembrane polarization in a single closed-form description

    SciTech Connect

    Melendy, Robert F.

    2015-12-28

    When a depolarizing event occurs across a cell membrane there is a remarkable change in its electrical properties. A complete depolarization event produces a considerably rapid increase in voltage that propagates longitudinally along the axon and is accompanied by changes in axial conductance. A dynamically changing magnetic field is associated with the passage of the action potential down the axon. Over 75 years of research has gone into the quantification of this phenomenon. To date, no unified model exist that resolves transmembrane polarization in a closed-form description. Here, a simple but formative description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon is presented in closed-form. The focus is on using both biophysics and mathematical methods for elucidating the fundamental mechanisms governing transmembrane polarization. The results presented demonstrate how to resolve electromagnetic and thermodynamic factors that govern transmembrane potential. Computational results are supported by well-established quantitative descriptions of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon. The findings demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation function together in generating an action potential in a unified closed-form description. The work presented in this paper provides compelling evidence that three basic factors contribute to the propagated signaling in the membrane of an axon. It is anticipated this work will compel those in biophysics, physical biology, and in the computational neurosciences to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling. It is hoped that subsequent investigations of this sort will be advanced by the computational features of this model without having to resort to numerical methods of analysis.

  1. Closed-form Solutions for Optimal Orbital Transfers Around Oblate Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galperin, Alexander; Gurfil, Pini

    2015-07-01

    Optimal spacecraft orbit control has been the subject of extensive research, which resulted in solutions for optimal orbit transfers. A common orbital maneuver problem is the fuel-optimal impulsive transfer between coplanar circular orbits. Three such well-known transfers are the Hohmann transfer, which is an optimal bi-impulsive transfer, the bi-elliptic tri-impulsive transfer, and the bi-parabolic transfer. These solutions were developed based on the Keplerian restricted two-body problem. However, the omission of perturbations results in deviated target orbits and leads to maneuvers that are not actually fuel-optimal. In this paper, the well-known Hohmann, bi-elliptic, and bi-parabolic transfers are modified to accommodate the J 2 zonal harmonic, and new closed-form solutions for the optimal maneuvers are presented. An improvement in maneuver precision is obtained by using an analytical model based on closed-form solutions of motion in the equatorial plane under the effect of J 2. The performance improvement is validated using high-fidelity simulations, which include a myriad of orbital perturbations.

  2. An assessment of some closed-form expressions for the Voigt function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Franz

    2016-06-01

    Using triangular function approximations of the Gaussian, closed-form analytical representations of the Voigt function K(x , y) in terms of elementary functions can be derived. The performance of the approximations is studied by comparison with more exact numerical algorithms for the closely related complex error function, indicating serious problems for small y.

  3. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... to be attached to the closing report, Form MA-313-A, may be obtained from the American War...

  4. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... to be attached to the closing report, Form MA-313-A, may be obtained from the American War...

  5. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... to be attached to the closing report, Form MA-313-A, may be obtained from the American War...

  6. Closed-Form Evaluation of Mutual Coupling in a Planar Array of Circular Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    The integral expression for the mutual admittance between circular apertures in a planar array is evaluated in closed form. Very good accuracy is realized when compared with values that were obtained by numerical integration. Utilization of this closed-form expression, for all element pairs that are separated by more than one element spacing, yields extremely accurate results and significantly reduces the computation time that is required to analyze the performance of a large electronically scanning antenna array.

  7. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  8. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  9. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  10. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  11. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  12. Closed-form analytical solutions of high-temperature heat pipe startup and frozen startup limitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Y.; Faghri, A.

    1992-01-01

    Previous numerical and experimental studies indicate that the high-temperature heat pipe startup process is characterized by a moving hot zone with relatively sharp fronts. Based on the above observation, a flat-front model for an approximate analytical solution is proposed. A closed-form solution related to the temperature distribution in the hot zone and the hot zone length as a function of time are obtained. The analytical results agree well with the corresponding experimental data, and provide a quick prediction method for the heat pipe startup performance. Finally, a heat pipe limitation related to the frozen startup process is identified, and an explicit criterion for the high-temperature heat pipe startup is derived. The frozen startup limit identified in this paper provides a fundamental guidance for high-temperature heat pipe design.

  13. ORBITAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS AND DISTANT PLANETS FORMED BY SCATTERING AND DYNAMICAL TIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the formation of close-in planets (hot Jupiters) by a combination of mutual scattering, Kozai effect, and tidal circularization, through N-body simulations of three gas giant planets, and compared the results with discovered close-in planets. We found that in about 350 cases out of 1200 runs ({approx}30%), the eccentricity of one of the planets is excited highly enough for tidal circularization by mutual close scatterings followed by secular effects due to outer planets, such as the Kozai mechanism, and the planet becomes a close-in planet through the damping of eccentricity and semimajor axis. The formation probability of close-in planets by such scattering is not affected significantly by the effect of the general relativity and inclusion of inertial modes in addition to fundamental modes in the tides. Detailed orbital distributions of the formed close-in planets and their counterpart distant planets in our simulations were compared with observational data. We focused on the possibility for close-in planets to retain non-negligible eccentricities ({approx}> 0.1) on timescales of {approx}10{sup 9} yr and have high inclinations, because close-in planets in eccentric or highly inclined orbits have recently been discovered. In our simulations we found that as many as 29% of the close-in planets have retrograde orbits, and the retrograde planets tend to have small eccentricities. On the other hand, eccentric close-in planets tend to have orbits of small inclinations.

  14. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 1013 - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Forms A Appendix A to Part 1013 Banks and... A to Part 1013—Model Forms A-1—Model Open-End or Finance Vehicle Lease Disclosures A-2—Model Closed-End or Net Vehicle Lease Disclosures A-3—Model Furniture Lease Disclosures ER19DE11.010...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 1013 - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Forms A Appendix A to Part 1013 Banks and... A to Part 1013—Model Forms A-1—Model Open-End or Finance Vehicle Lease Disclosures A-2—Model Closed-End or Net Vehicle Lease Disclosures A-3—Model Furniture Lease Disclosures ER19DE11.010...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 1013 - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Forms A Appendix A to Part 1013 Banks and... A to Part 1013—Model Forms A-1—Model Open-End or Finance Vehicle Lease Disclosures A-2—Model Closed-End or Net Vehicle Lease Disclosures A-3—Model Furniture Lease Disclosures ER19DE11.010...

  17. Closing the energy cycle in an ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    An effort is discussed to construct a realistic ocean model in Boussinesq approximation which features a closed energy cycle up to numerical precision errors. In such a model, the energy related to the mean variables interacts with all parameterised forms of energy without any spurious energy sources or sinks. First, the concept of the energetics of the model in terms of resolved and unresolved energy variables is outlined using potential and dynamical enthalpy instead of internal and potential energy and without use of the concept of available potential energy. The role of energy transfer terms due to the non-linear, compressible equation of state is clarified. Second, a discretisation of the primitive equations is described in which energy transfers of viscous dissipation and mixing parameterisations are exactly calculated. Third, the model performance is documented using idealised and realistic global model configurations.

  18. Katabatic Flow: A Closed-Form Solution with Spatially-Varying Eddy Diffusivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giometto, M. G.; Grandi, R.; Fang, J.; Monkewitz, P. A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    The Nieuwstadt closed-form solution for the stationary Ekman layer is generalized for katabatic flows within the conceptual framework of the Prandtl model. The proposed solution is valid for spatially-varying eddy viscosity and diffusivity (O'Brien type) and constant Prandtl number (Pr). Variations in the velocity and buoyancy profiles are discussed as a function of the dimensionless model parameters z_0 ≡ hat{z}_0 hat{N}^2 Pr sin {(α )} |hat{b}_s |^{-1} and λ ≡ hat{u}_{ref}hat{N} √{Pr} |hat{b}_s |^{-1} , where hat{z}_0 is the hydrodynamic roughness length, hat{N} is the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, α is the surface sloping angle, hat{b}_s is the imposed surface buoyancy, and hat{u}_{ref} is a reference velocity scale used to define eddy diffusivities. Velocity and buoyancy profiles show significant variations in both phase and amplitude of extrema with respect to the classic constant K model and with respect to a recent approximate analytic solution based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin theory. Near-wall regions are characterized by relatively stronger surface momentum and buoyancy gradients, whose magnitude is proportional to z_0 and to λ . In addition, slope-parallel momentum and buoyancy fluxes are reduced, the low-level jet is further displaced toward the wall, and its peak velocity depends on both z_0 and λ.

  19. Modeling of Closed-Die Forging for Estimating Forging Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Debashish; Das, Santanu; Chatterjee, Avik; Bhattacharya, Anirban

    2016-05-01

    Closed die forging is one common metal forming process used for making a range of products. Enough load is to exert on the billet for deforming the material. This forging load is dependent on work material property and frictional characteristics of the work material with the punch and die. Several researchers worked on estimation of forging load for specific products under different process variables. Experimental data on deformation resistance and friction were used to calculate the load. In this work, theoretical estimation of forging load is made to compare this value with that obtained through LS-DYNA model facilitating the finite element analysis. Theoretical work uses slab method to assess forging load for an axi-symmetric upsetting job made of lead. Theoretical forging load estimate shows slightly higher value than the experimental one; however, simulation shows quite close matching with experimental forging load, indicating possibility of wide use of this simulation software.

  20. Closed-form solution for a cantilevered sectorial plate subjected to a tip concentrated force.

    PubMed

    Christy, Carl W; Weggel, David C; Smelser, R E

    2016-01-01

    A closed-form solution is presented for a cantilevered sectorial plate subjected to a tip concentrated force. Since the particular solution for this problem was not found in the literature, it is derived here. Deflections from the total solution (particular plus homogeneous solutions) are compared to those from a finite element analysis and are found to be in excellent agreement, producing an error within approximately 0.08 %. Normalized closed-form deflections and slopes at the fixed support, resulting from an approximate enforcement of the boundary conditions there, deviate from zero by <0.08 %. Finally, the total closed-form solutions for a cantilevered sectorial plate subjected to independent applications of a tip concentrated force, a tip bending moment, and a tip twisting moment, are compiled. PMID:27390653

  1. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Forms A Appendix A to Part 213 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) Pt. 213, App. A Appendix A to Part 213—Model Forms A-1Model Open-End or Finance Vehicle Lease Disclosures A-2Model Closed-End or...

  2. Structural comparison between the open and closed forms of citrate synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Shin-Ichi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Kouyama, Tsutomu; Murakami, Midori

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of citrate synthase from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtCS) were determined for an open form at 1.5 Å resolution and for closed form at 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. In the absence of ligands TtCS in the open form was crystalized into a tetragonal form with a single subunit in the asymmetric unit. TtCS was also co-crystallized with citrate and coenzyme-A to form an orthorhombic crystal with two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Citrate and CoA are found in the active site situated between the large domain and the small domain in all subunit whereas the complex shows two distinct closed conformations, the fully closed form and partially closed form. Structural comparisons are performed to describe conformational changes associated with binding of products of TtCS. Upon binding of citrate, basic residues in the active site move toward citrate and make a hydrogen bond network in the active site, inducing a large-scale rotation of the small domain relative to the large domain. CoA is sandwiched between the small and large domains and then the cysteamine tail is inserted into the active site with a cooperative rotation around mainchain dihedrals in the hinge region connecting helices M and N. According to this rotation these helices are extended to close the active site completely. The considerable flexibility and structural rearrangements in the hinge region are crucial for an ordered bibi reaction in catalysis for microbial CSs.

  3. A closed-form solution to a viscoelastically supported Timoshenko beam under harmonic line load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. L.; Xia, Y.; Zhou, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to formulate a closed-form solution to a viscoelastically supported Timoshenko beam under a harmonic line load. The differential governing equations of motion are converted into algebraic equations by assuming the deflection and rotation of the beam in harmonic forms with respect to time and space. The characteristic equation is biquadratic and thus contains 14 explicit roots. These roots are then substituted into Cauchy's residue theorem; consequently, five forms of the closed-form solution are generated. The present solution is consistent with that of an Euler-Bernoulli beam on a Winkler foundation, which is a special case of the present problem. The current solution is also verified through numerical examples.

  4. Closed-form recursive formula for an optimal tracker with terminal constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J.-N.; Turner, J. D.; Chun, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Feedback control laws are derived for a class of optimal finite time tracking problems with terminal constraints. Analytical solutions are obtained for the feedback gain and the closed-loop response trajectory. Such formulations are expressed in recursive forms so that a real-time computer implementation becomes feasible. Two examples are given to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the formulations.

  5. Closed form expressions for computing the occupied bandwidth of PCM/PSK/PM signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a computational technique to determine the occupied bandwidth for a class of PCM/PSK/PM signals. The signals considered here employ either a squarewave of sinewave subcarrier. Closed form expressions for the occupied bandwidth as a function of the subcarrier frequency-to-bit-rate ratio with modulation index as a parameter are derived using linear-fitting techniques.

  6. Closed-form solutions for estimating a rigid motion from plane correspondences extracted from point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2016-04-01

    Registration is often a prerequisite step in processing point clouds. While planar surfaces are suitable features for registration, most of the existing plane-based registration methods rely on iterative solutions for the estimation of transformation parameters from plane correspondences. This paper presents a new closed-form solution for the estimation of a rigid motion from a set of point-plane correspondences. The role of normalization is investigated and its importance for accurate plane fitting and plane-based registration is shown. The paper also presents a thorough evaluation of the closed-form solutions and compares their performance with the iterative solution in terms of accuracy, robustness, stability and efficiency. The results suggest that the closed-form solution based on point-plane correspondences should be the method of choice in point cloud registration as it is significantly faster than the iterative solution, and performs as well as or better than the iterative solution in most situations. The normalization of the point coordinates is also recommended as an essential preprocessing step for point cloud registration. An implementation of the closed-form solutions in MATLAB is available at: http://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/kkhoshelham/research.html#directmotion

  7. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A. 308.534 Section 308.534 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  8. An exact closed form solution for constant area compressible flow with friction and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturas, J. I.

    1971-01-01

    The well-known differential equation for the one-dimensional flow of a compressible fluid with heat transfer and wall friction has no known solution in closed form for the general case. This report presents a closed form solution for the special case of constant heat flux per unit length and constant specific heat. The solution was obtained by choosing the square of a dimensionless flow parameter as one of the independent variables to describe the flow. From this exact solution, an approximate simplified form is derived that is applicable for predicting subsonic flow performance characteristics for many types of constant area passages in internal flow. The data included in this report are considered sufficiently accurate for use as a guide in analyzing and designing internal gas flow systems.

  9. Closed-form analytical solutions for ray tracing in optically anisotropic inhomogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Nishidate, Yohei

    2013-07-01

    Closed-form analytical solutions are obtained for ray tracing in several types of optically anisotropic inhomogeneous media whose optical properties are characterized by a matrix form of the inhomogeneous dielectric tensor in principal coordinates. The first solution is for anisotropic axial media, the second solution is for meridional rays in epsilon-negative metamaterial, and the third solution is an approximate one for rectangular lenses fabricated by molding procedures. The validation of numerical ray-tracing procedures for optically anisotropic inhomogeneous media was widely ignored since the solution was not available, and thus the present solutions are also useful for the validation. Furthermore, as examples of validation, ray trajectories are calculated by the closed-form solutions, and their results are compared with those obtained by a numerical solution of the geodesic equation which can be interpreted as a generalized ray equation.

  10. Linear Closed-form Solution and Finite-element Analysis of an Active Tensegrity Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmeť, Stanislav; Platko, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Results of the linear closed form solution of an active or adaptive tensegrity unit, as well as its numerical analysis using finite element method are presented in the paper. The shape of the unit is an octahedral cell with a square base and it is formed by thirteen members (four bottom and four top cables, four edge struts and one central strut). The central strut is designed as an actuator that allows for an adjustment of the shape of the unit which leads to changes of tensile forces in the cables. Due to the diagonal symmetry of the 3D tensegrity unit the closed-form analysis is based on the 2D solution of the equivalent planar biconvex cable system with one central strut under a vertical point load.

  11. 34 CFR 300.509 - Model forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Model forms. 300.509 Section 300.509 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.509 Model forms. (a) Each SEA must develop model forms to assist parents and public agencies in filing a due...

  12. 34 CFR 300.509 - Model forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Model forms. 300.509 Section 300.509 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.509 Model forms. (a) Each SEA must develop model forms to assist parents and public agencies in filing a due...

  13. 34 CFR 300.509 - Model forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Model forms. 300.509 Section 300.509 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.509 Model forms. (a) Each SEA must develop model forms to assist parents and public agencies in filing a due...

  14. 34 CFR 300.509 - Model forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Model forms. 300.509 Section 300.509 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.509 Model forms. (a) Each SEA must develop model forms to assist parents and public agencies in filing a due...

  15. Benchmarking a new closed-form thermal analysis technique against a traditional lumped parameter, finite-difference method

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, K. D.; Bauer, T. H.

    2012-08-20

    A benchmarking effort was conducted to determine the accuracy of a new analytic generic geology thermal repository model developed at LLNL relative to a more traditional, numerical, lumped parameter technique. The fast-running analytical thermal transport model assumes uniform thermal properties throughout a homogenous storage medium. Arrays of time-dependent heat sources are included geometrically as arrays of line segments and points. The solver uses a source-based linear superposition of closed form analytical functions from each contributing point or line to arrive at an estimate of the thermal evolution of a generic geologic repository. Temperature rise throughout the storage medium is computed as a linear superposition of temperature rises. It is modeled using the MathCAD mathematical engine and is parameterized to allow myriad gridded repository geometries and geologic characteristics [4]. It was anticipated that the accuracy and utility of the temperature field calculated with the LLNL analytical model would provide an accurate 'birds-eye' view in regions that are many tunnel radii away from actual storage units; i.e., at distances where tunnels and individual storage units could realistically be approximated as physical lines or points. However, geometrically explicit storage units, waste packages, tunnel walls and close-in rock are not included in the MathCAD model. The present benchmarking effort therefore focuses on the ability of the analytical model to accurately represent the close-in temperature field. Specifically, close-in temperatures computed with the LLNL MathCAD model were benchmarked against temperatures computed using geometrically-explicit lumped-parameter, repository thermal modeling technique developed over several years at ANL using the SINDAG thermal modeling code [5]. Application of this numerical modeling technique to underground storage of heat generating nuclear waste streams within the proposed YMR Site has been widely reported [6

  16. Closed-form solutions and scaling laws for Kerr frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Renninger, William H; Rakich, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    A single closed-form analytical solution of the driven nonlinear Schrödinger equation is developed, reproducing a large class of the behaviors in Kerr-comb systems, including bright-solitons, dark-solitons, and a large class of periodic wavetrains. From this analytical framework, a Kerr-comb area theorem and a pump-detuning relation are developed, providing new insights into soliton- and wavetrain-based combs along with concrete design guidelines for both. This new area theorem reveals significant deviation from the conventional soliton area theorem, which is crucial to understanding cavity solitons in certain limits. Moreover, these closed-form solutions represent the first step towards an analytical framework for wavetrain formation, and reveal new parameter regimes for enhanced Kerr-comb performance. PMID:27108810

  17. A closed-form approximation for ground return impedance of underground cables

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, O.; Giroux, M.; Gaba, G.

    1996-07-01

    Calculation of the ground return impedance generally requires the evaluation of a complex infinite integral. Converging infinite series that usually converge to the exact value have been known for many years, and most handbook formulas were derived from these series, with only the first one or two terms retained. Several approximations with closed-form solutions have been proposed recently for overhead lines, but nothing seems to have been done in the case of underground cables. This paper describes a complete, simplified closed-form approximation for the self and mutual impedances of underground cables. The simplified equations are first presented and then related to Pollaczek`s and Wedephol`s equations. Finally, the errors, which in most cases are very satisfactory, are numerically evaluated.

  18. Closed-form solutions and scaling laws for Kerr frequency combs

    PubMed Central

    Renninger, William H.; Rakich, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    A single closed-form analytical solution of the driven nonlinear Schrödinger equation is developed, reproducing a large class of the behaviors in Kerr-comb systems, including bright-solitons, dark-solitons, and a large class of periodic wavetrains. From this analytical framework, a Kerr-comb area theorem and a pump-detuning relation are developed, providing new insights into soliton- and wavetrain-based combs along with concrete design guidelines for both. This new area theorem reveals significant deviation from the conventional soliton area theorem, which is crucial to understanding cavity solitons in certain limits. Moreover, these closed-form solutions represent the first step towards an analytical framework for wavetrain formation, and reveal new parameter regimes for enhanced Kerr-comb performance. PMID:27108810

  19. Closed-form recursive formula for an optimal tracker with terminal constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J. N.; Turner, J. D.; Chun, H. M.

    1986-01-01

    Feedback control laws are derived for a class of optimal finite time tracking problems with terminal constraints. Analytical solutions are obtained for the feedback gain and the closed-loop response trajectory. Such formulations are expressed in recursive forms so that a real-time computer implementation becomes feasible. An example involving the feedback slewing of a flexible spacecraft is given to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the formulations.

  20. Aerodynamic Lift and Moment Calculations Using a Closed-Form Solution of the Possio Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jensen; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present closed-form formulas for the lift and moment coefficients of a lifting surface in two dimensional, unsteady, compressible, subsonic flow utilizing a newly developed explicit analytical solution of the Possio equation. Numerical calculations are consistent with previous numerical tables based on series expansions or ad hoc numerical schemes. More importantly, these formulas lend themselves readily to flutter analysis, compared with the tedious table-look-up schemes currently in use.

  1. A closed-form expression of the positional uncertainty for 3D point clouds.

    PubMed

    Bae, Kwang-Ho; Belton, David; Lichti, Derek D

    2009-04-01

    We present a novel closed-form expression of positional uncertainty measured by a near-monostatic and time-of-flight laser range finder with consideration of its measurement uncertainties. An explicit form of the angular variance of the estimated surface normal vector is also derived. This expression is useful for the precise estimation of the surface normal vector and the outlier detection for finding correspondence in order to register multiple three-dimensional point clouds. Two practical algorithms using these expressions are presented: a method for finding optimal local neighbourhood size which minimizes the variance of the estimated normal vector and a resampling method of point clouds.

  2. Comments on "A Closed-Form Solution to Tensor Voting: Theory and Applications".

    PubMed

    Maggiori, Emmanuel; Lotito, Pablo; Manterola, Hugo Luis; del Fresno, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    We comment on a paper that describes a closed-form formulation to Tensor Voting, a technique to perceptually group clouds of points, usually applied to infer features in images. The authors proved an analytic solution to the technique, a highly relevant contribution considering that the original formulation required numerical integration, a time-consuming task. Their work constitutes the first closed-form expression for the Tensor Voting framework. In this work we first observe that the proposed formulation leads to unexpected results which do not satisfy the constraints for a Tensor Voting output, hence they cannot be interpreted. Given that the closed-form expression is said to be an analytic equivalent solution, unexpected outputs should not be encountered unless there are flaws in the proof. We analyzed the underlying math to find which were the causes of these unexpected results. In this commentary we show that their proposal does not in fact provide a proper analytic solution to Tensor Voting and we indicate the flaws in the proof.

  3. A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow using the Lambert-W function.

    PubMed

    Hall, A J; Minchin, P E H

    2013-12-01

    A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow is presented. This incorporates the basic Münch flow model of phloem transport, the cohesion model of xylem flow, and local variation in the xylem water potential and lateral water flow along the transport pathway. Use of the Lambert-W function allows this solution to be obtained under much more general and realistic conditions than has previously been possible. Variation in phloem resistance (i.e. viscosity) with solute concentration, and deviations from the Van't Hoff expression for osmotic potential are included. It is shown that the model predictions match those of the equilibrium solution of a numerical time-dependent model based upon the same mechanistic assumptions. The effect of xylem flow upon phloem flow can readily be calculated, which has not been possible in any previous analytical model. It is also shown how this new analytical solution can handle multiple sources and sinks within a complex architecture, and can describe competition between sinks. The model provides new insights into Münch flow by explicitly including interactions with xylem flow and water potential in the closed-form solution, and is expected to be useful as a component part of larger numerical models of entire plants.

  4. Closed form and geometric algorithms for real-time control of an avatar

    SciTech Connect

    Semwall, S.K.; Hightower, R.; Stansfield, S.

    1995-12-31

    In a virtual environment with multiple participants, it is necessary that the user`s actions be replicated by synthetic human forms. Whole body digitizers would be the most realistic solution for capturing the individual participant`s human form, however the best of the digitizers available are not interactive and are therefore not suitable for real-time interaction. Usually, a limited number of sensors are used as constraints on the synthetic human form. Inverse kinematics algorithms are applied to satisfy these sensor constraints. These algorithms result in slower interaction because of their iterative nature, especially when there are a large number of participants. To support real-time interaction in a virtual environment, there is a need to generate closed for solutions and fast searching algorithms. In this paper, a new closed form solution for the arms (and legs) is developed using two magnetic sensors. In developing this solution, we use the biomechanical relationship between the lower arm and the upper arm to provide an analytical, non-iterative solution, We have also outlined a solution for the whole human body by using up to ten magnetic sensors to break the human skeleton into smaller kinematic chains. In developing our algorithms, we use the knowledge of natural body postures to generate faster solutions for real-time interaction.

  5. 46 CFR 308.535 - Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MA-313-B. 308.535 Section 308.535 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 308.535 Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B. The Standard Form of Certificate, Form MA-313-B, shall be attached to the final closing report after cancellation of the...

  6. 46 CFR 308.535 - Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MA-313-B. 308.535 Section 308.535 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 308.535 Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B. The Standard Form of Certificate, Form MA-313-B, shall be attached to the final closing report after cancellation of the...

  7. Closed Field Coronal Heating Models Inspired by Wave Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, C.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Velli, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    To simulate the energy balance of coronal plasmas on macroscopic scales, we often require the specification of the coronal heating mechanism in some functional form. To go beyond empirical formulations and to build a more physically motivated heating function, we investigate the wave-turbulence dissipation (WTD) phenomenology for the heating of closed coronal loops. To do so, we employ an implementation of non-WKB equations designed to capture the large-scale propagation, reflection, and dissipation of wave turbulence along a loop. The parameter space of this model is explored by solving the coupled WTD and hydrodynamic equations in 1D for an idealized loop, and the relevance to a range of solar conditions is established by computing solutions for several hundred loops extracted from a realistic 3D coronal field. Due to the implicit dependence of the WTD heating model on loop geometry and plasma properties along the loop and at the footpoints, we find that this model can significantly reduce the number of free parameters when compared to traditional empirical heating models, and still robustly describe a broad range of quiet-sun and active region conditions. The importance of the self-reflection term in producing realistic heating scale heights and thermal non-equilibrium cycles is discussed, and preliminary 3D thermodynamic MHD simulations using this formulation are presented. Research supported by NASA and NSF.

  8. Closed-form solutions for free vibration of rectangular FGM thin plates resting on elastic foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T. F.; Xing, Y. F.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents closed-form solutions for the frequency analysis of rectangular functionally graded material (FGM) thin plates subjected to initially in-plane loads and with an elastic foundation. Based on classical thin plate theory, the governing differential equations are derived using Hamilton's principle. A neutral surface is used to eliminate stretching-bending coupling in FGM plates on the basis of the assumption of constant Poisson's ratio. The resulting governing equation of FGM thin plates has the same form as homogeneous thin plates. The separation-of-variables method is adopted to obtain solutions for the free vibration problems of rectangular FGM thin plates with separable boundary conditions, including, for example, clamped plates. The obtained normal modes and frequencies are in elegant closed forms, and present formulations and solutions are validated by comparing present results with those in the literature and finite element method results obtained by the authors. A parameter study reveals the effects of the power law index n and aspect ratio a/b on frequencies.

  9. a Weighted Closed-Form Solution for Rgb-D Data Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestena, K. M.; Dos Santos, D. R.; Oilveira, E. M., Jr.; Pavan, N. L.; Khoshelham, K.

    2016-06-01

    Existing 3D indoor mapping of RGB-D data are prominently point-based and feature-based methods. In most cases iterative closest point (ICP) and its variants are generally used for pairwise registration process. Considering that the ICP algorithm requires an relatively accurate initial transformation and high overlap a weighted closed-form solution for RGB-D data registration is proposed. In this solution, we weighted and normalized the 3D points based on the theoretical random errors and the dual-number quaternions are used to represent the 3D rigid body motion. Basically, dual-number quaternions provide a closed-form solution by minimizing a cost function. The most important advantage of the closed-form solution is that it provides the optimal transformation in one-step, it does not need to calculate good initial estimates and expressively decreases the demand for computer resources in contrast to the iterative method. Basically, first our method exploits RGB information. We employed a scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) for extracting, detecting, and matching features. It is able to detect and describe local features that are invariant to scaling and rotation. To detect and filter outliers, we used random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm, jointly with an statistical dispersion called interquartile range (IQR). After, a new RGB-D loop-closure solution is implemented based on the volumetric information between pair of point clouds and the dispersion of the random errors. The loop-closure consists to recognize when the sensor revisits some region. Finally, a globally consistent map is created to minimize the registration errors via a graph-based optimization. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with a Kinect dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed method can properly map the indoor environment with an absolute accuracy around 1.5% of the travel of a trajectory.

  10. Propagation of sound waves through a linear shear layer: A closed form solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Closed form solutions are presented for sound propagation from a line source in or near a shear layer. The analysis was exact for all frequencies and was developed assuming a linear velocity profile in the shear layer. This assumption allowed the solution to be expressed in terms of parabolic cyclinder functions. The solution is presented for a line monopole source first embedded in the uniform flow and then in the shear layer. Solutions are also discussed for certain types of dipole and quadrupole sources. Asymptotic expansions of the exact solutions for small and large values of Strouhal number gave expressions which correspond to solutions previously obtained for these limiting cases.

  11. Propagation of sound waves through a linear shear layer - A closed form solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Closed form solutions are presented for sound propagation from a line source in or near a shear layer. The analysis is exact for all frequencies and is developed assuming a linear velocity profile in the shear layer. This assumption allows the solution to be expressed in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. The solution is presented for a line monopole source first embedded in the uniform flow and then in the shear layer. Solutions are also discussed for certain types of dipole and quadrupole sources. Asymptotic expansions of the exact solutions for small and large values of Strouhal number give expressions which correspond to solutions previously obtained for these limiting cases.

  12. Comment on ‘Special-case closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. F.

    2016-05-01

    Recently Van-Brunt and Visser (2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 225207) succeeded in explicitly evaluating the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) expansion series for the noncommuting operators X and Y, provided that the two operators satisfy the commutation relation: [X,Y]={uX}+{vY}+{cI}, and the operator I commutes with both of them. In this comment we show that the closed-form BCH formula of this special case can be straightforwardly derived by the means of the Wei-Norman theorem and no summation of the infinite series is needed.

  13. A closed form solution to the one-ball geolocation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. J.; Townsend, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    We address the problem of determining the source location of an electromagnetic signal from the signal received by one or more moving receivers. We base our process on cross-spectral methods that were developed in the early 1980's for analysis and demodulation/despreading of communication and spread spectrum signals and were later applied to speech processing and speech enhancement. In this article, we expand the concept of robust polynomial tracking, which we demonstrate may be used to solve for the emitter location in closed form. This is accomplished by generating and solving a system of equations representing curves, each of which passes through the emitter location.

  14. Intermediate Fidelity Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Thomas M.; Khandelwal, Suresh; Owen, Albert K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an intermediate fidelity model of a closed Brayton Cycle power conversion system (Closed Cycle System Simulation). The simulation is developed within the Numerical Propulsion Simulation System architecture using component elements from earlier models. Of particular interest, and power, is the ability of this new simulation system to initiate a more detailed analysis of compressor and turbine components automatically and to incorporate the overall results into the general system simulation.

  15. On the fundamental frequency of symmetric rectangular laminated plates - A new closed-form approximate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Robert; Barton, Oscar; Thigpen, Lewis; Aung, Win; Qian, Bo

    A new closed-form approximation for the fundamental frequency of symmetric rectangular laminates subject to all combinations of hinged and clamped boundary conditions is presented. The distributed parameter eigenvalue equation is cast in an equivalent infinitely-dimensional discrete form. The stiffness and mass matrices are each decomposed into the sum of two matrices, one of which is diagonal while the other contains zero diagonal elements. Design sensitivity analysis is used to expand the desired eigenfrequency in a Maclaurin series of the zero diagonal matrices. The general formula thus obtained is then specialized to rectangular symmetric laminated plates. The remarkable accuracy of this new formula is established by numerical comparisons of results calculated from it to those obtained from the conventional Rayleigh-Ritz method.

  16. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  17. Closed loop models for analyzing engineering requirements for simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, S.; Muralidharan, R.; Kleinman, D.

    1980-01-01

    A closed loop analytic model, incorporating a model for the human pilot, (namely, the optimal control model) that would allow certain simulation design tradeoffs to be evaluated quantitatively was developed. This model was applied to a realistic flight control problem. The resulting model is used to analyze both overall simulation effects and the effects of individual elements. The results show that, as compared to an ideal continuous simulation, the discrete simulation can result in significant performance and/or workload penalties.

  18. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  19. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  20. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  1. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  2. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  3. A science-based approach to understanding waste form durability in open and closed nuclear fuel cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, M. T.; Ewing, R. C.

    2007-05-01

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: (a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; (b) formation and properties of U6+-secondary phases; (c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and (d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behaviour of the source term over long time periods (greater than 105 years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modelling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms 'tailored' to specific geologic settings.

  4. A Science-Based Approach to Understanding Waste Form Durability in Open and Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    M.T. Peters; R.C. Ewing

    2006-06-22

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: (a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; (b) formation and properties of U{sup 6+}-secondary phases; (c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and (d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behavior of the source term over long time periods (greater than 10{sup 5} years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modeling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms ''tailored'' to specific geologic settings.

  5. The soil water characteristic as new class of closed-form parametric expressions for the flow duration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadegh, M.; Vrugt, J. A.; Gupta, H. V.; Xu, C.

    2016-04-01

    The flow duration curve is a signature catchment characteristic that depicts graphically the relationship between the exceedance probability of streamflow and its magnitude. This curve is relatively easy to create and interpret, and is used widely for hydrologic analysis, water quality management, and the design of hydroelectric power plants (among others). Several mathematical expressions have been proposed to mimic the FDC. Yet, these efforts have not been particularly successful, in large part because available functions are not flexible enough to portray accurately the functional shape of the FDC for a large range of catchments and contrasting hydrologic behaviors. Here, we extend the work of Vrugt and Sadegh (2013) and introduce several commonly used models of the soil water characteristic as new class of closed-form parametric expressions for the flow duration curve. These soil water retention functions are relatively simple to use, contain between two to three parameters, and mimic closely the empirical FDCs of 430 catchments of the MOPEX data set. We then relate the calibrated parameter values of these models to physical and climatological characteristics of the watershed using multivariate linear regression analysis, and evaluate the regionalization potential of our proposed models against those of the literature. If quality of fit is of main importance then the 3-parameter van Genuchten model is preferred, whereas the 2-parameter lognormal, 3-parameter GEV and generalized Pareto models show greater promise for regionalization.

  6. Trapping Open and Closed Forms of FitE-A Group III Periplasmic Binding Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, R.; Proteau, A; Wagner, J; Cui, Q; Purisima, E; Matte, A; Cygler, M

    2009-01-01

    Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) are essential components of bacterial transport systems, necessary for bacterial growth and survival. The two-domain structures of PBPs are topologically classified into three groups based on the number of crossovers or hinges between the globular domains: group I PBPs have three connections, group II have two, and group III have only one. Although a large number of structures for group I or II PBPs are known, fewer group III PBPs have been structurally characterized. Group I and II PBPs exhibit significant domain motions during transition from the unbound to ligand-bound form, however, no large conformational changes have been observed to date in group III PBPs. We have solved the crystal structure of a periplasmic binding protein FitE, part of an iron transport system, fit, recently identified in a clinical E. coli isolate. The structure, determined at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution, shows that FitE is a group III PBP containing a single {alpha}-helix bridging the two domains. Among the individual FitE molecules present in two crystal forms we observed three different conformations (open, closed, intermediate). Our crystallographic and molecular dynamics results strongly support the notion that group III PBPs also adopt the same Venus flytrap mechanism as do groups I and II PBPs. Unlike other group III PBPs, FitE forms dimers both in solution and in the crystals. The putative siderophore binding pocket is lined with arginine residues, suggesting an anionic nature of the iron-containing siderophore.

  7. An approximate closed-form solution for lead lag damping of rotor blades in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Simple stability methods are used to derive an approximate, closed-form expression for the lead-lag damping of rotor blades in hover. Destabilizing terms are shown to be a result of two dynamic mechanisms. First, the destabilizing aerodynamic forces that can occur when blade lift is higher than a critical value are maximized when the blade motion is in a straight line equidistant from the blade chord and the average direction of the air flow velocity. This condition occurs when the Coriolis terms vanish and when the elastic coupling terms align the blade motion with this least stable direction. Second, the nonconservative stiffness terms that result from pitch-flap or pitch-lag coupling can add or subtract energy from the system depending upon whether the motion of the blade tip is clockwise or counterclockwise.

  8. Closed form analysis of a gamma, back-to-back free displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.L.; Kilgour, D.B.; Lazarides, Y.G.; Rallis, C.J.

    1983-08-01

    A back-to-back, free displacer, gamma type Stirling engine has been designed and is currently under manufacture and development at the University of the Witwatersrand. This paper presents a simple idealized analysis for such an engine. It involves the coupling together of the thermodynamic and mechanical equations, and by the use of classical control and vibration theory, closed form solutions are obtained. This work follows up on previous methods of analysis developed by Berchowitz, WyattMair and Goldberg for similar types of engines. A numerical application of the analysis has been carried out for the design in order to evaluate the operating frequency, phase displacements, amplitude of oscillation and basic output power. Performance characteristics are obtained and detailed in the paper. The analysis has provided analytic proof of the viability of the proposed engine configuration, highlighted weak areas and provided a background to higher order analysis. A programme of experimental validation is under way.

  9. Special-case closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van-Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2015-06-01

    The Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula is a general result for the quantity Z(X,Y)=ln ({{e}X}{{e}Y}), where X and Y are not necessarily commuting. For completely general commutation relations between X and Y, (the free Lie algebra), the general result is somewhat unwieldy. However in specific physics applications the commutator [X,Y], while non-zero, might often be relatively simple, which sometimes leads to explicit closed form results. We consider the special case [X,Y]=uX+vY+cI, and show that in this case the general result reduces to Furthermore we explicitly evaluate the symmetric function f(u,v)=f(v,u), demonstrating that and relate this to previously known results. For instance this result includes, but is considerably more general than, results obtained from either the Heisenberg commutator [P,Q]=-i\\hbar I or the creation-destruction commutator [a,{{a}\\dagger }]=I.

  10. Adaptive Filtering for Large Space Structures: A Closed-Form Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, H. E.; Schaechter, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    In a previous paper Schaechter proposes using an extended Kalman filter to estimate adaptively the (slowly varying) frequencies and damping ratios of a large space structure. The time varying gains for estimating the frequencies and damping ratios can be determined in closed form so it is not necessary to integrate the matrix Riccati equations. After certain approximations, the time varying adaptive gain can be written as the product of a constant matrix times a matrix derived from the components of the estimated state vector. This is an important savings of computer resources and allows the adaptive filter to be implemented with approximately the same effort as the nonadaptive filter. The success of this new approach for adaptive filtering was demonstrated using synthetic data from a two mode system.

  11. Stresses in adhesively bonded joints: A closed form solution. [plate theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.; Aydinoglu, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The plane strain of adhesively bonded structures which consist of two different orthotropic adherents is considered. Assuming that the thicknesses of the adherends are constant and are small in relation to the lateral dimensions of the bonded region, the adherends are treated as plates. The transverse shear effects in the adherends and the in-plane normal strain in the adhesive are taken into account. The problem is reduced to a system of differential equations for the adhesive stresses which is solved in closed form. A single lap joint and a stiffened plate under various loading conditions are considered as examples. To verify the basic trend of the solutions obtained from the plate theory a sample problem is solved by using the finite element method and by treating the adherends and the adhesive as elastic continua. The plate theory not only predicts the correct trend for the adhesive stresses but also gives rather surprisingly accurate results.

  12. Closed Form Equations for the Preliminary Design of a Heat-Pipe-Cooled Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    1998-01-01

    A set of closed form equations for the preliminary evaluation and design of a heat-pipe-cooled leading edge is presented. The set of equations can provide a leading-edge designer with a quick evaluation of the feasibility of using heat-pipe cooling. The heat pipes can be embedded in a metallic or composite structure. The maximum heat flux, total integrated heat load, and thermal properties of the structure and heat-pipe container are required input. The heat-pipe operating temperature, maximum surface temperature, heat-pipe length, and heat pipe-spacing can be estimated. Results using the design equations compared well with those from a 3-D finite element analysis for both a large and small radius leading edge.

  13. Free-form Design in Solid Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Solid modelling is developed as a means of representing the shapes of components used in the less specialized mechanical engineering industries. Solids can now be modelled with free form surfaces. In some cases parametric geometry is used exclusively, while in others here is mixed use of parametric and implicit geometry. A method is suggested and discussed for free form solids modelling. The method has several advantages, one of which is that it avoids the use of detached surfaces, Boolean operations and surface intersection computations. It involves only minor topological changes to the model and is therefore computationally efficient.

  14. Structure of steady state accretion shocks with several cooling functions: Closed integral-form solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kinwah; Chanmugam, G.; Shaviv, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present, for the first time, a closed integral-form solution to the accretion shock structures for the case where the cooling is due to optically thin bremsstrahlung emission and a series of power-law cooling functions of density and temperature. Our results can provide useful checks on numerical calculations and simple accurate estimates for valuable parameters such as the shock height. For the case where the cooling rate j = (2/3)Arho(exp 2)(P/rho)(exp 1/2)(1 + epsilon (sub s)(P/P(sub s)(exp alpha)(rho(sub s)/rho)(exp beta)), we find that a substantial amount of the accretion energy is released at the base of the accretion shock in the form of bremsstrahlung radiation. This implies that for a cyclotron-dominated shock (qualitatively given by alpha = 2.0, beta = 3.85, and epsilon(sub s) is much greater than 1), bremsstrahlung cooling still plays a crucial role in determining the shock structure. Our results are shown to be consistent with detailed numerical calculations.

  15. Trapping open and closed forms of FitE: a group III periplasmic binding protein.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Proteau, Ariane; Wagner, John; Cui, Qizhi; Purisima, Enrico O; Matte, Allan; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2009-05-15

    Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) are essential components of bacterial transport systems, necessary for bacterial growth and survival. The two-domain structures of PBPs are topologically classified into three groups based on the number of crossovers or hinges between the globular domains: group I PBPs have three connections, group II have two, and group III have only one. Although a large number of structures for group I or II PBPs are known, fewer group III PBPs have been structurally characterized. Group I and II PBPs exhibit significant domain motions during transition from the unbound to ligand-bound form, however, no large conformational changes have been observed to date in group III PBPs. We have solved the crystal structure of a periplasmic binding protein FitE, part of an iron transport system, fit, recently identified in a clinical E. coli isolate. The structure, determined at 1.8 A resolution, shows that FitE is a group III PBP containing a single alpha-helix bridging the two domains. Among the individual FitE molecules present in two crystal forms we observed three different conformations (open, closed, intermediate). Our crystallographic and molecular dynamics results strongly support the notion that group III PBPs also adopt the same Venus flytrap mechanism as do groups I and II PBPs. Unlike other group III PBPs, FitE forms dimers both in solution and in the crystals. The putative siderophore binding pocket is lined with arginine residues, suggesting an anionic nature of the iron-containing siderophore. PMID:19004000

  16. Hencky's model for elastomer forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinikov, A. A.; Oleinikov, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    In the numerical simulation of elastomer forming process, Henckys isotropic hyperelastic material model can guarantee relatively accurate prediction of strain range in terms of large deformations. It is shown, that this material model prolongate Hooke's law from the area of infinitesimal strains to the area of moderate ones. New representation of the fourth-order elasticity tensor for Hencky's hyperelastic isotropic material is obtained, it possesses both minor symmetries, and the major symmetry. Constitutive relations of considered model is implemented into MSC.Marc code. By calculating and fitting curves, the polyurethane elastomer material constants are selected. Simulation of equipment for elastomer sheet forming are considered.

  17. Effective closed form mathematical approach to determine kinetic constants of NR vulcanized with sulphur and accelerators at different concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Milani, Gabriele E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it; Hanel, Thomas; Donetti, Raffaella; Milani, Federico

    2015-03-10

    The basic reaction scheme due to Han and co-workers for NR vulcanized with sulphur is adopted and modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators, focusing in particular on some experimental data ad hoc obtained at Pirelli’s laboratories, where NR was vulcanized at different temperatures (from 150 to 180 °C) and concentrations of sulphur, using TBBS and DPG in the mixture as co-agents. Typically, the chain reactions are initiated by the formation of macro-compounds that are responsible of the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer. This first reaction depends on the reciprocal concentrations of all components and their chemical nature. In presence of two accelerators, it was considered that the reactions between each single accelerator and the NR raw material occur in parallel, making the reasonable assumption that there are no mutual reactions between the two accelerators. From the kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution was found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. Even kinetic constants are evaluated in closed form, avoiding a numerically demanding least-squares best fitting on rheometer experimental data. Two series of experiments available, relying into rheometer curves at different temperatures and different concentrations of sulphur and accelerator, are utilized to evaluate the fitting capabilities of the mathematical model. Very good agreement between numerical output and experimental data is experienced in all cases analysed.

  18. Finite Elements Modeling in Diagnostics of Small Closed Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Lorkowski, J; Mrzygłód, M; Grzegorowska, O

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic pneumothorax still remains to be a serious clinical problem and requires a comprehensive diagnostic and monitoring during treatment. The aim of this paper is to present a computer method of modeling of small closed pneumothorax. Radiological images of 34 patients of both sexes with small closed pneumothorax were taken into consideration. The control group consisted of X-rays of 22 patients treated because of tension pneumothorax. In every single case the model was correlated with the clinical manifestations. The procedure of computational rapid analysis (CRA) for in silico analysis of surgical intervention was introduced. It included implementation of computerize tomography images and their automatic conversion into 3D finite elements model (FEM). In order to segmentize the 3D model, an intelligent procedure of domain recognition was used. In the final step, a computer simulation project of fluid-structure interaction was built, using the ANSYS\\Workbench environment of multi-physics analysis. The FEM model and computer simulation project were employed in the analysis in order to optimize surgical intervention. The model worked out well and was compatible with the clinical manifestations of pneumothorax. We conclude that the created FEM model is a promising tool for facilitation of diagnostic procedures and prognosis of treatment in the case of small closed pneumothorax.

  19. Electrons in a closed galaxy model of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Westergaard, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The consistency of positrons and electrons was studied using a propagation model in which the cosmic rays are stopped by nuclear collisions or energy losses before they can escape from the galaxy (the closed-galaxy model). The fact that no inconsistency was found between the predictions and the data implies that the protons which produce the positrons by nuclear reactions could have their origin in a large number of distant sources, as opposed to the heavier nuclei which in this model come from a more limited set of sources. The closed-galaxy model predicts steep electron and positron spectra at high energies. None of these are inconsistent with present measurements; but future measurements of the spectrum of high-energy positrons could provide a definite test for the model. The closed-galaxy model also predicts that the interstellar electron intensity below a few GeV is larger than that implied by other models. The consequence of this result is that electron bremsstrahlung is responsible for about 50% of the galactic gamma-ray emission at photon energies greater than 100 MeV.

  20. Similarity Measure Learning in Closed-Form Solution for Image Classification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Tang, Yuan Yan; Chen, C. L. Philip; Fang, Bin; Shang, Zhaowei; Lin, Yuewei

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a measure is essential in many multimedia applications. Recently, distance learning is becoming an active research problem. In fact, the distance is the natural measure for dissimilarity. Generally, a pairwise relationship between two objects in learning tasks includes two aspects: similarity and dissimilarity. The similarity measure provides different information for pairwise relationships. However, similarity learning has been paid less attention in learning problems. In this work, firstly, we propose a general framework for similarity measure learning (SML). Additionally, we define a generalized type of correlation as a similarity measure. By a set of parameters, generalized correlation provides flexibility for learning tasks. Based on this similarity measure, we present a specific algorithm under the SML framework, called correlation similarity measure learning (CSML), to learn a parameterized similarity measure over input space. A nonlinear extension version of CSML, kernel CSML, is also proposed. Particularly, we give a closed-form solution avoiding iterative search for a local optimal solution in the high-dimensional space as the previous work did. Finally, classification experiments have been performed on face databases and a handwritten digits database to demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of CSML and KCSML. PMID:25057510

  1. Closed-form expressions for ocean reverberation and signal excess with mode stripping and Lambert's law.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C H

    2003-11-01

    Closed-form expressions for two-way propagation and reverberation in variable depth ducts are derived for isovelocity water by using ray invariants and acoustic flux. These expressions include the transition to single mode propagation at long range. Three surface scattering laws are considered: Lambert, Lommel-Seeliger, and angle independent, and these are compared with a point target to give explicit signal-to-reverberation ratios. In particular, there is interesting and sometimes surprising behavior when the propagation obeys mode-stripping (the high angles are preferentially attenuated by bottom losses) whilst the scattering obeys Lambert's law (high angles are preferentially back-scattered). There may be conditions where the signal-to-reverberation ratio is independent of range so that there is no reverberation range limit. Bottom slope dependence of both target echo and reverberation is surprisingly weak. The implications of refraction are discussed. The angle dependence for a point or surface scatterer at a given range can be translated into arrival time, so it is possible to calculate the received pulse shape for one-way or two-way paths. Because the tail is exponential with a range-independent half-life that only depends on bottom reflection properties there is scope for extracting geoacoustic information from the pulse shape alone. This environmental time spread is also of use to sonar designers.

  2. Application of closed-form solutions to a mesh point field in silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamorte, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    A computer simulation method is discussed that provides for equivalent simulation accuracy, but that exhibits significantly lower CPU running time per bias point compared to other techniques. This new method is applied to a mesh point field as is customary in numerical integration (NI) techniques. The assumption of a linear approximation for the dependent variable, which is typically used in the finite difference and finite element NI methods, is not required. Instead, the set of device transport equations is applied to, and the closed-form solutions obtained for, each mesh point. The mesh point field is generated so that the coefficients in the set of transport equations exhibit small changes between adjacent mesh points. Application of this method to high-efficiency silicon solar cells is described; and the method by which Auger recombination, ambipolar considerations, built-in and induced electric fields, bandgap narrowing, carrier confinement, and carrier diffusivities are treated. Bandgap narrowing has been investigated using Fermi-Dirac statistics, and these results show that bandgap narrowing is more pronounced and that it is temperature-dependent in contrast to the results based on Boltzmann statistics.

  3. A closed-form solution to the minimum {ΔV_tot^2} Lambert's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño, Martín; Mortari, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    A closed form solution to the minimum {Δ V_tot^2} Lambert problem between two assigned positions in two distinct orbits is presented. Motivation comes from the need of computing optimal orbit transfer matrices to solve re-configuration problems of satellite constellations and the complexity associated in facing these problems with the minimization of {Δ V_tot}. Extensive numerical tests show that the difference in fuel consumption between the solutions obtained by minimizing {Δ V_tot^2} and {Δ V_tot} does not exceed 17%. The {Δ V_tot^2} solution can be adopted as starting point to find the minimum {Δ V_tot}. The solving equation for minimum {Δ V_tot^2} Lambert problem is a quartic polynomial in term of the angular momentum modulus of the optimal transfer orbit. The root selection is discussed and the singular case, occurring when the initial and final radii are parallel, is analytically solved. A numerical example for the general case (orbit transfer “pork-chop” between two non-coplanar elliptical orbits) and two examples for the singular case (Hohmann and GTO transfers) are provided.

  4. Dielectric elastomer composites: A general closed-form solution in the small-deformation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Stephen A.; Lefèvre, Victor; Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    2015-10-01

    A solution for the overall electromechanical response of two-phase dielectric elastomer composites with (random or periodic) particulate microstructures is derived in the classical limit of small deformations and moderate electric fields. In this limit, the overall electromechanical response is characterized by three effective tensors: a fourth-order tensor describing the elasticity of the material, a second-order tensor describing its permittivity, and a fourth-order tensor describing its electrostrictive response. Closed-form formulas are derived for these effective tensors directly in terms of the corresponding tensors describing the electromechanical response of the underlying matrix and the particles, and the one- and two-point correlation functions describing the microstructure. This is accomplished by specializing a new iterative homogenization theory in finite electroelastostatics (Lopez-Pamies, 2014) to the case of elastic dielectrics with even coupling between the mechanical and electric fields and, subsequently, carrying out the pertinent asymptotic analysis. Additionally, with the aim of gaining physical insight into the proposed solution and shedding light on recently reported experiments, specific results are examined and compared with an available analytical solution and with new full-field simulations for the special case of dielectric elastomers filled with isotropic distributions of spherical particles with various elastic dielectric properties, including stiff high-permittivity particles, liquid-like high-permittivity particles, and vacuous pores.

  5. Modeling gas exchange in a closed plant growth chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, J. D.; Hendrix, J. E.; Wheeler, R. M.; Ross, C. W.; Sadeh, W. Z.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid transport models for fluxes of water vapor and CO2 have been developed for one crop of wheat and three crops of soybean grown in a closed plant growth chamber. Correspondence among these fluxes is discussed. Maximum fluxes of gases are provided for engineering design requirements of fluid recycling equipment in growth chambers. Furthermore, to investigate the feasibility of generalized crop models, dimensionless representations of water vapor fluxes are presented. The feasibility of such generalized models and the need for additional data are discussed.

  6. Modeling Gas Exchange in a Closed Plant Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, J. D.; Hendrix, J. E.; Wheeler, R. M.; Ross, C. W.; Sadeh, W. Z.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid transport models for fluxes of water vapor and CO2 have been developed for one crop of wheat and three crops of soybean grown in a closed plant a growth chamber. Correspondence among these fluxes is discussed. Maximum fluxes of gases are provided for engineering design requirements of fluid recycling equipment in growth chambers. Furthermore, to investigate the feasibility of generalized crop models, dimensionless representations of water vapor fluxes are presented. The feasibility of such generalized models and the need for additional data are discussed.

  7. 34 CFR 300.509 - Model forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model forms. 300.509 Section 300.509 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due...

  8. Design of a radio telescope surface segment actuator based on a form-closed eccentric cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R.

    2014-07-01

    As radio telescopes have reached larger diameters and higher frequencies, it is typically not possible to meet their surface accuracy specifications using passive homology-based designs. The most common solution to this problem in the current generation of large, high-frequency radio telescopes is to employ a system of linear actuators to correct the surface shape of the primary reflector. The exact specifications of active surface actuators vary with the telescope. However, they have many common features, some of which drive their design. In general, these actuators must provide precise and repeatable positioning under significant loads during operation and they must withstand even higher loads for survival conditions. For general safety, they typically must hold position in the event of a power failure and must incorporate position limits, whether electrical, mechanical, or both. Because the number of actuators is generally high for large active surfaces (hundreds or even thousands of actuators), they must also be reliable and of reasonable individual cost. Finally, for maximum flexibility in their installation, they must be compact. This paper presents a concept for an active surface actuator based on a form-closed eccentric cam (kinematically, a Scotch Yoke mechanism). Such a design is limited in stroke, but offers potential advantages in terms of manufacture, compactness, measurement, and survival loading. The paper demonstrates that some of the expected advantages cannot be practically realized, due to dimensions that are driven by survival loading conditions. As a result, this concept is likely to offer an advantage over conventional screw-type actuators only for cases where actuator runaway and stall are the driving considerations.

  9. Mechanical Behavior of Salt Caverns: Closed-Form Solutions vs Numerical Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Bérest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Creep closure and structural stability of a cylindrical elongated cavern leached out from a salt formation are discussed. The Norton-Hoff creep law, or "power law", is used to capture the main features of salt rheological behavior. Two failure criteria are considered: (1) shear stresses must not be larger than a certain fraction of the mean stress (dilation criterion); and (2) the effective stress at the cavern wall (actual stress plus cavern fluid pressure) must not be tensile. The case of a brine-filled cavern whose pressure is kept constant is discussed first. It is proved that creep closure reaches a steady state such that stresses in the rock mass remain constant. However, decades are needed to reach such a state. During the transient phase that results from the slow redistribution of stresses in the rock mass, deviatoric stresses decrease at the vicinity of the cavern wall, and onset of dilation is less and less likely. At this point, the case of a rapid brine pressure increase, typical of a tightness test, is considered. It is proved that during such a swift pressure increase, cavern behavior is almost perfectly elastic; there is no risk of dilation onset. However, even when cavern pressure remains significantly smaller than geostatic, the effective stress at cavern wall can become tensile. These results, obtained through numerical computations, are confirmed by closed-form solutions obtained in the case of an idealized perfectly cylindrical cavern; these solutions provide a better insight into the main structural features of the behavior of the cavern.

  10. Simscape Modeling of a Custom Closed-Volume Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Nathaniel P.

    2015-01-01

    The library for Mathworks Simscape does not currently contain a model for a closed volume fluid tank where the ullage pressure is variable. In order to model a closed-volume variable ullage pressure tank, it was necessary to consider at least two separate cases: a vertical cylinder, and a sphere. Using library components, it was possible to construct a rough model for the cylindrical tank. It was not possible to construct a model for a spherical tank, using library components, due to the variable area. It was decided that, for these cases, it would be preferable to create a custom library component to represent each case, using the Simscape language. Once completed, the components were added to models, where filling and draining the tanks could be simulated. When the models were performing as expected, it was necessary to generate code from the models and run them in Trick (a real-time simulation program). The data output from Trick was then compared to the output from Simscape and found to be within acceptable limits.

  11. Closed-form expression for the profile of partially wetting two-dimensional droplets under gravity.

    PubMed

    Gomba, J M; Perazzo, Carlos Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Analytical solutions for the shape of both hanging and sitting droplets under the effects of gravity and surface tension are presented. The modeling also includes the action of molecular forces arising between the liquid and the substrate, which are responsible for the formation of a stable nanometric film in the region close to the droplet contact line. The shape of the droplet is completely described by an analytical solution that also accounts for the pancake-shaped droplets as a limiting case. We find expressions that relate microscopic and nanoscopic aspects, such as the strengths of the molecular forces and the thickness of the nanometric film, to macroscopic quantities, such as the cross-sectional area and the width of the droplet. We study the effect of gravity on the contact angle and find that for small droplets the contact angle follows a power law with the droplet's size. For sitting droplets we find that the there is an upper limit for the value of the gravity.

  12. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Atzema, E. H.; Roelofsen, M. E.

    2005-08-01

    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path. The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary. Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials. Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations

  13. Conformational change path between closed and open forms of C2 domain of coagulation factor V on a two-dimensional free-energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sangwook; Lee, Chang Jun; Pedersen, Lee G.

    2009-04-01

    We test a hypothesis that the closed form of the C2 domain of coagulation factor V is more stable than the open form in an aqueous environment using a two-dimensional free-energy calculation with a simple dielectric solvent model. Our result shows that while the free-energy difference between two forms is small, favoring the closed form, a two-dimensional free-energy surface (FES) reveals that a transition state (1.53 kcal/mol) exists between the two conformations. By mapping the one-dimensional order parameter ΔQ onto the two-dimensional FES, we search the conformational change path with the highest Boltzmann weighting factor between the closed and open form of the factor V C2 domain. The predicted transition path from the closed to open form is not that of simple side chain movements, but instead concerted movements of several loops. We also present a one-dimensional free-energy profile using a collective order parameter, which in a coarse manner locates the energy barriers found on the two-dimensional FES.

  14. Enabling comparative modeling of closely related genomes: Example genus Brucella

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Faria, José P.; Edirisinghe, Janaka N.; Davis, James J.; Disz, Terrence; Hausmann, Anna; Henry, Christopher S.; Olson, Robert; Overbeek, Ross A.; Pusch, Gordon D.; Shukla, Maulik; et al

    2014-03-08

    For many scientific applications, it is highly desirable to be able to compare metabolic models of closely related genomes. In this study, we attempt to raise awareness to the fact that taking annotated genomes from public repositories and using them for metabolic model reconstructions is far from being trivial due to annotation inconsistencies. We are proposing a protocol for comparative analysis of metabolic models on closely related genomes, using fifteen strains of genus Brucella, which contains pathogens of both humans and livestock. This study lead to the identification and subsequent correction of inconsistent annotations in the SEED database, as wellmore » as the identification of 31 biochemical reactions that are common to Brucella, which are not originally identified by automated metabolic reconstructions. We are currently implementing this protocol for improving automated annotations within the SEED database and these improvements have been propagated into PATRIC, Model-SEED, KBase and RAST. This method is an enabling step for the future creation of consistent annotation systems and high-quality model reconstructions that will support in predicting accurate phenotypes such as pathogenicity, media requirements or type of respiration.« less

  15. Accuracy issues in modeling superplastic metal forming

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.I.; Khaleel, M.A.; Lavender, C.A.; Smith, M.T.

    1995-02-01

    The utility of finite element modeling in optimizing superplastic metal forming is dependent on accurate representation of the material constitutive behavior and the frictional response of the sheet against the die surface. This paper presents work conducted to estimate the level of precision that is necessary in constitutive relations for finite element analysis to accurately predict the deformation history of actual SPF components. Previous work identified errors in SPF testing methods that use short tensile specimens with gauge length-to-width ratios of 2:1 or less. The analysis of the present paper was performed to estimate the error in predicted stress that results from using the short specimens. Stress correction factors were developed and an improved constitutive relation was implemented in the MARC finite element code to simulate the forming of a long, rectangular tray. The coefficient of friction in a Coulomb friction model was adjusted to reproduce the amount of material draw-in observed in the forming experiments. Comparisons between the finite element predictions and the forming experiments are presented.

  16. A parallel offline CFD and closed-form approximation strategy for computationally efficient analysis of complex fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allphin, Devin

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution approximations for complex fluid flow problems have become a common and powerful engineering analysis technique. These tools, though qualitatively useful, remain limited in practice by their underlying inverse relationship between simulation accuracy and overall computational expense. While a great volume of research has focused on remedying these issues inherent to CFD, one traditionally overlooked area of resource reduction for engineering analysis concerns the basic definition and determination of functional relationships for the studied fluid flow variables. This artificial relationship-building technique, called meta-modeling or surrogate/offline approximation, uses design of experiments (DOE) theory to efficiently approximate non-physical coupling between the variables of interest in a fluid flow analysis problem. By mathematically approximating these variables, DOE methods can effectively reduce the required quantity of CFD simulations, freeing computational resources for other analytical focuses. An idealized interpretation of a fluid flow problem can also be employed to create suitably accurate approximations of fluid flow variables for the purposes of engineering analysis. When used in parallel with a meta-modeling approximation, a closed-form approximation can provide useful feedback concerning proper construction, suitability, or even necessity of an offline approximation tool. It also provides a short-circuit pathway for further reducing the overall computational demands of a fluid flow analysis, again freeing resources for otherwise unsuitable resource expenditures. To validate these inferences, a design optimization problem was presented requiring the inexpensive estimation of aerodynamic forces applied to a valve operating on a simulated piston-cylinder heat engine. The determination of these forces was to be found using parallel surrogate and exact approximation methods, thus evidencing the comparative

  17. Simulation model for the Closed Plant Experimental Facilities of CEEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kibe, S.; Nitta, K.

    The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) is a testbed for CELSS investigations. CEEF including the physico-chemical material regenerative system has been constructed for the experiments of material circulation among plants, breeding animals, humans (crew of the CEEF). Because CEEF is a complex system, an appropriate schedule for the operation must be prepared in advance. The CEEF behavioral Prediction System, CPS, that will help to confirm the operation schedule, is under development. CPS will simulate CEEF's behavior with data (conditions of equipments, quantity of materials in tanks, etc.) of CEEF and an operation schedule that will be made by the operation team everyday, before the schedule will be carried out. The result of the simulation will show whether the operation schedule is appropriate or not. In order to realize CPS, models of the simulation program that is installed in CPS must mirror the real facilities of CEEF. A flexible algorithm for the first step of development of the simulation program was already investigated. The next step was development of a replicate simulation model of the material circulation system for the Closed Plant Experimental Facilities (CPEF) that is a part of CEEF. All the parts of real material circulation system for CPEF are connected together and work as a complex mechanism. In the simulation model, the system was separated into 38 units according to its operational segmentation. In order to develop each model for its corresponding unit, specifications for the model were fixed based on the specifications of the real part. These models were put into a simulation model for the system.

  18. Simulation model for the closed plant experiment facility of CEEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Koichi; Ishikawa, Yoshio; Kibe, Seishiro; Nitta, Keiji

    The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) is a testbed for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) investigations. CEEF including the physico-chemical material regenerative system has been constructed for the experiments of material circulation among plants, breeding animals and crew of CEEF. Because CEEF is a complex system, an appropriate schedule for the operation must be prepared in advance. The CEEF behavioral Prediction System, CPS, that will help to confirm the operation schedule, is under development. CPS will simulate CEEFs behavior with data (conditions of equipments, quantity of materials in tanks, etc.) of CEEF and an operation schedule that will be made by the operation team everyday, before the schedule will be carried out. The result of the simulation will show whether the operation schedule is appropriate or not. In order to realize CPS, models of the simulation program that is installed in CPS must mirror the real facilities of CEEF. For the first step of development, a flexible algorithm of the simulation program was investigated. The next step was development of a replicate simulation model of the material circulation system for the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) that is a part of CEEF. All the parts of a real material circulation system for CPEF are connected together and work as a complex mechanism. In the simulation model, the system was separated into 38 units according to its operational segmentation. In order to develop each model for its corresponding unit, specifications for the model were fixed based on the specifications of the real part. These models were put into a simulation model for the system.

  19. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Model privacy form and... Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of... content requirements of §§ 160.6 and 160.7 of this part, although use of the model privacy form is...

  20. Seeing Perfectly Fitting Factor Models That Are Causally Misspecified: Understanding That Close-Fitting Models Can Be Worse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayduk, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Researchers using factor analysis tend to dismiss the significant ill fit of factor models by presuming that if their factor model is close-to-fitting, it is probably close to being properly causally specified. Close fit may indeed result from a model being close to properly causally specified, but close-fitting factor models can also be seriously…

  1. Regge calculus models of the closed vacuum Λ -FLRW universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rex G.; Williams, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    The Collins-Williams Regge calculus models of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) space-times and Brewin's subdivided models are applied to closed vacuum Λ -FLRW universes. In each case, we embed the Regge Cauchy surfaces into 3-spheres in E4 and consider possible measures of Cauchy surface radius that can be derived from the embedding. Regge equations are obtained from both global variation, where entire sets of identical edges get varied simultaneously, and local variation, where each edge gets varied individually. We explore the relationship between the two sets of solutions, the conditions under which the Regge Hamiltonian constraint would be a first integral of the evolution equation, the initial value equation for each model at its moment of time symmetry, and the performance of the various models. It is revealed that local variation does not generally lead to a viable Regge model. It is also demonstrated that the various models do satisfy their respective initial value equations. Finally, it is shown that the models reproduce the correct qualitative dynamics of the space-time. Furthermore, the approximation's accuracy is highest when the universe is small but improves overall as we increase the number of tetrahedra used to construct the Regge Cauchy surface. Eventually though, all models gradually fail to keep up with the continuum FLRW model's expansion, with the models with lower numbers of tetrahedra falling away more quickly. We believe this failure to keep up is due to the finite resolution of the Regge Cauchy surfaces trying to approximate an ever expanding continuum Cauchy surface; each Regge surface has a fixed number of tetrahedra and as the surface being approximated gets larger, the resolution would degrade. Finally, we note that all Regge models end abruptly at a point when the timelike struts of the skeleton become null, though this end point appears to get delayed as the number of tetrahedra is increased.

  2. Form factors for Russian doll droplet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilemski, G.; Obeidat, A.; Hrahsheh, F.

    2013-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanodroplets containing water and nonane show them to be nonspherical and strongly phase separated. A simple, but realistic model for these "Russian doll" structures is a spherical nonane lens that partially wets a spherical water droplet. This document contains an analytical calculation of the particle form factor P(q) needed to analyze experimental measurements of small angle neutron and x-ray scattering from aerosols of particles with this type of structure. In addition, an exact formulation of the particle form factor is developed for cylindrically symmetric droplets with otherwise arbitrary scattering length density functions. This result will be useful to calculate P(q) directly from MD simulation results. We compare results using both formulations and find excellent agreement between them.

  3. 46 CFR 308.535 - Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B. 308.535 Section 308.535 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  4. Porous Media Approach for Modeling Closed Cell Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Sullivan, Roy M.

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimize boil off of the liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen and to prevent the formation of ice on its exterior surface, the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) is insulated using various low-density, closed-cell polymeric foams. Improved analysis methods for these foam materials are needed to predict the foam structural response and to help identify the foam fracture behavior in order to help minimize foam shedding occurrences. This presentation describes a continuum based approach to modeling the foam thermo-mechanical behavior that accounts for the cellular nature of the material and explicitly addresses the effect of the internal cell gas pressure. A porous media approach is implemented in a finite element frame work to model the mechanical behavior of the closed cell foam. The ABAQUS general purpose finite element program is used to simulate the continuum behavior of the foam. The soil mechanics element is implemented to account for the cell internal pressure and its effect on the stress and strain fields. The pressure variation inside the closed cells is calculated using the ideal gas laws. The soil mechanics element is compatible with an orthotropic materials model to capture the different behavior between the rise and in-plane directions of the foam. The porous media approach is applied to model the foam thermal strain and calculate the foam effective coefficient of thermal expansion. The calculated foam coefficients of thermal expansion were able to simulate the measured thermal strain during heat up from cryogenic temperature to room temperature in vacuum. The porous media approach was applied to an insulated substrate with one inch foam and compared to a simple elastic solution without pore pressure. The porous media approach is also applied to model the foam mechanical behavior during subscale laboratory experiments. In this test, a foam layer sprayed on a metal substrate is subjected to a temperature variation while the metal substrate is

  5. Model of wealth and goods dynamics in a closed market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Peķalski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    A simple computer simulation model of a closed market on a fixed network with free flow of goods and money is introduced. The model contains only two variables: the amount of goods and money beside the size of the system. An initially flat distribution of both variables is presupposed. We show that under completely random rules, i.e. through the choice of interacting agent pairs on the network and of the exchange rules that the market stabilizes in time and shows diversification of money and goods. We also indicate that the difference between poor and rich agents increases for small markets, as well as for systems in which money is steadily deduced from the market through taxation. It is also found that the price of goods decreases when taxes are introduced, likely due to the less availability of money.

  6. Experiment close out of lysimeter field testing of low-level radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. These experiments were recently shut down and the contents of the lysimeters have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radio nuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the examination of waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays after shut down. During this examination, the waste forms were characterized after removal from the lysimeters and the results compared to the findings of the original characterizations. Vertical soil cores were taken from the soil columns and analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides in the soils after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST and BLT code predictions of releases and movement, using recently developed partition coefficients and leachate measurements, to actual radio nuclide movement through the soil columns as determined from these core analyses.

  7. Modelling planet-forming circumstellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woitke, P.

    2012-03-01

    With the improved wavelength coverage and instrumental capabilities to observe planet-forming circumstellar discs in the X-ray regime, the UV, and the near, mid and far infrared (XMM, HST, VLT, Spitzer, Herschel, soon ALMA) there is an increasing scientific need to develop equally sophisticated models for the physical, radiative and chemical processes in these discs. The discs are composed of dust and gas spanning 10 orders of magnitude in density, and temperatures differ by a factor of about 100. There is hard irradiation that provokes various non-LTE effects, thermal and position de-coupling of icy dust and gas, and the differential rotation causes instabilities and mixing. In the last few years, new theoretical models have been developed that simulate different aspects of these complicated physical systems. I will focus mainly on models that model the chemical, radiative, and heating & cooling processes in these discs, pointing out some important coupling mechanism and feedbacks between them. In the new major European FP7-SPACE project DIANA, we will use these novel disc models to coherently analyse and interpret new multi-wavelength data sets from X-ray to cm, probing in physics and chemistry in protoplanetary dicsc at different radii and depths. The general aim of the new models is to arrive at a common understanding of dust and gas, over the full radial extent of the disc, and to make use of continuum and line observations to constrain dust and gas properties in the disc. I will discuss where the various near-IR to sub-mm emissions (CO ro-vib, high-J CO lines, sub-mm CO lines, Spitzer water, Herschel/PACS water, Herschel/HIFI water, Herschel/PACS atomic lines) originate from, and how they are influenced by disc shape, irradiation, dust properties, and the chemical and radiative details.

  8. 12 CFR 1016.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 1016.2 Section... INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 1016.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  9. 12 CFR 1016.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 1016.2 Section... INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 1016.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  10. 12 CFR 1016.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 1016.2 Section... INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 1016.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  11. Theater and ALife Art: Modeling Open and Closed Systems.

    PubMed

    Norman, Sally Jane

    2015-01-01

    The live art of theater remains curiously missing from ALife art history, despite the fact that its very existence is poised on the cusp of the living and the artificial, and on the modeling of life as artefact-what can be called the containment-versus-continuity dilemma. How far one seeks to affirm autonomy of the creative artwork or, in contrast, how far one seeks to affirm its continuity with its supposed real-life contexts is a question that has forever haunted theater, and that has naturally come to haunt ALife and ALife arts. Investigation of the boundary separating observers from modeled systems is as core to research into the live art of theater as to ALife research. This brief article seeks to open up discussion on links between ALife, ALife art, and the live art of theater, through key thematic threads that traverse these domains: their modeling of universes, the open or closed nature of the resultant modeled systems, and their implications with respect to observers, definitions, and instantiations of life regarding non-life or death as well as attributions of liveness to emergent synthetic biology and metamaterials. PMID:26280075

  12. A chloride capturing system via proton-induced structure transformation between opened- and closed-forms of dodecavanadates.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshitaka; Kikukawa, Yuji; Kuwajima, Sho; Hayashi, Yoshihito

    2016-05-01

    Chloride-incorporated dodecavanadates show two distinct structures of the monoprotonated-form [HV12O32(Cl)](4-) (closed-V12) with a spherical closed-structure and the opened-form [V12O32(Cl)](5-) (opened-V12). The reaction of closed-V12 with a stoichiometric amount of ethylenediamine drives the structure transformation reaction to opened-V12, quantitatively. From time dependent observations of (51)V NMR, a tube-type intermediate [V12O32(Cl)](5-) (tube-V12) was observed in the transformation process. Isolation of the intermediate was achieved by the deprotonation reaction of closed-V12 with diethylamine, and the structure transformation was confirmed by using the isolated intermediate. The reverse transformation from opened-V12 to closed-V12 was also achieved by addition of trifluoroacetic acid. The geometrical difference between closed-V12 and opened-V12 is reflected in the reactivity difference to the external reagents, and this was demonstrated by examining the chloride removal reaction by using a silver cation. The incorporated chloride was preserved in the closed-V12 cage even in the presence of a silver cation. In contrast, the chloride in opened-V12 was removed as AgCl by the silver cation. In addition, by the reaction of chloride-free opened-V12 with a quantitative amount of {Et4N}Cl retrieved opened-V12, showing the capability of opened-V12 to recapture a guest chloride in the cavity. This transformation between two isomeric dodecavanadate structures is regarded as the movement of a molecular mitt to catch a ball and secure it.

  13. Continuum representation of systems of dislocation lines: A general method for deriving closed-form evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monavari, Mehran; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zaiser, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Plasticity is governed by the evolution of, in general anisotropic, systems of dislocations. We seek to faithfully represent this evolution in terms of density-like variables which average over the discrete dislocation microstructure. Starting from T. Hochrainer's continuum theory of dislocations (CDD), we introduce a methodology based on the 'Maximum Information Entropy Principle' (MIEP) for deriving closed-form evolution equations for dislocation density measures of different order. These equations provide an optimum representation of the kinematic properties of systems of curved and connected dislocation lines with the information contained in a given set of density measures. The performance of the derived equations is benchmarked against other models proposed in the literature, using discrete dislocation dynamics simulations as a reference. As a benchmark problem we study dislocations moving in a highly heterogeneous, persistent slip-band-like geometry. We demonstrate that excellent agreement with discrete simulations can be obtained in terms of a very small number of averaged dislocation fields containing information about the edge and screw components of the total and excess (geometrically necessary) dislocation densities. From these the full dislocation orientation distribution which emerges as dislocations move through a channel-wall structure can be faithfully reconstructed.

  14. Inflation in the closed FLRW model and the CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonga, Béatrice; Gupt, Brajesh; Yokomizo, Nelson

    2016-10-01

    Recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations put strong constraints on the spatial curvature via estimation of the parameter Ωk assuming an almost scale invariant primordial power spectrum. We study the evolution of the background geometry and gauge-invariant scalar perturbations in an inflationary closed FLRW model and calculate the primordial power spectrum. We find that the inflationary dynamics is modified due to the presence of spatial curvature, leading to corrections to the nearly scale invariant power spectrum at the end of inflation. When evolved to the surface of last scattering, the resulting temperature anisotropy spectrum (CTTl) shows deficit of power at low multipoles (l < 20). By comparing our results with the recent Planck data we discuss the role of spatial curvature in accounting for CMB anomalies and in the estimation of the parameter Ωk. Since the curvature effects are limited to low multipoles, the Planck estimation of cosmological parameters remains robust under inclusion of positive spatial curvature.

  15. A closed NPZ model with delayed nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Matt; Campbell, Sue Ann; Poulin, Francis J

    2014-03-01

    We consider a closed Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton (NPZ) model that allows for a delay in the nutrient recycling. A delay-dependent conservation law allows us to quantify the total biomass in the system. With this, we can investigate how a planktonic ecosystem is affected by the quantity of biomass it contains and by the properties of the delay distribution. The quantity of biomass and the length of the delay play a significant role in determining the existence of equilibrium solutions, since a sufficiently small amount of biomass or a long enough delay can lead to the extinction of a species. Furthermore, the quantity of biomass and length of delay are important since a small change in either can change the stability of an equilibrium solution. We explore these effects for a variety of delay distributions using both analytical and numerical techniques, and verify these results with simulations.

  16. Closed-Loop Dynamic Modeling of Cerebral Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marmarelis, V. Z.; Shin, D. C.; Orme, M. E.; Zhang, R.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of cerebral hemodynamics have been studied extensively because of their fundamental physiological and clinical importance. In particular, the dynamic processes of cerebral flow autoregulation and CO2 vasomotor reactivity have attracted broad attention because of their involvement in a host of pathologies and clinical conditions (e.g. hypertension, syncope, stroke, traumatic brain injury, vascular dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment etc.). This raises the prospect of useful diagnostic methods being developed on the basis of quantitative models of cerebral hemodynamics, if cerebral vascular dysfunction can be quantified reliably from data collected within practical clinical constraints. This paper presents a modeling method that utilizes beat-to-beat measurements of mean arterial blood pressure, cerebral blood flow velocity and end-tidal CO2 (collected non-invasively under resting conditions) to quantify the dynamics of cerebral flow autoregulation (CFA) and cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR). The unique and novel aspect of this dynamic model is that it is nonlinear and operates in a closed-loop configuration. PMID:23292615

  17. Maximum precision closed-form solution for localizing diffraction-limited spots in noisy images.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Joshua D; Cook, Peter R

    2012-07-30

    Super-resolution techniques like PALM and STORM require accurate localization of single fluorophores detected using a CCD. Popular localization algorithms inefficiently assume each photon registered by a pixel can only come from an area in the specimen corresponding to that pixel (not from neighboring areas), before iteratively (slowly) fitting a Gaussian to pixel intensity; they fail with noisy images. We present an alternative; a probability distribution extending over many pixels is assigned to each photon, and independent distributions are joined to describe emitter location. We compare algorithms, and recommend which serves best under different conditions. At low signal-to-noise ratios, ours is 2-fold more precise than others, and 2 orders of magnitude faster; at high ratios, it closely approximates the maximum likelihood estimate.

  18. Closed-form inverse kinematics for intra-operative mobile C-arm positioning with six degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lejing; Zou, Rui; Weidert, Simon; Landes, Juergen; Euler, Ekkehard; Burschka, Darius; Navab, Nassir

    2011-03-01

    For trauma and orthopedic surgery, maneuvering a mobile C-arm X-ray device into a desired position in order to acquire the right picture is a routine task. The precision and ease of use of the C-arm positioning becomes even more important for more advanced imaging techniques as parallax-free X-ray image stitching, for example. Standard mobile C-arms have only five degrees of freedom (DOF), which definitely restricts their motions that have six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. We have proposed a method to model the kinematics of the mobile Carm and operating table as an integrated 6DOF C-arm X-ray imaging system.1 This enables mobile C-arms to be positioned relative to the patient's table with six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. Moving mobile C-arms to a desired position and orientation requires finding the necessary joint values, which is an inverse kinematics problem. In this paper, we present closed-form solutions, i.e. analytic expressions, obtained in an algebraic way for the inverse kinematics problem of the 6DOF C-arm model. In addition, we implement a 6DOF C-arm system for interactively radiation-free C-arm positioning based on a continuous guidance from C-arm pose estimation. For this we employ a visual marker pattern attached under the operating table and a mobile C-arm system augmented by a video camera and mirror construction. In our experiment, repositioning C-arm to a pre-defined pose in a phantom study demonstrates the practicality and accuracy of our developed 6DOF C-arm system.

  19. A model of oil-generation in a waterlogged and closed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhigao, He

    This paper presents a new model on synthetic effects on oil-generation in a waterlogged and closed system. It is suggested based on information about oil in high pressure layers (including gas dissolved in oil), marsh gas and its fermentative solution, fermentation processes and mechanisms, gaseous hydrocarbons of carbonate rocks by acid treatment, oil-field water, recent and ancient sediments, and simulation experiments of artificial marsh gas and biological action. The model differs completely from the theory of oil-generation by thermal degradation of kerogen but stresses the synthetic effects of oil-generation in special waterlogged and closed geological systems, the importance of pressure in oil-forming processes, and direct oil generation by micro-organisms. Oil generated directly by micro-organisms is a particular biochemical reaction. Another feature of this model is that generation, migration and accumulation of petroleum are considered as a whole.

  20. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION UNDER TITLE V OF THE GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of...

  1. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  2. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  3. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  4. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  5. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  6. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  7. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  8. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  9. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  10. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  11. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  12. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION UNDER TITLE V OF THE GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of...

  13. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  14. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  15. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  16. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  17. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendixA of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  18. 17 CFR Appendix to Subpart B of... - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model Forms Appendix to... to Subpart B of Part 248—Model Forms a. Although you and your affiliates are not required to use the model forms in this Appendix, use of a model form (if applicable to each person that uses it)...

  19. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  20. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  1. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  2. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  3. General closed-form bit-error rate expressions for coded M-distributed atmospheric optical communications.

    PubMed

    Balsells, José M Garrido; López-González, Francisco J; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Miguel; Notario, Antonio Puerta

    2015-07-01

    In this Letter, general closed-form expressions for the average bit error rate in atmospheric optical links employing rate-adaptive channel coding are derived. To characterize the irradiance fluctuations caused by atmospheric turbulence, the Málaga or M distribution is employed. The proposed expressions allow us to evaluate the performance of atmospheric optical links employing channel coding schemes such as OOK-GSc, OOK-GScc, HHH(1,13), or vw-MPPM with different coding rates and under all regimes of turbulence strength. A hyper-exponential fitting technique applied to the conditional bit error rate is used in all cases. The proposed closed-form expressions are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations.

  4. General closed-form bit-error rate expressions for coded M-distributed atmospheric optical communications.

    PubMed

    Balsells, José M Garrido; López-González, Francisco J; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Miguel; Notario, Antonio Puerta

    2015-07-01

    In this Letter, general closed-form expressions for the average bit error rate in atmospheric optical links employing rate-adaptive channel coding are derived. To characterize the irradiance fluctuations caused by atmospheric turbulence, the Málaga or M distribution is employed. The proposed expressions allow us to evaluate the performance of atmospheric optical links employing channel coding schemes such as OOK-GSc, OOK-GScc, HHH(1,13), or vw-MPPM with different coding rates and under all regimes of turbulence strength. A hyper-exponential fitting technique applied to the conditional bit error rate is used in all cases. The proposed closed-form expressions are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. PMID:26125336

  5. Hysterically damped free and forced vibrations of axial and torsional bars by a closed form exact method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jae-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Hysterically damped free and forced vibrations of axial and torsional bars are investigated using a closed form exact method. The method is exact and yields closed form expressions for the vibratory displacements. This is in contrast with the well known eigenfunction superposition method which requires expressing the distributed forcing functions and the displacement response functions as infinite sums of free vibration eigenfunctions. The hysterically damped free vibration frequencies and corresponding damped mode shapes are calculated and plotted instead of undamped free vibration and mode shapes which is typically computed and applied in vibration problems. The hysterically damped natural frequency equations are exactly derived. Accurate axial or torsional amplitude vs. forcing frequency curves showing the forced response due to distributed loading are displayed with various hysteretic damping parameters.

  6. Mobile close combat tactical trainer location and routing model

    SciTech Connect

    Djang, P.; Scott, M.

    1994-12-31

    In the short term future, the Army will purchase 21 Mobile Close Combat Tactical Trainers (MCCTTs) for the Reserve Component. The Army plans to buy 11 Armor and 10 Infantry versions of these trainers. The trainers are high fidelity simulators that teach tactical operations at the company and platoon level. The simulators are mounted on 3 tractor-trailers and are capable of traveling to the cities, towns and villages (known as home stations) where the Reserve Component platoons reside. The TRADOC System Manager - Combined Arms Tactical Trainer requested that TRAC-WSMR conduct a stationing analysis to determine where these devices should be located. We have created location and routing models for both Armor and Infantry MCCTTs. We developed a p-median model to determine the locations that minimize the distance between the MCCTTs and a number of home stations. Once we know where to locate the MCCTTs, we developed transportation, set covering and traveling salesperson models to decide the routing strategy that minimizes the distance the MCCTTs must travel, thereby prolonging their life. Our models insure that all platoons receive a minimum of three MCCTT training sessions per year and that the units do not have to travel more than 60 miles away from their home. If the Army uses the same routing strategy for the MCCTTs as they have done for a predecessor system, then our efforts have estimated annual savings of 700, 000 or 10 Million over the system life. Finally, given the current training requirement, our work demonstrates that the Army`s procurement strategy needs to be adjusted; we show that the Army needs to buy fewer Infantry MCCTTs than planned; we show that if the excess is converted to Armor MCCTTs, then a less expensive overall solution can be computed.

  7. Closed-Head TBI Model of Multiple Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Floyd J; Hou, Jiamei; Bose, Prodip K

    2016-01-01

    Successful therapy for TBI disabilities awaits refinement in the understanding of TBI neurobiology, quantitative measurement of treatment-induced incremental changes in recovery trajectories, and effective translation to human TBI using quantitative methods and protocols that were effective to monitor recovery in preclinical models. Details of the specific neurobiology that underlies these injuries and effective quantitation of treatment-induced changes are beginning to emerge utilizing a variety of preclinical and clinical models (for reviews see (Morales et al., Neuroscience 136:971-989, 2005; Fujimoto et al., Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:365-378, 2004; Cernak, NeuroRx 2:410-422, 2005; Smith et al., J Neurotrauma 22:1485-1502, 2005; Bose et al., J Neurotrauma 30:1177-1191, 2013; Xiong et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 14:128-142, 2013; Xiong et al., Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 14:67-84, 2009; Johnson et al., Handb Clin Neurol 127:115-128, 2015; Bose et al., Brain neurotrauma: molecular, neuropsychological, and rehabilitation aspects, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, 2015)). Preclinical models of TBI, essential for the efficient study of TBI neurobiology, benefit from the setting of controlled injury and optimal opportunities for biometric quantitation of injury and treatment-induced changes in the trajectories of disability. Several preclinical models are currently used, and each offer opportunities for study of different aspects of TBI primary and secondary injuries (for review see (Morales et al., Neuroscience 136:971-989, 2005; Xiong et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 14:128-142, 2013; Xiong et al., Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 14:67-84, 2009; Johnson et al., Handb Clin Neurol 127:115-128, 2015; Dixon et al., J Neurotrauma 5:91-104, 1988)). The closed-head, impact-acceleration model of TBI designed by Marmarou et al., 1994 (J Neurosurg 80:291-300, 1994), when used to produce mild to moderate TBI, produces diffuse axonal injuries without significant additional focal injuries of the

  8. Closed-Head TBI Model of Multiple Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Floyd J; Hou, Jiamei; Bose, Prodip K

    2016-01-01

    Successful therapy for TBI disabilities awaits refinement in the understanding of TBI neurobiology, quantitative measurement of treatment-induced incremental changes in recovery trajectories, and effective translation to human TBI using quantitative methods and protocols that were effective to monitor recovery in preclinical models. Details of the specific neurobiology that underlies these injuries and effective quantitation of treatment-induced changes are beginning to emerge utilizing a variety of preclinical and clinical models (for reviews see (Morales et al., Neuroscience 136:971-989, 2005; Fujimoto et al., Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:365-378, 2004; Cernak, NeuroRx 2:410-422, 2005; Smith et al., J Neurotrauma 22:1485-1502, 2005; Bose et al., J Neurotrauma 30:1177-1191, 2013; Xiong et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 14:128-142, 2013; Xiong et al., Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 14:67-84, 2009; Johnson et al., Handb Clin Neurol 127:115-128, 2015; Bose et al., Brain neurotrauma: molecular, neuropsychological, and rehabilitation aspects, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, 2015)). Preclinical models of TBI, essential for the efficient study of TBI neurobiology, benefit from the setting of controlled injury and optimal opportunities for biometric quantitation of injury and treatment-induced changes in the trajectories of disability. Several preclinical models are currently used, and each offer opportunities for study of different aspects of TBI primary and secondary injuries (for review see (Morales et al., Neuroscience 136:971-989, 2005; Xiong et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 14:128-142, 2013; Xiong et al., Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 14:67-84, 2009; Johnson et al., Handb Clin Neurol 127:115-128, 2015; Dixon et al., J Neurotrauma 5:91-104, 1988)). The closed-head, impact-acceleration model of TBI designed by Marmarou et al., 1994 (J Neurosurg 80:291-300, 1994), when used to produce mild to moderate TBI, produces diffuse axonal injuries without significant additional focal injuries of the

  9. The capillary bridge between two spheres: New closed-form equations in a two century old problem.

    PubMed

    Lian, Guoping; Seville, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We discuss progress in obtaining explicit equations for the capillary force between nano and micron sized solid spheres. Early approaches to this two-century old problem adopted approximations to the geometry. With the toroidal approximation, the meridian profile is approximated by an arc, and the approach leads to the capillary force being dependent on the location at which the force is evaluated. The Derjaguin approximation further assumes that the meridian radius is orders of magnitude smaller than the azimuth radius. An explicit expression for the capillary force is obtained, but the equation is limited to sufficiently small liquid volumes and separation distances. Significant progress has been made in recent years in using numerical solutions to derive analytical expressions for capillary bridges. Early numerical investigation established that the maximum separation for stable capillary bridges before rupture scales to the cubic root of the liquid volume. We report new progress in using numerical solutions to obtain more accurate and more general closed-form expressions for capillary bridges. Simple explicit algebraic equations have been observed to fit the numerical results well, leading to a closed-form solution applicable to capillary bridges between equal and unequal spheres and with zero or finite solid-liquid contact angles. The newly derived closed-form equation is more accurate and reduces to the Derjaguin equation when the liquid volume (or half-filling angle) and separation distance are both sufficiently small.

  10. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  11. Modeling Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Marine Open- and Closed-Cell Stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Feingold, G.

    2008-12-01

    Satellite imagery shows the recurrence of striking images of cellular structures exhibiting both closed- and open-cell patterns in marine stratocumulus fields. The open-cell region has much lower cloud albedo than closed cells. Aside from that, previous observational and modeling studies have suggested that open- and closed-cell regions are different in many other aspects, such as concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), cloud droplet number and size, precipitation efficiency, and cloud dynamics. In this work, aerosol- cloud interactions and dynamical feedbacks are investigated within a large eddy simulation (LES) modeling framework to study the activation, cloud scavenging, mixing and transport of CCN in the open- and closed- cell boundary layer and near the open/closed-cell boundaries. The model domain size of 120 km by 60 km is large enough to represent mesoscale organizations that are associated with different cellular structures and that are promoted by CCN perturbation from ship emissions. Simulation results show that depletion of CCN by collision and coalescence in clouds is critical to the formation of precipitation and open-cell structure in a stratocumulus deck. Once the open cellular structure has formed in the clean environment, a substantial increase of CCN transported from a neighboring polluted environment or from ship emissions do not close it during the 12-hour simulation due to the lack of dynamical and moisture support in the open-cell cloud-free region. However, the contaminated open cells are not able to self-sustain as a result of shutoff of precipitation. This points to the critical role of precipitation-triggered circulations in maintaining an open-cellular structure.

  12. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 704 - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and secretary of the board of the credit union. Model Form G Terms and Conditions of Perpetual... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model Forms A Appendix A to Part 704 Banks and... Pt. 704, App. A Appendix A to Part 704—Model Forms This appendix contains sample forms intended...

  14. Differential transcriptional regulation of orthologous dps genes from two closely related heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Sandh, Gustaf; Nenninger, Anja; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Stensjö, Karin

    2015-03-01

    In cyanobacteria, DNA-binding proteins from starved cells (Dps) play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative and nutritional stresses. In this study, we have characterized the cell-type specificity and the promoter regions of two orthologous dps genes, Npun_R5799 in Nostoc punctiforme and alr3808 in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. A transcriptional start site (TSS), identical in location to the previously identified proximal TSS of alr3808, was identified for Npun_R5799 under both combined nitrogen supplemented and N2-fixing growth conditions. However, only alr3808 was also transcribed from a second distal TSS. Sequence homologies suggest that the promoter region containing the distal TSS is not conserved upstream of orthologous genes among heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. The analysis of promoter GFP-reporter strains showed a different role in governing cell-type specificity between the proximal and distal promoter of alr3808. We here confirmed the heterocyst specificity of the distal promoter of alr3808 and described a very early induction of its expression during proheterocyst differentiation. In contrast, the complete promoters of both genes were active in all cells. Even though Npun_R5799 and alr3808 are orthologs, the regulation of their respective expression differs, indicating distinctions in the function of these cyanobacterial Dps proteins depending on the strain and cell type.

  15. Differential transcriptional regulation of orthologous dps genes from two closely related heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Sandh, Gustaf; Nenninger, Anja; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Stensjö, Karin

    2015-03-01

    In cyanobacteria, DNA-binding proteins from starved cells (Dps) play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative and nutritional stresses. In this study, we have characterized the cell-type specificity and the promoter regions of two orthologous dps genes, Npun_R5799 in Nostoc punctiforme and alr3808 in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. A transcriptional start site (TSS), identical in location to the previously identified proximal TSS of alr3808, was identified for Npun_R5799 under both combined nitrogen supplemented and N2-fixing growth conditions. However, only alr3808 was also transcribed from a second distal TSS. Sequence homologies suggest that the promoter region containing the distal TSS is not conserved upstream of orthologous genes among heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. The analysis of promoter GFP-reporter strains showed a different role in governing cell-type specificity between the proximal and distal promoter of alr3808. We here confirmed the heterocyst specificity of the distal promoter of alr3808 and described a very early induction of its expression during proheterocyst differentiation. In contrast, the complete promoters of both genes were active in all cells. Even though Npun_R5799 and alr3808 are orthologs, the regulation of their respective expression differs, indicating distinctions in the function of these cyanobacterial Dps proteins depending on the strain and cell type. PMID:25663155

  16. IMC-PID design based on model matching approach and closed-loop shaping.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qi B; Liu, Q

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by the limitations of the conventional internal model control (IMC), this communication addresses the design of IMC-based PID in terms of the robust performance of the control system. The IMC controller form is obtained by solving an H-infinity problem based on the model matching approach, and the parameters are determined by closed-loop shaping. The shaping of the closed-loop transfer function is considered both for the set-point tracking and for the load disturbance rejection. The design procedure is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem which is solved by a specific optimization algorithm. A nice feature of this design method is that it permits a clear tradeoff between robustness and performance. Simulation examples show that the proposed method is effective and has a wide applicability.

  17. A novel form of {open_quotes}Tyrosinase-positive{close_quotes} oculocutaneous albinism

    SciTech Connect

    Fukai, K.; Lee, S.T.; Bundey, S.; Spritz, R.A. |

    1994-09-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. We have shown that typical ty-pos OCA (OCA2) results from mutations of the P gene in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. We have also shown that some patients diagnosed with ty-pos OCA actually have mild forms of type I OCA (OCAI), resulting from mutations at the tyrosinase (TYR) gene at 11q14-q21. However, in about one-third of patients with ty-pos OCA we have failed to identify abnormalities of either the P or TYR genes, suggesting the possible existence of a third ty-pos OCA locus. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a large, complex, inbred Pakistani kindred. Affected individuals exhibit slight skin pigmentation with no tanning, hair that is silver at birth and darkens somewhat over time, brown irides, and reduced visual acuity with nystagmus. SSCP/heteroduplex screening and complete DNA sequence analysis of TYR gene in the proband identified no abnormalities, and analysis of a CA repeat in the TYR gene promoter showed no linkage of ty-pos OCA to this marker in this kindred. SSCP/ heteroduplex screening of the P gene also detected no abnormalities, and the (inbred) proband was heterozygous for numerous intragenic polymorphisms. These data thus exclude TYP and P. We next carried out genetic linkage analyses and homozygisty mapping using various SSLP repeats at the locations of the human homologues of the mouse brown (TYRP, 9p23), slaty (13q32), and silver (12pter-q21) genes, all of which are associated with generalized hypopigmentation in mutant animals. However, we found no evidence of linkage of any of these markers. We are currently carrying out similar analyses using markers near the putative locations of the human homologues of several other mouse hypopigmentation genes in an effort to map this novel human ty-pos OCA locus.

  18. FORMING CLOSE-IN EARTH-LIKE PLANETS VIA A COLLISION-MERGER MECHANISM IN LATE-STAGE PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Jianghui; Jin Sheng; Tinney, C. G. E-mail: qingxiaojin@gmail.com

    2011-01-20

    The large number of exoplanets found to orbit their host stars in very close orbits have significantly advanced our understanding of the planetary formation process. It is now widely accepted that such short-period planets cannot have formed in situ, but rather must have migrated to their current orbits from a formation location much farther from their host star. In the late stages of planetary formation, once the gas in the protoplanetary disk has dissipated and migration has halted, gas giants orbiting in the inner disk regions will excite planetesimals and planetary embryos, resulting in an increased rate of orbital crossings and large impacts. We present the results of dynamical simulations for planetesimal evolution in this later stage of planet formation. We find that a mechanism is revealed by which the collision-merger of planetary embryos can kick terrestrial planets directly into orbits extremely close to their parent stars.

  19. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR): CLOSED AND OPEN STATE CHANNEL MODELS.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Valentina; Vergani, Paola; Tieleman, D Peter

    2015-09-18

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. CFTR controls the flow of anions through the apical membrane of epithelia. Dysfunctional CFTR causes the common lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. Transitions between open and closed states of CFTR are regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis on the cytosolic nucleotide binding domains, which are coupled with the transmembrane (TM) domains forming the pathway for anion permeation. Lack of structural data hampers a global understanding of CFTR and thus the development of "rational" approaches directly targeting defective CFTR. In this work, we explored possible conformational states of the CFTR gating cycle by means of homology modeling. As templates, we used structures of homologous ABC transporters, namely TM(287-288), ABC-B10, McjD, and Sav1866. In the light of published experimental results, structural analysis of the transmembrane cavity suggests that the TM(287-288)-based CFTR model could correspond to a commonly occupied closed state, whereas the McjD-based model could represent an open state. The models capture the important role played by Phe-337 as a filter/gating residue and provide structural information on the conformational transition from closed to open channel.

  20. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  1. The ectomycorrhizal morphotype Pinirhiza sclerotia is formed by Acephala macrosclerotiorum sp. nov., a close relative of Phialocephala fortinii.

    PubMed

    Münzenberger, Babette; Bubner, Ben; Wöllecke, Jens; Sieber, Thomas N; Bauer, Robert; Fladung, Matthias; Hüttl, Reinhard F

    2009-09-01

    Relatively few ectomycorrhizal fungal species are known to form sclerotia. Usually, sclerotia are initiated at the extraradical mycelium. In this study, we present anatomical and ultrastructural evidence for the formation of sclerotia directly in the hyphal mantle of the mycorrhizal morphotype Pinirhiza sclerotia. A dark-pigmented fungal strain was isolated from Pinirhiza sclerotia and identified by molecular tools as Acephala macrosclerotiorum sp. nov., a close relative of Phialocephala fortinii s.l. As dark septate fungi are known to be mostly endophytic, resyntheses with Pinus sylvestris and A. macrosclerotiorum as well as Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides and A. macrosclerotiorum or P. fortinii s.l. were performed under axenic conditions. No mycorrhizas were found when hybrid aspen was inoculated with A. macrosclerotiorum or P. fortinii. However, A. macrosclerotiorum formed true ectomycorrhizas in vitro with P. sylvestris. Anatomical and ultrastructural features of this ectomycorrhiza are presented. The natural and synthesized ectomycorrhizal morphotypes were identical and characterized by a thin hyphal mantle that bore sclerotia in a later ontogenetic stage. The Hartig net was well-developed and grew up to the endodermis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence at the anatomical and ultrastructural level that a close relative of P. fortinii s.l. forms true ectomycorrhizas with a coniferous host. PMID:19415343

  2. Noncommutative-geometry model for closed bosonic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Siddhartha; Holman, R.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how Witten's (1986) noncommutative geometry may be extended to describe the closed bosonic string. For closed strings, an explicit representation is provided of the integral operator needed to construct an action and of an associative product on string fields. The proper choice of the action of the integral operator and the associative product in order to give rise to a reasonable theory is explained, and the consequences of such a choice are discussed. It is shown that the ghost numbers of the operator and associative product can be chosen arbitrarily for both open and closed strings, and that this construct can be used as an action for interacting closed bosonic strings.

  3. Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid over an oscillating vertical plate.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farhad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flows of a second grade fluid near an isothermal vertical plate oscillating in its plane using the Laplace transform technique are established. Expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained and displayed graphically for different values of Prandtl number Pr, thermal Grashof number Gr, viscoelastic parameter α, phase angle ωτ and time τ. Numerical values of skin friction τ 0 and Nusselt number Nu are shown in tables. Some well-known solutions in literature are reduced as the limiting cases of the present solutions.

  4. A Murine Closed-chest Model of Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Chan; Boehm, Olaf; Meyer, Rainer; Hoeft, Andreas; Knüfermann, Pascal; Baumgarten, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Surgical trauma by thoracotomy in open-chest models of coronary ligation induces an immune response which modifies different mechanisms involved in ischemia and reperfusion. Immune response includes cytokine expression and release or secretion of endogenous ligands of innate immune receptors. Activation of innate immunity can potentially modulate infarct size. We have modified an existing murine closed-chest model using hanging weights which could be useful for studying myocardial pre- and postconditioning and the role of innate immunity in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. This model allows animals to recover from surgical trauma before onset of myocardial ischemia. Volatile anesthetics have been intensely studied and their preconditioning effect for the ischemic heart is well known. However, this protective effect precludes its use in open chest models of coronary artery ligation. Thus, another advantage could be the use of the well controllable volatile anesthetics for instrumentation in a chronic closed-chest model, since their preconditioning effect lasts up to 72 hours. Chronic heart diseases with intermittent ischemia and multiple hit models are other possible applications of this model. For the chronic closed-chest model, intubated and ventilated mice undergo a lateral blunt thoracotomy via the 4th intercostal space. Following identification of the left anterior descending a ligature is passed underneath the vessel and both suture ends are threaded through an occluder. Then, both suture ends are passed through the chest wall, knotted to form a loop and left in the subcutaneous tissue. After chest closure and recovery for 5 days, mice are anesthetized again, chest skin is reopened and hanging weights are hooked up to the loop under ECG control. At the end of the ischemia/reperfusion protocol, hearts can be stained with TTC for infarct size assessment or undergo perfusion fixation to allow morphometric studies in addition to histology and

  5. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a particular type of consumer...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a particular type of consumer...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This Appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a particular type of consumer...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model credit application forms, each designated for use in a...

  11. 12 CFR 573.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 573.2 Section 573.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 573.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the...

  12. 12 CFR 40.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 40.2 Section 40.2 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 40.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the...

  13. 17 CFR Appendix to Subpart B of... - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing Pt. 248, Subpt. B, App. Appendix to Subpart B of Part 248—Model Forms a. Although you and your affiliates are not required to use the model forms in this Appendix, use of a model form (if applicable to each person that uses it)...

  14. 17 CFR Appendix to Subpart B of... - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS S-P, S-AM, AND S-ID Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing Pt. 248, Subpt. B, App. Appendix to Subpart B of Part 248—Model Forms a. Although you and your affiliates are not required to use the model forms in this appendix, use of a model form (if applicable to each person that uses...

  15. 17 CFR Appendix to Subpart B of... - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing Pt. 248, Subpt. B, App. Appendix to Subpart B of Part 248—Model Forms a. Although you and your affiliates are not required to use the model forms in this Appendix, use of a model form (if applicable to each person that uses it)...

  16. Determination of Interstellar He Parameters Using Five Years of Data from the IBEX: Beyond Closed Form Approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Möbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Rahmanifard, F.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sokół, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Frisch, P.

    2015-10-01

    makes no assumptions or expansions with respect to the spin-axis pointing or frame of reference. Thus, we are able to move beyond closed-form approximations and utilize observations of interstellar He during the complete five year period from 2009 to 2013 when the primary component of interstellar He is most prominent. Chi-square minimization of simulations compared to observations results in a He ISN flow longitude of 75.°6 ± 1.°4, latitude of -5.°12 ± 0.°27, speed of 25.4 ± 1.1 km s-1, and temperature of 8000 ± 1300 K, where the uncertainties are related and apply along the IBEX parameter tube. This paper also provides documentation for a new release of ISN data and associated model runs.

  17. MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter Used for Closed-Form Static Analysis With Inertia Relief and Displacement-Dependent Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Solving for the displacements of free-free coupled systems acted upon by static loads is a common task in the aerospace industry. Often, these problems are solved by static analysis with inertia relief. This technique allows for a free-free static analysis by balancing the applied loads with the inertia loads generated by the applied loads. For some engineering applications, the displacements of the free-free coupled system induce additional static loads. Hence, the applied loads are equal to the original loads plus the displacement-dependent loads. A launch vehicle being acted upon by an aerodynamic loading can have such applied loads. The final displacements of such systems are commonly determined with iterative solution techniques. Unfortunately, these techniques can be time consuming and labor intensive. Because the coupled system equations for free-free systems with displacement-dependent loads can be written in closed form, it is advantageous to solve for the displacements in this manner. Implementing closed-form equations in static analysis with inertia relief is analogous to implementing transfer functions in dynamic analysis. An MSC/NASTRAN (MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation/NASA Structural Analysis) DMAP (Direct Matrix Abstraction Program) Alter was used to include displacement-dependent loads in static analysis with inertia relief. It efficiently solved a common aerospace problem that typically has been solved with an iterative technique.

  18. Closed-form Static Analysis with Inertia Relief and Displacement-Dependent Loads Using a MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Widrick, Timothy W.; Ludwiczak, Damian R.

    1995-01-01

    Solving for the displacements of free-free coupled systems acted upon by static loads is commonly performed throughout the aerospace industry. Many times, these problems are solved using static analysis with inertia relief. This solution technique allows for a free-free static analysis by balancing the applied loads with inertia loads generated by the applied loads. For some engineering applications, the displacements of the free-free coupled system induce additional static loads. Hence, the applied loads are equal to the original loads plus displacement-dependent loads. Solving for the final displacements of such systems is commonly performed using iterative solution techniques. Unfortunately, these techniques can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. Since the coupled system equations for free-free systems with displacement-dependent loads can be written in closed-form, it is advantageous to solve for the displacements in this manner. Implementing closed-form equations in static analysis with inertia relief is analogous to implementing transfer functions in dynamic analysis. Using a MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter, displacement-dependent loads have been included in static analysis with inertia relief. Such an Alter has been used successfully to solve efficiently a common aerospace problem typically solved using an iterative technique.

  19. Closed-Form Solution for the Effect of Fuel Decay and Thermoelectric Degradation on Output of SiGe RTGs

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1991-08-01

    Presented at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA August 4-9, 1991. The paper derives a closed-form solution for the long-term effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the performance of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators employing silicon-germanium converter elements. RTGs of this type were used to power the recent Galileo and Ulysses space exploration missions, and are slated for use on the upcoming CRAF and Cassini missions. The method described applies not only to uniform-temperature RTGs, but also to RTGs with significant axial and circumferential variations in the couples' cold-junction temperatures and voltages (due to unsymmetrically obstructed heat rejection paths). This is important for the mutually blocking RTGs on the CRAF and Cassini spacecraft, and even more so for the reflector-blocked Solar Probe RTGs. The method for predicting RTG degradation that is dervied in this paper is based on both analytical and experimental data. It accounts for the effect of diminishing hot-junction temperatures on thermoelectric degradation rates. The method leads to an integral equation, for which the author was able to derive a closed-form solution. The solution was successfully validated by comparison with long-term test data. It enables the RTG designer to predict the power output profile throughout the mission, to ensure that it satisfies the mission's power demand profile. There are four copies in the file.

  20. Probing the closed-loop model of mRNA translation in living cells.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stuart K; Shirokikh, Nikolay E; Hallwirth, Claus V; Beilharz, Traude H; Preiss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The mRNA closed-loop, formed through interactions between the cap structure, poly(A) tail, eIF4E, eIF4G and PAB, features centrally in models of eukaryotic translation initiation, although direct support for its existence in vivo is not well established. Here, we investigated the closed-loop using a combination of mRNP isolation from rapidly cross-linked cells and high-throughput qPCR. Using the interaction between these factors and the opposing ends of mRNAs as a proxy for the closed-loop, we provide evidence that it is prevalent for eIF4E/4G-bound but unexpectedly sparse for PAB1-bound mRNAs, suggesting it primarily occurs during a distinct phase of polysome assembly. We observed mRNA-specific variation in the extent of closed-loop formation, consistent with a role for polysome topology in the control of gene expression.

  1. Probing the closed-loop model of mRNA translation in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Stuart K; Shirokikh, Nikolay E; Hallwirth, Claus V; Beilharz, Traude H; Preiss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The mRNA closed-loop, formed through interactions between the cap structure, poly(A) tail, eIF4E, eIF4G and PAB, features centrally in models of eukaryotic translation initiation, although direct support for its existence in vivo is not well established. Here, we investigated the closed-loop using a combination of mRNP isolation from rapidly cross-linked cells and high-throughput qPCR. Using the interaction between these factors and the opposing ends of mRNAs as a proxy for the closed-loop, we provide evidence that it is prevalent for eIF4E/4G-bound but unexpectedly sparse for PAB1-bound mRNAs, suggesting it primarily occurs during a distinct phase of polysome assembly. We observed mRNA-specific variation in the extent of closed-loop formation, consistent with a role for polysome topology in the control of gene expression. PMID:25826658

  2. Information-theoretic model selection and model averaging for closed-population capture-recapture studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, T.R.; Burnham, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    Specification of an appropriate model is critical to valid stalistical inference. Given the "true model" for the data is unknown, the goal of model selection is to select a plausible approximating model that balances model bias and sampling variance. Model selection based on information criteria such as AIC or its variant AICc, or criteria like CAIC, has proven useful in a variety of contexts including the analysis of open-population capture-recapture data. These criteria have not been intensively evaluated for closed-population capture-recapture models, which are integer parameter models used to estimate population size (N), and there is concern that they will not perform well. To address this concern, we evaluated AIC, AICc, and CAIC model selection for closed-population capture-recapture models by empirically assessing the quality of inference for the population size parameter N. We found that AIC-, AICc-, and CAIC-selected models had smaller relative mean squared errors than randomly selected models, but that confidence interval coverage on N was poor unless unconditional variance estimates (which incorporate model uncertainty) were used to compute confidence intervals. Overall, AIC and AICc outperformed CAIC, and are preferred to CAIC for selection among the closed-population capture-recapture models we investigated. A model averaging approach to estimation, using AIC. AICc, or CAIC to estimate weights, was also investigated and proved superior to estimation using AIC-, AICc-, or CAIC-selected models. Our results suggested that, for model averaging, AIC or AICc. should be favored over CAIC for estimating weights.

  3. Micromechanical Modeling of Metal Forming Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van, Tung Phan; Jöchen, Katja; Böhlke, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    In this work, a ferritic stainless steel (DC04) is investigated in the following three steps. First, we use micropillar compression test data for the identification of a large strain single crystal plasticity model. In the second step the model is verified based on Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) measurements in a small specimen subjected to a large strain uniaxial tensile test. The two-dimensional EBSD data have been discretized by finite elements and subjected to homogeneous displacement boundary conditions for the second step. Finally, we apply a two-scale Taylor type model at the integration points of the finite elements to simulate the deep drawing process based on initial texture data. The texture data required for the specification of the two-scale model is determined based on the aforementioned EBSD data and by using a texture component method simultaneously to improve the computation time. The finite element simulations were performed with differently textured sheet metals and compared with experiment.

  4. Deposit model for closed-basin potash-bearing brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2011-01-01

    Closed-basin potash-bearing brines are one of the types of potash deposits that are a source of potash production within the United States, as well as other countries. Though these deposits are of highly variable size, they are important sources of potash on a regional basis. In addition, these deposits have a high potential of co- and by-product production of one or more commodities such as lithium, boron, magnesium, and others.

  5. On Fences, Forms and Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lege, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    The white picket fence is an integral component of the iconic American townscape. But, for mathematics students, it can be a mathematical challenge. Picket fences in a variety of styles serve as excellent sources to model constant, step, absolute value, and sinusoidal functions. "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (NCTM 2000)…

  6. 12 CFR 573.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 573.2 Section... FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 573.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... compliance with the notice content requirements of §§ 573.6 and 573.7 of this part, although use of the...

  7. 12 CFR 40.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 40.2 Section... FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 40.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... compliance with the notice content requirements of §§ 40.6 and 40.7 of this part, although use of the...

  8. 12 CFR 573.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Model privacy form and examples. 573.2 Section... FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 573.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... compliance with the notice content requirements of §§ 573.6 and 573.7 of this part, although use of the...

  9. 12 CFR 573.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Model privacy form and examples. 573.2 Section... FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 573.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... compliance with the notice content requirements of §§ 573.6 and 573.7 of this part, although use of the...

  10. 12 CFR 573.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 573.2 Section... FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 573.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... compliance with the notice content requirements of §§ 573.6 and 573.7 of this part, although use of the...

  11. 12 CFR 40.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 40.2 Section... FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 40.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... compliance with the notice content requirements of §§ 40.6 and 40.7 of this part, although use of the...

  12. 12 CFR 40.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 40.2 Section... FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 40.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... compliance with the notice content requirements of §§ 40.6 and 40.7 of this part, although use of the...

  13. 12 CFR 40.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 40.2 Section... FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 40.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... compliance with the notice content requirements of §§ 40.6 and 40.7 of this part, although use of the...

  14. Axially chiral macrocyclic E-alkene bearing bisazole component formed by sequential C-H homocoupling and ring-closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Shotaro; Somete, Takashi; Sugie, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Atsunori

    2012-05-18

    Clipping by ring-closing metathesis freezes rotation of a C-C bond to result in forming axial chirality. Treatment of bisbenzimidazole bearing an N-(3-butenyl) substituent with a Grubbs' catalyst undergoes ring-closing metathesis, in which the stereochemistry of the thus formed olefin was exclusively E-form. Analysis by HPLC with a chiral stationary column confirmed clear baseline separation of each enantiomer.

  15. Structural model of the open-closed-inactivated cycle of prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Bagnéris, Claire; Naylor, Claire E; McCusker, Emily C; Wallace, B A

    2015-01-01

    In excitable cells, the initiation of the action potential results from the opening of voltage-gated sodium channels. These channels undergo a series of conformational changes between open, closed, and inactivated states. Many models have been proposed for the structural transitions that result in these different functional states. Here, we compare the crystal structures of prokaryotic sodium channels captured in the different conformational forms and use them as the basis for examining molecular models for the activation, slow inactivation, and recovery processes. We compare structural similarities and differences in the pore domains, specifically in the transmembrane helices, the constrictions within the pore cavity, the activation gate at the cytoplasmic end of the last transmembrane helix, the C-terminal domain, and the selectivity filter. We discuss the observed differences in the context of previous models for opening, closing, and inactivation, and present a new structure-based model for the functional transitions. Our proposed prokaryotic channel activation mechanism is then compared with the activation transition in eukaryotic sodium channels.

  16. Theoretical model for forming limit diagram predictions without initial inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gologanu, Mihai; Comsa, Dan Sorin; Banabic, Dorel

    2013-05-01

    We report on our attempts to build a theoretical model for determining forming limit diagrams (FLD) based on limit analysis that, contrary to the well-known Marciniak and Kuczynski (M-K) model, does not assume the initial existence of a region with material or geometrical inhomogeneity. We first give a new interpretation based on limit analysis for the onset of necking in the M-K model. Considering the initial thickness defect along a narrow band as postulated by the M-K model, we show that incipient necking is a transition in the plastic mechanism from one of plastic flow in both the sheet and the band to another one where the sheet becomes rigid and all plastic deformation is localized in the band. We then draw on some analogies between the onset of necking in a sheet and the onset of coalescence in a porous bulk body. In fact, the main advance in coalescence modeling has been based on a similar limit analysis with an important new ingredient: the evolution of the spatial distribution of voids, due to the plastic deformation, creating weaker regions with higher porosity surrounded by sound regions with no voids. The onset of coalescence is precisely the transition from a mechanism of plastic deformation in both regions to another one, where the sound regions are rigid. We apply this new ingredient to a necking model based on limit analysis, for the first quadrant of the FLD and a porous sheet. We use Gurson's model with some recent extensions to model the porous material. We follow both the evolution of a homogeneous sheet and the evolution of the distribution of voids. At each moment we test for a potential change of plastic mechanism, by comparing the stresses in the uniform region to those in a virtual band with a larger porosity. The main difference with the coalescence of voids in a bulk solid is that the plastic mechanism for a sheet admits a supplementary degree of freedom, namely the change in the thickness of the virtual band. For strain ratios close to

  17. Solid state forms of 4-aminoquinaldine - From void structures with and without solvent inclusion to close packing

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Doris E.; Gelbrich, Thomas; Kahlenberg, Volker; Griesser, Ulrich J.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphs of 4-aminoquinaldine (4-AQ) have been predicted in silico and experimentally identified and characterised. The two metastable forms, AH (anhydrate) II and AH III, crystallise in the trigonal space group R3¯ and are less densely packed than the thermodynamically most stable phase AH I° (P21/c). AH II can crystallise and exist both, as a solvent inclusion compound and as an unsolvated phase. The third polymorph, AH III, is exclusively obtained by desolvation of a carbon tetrachloride solvate. Theoretical calculations correctly estimated the experimental 0K stability order, confirmed that AH II can exist without solvents, gave access to the AH III structure, and identified that there exists a subtle balance between close packing and number of hydrogen bonding interactions in the solid state of anhydrous 4-AQ. Furthermore, the prevalence of void space and solvent inclusion in R3¯ structures is discussed. PMID:26726294

  18. Method for estimating closed-form solutions of the light diffusion equation for turbid media of any boundary shape

    PubMed Central

    Alqasemi, Umar; Salehi, Hassan S.; Zhu, Quing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a method of estimating an approximate closed-form solution to the light diffusion equation for any type of geometry involving Dirichlet’s boundary condition with known source location. It is based on estimating the optimum locations of multiple imaginary point sources to cancel the fluence at the extrapolated boundary by constrained optimization using a genetic algorithm. The mathematical derivation of the problem to approach the optimum solution for the direct-current type of diffuse optical systems is described in detail. Our method is first applied to slab geometry and compared with a truncated series solution. After that, it is applied to hemispherical geometry and compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. The method provides a fast and sufficiently accurate fluence distribution for optical reconstruction. PMID:26831771

  19. A Simple Closed-form Formula for Backward-Wave Start-Oscillation Condition for Millimeter-Wave Helix TWTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, S. K.; Kumar, Lalit; Basu, B. N.

    2008-06-01

    An accurate and simple closed-form formula, for backward-wave start-oscillation condition for a millimeter-wave helix traveling-wave tube amplifier was developed, using an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. The analysis considers the effects of circuit loss and also the variation of electron beam diameter corresponding to beam filling. The formula is simple and amenable to easy computation, even using a scientific calculator, and without resorting to exhaustive numerical iterative search followed in conventional analyses and, at the same time, without sacrificing the accuracy in results. The formula was validated against published results, and excellent accuracy was observed. The analysis has been further used for inferring some physical interpretations on the effects of beam-filling factor and circuit loss on the start-oscillation condition of a typical millimeter-wave helix traveling-wave tube.

  20. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 160 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink... color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C....

  1. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 160 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink... color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C....

  2. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model Forms A Appendix A to Part 213 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) Pt. 213, App. A Appendix A to Part 213—Model Forms A-1Model Open-End or Finance Vehicle...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Forms A Appendix A to Part 213 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) Pt. 213, App. A Appendix A to Part 213—Model Forms A-1Model Open-End or Finance Vehicle...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Forms A Appendix A to Part 213 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) Pt. 213, App. A Appendix A to Part 213—Model Forms A-1Model Open-End or Finance Vehicle...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Forms A Appendix A to Part 213 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) Pt. 213, App. A Appendix A to Part 213—Model Forms A-1Model Open-End or Finance Vehicle...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 716 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... the model form under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 717,...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 573 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... the model form under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 571,...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 573 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... the model form under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 571,...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 716 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... the model form under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 717,...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 573 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... the model form under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 571,...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 716 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... the model form under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 717,...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 716 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... the model form under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 717,...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 573 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... the model form under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 571,...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 573 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... the model form under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 571,...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part 202 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model...

  16. Modeling abundances in star forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2015-08-01

    Heavy elements are produced from various types of supernovae (and AGB stars). I first show that elemental abundances of extremely metal-poor stars are consistent not with pair-instability supernovae but with faint supernovae. Then I introduce subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions. These "minor" supernovae are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as dwarf spheroidal galaxies. With "major" chemical enrichment sources, I show cosmic chemical enrichment in our cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. The feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is also included with a new model for the formation of black holes motivated by the first star formation. AGN-driven outflows transport metals into the circumgalactic medium and the intergalactic medium. Nonetheless, the metallicity changes of galaxies are negligible, and the mass-metallicity relations, which are mainly generated by supernova feedback at the first star burst, are preserved. Within galaxies, metallicity radial gradients are produced, which can be affected by AGN feedback but are more sensitive to the merging histories. We find a weak correlation between the gradients and galaxy mass, which is consistent with available observations. These simulations also provide predictions of supernova/hypernova/GRB rates and the properties of their host galaxies.

  17. Individualized Cognitive Modeling for Close-Loop Task Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Xu, Roger; Wang, Wei; Li, Jiang; Schnell, Tom; Keller, Mike

    2010-01-01

    An accurate real-time operator functional state assessment makes it possible to perform task management, minimize risks, and improve mission performance. In this paper, we discuss the development of an individualized operator functional state assessment model that identifies states likely leading to operational errors. To address large individual variations, we use two different approaches to build a model for each individual using its data as well as data from subjects with similar responses. If a subject's response is similar to that of the individual of interest in a specific functional state, all the training data from this subject will be used to build the individual model. The individualization methods have been successfully verified and validated with a driving test data set provided by University of Iowa. With the individualized models, the mean squared error can be significantly decreased (by around 20%).

  18. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  19. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, David H; Ting, K C

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  20. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleisher, David H.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  1. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, David H; Ting, K C

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal. PMID:12882224

  2. 78 FR 48851 - Wireline Competition Bureau Announces Closing of the Bureau's Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Wireline Competition Bureau Announces Closing of the Bureau's Cost Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed Rule; closing of virtual workshop... America Cost Model (CAM) virtual workshop. Parties should submit any additional input regarding the...

  3. Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Maxwell M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary function of any life support system is to keep the crew alive by providing breathable air, potable water, edible food, and for disposal of waste. In a well-balanced or regenerative life support system, the various components are each using what is available and producing what is needed by other components so that there will always be enough chemicals in the form in which they are needed. Humans are not just users, but also one of the participating parts of the system. If a system could continuously recycle the original chemicals, this would make it virtually a Closed-loop Habitation (CH). Some difficulties in trying to create a miniature version of a CH are briefly discussed. In a miniature CH, a minimal structure must be provided and the difference must be made up by artificial parts such as physicochemical systems that perform the conversions that the Earth can achieve naturally. To study the interactions of these parts, a computer model was designed that simulates a miniature CH with emphasis on the air revitalization part. It is called the Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model (CHARM).

  4. Pulsar average wave forms and hollow-cone beam models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backer, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    Pulsar wave forms have been analyzed from observations conducted over a wide radio-frequency range to assess the wave-form morphologies and to measure wave-form widths. The results of the analysis compare favorably with the predictions of a model with a hollow-cone beam of fixed dimensions and with random orientation of both the observer and the cone axis with respect to the pulsar spin axis. A class of three-component wave forms is included in the model by adding a central pencil beam to the hollow-cone hypothesis. The consequences of a number of discrepancies between observations and quantitative predictions of the model are discussed.

  5. Metallicities of Low Mass Inefficient Star Forming Dwarfs in S4G: Testing the Closed Box Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Myles; Stirewalt, Sabrina; Sheth, Kartik; de Swardt, Bonita; Walter, Donald

    2015-03-01

    Low mass dwarf galaxies are the most numerous extragalactic population in the Local Universe. Many gas-rich dwarfs appear to be forming stars less efficiently than normal, massive disk galaxies and are therefore important laboratories for the study of star formation. Here we present new observations using the Palomar Double Spectrograph for 19 dwarf galaxies from the S4G Survey with the lowest stellar to HI mass ratios. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate a wide range of metallicities which vary by as much as 0.5 dex in a single galaxy in different star forming regions. Such a dispersion in metallicities favors an open box model and the results suggest a varied star formation history, possibly induced via minor mergers and accretion. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO), National Science Foundation(NSF), and the National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) Cville Cohort. Additional support was provided by NSF Awards AST-0750814 and AST-1358913 to South Carolina State University.

  6. 31 CFR 50.17 - Use of model forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of model forms. 50.17 Section 50.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.17 Use of model forms. (a) Policies in force...

  7. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section 332.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a)...

  8. 31 CFR 50.17 - Use of model forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of model forms. 50.17 Section 50.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.17 Use of model forms. (a) Policies in force...

  9. 31 CFR 50.17 - Use of model forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of model forms. 50.17 Section 50.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.17 Use of model forms. (a) Policies in force...

  10. 31 CFR 50.17 - Use of model forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of model forms. 50.17 Section 50.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.17 Use of model forms. (a) Policies in force...

  11. 31 CFR 50.17 - Use of model forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of model forms. 50.17 Section 50.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.17 Use of model forms. (a) Policies in force...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The model form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other... in color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C... under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 41, subpart C, with respect...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... The model form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other... in color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C... under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 41, subpart C, with respect...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The model form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other... in color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C... under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 41, subpart C, with respect...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The model form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other... in color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C... under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 41, subpart C, with respect...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... The model form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other... in color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C... under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 12 CFR part 41, subpart C, with respect...

  17. Negative binomial models for abundance estimation of multiple closed populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyce, Mark S.; MacKenzie, Darry I.; Manly, Bryan F.J.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Moody, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Counts of uniquely identified individuals in a population offer opportunities to estimate abundance. However, for various reasons such counts may be burdened by heterogeneity in the probability of being detected. Theoretical arguments and empirical evidence demonstrate that the negative binomial distribution (NBD) is a useful characterization for counts from biological populations with heterogeneity. We propose a method that focuses on estimating multiple populations by simultaneously using a suite of models derived from the NBD. We used this approach to estimate the number of female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) with cubs-of-the-year in the Yellowstone ecosystem, for each year, 1986-1998. Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC) indicated that a negative binomial model with a constant level of heterogeneity across all years was best for characterizing the sighting frequencies of female grizzly bears. A lack-of-fit test indicated the model adequately described the collected data. Bootstrap techniques were used to estimate standard errors and 95% confidence intervals. We provide a Monte Carlo technique, which confirms that the Yellowstone ecosystem grizzly bear population increased during the period 1986-1998.

  18. Closed-form analytical solutions for assessing the consequences of sea-level rise on unconfined sloping island aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnaux, R.

    2016-04-01

    Closed-form analytical solutions for assessing the consequences of sea-level rise on fresh groundwater oceanic island lenses are provided for the cases of both strip and circular islands. Solutions are proposed for directly calculating the change in the thickness of the lens, the changes in volume and the changes in travel time of fresh groundwater within island aquifers. The solutions apply for homogenous aquifers recharged by surface infiltration and discharged by a down-gradient, fixed-head boundary. They also take into account the inland shift of the ocean due to land surface inundation, this shift being determined by the coastal slope of inland aquifers. The solutions are given for two simple island geometries: circular islands and strip islands. Base case examples are presented to illustrate, on one hand, the amplitude of the change of the fresh groundwater lens thickness and the volume depletion of the lens in oceanic island with sea-level rise, and on the other hand, the shortening of time required for groundwater to discharge into the ocean. These consequences can now be quantified and may help decision-makers to anticipate the effects of sea-level rise on fresh groundwater availability in oceanic island aquifers.

  19. Closed-form stochastic solutions for non-equilibrium dynamics and inheritance of cellular components over many cell divisions

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Iain G.; Jones, Nick S.

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics govern many important processes in cellular biology, and an underlying theoretical approach describing these dynamics is desirable to address a wealth of questions in biology and medicine. Mathematical tools exist for treating several important examples of these stochastic processes, most notably gene expression and random partitioning at single-cell divisions or after a steady state has been reached. Comparatively little work exists exploring different and specific ways that repeated cell divisions can lead to stochastic inheritance of unequilibrated cellular populations. Here we introduce a mathematical formalism to describe cellular agents that are subject to random creation, replication and/or degradation, and are inherited according to a range of random dynamics at cell divisions. We obtain closed-form generating functions describing systems at any time after any number of cell divisions for binomial partitioning and divisions provoking a deterministic or random, subtractive or additive change in copy number, and show that these solutions agree exactly with stochastic simulation. We apply this general formalism to several example problems involving the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA during development and organismal lifetimes. PMID:26339194

  20. A closed-form criterion for dislocation emission in nano-porous materials under arbitrary thermomechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, J. W.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2016-01-01

    Our traditional view of void nucleation is associated with interface debonding at second-phase particles. However, under extreme dynamic loading conditions second-phase particles may not necessarily be the dominant source of void nucleation sites. A few key experimental observations of laser spall surfaces support this assertion. Here, we describe an alternative mechanism to the traditional view, namely shock-induced vacancy generation and clustering followed by nanovoid growth mediated by dislocation emission. This mechanism only becomes active at very large stresses. It is therefore desirable to establish a closed-form criterion for the macroscopic stress required to activate dislocation emission in porous materials. Following an approach similar to Lubarda and co-workers, we derive the desired criterion by making use of stability arguments applied to the analytic solutions for the elastic interactions of dislocations and voids. Our analysis significantly extends that of Lubarda and co-workers by accounting for a more general stress state, finite porosity, surface tension, as well as temperature and pressure dependence. The resulting simple stress-based criterion is validated against a number of molecular dynamics simulations with favorable agreement.

  1. The Simultaneous Modeling Technique: closing gaps in posteriors.

    PubMed

    Scolavino, Salvatore; Paolone, Gaetano; Orsini, Giovanna; Devoto, Walter; Putignano, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Direct posterior restorations represent a widespread procedure in daily practice. Occlusal layering is often considered a complex task, generally not predictable and often requiring several occlusal adjustments. Moreover, direct posterior restorations are time consuming, as many small increments must be applied and cured individually to control shrinkage stress. Several authors have proposed different material layering techniques for posteriors. The authors of this article propose a simplified approach, which primarily aims to help the clinician perform quick, simple, predictable, and natural-looking occlusal modeling, reducing the need for occlusal adjustments.

  2. The Simultaneous Modeling Technique: closing gaps in posteriors.

    PubMed

    Scolavino, Salvatore; Paolone, Gaetano; Orsini, Giovanna; Devoto, Walter; Putignano, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Direct posterior restorations represent a widespread procedure in daily practice. Occlusal layering is often considered a complex task, generally not predictable and often requiring several occlusal adjustments. Moreover, direct posterior restorations are time consuming, as many small increments must be applied and cured individually to control shrinkage stress. Several authors have proposed different material layering techniques for posteriors. The authors of this article propose a simplified approach, which primarily aims to help the clinician perform quick, simple, predictable, and natural-looking occlusal modeling, reducing the need for occlusal adjustments. PMID:26835524

  3. Closed-Loop Brain Model of Neocortical Information-Based Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Kozloski, James

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe an “information-based exchange” model of brain function that ascribes to neocortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus distinct network functions. The model allows us to analyze whole brain system set point measures, such as the rate and heterogeneity of transitions in striatum and neocortex, in the context of neuromodulation and other perturbations. Our closed-loop model is grounded in neuroanatomical observations, proposing a novel “Grand Loop” through neocortex, and invokes different forms of plasticity at specific tissue interfaces and their principle cell synapses to achieve these transitions. By implementing a system for maximum information-based exchange of action potentials between modeled neocortical areas, we observe changes to these measures in simulation. We hypothesize that similar dynamic set points and modulations exist in the brain's resting state activity, and that different modifications to information-based exchange may shift the risk profile of different component tissues, resulting in different neurodegenerative diseases. This model is targeted for further development using IBM's Neural Tissue Simulator, which allows scalable elaboration of networks, tissues, and their neural and synaptic components toward ever greater complexity and biological realism. PMID:26834573

  4. Experimental models of small closed systems with spatially separated unicellular organism-based components.

    PubMed

    Pis'man, T I; Pechurkin, N S; Sarangova, A B; Somova, L A

    1999-01-01

    Experimental models of small biotic cycles of different degree of closure and complexity with spatially separated components based on unicellular organisms have been studied. Gas closure of components looped into "autotroph-heterotroph" (chlorella-yeast) system doubled the lifetime of the system (as opposed to individually cultivated components). Higher complexity of the heterotroph component consisting of two yeast species also increased the lifetime of the system through more complete utilization of the substrate by competing yeast species. The lifetime of gas and substrate closed "producer-consumer" trophic chain (chlorella-paramecia) increased to 7 months. In 60 days the components' numbers reached their steady state followed by more than 40 cycles of the medium. The role of a predator organism (protozoan) in nitrogen cycling was demonstrated; reproduction of protozoa correlated directly with their emission of nitrogen in the ammonia form that is most optimum for growth of chlorella. PMID:11542240

  5. A mathematical model on the closing and opening mechanism for venus flytrap.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruoting; Lenaghan, Scott C; Zhang, Mingjun; Xia, Lijin

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigates the opening and closing mechanism for the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). A mathematical model has been proposed to explain how the flytrap transitions between open, semi-closed, and closed states. The model accounts for the charge accumulation of action potentials, which generated by mechanical stimulation of the sensitive trigger hairs on the lobes of the flytrap. Though many studies have been reported for the Venus flytrap opening and closing mechanism, this paper attempts to explain the mechanism from nonlinear dynamics and control perspective.

  6. Modeling of closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography: Analytical solutions and model analysis.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E

    2015-08-01

    In closed-loop recycling (CLR) chromatography, the effluent from the outlet of a column is directly returned into the column through the sample feed line and continuously recycled until the required separation is reached. To select optimal operating conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture, an appropriate mathematical description of the process is required. This work is concerned with the analysis of models for the CLR separations. Due to the effect of counteracting mechanisms on separation of solutes, analytical solutions of the models could be helpful to understand and optimize chromatographic processes. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the CLR counter-current (liquid-liquid) chromatography (CCC). The equilibrium dispersion and cell models were used to describe the transport and separation of solutes inside a CLR CCC column. The Laplace transformation is applied to solve the model equations. Several possible CLR chromatography methods for the binary and complex mixture separations are simulated.

  7. The Dirac form factor predicts the Pauli form factor in the Endpoint Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagaonkar, Sumeet K.; Jain, Pankaj; Ralston, John P.

    2016-07-01

    We compute the momentum-transfer dependence of the proton Pauli form factor F2 in the Endpoint overlap Model. We find the model correctly reproduces the scaling of the ratio of F2 with the Dirac form factor F1 observed at the Jefferson Laboratory. The calculation uses the leading-power, leading-twist Dirac structure of the quark light-cone wave function and the same endpoint dependence previously determined from the Dirac form factor F1. There are no parameters and no adjustable functions in the Endpoint Model's prediction for the scaling behavior of F2. The model's predicted momentum dependence of the ratio F2(Q2)/F1(Q2) is quite insensitive to the endpoint wave function, which explains why the observed ratio scales like 1 / Q down to rather low momentum transfers. We also fit the magnitude of this ratio by adjusting the parameters of the wave function. The Endpoint Model appears to be the only comprehensive model consistent with all form factor information as well as reproducing fixed-angle proton-proton scattering at large momentum transfer. Any one of the processes is capable of predicting the others.

  8. Relativistic quark model for the Omega- electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ramalho, K. Tsushima, Franz Gross

    2009-08-01

    We compute the Omega- electromagnetic form factors and the decuplet baryon magnetic moments using a quark model application of the Covariant Spectator Theory. Our predictions for the Omega- electromagnetic form factors can be tested in the future by lattice QCD simulations at the physical strange quark mass.

  9. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 313 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink... color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C. Information... under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 16 CFR parts 680 and 698 with respect...

  10. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 313 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink... color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C. Information... under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 16 CFR parts 680 and 698 with respect...

  11. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 313 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink... color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C. Information... under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 16 CFR parts 680 and 698 with respect...

  12. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 313 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink... color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C. Information... under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 16 CFR parts 680 and 698 with respect...

  13. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 313 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... form must be printed on white or light color paper (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink... color. (e) Languages. The model form may be translated into languages other than English. C. Information... under this part, must comply with section 624 of the FCRA and 16 CFR parts 680 and 698 with respect...

  14. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 160 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the...

  15. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 160 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the...

  16. Submission Form for Peer-Reviewed Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    If you have information about a peer-reviewd cancer risk prediction model that you would like to be considered for inclusion on this list, submit as much information as possible through the form on this page.

  17. A Model for Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Heated Neutron Stars in Close Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Salmonson, J.D.; Wilson, J.R.

    2001-12-17

    In this paper we present a model for the short (< second) population of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this model heated neutron stars in a close binary system near their last stable orbit emit neutrinos at large luminosities ({approx} 10{sup 53} ergs/sec). A fraction of these neutrinos will annihilate to form an e{sup +}e{sup -} pair plasma wind which will, in turn, expand and recombine to photons which make the gamma-ray burst. We study neutrino annihilation and show that a substantial fraction ({approx}1/2) of energy deposited comes from inter-star neutrinos, where each member of the neutrino pair originates from each neutron star. Thus, in addition to the annihilation of neutrinos blowing off of a single star, we have a new source of baryon free energy that is deposited between the stars. To model the e{sup +}e{sup -} pair plasma wind between stars, we do three-dimensional relativistic numerical hydrodynamic calculations. Preliminary results are also presented of new, fully general relativistic calculations of gravitationally attracting stars falling from infinity with no angular momentum. These simulations exhibit a compression effect.

  18. Atmosphere Behavior in Gas-Closed Mouse-Algal Systems: An Experimental and Modelling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

    1985-01-01

    A dual approach of mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere was initiated. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is examined. A mathematical model simulating the atmospheric behavior in these systems was developed and an experimental gas closed system was constructed. These systems are described and preliminary results are presented.

  19. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1016 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... CFR part 1022, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and any subsequent...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1016 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... CFR part 1022, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and any subsequent...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1016 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual interest, so long... languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The information in the model... CFR part 1022, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and any subsequent...

  2. Development of a Prototype Model-Form Uncertainty Knowledge Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainties are generally classified as either aleatory or epistemic. Aleatory uncertainties are those attributed to random variation, either naturally or through manufacturing processes. Epistemic uncertainties are generally attributed to a lack of knowledge. One type of epistemic uncertainty is called model-form uncertainty. The term model-form means that among the choices to be made during a design process within an analysis, there are different forms of the analysis process, which each give different results for the same configuration at the same flight conditions. Examples of model-form uncertainties include the grid density, grid type, and solver type used within a computational fluid dynamics code, or the choice of the number and type of model elements within a structures analysis. The objectives of this work are to identify and quantify a representative set of model-form uncertainties and to make this information available to designers through an interactive knowledge base (KB). The KB can then be used during probabilistic design sessions, so as to enable the possible reduction of uncertainties in the design process through resource investment. An extensive literature search has been conducted to identify and quantify typical model-form uncertainties present within aerospace design. An initial attempt has been made to assemble the results of this literature search into a searchable KB, usable in real time during probabilistic design sessions. A concept of operations and the basic structure of a model-form uncertainty KB are described. Key operations within the KB are illustrated. Current limitations in the KB, and possible workarounds are explained.

  3. Simulation of root forms using cellular automata model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarno, Nanang; Prima, Eka Cahya; Afifah, Ratih Mega Ayu

    2016-02-01

    This research aims to produce a simulation program for root forms using cellular automata model. Stephen Wolfram in his book entitled "A New Kind of Science" discusses the formation rules based on the statistical analysis. In accordance with Stephen Wolfram's investigation, the research will develop a basic idea of computer program using Delphi 7 programming language. To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research developing a simulation describing root forms using the cellular automata model compared to the natural root form with the presence of stone addition as the disturbance. The result shows that (1) the simulation used four rules comparing results of the program towards the natural photographs and each rule had shown different root forms; (2) the stone disturbances prevent the root growth and the multiplication of root forms had been successfully modeled. Therefore, this research had added some stones, which have size of 120 cells placed randomly in the soil. Like in nature, stones cannot be penetrated by plant roots. The result showed that it is very likely to further develop the program of simulating root forms by 50 variations.

  4. Cracks and blisters formed close to a silicon wafer surface by He-H co-implantation at low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkashin, N.; Daghbouj, N.; Darras, F.-X.; Fnaiech, M.; Claverie, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the effect of reducing the implantation energy towards low keV values on the areal density of He and H atoms stored within populations of blister cavities formed by co-implantation of the same fluence of He then H ions into Si(001) wafers and annealing. Using a variety of experimental techniques, we have measured blister heights and depth from the surface, diameter, areal density of the cracks from which they originate as functions of implantation energy and fluence. We show that there is a direct correlation between the diameters of the cracks and the heights of the associated blisters. This correlation only depends on the implantation energy, i.e., only on the depth at which the cracks are located. Using finite element method modeling, we infer the pressure inside the blister cavities from the elastic deformations they generate, i.e., from the height of the blisters. From this, we demonstrate that the gas pressure within a blister only depends on the diameter of the associated crack and not on its depth position and derive an analytical expression relating these parameters. Relating the pressure inside a blister to the respective concentrations of gas molecules it contains, we deduce the areal densities of He and H atoms contained within the populations of blisters. After low-energy implantations (8 keV He+, 3 keV H+), all the implanted He and H atoms contribute to the formation of the blisters. There is no measurable exo-diffusion of any of the implanted gases, in contrast to what was assumed at the state of the art to explain the failure of the Smart-Cut technology when using very low energy ion implantation for the fabrication of ultra-thin layers. Alternative explanations must be investigated.

  5. Cracks and blisters formed close to a silicon wafer surface by He-H co-implantation at low energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cherkashin, N. Darras, F.-X.; Claverie, A.; Daghbouj, N.; Fnaiech, M.

    2015-12-28

    We have studied the effect of reducing the implantation energy towards low keV values on the areal density of He and H atoms stored within populations of blister cavities formed by co-implantation of the same fluence of He then H ions into Si(001) wafers and annealing. Using a variety of experimental techniques, we have measured blister heights and depth from the surface, diameter, areal density of the cracks from which they originate as functions of implantation energy and fluence. We show that there is a direct correlation between the diameters of the cracks and the heights of the associated blisters. This correlation only depends on the implantation energy, i.e., only on the depth at which the cracks are located. Using finite element method modeling, we infer the pressure inside the blister cavities from the elastic deformations they generate, i.e., from the height of the blisters. From this, we demonstrate that the gas pressure within a blister only depends on the diameter of the associated crack and not on its depth position and derive an analytical expression relating these parameters. Relating the pressure inside a blister to the respective concentrations of gas molecules it contains, we deduce the areal densities of He and H atoms contained within the populations of blisters. After low-energy implantations (8 keV He{sup +}, 3 keV H{sup +}), all the implanted He and H atoms contribute to the formation of the blisters. There is no measurable exo-diffusion of any of the implanted gases, in contrast to what was assumed at the state of the art to explain the failure of the Smart-Cut technology when using very low energy ion implantation for the fabrication of ultra-thin layers. Alternative explanations must be investigated.

  6. Open/closed topological mathbb{C}{mathbb{P}^{{1}}} sigma model revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Shmuel; Oz, Yaron; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Walcher, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider the topological sigma-model on Riemann surfaces with genus g and h holes, and target space mathbb{C}{mathbb{P}^1} \\cong {S^2} . We calculate the correlation functions of bulk and boundary operators, and study the symmetries of the model and its most general deformation. We study the open/closed topological field theory (TFT) correspondence by summing up the boundaries. We argue that this summation can be understood as a renormalization of the closed TFT. We couple the model to topological gravity and derive constitutive relations between the correlation functions of bulk and boundary operators.

  7. Atmosphere behavior in gas-closed mouse-algal systems - An experimental and modelling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.

    1984-01-01

    A NASA-sponsored research program initiated using mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas-exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere is studied. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is considered. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of a gas-closed mouse-algal system under varying environmental conditions is described. To verify and validate the model simulations, an analytical system with which algal growth and gas exchange characteristics can be manipulated and measured is designed, fabricated, and tested. The preliminary results are presented.

  8. Transversity form factors of the pion in chiral quark models

    SciTech Connect

    Broniowski, Wojciech; Dorokhov, Alexander E.; Arriola, Enrique Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    The transversity form factors of the pion, involving matrix elements of bilocal tensor currents, are evaluated in chiral quark models, both in the local Nambu-Jona-Lasinio with the Pauli-Villars regularization, as well as in nonlocal models involving momentum-dependent quark mass. After suitable QCD evolution, the agreement with recent lattice calculations is very good, in accordance to the fact that the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry governs the dynamics of the pion. Meson dominance of form factors with expected meson masses also works properly, conforming to the parton-hadron duality in the considered process.

  9. Periodic and Aperiodic Close Packing: A Spontaneous Hard-Sphere Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Waal, B. W.

    1985-01-01

    Shows how to make close-packed models from balloons and table tennis balls to illustrate structural features of clusters and organometallic cluster-compounds (which are of great interest in the study of chemical reactions). These models provide a very inexpensive and tactile illustration of the organization of matter for concrete operational…

  10. Numerical Modelling of Drawbeads for Forming of Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Y.; Christiansen, P.; Masters, I.; Bay, N.; Dashwood, R.

    2016-08-01

    The drawbeads in stamping tools are usually designed based on experience from the forming of steel. However, aluminium alloys display different forming behaviour to steels, which is not reflected in the drawbead design for tools used for stamping aluminium. This paper presents experimental results from different semi-circular drawbead geometries commonly encountered in automotive dies and compares them to those obtained from Stoughton's analytical drawbead model and the 2D plane strain drawbead model set up using LS-DYNA. The study was conducted on lubricated NG5754 strips. The results presented are in terms of drawbead restraining force versus strip displacement, as a function of drawbead depth. The FE drawbead model agrees well with the experiments whereas the analytical model overpredicted the drawbead forces.

  11. Flexible metabolism approach in modeling of multi-element closed ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltykov, Mikhail; Bartsev, Sergey

    Stoichiometric constraints usually are not considered in current ecological models. This approach allows describing ecosystems which are limited only by one biogenic element. However, it is obvious that in model of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) should be considered case with several biogenic elements. But it was shown that conventional ecological models can not describe this case correctly. The main reason of inapplicability of conventional models to multi-element case is "metabolism rigidity". It means that in terms of these models organisms should consume their nutrients in fixed proportion. Of course this is just a simplifying assumption and more realistic models should consider the probability of organisms to consume nutrients in non-fixed proportion. Such models may be named as "flexible metabolism" (FM) models in contrast with traditional "rigid metabolism" (RM) models. It was showed that FM-models allow to existing of multi-element closed ecosystems in contrast to RM-one. This work was devoted to investigation of properties of FM-models of multi-element closed ecosystems.

  12. Fisheries Closed Areas Strengthen Scallop Larval Settlement and Connectivity Among Closed Areas and Across International Open Fishing Grounds: A Model Study.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kimberley T A; Gentleman, W C; DiBacco, C; Johnson, C L

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether a measured increase in average body size of adult sea scallops inside three fishery closed areas on Georges Bank (GB), United States (US), was sufficient to increase larval supply to closed areas and open fishing areas in both US and Canadian areas of the Bank. The effects of adult scallop density-at-size and fecundity-at-size on egg production were compared among open and closed fishery areas, countries, and time periods before and after the closed areas were established. Estimated egg production was then used to define spawning conditions in a coupled biological-physical larval tracking model that simulated larval development, mortality, and dispersal. Results showed that order of magnitude increases in larval settlement after closure were facilitated by increases in size-dependant egg production inside and dispersal from Closed Areas I and II, but not Nantucket Lightship Closed Area. The distributions of both egg production and larval settlement became more uniform across the Bank, causing the relative contribution of Canadian larvae to US scallop aggregations to decrease after establishment of Closed Areas I and II. Decreases in small and medium-sized scallop density in Canada and decreases in large scallops over the US-Southern Flank after closure caused local declines in egg production but were not sufficient to negatively affect larval settlement at the regional scale. Our model suggests that the establishment of fishery closed areas on GB considerably strengthened larval supply and settlement within and among several adult scallop aggregations.

  13. Fisheries Closed Areas Strengthen Scallop Larval Settlement and Connectivity Among Closed Areas and Across International Open Fishing Grounds: A Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kimberley T. A.; Gentleman, W. C.; DiBacco, C.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether a measured increase in average body size of adult sea scallops inside three fishery closed areas on Georges Bank (GB), United States (US), was sufficient to increase larval supply to closed areas and open fishing areas in both US and Canadian areas of the Bank. The effects of adult scallop density-at-size and fecundity-at-size on egg production were compared among open and closed fishery areas, countries, and time periods before and after the closed areas were established. Estimated egg production was then used to define spawning conditions in a coupled biological-physical larval tracking model that simulated larval development, mortality, and dispersal. Results showed that order of magnitude increases in larval settlement after closure were facilitated by increases in size-dependant egg production inside and dispersal from Closed Areas I and II, but not Nantucket Lightship Closed Area. The distributions of both egg production and larval settlement became more uniform across the Bank, causing the relative contribution of Canadian larvae to US scallop aggregations to decrease after establishment of Closed Areas I and II. Decreases in small and medium-sized scallop density in Canada and decreases in large scallops over the US-Southern Flank after closure caused local declines in egg production but were not sufficient to negatively affect larval settlement at the regional scale. Our model suggests that the establishment of fishery closed areas on GB considerably strengthened larval supply and settlement within and among several adult scallop aggregations.

  14. Challenges in Modeling the Degradation of Ceramic Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2011-09-01

    We identify the state of the art, gaps in current understanding, and key research needs in the area of modeling the long-term degradation of ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste disposition. The directed purpose of this report is to define a roadmap for Waste IPSC needs to extend capabilities of waste degradation to ceramic waste forms, which overlaps with the needs of the subconsinuum scale of FMM interests. The key knowledge gaps are in the areas of (i) methodology for developing reliable interatomic potentials to model the complex atomic-level interactions in waste forms; (ii) characterization of water interactions at ceramic surfaces and interfaces; and (iii) extension of atomic-level insights to the long time and distance scales relevant to the problem of actinide and fission product immobilization.

  15. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 216 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual... translated into languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The... the FCRA and 12 CFR part 222, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 332 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual... translated into languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The... the FCRA and 12 CFR part 334, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 216 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual... translated into languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The... the FCRA and 12 CFR part 222, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 216 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual... translated into languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The... the FCRA and 12 CFR part 222, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 332 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual... translated into languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The... the FCRA and 12 CFR part 334, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 216 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual... translated into languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The... the FCRA and 12 CFR part 222, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 332 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual... translated into languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The... the FCRA and 12 CFR part 334, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 332 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual... translated into languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The... the FCRA and 12 CFR part 334, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 332 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual... translated into languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The... the FCRA and 12 CFR part 334, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 216 - Model Privacy Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (such as cream) with black or other contrasting ink color. Spot color may be used to achieve visual... translated into languages other than English. C. Information Required in the Model Privacy Form The... the FCRA and 12 CFR part 222, subpart C, with respect to the initial notice and opt-out and...

  5. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  6. Hippocampal closed-loop modeling and implications for seizure stimulation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandler, Roman A.; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Traditional hippocampal modeling has focused on the series of feedforward synapses known as the trisynaptic pathway. However, feedback connections from CA1 back to the hippocampus through the entorhinal cortex (EC) actually make the hippocampus a closed-loop system. By constructing a functional closed-loop model of the hippocampus, one may learn how both physiological and epileptic oscillations emerge and design efficient neurostimulation patterns to abate such oscillations. Approach. Point process input-output models where estimated from recorded rodent hippocampal data to describe the nonlinear dynamical transformation from CA3 → CA1, via the schaffer-collateral synapse, and CA1 → CA3 via the EC. Each Volterra-like subsystem was composed of linear dynamics (principal dynamic modes) followed by static nonlinearities. The two subsystems were then wired together to produce the full closed-loop model of the hippocampus. Main results. Closed-loop connectivity was found to be necessary for the emergence of theta resonances as seen in recorded data, thus validating the model. The model was then used to identify frequency parameters for the design of neurostimulation patterns to abate seizures. Significance. Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) is a new and promising therapy for intractable seizures. Currently, there is no efficient way to determine optimal frequency parameters for DBS, or even whether periodic or broadband stimuli are optimal. Data-based computational models have the potential to be used as a testbed for designing optimal DBS patterns for individual patients. However, in order for these models to be successful they must incorporate the complex closed-loop structure of the seizure focus. This study serves as a proof-of-concept of using such models to design efficient personalized DBS patterns for epilepsy.

  7. Pole-zero form fractional model identification in frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mansouri, R.; Djamah, T.; Djennoune, S.; Bettayeb, M.

    2009-03-05

    This paper deals with system identification in the frequency domain using non integer order models given in the pole-zero form. The usual identification techniques cannot be used in this case because of the non integer orders of differentiation which makes the problem strongly nonlinear. A general identification method based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is developed and allows to estimate the (2n+2m+1) parameters of the model. Its application to identify the ''skin effect'' of a squirrel cage induction machine modeling is then presented.

  8. Constitutive modelling of aluminium alloy sheet at warm forming temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurukuri, S.; Worswick, M. J.; Winkler, S.

    2016-08-01

    The formability of aluminium alloy sheet can be greatly improved by warm forming. However predicting constitutive behaviour under warm forming conditions is a challenge for aluminium alloys due to strong, coupled temperature- and rate-sensitivity. In this work, uniaxial tensile characterization of 0.5 mm thick fully annealed aluminium alloy brazing sheet, widely used in the fabrication of automotive heat exchanger components, is performed at various temperatures (25 to 250 °C) and strain rates (0.002 and 0.02 s-1). In order to capture the observed rate- and temperature-dependent work hardening behaviour, a phenomenological extended-Nadai model and the physically based (i) Bergstrom and (ii) Nes models are considered and compared. It is demonstrated that the Nes model is able to accurately describe the flow stress of AA3003 sheet at different temperatures, strain rates and instantaneous strain rate jumps.

  9. A unified model for subaqueous bed form dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Mohrig, David

    2005-12-01

    Bed form evolution remains dynamic even in the special case of steady, uniform flow. Data from the sandy, braided North Loup River, Nebraska, show that roughness features on the channel bottom display a statistical steady state and robust scaling that are maintained through the collective interactions of transient (short-lived) bed forms. Motivated by such field data, and laboratory observations of bed form growth, we develop a nonlinear stochastic surface evolution model for the topography of bed load dominated sandy rivers in which instantaneous sediment flux explicitly depends on local elevation and slope. This model quantitatively reproduces laboratory observations of initial growth and saturation of bed forms from a flat surface, and also generates long-term dynamical behavior characteristic of natural systems. We argue that the variability in geometry and kinematics of bed forms in steady flow, and the existence of roughness at all wavelengths up to the largest dunes, are a consequence of the nonlinear relationship between sediment flux and topography, subject to noise.

  10. Detailed modeling of cluster galaxies in free-form lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The main goal of the Frontier Fields is to characterize the population of high redshift galaxies that are gravitationally lensed and magnified by foreground massive galaxy clusters. The magnification received by lensed images has to be accurately quantified in order to derive the correct science results. The magnification is in turn computed from lens models, which are constructed from various constraints, most commonly the positions and redshifts of multiply-lensed galaxies.The locations and magnification of multiple images that appear near cluster galaxies are very sensitive to the mass distribution of those individual galaxies. In current free-form lens models, they are at best crudely approximated by arbitrary mass halos and are usually being completely neglected. Given sufficient free parameters and iterations, such models may be highly consistent but their predictive power would be rather limited. This shortcoming is particularly pronounced in light of the recent discovery of the first multiply-lensed supernova in the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ1149. The proximity of its images to cluster galaxies mandates detailed modeling on galaxy-scales, where free-form methods solely based on grid solutions simply fail.We present a hybrid free-form lens model of Abell 2744, which for the first time incorporates a detailed mass component modeled by GALFIT that accurately captures the stellar light distribution of the hundred brightest cluster galaxies. The model better reproduces the image positions than a previous version, which modeled cluster galaxies with simplistic NFW halos. Curiously, this improvement is found in all but system 2, which has two radial images appearing around the BCG. Despite its complex light profile is being captured by GALFIT, the persistent discrepancies suggest considering mass distributions that may be largely offset from the stellar light distribution.

  11. Finite element modeling of the non collinear mixing method for detection and characterization of closed cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanloeuil, P.; Meziane, A.

    2015-10-01

    The non-collinear mixing technique is applied for detection and characterization of closed cracks. The method is based on the nonlinear interaction of two shear waves generated with an oblique incidence. This interaction leads to the scattering of a longitudinal wave. A Finite Element model is used to demonstrate its application to a closed crack. Contact acoustic nonlinearity is the nonlinear effect considered here and is modeled using unilateral contact law with Coulomb's friction. Directivity patterns are computed using a two-step procedure. The Finite Element (FE) model provides the near-field solution on a circular boundary surrounding the closed crack. The solution in the far-field is then determined assuming that the material has a linear behavior. Directivity patterns will be used to analyze the direction of propagation of longitudinal wave(s) scattered from the closed crack. Numerical results show that the method is effective and promising when applied to a closed crack. Scattering of the longitudinal wave also enables us to image the crack, giving position and size indications. Finally, the method offers the possibility to distinguish classical nonlinearity from contact acoustic nonlinearity.

  12. NikD, AN UNUSUAL AMINO ACID OXIDASE ESSENTIAL FOR NIKKOMYCIN BIOSYNTHESIS: STRUCTURES OF CLOSED AND OPEN FORMS AT 1.15 AND 1.90 Å RESOLUTION

    PubMed Central

    Carrell, Christopher J.; Bruckner, Robert C.; Venci, David; Zhao, Gouhua; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman; Mathews, F. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Summary NikD is an unusual amino acid oxidizing enzyme that contains covalently bound FAD, catalyzes a 4-electron oxidation of piperideine-2-carboxylic acid to picolinate and plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of nikkomycin antibiotics. Crystal structures of closed and open forms of nikD, a two-domain enzyme, have been determined to resolutions of 1.15 and 1.9 Å, respectively. The two forms differ by an 11° rotation of the catalytic domain with respect to the FAD-binding domain. The active site is inaccessible to solvent in the closed form; an endogenous ligand, believed to be picolinate, is bound close to and parallel with the flavin ring, an orientation compatible with redox catalysis. The active site is solvent accessible in the open form but the picolinate ligand is approximately perpendicular to the flavin ring and a tryptophan is stacked above the flavin ring. NikD also contains a mobile cation binding loop. PMID:17697998

  13. Bed form dynamics in distorted lightweight scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberle, Jochen; Henning, Martin; Ettmer, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    The adequate prediction of flow and sediment transport over bed forms presents a major obstacle for the solution of sedimentation problems in alluvial channels because bed forms affect hydraulic resistance, sediment transport, and channel morphodynamics. Moreover, bed forms can affect hydraulic habitat for biota, may introduce severe restrictions to navigation, and present a major problem for engineering structures such as water intakes and groynes. The main body of knowledge on the geometry and dynamics of bed forms such as dunes originates from laboratory and field investigations focusing on bed forms in sand bed rivers. Such investigations enable insight into the physics of the transport processes, but do not allow for the long term simulation of morphodynamic development as required to assess, for example, the effects of climate change on river morphology. On the other hand, this can be achieved through studies with distorted lightweight scale models allowing for the modification of the time scale. However, our understanding of how well bed form geometry and dynamics, and hence sediment transport mechanics, are reproduced in such models is limited. Within this contribution we explore this issue using data from investigations carried out at the Federal Waterways and Research Institute in Karlsruhe, Germany in a distorted lightweight scale model of the river Oder. The model had a vertical scale of 1:40 and a horizontal scale of 1:100, the bed material consisted of polystyrene particles, and the resulting dune geometry and dynamics were measured with a high spatial and temporal resolution using photogrammetric methods. Parameters describing both the directly measured and up-scaled dune geometry were determined using the random field approach. These parameters (e.g., standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis) will be compared to prototype observations as well as to results from the literature. Similarly, parameters describing the lightweight bed form dynamics, which

  14. A Simple Multistage Closed-(Box+Reservoir) Model of Chemical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.

    2011-12-01

    Simple closed-box (CB) models of chemical evolution are extended on two respects, namely (i) simple closed-(box+reservoir) (CBR) models allowing gas outflow from the box into the reservoir (Hartwick 1976) or gas inflow into the box from the reservoir (Caimmi 2007) with rate proportional to the star formation rate, and (ii) simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir) (MCBR) models allowing different stages of evolution characterized by different inflow or outflow rates. The theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD) predicted by the model maintains close to a continuous broken straight line. An application is made where a fictitious sample is built up from two distinct samples of halo stars and taken as representative of the inner Galactic halo. The related empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD) is represented, to an acceptable extent, as a continuous broken line for two viable [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations. The slopes and the intercepts of the regression lines are determined, and then used as input parameters to MCBR models. Within the errors (mpsigma), regression line slopes correspond to a large inflow during the earlier stage of evolution and to low or moderate outflow during the subsequent stages. A possible inner halo - outer (metal-poor) bulge connection is also briefly discussed. Quantitative results cannot be considered for applications to the inner Galactic halo, unless selection effects and disk contamination are removed from halo samples, and discrepancies between different oxygen abundance determination methods are explained.

  15. On open and closed field line regions in Tsyganenko's field model and their possible associations with horse collar auroras

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Hones, E.W. Jr. ); Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A. ); Elphinstone, R.D. ); Stern, D.P. )

    1991-03-01

    Using the empirical Tsyganenko (1987) long model as a prime example of a megnetospheric field model, the authors have attempted to identify the boundary between open and closed field lines. They define as closed all field lines that are connested with the Earth at both ends and cross the equatorial plane earthward of x = {minus}70 R{sub E}, the tailward validity limit of the Tsyganenko model. They find that the form of the open/closed boundary at the Earth's surface, identified with the polar cap boundary, can exhibit the arrowhead shape, pointed toward the Sun, observed in horse collar auroras (Hones et al., 1989). The polar cap size in the Tsyganenko model increases with increasing K{sub p} values, and it becomes rounder and less pointed. The superposition of a net B{sub y} field, which is the expected consequence of an IMF B{sub y}, rotates the polar cap pattern and, for larger values, degrades the arrowhead shape, resulting in polar cap configurations consistent with known asymmetries in the aurora. The pointedness of the polar cap shape also diminishes or even completely disappears if the low-latitude magnetopause is assumed open and located considerably inside of the outermost magnetic flux surface in the Tsyganenko model. The arrowhead shape of the polar cap is found to be associated with a strong increase of B{sub z} from midnight toward the tail flanks, which is observed independently, and is possibly related to the NBZ field-aligned current system, observed during quiet times and strongly northward IMF B{sub z}. The larger B{sub z} values near the flanks of the tail cause more magnetic flux to close through these regions than through the midnight equatorial region.

  16. A dimensionally-heterogeneous closed-loop model for the cardiovascular system and its applications.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P J; Feijóo, R A

    2013-05-01

    In the present work a computational model of the entire cardiovascular system is developed using heterogeneous mathematical representations. This model integrates different levels of detail for the blood circulation. The arterial tree is described by a one dimensional model in order to simulate the wave propagation phenomena that take place at the larger arterial vessels. The inflow and outflow locations of this 1D model are coupled with lumped parameter descriptions of the remainder part of the circulatory system, closing the loop. The four cardiac valves are considered using a valve model which allows for stenoses and regurgitation phenomena. In addition, full 3D geometrical models of arterial districts are embedded in this closed-loop circuit to model the local blood flow in specific vessels. This kind of detailed closed-loop network for the cardiovascular system allows hemodynamics analyses of patient-specific arterial district, delivering naturally the appropriate boundary conditions for different cardiovascular scenarios. An example of application involving the effect of aortic insufficiency on the local hemodynamics of a cerebral aneurism is provided as a motivation to reproduce, through numerical simulation, the hemodynamic environment in patients suffering from infective endocarditis and mycotic aneurisms. The need for incorporating homeostatic control mechanisms is also discussed in view of the large sensitivity observed in the results, noting that this kind of integrative modeling allows such incorporation.

  17. Maximal breaking of symmetry at critical angles and a closed-form expression for angular deviations of the Snell law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Manoel P.; Carvalho, Silvânia A.; De Leo, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    A detailed analysis of the propagation of laser Gaussian beams at critical angles shows under which conditions it is possible to maximize the breaking of symmetry in the angular distribution and for which values of the laser wavelength and beam waist it is possible to find an analytic formula for the maximal angular deviation from the optical path predicted by the Snell law. For beam propagation through N dielectric blocks and for a maximal breaking of symmetry, a closed expression for the Goos-Hänchen shift is obtained. The multiple-peak phenomenon clearly represents additional evidence of the breaking of symmetry in the angular distribution of optical beams. Finally, the laser wavelength and beam-waist conditions to produce focal effects in the outgoing beam are also briefly discussed.

  18. Object-oriented modeling and simulation of the closed loop cardiovascular system by using SIMSCAPE.

    PubMed

    de Canete, J Fernandez; del Saz-Orozco, P; Moreno-Boza, D; Duran-Venegas, E

    2013-05-01

    The modeling of physiological systems via mathematical equations reflects the calculation procedure more than the structure of the real system modeled, with the simulation environment SIMULINK™ being one of the best suited to this strategy. Nevertheless, object-oriented modeling is spreading in current simulation environments through the use of the individual components of the model and its interconnections to define the underlying dynamic equations. In this paper we describe the use of the SIMSCAPE™ simulation environment in the object-oriented modeling of the closed loop cardiovascular system. The described approach represents a valuable tool in the teaching of physiology for graduate medical students.

  19. Towards Industrial Application of Damage Models for Sheet Metal Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, M.; Roll, K.

    2011-05-01

    Due to global warming and financial situation the demand to reduce the CO2-emission and the production costs leads to the permanent development of new materials. In the automotive industry the occupant safety is an additional condition. Bringing these arguments together the preferable approach for lightweight design of car components, especially for body-in-white, is the use of modern steels. Such steel grades, also called advanced high strength steels (AHSS), exhibit a high strength as well as a high formability. Not only their material behavior but also the damage behavior of AHSS is different compared to the performances of standard steels. Conventional methods for the damage prediction in the industry like the forming limit curve (FLC) are not reliable for AHSS. Physically based damage models are often used in crash and bulk forming simulations. The still open question is the industrial application of these models for sheet metal forming. This paper evaluates the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model and the model of Lemaitre within commercial codes with a goal of industrial application.

  20. Open and Closed World Models in Kaluza-Klein-Theory with Variables G and Λ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2014-11-01

    The field equation of higher dimensions theory, have been applied in the area of cosmology. The resulting differential equations are solved for open and closed. We derive a relation between the Einstein constant G( t) and the cosmological constant Λ( t) from the conservation law T μ ν ; ν =0. We give a specific form of Λ( t) to solve the non-linear differential equations. Some cosmological parameters are calculated and some relevant cosmological problems are discussed.

  1. Mathematical model of a closed hot air engine cycle using MATLAB Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oršanský, Pavol; Ftorek, Branislav; Durčanský, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In our work we present a model of a closed hot air engine, which we simulate in MATLAB®Simulink® environment. That gives us many opportunities of investigating the influence of extreme demanding conditions on the stability and functionality of the device. We were also able to try the conditions that would real device cannot resist as high temperature or pressure.

  2. Existence of standard models of conic fibrations over non-algebraically-closed fields

    SciTech Connect

    Avilov, A A

    2014-12-31

    We prove an analogue of Sarkisov's theorem on the existence of a standard model of a conic fibration over an algebraically closed field of characteristic different from two for three-dimensional conic fibrations over an arbitrary field of characteristic zero with an action of a finite group. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  3. Couple Infertility: From the Perspective of the Close-Relationship Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Barbara S.

    1990-01-01

    Presents Close-Relationship Model as comprehensive framework in which to examine interrelated nature of causes and effects of infertility on marital relationship. Includes these factors: physical and psychological characteristics of both partners; joint, couple characteristics; physical and social environment; and relationship itself. Discusses…

  4. Octet Baryon Electromagnetic Form Factors in a Relativistic Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gilberto Ramalho, Kazuo Tsushima

    2011-09-01

    We study the octet baryon electromagnetic properties by applying the covariant spectator quark model, and provide covariant parametrization that can be used to study baryon electromagnetic reactions. While we use the lattice QCD data in the large pion mass regime (small pion cloud effects) to determine the parameters of the model in the valence quark sector, we use the nucleon physical and octet baryon magnetic moment data to parameterize the pion cloud contributions. The valence quark contributions for the octet baryon electromagnetic form factors are estimated by extrapolating the lattice parametrization in the large pion mass regime to the physical regime. As for the pion cloud contributions, we parameterize them in a covariant, phenomenological manner, combined with SU(3) symmetry. We also discuss the impact of the pion cloud effects on the octet baryon electromagnetic form factors and their radii.

  5. A classical model for closed-loop diagrams of binary liquid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzler, J.v.; Prausnitz, J.M. |

    1994-03-01

    A classical lattice model for closed-loop temperature-composition phase diagrams has been developed. It considers the effect of specific interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, between dissimilar components. This van Laar-type model includes a Flory-Huggins term for the excess entropy of mixing. It is applied to several liquid-liquid equilibria of nonelectrolytes, where the molecules of the two components differ in size. The model is able to represent the observed data semi-quantitatively, but in most cases it is not flexible enough to predict all parts of the closed loop quantitatively. The ability of the model to represent different binary systems is discussed. Finally, attention is given to a correction term, concerning the effect of concentration fluctuations near the upper critical solution temperature.

  6. Model-Driven Safety Analysis of Closed-Loop Medical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pajic, Miroslav; Mangharam, Rahul; Sokolsky, Oleg; Arney, David; Goldman, Julian; Lee, Insup

    2013-01-01

    In modern hospitals, patients are treated using a wide array of medical devices that are increasingly interacting with each other over the network, thus offering a perfect example of a cyber-physical system. We study the safety of a medical device system for the physiologic closed-loop control of drug infusion. The main contribution of the paper is the verification approach for the safety properties of closed-loop medical device systems. We demonstrate, using a case study, that the approach can be applied to a system of clinical importance. Our method combines simulation-based analysis of a detailed model of the system that contains continuous patient dynamics with model checking of a more abstract timed automata model. We show that the relationship between the two models preserves the crucial aspect of the timing behavior that ensures the conservativeness of the safety analysis. We also describe system design that can provide open-loop safety under network failure. PMID:24177176

  7. Model-Driven Safety Analysis of Closed-Loop Medical Systems.

    PubMed

    Pajic, Miroslav; Mangharam, Rahul; Sokolsky, Oleg; Arney, David; Goldman, Julian; Lee, Insup

    2012-10-26

    In modern hospitals, patients are treated using a wide array of medical devices that are increasingly interacting with each other over the network, thus offering a perfect example of a cyber-physical system. We study the safety of a medical device system for the physiologic closed-loop control of drug infusion. The main contribution of the paper is the verification approach for the safety properties of closed-loop medical device systems. We demonstrate, using a case study, that the approach can be applied to a system of clinical importance. Our method combines simulation-based analysis of a detailed model of the system that contains continuous patient dynamics with model checking of a more abstract timed automata model. We show that the relationship between the two models preserves the crucial aspect of the timing behavior that ensures the conservativeness of the safety analysis. We also describe system design that can provide open-loop safety under network failure. PMID:24177176

  8. Suppressing epileptic activity in a neural mass model using a closed-loop proportional-integral controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsong; Niebur, Ernst; Hu, Jinyu; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-06-01

    Closed-loop control is a promising deep brain stimulation (DBS) strategy that could be used to suppress high-amplitude epileptic activity. However, there are currently no analytical approaches to determine the stimulation parameters for effective and safe treatment protocols. Proportional-integral (PI) control is the most extensively used closed-loop control scheme in the field of control engineering because of its simple implementation and perfect performance. In this study, we took Jansen’s neural mass model (NMM) as a test bed to develop a PI-type closed-loop controller for suppressing epileptic activity. A graphical stability analysis method was employed to determine the stabilizing region of the PI controller in the control parameter space, which provided a theoretical guideline for the choice of the PI control parameters. Furthermore, we established the relationship between the parameters of the PI controller and the parameters of the NMM in the form of a stabilizing region, which provided insights into the mechanisms that may suppress epileptic activity in the NMM. The simulation results demonstrated the validity and effectiveness of the proposed closed-loop PI control scheme.

  9. Suppressing epileptic activity in a neural mass model using a closed-loop proportional-integral controller

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junsong; Niebur, Ernst; Hu, Jinyu; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop control is a promising deep brain stimulation (DBS) strategy that could be used to suppress high-amplitude epileptic activity. However, there are currently no analytical approaches to determine the stimulation parameters for effective and safe treatment protocols. Proportional-integral (PI) control is the most extensively used closed-loop control scheme in the field of control engineering because of its simple implementation and perfect performance. In this study, we took Jansen’s neural mass model (NMM) as a test bed to develop a PI-type closed-loop controller for suppressing epileptic activity. A graphical stability analysis method was employed to determine the stabilizing region of the PI controller in the control parameter space, which provided a theoretical guideline for the choice of the PI control parameters. Furthermore, we established the relationship between the parameters of the PI controller and the parameters of the NMM in the form of a stabilizing region, which provided insights into the mechanisms that may suppress epileptic activity in the NMM. The simulation results demonstrated the validity and effectiveness of the proposed closed-loop PI control scheme. PMID:27273563

  10. Models of Anisotropic Creep in Integral Wing Panel Forming Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinikov, A. I.; Oleinikov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    For a sufficiently wide range of stresses the titanic and aluminummagnesium alloys, as a rule, strained differently in the process of creep under tension and compression along a fixed direction. There are suggested constitutive relations for the description of the steady-state creep of transversely isotropic materials with different tension and compression characteristics. Experimental justification is given to the proposed constitutive equations. Modeling of forming of wing panels of the aircraft are considered.

  11. Baryon octet electromagnetic form factors in a confining NJL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Serrano, Manuel E.; Bentz, Wolfgang; Cloët, Ian C.; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet are studied using a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model which utilizes the proper-time regularization scheme to simulate aspects of colour confinement. In addition, the model also incorporates corrections to the dressed quarks from vector meson correlations in the t-channel and the pion cloud. Comparison with recent chiral extrapolations of lattice QCD results shows a remarkable level of consistency. For the charge radii we find the surprising result that rEp < rEΣ+ and | rEn | < | rEΞ0 |, whereas the magnetic radii have a pattern largely consistent with a naive expectation based on the dressed quark masses.

  12. Material Characterization and Modeling for Industrial Sheet Forming Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiasson, Kjell; Sigvant, Mats

    2004-06-01

    In the present paper a project carried out at Volvo Cars Corp. and Chalmers University of Technology, with the purpose of improving material characterization and modeling for sheet forming simulation, is described. One of the primary targets has been to identify a material testing procedure, which is capable of providing effective stress-strain data at considerably larger strains than what can be achieved in a standard uniaxial tensile test. Another objective has been to advance from the common Hill '48 material model to a more flexible one, and, furthermore, to identify suitable test procedures for determining the parameters of such a model. A third objective has been to find practical examples, in which the importance of a careful material modeling can be clearly demonstrated.

  13. Low-molecular-weight adiponectin is more closely associated with disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis than other adiponectin multimeric forms.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Yang, Li; Ma, Cui-Li; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Rui; Bi, Li-qi

    2015-06-01

    Adiponectin is divided into high-molecular-weight (HMW), medium-molecular-weight (MMW), and low-molecular-weight (LMW) forms. These forms differ not only in the number of adiponectin molecules but also in their biological activity. There are conflicting findings regarding the role of adiponectin in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Moreover, few reports have described the relationships between serum adiponectin multimers levels and RA. Therefore, we examined the association of total adiponectin and its multimers with RA. Two study groups were examined: 180 recently diagnosed untreated RA patients with disease duration less than 1 year (RA group) and 160 age- and sex-matched control subjects (control group). RA-related factors, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, complete lipid profile, and adiponectin multimers were measured. The levels of total adiponectin and each multimer of adiponectin were significantly lower in the RA than in the control (P < 0.01). Serum levels of total, HMW, MMW, and LMW were positively correlated with triglycerides levels and negatively correlated with the Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28). Multivariate regression analysis showed that total, HMW, and MMW adiponectin were independently associated with serum triglycerides level. LMW adiponectin was independently correlated with serum triglycerides level and DAS28. The decreased LMW adiponectin levels may be associated with disease activity of RA.

  14. Performance and Mass Modeling Subtleties in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

    2005-01-01

    A number of potential NASA missions could benefit from closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) power conversion systems. The human and robotic mission power applications include spacecraft, surface base, and rover scenarios. Modeling of CBC subsystems allows system engineers, mission planners and project managers to make informed decisions regarding power conversion system characteristics and capabilities. To promote thorough modeling efforts, a critical review of CBC modeling techniques is presented. Analysis of critical modeling elements, component influences and cycle sensitivities is conducted. The analysis leads to quantitative results addressing projections on converter efficiency and overall power conversion system mass. Even moderate modeling errors are shown to easily over-predict converter efficiencies by 30 percent and underestimate mass estimates by 20 percent. Both static and dynamic modeling regimes are evaluated. Key considerations in determining model fidelity requirements are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are presented that directly address ongoing modeling efforts in solar and nuclear space power systems.

  15. Performance and Mass Modeling Subtleties in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    A number of potential NASA missions could benefit from closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) power conversion systems. The human and robotic mission power applications include spacecraft, surface base, and rover scenarios. Modeling of CBC subsystems allows system engineers, mission planners and project managers to make informed decisions regarding power conversion system characteristics and capabilities. To promote thorough modeling efforts, a critical review of CBC modeling techniques is presented. Analysis of critical modeling elements, component influences and cycle sensitivities is conducted. The analysis leads to quantitative results addressing projections on converter efficiency and overall power conversion system mass. Even moderate modeling errors are shown to easily over-predict converter efficiencies by 30% and underestimate mass estimates by 20%. Both static and dynamic modeling regimes are evaluated. Key considerations in determining model fidelity requirements are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are presented that directly address ongoing modeling efforts in solar and nuclear space power systems.

  16. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 1026 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cancellation of this new transaction, we must take the steps necessary to reflect the fact that your home does... 12.41 percent in effect in July 1996, the maximum amount that the interest rate can rise under this... payment of $106.03 to a maximum of $145.34 in the fourth year. To see what your payment is, divide...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... necessary to reflect the fact that your home does not secure the increase of credit. We must also return any...,000, 30-year loan with an initial interest rate of 12.41 percent in effect in July 1996, the maximum... fourth year. To see what your payment is, divide your mortgage amount by $10,000; then multiply...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 1026 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cancellation of this new transaction, we must take the steps necessary to reflect the fact that your home does... 12.41 percent in effect in July 1996, the maximum amount that the interest rate can rise under this... payment of $106.03 to a maximum of $145.34 in the fourth year. To see what your payment is, divide...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cancellation of this new transaction, we must take the steps necessary to reflect the fact that your home does... 12.41 percent in effect in July 1996, the maximum amount that the interest rate can rise under this... payment of $106.03 to a maximum of $145.34 in the fourth year. To see what your payment is, divide...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cancellation of this new transaction, we must take the steps necessary to reflect the fact that your home does... 12.41 percent in effect in July 1996, the maximum amount that the interest rate can rise under this... payment of $106.03 to a maximum of $145.34 in the fourth year. To see what your payment is, divide...

  1. Formulation and experimental evaluation of closed-form control laws for the rapid maneuvering of reactor neutronic power

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, J.A. . Nuclear Reactor Lab.)

    1989-09-01

    This report describes both the theoretical development and the experimental evaluation of a novel, robust methodology for the time-optimal adjustment of a reactor's neutronic power under conditions of closed-loop digital control. Central to the approach are the MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws' which determine the rate at which reactivity should be changed in order to cause a reactor's neutronic power to conform to a specified trajectory. Using these laws, reactor power can be safely raised by five to seven orders of magnitude in a few seconds. The MIT-SNL laws were developed to facilitate rapid increases of neutronic power on spacecraft reactors operating in an SDI environment. However, these laws are generic and have other applications including the rapid recovery of research and test reactors subsequent to an unanticipated shutdown, power increases following the achievement of criticality on commercial reactors, power adjustments on commercial reactors so as to minimize thermal stress, and automated startups. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the Sandia National Laboratories. Support was also provided by the US Department of Energy's Division of University and Industry Programs. The work described in this report is significant in that a novel solution to the problem of time-optimal control of neutronic power was identified, in that a rigorous description of a reactor's dynamics was derived in that the rate of change of reactivity was recognized as the proper control signal, and in that extensive experimental trials were conducted of these newly developed concepts on actual nuclear reactors. 43 refs., 118 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Modeling and forecasting foreign exchange daily closing prices with normal inverse Gaussian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teneng, Dean

    2013-09-01

    We fit the normal inverse Gaussian(NIG) distribution to foreign exchange closing prices using the open software package R and select best models by Käärik and Umbleja (2011) proposed strategy. We observe that daily closing prices (12/04/2008 - 07/08/2012) of CHF/JPY, AUD/JPY, GBP/JPY, NZD/USD, QAR/CHF, QAR/EUR, SAR/CHF, SAR/EUR, TND/CHF and TND/EUR are excellent fits while EGP/EUR and EUR/GBP are good fits with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value of 0.062 and 0.08 respectively. It was impossible to estimate normal inverse Gaussian parameters (by maximum likelihood; computational problem) for JPY/CHF but CHF/JPY was an excellent fit. Thus, while the stochastic properties of an exchange rate can be completely modeled with a probability distribution in one direction, it may be impossible the other way around. We also demonstrate that foreign exchange closing prices can be forecasted with the normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) Lévy process, both in cases where the daily closing prices can and cannot be modeled by NIG distribution.

  3. The Defect Diffusion Model of Glass-Forming Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanella, John; Bendler, John; Wintersgill, Mary; Shlesinger, Michael

    2013-03-01

    The defect diffusion model (DDM) provides an explanation of many properties of glass-forming liquids. For example, it has been used to interpret dielectric relaxation (alpha and beta relaxations and the boson peak), viscosity, ionic conductivity, (including the effects of temperature and pressure) positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy data, the physical basis of fragility, scaling, the ratio of the apparent isochoric activation energy to the isobaric activation enthalpy and its relationship to monomer volume, and correlation lengths. In the model, the glass transition, Tg, occurs because of rigidity percolation. In addition the transition at TB (or TLL) is associated with mobility percolation. In the simplest form of the DDM, a supercooled liquid contains mobile single defects (MSDs) and immobile, clustered single defects (ICSDs). Consequently, dynamic heterogeneity is a natural feature of the model. If the glass transition did not intervene, all MSDs would disappear at a critical temperature Tc. In the present talk, the model will be used to comment on the change of heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient and compressibility at Tg. Work supported in part by the Office of Naval Research

  4. A mouse model of weight-drop closed head injury: emphasis on cognitive and neurological deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Khalin, Igor; Jamari, Nor Laili Azua; Razak, Nadiawati Bt Abdul; Hasain, Zubaidah Bt; Nor, Mohd Asri bin Mohd; Zainudin, Mohd Hakimi bin Ahmad; Omar, Ainsah Bt; Alyautdin, Renad

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in individuals worldwide. Producing a clinically relevant TBI model in small-sized animals remains fairly challenging. For good screening of potential therapeutics, which are effective in the treatment of TBI, animal models of TBI should be established and standardized. In this study, we established mouse models of closed head injury using the Shohami weight-drop method with some modifications concerning cognitive deficiency assessment and provided a detailed description of the severe TBI animal model. We found that 250 g falling weight from 2 cm height produced severe closed head injury in C57BL/6 male mice. Cognitive disorders in mice with severe closed head injury could be detected using passive avoidance test on day 7 after injury. Findings from this study indicate that weight-drop injury animal models are suitable for further screening of brain neuroprotectants and potentially are similar to those seen in human TBI. PMID:27212925

  5. Modelling of aluminium sheet forming at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boogaard, A. H.; Huétink, J.

    2004-06-01

    The formability of Al-Mg sheet can be improved considerably, by increasing the temperature. By heating the sheet in areas with large shear strains, but cooling it on places where the risk of necking is high, the limiting drawing ratio can be increased to values above 2.5. At elevated temperatures, the mechanical response of the material becomes strain rate dependent. To accurately simulate warm forming of aluminium sheet, a material model is required that incorporates the temperature and strain-rate dependency. In this paper simulations are presented of the deep drawing of a cylindrical cup, using shell elements. It is demonstrated that the familiar quadratic Hill yield function is not capable of describing the plastic deformation of aluminium. Hardening can be described successfully with a physically based material model for temperatures up to 200 °C. At higher temperatures and very low strain rates, the flow curve deviates significantly from the model.

  6. Integrating Entropy and Closed Frequent Pattern Mining for Social Network Modelling and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Muhaimenul; Alhajj, Reda; Rokne, Jon

    The recent increase in the explicitly available social networks has attracted the attention of the research community to investigate how it would be possible to benefit from such a powerful model in producing effective solutions for problems in other domains where the social network is implicit; we argue that social networks do exist around us but the key issue is how to realize and analyze them. This chapter presents a novel approach for constructing a social network model by an integrated framework that first preparing the data to be analyzed and then applies entropy and frequent closed patterns mining for network construction. For a given problem, we first prepare the data by identifying items and transactions, which arc the basic ingredients for frequent closed patterns mining. Items arc main objects in the problem and a transaction is a set of items that could exist together at one time (e.g., items purchased in one visit to the supermarket). Transactions could be analyzed to discover frequent closed patterns using any of the well-known techniques. Frequent closed patterns have the advantage that they successfully grab the inherent information content of the dataset and is applicable to a broader set of domains. Entropies of the frequent closed patterns arc used to keep the dimensionality of the feature vectors to a reasonable size; it is a kind of feature reduction process. Finally, we analyze the dynamic behavior of the constructed social network. Experiments were conducted on a synthetic dataset and on the Enron corpus email dataset. The results presented in the chapter show that social networks extracted from a feature set as frequent closed patterns successfully carry the community structure information. Moreover, for the Enron email dataset, we present an analysis to dynamically indicate the deviations from each user's individual and community profile. These indications of deviations can be very useful to identify unusual events.

  7. Modelling cross-hybridization on phylogenetic DNA microarrays increases the detection power of closely related species.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Julia C; Rahmann, Sven; Wolf, Matthias; Schultz, Jörg; Fritzilas, Epameinondas; Kneitz, Susanne; Dandekar, Thomas; Müller, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays are a popular technique for the detection of microorganisms. Several approaches using specific oligomers targeting one or a few marker genes for each species have been proposed. Data analysis is usually limited to call a species present when its oligomer exceeds a certain intensity threshold. While this strategy works reasonably well for distantly related species, it does not work well for very closely related species: Cross-hybridization of nontarget DNA prevents a simple identification based on signal intensity. The majority of species of the same genus has a sequence similarity of over 90%. For biodiversity studies down to the species level, it is therefore important to increase the detection power of closely related species. We propose a simple, cost-effective and robust approach for biodiversity studies using DNA microarray technology and demonstrate it on scenedesmacean green algae. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) rDNA sequence was chosen as marker because it is suitable to distinguish all eukaryotic species even though parts of it are virtually identical in closely related species. We show that by modelling hybridization behaviour with a matrix algebra approach, we are able to identify closely related species that cannot be distinguished with a threshold on signal intensity. Thus this proof-of-concept study shows that by adding a simple and robust data analysis step to the evaluation of DNA microarrays, species detection can be significantly improved for closely related species with a high sequence similarity.

  8. Closed form solution for a conductive-convective-radiative annular fin with multiple nonlinearities and its inverse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Rajiv; Mallick, Ashis; Prasad, Dilip K.

    2016-07-01

    The performance characteristics and temperature field of conducting-convecting-radiating annular fin are investigated. The nonlinear variation of thermal conductivity, power law dependency of heat transfer coefficient, linear variation of surface emissivity, and heat generation with the temperature are considered in the analysis. A semi-analytical approach, homotopy perturbation method is employed to solve the nonlinear differential equation of heat transfer. The analysis is presented in non-dimensional form, and the effect of various non-dimensional thermal parameters such as conduction-convection parameter, conduction-radiation parameter, linear and nonlinear variable thermal conductivity parameter, emissivity parameter, heat generation number and variable heat generation parameter are studied. For the correctness of the present analytical solution, the results are compared with the results available in the literature. In addition to forward problem, an inverse approach namely differential evolution method is employed for estimating the unknown thermal parameters for a given temperature field. The temperature fields are reconstructed using the inverse parameters and found to be in good agreement with the forward solution.

  9. Various forms of indexing HDMR for modelling multivariate classification problems

    SciTech Connect

    Aksu, Çağrı; Tunga, M. Alper

    2014-12-10

    The Indexing HDMR method was recently developed for modelling multivariate interpolation problems. The method uses the Plain HDMR philosophy in partitioning the given multivariate data set into less variate data sets and then constructing an analytical structure through these partitioned data sets to represent the given multidimensional problem. Indexing HDMR makes HDMR be applicable to classification problems having real world data. Mostly, we do not know all possible class values in the domain of the given problem, that is, we have a non-orthogonal data structure. However, Plain HDMR needs an orthogonal data structure in the given problem to be modelled. In this sense, the main idea of this work is to offer various forms of Indexing HDMR to successfully model these real life classification problems. To test these different forms, several well-known multivariate classification problems given in UCI Machine Learning Repository were used and it was observed that the accuracy results lie between 80% and 95% which are very satisfactory.

  10. An approach to modeling a kinematically redundant dual manipulator closed chain system using pseudovelocities

    SciTech Connect

    Unseren, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    The paper discusses the problem of resolving the kinematic redundancy in the closed chain formed when two redundant manipulators mutually lift a rigid body object. The positional degrees of freedom (DOF) in the closed chain are parameterized by a set of independent variables termed pseudovelocities. Due to the redundancy there are more DOF and thus more pseudovelocities than are required to specify the motion of the held object. The additional ``redundant`` pseudovelocities are used to minimize the distance between the vector of unknown joint velocities and a vector of ``corrective`` joint velocities in a Euclidean norm sense. This leads to an optimal solution for the joint velocities as a linear function of the Cartesian object velocities and the corrective velocities. The problem of determining the corrective velocities to avoid collisions of the links with a wall located in the workspace and to avoid joint range limits is illustrated by an example of two redundant planar revolute joint manipulators mutually lifting a rigid object.

  11. Specific initiation of replication at the right-end telomere of the closed species of minute virus of mice replicative-form DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Baldauf, A Q; Willwand, K; Mumtsidu, E; Nüesch, J P; Rommelaere, J

    1997-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro system that supports the replication of natural DNA templates of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM). MVM virion DNA, a single-stranded molecule bracketed by short, terminal, self-complementary sequences, is converted into double-stranded replicative-form (RF) DNA when incubated in mouse A9 fibroblast extract. The 3' end of the newly synthesized complementary strand is ligated to the right-end hairpin of the virion strand, resulting in the formation of a covalently closed RF (cRF) molecule as the major conversion product. cRF DNA is not further replicated in A9 cell extract alone. On addition of purified MVM nonstructural protein NS1 expressed from recombinant baculoviruses or vaccinia viruses, cRF DNA is processed into a right-end (5' end of the virion strand) extended form (5'eRF). This is indicative of NS1-dependent nicking of the right-end hairpin at a distinct position, followed by unfolding of the hairpin and copying of the terminal sequence. In contrast, no resolution of the left-end hairpin can be detected in the presence of NS1. In the course of the right-end nicking reaction, NS1 gets covalently attached to the right-end telomere of the DNA product, as shown by immunoprecipitation with NS1-specific antibodies. The 5'eRF product is the target for additional rounds of NS1-induced nicking and displacement synthesis at the right end, arguing against the requirement of the hairpin structure for recognition of the DNA substrate by NS1. Further processing of the 5'eRF template in vitro leads to the formation of dimeric RF (dRF) DNA in a left-to-left-end configuration, presumably as a result of copying of the whole molecule by displacement synthesis initiated at the right-end telomere. Formation of dRF DNA is highly stimulated by NS1. The experimental results presented in this report support various assumptions of current models of parvovirus DNA replication and provide new insights into the replication functions of

  12. A Closed-Loop Lumped Parameter Computational Model for Human Cardiovascular System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Fuyou; Liu, Hao

    For purpose of a better understanding of the behavior of the global hemodynamic interactions, a closed-loop lumped parameter computational model was developed for the human cardiovascular system with a detailed compartmental description of the heart and the main vascular circulations. Construction of the model was implemented based on a phenomenological characterization of hemodynamics using an electrical analog method and solution of the governing differential equations of the model was carried out by use of a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Most of the hemodynamic parameters predicted by the present model were either consonant with the clinical measurements or within reasonable physiological ranges. Furthermore, the present model was applied to predict the clinical cardiac hemodynamic characteristics observed in patients with heart abnormalities. Reasonable agreements between predictions and measurements indicate that the present computational model can serve as a useful assistant tool for computer-aided diagnosis and surgical treatment, as well as posttreatment prediction.

  13. Integrated Modelling of Damage and Fracture in Sheet Metal Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peerlings, R. H. J.; Mediavilla, J.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2007-05-01

    A framework for finite element simulations of ductile damage development and ductile fracture during metal forming is presented. The damage evolution is described by a phenomenological continuum damage model. Crack growth and fracture are treated as the ultimate consequences of the damage process. Computationally, the initiation and growth of cracks is traced by an adaptive remeshing strategy, thereby allowing for opening crack faces. The application of the method to the fabrication of food-can lids demonstrates its capabilities, but also some of its limitations.

  14. Gowdy-symmetric cosmological models with Cauchy horizons ruled by non-closed null generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    Smooth Gowdy-symmetric generalized Taub-NUT solutions are a class of inhomogeneous cosmological models with spatial three-sphere topology. They have a past Cauchy horizon with closed null-generators, and they have been shown to develop a second, regular Cauchy horizon in the future, unless in special, well-defined singular cases. Here we generalize these models to allow for past Cauchy horizons ruled by non-closed null generators. In particular, we show local and global existence of such a class of solutions with two functional degrees of freedom. This removes a periodicity condition for the asymptotic data at the past Cauchy horizon that was required before. Moreover, we derive a three-parametric family of exact solutions within that class and study its properties.

  15. General, Closed-Form Expressions for the Time-Domain Surface Impedances of a Homogeneous, Lossy Half-Space

    SciTech Connect

    Pao, H; Zhu, Z; Dvorak, S L

    2004-01-28

    The radio channel places fundamental limitations on the performance of wireless communication systems in tunnels and caves. The transmission path between the transmitter and receiver can vary from a simple direct line of sight to one that is severely obstructed by rough walls and corners. Unlike wired channels that are stationary and predictable, radio channels can be extremely random and difficult to analyze. In fact, modeling the radio channel has historically been one of the more challenging parts of any radio system design; this is often done using statistical methods. The mechanisms behind electromagnetic wave propagation are diverse, but can generally be attributed to reflection, diffraction, and scattering. Because of the multiple reflections from rough walls, the electromagnetic waves travel along different paths of varying lengths. The interactions between these waves cause multipath fading at any location, and the strengths of the waves decrease as the distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. As a consequence of the central limit theorem, the received signals are approximately Gaussian random process. This means that the field propagating in a cave or tunnel is typically a complex-valued Gaussian random process.

  16. A comparison of closed- and open-system models for porewater pH and calcite-saturation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, Bernard P.; Canfield, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    We compare the theoretical predictions of a closed- and an open-system model for the evolution of pH and calcite-saturation state during the sequential oxidation of organic matter by O 2, NO 3-, and SO 4=. The closed-system model is similar to previous thermodynamic models found in the geochemical literature (e.g., BEN-YAAKOV, 1973). The open-system model allows for differential diffusion of dissolved species, exchange with overlying waters, fast acid/base reactions, and a variety of spatially distributed sources and sinks. In particular, dissolution and precipitation of minerals are included either as local equilibrium processes as in the case of calcite dissolution, or as depth-dependent exponentials as for FeS and CaCO 3 precipitation. The model calculations reveal that closed and open systems have qualitatively similar behavior with respect to pH and carbonate saturation, Ω c. However, a quantitative comparison establishes that the closed-system model represents usually an upper limit on pH in the oxic zone of sediments, while it always sets a lower bound on pH in the zone of SO 4-- reduction. The changes in Ω c in closed and open systems during oxic decay are more complex than those of pH. The closed system will present an upper limit on Ω c when the initial pH is high (i.e., 8.0), but does not exhibit limiting behavior if the initial pH is low (i.e., 7.0). The closed-system model always places a lower limit on Ω c during sulfate reduction. Both models predict that CaCO 3 dissolution can buffer the potential pH fall due to oxic CO 2 production; however, quantitative evaluation of this effect requires a diagenetic model with realistic dissolution kinetics. Our investigations also demonstrate that vigorous mono-sulfide precipitation from an FeOOH-iron source can mitigate the fall in pH normally associated with organic matter decay as this mineral-forming reaction consumes an important protolytic species, H 2S. On the other hand, the precipitation of CaCO 3

  17. Art form as an object of cognitive modeling (towards development of Vygotsky`s semiotic model)

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, V.; Perlovsky, L.I.

    1996-12-31

    We suggest a further development of Vygotsky`s esthetic-semiotic model. First, we discuss Vygotsky`s model originally developed for the analysis of Ivan Bunin`s story {open_quotes}Light Breath{close_quotes}. Vygotsky analyzes formal methods used by Bunin to achieve a specific esthetic effect of {open_quote}lightness{close_quotes} while describing {open_quotes}dirty{close_quotes} events of everyday life. According to Vygotsky, this effect is achieved by ordering of events in a non-linear fashion. Vygotsky creams an airy pattern of smooth lines connecting events of story that he first orders linearly in time. And, he insists that this airy pattern creates an impression of airy lightness. In the language of semiotics, the esthetic effect is created by a specific structural organization of signs. Second, we present our critique of Vygotsky`s model. Although, we do not agree with Vygotsky`s sometimes moralistic judgements, and we consider the dynamics between inner personal values and received moral values to be more complicated than implied in his judgements, our critique in this paper is limited to the structure of his semiotic model. We emphasize that Vygotsky`s model does not explicitly account for a hierarchy of multiple levels of semiotic analysis. His analysis regularly slips from one level to another: (1) a lever of cognitive perception by a regular reader is confused with a level of creative genius of a writer; (2) {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} time of real world is mixed up with {open_quote}closed{close_quote} time of the story; (3) events are not organized by the hierarchy of their importance, nor in real world, nor in the inner model of the personages, nor in the story.

  18. Closed-loop control of epileptiform activities in a neural population model using a proportional-derivative controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Song; Wang, Mei-Li; Li, Xiao-Li; Ernst, Niebur

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy is believed to be caused by a lack of balance between excitation and inhibitation in the brain. A promising strategy for the control of the disease is closed-loop brain stimulation. How to determine the stimulation control parameters for effective and safe treatment protocols remains, however, an unsolved question. To constrain the complex dynamics of the biological brain, we use a neural population model (NPM). We propose that a proportional-derivative (PD) type closed-loop control can successfully suppress epileptiform activities. First, we determine the stability of root loci, which reveals that the dynamical mechanism underlying epilepsy in the NPM is the loss of homeostatic control caused by the lack of balance between excitation and inhibition. Then, we design a PD type closed-loop controller to stabilize the unstable NPM such that the homeostatic equilibriums are maintained; we show that epileptiform activities are successfully suppressed. A graphical approach is employed to determine the stabilizing region of the PD controller in the parameter space, providing a theoretical guideline for the selection of the PD control parameters. Furthermore, we establish the relationship between the control parameters and the model parameters in the form of stabilizing regions to help understand the mechanism of suppressing epileptiform activities in the NPM. Simulations show that the PD-type closed-loop control strategy can effectively suppress epileptiform activities in the NPM. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473208, 61025019, and 91132722), ONR MURI N000141010278, and NIH grant R01EY016281.

  19. A laboratory model for splash-form tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins Tanton, L. T.; Aussillous, P.; Bico, J.; Quéré, D.; Bush, J. W. M.

    2003-04-01

    We assume that tektites are produced by terrestrial impacts, either directly from the splashing of shock melt, or possibly as condensates from the impact vapor cloud. In either case, the final product is a fluid drop falling through air, and this physical system is our subject of focus. We interpret and extend the dynamics and stability of spinning, translating fluid drops to make inferences concerning the dynamic history of tektites. Drop shape is uniquely prescribed by normal force balance at the tektite surface. The shapes of drops progress with change in the non-dimensional group Bo, called the Bond number, which is a ratio of density, angular speed, and drop radius to surface tension. As Bond number increases, the tektite shape progresses from a sphere to a dumbbell or an oblate ellipsoid, and then to a biconcave shape. A laboratory model for tektites is developed that consists of rolling or tumbling molten metallic drops either in a cylindrical drum or down a ramp into air or a quench bath. The model reproduces all of the known forms of splash-form tektites, including spheres, oblate ellipsoids, dumbbells, teardrops and tori. The laboratory also highlights important differences between rolling drops and drops tumbling while in flight; for example, toroidal drops are much more stable when rolling. We conclude that molten tektites can exist as equilibrium bodies of revolution only up to 3 mm, based on an analysis of capillary length. Smaller drops are the product of break-up at greater than terminal velocity. Larger tektites are necessarily non-equilibrium forms. This underscores the importance of cooling and quenching in flight, since many tektites greatly exceed the maximum sizes anticipated based on any reasonable relative flight speed estimate, suggesting that their break-up time greatly exceeded their cooling time. This is supported by the large fraction of tektites that show a high-viscosity crust that evidently cracked while in flight.

  20. SOYCHMBR.I - A model designed for the study of plant growth in a closed chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhold, C.

    1982-01-01

    The analytical model SOYCHMBER.I, an update and alteration of the SOYMOD/OARDC model, for describing the total processes experienced by a plant in a controlled mass environment is outlined. The model is intended for use with growth chambers for examining plant growth in a completely controlled environment, leading toward a data base for the design of spacecraft food supply systems. SOYCHMBER.I accounts for the assimilation, respiration, and partitioning of photosynthate and nitrogen compounds among leaves, stems, roots, and potentially, flowers of the soybean plant. The derivation of the governing equations is traced, and the results of the prediction of CO2 dynamics for a seven day experiment with rice in a closed chamber are reported, together with data from three model runs for soybean. It is concluded that the model needs expansion to account for factors such as relative humidity.

  1. Modeling aerosols formed in the ring - pack of reciprocating piston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallstream, Brian Ellis

    The hydrocarbon emissions of an internal combustion engine are directly correlated with the engine's oil consumption. This oil consumption is associated with reverse blow-by, a condition in which gases flow past the ring-pack from the crankcase to the combustion chamber. This reverse blow-by breaks down the oil film on the cylinder walls and entrains oil particles in the gas flow during the downstroke of the piston. In this project a numerical model was developed that accurately describes the formation of aerosols in the ring pack by simulating the mechanisms by which oil globules are broken up, atomized, and entrained in a gas flowing through an orifice. The results of this numerical model are in good agreement with experimental values. Thus, this numerical model gives insight into the parameters that govern oil consumption. A discussion is also presented regarding the general applications of atomization and how past researchers have developed and advanced the theories of atomization.Included in this discussion is an introduction to past models of oil consumption and the conditions needed for aerosols to form within the ring-pack of a piston.

  2. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    PubMed

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Shevtsova, Natalia A; Park, Choongseok; Ben-Tal, Alona; Smith, Jeffrey C; Rubin, Jonathan E; Rybak, Ilya A

    2014-01-01

    Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2) exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient ventilation. The model

  3. Microstructure based model for sound absorption predictions of perforated closed-cell metallic foams.

    PubMed

    Chevillotte, Fabien; Perrot, Camille; Panneton, Raymond

    2010-10-01

    Closed-cell metallic foams are known for their rigidity, lightness, thermal conductivity as well as their low production cost compared to open-cell metallic foams. However, they are also poor sound absorbers. Similarly to a rigid solid, a method to enhance their sound absorption is to perforate them. This method has shown good preliminary results but has not yet been analyzed from a microstructure point of view. The objective of this work is to better understand how perforations interact with closed-cell foam microstructure and how it modifies the sound absorption of the foam. A simple two-dimensional microstructural model of the perforated closed-cell metallic foam is presented and numerically solved. A rough three-dimensional conversion of the two-dimensional results is proposed. The results obtained with the calculation method show that the perforated closed-cell foam behaves similarly to a perforated solid; however, its sound absorption is modulated by the foam microstructure, and most particularly by the diameters of both perforation and pore. A comparison with measurements demonstrates that the proposed calculation method yields realistic trends. Some design guides are also proposed.

  4. Microstructure based model for sound absorption predictions of perforated closed-cell metallic foams.

    PubMed

    Chevillotte, Fabien; Perrot, Camille; Panneton, Raymond

    2010-10-01

    Closed-cell metallic foams are known for their rigidity, lightness, thermal conductivity as well as their low production cost compared to open-cell metallic foams. However, they are also poor sound absorbers. Similarly to a rigid solid, a method to enhance their sound absorption is to perforate them. This method has shown good preliminary results but has not yet been analyzed from a microstructure point of view. The objective of this work is to better understand how perforations interact with closed-cell foam microstructure and how it modifies the sound absorption of the foam. A simple two-dimensional microstructural model of the perforated closed-cell metallic foam is presented and numerically solved. A rough three-dimensional conversion of the two-dimensional results is proposed. The results obtained with the calculation method show that the perforated closed-cell foam behaves similarly to a perforated solid; however, its sound absorption is modulated by the foam microstructure, and most particularly by the diameters of both perforation and pore. A comparison with measurements demonstrates that the proposed calculation method yields realistic trends. Some design guides are also proposed. PMID:20968350

  5. Scenario-based, closed-loop model predictive control with application to emergency vehicle scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Graham. C.; Medioli, Adrian. M.

    2013-08-01

    Model predictive control has been a major success story in process control. More recently, the methodology has been used in other contexts, including automotive engine control, power electronics and telecommunications. Most applications focus on set-point tracking and use single-sequence optimisation. Here we consider an alternative class of problems motivated by the scheduling of emergency vehicles. Here disturbances are the dominant feature. We develop a novel closed-loop model predictive control strategy aimed at this class of problems. We motivate, and illustrate, the ideas via the problem of fluid deployment of ambulance resources.

  6. Evaluating Nextgen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations Concepts with Validated Human Performance Models: Flight Deck Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooey, Becky Lee; Gore, Brian Francis; Mahlstedt, Eric; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the current research were to develop valid human performance models (HPMs) of approach and land operations; use these models to evaluate the impact of NextGen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) on pilot performance; and draw conclusions regarding flight deck display design and pilot-ATC roles and responsibilities for NextGen CSPO concepts. This document presents guidelines and implications for flight deck display designs and candidate roles and responsibilities. A companion document (Gore, Hooey, Mahlstedt, & Foyle, 2013) provides complete scenario descriptions and results including predictions of pilot workload, visual attention and time to detect off-nominal events.

  7. Enabling comparative modeling of closely related genomes: Example genus Brucella

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, José P.; Edirisinghe, Janaka N.; Davis, James J.; Disz, Terrence; Hausmann, Anna; Henry, Christopher S.; Olson, Robert; Overbeek, Ross A.; Pusch, Gordon D.; Shukla, Maulik; Vonstein, Veronika; Wattam, Alice R.

    2014-03-08

    For many scientific applications, it is highly desirable to be able to compare metabolic models of closely related genomes. In this study, we attempt to raise awareness to the fact that taking annotated genomes from public repositories and using them for metabolic model reconstructions is far from being trivial due to annotation inconsistencies. We are proposing a protocol for comparative analysis of metabolic models on closely related genomes, using fifteen strains of genus Brucella, which contains pathogens of both humans and livestock. This study lead to the identification and subsequent correction of inconsistent annotations in the SEED database, as well as the identification of 31 biochemical reactions that are common to Brucella, which are not originally identified by automated metabolic reconstructions. We are currently implementing this protocol for improving automated annotations within the SEED database and these improvements have been propagated into PATRIC, Model-SEED, KBase and RAST. This method is an enabling step for the future creation of consistent annotation systems and high-quality model reconstructions that will support in predicting accurate phenotypes such as pathogenicity, media requirements or type of respiration.

  8. Exact closed-form expressions for the performance of the split-symbol moments estimator of signal-to-noise ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, the performance of the split-symbol moments estimator (SSME) of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been evaluated by means of approximate expressions for the estimator mean and variance. These are asymptotic formulas in the sense that they become accurate as the number of estimator samples gets large. Here, exact closed-form expressions are obtained for the same quantities. These expressions confirm the accuracy of the previously derived asymptotic results, and, unlike the asymptotic formulas, they are useful even when the number of samples is small. It is also shown that the conventional split-symbol estimator can be trivially scaled to form a signal-to-noise ratio estimator which is precisely unbiased (as long as the estimate is based on more than two split-symbols).

  9. Cycle-averaged dynamics of a periodically driven, closed-loop circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldt, T.; Chang, J. L.; Chen, J. J. S.; Verghese, G. C.; Mark, R. G.

    2005-01-01

    Time-varying elastance models have been used extensively in the past to simulate the pulsatile nature of cardiovascular waveforms. Frequently, however, one is interested in dynamics that occur over longer time scales, in which case a detailed simulation of each cardiac contraction becomes computationally burdensome. In this paper, we apply circuit-averaging techniques to a periodically driven, closed-loop, three-compartment recirculation model. The resultant cycle-averaged model is linear and time invariant, and greatly reduces the computational burden. It is also amenable to systematic order reduction methods that lead to further efficiencies. Despite its simplicity, the averaged model captures the dynamics relevant to the representation of a range of cardiovascular reflex mechanisms. c2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Forming chondrules in impact splashes. I. Radiative cooling model

    SciTech Connect

    Dullemond, Cornelis Petrus; Stammler, Sebastian Markus; Johansen, Anders

    2014-10-10

    The formation of chondrules is one of the oldest unsolved mysteries in meteoritics and planet formation. Recently an old idea has been revived: the idea that chondrules form as a result of collisions between planetesimals in which the ejected molten material forms small droplets that solidify to become chondrules. Pre-melting of the planetesimals by radioactive decay of {sup 26}Al would help produce sprays of melt even at relatively low impact velocity. In this paper we study the radiative cooling of a ballistically expanding spherical cloud of chondrule droplets ejected from the impact site. We present results from numerical radiative transfer models as well as analytic approximate solutions. We find that the temperature after the start of the expansion of the cloud remains constant for a time t {sub cool} and then drops with time t approximately as T ≅ T {sub 0}[(3/5)t/t {sub cool} + 2/5]{sup –5/3} for t > t {sub cool}. The time at which this temperature drop starts t {sub cool} depends via an analytical formula on the mass of the cloud, the expansion velocity, and the size of the chondrule. During the early isothermal expansion phase the density is still so high that we expect the vapor of volatile elements to saturate so that no large volatile losses are expected.

  11. Closing the carbon cycle in the EC EARTH earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Matthias; Döscher, Ralf; Meier, Markus; Svensson, Gunilla

    2015-04-01

    A closed carbon cycle, i.e. the exchange of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs (living biomass, soil carbon, sediments etc) via the atmosphere is essential for state of the art earth system models and it will become more and more important in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). It is also a prerequisite for simulating the atmospheric pCO2 in a fully prognostic mode and thus, for the realistic simulation of the important feedback of the carbon cycle to the predicted future climate change. The main challenges of this work are two fold: It requires close cooperation between physical oceanographers, meteorologists and biogeochemists. Moreover, especially the marine carbon cycle has very long internal time scales which demand for long spinup phases. The work presented here is the result of the joined efforts of the Meteorological Institute University of Stockholm, the Rossby Center for Climatic Research and the oceanographic department of the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), and the University of Lund. We here introduce our basic strategy for the implementation of the marine biogeochemistry model PISCES into EC Earth and first results for the marine carbon cycle model PISCES are presented.

  12. Did the Mississippian Lodgepole buildup at Dickinson Field (North Dakota) form as a gas seep ({open_quotes}vent{close_quotes}) community?

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.

    1996-10-01

    The Lower Mississippian Lodgepole carbonate buildup reservoir at Dickinson Field in Stark County, North Dakota, has been widely reported as being a Waulsortian (or Waulsortian-like) mound. The term {open_quotes}Waulsortian mound{close_quotes} is used for a variety of Early Mississippian carbonate buildups that share a number of features including an abundance of carbonate mud, a {open_quotes}framework{close_quotes} of organisms such as fenestrate bryozoans and crinoids that tended to trap or baffle sediment, and a general absence of marine-cemented reef framework. Although the age of the Lodgepole mound at Dickinson Field qualifies it to be a Waulsortian mound, petrographic study of cores reveals that the reservoir rocks are quite unlike those in true Waulsortian mounds. Instead of being dominated by carbonate mud, the Lodgepole mound core is dominated by marine cement. Furthermore, ostracods and microbial limestones are common in the mound core where they occur with crinoid debris and small amounts of bryozoan, coral, and brachiopod debris. The abundant microbial limestones and marine cement indicate that the Dickinson mound formed as a lithified reef on the sea floor rather than as a Waulsortian mud mound. The microbial limestones, marine cement, and common ostracods in the mount core, and the fact that the mound nucleated almost directly o top of the Bakken Shale, suggest that the Dickinson Lodgepole mound formed at the site of a submarine spring and gas seep.

  13. Advances in Constitutive and Failure Models for Sheet Forming Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jeong Whan; Stoughton, Thomas B.

    2016-08-01

    Non-Associated Flow Rule (Non-AFR) can be used as a convenient way to account for anisotropic material response in metal deformation processes, making it possible for example, to eliminate the problem of the anomalous yielding in equibiaxial tension that is mistakenly attributed to limitations of the quadratic yield function, but may instead be attributed to the Associated Flow Rule (AFR). Seeing as in Non-AFR based models two separate functions can be adopted for yield and plastic potential, there is no constraint to which models are used to describe each of them. In this work, the flexible combination of two different yield criteria as yield function and plastic potential under Non-AFR is proposed and evaluated. FE simulations were carried so as to verify the accuracy of the material directionalities predicted using these constitutive material models. The stability conditions for non-associated flow connected with the prediction of yield point elongation are also reviewed. Anisotropic distortion hardening is further incorporated under non-associated flow. It has been found that anisotropic hardening makes the noticeable improvements for both earing and spring-back predictions. This presentation is followed by a discussion of the topic of the forming limit & necking, the evidence in favor of stress analysis, and the motivation for the development of a new type of forming limit diagram based on the polar effective plastic strain (PEPS) diagram. In order to connect necking to fracture in metals, the stress-based necking limit is combined with a stress- based fracture criterion in the principal stress, which provides an efficient method for the analysis of necking and fracture limits. The concept for the PEPS diagram is further developed to cover the path-independent PEPS fracture which is compatible with the stress-based fracture approach. Thus this fracture criterion can be utilized to describe the post-necking behavior and to cover nonlinear strain-path. Fracture

  14. Beyond Main Effects Models of Adolescent Work Intensity, Family Closeness, and School Disengagement: Mediational and Conditional Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed adolescents in grades 9 through 12 to examine family closeness as either mediator or moderator of relationships between intense work and academic engagement. Found that for boys, the family closeness mediational model provided best fit for data; for girls, the moderator model fit best. Found girls were especially vulnerable to negative…

  15. Closing the contrast gap between testbed and model prediction with WFIRST-CGI shaped pupil coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hanying; Nemati, Bijan; Krist, John; Cady, Eric; Prada, Camilo M.; Kern, Brian; Poberezhskiy, Ilya

    2016-07-01

    JPL has recently passed an important milestone in its technology development for a proposed NASA WFIRST mission coronagraph: demonstration of better than 1x10-8 contrast over broad bandwidth (10%) on both shaped pupil coronagraph (SPC) and hybrid Lyot coronagraph (HLC) testbeds with the WFIRST obscuration pattern. Challenges remain, however, in the technology readiness for the proposed mission. One is the discrepancies between the achieved contrasts on the testbeds and their corresponding model predictions. A series of testbed diagnoses and modeling activities were planned and carried out on the SPC testbed in order to close the gap. A very useful tool we developed was a derived "measured" testbed wavefront control Jacobian matrix that could be compared with the model-predicted "control" version that was used to generate the high contrast dark hole region in the image plane. The difference between these two is an estimate of the error in the control Jacobian. When the control matrix, which includes both amplitude and phase, was modified to reproduce the error, the simulated performance closely matched the SPC testbed behavior in both contrast floor and contrast convergence speed. This is a step closer toward model validation for high contrast coronagraphs. Further Jacobian analysis and modeling provided clues to the possible sources for the mismatch: DM misregistration and testbed optical wavefront error (WFE) and the deformable mirror (DM) setting for correcting this WFE. These analyses suggested that a high contrast coronagraph has a tight tolerance in the accuracy of its control Jacobian. Modifications to both testbed control model as well as prediction model are being implemented, and future works are discussed.

  16. 17 CFR 248.2 - Model privacy form: rule of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Model privacy form: rule of... Safeguarding Personal Information § 248.2 Model privacy form: rule of construction. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A to subpart A of this part, consistent with the...

  17. 17 CFR 248.2 - Model privacy form: rule of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Model privacy form: rule of... Safeguarding Personal Information § 248.2 Model privacy form: rule of construction. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A to subpart A of this part, consistent with the...

  18. 17 CFR 248.2 - Model privacy form: rule of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Model privacy form: rule of... Safeguarding Personal Information § 248.2 Model privacy form: rule of construction. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A to subpart A of this part, consistent with the...

  19. Dissociable forms of repetition priming: a computational model.

    PubMed

    Makukhin, Kirill; Bolland, Scott

    2014-04-01

    Nondeclarative memory and novelty processing in the brain is an actively studied field of neuroscience, and reducing neural activity with repetition of a stimulus (repetition suppression) is a commonly observed phenomenon. Recent findings of an opposite trend-specifically, rising activity for unfamiliar stimuli-question the generality of repetition suppression and stir debate over the underlying neural mechanisms. This letter introduces a theory and computational model that extend existing theories and suggests that both trends are, in principle, the rising and falling parts of an inverted U-shaped dependence of activity with respect to stimulus novelty that may naturally emerge in a neural network with Hebbian learning and lateral inhibition. We further demonstrate that the proposed model is sufficient for the simulation of dissociable forms of repetition priming using real-world stimuli. The results of our simulation also suggest that the novelty of stimuli used in neuroscientific research must be assessed in a particularly cautious way. The potential importance of the inverted-U in stimulus processing and its relationship to the acquisition of knowledge and competencies in humans is also discussed.

  20. Comparative modeling of the latent form of a plant catechol oxidase using a molluskan hemocyanin structure.

    PubMed

    Gerdemann, Carsten; Eicken, Christoph; Galla, Hans Joachim; Krebs, Bernt

    2002-04-10

    The structure of the precursor form of catechol oxidase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) has been modeled on the basis of the 3D structural data of mature catechol oxidase [Nat. Struct. Biol. 5 (1998) 1084] and of hemocyanin from giant octopus (Octopus dofleini) [J. Mol. Biol. 278 (1998) 855]. A C-terminal extension peptide is found in the cDNA sequence but not in the purified, mature form of catechol oxidase. Superimposition of the 3D structures of the native hemocyanin and catechol oxidase reveals a close relationship except for an additional C-terminal domain only found in the hemocyanin structure. As sequence alignment shows good homology this domain of the hemocyanin structure was used as a template to model the 3D structure of the C-terminal extension peptide of catechol oxidase. As hemocyanins show no or only weak catecholase activity due to this domain this indicates an inhibitory function of this extension peptide. Beside this possible shielding function for the precursor form, evidence for a function in copper-uptake also increases due to the location of three histidine residues in the model. PMID:11931976

  1. Comparative modeling of the latent form of a plant catechol oxidase using a molluskan hemocyanin structure.

    PubMed

    Gerdemann, Carsten; Eicken, Christoph; Galla, Hans Joachim; Krebs, Bernt

    2002-04-10

    The structure of the precursor form of catechol oxidase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) has been modeled on the basis of the 3D structural data of mature catechol oxidase [Nat. Struct. Biol. 5 (1998) 1084] and of hemocyanin from giant octopus (Octopus dofleini) [J. Mol. Biol. 278 (1998) 855]. A C-terminal extension peptide is found in the cDNA sequence but not in the purified, mature form of catechol oxidase. Superimposition of the 3D structures of the native hemocyanin and catechol oxidase reveals a close relationship except for an additional C-terminal domain only found in the hemocyanin structure. As sequence alignment shows good homology this domain of the hemocyanin structure was used as a template to model the 3D structure of the C-terminal extension peptide of catechol oxidase. As hemocyanins show no or only weak catecholase activity due to this domain this indicates an inhibitory function of this extension peptide. Beside this possible shielding function for the precursor form, evidence for a function in copper-uptake also increases due to the location of three histidine residues in the model.

  2. Numerical modeling of cold room's hinged door opening and closing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, R.; Gaspar, P. D.; Silva, P. D.; Domingues, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    The need of rationalize energy consumption in agrifood industry has fasten the development of methodologies to improve the thermal and energy performances of cold rooms. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) transient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of a cold room to evaluate the air infiltration rate through hinged doors. A species transport model is used for modelling the tracer gas concentration decay technique. Numerical predictions indicate that air temperature difference between spaces affects the air infiltration. For this case study, the infiltration rate increases 0.016 m3 s-1 per K of air temperature difference. The knowledge about the evolution of air infiltration during door opening/closing times allows to draw some conclusions about its influence on the air conditions inside the cold room, as well as to suggest best practices and simple technical improvements that can minimize air infiltration, and consequently improve thermal performance and energy consumption rationalization.

  3. UKF-based closed loop iterative learning control of epileptiform wave in a neural mass model.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bonan; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Yu, Haitao; Li, Huiyan

    2015-02-01

    A novel closed loop control framework is proposed to inhibit epileptiform wave in a neural mass model by external electric field, where the unscented Kalman filter method is used to reconstruct dynamics and estimate unmeasurable parameters of the model. Specifically speaking, the iterative learning control algorithm is introduced into the framework to optimize the control signal. In the proposed method, the control effect can be significantly improved based on the observation of the past attempts. Accordingly, the proposed method can effectively suppress the epileptiform wave as well as showing robustness to noises and uncertainties. Lastly, the simulation is carried out to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Besides, this work shows potential value to design model-based feedback controllers for epilepsy treatment.

  4. UKF-based closed loop iterative learning control of epileptiform wave in a neural mass model.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bonan; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Yu, Haitao; Li, Huiyan

    2015-02-01

    A novel closed loop control framework is proposed to inhibit epileptiform wave in a neural mass model by external electric field, where the unscented Kalman filter method is used to reconstruct dynamics and estimate unmeasurable parameters of the model. Specifically speaking, the iterative learning control algorithm is introduced into the framework to optimize the control signal. In the proposed method, the control effect can be significantly improved based on the observation of the past attempts. Accordingly, the proposed method can effectively suppress the epileptiform wave as well as showing robustness to noises and uncertainties. Lastly, the simulation is carried out to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Besides, this work shows potential value to design model-based feedback controllers for epilepsy treatment. PMID:26052360

  5. Closing the Loop for Memory Prostheses: Detecting the Role of Hippocampal Neural Ensembles Using Nonlinear Models

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Robert E.; Song, Dong; Chan, Rosa H.M.; Sweatt, Andrew J.; Riley, Mitchell R.; Goonawardena, Anushka V.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2012-01-01

    A major factor involved in providing closed loop feedback for control of neural function is to understand how neural ensembles encode online information critical to the final behavioral endpoint. This issue was directly assessed in rats performing a short-term delay memory task in which successful encoding of task information is dependent upon specific spatiotemporal firing patterns recorded from ensembles of CA3 and CA1 hippocampal neurons. Such patterns, extracted by a specially designed nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear mathematical model, were used to predict successful performance online via a closed loop paradigm which regulated trial difficulty (time of retention) as a function of the “strength” of stimulus encoding. The significance of the MIMO model as a neural prosthesis has been demonstrated by substituting trains of electrical stimulation pulses to mimic these same ensemble firing patterns. This feature was used repeatedly to vary “normal” encoding as a means of understanding how neural ensembles can be “tuned” to mimic the inherent process of selecting codes of different strength and functional specificity. The capacity to enhance and tune hippocampal encoding via MIMO model detection and insertion of critical ensemble firing patterns shown here provides the basis for possible extension to other disrupted brain circuitry. PMID:22498704

  6. Virtual Habitat -a dynamic simulation of closed life support systems -human model status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus Czupalla, M. Sc.; Zhukov, Anton; Hwang, Su-Au; Schnaitmann, Jonas

    In order to optimize Life Support Systems on a system level, stability questions must be in-vestigated. To do so the exploration group of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) is developing the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB) dynamic LSS simulation software. V-HAB shall provide the possibility to conduct dynamic simulations of entire mission scenarios for any given LSS configuration. The Virtual Habitat simulation tool consists of four main modules: • Closed Environment Module (CEM) -monitoring of compounds in a closed environment • Crew Module (CM) -dynamic human simulation • P/C Systems Module (PCSM) -dynamic P/C subsystems • Plant Module (PM) -dynamic plant simulation The core module of the simulation is the dynamic and environment sensitive human module. Introduced in its basic version in 2008, the human module has been significantly updated since, increasing its capabilities and maturity significantly. In this paper three newly added human model subsystems (thermal regulation, digestion and schedule controller) are introduced touching also on the human stress subsystem which is cur-rently under development. Upon the introduction of these new subsystems, the integration of these into the overall V-HAB human model is discussed, highlighting the impact on the most important I/F. The overall human model capabilities shall further be summarized and presented based on meaningful test cases. In addition to the presentation of the results, the correlation strategy for the Virtual Habitat human model shall be introduced assessing the models current confidence level and giving an outlook on the future correlation strategy. Last but not least, the remaining V-HAB mod-ules shall be introduced shortly showing how the human model is integrated into the overall simulation.

  7. Kinematic Modeling of Separation Compression for Paired Approaches to Closely-Spaced Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    In a simultaneous paired approach to closely-spaced parallel runways, a pair of aircraft flies in close proximity on parallel approach paths. The longitudinal separation between the aircraft must be maintained within a range that avoids wake encounters and, if one of the aircraft blunders, avoids collision. To increase operational availability, the approach procedure must accommodate a mixture of aircraft sizes and, consequently, approach speeds. In these procedures, the slower aircraft is placed in the lead position. The faster aircraft maintains separation from the slow aircraft in a dependent operation until final approach and flies independently afterward. Due to the higher approach speed of the fast aircraft, longitudinal separation will decrease during final approach. Therefore, the fast aircraft must position itself before the final approach so that it will remain within the safe range of separation as separation decreases. Given the approach geometry and speed schedule for each aircraft, one can use kinematics to estimate the separation loss between a pair of aircraft. A kinematic model can complement fast-time Monte-Carlo simulations of the approach by enabling a tailored reduction in the variation of starting position for the fast aircraft. One could also implement the kinematic model in ground-based or on-board decision support tools to compute the optimal initial separation for a given pair of aircraft. To better match the auto-coupled flight of real aircraft, the paper derives a kinematic model where the speed schedule is flown using equivalent airspeed. The predicted time of flight using the equivalent airspeed kinematic model compares well against a high-fidelity aircraft simulation performing the same approach. This model also demonstrates a modest increase in the predicted loss of separation when contrasted against a kinematic model that assumes the scheduled speed is true airspeed.

  8. Model-Based, Closed-Loop Control of PZT Creep for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    McCartt, A D; Ognibene, T J; Bench, G; Turteltaub, K W

    2014-01-01

    Cavity ring-down spectrometers typically employ a PZT stack to modulate the cavity transmission spectrum. While PZTs ease instrument complexity and aid measurement sensitivity, PZT hysteresis hinders the implementation of cavity-length-stabilized, data-acquisition routines. Once the cavity length is stabilized, the cavity’s free spectral range imparts extreme linearity and precision to the measured spectrum’s wavelength axis. Methods such as frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy have successfully mitigated PZT hysteresis, but their complexity limits commercial applications. Described herein is a single-laser, model-based, closed-loop method for cavity length control. PMID:25395738

  9. Feasibility of Close-Range Photogrammetric Models for Geographic Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Luke; /Rice U.

    2011-06-22

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of using close-range architectural photogrammetry as an alternative three dimensional modeling technique in order to place the digital models in a geographic information system (GIS) at SLAC. With the available equipment and Australis photogrammetry software, the creation of full and accurate models of an example building, Building 281 on SLAC campus, was attempted. After conducting several equipment tests to determine the precision achievable, a complete photogrammetric survey was attempted. The dimensions of the resulting models were then compared against the true dimensions of the building. A complete building model was not evidenced to be obtainable using the current equipment and software. This failure was likely attributable to the limits of the software rather than the precision of the physical equipment. However, partial models of the building were shown to be accurate and determined to still be usable in a GIS. With further development of the photogrammetric software and survey procedure, the desired generation of a complete three dimensional model is likely still feasible.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Tube Forming by HPTR Cold Pilgering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornin, D.; Pachón-Rodríguez, E. A.; Vanegas-Márquez, E.; Mocellin, K.; Logé, R.

    2016-07-01

    For new fast-neutron sodium-cooled Generation IV nuclear reactors, the candidate cladding materials for the very strong burn-up are ferritic and martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened grades. Classically, the cladding tube is cold formed by a sequence of cold pilger milling passes with intermediate heat treatments. This process acts upon the geometry and the microstructure of the tubes. Consequently, crystallographic texture, grain sizes and morphologies, and tube integrity are highly dependent on the pilgering parameters. In order to optimize the resulting mechanical properties of cold-rolled cladding tubes, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of the pilgering process. Finite Element Method (FEM) models are used for the numerical predictions of this task; however, the accuracy of the numerical predictions depends not only on the type of constitutive laws but also on the quality of the material parameters identification. Therefore, a Chaboche-type law which parameters have been identified on experimental observation of the mechanical behavior of the material is used here. As a complete three-dimensional FEM mechanical analysis of the high-precision tube rolling (HPTR) cold pilgering of tubes could be very expensive, only the evolution of geometry and deformation is addressed in this work. The computed geometry is compared to the experimental one. It is shown that the evolution of the geometry and deformation is not homogeneous over the circumference. Moreover, it is exposed that the strain is nonhomogeneous in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. Finally, it is seen that the dominant deformation mode of a material point evolves during HPTR cold pilgering forming.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Tube Forming by HPTR Cold Pilgering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornin, D.; Pachón-Rodríguez, E. A.; Vanegas-Márquez, E.; Mocellin, K.; Logé, R.

    2016-09-01

    For new fast-neutron sodium-cooled Generation IV nuclear reactors, the candidate cladding materials for the very strong burn-up are ferritic and martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened grades. Classically, the cladding tube is cold formed by a sequence of cold pilger milling passes with intermediate heat treatments. This process acts upon the geometry and the microstructure of the tubes. Consequently, crystallographic texture, grain sizes and morphologies, and tube integrity are highly dependent on the pilgering parameters. In order to optimize the resulting mechanical properties of cold-rolled cladding tubes, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of the pilgering process. Finite Element Method (FEM) models are used for the numerical predictions of this task; however, the accuracy of the numerical predictions depends not only on the type of constitutive laws but also on the quality of the material parameters identification. Therefore, a Chaboche-type law which parameters have been identified on experimental observation of the mechanical behavior of the material is used here. As a complete three-dimensional FEM mechanical analysis of the high-precision tube rolling (HPTR) cold pilgering of tubes could be very expensive, only the evolution of geometry and deformation is addressed in this work. The computed geometry is compared to the experimental one. It is shown that the evolution of the geometry and deformation is not homogeneous over the circumference. Moreover, it is exposed that the strain is nonhomogeneous in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. Finally, it is seen that the dominant deformation mode of a material point evolves during HPTR cold pilgering forming.

  12. Hybrid Modeling for Testing Intelligent Software for Lunar-Mars Closed Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Intelligent software is being developed for closed life support systems with biological components, for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The intelligent software functions include planning/scheduling, reactive discrete control and sequencing, management of continuous control, and fault detection, diagnosis, and management of failures and errors. Four types of modeling information have been essential to system modeling and simulation to develop and test the software and to provide operational model-based what-if analyses: discrete component operational and failure modes; continuous dynamic performance within component modes, modeled qualitatively or quantitatively; configuration of flows and power among components in the system; and operations activities and scenarios. CONFIG, a multi-purpose discrete event simulation tool that integrates all four types of models for use throughout the engineering and operations life cycle, has been used to model components and systems involved in the production and transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a plant-growth chamber and between that chamber and a habitation chamber with physicochemical systems for gas processing.

  13. Kinetics of color development of melanoidins formed from fructose/amino acid model systems.

    PubMed

    Echavarría, A P; Pagán, J; Ibarz, A

    2014-03-01

    The formation of soluble melanoidins from a single combination of sugar (fructose) and amino acid model systems were evaluated kinetically. The selected amino acids, commonly found in apple juice and highly reactive in the Maillard reaction, were asparagine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. The effect of these reagents and the treatment at different temperatures (50 , 85 , and 100 ) during 96 h on the color intensity of the melanoidin formed was measured by absorbance at different wavelengths (280, 325, 405, and 420 nm). The absorbance of the melanoidin formed from all model systems was located on the wavelength of 405 nm, that is, the area of the visible spectrum close to the UV region. The color of the melanoidins was directly measured using the CIELAB color space system. A first-order kinetic model was applied to the evolution of the ΔE * (color difference) and L * (lightness) of the color. The fructose/aspartic acid model system values of a * (redness) and b * (yellowness) were found in the brown-red zone. Therefore, the color development of the melanoidins was influenced by the type of amino acid and temperature. Especially, it is thought that the a * and b * values can be used to explain the differences among the amino acids in the color development of melanoidins. PMID:23744115

  14. Closed-loop supply chain models with considering the environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Mohajeri, Amir; Fallah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated. PMID:25309960

  15. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Models with Considering the Environmental Impact

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated. PMID:25309960

  16. Strongly Correlated Superconductivity close to a Mott transition in orbitally degenerate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, Massimo; Fabrizio, Michele; Castellani, Claudio; Tosatti, Erio

    2004-03-01

    Recently a novel strongly correlated superconductivity (SCS) scenario has been proposed [1] which deals with the question whether and under which conditions Cooper-pairing may get enhanced by strong electron repulsion close to a Mott transition. The core of the SCS proposal is that the effective repulsion between quasiparticles vanishes close to the Mott transition, whereas any pairing attraction will remain unrenormalized if it acts inside the spin channel. This scenario was originally demonstrated through a Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT) solution of a model for doped fullerenes, but it is believed to be far more general. Very recently, a twofold orbitally degenerate model with inverted Hund rule exchange has been proposed as a new candidate for SCS [2]. We report fresh DMFT work that fully confirms this expectation, and provides an extremely appealing phase diagram, where superconductivity arises by doping the Mott insulator, out of an unstable a pseudogapped metal, very much as it happens in cuprates. [1] M. Capone, M. Fabrizio, C. Castellani, and E. Tosatti, Science 296, 2364 (2002). [2] M. Fabrizio, A.F. Ho, L. De Leo, and G. Santoro, Phys. Rev. Lett., to appear; L. De Leo and M. Fabrizio, unpublished.

  17. Closed-loop supply chain models with considering the environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Mohajeri, Amir; Fallah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated.

  18. Mathematical modelling of thermoregulation processes for premature infants in closed convectively heated incubators.

    PubMed

    Fraguela, Andrés; Matlalcuatzi, Francisca D; Ramos, Ángel M

    2015-02-01

    The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight. For this purpose, we propose an algorithm to control the temperature inside the incubator. It takes into account the measurements of the body temperature of a premature newborn which are recorded continuously. We show that using this model the temperature of a premature newborn inside the incubator can be kept in a thermal stability range.

  19. A Closed Network Queue Model of Underground Coal Mining Production, Failure, and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohman, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Underground coal mining system production, failures, and repair cycles were mathematically modeled as a closed network of two queues in series. The model was designed to better understand the technological constraints on availability of current underground mining systems, and to develop guidelines for estimating the availability of advanced mining systems and their associated needs for spares as well as production and maintenance personnel. It was found that: mine performance is theoretically limited by the maintainability ratio, significant gains in availability appear possible by means of small improvements in the time between failures the number of crews and sections should be properly balanced for any given maintainability ratio, and main haulage systems closest to the mine mouth require the most attention to reliability.

  20. Mathematical modelling of thermoregulation processes for premature infants in closed convectively heated incubators.

    PubMed

    Fraguela, Andrés; Matlalcuatzi, Francisca D; Ramos, Ángel M

    2015-02-01

    The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight. For this purpose, we propose an algorithm to control the temperature inside the incubator. It takes into account the measurements of the body temperature of a premature newborn which are recorded continuously. We show that using this model the temperature of a premature newborn inside the incubator can be kept in a thermal stability range. PMID:25557201

  1. Impact of proliferation strategies on food web viability in a model with closed nutrient cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwabiński, Janusz

    2012-11-01

    A food web model with a closed nutrient cycle is presented and analyzed via Monte Carlo simulations. The model consists of three trophic levels, each of which is populated by animals of one distinct species. While the species at the intermediate level feeds on the basal species, and is eaten by the predators living at the highest level, the basal species itself uses the detritus of animals from higher levels as the food resource. The individual organisms remain localized, but the species can invade new lattice areas via proliferation. The impact of different proliferation strategies on the viability of the system is investigated. From the phase diagrams generated in the simulations it follows that in general a strategy with the intermediate level species searching for food is the best for the survival of the system. The results indicate that both the intermediate and top level species play a critical role in maintaining the structure of the system.

  2. Modeling of reflux condensation and countercurrent annular flow in a two-phase closed thermosyphon

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.G.; Tien, C.L.

    1985-12-01

    Reflux condensation in the steam generator tubes of a PWR is a potentially important heat removal mechanism during the cool-down phase following a small-break LOCA. This work studies reflux condensation using the two-phase closed thermosyphon as a model system. An analytical model based on control-volume formulations of mass, momentum, and energy balances for the liquid and vapor flows in each section of the device is developed. Numerical solutions to the system of governing equations are presented for both steady-state and transient operation of the device. While no data with which to compare the results of the transient analysis are currently available, the steady-state solutions compare well with available experimental data on flooding and film thickness. Thus, the analytical approach presented in this work is demonstrated to be a powerful technique for analyzing countercurrent, annular, two-phase flows. 17 refs., 17 figs.

  3. {alpha}-cluster structure above doubly closed shells in a generalized density-dependent cluster model

    SciTech Connect

    Ni Dongdong; Ren Zhongzhou

    2011-01-15

    An extension of the generalized density-dependent cluster model (GDDCM) is presented to study {alpha}-cluster structure above doubly closed shells. In all cases, the microscopic {alpha}-core potential is numerically constructed in the double-folding model with CDM3Y6 nucleon-nucleon interactions plus proton-proton Coulomb interactions. The properties of intraband E2 transitions and {alpha} decays are calculated by the exact solution of the Schroedinger equation with appropriate boundary conditions. It is found that the enhanced B(E2) transition strengths are well reproduced without any effective charge and the calculations of {alpha}-decay properties show good agreement with the available experimental data. This indicates that the GDDCM has universal applicability and equal validity regardless of whether the {alpha}-cluster states are in light or heavy nuclei.

  4. Main control computer security model of closed network systems protection against cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymen, Bilal

    2014-06-01

    The model that brings the data input/output under control in closed network systems, that maintains the system securely, and that controls the flow of information through the Main Control Computer which also brings the network traffic under control against cyber-attacks. The network, which can be controlled single-handedly thanks to the system designed to enable the network users to make data entry into the system or to extract data from the system securely, intends to minimize the security gaps. Moreover, data input/output record can be kept by means of the user account assigned for each user, and it is also possible to carry out retroactive tracking, if requested. Because the measures that need to be taken for each computer on the network regarding cyber security, do require high cost; it has been intended to provide a cost-effective working environment with this model, only if the Main Control Computer has the updated hardware.

  5. First Experiences with Kinect v2 Sensor for Close Range 3d Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachat, E.; Macher, H.; Mittet, M.-A.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2015-02-01

    RGB-D cameras, also known as range imaging cameras, are a recent generation of sensors. As they are suitable for measuring distances to objects at high frame rate, such sensors are increasingly used for 3D acquisitions, and more generally for applications in robotics or computer vision. This kind of sensors became popular especially since the Kinect v1 (Microsoft) arrived on the market in November 2010. In July 2014, Windows has released a new sensor, the Kinect for Windows v2 sensor, based on another technology as its first device. However, due to its initial development for video games, the quality assessment of this new device for 3D modelling represents a major investigation axis. In this paper first experiences with Kinect v2 sensor are related, and the ability of close range 3D modelling is investigated. For this purpose, error sources on output data as well as a calibration approach are presented.

  6. Structural-acoustic optimum design of shell structures in open/closed space based on a free-form optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Masatoshi; Shimoide, Kensuke; Shi, Jin-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Noise reduction by structural geometry optimization has attracted much attention among designers. In the present work, we propose a free-form optimization method for the structural-acoustic design optimization of shell structures to reduce the noise of a targeted frequency or frequency range in an open or closed space. The objective of the design optimization is to minimize the average structural vibration-induced sound pressure at the evaluation points in the acoustic field under a volume constraint. For the shape design optimization, we carry out structural-acoustic coupling analysis and adjoint analysis to calculate the shape gradient functions. Then, we use the shape gradient functions in velocity analysis to update the shape of shell structures. We repeat this process until convergence is confirmed to obtain the optimum shape of the shell structures in a structural-acoustic coupling system. The numerical results for the considered examples showed that the proposed design optimization process can significantly reduce the noise in both open and closed spaces.

  7. Closed-Form and Numerically-Stable Solutions to Problems Related to the Optimal Two-Impulse Transfer Between Specified Terminal States of Keplerian Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senent, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents some closed-form solutions to the optimal two-impulse transfer between fixed position and velocity vectors on Keplerian orbits when some constraints are imposed on the magnitude of the initial and final impulses. Additionally, a numerically-stable gradient-free algorithm with guaranteed convergence is presented for the minimum delta-v two-impulse transfer. In the second part of the paper, cooperative bargaining theory is used to solve some two-impulse transfer problems when the initial and final impulses are carried by different vehicles or when the goal is to minimize the delta-v and the time-of-flight at the same time.

  8. An exact, closed-form expression of the integral chord-length distribution for the calculation of single-event upsets induced by cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luke, Keung L.; Buehler, Martin G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of an exact closed-form expression of the integral chord-length distribution for the calculation of single-event upsets (SEUs) in an electronic memory cell, caused by cosmic rays. Results computed for two rectangular parallelepipeds using this exact expression are compared with those computed with Bradford's (1979) semiexact expression of C(x). It is found that the values of C(x) are identical for x equal or smaller than b but are vastly different for x greater than b. Moreover, while C(x) of Bradford gives reasonably accurate values of SEU rate for certain sets of computational parameters, it gives values more than 10 times larger than the correct values for other sets of parameters.

  9. Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, P.; César de Sá, J.; Grégoire, S.; Lochegnies, D.

    2007-05-01

    Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication…). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance.

  10. Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, P.; Gregoire, S.; Lochegnies, D.; Cesar de Sa, J.

    2007-05-17

    Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication...). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance.

  11. Closed-Form Solutions for a Circular Tunnel in Elastic-Brittle-Plastic Ground with the Original and Generalized Hoek-Brown Failure Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ran; Tonon, Fulvio

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents a closed-form solution for the convergence curve of a circular tunnel in an elasto-brittle-plastic rock mass with both the Hoek-Brown and generalized Hoek-Brown failure criteria, and a linear flow rule, i.e., the ratio between the minor and major plastic strain increments is constant. The improvement over the original solution of Brown et al. (J Geotech Eng ASCE 109(1):15-39, 1983) consists of taking into account the elastic strain variation in the plastic annulus, which was assumed to be fixed in the original solution by Brown et al. The improvement over Carranza-Torres' solution (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41(Suppl 1):629-639, 2004) consists of providing a closed-form solution, rather than resorting to numerical integration of an ordinary differential equation. The presented solution, by rigorously following the theory of plasticity, takes into account that the elastic strain components change with radial and circumferential stress changes within the plastic annulus. For the original Hoek-Brown failure criterion, disregarding the elastic strain change leads to underestimate the convergence by up to 55%. For a rock mass failing according to the generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion, using the original failure criterion leads to a high probability (97%) of underestimating the convergence by up to 100%. As a consequence, the onset or degree of squeezing may be underestimated, and the loading on the support/reinforcement calculated with the convergence/confinement method may be largely underestimated.

  12. Mixture models for estimating the size of a closed population when capture rates vary among individuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2003-01-01

    We develop a parameterization of the beta-binomial mixture that provides sensible inferences about the size of a closed population when probabilities of capture or detection vary among individuals. Three classes of mixture models (beta-binomial, logistic-normal, and latent-class) are fitted to recaptures of snowshoe hares for estimating abundance and to counts of bird species for estimating species richness. In both sets of data, rates of detection appear to vary more among individuals (animals or species) than among sampling occasions or locations. The estimates of population size and species richness are sensitive to model-specific assumptions about the latent distribution of individual rates of detection. We demonstrate using simulation experiments that conventional diagnostics for assessing model adequacy, such as deviance, cannot be relied on for selecting classes of mixture models that produce valid inferences about population size. Prior knowledge about sources of individual heterogeneity in detection rates, if available, should be used to help select among classes of mixture models that are to be used for inference.

  13. Synthesis of a control model for a liquid nitrogen cooled, closed circuit, cryogenic nitrogen wind tunnel and its validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishna, S.; Goglia, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    The details of the efforts to synthesize a control-compatible multivariable model of a liquid nitrogen cooled, gaseous nitrogen operated, closed circuit, cryogenic pressure tunnel are presented. The synthesized model was transformed into a real-time cryogenic tunnel simulator, and this model is validated by comparing the model responses to the actual tunnel responses of the 0.3 m transonic cryogenic tunnel, using the quasi-steady-state and the transient responses of the model and the tunnel. The global nature of the simple, explicit, lumped multivariable model of a closed circuit cryogenic tunnel is demonstrated.

  14. Nonequilibrium models for predicting forms of precipitated manganese oxides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, J.D.; Lind, Carol J.

    1983-01-01

    Manganese oxides precipitated by bubbling air through 0.01 molar solutions of MnCl2, Mn(NO3)2, MnSO4, or Mn(ClO4)2 at a constantly maintained pH of 8.5 to 9.5 at temperatures of 25??C or higher consisted mainly of hausmannite, Mn3O4. At temperatures near 0??C, but with other conditions the same, the product is feitknechtite, ??MnOOH, except that if the initial solution is MnSO4 and the temperature is near 0??C the product is a mixture of manganite, ??MnOOH and groutite, ??MnOOH. All these oxides are metastable in aerated solution and alter by irreversible processes to more highly oxidized species during aging. A two-step nonequilibrium thermodynamic model predicts that the least stable species, ??MnOOH, should be most readily converted to MnO2. Some preparations of ??MnOOH aged in their native solution at 5??C attained a manganese oxidation state of +3.3 or more after 7 months. Hausmannite aged at 25??C altered to ??MnOOH. The latter is more stable than a or ??MnOOH, and manganese oxidation states above 3.0 were not reached in hausmannite precipitates during 4 months of aging. Initial precipitation of MnCO3 rather than a form of oxide is likely only where oxygen availability is very low. Composition of solutions and oxidation state and morphology of solids were determined during the aging process by chemical analyses, X-ray and electron diffraction and transmission electron micrographs. ?? 1983.

  15. A mechanistic model for the prediction of in-use moisture uptake by packaged dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Remmelgas, Johan; Simonutti, Anne-Laure; Ronkvist, Asa; Gradinarsky, Lubomir; Löfgren, Anders

    2013-01-30

    A mechanistic model for the prediction of in-use moisture uptake of solid dosage forms in bottles is developed. The model considers moisture transport into the bottle and moisture uptake by the dosage form both when the bottle is closed and when it is open. Experiments are carried out by placing tablets and desiccant canisters in bottles and monitoring their moisture content. Each bottle is opened once a day to remove one tablet or desiccant canister. Opening the bottle to remove a tablet or canister also causes some exchange of air between the bottle headspace and the environment. In order to ascertain how this air exchange might depend on the customer, tablets and desiccant canisters are removed from the bottles by either carefully removing only one or by pouring all of the tablets or desiccant canisters out of the bottle, removing one, and pouring the remaining ones back into the bottle. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with experimental data for moisture sorption by desiccant canisters. Moreover, it is found experimentally that the manner in which the tablets or desiccant canisters were removed does not appreciably affect their moisture content.

  16. Numerical model describing optimization of fibres winding process on open and closed frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrů, M.; Mlýnek, J.; Martinec, T.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses a numerical model describing optimization of fibres winding process on open and closed frame. The quality production of said type of composite frame depends primarily on the correct winding of fibers on a polyurethane core. It is especially needed to ensure the correct angles of the fibers winding on the polyurethane core and the homogeneity of individual winding layers. The article describes mathematical model for use an industrial robot in filament winding and how to calculate the trajectory of the robot. When winding fibers on the polyurethane core which is fastened to the robot-end-effector so that during the winding process goes through a fibre-processing head on the basis of the suitably determined robot-end-effector trajectory. We use the described numerical model and matrix calculus to enumerate the trajectory of the robot-end-effector to determine the desired passage of the frame through the fibre-processing head. The calculation of the trajectory was programmed in the Delphi development environment. Relations of the numerical model are important for use a real solving of the passage of a polyurethane core through fibre-processing head.

  17. Dynamic control of modeled tonic-clonic seizure states with closed-loop stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Beverlin II, Bryce; Netoff, Theoden I.

    2013-01-01

    Seizure control using deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides an alternative therapy to patients with intractable and drug resistant epilepsy. This paper presents novel DBS stimulus protocols to disrupt seizures. Two protocols are presented: open-loop stimulation and a closed-loop feedback system utilizing measured firing rates to adjust stimulus frequency. Stimulation suppression is demonstrated in a computational model using 3000 excitatory Morris–Lecar (M–L) model neurons connected with depressing synapses. Cells are connected using second order network topology (SONET) to simulate network topologies measured in cortical networks. The network spontaneously switches from tonic to clonic as synaptic strengths and tonic input to the neurons decreases. To this model we add periodic stimulation pulses to simulate DBS. Periodic forcing can synchronize or desynchronize an oscillating population of neurons, depending on the stimulus frequency and amplitude. Therefore, it is possible to either extend or truncate the tonic or clonic phases of the seizure. Stimuli applied at the firing rate of the neuron generally synchronize the population while stimuli slightly slower than the firing rate prevent synchronization. We present an adaptive stimulation algorithm that measures the firing rate of a neuron and adjusts the stimulus to maintain a relative stimulus frequency to firing frequency and demonstrate it in a computational model of a tonic-clonic seizure. This adaptive algorithm can affect the duration of the tonic phase using much smaller stimulus amplitudes than the open-loop control. PMID:23390413

  18. Algorithms for a Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas: The Case for Model Predictive Control

    PubMed Central

    Bequette, B. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    The relative merits of model predictive control (MPC) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control are discussed, with the end goal of a closed-loop artificial pancreas (AP). It is stressed that neither MPC nor PID are single algorithms, but rather are approaches or strategies that may be implemented very differently by different engineers. The primary advantages to MPC are that (i) constraints on the insulin delivery rate (and/or insulin on board) can be explicitly included in the control calculation; (ii) it is a general framework that makes it relatively easy to include the effect of meals, exercise, and other events that are a function of the time of day; and (iii) it is flexible enough to include many different objectives, from set-point tracking (target) to zone (control to range). In the end, however, it is recognized that the control algorithm, while important, represents only a portion of the effort required to develop a closed-loop AP. Thus, any number of algorithms/approaches can be successful—the engineers involved in the design must have experience with the particular technique, including the important experience of implementing the algorithm in human studies and not simply through simulation studies. PMID:24351190

  19. Nonnegative signal factorization with learnt instrument models for sound source separation in close-microphone recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabias-Orti, Julio J.; Cobos, Máximo; Vera-Candeas, Pedro; Rodríguez-Serrano, Francisco J.

    2013-12-01

    Close-microphone techniques are extensively employed in many live music recordings, allowing for interference rejection and reducing the amount of reverberation in the resulting instrument tracks. However, despite the use of directional microphones, the recorded tracks are not completely free from source interference, a problem which is commonly known as microphone leakage. While source separation methods are potentially a solution to this problem, few approaches take into account the huge amount of prior information available in this scenario. In fact, besides the special properties of close-microphone tracks, the knowledge on the number and type of instruments making up the mixture can also be successfully exploited for improved separation performance. In this paper, a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) method making use of all the above information is proposed. To this end, a set of instrument models are learnt from a training database and incorporated into a multichannel extension of the NMF algorithm. Several options to initialize the algorithm are suggested, exploring their performance in multiple music tracks and comparing the results to other state-of-the-art approaches.

  20. An administrative model for close monitoring and managing high risk individuals.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, D A; Bloom, J D; Williams, M; McFarland, B H

    1999-01-01

    The public expects central government to have immediate knowledge of the condition and circumstances of certain vulnerable or dangerous individuals such as insanity acquittees, and to take action in individual cases to protect the individual and the public. Therefore, such persons conditionally released to community settings require an unusual degree of close monitoring and management. Being immediately aware of the condition and circumstances of its assignees, together with other duties of a board or commission responsible for that monitoring and management, is largely an information management function. The Psychiatric Security Review Board in Oregon is used to illustrate this unique mission, operations, and information management. In this paper, the Psychiatric Security Review Board is described in terms of its core and secondary businesses, together with a model information system that is based on information and information management processes actually employed by the Board.

  1. Comment on {open_quotes}Models of intermediate spectral statistics{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Gorin, T.; Muller, M.; Seba, P.

    2001-06-01

    In this Comment we point out that the semi-Poisson is well suited only as a reference point for the so-called {open_quotes}intermediate statistics,{close_quotes} which cannot be interpreted as a universal ensemble, like the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble or the Poissonian statistics. In Ref. 2 it was proposed that the nearest-neighbor distribution P(s) of the spectrum of a Poissonian distributed matrix perturbed by a rank one matrix is similar to the semi-Poisson distribution. We show, however, that the P(s) of this model differs considerably in many aspects from the semi-Poisson. In addition, we give an asymptotic formula for P(s) as s{r_arrow}0, which gives P{sup {prime}}(0)={pi}{radical}3/2 for the slope at s=0. This is different not only from the GOE case, but also from the semi-Poisson prediction.

  2. Hydrodynamics of rotating stars and close binary interactions: Compressible ellipsoid models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Dong; Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a new formalism to study the dynamics of fluid polytropes in three dimensions. The stars are modeled as compressible ellipsoids, and the hydrodynamic equations are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations for the evolution of the principal axes and other global quantities. Both viscous dissipation and the gravitational radiation reaction are incorporated. We establish the validity of our approximations and demonstrate the simplicity and power of the method by rederiving a number of known results concerning the stability and dynamical oscillations of rapidly rotating polytropes. In particular, we present a generalization to compressible fluids of Chandrasekhar's classical results for the secular and dynamical instabilities of incompressible Maclaurin spheroids. We also present several applications of our method to astrophysical problems of great current interest, such as the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole, the coalescence of compact binaries driven by the emission of gravitational waves, and the development of instabilities in close binary systems.

  3. Comparison of Tests on Air Propellers in Flight with Wind Tunnel Model Tests on Similar Forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P

    1926-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance, characteristics, and coefficients of full-sized air propellers in flight and to compare these results with those derived from wind-tunnel tests on reduced scale models of similar geometrical form. The full-scale equipment comprised five propellers in combination with a VE-7 airplane and Wright E-4 engine. This part of the work was carried out at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, between May 1 and August 24, 1924, and was under the immediate charge of Mr. Lesley. The model or wind-tunnel part of the investigation was carried out at the Aerodynamic Laboratory of Stanford University and was under the immediate charge of Doctor Durand. A comparison of the curves for full-scale results with those derived from the model tests shows that while the efficiencies realized in flight are close to those derived from model tests, both thrust developed and power absorbed in flight are from 6 to 10 per cent greater than would be expected from the results of model tests.

  4. A model of Stokesian peristalsis and vesicle transport in a three-dimensional closed cavity.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Vivian; Cortez, Ricardo; Fauci, Lisa

    2015-06-25

    The complexity of the mechanics involved in the mammalian reproductive process is evident. Neither an ovum nor an embryo is self-propelled, but move through the oviduct or uterus due to the peristaltic action of the tube walls, imposed pressure gradients, and perhaps ciliary motion. Here we use the method of regularized Stokeslets to model the transport of an ovum or an embryo within a peristaltic tube. We represent the ovum or the embryo as a spherical vesicle of finite volume - not a massless point particle. The outer membrane of the neutrally buoyant vesicle is discretized by nodes that are joined by a network of springs. The elastic moduli of these springs are chosen large enough so that a spherical shape is maintained. For simplicity, here we choose an axisymmetric tube where the geometry of the two-dimensional cross-section along the tube axis reflects that of the sagittal cross-section of the uterine cavity. Although the tube motion is axisymmetric, the presence of the vesicle within the tube requires a fully three-dimensional model. As was found in Yaniv et al. (2009, 2012) for a 2D closed channel, we find that the flow dynamics in a 3D peristaltic tube are strongly influenced by the closed end and the manner in which the peristaltic wave damps out towards the closure. In addition, we demonstrate that the trajectory of a vesicle of finite volume can greatly differ from the trajectory of a massless fluid particle initially placed at the vesicle׳s centroid.

  5. Modeling of early stages of island growth during pulsed deposition: Role of closed compact islands

    SciTech Connect

    Kotrla, M.; Masin, M.

    2011-03-24

    After a brief review of recent modeling of growth during Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD), we present the study of a role of adatom interactions on growth of surface islands during PLD in submonolayer regime. We employ kinetic Monte Carlo simulation with reversible growth. Attachment of monomers to islands is irreversible at low temperatures while it becomes reversible at higher temperatures, small islands become unstable with growing temperature. In the case of real system we have to take into account not only diffusion of monomers but also diffusivity of dimers and larger clusters and theirs stability. Our new code allows us to study processes which proceed on different time scales which are typical in PLD experiments: fast deposition (on scale order of 10{sup -5} s) during individual pulses, and relaxation of a system between pulses (on scale order of 0.1 s). We calculate and compare the temperature dependence of island density for two modes pulsed deposition and continuous Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth. The island densities in PLD mode are substantially higher than in MBE mode, provided the temperature is sufficiently high. In the case of PLD, we observe anomalous temperature dependence of the island density in a certain temperature interval. It is due to the interplay between a cluster decay time and an interval between pulses. The cluster decay time depends not only on temperature but also on clusters size and shape. The anomalous behavior is caused by the temperature limited stability of the closed--compact clusters. This scenario was revealed for the simplified model with only nearest-neighbor interaction. Now, it is elucidated further and we also include interaction to second and third neighbors. We analyze role of the closed-compact surface island in kinetics of both growth modes. Furthermore, by varying interactions energies, diffusion barrier and parameters of deposition, we compare results of simulations with the PLD experiment for Fe/Mo system.

  6. A model of Stokesian peristalsis and vesicle transport in a three-dimensional closed cavity.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Vivian; Cortez, Ricardo; Fauci, Lisa

    2015-06-25

    The complexity of the mechanics involved in the mammalian reproductive process is evident. Neither an ovum nor an embryo is self-propelled, but move through the oviduct or uterus due to the peristaltic action of the tube walls, imposed pressure gradients, and perhaps ciliary motion. Here we use the method of regularized Stokeslets to model the transport of an ovum or an embryo within a peristaltic tube. We represent the ovum or the embryo as a spherical vesicle of finite volume - not a massless point particle. The outer membrane of the neutrally buoyant vesicle is discretized by nodes that are joined by a network of springs. The elastic moduli of these springs are chosen large enough so that a spherical shape is maintained. For simplicity, here we choose an axisymmetric tube where the geometry of the two-dimensional cross-section along the tube axis reflects that of the sagittal cross-section of the uterine cavity. Although the tube motion is axisymmetric, the presence of the vesicle within the tube requires a fully three-dimensional model. As was found in Yaniv et al. (2009, 2012) for a 2D closed channel, we find that the flow dynamics in a 3D peristaltic tube are strongly influenced by the closed end and the manner in which the peristaltic wave damps out towards the closure. In addition, we demonstrate that the trajectory of a vesicle of finite volume can greatly differ from the trajectory of a massless fluid particle initially placed at the vesicle׳s centroid. PMID:25817334

  7. A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage.

    PubMed

    Hines-Beard, Jessica; Marchetta, Jeffrey; Gordon, Sarah; Chaum, Edward; Geisert, Eldon E; Rex, Tonia S

    2012-06-01

    We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4 psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions.

  8. Exact string theory model of closed timelike curves and cosmological singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Clifford V.; Svendsen, Harald G.

    2004-12-15

    We study an exact model of string theory propagating in a space-time containing regions with closed timelike curves (CTCs) separated from a finite cosmological region bounded by a big bang and a big crunch. The model is an nontrivial embedding of the Taub-NUT geometry into heterotic string theory with a full conformal field theory (CFT) definition, discovered over a decade ago as a heterotic coset model. Having a CFT definition makes this an excellent laboratory for the study of the stringy fate of CTCs, the Taub cosmology, and the Milne/Misner-type chronology horizon which separates them. In an effort to uncover the role of stringy corrections to such geometries, we calculate the complete set of {alpha}{sup '} corrections to the geometry. We observe that the key features of Taub-NUT persist in the exact theory, together with the emergence of a region of space with Euclidean signature bounded by timelike curvature singularities. Although such remarks are premature, their persistence in the exact geometry is suggestive that string theory is able to make physical sense of the Milne/Misner singularities and the CTCs, despite their pathological character in general relativity. This may also support the possibility that CTCs may be viable in some physical situations, and may be a natural ingredient in pre-big bang cosmological scenarios.

  9. Impact of the volume of gaseous phase in closed reactors on ANC results and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapeau, Clémentine; Delolme, Cécile; Lassabatere, Laurent; Blanc, Denise

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of the geochemical behavior of polluted solid materials is often challenging and requires huge expenses of time and money. Nevertheless, given the increasing amounts of polluted solid materials and related risks for the environment, it is more and more crucial to understand the leaching of majors and trace metals elements from these matrices. In the designs of methods to quantify pollutant solubilization, the combination of experimental procedures with modeling approaches has recently gained attention. Among usual methods, some rely on the association of ANC and geochemical modeling. ANC experiments - Acid Neutralization Capacity - consists in adding known quantities of acid or base to a mixture of water and contaminated solid materials at a given liquid / solid ratio in closed reactors. Reactors are agitated for 48h and then pH, conductivity, redox potential, carbon, majors and heavy metal solubilized are quantified. However, in most cases, the amounts of matrix and water do not reach the total volume of reactors, leaving some space for air (gaseous phase). Despite this fact, no clear indication is given in standard procedures about the effect of this gaseous phase. Even worse, the gaseous phase is never accounted for when exploiting or modeling ANC data. The gaseous phase may exchange CO2 with the solution, which may, in turn, impact both pH and element release. This study lies within the most general framework for the use of geochemical modeling for the prediction of ANC results for the case of pure phases to real phase assemblages. In this study, we focus on the effect of the gaseous phase on ANC experiments on different mineral phases through geochemical modeling. To do so, we use PHREEQC code to model the evolution of pH and element release (including majors and heavy metals) when several matrices are put in contact with acid or base. We model the following scenarios for the gaseous phase: no gas, contact with the atmosphere (open system

  10. Bayesian Analysis of a Reduced-Form Air Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerical air quality models are being used for assessing emission control strategies for improving ambient pollution levels across the globe. This paper applies probabilistic modeling to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reduction scenarios aimed at lowering ground-level oz...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 1022 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices C Appendix C to...) Pt. 1022, App. C Appendix C to Part 1022—Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices a. Although use of the model forms is not required, use of the model forms in this appendix (as applicable) complies with...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 334 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices C Appendix C to... POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Pt. 334, App. C Appendix C to Part 334—Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices a. Although use of the model forms is not required, use of the model forms in this Appendix (as...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 717 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices C Appendix C to... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Pt. 717, App. C Appendix C to Part 717—Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices a. Although use of the model forms is not required, use of the model forms in this appendix (as...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 571 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices C Appendix C to... REPORTING Pt. 571, App. C Appendix C to Part 571—Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices a. Although use of the model forms is not required, use of the model forms in this Appendix (as applicable) complies with...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 41 - Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices C Appendix C to... Pt. 41, App. C Appendix C to Part 41—Model Forms for Opt-Out Notices a. Although use of the model forms is not required, use of the model forms in this appendix (as applicable) complies with...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Methods to Induce Myocardial Infarction in a Closed-Chest Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Isorni, Marc-Antoine; Casanova, Amaury; Piquet, Julie; Bellamy, Valérie; Pignon, Charly; Puymirat, Etienne; Menasche, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop a rabbit model of closed-chest catheter-induced myocardial infarction. Background. Limitations of rodent and large animal models justify the search for clinically relevant alternatives. Methods. Microcatheterization of the heart was performed in 47 anesthetized 3-4 kg New Zealand rabbits to test five techniques of myocardial ischemia: free coils (n = 4), interlocking coils (n = 4), thrombogenic gelatin sponge (n = 4), balloon occlusion (n = 4), and alcohol injection (n = 8). In order to limit ventricular fibrillation, an antiarrhythmic protocol was implemented, with beta-blockers/amiodarone before and xylocaine infusion during the procedure. Clinical, angiographic, and echographic data were gathered. End points included demonstration of vessel occlusion (TIMI flow grades 0 and 1 on the angiogram), impairment of left ventricular function at 2 weeks after procedure (by echocardiography), and pathologically confirmed myocardial infarction. Results. The best arterial access was determined to be through the right carotid artery. The internal mammary guiding catheter 4-Fr was selected as the optimal device for selective intracoronary injection. Free coils deployed prematurely and tended to prolapse into the aorta. Interlocking coils did not deploy completely and failed to provide reliable results. Gelatin sponge was difficult to handle, adhered to the catheter, and could not be clearly visualized by fluoroscopy. Balloon occlusion yielded inconsistent results. Alcohol injection was the most efficient and reproducible method for inducing myocardial infarction (4 out of 6 animals), the extent of which could be fine-tuned by using a coaxial balloon catheter as a microcatheter (0.52 mm) to achieve a superselective injection of 0.2 mL of alcohol. This approach resulted in a 20% decrease in LVEF and infarcted myocardium was confirmed histologically. Conclusions. By following a stepwise approach, a minimally invasive, effective, and reproducible

  17. 25 CFR 162.402 - Is there a model business lease form?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is there a model business lease form? 162.402 Section 162... Business Leases Business Leasing General Provisions § 162.402 Is there a model business lease form? There is no model business lease form because of the need for flexibility in negotiating and...

  18. 25 CFR 162.402 - Is there a model business lease form?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is there a model business lease form? 162.402 Section 162... Business Leases Business Leasing General Provisions § 162.402 Is there a model business lease form? There is no model business lease form because of the need for flexibility in negotiating and...

  19. 25 CFR 162.302 - Is there a model residential lease form?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is there a model residential lease form? 162.302 Section... Residential Leases Residential Leasing General Provisions § 162.302 Is there a model residential lease form? (a) We will make available one or more model lease forms that satisfy the formal requirements of...

  20. 12 CFR 1022.1 - Purpose, scope, and model forms and disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... model forms in appendix H to 12 CFR part 222, as that appendix existed as of October 1, 2011, are deemed... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose, scope, and model forms and disclosures... (REGULATION V) General Provisions § 1022.1 Purpose, scope, and model forms and disclosures. (a) Purpose....

  1. 12 CFR 1022.1 - Purpose, scope, and model forms and disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... model forms in appendix H to 12 CFR part 222, as that appendix existed as of October 1, 2011, are deemed... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose, scope, and model forms and disclosures... (REGULATION V) General Provisions § 1022.1 Purpose, scope, and model forms and disclosures. (a) Purpose....

  2. 16 CFR Appendix C to Part 698 - Model Forms for Affiliate Marketing Opt-Out Notices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Notices C Appendix C to Part 698 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES Pt. 698, App. C Appendix C to Part 698—Model Forms for Affiliate... of opt-outs by joint consumers to comply with § 680.23(a)(2) of part 680. C-1 Model Form for...

  3. 16 CFR Appendix C to Part 698 - Model Forms for Affiliate Marketing Opt-Out Notices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Notices C Appendix C to Part 698 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES Pt. 698, App. C Appendix C to Part 698—Model Forms for Affiliate... of opt-outs by joint consumers to comply with § 680.23(a)(2) of part 680. C-1 Model Form for...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix C to Part 698 - Model Forms for Affiliate Marketing Opt-Out Notices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Notices C Appendix C to Part 698 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES Pt. 698, App. C Appendix C to Part 698—Model Forms for Affiliate... of opt-outs by joint consumers to comply with § 680.23(a)(2) of part 680. C-1 Model Form for...

  5. Density outbursts in a food web model with a closed nutrient cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwabiński, Janusz

    2013-09-01

    A spatial three level food web model with a closed nutrient cycle is presented and analyzed via Monte Carlo simulations. The food web consists of three trophic levels. The basal level species (called resources, R) corresponds to primary producers in real ecosystems. The species at an intermediate level (consumers, C) relates to herbivores. It feeds on the resources. The consumers themselves constitute food for the top level species (predators, P), which corresponds to carnivores. The remains of the consumers and predators (detritus, D) provide nutrient for the resources. The time evolution of the model reveals two asymptotic states: an absorbing one with all species being extinct, and a coexisting one, in which concentrations of all species are non-zero. There are two possible ways for the system to reach the absorbing state. In some cases the densities increase very quickly at the beginning of a simulation and then decline slowly and almost monotonically. In others, well pronounced peaks in the R, C and D densities appear regularly before the extinction. Those peaks correspond to density outbursts (waves) traveling through the system. We investigate the mechanisms leading to the waves. In particular, we show that the percolation of the detritus (i.e. the accumulation of nutrients) is necessary for the emergence of the waves. Moreover, our results corroborate the hypothesis that top-level predators play an essential role in maintaining the stability of a food web (top-down control).

  6. Model of Close Packing for Determination of the Major Characteristics of the Liquid Dispersions Components

    PubMed Central

    Kolikov, Kiril Hristov; Hristozov, Dimo Donchev; Koleva, Radka Paskova; Krustev, Georgi Aleksandrov

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a close packing model of the particles from the disperse phase of a liquid dispersion. With this model, we find the sediment volumes, the emergent, and the bound dispersion medium. We formulate a new approach for determining the equivalent radii of the particles from the sediment and the emergent (different from the Stokes method). We also describe an easy manner to apply algebraic method for determining the average volumetric mass densities of the ultimate sediment and emergent, as well as the free dispersion medium (without using any pycnometers or densitometers). The masses of the different components and the density of the dispersion phase in the investigated liquid dispersion are also determined by means of the established densities. We introduce for the first time a dimensionless scale for numeric characterization and therefore an index for predicting the sedimentation stability of liquid dispersions in case of straight and/or reverse sedimentation. We also find the quantity of the pure substance (without pouring out or drying) in the dispersion phase of the liquid dispersions. PMID:25136673

  7. How often do diquarks form? A very simple model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, Richard F.

    2016-08-01

    Starting from a textbook result, the nearest-neighbor distribution of particles in an ideal gas, we develop estimates for the probability with which quarks q in a mixed q , q ¯ gas are more strongly attracted to the nearest q , potentially forming a diquark, than to the nearest q ¯. Generic probabilities lie in the range of tens of percent, with values in the several percent range even under extreme assumptions favoring q q ¯ over q q attraction.

  8. A new form of bivariate generalized Poisson regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faroughi, Pouya; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces a new form of bivariate generalized Poisson (BGP) regression which can be fitted to bivariate and correlated count data with covariates. The BGP regression suggested in this study can be fitted not only to bivariate count data with positive, zero or negative correlations, but also to underdispersed or overdispersed bivariate count data. Applications of bivariate Poisson (BP) regression and the new BGP regression are illustrated on Malaysian motor insurance data.

  9. A Magnetic Ribbon Model for Star-forming Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auddy, Sayantan; Basu, Shantanu; Kudoh, Takahiro

    2016-11-01

    We develop a magnetic ribbon model for molecular cloud filaments. These result from turbulent compression in a molecular cloud in which the background magnetic field sets a preferred direction. We argue that this is a natural model for filaments and is based on the interplay between turbulence, strong magnetic fields, and gravitationally driven ambipolar diffusion, rather than pure gravity and thermal pressure. An analytic model for the formation of magnetic ribbons that is based on numerical simulations is used to derive a lateral width of a magnetic ribbon. This differs from the thickness along the magnetic field direction, which is essentially the Jeans scale. We use our model to calculate a synthetic observed relation between apparent width in projection versus observed column density. The relationship is relatively flat, similar to observations, and unlike the simple expectation based on a Jeans length argument.

  10. Holotestoid: a computational model for testing hypotheses about echinoid skeleton form and growth.

    PubMed

    Abou Chakra, Maria; Stone, Jonathon Richard

    2011-09-21

    Regular echinoid skeletons, or tests, comprise plate patterns and overall shapes that have proven challenging to analyse solely on the basis of any one approach or process. Herein, we present a computational model, Holotestoid, that emulates four macrostructural ontogenic processes involved in test growth (plate growth, plate addition, plate interaction, and plate gapping). We devise a geometric representation for analysing tests and describe how we use analogies (bubble interactions and close-packing) to emulate the processes. In the computational model, the emulated processes are used to determine the plate size and plate shape and combined to simulate a growth zone. We simulated growth zones for Arbacia punctulata and for Strongylocentrotus franciscanus by changing the value for one parameter, the ambulacral column angle. We quantitatively compared morphological features for simulated forms to those for real specimens to test the computational model. Additionally, we simulated growth zones for A. punctulata, S. franciscanus, Eucidaris thouarsii, and Mellita quinquiesperforata by changing three parameters, ambulacral column angle, peristome radius to apical system radius ratio, and apical system radius to column length ratio. Holotestoid can be used to explain morphological disparity among echinoid tests. PMID:21756918

  11. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses) and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements), whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages. PMID:26136734

  12. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution.

    PubMed

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses) and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements), whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages. PMID:26136734

  13. A Preliminary and Simplified Closed Brayton Cycle Modeling for a Space Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso; Camillo, Giannino Ponchio

    2008-01-21

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are: 1) to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and 2) to build a demonstrative simulator of CBCL. This preliminary design study is developing the CBCL around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO{sub 2} and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. However, for this first application pure helium will be used as working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer were developed to simulate thermal components. Future efforts will focus on implementing a graphical interface to display the thermal process variables in steady state and to keep track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL.

  14. Modeling Chemical and Isotopic Variations in Lab Formed Hydrothermal Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Golden, D. C.; Socki, R. A.; Guan, Y.; Ming, D. W.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and mineralogical data (e.g. [1]) from Mars suggest that the history of liquid water on the planet was more sporadic in nature than long-lived. The non-equilibrium chemical and isotopic compositions of the carbonates preserved in the martian meteorite ALH84001 are direct evidence of ancient secondary minerals that have not undergone significant diagenesis or stabilization processes typical of long-lived aqueous systems on Earth. Thus secondary minerals and sediments on Mars may primarily record the characteristics of the aqueous environment in which they formed without being significantly overprinted by subsequent diagenetic processes during burial.

  15. Modelling the chemical evolution of star forming filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, D.; Walch, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present simulations of star forming filaments incorporating - to our knowledge - the largest chemical network used to date on-the-fly in a 3D-MHD simulation. The network contains 37 chemical species and about 300 selected reaction rates. For this we use the newly developed package KROME (Grassi et al. [4]). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using such a complex chemical network in 3D-MHD simulations on modern supercomputers. We perform simulations with different strengths of the interstellar radiation field and the cosmic ray ionisation rate and find chemical and physical results in accordance with observations and other recent numerical work.

  16. Toward a Life Span Theory of Close Relationships: The Affective Relationships Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Keiko

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses how close relationships can be conceptualized so that they can be accurately understood over the life span. First, two typical clusters of theories of close relationships, the attachment theory and the social network theory, are compared and discussed with regard to their fundamental but controversial assumptions regarding…

  17. The Behavior of Regular Satellites during the Nice Model's Planetary Close Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, E. C.; Gomes, R. S.; Brasser, R.

    2014-10-01

    In order to explain the behavior of the regular satellites of the ice planets during the instability phase of the Nice model, we used numerical simulations to investigate the evolution of the satellite systems when these two planets experienced encounters with the gas giants. For the initial conditions we placed an ice planet in between Jupiter and Saturn, according to the evolution of Nice model simulations in a jumping Jupiter scenario (Brasser et al. 2009). We used the MERCURY integrator (Chambers 1999) and we obtained 101 successful runs which kept all planets, of which 24 were jumping Jupiter cases. Subsequently we performed additional numerical integrations in which the ice giant that encountered a gas giant was started on the same orbit but with its regular satellites included. This is done as follows: For each of the 101 basic runs, we save the orbital elements of all objects in the integration at all close encounter events. Then we performed a backward integration to start the system 100 years before the encounter and re-enacted the forward integration with the regular satellites around the ice giant. The final orbital elements of the satellites with respect to the ice planet were used to restart the integration for the next planetary encounter. If we assume that Uranus is the ice planet that had encounters with a gas giant, we considered the satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon with their present orbits. For Neptune we introduced Triton with an orbit with a 15% larger than the actual semi-major axis to account for the tidal decay from the LHB to present time. We also assume that Triton was captured through binary disruption (Agnor and Hamilton 2006, Nogueira et al. 2011) and its orbit was circularized by tides during the 500 million years before the LHB.

  18. The IAB Iron-Meteorite Complex: A Group, Five Subgroups, Numerous Grouplets, Closely Related, Mainly Formed by Crystal Segregation in Rapidly Cooling Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    2002-01-01

    We present new data or iron meteorites that are members of group IAB or are closely related to this large group, and we have also reevaluated some of our earlier data for these irons. In the past it was not possible to distinguish IAB and IIICD irons on the basis of their positions on element-Ni diagrams. We now find that plotting, the new and revised data yields six sets of compact fields on element-Au diagrams, each set corresponding to a compositional group. The largest set includes the majority (approximately equal to 70) of irons previously designated IA: We christened this set the IAB main group. The remaining five sets we designate subgroups within the IAB complex. Three of these subgroups have Au contents similar to the main group, and form parallel trends in most element-Ni diagrams. The groups originally designated IIIC and IIID are two of these subgroups: they are now well resolved from each other and from the main group. The other low-Au subgroup has Ni contents just above the main group. Two other IAB subgroups have appreciably higher Au contents than the main group and show weaker compositional links to it. We have named these five subgroups on the basis of their Au and Ni contents. The three subgroups having Au contents similar to the main group are the low-Au (L) subgroups the two others the high-Au (H) subgroups. The Ni contents are designated high (H), medium (M), or low (L). Thus the old group IIID is now the sLH subgroup. the old group IIIC is the sLM subgroup. In addition, eight irons assigned to two grouplets plot between sLL and sLM on most element-Au diagrams. A large number (27) of related irons plot outside these compact fields but nonetheless appear to be sufficiently related to also be included in the IAB complex.

  19. A modulated closed form solution for quantitative susceptibility mapping--a thorough evaluation and comparison to iterative methods based on edge prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khabipova, Diana; Wiaux, Yves; Gruetter, Rolf; Marques, José P

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study is to perform a thorough comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) techniques and their dependence on the assumptions made. The compared methodologies were: two iterative single orientation methodologies minimizing the l2, l1TV norm of the prior knowledge of the edges of the object, one over-determined multiple orientation method (COSMOS) and a newly proposed modulated closed-form solution (MCF). The performance of these methods was compared using a numerical phantom and in-vivo high resolution (0.65 mm isotropic) brain data acquired at 7 T using a new coil combination method. For all QSM methods, the relevant regularization and prior-knowledge parameters were systematically changed in order to evaluate the optimal reconstruction in the presence and absence of a ground truth. Additionally, the QSM contrast was compared to conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE) magnitude and R2* maps obtained from the same dataset. The QSM reconstruction results of the single orientation methods show comparable performance. The MCF method has the highest correlation (corr MCF=0.95, r(2)MCF=0.97) with the state of the art method (COSMOS) with additional advantage of extreme fast computation time. The L-curve method gave the visually most satisfactory balance between reduction of streaking artifacts and over-regularization with the latter being overemphasized when the using the COSMOS susceptibility maps as ground-truth. R2* and susceptibility maps, when calculated from the same datasets, although based on distinct features of the data, have a comparable ability to distinguish deep gray matter structures.

  20. Mechanical properties and modeling of seal-forming lithologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, A.K.; Russell, J.E.; Carter, N.L.; Mazariegos, R.; Ibanez, W.

    1993-01-01

    Specific goals and accomplishments of this research include: (1) The evaluation of models of salt diaper ascent that involve either power law, dislocation creep as determined experimentally by Horseman et al. (1993) or linear, fluid-assisted creep as reported by Spiers et al. (1988, 1990, 1992). We have compared models assuming these two, experimentally evaluated flow laws and examined the predictions they make regarding diaper incubation periods, ascent velocities, deviatoric stresses and strain rates. (2) The evaluation of the effects of differential loading on the initiation an of salt structures. (3) Examination of the role of basement faults on the initiation and morphologic evolution of salt structures. (4) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of shale as a function of pressure and determination of the nature of its brittle-ductile transition. (5) Evaluation of the mechanical anisotropies of shales with varying concentrations, distributions and preferred orientations of clay. (6) The determination of temperature and ratedependencies of strength for a shale constitutive model that can be used in numerical models that depend on viscous formulations. (7) Determination of the mechanisms of deformation for argillaceous rocks over awide range of conditions. (8) Evaluation of the effects of H[sub 2]O within clay interlayers, as adsorbed surface layers.