Science.gov

Sample records for closed form solutions

  1. Optimal Mortgage Refinancing: A Closed Form Solution

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sumit; Driscoll, John C.; Laibson, David I.

    2013-01-01

    We derive the first closed-form optimal refinancing rule: Refinance when the current mortgage interest rate falls below the original rate by at least 1ψ[ϕ+W(−exp(−ϕ))]. In this formula W(.) is the Lambert W-function, ψ=2(ρ+λ)σ,ϕ=1+ψ(ρ+λ)κ∕M(1−τ), ρ is the real discount rate, λ is the expected real rate of exogenous mortgage repayment, σ is the standard deviation of the mortgage rate, κ/M is the ratio of the tax-adjusted refinancing cost and the remaining mortgage value, and τ is the marginal tax rate. This expression is derived by solving a tractable class of refinancing problems. Our quantitative results closely match those reported by researchers using numerical methods. PMID:25843977

  2. A simple closed-form solution for assessing concentration uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F. P. J.; Fiori, Aldo; Bellin, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    We propose closed-form approximate solutions for the moments of a nonreactive tracer that can be used in applications, such as risk analysis. This is in line with the tenet that analytical solutions provide useful information, with minimum cost, during initial site characterization efforts and can serve as a preliminary screening tool when used with prior knowledge. We show that with the help of a few assumptions, the first-order solutions of the concentration moments proposed by Fiori and Dagan (2000) can be further simplified to assume a form similar to well-known deterministic solutions, therefore facilitating their use in applications. A highly anisotropic formation is assumed, and we neglect the transverse components of the two-particle correlation trajectory. The proposed solution compares well with the work of Fiori and Dagan while presenting the same simplicity of use of existing solutions for homogeneous porous media.

  3. Closed-form solutions of performability. [in computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that if computing system performance is degradable then system evaluation must deal simultaneously with aspects of both performance and reliability. One approach is the evaluation of a system's performability which, relative to a specified performance variable Y, generally requires solution of the probability distribution function of Y. The feasibility of closed-form solutions of performability when Y is continuous are examined. In particular, the modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system is considered whose performance Y is the (normalized) average throughput rate realized during a bounded interval of time. Employing an approximate decomposition of the model, it is shown that a closed-form solution can indeed be obtained.

  4. A Closed Form Solution for an Unorthodox Trigonometric Integral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    A closed form solution for the trigonometric integral [integral]sec[superscript 2k+1]xdx, k=0,1,2,..., is presented in this article. The result will fill the gap in another trigonometric integral [integral]sec[superscript 2m+1] x tan[superscript 2n]xdx, which is neglected by most of the calculus textbooks due to its foreseeable unorthodox solution…

  5. Stresses in adhesively bonded joints - A closed-form solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.; Aydinoglu, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    The general plane strain problem of adhesively bonded structures consisting of two different, orthotropic adherends is considered, under the assumption that adherend thicknesses are constant and small in relation to the lateral dimensions of the bonded region, so that they may be treated as plates. The problem is reduced to a system of differential equations for the adhesive stresses which is solved in closed form, with a single lap joint and a stiffened plate under various loading conditions being considered as examples. It is found that the plate theory used in the analysis not only predicts the correct trend for adhesive stresses but gives surprisingly accurate results, the solution being obtained by assuming linear stress-strain relations for the adhesive.

  6. Closed-form solution of decomposable stochastic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, Jon A.

    1990-01-01

    Markov and semi-Markov processes are increasingly being used in the modeling of complex reconfigurable systems (fault tolerant computers). The estimation of the reliability (or some measure of performance) of the system reduces to solving the process for its state probabilities. Such a model may exhibit numerous states and complicated transition distributions, contributing to an expensive and numerically delicate solution procedure. Thus, when a system exhibits a decomposition property, either structurally (autonomous subsystems), or behaviorally (component failure versus reconfiguration), it is desirable to exploit this decomposition in the reliability calculation. In interesting cases there can be failure states which arise from non-failure states of the subsystems. Equations are presented which allow the computation of failure probabilities of the total (combined) model without requiring a complete solution of the combined model. This material is presented within the context of closed-form functional representation of probabilities as utilized in the Symbolic Hierarchical Automated Reliability and Performance Evaluator (SHARPE) tool. The techniques adopted enable one to compute such probability functions for a much wider class of systems at a reduced computational cost. Several examples show how the method is used, especially in enhancing the versatility of the SHARPE tool.

  7. Molecular clock fork phylogenies: closed form analytic maximum likelihood solutions.

    PubMed

    Chor, Benny; Snir, Sagi

    2004-12-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM) are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model-three-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. Quoting Ziheng Yang, who initiated the analytic approach,"this seems to be the simplest case, but has many of the conceptual and statistical complexities involved in phylogenetic estimation."In this work, we give general analytic solutions for a family of trees with four-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. The change from three to four taxa incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system, and requires novel techniques and approaches. We start by presenting the general maximum likelihood problem on phylogenetic trees as a constrained optimization problem, and the resulting system of polynomial equations. In full generality, it is infeasible to solve this system, therefore specialized tools for the molecular clock case are developed. Four-taxa rooted trees have two topologies-the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock fork trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations for the fork. We finally employ symbolic algebra software to obtain closed formanalytic solutions (expressed parametrically in the input data). In general, four-taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that each fork topology has a unique(local and global) ML point.

  8. A Closed Form Vectorial Solution to the Relative Orbital Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condurache, C.; Martinuşi, V.

    2007-05-01

    Time-explicit solutions for relative Keplerian dynamics are presented for the general case in which the reference trajectory is elliptic, parabolic or hyperbolic. The non-linear differential equation modeling the motion is solved by means of tensorial and vectorial regularization methods. This regularizing procedure extends the approaches of Levi-Civita and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel in the case of Kepler problem in rotating reference frames. The solution generalizes the approximate results obtained from Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire, Lawden and Tschauner-Hempel equations. The approximate solutions derived from the liniarized models are in fact the first linear approximation of the exact solution the authors have found.

  9. Closed-form solutions for atomspheric flight with applications to shuttle guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Closed-form solutions for the motion of a rocket-powered vehicle during atmospheric ascent and closed-form solutions for unpowered atmospheric reentry are developed. These closed-form solutions are then used to develop a simplified guidance scheme and to develop a variation-of-parameters integration of more accurate equations of motion with the closed-form solutions as base solutions. The variation-of-parameters integration of the more accurate equations of motion also allows the transition partial derivative matrices associated with these equations to be easily developed. Then the partial derivative transition matrices are used to develop a guidance scheme based on the more accurate equations of motion instead of the less accurate closed-form solutions.

  10. Closed-form analytical solutions for ray tracing in optically anisotropic inhomogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Nishidate, Yohei

    2013-07-01

    Closed-form analytical solutions are obtained for ray tracing in several types of optically anisotropic inhomogeneous media whose optical properties are characterized by a matrix form of the inhomogeneous dielectric tensor in principal coordinates. The first solution is for anisotropic axial media, the second solution is for meridional rays in epsilon-negative metamaterial, and the third solution is an approximate one for rectangular lenses fabricated by molding procedures. The validation of numerical ray-tracing procedures for optically anisotropic inhomogeneous media was widely ignored since the solution was not available, and thus the present solutions are also useful for the validation. Furthermore, as examples of validation, ray trajectories are calculated by the closed-form solutions, and their results are compared with those obtained by a numerical solution of the geodesic equation which can be interpreted as a generalized ray equation.

  11. Closed-form solution for a cantilevered sectorial plate subjected to a tip concentrated force.

    PubMed

    Christy, Carl W; Weggel, David C; Smelser, R E

    2016-01-01

    A closed-form solution is presented for a cantilevered sectorial plate subjected to a tip concentrated force. Since the particular solution for this problem was not found in the literature, it is derived here. Deflections from the total solution (particular plus homogeneous solutions) are compared to those from a finite element analysis and are found to be in excellent agreement, producing an error within approximately 0.08 %. Normalized closed-form deflections and slopes at the fixed support, resulting from an approximate enforcement of the boundary conditions there, deviate from zero by <0.08 %. Finally, the total closed-form solutions for a cantilevered sectorial plate subjected to independent applications of a tip concentrated force, a tip bending moment, and a tip twisting moment, are compiled. PMID:27390653

  12. Closed-form solutions for estimating a rigid motion from plane correspondences extracted from point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2016-04-01

    Registration is often a prerequisite step in processing point clouds. While planar surfaces are suitable features for registration, most of the existing plane-based registration methods rely on iterative solutions for the estimation of transformation parameters from plane correspondences. This paper presents a new closed-form solution for the estimation of a rigid motion from a set of point-plane correspondences. The role of normalization is investigated and its importance for accurate plane fitting and plane-based registration is shown. The paper also presents a thorough evaluation of the closed-form solutions and compares their performance with the iterative solution in terms of accuracy, robustness, stability and efficiency. The results suggest that the closed-form solution based on point-plane correspondences should be the method of choice in point cloud registration as it is significantly faster than the iterative solution, and performs as well as or better than the iterative solution in most situations. The normalization of the point coordinates is also recommended as an essential preprocessing step for point cloud registration. An implementation of the closed-form solutions in MATLAB is available at: http://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/kkhoshelham/research.html#directmotion

  13. Propagation of sound waves through a linear shear layer: A closed form solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Closed form solutions are presented for sound propagation from a line source in or near a shear layer. The analysis was exact for all frequencies and was developed assuming a linear velocity profile in the shear layer. This assumption allowed the solution to be expressed in terms of parabolic cyclinder functions. The solution is presented for a line monopole source first embedded in the uniform flow and then in the shear layer. Solutions are also discussed for certain types of dipole and quadrupole sources. Asymptotic expansions of the exact solutions for small and large values of Strouhal number gave expressions which correspond to solutions previously obtained for these limiting cases.

  14. Propagation of sound waves through a linear shear layer - A closed form solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Closed form solutions are presented for sound propagation from a line source in or near a shear layer. The analysis is exact for all frequencies and is developed assuming a linear velocity profile in the shear layer. This assumption allows the solution to be expressed in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. The solution is presented for a line monopole source first embedded in the uniform flow and then in the shear layer. Solutions are also discussed for certain types of dipole and quadrupole sources. Asymptotic expansions of the exact solutions for small and large values of Strouhal number give expressions which correspond to solutions previously obtained for these limiting cases.

  15. A closed-form solution to a viscoelastically supported Timoshenko beam under harmonic line load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. L.; Xia, Y.; Zhou, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to formulate a closed-form solution to a viscoelastically supported Timoshenko beam under a harmonic line load. The differential governing equations of motion are converted into algebraic equations by assuming the deflection and rotation of the beam in harmonic forms with respect to time and space. The characteristic equation is biquadratic and thus contains 14 explicit roots. These roots are then substituted into Cauchy's residue theorem; consequently, five forms of the closed-form solution are generated. The present solution is consistent with that of an Euler-Bernoulli beam on a Winkler foundation, which is a special case of the present problem. The current solution is also verified through numerical examples.

  16. Closed-form solutions of performability. [modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Methods which yield closed form performability solutions for continuous valued variables are developed. The models are similar to those employed in performance modeling (i.e., Markovian queueing models) but are extended so as to account for variations in structure due to faults. In particular, the modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system is considered whose performance Y is the (normalized) average throughput rate realized during a bounded interval of time. To avoid known difficulties associated with exact transient solutions, an approximate decomposition of the model is employed permitting certain submodels to be solved in equilibrium. These solutions are then incorporated in a model with fewer transient states and by solving the latter, a closed form solution of the system's performability is obtained. In conclusion, some applications of this solution are discussed and illustrated, including an example of design optimization.

  17. An exact closed form solution for constant area compressible flow with friction and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturas, J. I.

    1971-01-01

    The well-known differential equation for the one-dimensional flow of a compressible fluid with heat transfer and wall friction has no known solution in closed form for the general case. This report presents a closed form solution for the special case of constant heat flux per unit length and constant specific heat. The solution was obtained by choosing the square of a dimensionless flow parameter as one of the independent variables to describe the flow. From this exact solution, an approximate simplified form is derived that is applicable for predicting subsonic flow performance characteristics for many types of constant area passages in internal flow. The data included in this report are considered sufficiently accurate for use as a guide in analyzing and designing internal gas flow systems.

  18. Linear Closed-form Solution and Finite-element Analysis of an Active Tensegrity Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmeť, Stanislav; Platko, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Results of the linear closed form solution of an active or adaptive tensegrity unit, as well as its numerical analysis using finite element method are presented in the paper. The shape of the unit is an octahedral cell with a square base and it is formed by thirteen members (four bottom and four top cables, four edge struts and one central strut). The central strut is designed as an actuator that allows for an adjustment of the shape of the unit which leads to changes of tensile forces in the cables. Due to the diagonal symmetry of the 3D tensegrity unit the closed-form analysis is based on the 2D solution of the equivalent planar biconvex cable system with one central strut under a vertical point load.

  19. Closed-form solution of the Ogden-Hill's compressible hyperelastic model for ramp loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezvai, Szabolcs; Kossa, Attila

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with the visco-hyperelastic modelling approach for compressible polymer foam materials. Polymer foams can exhibit large elastic strains and displacements in case of volumetric compression. In addition, they often show significant rate-dependent properties. This material behaviour can be accurately modelled using the visco-hyperelastic approach, in which the large strain viscoelastic description is combined with the rate-independent hyperelastic material model. In case of polymer foams, the most widely used compressible hyperelastic material model, the so-called Ogden-Hill's model, was applied, which is implemented in the commercial finite element (FE) software uc(Abaqus). The visco-hyperelastic model is defined in hereditary integral form, therefore, obtaining a closed-form solution for the stress is not a trivial task. However, the parameter-fitting procedure could be much faster and accurate if closed-form solution exists. In this contribution, exact stress solutions are derived in case of uniaxial, biaxial and volumetric compression loading cases using ramp-loading history. The analytical stress solutions are compared with the stress results in uc(Abaqus) using FE analysis. In order to highlight the benefits of the analytical closed-form solution during the parameter-fitting process experimental work has been carried out on a particular open-cell memory foam material. The results of the material identification process shows significant accuracy improvement in the fitting procedure by applying the derived analytical solutions compared to the so-called separated approach applied in the engineering practice.

  20. Closed-form solutions and scaling laws for Kerr frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Renninger, William H; Rakich, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    A single closed-form analytical solution of the driven nonlinear Schrödinger equation is developed, reproducing a large class of the behaviors in Kerr-comb systems, including bright-solitons, dark-solitons, and a large class of periodic wavetrains. From this analytical framework, a Kerr-comb area theorem and a pump-detuning relation are developed, providing new insights into soliton- and wavetrain-based combs along with concrete design guidelines for both. This new area theorem reveals significant deviation from the conventional soliton area theorem, which is crucial to understanding cavity solitons in certain limits. Moreover, these closed-form solutions represent the first step towards an analytical framework for wavetrain formation, and reveal new parameter regimes for enhanced Kerr-comb performance. PMID:27108810

  1. Closed-form solutions and scaling laws for Kerr frequency combs

    PubMed Central

    Renninger, William H.; Rakich, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    A single closed-form analytical solution of the driven nonlinear Schrödinger equation is developed, reproducing a large class of the behaviors in Kerr-comb systems, including bright-solitons, dark-solitons, and a large class of periodic wavetrains. From this analytical framework, a Kerr-comb area theorem and a pump-detuning relation are developed, providing new insights into soliton- and wavetrain-based combs along with concrete design guidelines for both. This new area theorem reveals significant deviation from the conventional soliton area theorem, which is crucial to understanding cavity solitons in certain limits. Moreover, these closed-form solutions represent the first step towards an analytical framework for wavetrain formation, and reveal new parameter regimes for enhanced Kerr-comb performance. PMID:27108810

  2. Aerodynamic Lift and Moment Calculations Using a Closed-Form Solution of the Possio Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jensen; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present closed-form formulas for the lift and moment coefficients of a lifting surface in two dimensional, unsteady, compressible, subsonic flow utilizing a newly developed explicit analytical solution of the Possio equation. Numerical calculations are consistent with previous numerical tables based on series expansions or ad hoc numerical schemes. More importantly, these formulas lend themselves readily to flutter analysis, compared with the tedious table-look-up schemes currently in use.

  3. Comments on "A Closed-Form Solution to Tensor Voting: Theory and Applications".

    PubMed

    Maggiori, Emmanuel; Lotito, Pablo; Manterola, Hugo Luis; del Fresno, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    We comment on a paper that describes a closed-form formulation to Tensor Voting, a technique to perceptually group clouds of points, usually applied to infer features in images. The authors proved an analytic solution to the technique, a highly relevant contribution considering that the original formulation required numerical integration, a time-consuming task. Their work constitutes the first closed-form expression for the Tensor Voting framework. In this work we first observe that the proposed formulation leads to unexpected results which do not satisfy the constraints for a Tensor Voting output, hence they cannot be interpreted. Given that the closed-form expression is said to be an analytic equivalent solution, unexpected outputs should not be encountered unless there are flaws in the proof. We analyzed the underlying math to find which were the causes of these unexpected results. In this commentary we show that their proposal does not in fact provide a proper analytic solution to Tensor Voting and we indicate the flaws in the proof.

  4. a Weighted Closed-Form Solution for Rgb-D Data Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestena, K. M.; Dos Santos, D. R.; Oilveira, E. M., Jr.; Pavan, N. L.; Khoshelham, K.

    2016-06-01

    Existing 3D indoor mapping of RGB-D data are prominently point-based and feature-based methods. In most cases iterative closest point (ICP) and its variants are generally used for pairwise registration process. Considering that the ICP algorithm requires an relatively accurate initial transformation and high overlap a weighted closed-form solution for RGB-D data registration is proposed. In this solution, we weighted and normalized the 3D points based on the theoretical random errors and the dual-number quaternions are used to represent the 3D rigid body motion. Basically, dual-number quaternions provide a closed-form solution by minimizing a cost function. The most important advantage of the closed-form solution is that it provides the optimal transformation in one-step, it does not need to calculate good initial estimates and expressively decreases the demand for computer resources in contrast to the iterative method. Basically, first our method exploits RGB information. We employed a scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) for extracting, detecting, and matching features. It is able to detect and describe local features that are invariant to scaling and rotation. To detect and filter outliers, we used random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm, jointly with an statistical dispersion called interquartile range (IQR). After, a new RGB-D loop-closure solution is implemented based on the volumetric information between pair of point clouds and the dispersion of the random errors. The loop-closure consists to recognize when the sensor revisits some region. Finally, a globally consistent map is created to minimize the registration errors via a graph-based optimization. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with a Kinect dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed method can properly map the indoor environment with an absolute accuracy around 1.5% of the travel of a trajectory.

  5. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  6. Closed-form Solutions for Optimal Orbital Transfers Around Oblate Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galperin, Alexander; Gurfil, Pini

    2015-07-01

    Optimal spacecraft orbit control has been the subject of extensive research, which resulted in solutions for optimal orbit transfers. A common orbital maneuver problem is the fuel-optimal impulsive transfer between coplanar circular orbits. Three such well-known transfers are the Hohmann transfer, which is an optimal bi-impulsive transfer, the bi-elliptic tri-impulsive transfer, and the bi-parabolic transfer. These solutions were developed based on the Keplerian restricted two-body problem. However, the omission of perturbations results in deviated target orbits and leads to maneuvers that are not actually fuel-optimal. In this paper, the well-known Hohmann, bi-elliptic, and bi-parabolic transfers are modified to accommodate the J 2 zonal harmonic, and new closed-form solutions for the optimal maneuvers are presented. An improvement in maneuver precision is obtained by using an analytical model based on closed-form solutions of motion in the equatorial plane under the effect of J 2. The performance improvement is validated using high-fidelity simulations, which include a myriad of orbital perturbations.

  7. Closed-form solutions for free vibration of rectangular FGM thin plates resting on elastic foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T. F.; Xing, Y. F.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents closed-form solutions for the frequency analysis of rectangular functionally graded material (FGM) thin plates subjected to initially in-plane loads and with an elastic foundation. Based on classical thin plate theory, the governing differential equations are derived using Hamilton's principle. A neutral surface is used to eliminate stretching-bending coupling in FGM plates on the basis of the assumption of constant Poisson's ratio. The resulting governing equation of FGM thin plates has the same form as homogeneous thin plates. The separation-of-variables method is adopted to obtain solutions for the free vibration problems of rectangular FGM thin plates with separable boundary conditions, including, for example, clamped plates. The obtained normal modes and frequencies are in elegant closed forms, and present formulations and solutions are validated by comparing present results with those in the literature and finite element method results obtained by the authors. A parameter study reveals the effects of the power law index n and aspect ratio a/b on frequencies.

  8. Closed-form analytical solutions of high-temperature heat pipe startup and frozen startup limitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Y.; Faghri, A.

    1992-01-01

    Previous numerical and experimental studies indicate that the high-temperature heat pipe startup process is characterized by a moving hot zone with relatively sharp fronts. Based on the above observation, a flat-front model for an approximate analytical solution is proposed. A closed-form solution related to the temperature distribution in the hot zone and the hot zone length as a function of time are obtained. The analytical results agree well with the corresponding experimental data, and provide a quick prediction method for the heat pipe startup performance. Finally, a heat pipe limitation related to the frozen startup process is identified, and an explicit criterion for the high-temperature heat pipe startup is derived. The frozen startup limit identified in this paper provides a fundamental guidance for high-temperature heat pipe design.

  9. Katabatic Flow: A Closed-Form Solution with Spatially-Varying Eddy Diffusivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giometto, M. G.; Grandi, R.; Fang, J.; Monkewitz, P. A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    The Nieuwstadt closed-form solution for the stationary Ekman layer is generalized for katabatic flows within the conceptual framework of the Prandtl model. The proposed solution is valid for spatially-varying eddy viscosity and diffusivity (O'Brien type) and constant Prandtl number (Pr). Variations in the velocity and buoyancy profiles are discussed as a function of the dimensionless model parameters z_0 ≡ hat{z}_0 hat{N}^2 Pr sin {(α )} |hat{b}_s |^{-1} and λ ≡ hat{u}_{ref}hat{N} √{Pr} |hat{b}_s |^{-1} , where hat{z}_0 is the hydrodynamic roughness length, hat{N} is the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, α is the surface sloping angle, hat{b}_s is the imposed surface buoyancy, and hat{u}_{ref} is a reference velocity scale used to define eddy diffusivities. Velocity and buoyancy profiles show significant variations in both phase and amplitude of extrema with respect to the classic constant K model and with respect to a recent approximate analytic solution based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin theory. Near-wall regions are characterized by relatively stronger surface momentum and buoyancy gradients, whose magnitude is proportional to z_0 and to λ . In addition, slope-parallel momentum and buoyancy fluxes are reduced, the low-level jet is further displaced toward the wall, and its peak velocity depends on both z_0 and λ.

  10. A closed-form solution to the minimum {ΔV_tot^2} Lambert's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño, Martín; Mortari, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    A closed form solution to the minimum {Δ V_tot^2} Lambert problem between two assigned positions in two distinct orbits is presented. Motivation comes from the need of computing optimal orbit transfer matrices to solve re-configuration problems of satellite constellations and the complexity associated in facing these problems with the minimization of {Δ V_tot}. Extensive numerical tests show that the difference in fuel consumption between the solutions obtained by minimizing {Δ V_tot^2} and {Δ V_tot} does not exceed 17%. The {Δ V_tot^2} solution can be adopted as starting point to find the minimum {Δ V_tot}. The solving equation for minimum {Δ V_tot^2} Lambert problem is a quartic polynomial in term of the angular momentum modulus of the optimal transfer orbit. The root selection is discussed and the singular case, occurring when the initial and final radii are parallel, is analytically solved. A numerical example for the general case (orbit transfer “pork-chop” between two non-coplanar elliptical orbits) and two examples for the singular case (Hohmann and GTO transfers) are provided.

  11. Dielectric elastomer composites: A general closed-form solution in the small-deformation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Stephen A.; Lefèvre, Victor; Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    2015-10-01

    A solution for the overall electromechanical response of two-phase dielectric elastomer composites with (random or periodic) particulate microstructures is derived in the classical limit of small deformations and moderate electric fields. In this limit, the overall electromechanical response is characterized by three effective tensors: a fourth-order tensor describing the elasticity of the material, a second-order tensor describing its permittivity, and a fourth-order tensor describing its electrostrictive response. Closed-form formulas are derived for these effective tensors directly in terms of the corresponding tensors describing the electromechanical response of the underlying matrix and the particles, and the one- and two-point correlation functions describing the microstructure. This is accomplished by specializing a new iterative homogenization theory in finite electroelastostatics (Lopez-Pamies, 2014) to the case of elastic dielectrics with even coupling between the mechanical and electric fields and, subsequently, carrying out the pertinent asymptotic analysis. Additionally, with the aim of gaining physical insight into the proposed solution and shedding light on recently reported experiments, specific results are examined and compared with an available analytical solution and with new full-field simulations for the special case of dielectric elastomers filled with isotropic distributions of spherical particles with various elastic dielectric properties, including stiff high-permittivity particles, liquid-like high-permittivity particles, and vacuous pores.

  12. Stresses in adhesively bonded joints: A closed form solution. [plate theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.; Aydinoglu, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The plane strain of adhesively bonded structures which consist of two different orthotropic adherents is considered. Assuming that the thicknesses of the adherends are constant and are small in relation to the lateral dimensions of the bonded region, the adherends are treated as plates. The transverse shear effects in the adherends and the in-plane normal strain in the adhesive are taken into account. The problem is reduced to a system of differential equations for the adhesive stresses which is solved in closed form. A single lap joint and a stiffened plate under various loading conditions are considered as examples. To verify the basic trend of the solutions obtained from the plate theory a sample problem is solved by using the finite element method and by treating the adherends and the adhesive as elastic continua. The plate theory not only predicts the correct trend for the adhesive stresses but also gives rather surprisingly accurate results.

  13. Similarity Measure Learning in Closed-Form Solution for Image Classification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Tang, Yuan Yan; Chen, C. L. Philip; Fang, Bin; Shang, Zhaowei; Lin, Yuewei

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a measure is essential in many multimedia applications. Recently, distance learning is becoming an active research problem. In fact, the distance is the natural measure for dissimilarity. Generally, a pairwise relationship between two objects in learning tasks includes two aspects: similarity and dissimilarity. The similarity measure provides different information for pairwise relationships. However, similarity learning has been paid less attention in learning problems. In this work, firstly, we propose a general framework for similarity measure learning (SML). Additionally, we define a generalized type of correlation as a similarity measure. By a set of parameters, generalized correlation provides flexibility for learning tasks. Based on this similarity measure, we present a specific algorithm under the SML framework, called correlation similarity measure learning (CSML), to learn a parameterized similarity measure over input space. A nonlinear extension version of CSML, kernel CSML, is also proposed. Particularly, we give a closed-form solution avoiding iterative search for a local optimal solution in the high-dimensional space as the previous work did. Finally, classification experiments have been performed on face databases and a handwritten digits database to demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of CSML and KCSML. PMID:25057510

  14. Structure of steady state accretion shocks with several cooling functions: Closed integral-form solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kinwah; Chanmugam, G.; Shaviv, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present, for the first time, a closed integral-form solution to the accretion shock structures for the case where the cooling is due to optically thin bremsstrahlung emission and a series of power-law cooling functions of density and temperature. Our results can provide useful checks on numerical calculations and simple accurate estimates for valuable parameters such as the shock height. For the case where the cooling rate j = (2/3)Arho(exp 2)(P/rho)(exp 1/2)(1 + epsilon (sub s)(P/P(sub s)(exp alpha)(rho(sub s)/rho)(exp beta)), we find that a substantial amount of the accretion energy is released at the base of the accretion shock in the form of bremsstrahlung radiation. This implies that for a cyclotron-dominated shock (qualitatively given by alpha = 2.0, beta = 3.85, and epsilon(sub s) is much greater than 1), bremsstrahlung cooling still plays a crucial role in determining the shock structure. Our results are shown to be consistent with detailed numerical calculations.

  15. Mechanical Behavior of Salt Caverns: Closed-Form Solutions vs Numerical Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Bérest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Creep closure and structural stability of a cylindrical elongated cavern leached out from a salt formation are discussed. The Norton-Hoff creep law, or "power law", is used to capture the main features of salt rheological behavior. Two failure criteria are considered: (1) shear stresses must not be larger than a certain fraction of the mean stress (dilation criterion); and (2) the effective stress at the cavern wall (actual stress plus cavern fluid pressure) must not be tensile. The case of a brine-filled cavern whose pressure is kept constant is discussed first. It is proved that creep closure reaches a steady state such that stresses in the rock mass remain constant. However, decades are needed to reach such a state. During the transient phase that results from the slow redistribution of stresses in the rock mass, deviatoric stresses decrease at the vicinity of the cavern wall, and onset of dilation is less and less likely. At this point, the case of a rapid brine pressure increase, typical of a tightness test, is considered. It is proved that during such a swift pressure increase, cavern behavior is almost perfectly elastic; there is no risk of dilation onset. However, even when cavern pressure remains significantly smaller than geostatic, the effective stress at cavern wall can become tensile. These results, obtained through numerical computations, are confirmed by closed-form solutions obtained in the case of an idealized perfectly cylindrical cavern; these solutions provide a better insight into the main structural features of the behavior of the cavern.

  16. Application of closed-form solutions to a mesh point field in silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamorte, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    A computer simulation method is discussed that provides for equivalent simulation accuracy, but that exhibits significantly lower CPU running time per bias point compared to other techniques. This new method is applied to a mesh point field as is customary in numerical integration (NI) techniques. The assumption of a linear approximation for the dependent variable, which is typically used in the finite difference and finite element NI methods, is not required. Instead, the set of device transport equations is applied to, and the closed-form solutions obtained for, each mesh point. The mesh point field is generated so that the coefficients in the set of transport equations exhibit small changes between adjacent mesh points. Application of this method to high-efficiency silicon solar cells is described; and the method by which Auger recombination, ambipolar considerations, built-in and induced electric fields, bandgap narrowing, carrier confinement, and carrier diffusivities are treated. Bandgap narrowing has been investigated using Fermi-Dirac statistics, and these results show that bandgap narrowing is more pronounced and that it is temperature-dependent in contrast to the results based on Boltzmann statistics.

  17. A closed form solution to the one-ball geolocation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. J.; Townsend, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    We address the problem of determining the source location of an electromagnetic signal from the signal received by one or more moving receivers. We base our process on cross-spectral methods that were developed in the early 1980's for analysis and demodulation/despreading of communication and spread spectrum signals and were later applied to speech processing and speech enhancement. In this article, we expand the concept of robust polynomial tracking, which we demonstrate may be used to solve for the emitter location in closed form. This is accomplished by generating and solving a system of equations representing curves, each of which passes through the emitter location.

  18. On the fundamental frequency of symmetric rectangular laminated plates - A new closed-form approximate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Robert; Barton, Oscar; Thigpen, Lewis; Aung, Win; Qian, Bo

    A new closed-form approximation for the fundamental frequency of symmetric rectangular laminates subject to all combinations of hinged and clamped boundary conditions is presented. The distributed parameter eigenvalue equation is cast in an equivalent infinitely-dimensional discrete form. The stiffness and mass matrices are each decomposed into the sum of two matrices, one of which is diagonal while the other contains zero diagonal elements. Design sensitivity analysis is used to expand the desired eigenfrequency in a Maclaurin series of the zero diagonal matrices. The general formula thus obtained is then specialized to rectangular symmetric laminated plates. The remarkable accuracy of this new formula is established by numerical comparisons of results calculated from it to those obtained from the conventional Rayleigh-Ritz method.

  19. Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid over an oscillating vertical plate.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farhad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flows of a second grade fluid near an isothermal vertical plate oscillating in its plane using the Laplace transform technique are established. Expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained and displayed graphically for different values of Prandtl number Pr, thermal Grashof number Gr, viscoelastic parameter α, phase angle ωτ and time τ. Numerical values of skin friction τ 0 and Nusselt number Nu are shown in tables. Some well-known solutions in literature are reduced as the limiting cases of the present solutions.

  20. An approximate closed-form solution for lead lag damping of rotor blades in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Simple stability methods are used to derive an approximate, closed-form expression for the lead-lag damping of rotor blades in hover. Destabilizing terms are shown to be a result of two dynamic mechanisms. First, the destabilizing aerodynamic forces that can occur when blade lift is higher than a critical value are maximized when the blade motion is in a straight line equidistant from the blade chord and the average direction of the air flow velocity. This condition occurs when the Coriolis terms vanish and when the elastic coupling terms align the blade motion with this least stable direction. Second, the nonconservative stiffness terms that result from pitch-flap or pitch-lag coupling can add or subtract energy from the system depending upon whether the motion of the blade tip is clockwise or counterclockwise.

  1. Adaptive Filtering for Large Space Structures: A Closed-Form Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, H. E.; Schaechter, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    In a previous paper Schaechter proposes using an extended Kalman filter to estimate adaptively the (slowly varying) frequencies and damping ratios of a large space structure. The time varying gains for estimating the frequencies and damping ratios can be determined in closed form so it is not necessary to integrate the matrix Riccati equations. After certain approximations, the time varying adaptive gain can be written as the product of a constant matrix times a matrix derived from the components of the estimated state vector. This is an important savings of computer resources and allows the adaptive filter to be implemented with approximately the same effort as the nonadaptive filter. The success of this new approach for adaptive filtering was demonstrated using synthetic data from a two mode system.

  2. A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow using the Lambert-W function.

    PubMed

    Hall, A J; Minchin, P E H

    2013-12-01

    A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow is presented. This incorporates the basic Münch flow model of phloem transport, the cohesion model of xylem flow, and local variation in the xylem water potential and lateral water flow along the transport pathway. Use of the Lambert-W function allows this solution to be obtained under much more general and realistic conditions than has previously been possible. Variation in phloem resistance (i.e. viscosity) with solute concentration, and deviations from the Van't Hoff expression for osmotic potential are included. It is shown that the model predictions match those of the equilibrium solution of a numerical time-dependent model based upon the same mechanistic assumptions. The effect of xylem flow upon phloem flow can readily be calculated, which has not been possible in any previous analytical model. It is also shown how this new analytical solution can handle multiple sources and sinks within a complex architecture, and can describe competition between sinks. The model provides new insights into Münch flow by explicitly including interactions with xylem flow and water potential in the closed-form solution, and is expected to be useful as a component part of larger numerical models of entire plants.

  3. Closed-form analytical solutions incorporating pumping and tidal effects in various coastal aquifer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaoyue; Li, Hailong; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei

    2014-07-01

    Pumping wells are common in coastal aquifers affected by tides. Here we present analytical solutions of groundwater table or head variations during a constant rate pumping from a single, fully-penetrating well in coastal aquifer systems comprising an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer and semi-permeable layer between them. The unconfined aquifer terminates at the coastline (or river bank) and the other two layers extend under tidal water (sea or tidal river) for a certain distance L. Analytical solutions are derived for 11 reasonable combinations of different situations of the L-value (zero, finite, and infinite), of the middle layer's permeability (semi-permeable and impermeable), of the boundary condition at the aquifer's submarine terminal (Dirichlet describing direct connection with seawater and no-flow describing the existence of an impermeable capping), and of the tidal water body (sea and tidal river). Solutions are discussed with application examples in fitting field observations and parameter estimations.

  4. Method for estimating closed-form solutions of the light diffusion equation for turbid media of any boundary shape

    PubMed Central

    Alqasemi, Umar; Salehi, Hassan S.; Zhu, Quing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a method of estimating an approximate closed-form solution to the light diffusion equation for any type of geometry involving Dirichlet’s boundary condition with known source location. It is based on estimating the optimum locations of multiple imaginary point sources to cancel the fluence at the extrapolated boundary by constrained optimization using a genetic algorithm. The mathematical derivation of the problem to approach the optimum solution for the direct-current type of diffuse optical systems is described in detail. Our method is first applied to slab geometry and compared with a truncated series solution. After that, it is applied to hemispherical geometry and compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. The method provides a fast and sufficiently accurate fluence distribution for optical reconstruction. PMID:26831771

  5. Closed form solutions of constrained trajectories - Application in optimal ascent of aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping; Samsundar, John

    1992-01-01

    The present consideration of the flight trajectory of hypersonic aerospace vehicles subject to a class of path constraints notes the constrained dynamics to constitute a natural two-timescale system, so that problems of trajectory optimization and guidance can be dramatically simplified by means of the asymptotic analytical solutions thus obtained. An illustrative application in ascent trajectory optimization for an aerospace vehicle is presented.

  6. Closed-Form Solution for the Effect of Fuel Decay and Thermoelectric Degradation on Output of SiGe RTGs

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1991-08-01

    Presented at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA August 4-9, 1991. The paper derives a closed-form solution for the long-term effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the performance of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators employing silicon-germanium converter elements. RTGs of this type were used to power the recent Galileo and Ulysses space exploration missions, and are slated for use on the upcoming CRAF and Cassini missions. The method described applies not only to uniform-temperature RTGs, but also to RTGs with significant axial and circumferential variations in the couples' cold-junction temperatures and voltages (due to unsymmetrically obstructed heat rejection paths). This is important for the mutually blocking RTGs on the CRAF and Cassini spacecraft, and even more so for the reflector-blocked Solar Probe RTGs. The method for predicting RTG degradation that is dervied in this paper is based on both analytical and experimental data. It accounts for the effect of diminishing hot-junction temperatures on thermoelectric degradation rates. The method leads to an integral equation, for which the author was able to derive a closed-form solution. The solution was successfully validated by comparison with long-term test data. It enables the RTG designer to predict the power output profile throughout the mission, to ensure that it satisfies the mission's power demand profile. There are four copies in the file.

  7. Maximum precision closed-form solution for localizing diffraction-limited spots in noisy images.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Joshua D; Cook, Peter R

    2012-07-30

    Super-resolution techniques like PALM and STORM require accurate localization of single fluorophores detected using a CCD. Popular localization algorithms inefficiently assume each photon registered by a pixel can only come from an area in the specimen corresponding to that pixel (not from neighboring areas), before iteratively (slowly) fitting a Gaussian to pixel intensity; they fail with noisy images. We present an alternative; a probability distribution extending over many pixels is assigned to each photon, and independent distributions are joined to describe emitter location. We compare algorithms, and recommend which serves best under different conditions. At low signal-to-noise ratios, ours is 2-fold more precise than others, and 2 orders of magnitude faster; at high ratios, it closely approximates the maximum likelihood estimate.

  8. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  9. Closed-form analytical solutions for assessing the consequences of sea-level rise on unconfined sloping island aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnaux, R.

    2016-04-01

    Closed-form analytical solutions for assessing the consequences of sea-level rise on fresh groundwater oceanic island lenses are provided for the cases of both strip and circular islands. Solutions are proposed for directly calculating the change in the thickness of the lens, the changes in volume and the changes in travel time of fresh groundwater within island aquifers. The solutions apply for homogenous aquifers recharged by surface infiltration and discharged by a down-gradient, fixed-head boundary. They also take into account the inland shift of the ocean due to land surface inundation, this shift being determined by the coastal slope of inland aquifers. The solutions are given for two simple island geometries: circular islands and strip islands. Base case examples are presented to illustrate, on one hand, the amplitude of the change of the fresh groundwater lens thickness and the volume depletion of the lens in oceanic island with sea-level rise, and on the other hand, the shortening of time required for groundwater to discharge into the ocean. These consequences can now be quantified and may help decision-makers to anticipate the effects of sea-level rise on fresh groundwater availability in oceanic island aquifers.

  10. Closed-form solutions for the hollow sphere model with Coulomb and Drucker-Prager materials under isotropic loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoré, Philippe; Pastor, Franck; Pastor, Joseph; Kondo, Djimedo

    2009-05-01

    Though the solution to the limit analysis problem of the hollow sphere model—with a von Mises matrix and under spherical symmetry—is well known, it is not available, to our knowledge, for both isotropic loadings (tension and compression) in the case of a Coulomb matrix and partially for a Drucker-Prager matrix. In the present Note, we establish in a unified framework, for this class of materials, closed-form solutions for stress and strain fields in a hollow sphere under external isotropic tension and compression. These analytical results not only give useful reference solutions, but can also be considered as a part of a trial velocity field in the hollow sphere submitted to an arbitrary loading. Comparisons with 3D finite element-based limit analysis approaches and with recent results in the literature are provided. In addition to the established analytical results, we present a rigorous evaluation of a recent Gurson-type macroscopic criterion corresponding to the Drucker-Prager hollow sphere under an arbitrary loading, by means of the previous 3D limit analysis codes. To cite this article: Ph. Thoré et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  11. Closed-form stochastic solutions for non-equilibrium dynamics and inheritance of cellular components over many cell divisions

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Iain G.; Jones, Nick S.

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics govern many important processes in cellular biology, and an underlying theoretical approach describing these dynamics is desirable to address a wealth of questions in biology and medicine. Mathematical tools exist for treating several important examples of these stochastic processes, most notably gene expression and random partitioning at single-cell divisions or after a steady state has been reached. Comparatively little work exists exploring different and specific ways that repeated cell divisions can lead to stochastic inheritance of unequilibrated cellular populations. Here we introduce a mathematical formalism to describe cellular agents that are subject to random creation, replication and/or degradation, and are inherited according to a range of random dynamics at cell divisions. We obtain closed-form generating functions describing systems at any time after any number of cell divisions for binomial partitioning and divisions provoking a deterministic or random, subtractive or additive change in copy number, and show that these solutions agree exactly with stochastic simulation. We apply this general formalism to several example problems involving the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA during development and organismal lifetimes. PMID:26339194

  12. Closed form solution for a conductive-convective-radiative annular fin with multiple nonlinearities and its inverse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Rajiv; Mallick, Ashis; Prasad, Dilip K.

    2016-07-01

    The performance characteristics and temperature field of conducting-convecting-radiating annular fin are investigated. The nonlinear variation of thermal conductivity, power law dependency of heat transfer coefficient, linear variation of surface emissivity, and heat generation with the temperature are considered in the analysis. A semi-analytical approach, homotopy perturbation method is employed to solve the nonlinear differential equation of heat transfer. The analysis is presented in non-dimensional form, and the effect of various non-dimensional thermal parameters such as conduction-convection parameter, conduction-radiation parameter, linear and nonlinear variable thermal conductivity parameter, emissivity parameter, heat generation number and variable heat generation parameter are studied. For the correctness of the present analytical solution, the results are compared with the results available in the literature. In addition to forward problem, an inverse approach namely differential evolution method is employed for estimating the unknown thermal parameters for a given temperature field. The temperature fields are reconstructed using the inverse parameters and found to be in good agreement with the forward solution.

  13. Closed-Form Solutions for a Circular Tunnel in Elastic-Brittle-Plastic Ground with the Original and Generalized Hoek-Brown Failure Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ran; Tonon, Fulvio

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents a closed-form solution for the convergence curve of a circular tunnel in an elasto-brittle-plastic rock mass with both the Hoek-Brown and generalized Hoek-Brown failure criteria, and a linear flow rule, i.e., the ratio between the minor and major plastic strain increments is constant. The improvement over the original solution of Brown et al. (J Geotech Eng ASCE 109(1):15-39, 1983) consists of taking into account the elastic strain variation in the plastic annulus, which was assumed to be fixed in the original solution by Brown et al. The improvement over Carranza-Torres' solution (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41(Suppl 1):629-639, 2004) consists of providing a closed-form solution, rather than resorting to numerical integration of an ordinary differential equation. The presented solution, by rigorously following the theory of plasticity, takes into account that the elastic strain components change with radial and circumferential stress changes within the plastic annulus. For the original Hoek-Brown failure criterion, disregarding the elastic strain change leads to underestimate the convergence by up to 55%. For a rock mass failing according to the generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion, using the original failure criterion leads to a high probability (97%) of underestimating the convergence by up to 100%. As a consequence, the onset or degree of squeezing may be underestimated, and the loading on the support/reinforcement calculated with the convergence/confinement method may be largely underestimated.

  14. Some closed-form solutions of the temperature field due to bending magnet and undulator heating in APS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Nian, T.

    1993-07-01

    Several temperature field solutions due to bending magnet and undulator x-ray heating are developed and presented in this paper. The Gaussian power distribution is simulated as the bending magnet whereas a Guassian-parabolic type of power distribution is used for the undulator/wiggler heating. The heating on a two-dimensional plane, three-dimensional block, thin disk, infinite wedge plane, infinite wedge block, and beryllium-copper composite are analyzed. Parametric studies are also included to determine the optimized temperature.

  15. Closed-Form and Numerically-Stable Solutions to Problems Related to the Optimal Two-Impulse Transfer Between Specified Terminal States of Keplerian Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senent, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents some closed-form solutions to the optimal two-impulse transfer between fixed position and velocity vectors on Keplerian orbits when some constraints are imposed on the magnitude of the initial and final impulses. Additionally, a numerically-stable gradient-free algorithm with guaranteed convergence is presented for the minimum delta-v two-impulse transfer. In the second part of the paper, cooperative bargaining theory is used to solve some two-impulse transfer problems when the initial and final impulses are carried by different vehicles or when the goal is to minimize the delta-v and the time-of-flight at the same time.

  16. A modulated closed form solution for quantitative susceptibility mapping--a thorough evaluation and comparison to iterative methods based on edge prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khabipova, Diana; Wiaux, Yves; Gruetter, Rolf; Marques, José P

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study is to perform a thorough comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) techniques and their dependence on the assumptions made. The compared methodologies were: two iterative single orientation methodologies minimizing the l2, l1TV norm of the prior knowledge of the edges of the object, one over-determined multiple orientation method (COSMOS) and a newly proposed modulated closed-form solution (MCF). The performance of these methods was compared using a numerical phantom and in-vivo high resolution (0.65 mm isotropic) brain data acquired at 7 T using a new coil combination method. For all QSM methods, the relevant regularization and prior-knowledge parameters were systematically changed in order to evaluate the optimal reconstruction in the presence and absence of a ground truth. Additionally, the QSM contrast was compared to conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE) magnitude and R2* maps obtained from the same dataset. The QSM reconstruction results of the single orientation methods show comparable performance. The MCF method has the highest correlation (corr MCF=0.95, r(2)MCF=0.97) with the state of the art method (COSMOS) with additional advantage of extreme fast computation time. The L-curve method gave the visually most satisfactory balance between reduction of streaking artifacts and over-regularization with the latter being overemphasized when the using the COSMOS susceptibility maps as ground-truth. R2* and susceptibility maps, when calculated from the same datasets, although based on distinct features of the data, have a comparable ability to distinguish deep gray matter structures.

  17. Closed form low-thrust trajectories for Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Several closed form trajectory solutions have been developed for low-thrust interplanetary flight and used with patched conics for analysis of combined propulsion systems. The solutions provide insight into alternative types of Mars missions, and show considerable mass savings for fast crewed missions with outbound trip times on the order of 90--100 days. 7 refs.

  18. Closed form low-thrust trajectories for Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    Several closed form trajectory solutions have been developed for low-thrust interplanetary flight and used with patched conics for analysis of combined propulsion systems. The solutions provide insight into alternative types of Mars missions, and show considerable mass savings for fast crewed missions with outbound trip times on the order of 90--100 days. 7 refs.

  19. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  20. The fundamental closed-form solution of control-related states of kth order S3PR system with left-side non-sharing resource places of Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Daniel Yuh; Yu, Tsung Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Due to the state explosion problem, it has been unimaginable to enumerate reachable states for Petri nets. Chao broke the barrier earlier by developing the very first closed-form solution of the number of reachable and other states for marked graphs and the kth order system. Instead of using first-met bad marking, we propose 'the moment to launch resource allocation' (MLR) as a partial deadlock avoidance policy for a large, real-time dynamic resource allocation system. Presently, we can use the future deadlock ratio of the current state as the indicator of MLR due to which the ratio can be obtained real-time by a closed-form formula. This paper progresses the application of an MLR concept one step further on Gen-Left kth order systems (one non-sharing resource place in any position of the left-side process), which is also the most fundamental asymmetric net structure, by the construction of the system's closed-form solution of the control-related states (reachable, forbidden, live and deadlock states) with a formula depending on the parameters of k and the location of the non-sharing resource. Here, we kick off a new era of real-time, dynamic resource allocation decisions by constructing a generalisation formula of kth order systems (Gen-Left) with r* on the left side but at arbitrary locations.

  1. A Closed-Form Solution for the Effect of Free Edges on Melt Pool Geometry and Solidification Microstructure in Additive Manufacturing of Thin-Wall Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gockel, Joy; Klingbeil, Nathan; Bontha, Srikanth

    2016-04-01

    Laser and electron beam-based additive manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V are under consideration for application to aerospace components. A critical concern for these processes is the ability to obtain a consistent and desirable microstructure and corresponding mechanical properties of the deposit. Based on the Rosenthal solution for a moving point-heat source, recent work has developed simulation-based process maps for the thermal conditions controlling microstructure (grain size and morphology) in beam-based deposition of semi-infinite geometries, where a steady-state melt pool exists away from free edges. In the current study, the Rosenthal solution is modified to include the effects of free edges. This is accomplished by the superposition of two point-heat sources approaching one another, with the line of symmetry representing the free edge. The result is an exact solution for the case of temperature-independent properties. Dimensionless results for melt pool geometry are determined, and plotted as a function of distance from the free edge. Results are plotted on solidification maps to predict trends in microstructure for Ti-6Al-4V. Finite element analysis is used to verify results. Results suggest that melt pool geometry is more sensitive to free edges than solidification microstructure.

  2. Thermodynamics of rock forming crystalline solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of phase diagrams and cation distributions within crystalline solutions as means of obtaining thermodynamic data on rock forming crystalline solutions is discussed along with some aspects of partitioning of elements in coexisting phases. Crystalline solutions, components in a silicate mineral, and chemical potentials of these components were defined. Examples were given for calculating thermodynamic mixing functions in the CaW04-SrW04, olivine-chloride solution, and orthopyroxene systems.

  3. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closing report, Form MA-313. 308.533 Section 308.533 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313....

  4. On computing closed forms for summations. [polynomials and rational functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moenck, R.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of finding closed forms for a summation involving polynomials and rational functions is considered. A method closely related to Hermite's method for integration of rational functions derived. The method expresses the sum of a rational function as a rational function part and a transcendental part involving derivatives of the gamma function.

  5. Closed Forms for 4-Parameter Families of Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.

    2009-01-01

    We compute closed forms for two multiparameter families of definite integrals, thus obtaining combinatorial formulas. As a consequence, a surprising formula is derived between a definite integral and an improper integral for the same parametric function.

  6. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313. This form, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD, shall be filed...

  7. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313. This form, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD, shall be filed...

  8. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313. This form, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD, shall be filed...

  9. Fast multigrid solution of the advection problem with closed characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Yavneh, I.; Venner, C.H.; Brandt, A.

    1996-12-31

    The numerical solution of the advection-diffusion problem in the inviscid limit with closed characteristics is studied as a prelude to an efficient high Reynolds-number flow solver. It is demonstrated by a heuristic analysis and numerical calculations that using upstream discretization with downstream relaxation-ordering and appropriate residual weighting in a simple multigrid V cycle produces an efficient solution process. We also derive upstream finite-difference approximations to the advection operator, whose truncation terms approximate {open_quotes}physical{close_quotes} (Laplacian) viscosity, thus avoiding spurious solutions to the homogeneous problem when the artificial diffusivity dominates the physical viscosity.

  10. Closed-form recursive formula for an optimal tracker with terminal constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J.-N.; Turner, J. D.; Chun, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Feedback control laws are derived for a class of optimal finite time tracking problems with terminal constraints. Analytical solutions are obtained for the feedback gain and the closed-loop response trajectory. Such formulations are expressed in recursive forms so that a real-time computer implementation becomes feasible. Two examples are given to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the formulations.

  11. Closed form and geometric algorithms for real-time control of an avatar

    SciTech Connect

    Semwall, S.K.; Hightower, R.; Stansfield, S.

    1995-12-31

    In a virtual environment with multiple participants, it is necessary that the user`s actions be replicated by synthetic human forms. Whole body digitizers would be the most realistic solution for capturing the individual participant`s human form, however the best of the digitizers available are not interactive and are therefore not suitable for real-time interaction. Usually, a limited number of sensors are used as constraints on the synthetic human form. Inverse kinematics algorithms are applied to satisfy these sensor constraints. These algorithms result in slower interaction because of their iterative nature, especially when there are a large number of participants. To support real-time interaction in a virtual environment, there is a need to generate closed for solutions and fast searching algorithms. In this paper, a new closed form solution for the arms (and legs) is developed using two magnetic sensors. In developing this solution, we use the biomechanical relationship between the lower arm and the upper arm to provide an analytical, non-iterative solution, We have also outlined a solution for the whole human body by using up to ten magnetic sensors to break the human skeleton into smaller kinematic chains. In developing our algorithms, we use the knowledge of natural body postures to generate faster solutions for real-time interaction.

  12. Relativistic geocentric satellite equations of motion in closed form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumberg, V. A.

    1992-04-01

    In extending the results of Brumberg & Kopejkin (1989) the relativistic (post-Newtonian) geocentric satellite equations of motion are given in closed form avoiding expansion in geocentric coordinates of a satellite. These equations may be applied for the description of motion of a distant Earth's satellite in DGRS or KGRS (dynamically or kinematically non-rotating geocentric reference system, respectively). As by-product of the transformation between BRS and GRS (barycentric and geocentric reference system, respectively) one obtains the relationship between BRS and GRS angular velocity of rotation of the Earth.

  13. Closed-form expressions for ray geometries on a cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Rakesh Mohan; Bokhari, S. A.; Sudhakar, V.; Balakrishnan, N.

    Closed-form expressions for the geometric parameters required in the UTD (uniform geometric theory of diffraction) analysis are derived which are readily suited for the mutual coupling computations. The derivation is based upon the theory of differential geometry, and does not require the use of the developability property of the surface. It is demonstrated that the number of geodesics between any two points on a cone is finite. The inclusion of the second order geodesics results in considerable improvement in the results in certain regions, and in a closer match with the experimental results. The regions in which the mutual coupling and field computations are most affected have been identified.

  14. A New Closed-Form Information Metric for Shape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Adrian; Rangarajan, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Shape matching plays a prominent role in the analysis of medical and biological structures. Recently, a unifying framework was introduced for shape matching that uses mixture-models to couple both the shape representation and deformation. Essentially, shape distances were defined as geodesics induced by the Fisher-Rao metric on the manifold of mixture-model represented shapes. A fundamental drawback of the Fisher-Rao metric is that it is NOT available in closed-form for the mixture model. Consequently, shape comparisons are computationally very expensive. Here, we propose a new Riemannian metric based on generalized ϕ- entropy measures. In sharp contrast to the Fisher-Rao metric, our new metric is available in closed-form. Geodesic computations using the new metric are considerably more efficient. Discriminative capabilities of this new metric are studied by pairwise matching of corpus callosum shapes. Comparisons are conducted with the Fisher-Rao metric and the thin-plate spline bending energy. PMID:17354897

  15. Idealized Closed Form Performance Modeling of a Closed Cycle Joule-Thomson Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytal, B.-Z.

    2004-06-01

    The characteristic parameters of a closed cycle Joule-Thomson cryocooler would be: the charging pressure, discharge and suction volumes of the loop, volumetric displacement of the compressor and the extent of throttling restriction. A series of idealizing assumption are applied. The volumetric behavior of the coolant is assumed to obey the ideal gas equation. The recuperator and compressor's volumetric delivery are completely efficient. There are no pressure losses along the circulating path. On this basis is developed a closed form model of the system, interrelating the relevant parameters. Performance at steady state is expressed in terms of the circulating flow rate, discharge and suction pressures and cooling power. The model predicts the optimal size of equivalent orifice and the maximized cooling power. Also derived is the hydrodynamic time constant of building up the discharge pressure. This analysis is relevant for mixed coolants as well as for pure coolants closed cycles. The former typically employ lower pressure and therefore the idealized assumptions are even more applicable.

  16. Single-spin precessing gravitational waveform in closed form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Andrew; O'Shaughnessy, R.

    2014-02-01

    In coming years, gravitational-wave detectors should find black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries, potentially coincident with astronomical phenomena like short gamma ray bursts. These binaries are expected to precess. Gravitational-wave science requires a tractable model for precessing binaries, to disentangle precession physics from other phenomena like modified strong field gravity, tidal deformability, or Hubble flow; and to measure compact object masses, spins, and alignments. Moreover, current searches for gravitational waves from compact binaries use templates where the binary does not precess and are ill-suited for detection of generic precessing sources. In this paper we provide a closed-form representation of the single-spin precessing waveform in the frequency domain by reorganizing the signal as a sum over harmonics, each of which resembles a nonprecessing waveform. This form enables simple analytic calculations of the Fisher matrix for use in template bank generation and coincidence metrics, and jump proposals to improve the efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We have verified that for generic BH-NS binaries, our model agrees with the time-domain waveform to 2%. Straightforward extensions of the derivations outlined here (and provided in full online) allow higher accuracy and error estimates.

  17. Closed-form recursive formula for an optimal tracker with terminal constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J. N.; Turner, J. D.; Chun, H. M.

    1986-01-01

    Feedback control laws are derived for a class of optimal finite time tracking problems with terminal constraints. Analytical solutions are obtained for the feedback gain and the closed-loop response trajectory. Such formulations are expressed in recursive forms so that a real-time computer implementation becomes feasible. An example involving the feedback slewing of a flexible spacecraft is given to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the formulations.

  18. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  19. A closed-form approximation for ground return impedance of underground cables

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, O.; Giroux, M.; Gaba, G.

    1996-07-01

    Calculation of the ground return impedance generally requires the evaluation of a complex infinite integral. Converging infinite series that usually converge to the exact value have been known for many years, and most handbook formulas were derived from these series, with only the first one or two terms retained. Several approximations with closed-form solutions have been proposed recently for overhead lines, but nothing seems to have been done in the case of underground cables. This paper describes a complete, simplified closed-form approximation for the self and mutual impedances of underground cables. The simplified equations are first presented and then related to Pollaczek`s and Wedephol`s equations. Finally, the errors, which in most cases are very satisfactory, are numerically evaluated.

  20. path integral approach to closed form pricing formulas in the Heston framework.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Damiaan; Wouters, Michiel; Tempere, Jacques; Foulon, Sven

    2008-03-01

    We present a path integral approach for finding closed form formulas for option prices in the framework of the Heston model. The first model for determining option prices was the Black-Scholes model, which assumed that the logreturn followed a Wiener process with a given drift and constant volatility. To provide a realistic description of the market, the Black-Scholes results must be extended to include stochastic volatility. This is achieved by the Heston model, which assumes that the volatility follows a mean reverting square root process. Current applications of the Heston model are hampered by the unavailability of fast numerical methods, due to a lack of closed-form formulae. Therefore the search for closed form solutions is an essential step before the qualitatively better stochastic volatility models will be used in practice. To attain this goal we outline a simplified path integral approach yielding straightforward results for vanilla Heston options with correlation. Extensions to barrier options and other path-dependent option are discussed, and the new derivation is compared to existing results obtained from alternative path-integral approaches (Dragulescu, Kleinert).

  1. Form and stability of aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, John David; Roberson, Charles Elmer

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory studies of solutions 4.53 x 10 -4 to 4.5 x 10 -5 molal (12.2-1.2 ppm) in aluminum, in 0.01 molal sodium perchlorate, were conducted to obtain information as to the probable behavior of aluminum in natural water. When the solutions were brought to pH 7.5-9.5 and allowed to stand for 24 hours, a precipitate was obtained which was virtually amorphous as shown by X-rays, and which had a solubility equivalent to that of boehmite. This precipitate had a hydrolysis constant (*Ks4) of 1.93 x 10 -13a. When solutions were allowed to stead at this pH range for 10 days, their precipitates gave the X-ray pattern of bayerite (*Ks4 = 1.11 > (10- 4). These hydrolysis constants were obtained at 25?C. and corrected to zero ionic strength and are in close agreement with other published values. The predominant dissolved form in this pH range is Al(OH) -4. Below neutral pH (7.0) the dissolved aluminum species consist of octahedral units in which each aluminum ion is surrounded by six water molecules or hydroxide ions. Single units such as Al(OH2)6 + 3 and AlOH(OH2)5+2 are most abundant below pH 5.0, and where the molar ratio (r) of combined hydroxide to total dissolved aluminum is low. When r is greater than 1.0, polymerization of the octahedral units occurs. When r is between 2.0 and 3.0, solutions aged for 10 days or more contained colloidal particles between 0.10 and 0.45 ? in diameter. Particles whose diameters were greater than 0.10 ? were identified by X-ray diffraction as gibbsite. Particles smaller than 0.10 ? were also present and were shown by means of the electron microscope to have a hexagonal crystal pattern. Structured material consisting of sheets of coalesced six-membered rings of aluminum ions held together by double OH bridges has a distinctive kinetic behavior. This property was used to determine amounts of polymerized material in solutions having r between 1.0 and 3.0 after aging times ranging from a few hours to more than 4 months. Aging increased the

  2. Looking Closely at "Medusa": Star Forming Regions in NGC 4194

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The "Medusa" (NGC 4194, Mrk 201) is a blue compact galaxy, with strong far infrared and radio emission. Ground-based observations exhibit a distorted image with a tidal tail and regions of strong star formation. A population of massive O and early B stars is evident from the IUE spectra HST survey of Seyfert and starburst galaxies notes NCG 4194 is an HII galaxy with lumpy HII regions and knots. The central starburst is apparently produced by a galaxy merger. As part of an investigation of star formation in interacting galaxies, we have obtained ultraviolet and visible images of the central regions of NGC 4194 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. Imaging was obtained in two ultraviolet (FUV-MAMA+F25QTZ, NUV-MAMA+F25CN182) and one visible (CCD+F28X50LP) band. Individual star forming knots (at HST resolution) have been identified. We present sized and luminosities for the individual knots, and the knot luminosity function. We compare our data to current starburst models to constrain stellar ages and populations. Knot characteristics as a function of location in the galaxy will also be discussed.

  3. Path integral approach to closed-form option pricing formulas with applications to stochastic volatility and interest rate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, D.; Wouters, M.; Tempere, J.; Foulon, S.

    2008-07-01

    We present a path integral method to derive closed-form solutions for option prices in a stochastic volatility model. The method is explained in detail for the pricing of a plain vanilla option. The flexibility of our approach is demonstrated by extending the realm of closed-form option price formulas to the case where both the volatility and interest rates are stochastic. This flexibility is promising for the treatment of exotic options. Our analytical formulas are tested with numerical Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Stability of uniform vertical flow through a close porous filter in the presence of solute immobilization.

    PubMed

    Maryshev, Boris S; Lyubimova, Tatyana P

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper we consider slow filtration of a mixture through a close porous filter. The heavy solute penetrates slowly into the porous filter due to the external vertical filtration flow and diffusion. This process is accompanied by the formation of the domain with heavy fluid near the upper boundary of the filter. The developed stratification, at which the heavy fluid is located above the light fluid, is unstable. When the mass of the heavy fluid exceeds the critical value, one can observe the onset of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the above peculiarities we can distinguish between two regimes of vertical filtration: 1) homogeneous seepage and 2) convective filtration. When considering the filtration process it is necessary to take into account the diffusion accompanied by the immobilization effect (or sorption) of the solute. The immobilization is described by the linear MIM (mobile/immobile media) model. It has been shown that the immobilization slows down the process of forming the unstable stratification. The purpose of the paper is to find the stability conditions for homogeneous vertical seepage of he solute into the close porous filter. The linear stability problem is solved using the quasi-static approach. The critical times of instability are estimated. The stability maps are plotted in the space of system parameters. The applicability of quasi-static approach is substantiated by direct numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations. PMID:27349555

  5. Closed form analysis of a gamma, back-to-back free displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.L.; Kilgour, D.B.; Lazarides, Y.G.; Rallis, C.J.

    1983-08-01

    A back-to-back, free displacer, gamma type Stirling engine has been designed and is currently under manufacture and development at the University of the Witwatersrand. This paper presents a simple idealized analysis for such an engine. It involves the coupling together of the thermodynamic and mechanical equations, and by the use of classical control and vibration theory, closed form solutions are obtained. This work follows up on previous methods of analysis developed by Berchowitz, WyattMair and Goldberg for similar types of engines. A numerical application of the analysis has been carried out for the design in order to evaluate the operating frequency, phase displacements, amplitude of oscillation and basic output power. Performance characteristics are obtained and detailed in the paper. The analysis has provided analytic proof of the viability of the proposed engine configuration, highlighted weak areas and provided a background to higher order analysis. A programme of experimental validation is under way.

  6. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 1026 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H Appendix H to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. H Appendix H to Part 1026—Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H-1Credit Sale Model Form (§ 1026.18) H-2Loan Model Form (§ 1026.18)...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H Appendix H... RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. H Appendix H to Part 226—Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H-1—Credit Sale Model Form (§ 226.18) H-2—Loan Model Form (§ 226.18)...

  8. Closed solutions to a differential-difference equation and an associated plate solidification problem.

    PubMed

    Layeni, Olawanle P; Akinola, Adegbola P; Johnson, Jesse V

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct and novel formalisms for deriving exact closed solutions of a class of variable-coefficient differential-difference equations arising from a plate solidification problem are introduced. Thereupon, exact closed traveling wave and similarity solutions to the plate solidification problem are obtained for some special cases of time-varying plate surface temperature. PMID:27540506

  9. Hydrothermal Dehydration of Aqueous Fructose Solutions in a Closed System

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Chunhua; Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Li Q.; Windisch, Charles F.; Samuels, William D.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Risen Jr., William M.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2007-10-25

    The synthesis of materials with targeted size and shape has attracted much attention. Specifically, colloidal spheres with targeted and uniform sizes have opened the door for a variety of applications associated with drug delivery, and manipulation of light (photonic band-gap crystals). Surface modification is a key to realizing many of these applications owing to the inherent inert surface.The remarkable transformation of carbohydrate molecules including sugars to homogeneous carbon spheres is found to readily occur by a dehydration mechanism and subsequent sequestering in aqueous solutions that are heated at 160-180oC in a pressurized vessel. Under such conditions, these molecules actually dehydrate even though they are dissolved in water. Size-tunable metal and metal oxides with uniform shells have also been prepared by using carbon spheres as templates.

  10. Trapping Open and Closed Forms of FitE-A Group III Periplasmic Binding Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, R.; Proteau, A; Wagner, J; Cui, Q; Purisima, E; Matte, A; Cygler, M

    2009-01-01

    Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) are essential components of bacterial transport systems, necessary for bacterial growth and survival. The two-domain structures of PBPs are topologically classified into three groups based on the number of crossovers or hinges between the globular domains: group I PBPs have three connections, group II have two, and group III have only one. Although a large number of structures for group I or II PBPs are known, fewer group III PBPs have been structurally characterized. Group I and II PBPs exhibit significant domain motions during transition from the unbound to ligand-bound form, however, no large conformational changes have been observed to date in group III PBPs. We have solved the crystal structure of a periplasmic binding protein FitE, part of an iron transport system, fit, recently identified in a clinical E. coli isolate. The structure, determined at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution, shows that FitE is a group III PBP containing a single {alpha}-helix bridging the two domains. Among the individual FitE molecules present in two crystal forms we observed three different conformations (open, closed, intermediate). Our crystallographic and molecular dynamics results strongly support the notion that group III PBPs also adopt the same Venus flytrap mechanism as do groups I and II PBPs. Unlike other group III PBPs, FitE forms dimers both in solution and in the crystals. The putative siderophore binding pocket is lined with arginine residues, suggesting an anionic nature of the iron-containing siderophore.

  11. The capillary bridge between two spheres: New closed-form equations in a two century old problem.

    PubMed

    Lian, Guoping; Seville, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We discuss progress in obtaining explicit equations for the capillary force between nano and micron sized solid spheres. Early approaches to this two-century old problem adopted approximations to the geometry. With the toroidal approximation, the meridian profile is approximated by an arc, and the approach leads to the capillary force being dependent on the location at which the force is evaluated. The Derjaguin approximation further assumes that the meridian radius is orders of magnitude smaller than the azimuth radius. An explicit expression for the capillary force is obtained, but the equation is limited to sufficiently small liquid volumes and separation distances. Significant progress has been made in recent years in using numerical solutions to derive analytical expressions for capillary bridges. Early numerical investigation established that the maximum separation for stable capillary bridges before rupture scales to the cubic root of the liquid volume. We report new progress in using numerical solutions to obtain more accurate and more general closed-form expressions for capillary bridges. Simple explicit algebraic equations have been observed to fit the numerical results well, leading to a closed-form solution applicable to capillary bridges between equal and unequal spheres and with zero or finite solid-liquid contact angles. The newly derived closed-form equation is more accurate and reduces to the Derjaguin equation when the liquid volume (or half-filling angle) and separation distance are both sufficiently small.

  12. An assessment of some closed-form expressions for the Voigt function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Franz

    2016-06-01

    Using triangular function approximations of the Gaussian, closed-form analytical representations of the Voigt function K(x , y) in terms of elementary functions can be derived. The performance of the approximations is studied by comparison with more exact numerical algorithms for the closely related complex error function, indicating serious problems for small y.

  13. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... to be attached to the closing report, Form MA-313-A, may be obtained from the American War...

  14. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... to be attached to the closing report, Form MA-313-A, may be obtained from the American War...

  15. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... to be attached to the closing report, Form MA-313-A, may be obtained from the American War...

  16. Closed-Form Evaluation of Mutual Coupling in a Planar Array of Circular Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    The integral expression for the mutual admittance between circular apertures in a planar array is evaluated in closed form. Very good accuracy is realized when compared with values that were obtained by numerical integration. Utilization of this closed-form expression, for all element pairs that are separated by more than one element spacing, yields extremely accurate results and significantly reduces the computation time that is required to analyze the performance of a large electronically scanning antenna array.

  17. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  18. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  19. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  20. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  1. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N... companies pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (§ 274.11a-1 of this chapter)....

  2. Trapping open and closed forms of FitE: a group III periplasmic binding protein.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Proteau, Ariane; Wagner, John; Cui, Qizhi; Purisima, Enrico O; Matte, Allan; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2009-05-15

    Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) are essential components of bacterial transport systems, necessary for bacterial growth and survival. The two-domain structures of PBPs are topologically classified into three groups based on the number of crossovers or hinges between the globular domains: group I PBPs have three connections, group II have two, and group III have only one. Although a large number of structures for group I or II PBPs are known, fewer group III PBPs have been structurally characterized. Group I and II PBPs exhibit significant domain motions during transition from the unbound to ligand-bound form, however, no large conformational changes have been observed to date in group III PBPs. We have solved the crystal structure of a periplasmic binding protein FitE, part of an iron transport system, fit, recently identified in a clinical E. coli isolate. The structure, determined at 1.8 A resolution, shows that FitE is a group III PBP containing a single alpha-helix bridging the two domains. Among the individual FitE molecules present in two crystal forms we observed three different conformations (open, closed, intermediate). Our crystallographic and molecular dynamics results strongly support the notion that group III PBPs also adopt the same Venus flytrap mechanism as do groups I and II PBPs. Unlike other group III PBPs, FitE forms dimers both in solution and in the crystals. The putative siderophore binding pocket is lined with arginine residues, suggesting an anionic nature of the iron-containing siderophore. PMID:19004000

  3. ORBITAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS AND DISTANT PLANETS FORMED BY SCATTERING AND DYNAMICAL TIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the formation of close-in planets (hot Jupiters) by a combination of mutual scattering, Kozai effect, and tidal circularization, through N-body simulations of three gas giant planets, and compared the results with discovered close-in planets. We found that in about 350 cases out of 1200 runs ({approx}30%), the eccentricity of one of the planets is excited highly enough for tidal circularization by mutual close scatterings followed by secular effects due to outer planets, such as the Kozai mechanism, and the planet becomes a close-in planet through the damping of eccentricity and semimajor axis. The formation probability of close-in planets by such scattering is not affected significantly by the effect of the general relativity and inclusion of inertial modes in addition to fundamental modes in the tides. Detailed orbital distributions of the formed close-in planets and their counterpart distant planets in our simulations were compared with observational data. We focused on the possibility for close-in planets to retain non-negligible eccentricities ({approx}> 0.1) on timescales of {approx}10{sup 9} yr and have high inclinations, because close-in planets in eccentric or highly inclined orbits have recently been discovered. In our simulations we found that as many as 29% of the close-in planets have retrograde orbits, and the retrograde planets tend to have small eccentricities. On the other hand, eccentric close-in planets tend to have orbits of small inclinations.

  4. A subsequent closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendy, Robert. F.

    2016-05-01

    I recently introduced a closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon [R.F. Melendy, Journal of Applied Physics 118, 244701 (2015)]. Those results demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation, function together in generating an action potential in a unified, closed-form description. At present, I report on a subsequent closed-form model that unifies intracellular conductance and the thermodynamics of magnetization, with the membrane electric field, Em. It's anticipated this work will compel researchers in biophysics, physical biology, and the computational neurosciences, to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling, informed by the computational features of this subsequent model.

  5. Structural comparison between the open and closed forms of citrate synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Shin-Ichi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Kouyama, Tsutomu; Murakami, Midori

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of citrate synthase from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtCS) were determined for an open form at 1.5 Å resolution and for closed form at 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. In the absence of ligands TtCS in the open form was crystalized into a tetragonal form with a single subunit in the asymmetric unit. TtCS was also co-crystallized with citrate and coenzyme-A to form an orthorhombic crystal with two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Citrate and CoA are found in the active site situated between the large domain and the small domain in all subunit whereas the complex shows two distinct closed conformations, the fully closed form and partially closed form. Structural comparisons are performed to describe conformational changes associated with binding of products of TtCS. Upon binding of citrate, basic residues in the active site move toward citrate and make a hydrogen bond network in the active site, inducing a large-scale rotation of the small domain relative to the large domain. CoA is sandwiched between the small and large domains and then the cysteamine tail is inserted into the active site with a cooperative rotation around mainchain dihedrals in the hinge region connecting helices M and N. According to this rotation these helices are extended to close the active site completely. The considerable flexibility and structural rearrangements in the hinge region are crucial for an ordered bibi reaction in catalysis for microbial CSs.

  6. Fourier domain closed-form formulas for estimation of kinetic parameters in reversible multi-compartment models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Compared with static imaging, dynamic emission computed tomographic imaging with compartment modeling can quantify in vivo physiologic processes, providing useful information about molecular disease processes. Dynamic imaging involves estimation of kinetic rate parameters. For multi-compartment models, kinetic parameter estimation can be computationally demanding and problematic with local minima. Methods This paper offers a new perspective to the compartment model fitting problem where Fourier linear system theory is applied to derive closed-form formulas for estimating kinetic parameters for the two-compartment model. The proposed Fourier domain estimation method provides a unique solution, and offers very different noise response as compared to traditional non-linear chi-squared minimization techniques. Results The unique feature of the proposed Fourier domain method is that only low frequency components are used for kinetic parameter estimation, where the DC (i.e., the zero frequency) component in the data is treated as the most important information, and high frequency components that tend to be corrupted by statistical noise are discarded. Computer simulations show that the proposed method is robust without having to specify the initial condition. The resultant solution can be fine tuned using the traditional iterative method. Conclusions The proposed Fourier-domain estimation method has closed-form formulas. The proposed Fourier-domain curve-fitting method does not require an initial condition, it minimizes a quadratic objective function and a closed-form solution can be obtained. The noise is easier to control, simply by discarding the high frequency components, and emphasizing the DC component. PMID:22995548

  7. Design of a radio telescope surface segment actuator based on a form-closed eccentric cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R.

    2014-07-01

    As radio telescopes have reached larger diameters and higher frequencies, it is typically not possible to meet their surface accuracy specifications using passive homology-based designs. The most common solution to this problem in the current generation of large, high-frequency radio telescopes is to employ a system of linear actuators to correct the surface shape of the primary reflector. The exact specifications of active surface actuators vary with the telescope. However, they have many common features, some of which drive their design. In general, these actuators must provide precise and repeatable positioning under significant loads during operation and they must withstand even higher loads for survival conditions. For general safety, they typically must hold position in the event of a power failure and must incorporate position limits, whether electrical, mechanical, or both. Because the number of actuators is generally high for large active surfaces (hundreds or even thousands of actuators), they must also be reliable and of reasonable individual cost. Finally, for maximum flexibility in their installation, they must be compact. This paper presents a concept for an active surface actuator based on a form-closed eccentric cam (kinematically, a Scotch Yoke mechanism). Such a design is limited in stroke, but offers potential advantages in terms of manufacture, compactness, measurement, and survival loading. The paper demonstrates that some of the expected advantages cannot be practically realized, due to dimensions that are driven by survival loading conditions. As a result, this concept is likely to offer an advantage over conventional screw-type actuators only for cases where actuator runaway and stall are the driving considerations.

  8. Closed form expressions for computing the occupied bandwidth of PCM/PSK/PM signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a computational technique to determine the occupied bandwidth for a class of PCM/PSK/PM signals. The signals considered here employ either a squarewave of sinewave subcarrier. Closed form expressions for the occupied bandwidth as a function of the subcarrier frequency-to-bit-rate ratio with modulation index as a parameter are derived using linear-fitting techniques.

  9. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A. 308.534 Section 308.534 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  10. Explicit solutions of normal form of driven oscillatory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouhas, George E.; Ross, John

    1987-12-01

    We consider an oscillatory dissipative system driven by external sinusoidal perturbations of given amplitude Q and frequency ω. The kinetic equations are transformed to normal form and solved for small Q, near a Hopf bifurcation to oscillations in the autonomous system, for ratios ωn to the autonomous frequency of irrational so that the response of the system is quasiperiodic. The system is assumed to have either two variables or is adequately described by two variables near the bifurcation, and we obtain explicit solutions for this general case. The equations show interesting effects of external perturbations on limit cycles, both stable and unstable. Next we treat a specific model (Brusselator) and show by comparison with results of numerical integration that the theory predicts well the shape of the perturbed limit cycle, its variation with changes in constraints and parameters, and the point of transition from quasiperiodic to periodic response.

  11. Glycine phases formed from frozen aqueous solutions: Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Surovtsev, N. V.; Adichtchev, S. V.; Malinovsky, V. K.; Ogienko, A. G.; Manakov, A. Yu.; Drebushchak, V. A.; Ancharov, A. I.; Boldyreva, E. V.; Yunoshev, A. S.

    2012-08-14

    Glycine phases formed when aqueous solutions were frozen and subsequently heated under different conditions were studied by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Crystallization of ice I{sub h} was observed in all the cases. On cooling at the rates of 0.5 K/min and 5 K/min, glassy glycine was formed as an intermediate phase which lived about 1 min or less only, and then transformed into {beta}-polymorph of glycine. Quench cooling of glycine solutions (15% w/w) in liquid nitrogen resulted in the formation of a mixture of crystalline water ice I{sub h} and a glassy glycine, which could be preserved at cryogenic temperatures (80 K) for an indefinitely long time. This mixture remained also quite stable for some time after heating above the cryogenic temperature. Subsequent heating under various conditions resulted in the transformation of the glycine glass into an unknown crystalline phase (glycine 'X-phase') at 209-216 K, which at 218-226 K transformed into {beta}-polymorph of glycine. The 'X-phase' was characterized by Raman spectroscopy; it could be obtained in noticeable amounts using a special preparation technique and tentatively characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (P2, a= 6.648 A, b= 25.867 A, c= 5.610 A, {beta}= 113.12 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator ); the formation of 'X-phase' from the glycine glassy phase and its transformation into {beta}-polymorph were followed by DSC. Raman scattering technique with its power for unambiguous identification of the crystalline and glassy polymorphs without limitation on the crystallite size helped us to follow the phase transformations during quenching, heating, and annealing. The experimental findings are considered in relation to the problem of control of glycine polymorphism on crystallization.

  12. A hybrid solution approach for a multi-objective closed-loop logistics network under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Tu, Nan; Miao, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    The design of closed-loop logistics (forward and reverse logistics) has attracted growing attention with the stringent pressures of customer expectations, environmental concerns and economic factors. This paper considers a multi-product, multi-period and multi-objective closed-loop logistics network model with regard to facility expansion as a facility location-allocation problem, which more closely approximates real-world conditions. A multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming formulation is linearized by defining new variables and adding new constraints to the model. By considering the aforementioned model under uncertainty, this paper develops a hybrid solution approach by combining an interactive fuzzy goal programming approach and robust counterpart optimization based on three well-known robust counterpart optimization formulations. Finally, this paper compares the results of the three formulations using different test scenarios and parameter-sensitive analysis in terms of the quality of the final solution, CPU time, the level of conservatism, the degree of closeness to the ideal solution, the degree of balance involved in developing a compromise solution, and satisfaction degree.

  13. Closed-form Static Analysis with Inertia Relief and Displacement-Dependent Loads Using a MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Widrick, Timothy W.; Ludwiczak, Damian R.

    1995-01-01

    Solving for the displacements of free-free coupled systems acted upon by static loads is commonly performed throughout the aerospace industry. Many times, these problems are solved using static analysis with inertia relief. This solution technique allows for a free-free static analysis by balancing the applied loads with inertia loads generated by the applied loads. For some engineering applications, the displacements of the free-free coupled system induce additional static loads. Hence, the applied loads are equal to the original loads plus displacement-dependent loads. Solving for the final displacements of such systems is commonly performed using iterative solution techniques. Unfortunately, these techniques can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. Since the coupled system equations for free-free systems with displacement-dependent loads can be written in closed-form, it is advantageous to solve for the displacements in this manner. Implementing closed-form equations in static analysis with inertia relief is analogous to implementing transfer functions in dynamic analysis. Using a MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter, displacement-dependent loads have been included in static analysis with inertia relief. Such an Alter has been used successfully to solve efficiently a common aerospace problem typically solved using an iterative technique.

  14. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A novel closed-form resistance model for trapezoidal interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baojun, Chen; Zhen'an, Tang; Tiejun, Yu

    2010-08-01

    A closed-form model for the frequency-dependent per-unit-length resistance of trapezoidal cross-sectional interconnects is presented. The frequency-dependent per-unit-length resistance R(f) of a trapezoidal interconnect line is first obtained by a numerical method. Using the method we quantify the trapezoid edge effect on the resistance of the interconnect and the current density distribution in the cross section. Based on this strict numerical result, a novel closed-form model R(f) for a single trapezoidal interconnect is fitted out using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. This R(f) can be widely used for analyzing on-chip interconnects when the frequency is changing. The model is computationally very efficient with respect to the numerical method, and the results are found to be accurate.

  15. A simple, closed-form, mathematical model for gas exchange in microchannel artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Potkay, Joseph A

    2013-06-01

    Microfabrication techniques are attractive for constructing artificial lungs due to the ability to create features similar in size to those in the natural lung. However, a simple and intuitive mathematical model capable of accurately predicting the gas exchange performance of microchannel artificial lungs does not currently exist. Such a model is critical to understanding and optimizing these devices. Here, we describe a simple, closed-form mathematical model for gas exchange in microchannel artificial lungs and qualify it through application to experimental data from several research groups. We utilize lumped parameters and several assumptions to obtain a closed-form set of equations that describe gas exchange. This work is intended to augment computational models by providing a more intuitive, albeit potentially less accurate, understanding of the operation and trade-offs inherent in microchannel artificial lung devices.

  16. Closed-form impulse response model of non-line-of-sight single-scatter propagation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-04-01

    For optical scattering communication, a closed-form expression of channel impulse response (CIR) is favorable for further system design and channel capacity analysis. Combining the mean value theorem of integrals and L'Hôpital's rule, the exact non-line-of-sight (NLOS) single-scatter propagation model is simplified to a closed-form CIR model for a laser source with a narrow beam. Based on this model, by joint geometrical and empirical approaches, a piecewise CIR expression is presented under certain system NLOS geometries. Through numerical results on CIR for various NLOS geometries, the proposed model is verified with the exact NLOS single-scatter propagation model and the previous Gamma fitting model, showing that our model agrees better with the former than the latter. PMID:27140787

  17. Closed-form impulse response model of non-line-of-sight single-scatter propagation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-04-01

    For optical scattering communication, a closed-form expression of channel impulse response (CIR) is favorable for further system design and channel capacity analysis. Combining the mean value theorem of integrals and L'Hôpital's rule, the exact non-line-of-sight (NLOS) single-scatter propagation model is simplified to a closed-form CIR model for a laser source with a narrow beam. Based on this model, by joint geometrical and empirical approaches, a piecewise CIR expression is presented under certain system NLOS geometries. Through numerical results on CIR for various NLOS geometries, the proposed model is verified with the exact NLOS single-scatter propagation model and the previous Gamma fitting model, showing that our model agrees better with the former than the latter.

  18. Oil field brines as ore-forming solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sverjensky, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The hypothesis that oil field brines can become ore-forming solutions and can transport base metals and reduced sulfur to sites of ore formation by large-scale migration along aquifers out of sedimentary basins is examined using data on the chemical compositions of presnt-day heavy metal-bearing oil field brines and the petrography of their reservoir rocks, and is a theoretical evaluation of the chemistry of possible water-rock interactions in the aquifers during migration. The concept of water-rock interactions in the aquifers of sandstone and carbonate-hosted base metal sulfide ore deposits is clearly of potential importance in explaining geochemical characteristics of such deposits, including the Na/K ratios of the fluid inclusions, the lead isotope compositions of galena, the paragenesis sphalerite followed by galena, and the overall Zn/Pb ratios of the deposits. It is because of these water-rock interactions that a single brine carrying base metals and reduced sulfur can evolve chemically in its aquifer so that brines with a spectrum of geochemical characteristics arrive as a function of time at a distant site of ore formation.

  19. A closed-form expression of the positional uncertainty for 3D point clouds.

    PubMed

    Bae, Kwang-Ho; Belton, David; Lichti, Derek D

    2009-04-01

    We present a novel closed-form expression of positional uncertainty measured by a near-monostatic and time-of-flight laser range finder with consideration of its measurement uncertainties. An explicit form of the angular variance of the estimated surface normal vector is also derived. This expression is useful for the precise estimation of the surface normal vector and the outlier detection for finding correspondence in order to register multiple three-dimensional point clouds. Two practical algorithms using these expressions are presented: a method for finding optimal local neighbourhood size which minimizes the variance of the estimated normal vector and a resampling method of point clouds.

  20. Asymptotic solution of the turbulent mixing layer for velocity ratio close to unity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higuera, F. J.; Jimenez, J.; Linan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The equations describing the first two terms of an asymptotic expansion of the solution of the planar turbulent mixing layer for values of the velocity ratio close to one are obtained. The first term of this expansion is the solution of the well-known time-evolving problem and the second, which includes the effects of the increase of the turbulence scales in the stream-wise direction, obeys a linear system of equations. Numerical solutions of these equations for a two-dimensional reacting mixing layer show that the correction to the time-evolving solution may explain the asymmetry of the entrainment and the differences in product generation observed in flip experiments.

  1. Closed timelike curves produced by pairs of moving cosmic strings - Exact solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III

    1991-01-01

    Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations are presented for the general case of two moving straight cosmic strings that do not intersect. The solutions for parallel cosmic strings moving in opposite directions show closed timelike curves (CTCs) that circle the two strings as they pass, allowing observers to visit their own past. Similar results occur for nonparallel strings, and for masses in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. For finite string loops the possibility that black-hole formation may prevent the formation of CTCs is discussed.

  2. 46 CFR 308.535 - Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MA-313-B. 308.535 Section 308.535 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 308.535 Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B. The Standard Form of Certificate, Form MA-313-B, shall be attached to the final closing report after cancellation of the...

  3. 46 CFR 308.535 - Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MA-313-B. 308.535 Section 308.535 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 308.535 Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B. The Standard Form of Certificate, Form MA-313-B, shall be attached to the final closing report after cancellation of the...

  4. Closed nanocontainer enables thioketones to phosphoresce at room temperature in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, Nithyanandhan; Maddipatla, Murthy V S N; Prabhakar, Rajeev; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, N J; Ramamurthy, V

    2010-11-18

    Thiocarbonyl compounds possess unusual photophysical properties: they fluoresce from S(2), phosphoresce from T(1) only at extremely low concentrations in solution at room temperature, have unit quantum yield of intersystem crossing from S(1) to T(1), undergo self-quenching at diffusion-controlled rates, and are quenched by ground-state oxygen leading to self-destruction. In this article, we are concerned with finding a new method to observe phosphorescence from thioketones at room temperature in aqueous solution at high concentrations. To achieve this goal, one needs to find ways to eliminate diffusion-limited self-quenching and oxygen quenching. We present here a general strategy that has allowed us to record phopshorescence from a number of thioketones in aqueous solution at room temperature. The method involves encapsulation of thioketone molecules within a "closed nanocontainer" made up of two cavitand molecules known by its trivial name as octa acid. In these supramolecular complexes, despite two thiocarbonyl compounds being present in close proximity, no self-quenching occurs within the confined space due to curtailment of their rotational freedom. Although phosphorescence could also be observed when these thioketones are included in open containers, such as cucurbiturils and cyclodextrines, the closed container made up of octa acid is found to be the best medium to observe phosphorescence from thioketones whose excited state chemistry is essentially controlled by self-quenching.

  5. Modeling of closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography: Analytical solutions and model analysis.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E

    2015-08-01

    In closed-loop recycling (CLR) chromatography, the effluent from the outlet of a column is directly returned into the column through the sample feed line and continuously recycled until the required separation is reached. To select optimal operating conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture, an appropriate mathematical description of the process is required. This work is concerned with the analysis of models for the CLR separations. Due to the effect of counteracting mechanisms on separation of solutes, analytical solutions of the models could be helpful to understand and optimize chromatographic processes. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the CLR counter-current (liquid-liquid) chromatography (CCC). The equilibrium dispersion and cell models were used to describe the transport and separation of solutes inside a CLR CCC column. The Laplace transformation is applied to solve the model equations. Several possible CLR chromatography methods for the binary and complex mixture separations are simulated.

  6. Reverse engineering of free-form surface based on the closed-loop theory.

    PubMed

    He, Xue Ming; He, Jun Fei; Wu, Mei Ping; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Xiao Gang

    2015-01-01

    To seek better methods of measurement and more accurate model of reconstruction in the field of reverse engineering has been the focus of researchers. Based on this, a new method of adaptive measurement, real-time reconstruction, and online evaluation of free-form surface was presented in this paper. The coordinates and vectors of the prediction points are calculated according to a Bézier curve which is fitted by measured points. Final measured point cloud distribution is in agreement with the geometric characteristics of the free-form surfaces. Fitting the point cloud to a surface model by the nonuniform B-spline method, extracting some check points from the surface models based on grids and a feature on the surface, review the location of these check points on the surface with CMM and evaluate the model, and then update the surface model to meet the accuracy. Integrated measurement, reconstruction, and evaluation, with the closed-loop reverse process, established an accurate model. The results of example show that the measuring points are distributed over the surface according to curvature, and the reconstruction model can be completely expressed with micron level. Meanwhile, measurement, reconstruction and evaluation are integrated in forms of closed-loop reverse system.

  7. Reverse Engineering of Free-Form Surface Based on the Closed-Loop Theory

    PubMed Central

    He, Xue Ming; He, Jun Fei; Wu, Mei Ping; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Xiao Gang

    2015-01-01

    To seek better methods of measurement and more accurate model of reconstruction in the field of reverse engineering has been the focus of researchers. Based on this, a new method of adaptive measurement, real-time reconstruction, and online evaluation of free-form surface was presented in this paper. The coordinates and vectors of the prediction points are calculated according to a Bézier curve which is fitted by measured points. Final measured point cloud distribution is in agreement with the geometric characteristics of the free-form surfaces. Fitting the point cloud to a surface model by the nonuniform B-spline method, extracting some check points from the surface models based on grids and a feature on the surface, review the location of these check points on the surface with CMM and evaluate the model, and then update the surface model to meet the accuracy. Integrated measurement, reconstruction, and evaluation, with the closed-loop reverse process, established an accurate model. The results of example show that the measuring points are distributed over the surface according to curvature, and the reconstruction model can be completely expressed with micron level. Meanwhile, measurement, reconstruction and evaluation are integrated in forms of closed-loop reverse system. PMID:25879078

  8. Closed-form model for the analysis of W-type shaped charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, A.; Ghayour, M.; Liaghat, G. H.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a closed-form model for the analysis of symmetric planar W-type shaped charges (WSCs) with two V-sections, which produce two primary cores and two primary jets. If these two V-sections have proper asymmetry, these primary cores will force two primary jets into a secondary core formed on the axis of symmetry of a planar symmetric WSC. For the analysis of such a planar WSC, a complete generalized model for an asymmetric planar V-shaped charge (VSC) with any desired order of asymmetry is mandatory. In this paper, the model is applied to describe the secondary jet formation in the WSC. By presenting a closed-form analysis of the WSC, the secondary jet specifications can be easily evaluated and, thus, can be compared with respect to the jet quantities in symmetric or asymmetric VSCs. Finally, for the primary and secondary jets, the coherency conditions are investigated, and the critical parameters responsible for these conditions are determined.

  9. Resolving the biophysics of axon transmembrane polarization in a single closed-form description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendy, Robert F.

    2015-12-01

    When a depolarizing event occurs across a cell membrane there is a remarkable change in its electrical properties. A complete depolarization event produces a considerably rapid increase in voltage that propagates longitudinally along the axon and is accompanied by changes in axial conductance. A dynamically changing magnetic field is associated with the passage of the action potential down the axon. Over 75 years of research has gone into the quantification of this phenomenon. To date, no unified model exist that resolves transmembrane polarization in a closed-form description. Here, a simple but formative description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon is presented in closed-form. The focus is on using both biophysics and mathematical methods for elucidating the fundamental mechanisms governing transmembrane polarization. The results presented demonstrate how to resolve electromagnetic and thermodynamic factors that govern transmembrane potential. Computational results are supported by well-established quantitative descriptions of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon. The findings demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation function together in generating an action potential in a unified closed-form description. The work presented in this paper provides compelling evidence that three basic factors contribute to the propagated signaling in the membrane of an axon. It is anticipated this work will compel those in biophysics, physical biology, and in the computational neurosciences to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling. It is hoped that subsequent investigations of this sort will be advanced by the computational features of this model without having to resort to numerical methods of analysis.

  10. Resolving the biophysics of axon transmembrane polarization in a single closed-form description

    SciTech Connect

    Melendy, Robert F.

    2015-12-28

    When a depolarizing event occurs across a cell membrane there is a remarkable change in its electrical properties. A complete depolarization event produces a considerably rapid increase in voltage that propagates longitudinally along the axon and is accompanied by changes in axial conductance. A dynamically changing magnetic field is associated with the passage of the action potential down the axon. Over 75 years of research has gone into the quantification of this phenomenon. To date, no unified model exist that resolves transmembrane polarization in a closed-form description. Here, a simple but formative description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon is presented in closed-form. The focus is on using both biophysics and mathematical methods for elucidating the fundamental mechanisms governing transmembrane polarization. The results presented demonstrate how to resolve electromagnetic and thermodynamic factors that govern transmembrane potential. Computational results are supported by well-established quantitative descriptions of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon. The findings demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation function together in generating an action potential in a unified closed-form description. The work presented in this paper provides compelling evidence that three basic factors contribute to the propagated signaling in the membrane of an axon. It is anticipated this work will compel those in biophysics, physical biology, and in the computational neurosciences to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling. It is hoped that subsequent investigations of this sort will be advanced by the computational features of this model without having to resort to numerical methods of analysis.

  11. Accuracy and effectualness of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for nonspinning black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro; Trias, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    The coalescences of binary black hole systems, here taken to be nonspinning, are among the most promising sources for gravitational wave (GW) ground-based detectors, such as LIGO and Virgo. To detect the GW signals emitted by binary black holes and measure the parameters of the source, one needs to have in hand a bank of GW templates that are both effectual (for detection) and accurate (for measurement). We study the effectualness and the accuracy of the two types of parametrized banks of templates that are directly defined in the frequency domain by means of closed-form expressions, namely, “post-Newtonian” (PN) and “phenomenological” models. In the absence of knowledge of the (continuous family of) exact waveforms, our study assumes as fiducial, target waveforms the ones generated by the most accurate version of the effective-one-body formalism, calibrated upon a few high-accuracy numerical-relativity (NR) waveforms. We find that, for initial GW detectors the use, at each point of parameter space, of the best closed-form template (among PN and phenomenological models) leads to an effectualness >97% over the entire mass range and >99% in an important fraction of parameter space; however, when considering advanced detectors, both of the closed-form frequency-domain models fail to be effectual enough in significant domains of the two-dimensional [total mass and mass ratio] parameter space. Moreover, we find that, for both initial and advanced detectors, the two closed-form frequency-domain models fail to satisfy the minimal required accuracy standard in a very large domain of the two-dimensional parameter space. In addition, a side result of our study is the determination, as a function of the mass ratio, of the maximum frequency at which a frequency-domain PN waveform can be “joined” onto a NR-calibrated effective-one-body waveform without undue loss of accuracy. In the case of mass ratios larger than 4∶1 this maximum frequency occurs well before the

  12. Comment on ‘Special-case closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. F.

    2016-05-01

    Recently Van-Brunt and Visser (2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 225207) succeeded in explicitly evaluating the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) expansion series for the noncommuting operators X and Y, provided that the two operators satisfy the commutation relation: [X,Y]={uX}+{vY}+{cI}, and the operator I commutes with both of them. In this comment we show that the closed-form BCH formula of this special case can be straightforwardly derived by the means of the Wei-Norman theorem and no summation of the infinite series is needed.

  13. A Simplified, Closed-Form Method for Screening Spacecraft Orbital Heating Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, S. L.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-form analytical technique has been developed to screen orbital average heating variations as a function of beta angle, altitude, surface area, and surface optical properties. Using planetary view factor equations for surfaces parallel-to and normal-to the local vertical, a cylindrical umbral shadow approximation, and a simplified albedo flux model, heating rate equations are formulated and then integrated to obtain orbital average heating. The results are compared to detailed analytical predictions using Monte Carlo integration and an assessment of error is presented.

  14. MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter Used for Closed-Form Static Analysis With Inertia Relief and Displacement-Dependent Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Solving for the displacements of free-free coupled systems acted upon by static loads is a common task in the aerospace industry. Often, these problems are solved by static analysis with inertia relief. This technique allows for a free-free static analysis by balancing the applied loads with the inertia loads generated by the applied loads. For some engineering applications, the displacements of the free-free coupled system induce additional static loads. Hence, the applied loads are equal to the original loads plus the displacement-dependent loads. A launch vehicle being acted upon by an aerodynamic loading can have such applied loads. The final displacements of such systems are commonly determined with iterative solution techniques. Unfortunately, these techniques can be time consuming and labor intensive. Because the coupled system equations for free-free systems with displacement-dependent loads can be written in closed form, it is advantageous to solve for the displacements in this manner. Implementing closed-form equations in static analysis with inertia relief is analogous to implementing transfer functions in dynamic analysis. An MSC/NASTRAN (MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation/NASA Structural Analysis) DMAP (Direct Matrix Abstraction Program) Alter was used to include displacement-dependent loads in static analysis with inertia relief. It efficiently solved a common aerospace problem that typically has been solved with an iterative technique.

  15. Effective closed form mathematical approach to determine kinetic constants of NR vulcanized with sulphur and accelerators at different concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Milani, Gabriele E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it; Hanel, Thomas; Donetti, Raffaella; Milani, Federico

    2015-03-10

    The basic reaction scheme due to Han and co-workers for NR vulcanized with sulphur is adopted and modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators, focusing in particular on some experimental data ad hoc obtained at Pirelli’s laboratories, where NR was vulcanized at different temperatures (from 150 to 180 °C) and concentrations of sulphur, using TBBS and DPG in the mixture as co-agents. Typically, the chain reactions are initiated by the formation of macro-compounds that are responsible of the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer. This first reaction depends on the reciprocal concentrations of all components and their chemical nature. In presence of two accelerators, it was considered that the reactions between each single accelerator and the NR raw material occur in parallel, making the reasonable assumption that there are no mutual reactions between the two accelerators. From the kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution was found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. Even kinetic constants are evaluated in closed form, avoiding a numerically demanding least-squares best fitting on rheometer experimental data. Two series of experiments available, relying into rheometer curves at different temperatures and different concentrations of sulphur and accelerator, are utilized to evaluate the fitting capabilities of the mathematical model. Very good agreement between numerical output and experimental data is experienced in all cases analysed.

  16. Non-dimensionalised closed-form parametric analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions using a quarter-car model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Blanchard, Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    This article provides a non-dimensionalised closed-form analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions, using a quarter-car model. The derivation of the closed-form solutions for three indices that can be used for ride comfort, vehicle handling, and stability are presented based on non-dimensionalised suspension parameters. The behaviour of semi-active vehicle suspensions is evaluated using skyhook, groundhook, and hybrid control policies, and compared with passive suspensions. The relationship between vibration isolation, suspension deflection, and road holding is studied, using three performance indices based on the mean square of the sprung mass acceleration, rattle space, and tyre deflection, respectively. The results of the study indicate that the hybrid control policy yields significantly better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement for typical passenger cars. The results also indicate that for typical passenger cars, the hybrid control policy results in a better compromise between comfort, road holding and suspension travel requirements than both the skyhook and groundhook control methods.

  17. Blow-up of unsteady two-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions having stagnation-point form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childress, S.; Ierley, G. R.; Spiegel, E. A.; Young, W. R.

    1989-01-01

    The time-dependent form of the classic, two-dimensional stagnation-point solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is considered. If the viscosity is zero, a class of solutions of the initial-value problem can be found in closed form using Lagrangian coordinates. These solutions exhibit singular behavior in finite time, because of the infinite domain and unbounded initial vorticity. Thus, the blow-up found by Stuart in three dimensions using the stagnation-point form, also occurs in two. The singularity vanishes under a discrete, finite-dimensional 'point vortex' approximation, but is recovered as the number of vortices tends to infinity. We find that a small positive viscosity does not arrest the breakdown, but does strongly alter its form. Similar results are summarized for certain Boussinesq stratified flows.

  18. Exact solution of close-packed dimers on the kagomé lattice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fa; Wu, F Y

    2007-04-01

    It is well known that exact enumerations of close-packed dimers can be carried out for two-dimensional lattices. While details of results are now known for most lattices, due to the unique nature of the lattice structure, there has been no complete analysis for the kagomé lattice. Here we derive the close-form expression (13) ln(4xyz) for the free energy of close-packed dimers on the kagomé lattice, where x , y , and z are dimer weights. We use two different approaches: the Kasteleyn method of evaluating a Pfaffian and an alternative vertex model formulation. Both methods lead to the same final expression. The correlation function between two dimers at a distance equal or greater than two lattice spacings is found to vanish identically.

  19. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  20. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  1. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  2. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  3. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-2, see the List of CFR Sections... COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11a-1 Form N-2, registration statement of closed end... to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  4. Closed-form expression for the profile of partially wetting two-dimensional droplets under gravity.

    PubMed

    Gomba, J M; Perazzo, Carlos Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Analytical solutions for the shape of both hanging and sitting droplets under the effects of gravity and surface tension are presented. The modeling also includes the action of molecular forces arising between the liquid and the substrate, which are responsible for the formation of a stable nanometric film in the region close to the droplet contact line. The shape of the droplet is completely described by an analytical solution that also accounts for the pancake-shaped droplets as a limiting case. We find expressions that relate microscopic and nanoscopic aspects, such as the strengths of the molecular forces and the thickness of the nanometric film, to macroscopic quantities, such as the cross-sectional area and the width of the droplet. We study the effect of gravity on the contact angle and find that for small droplets the contact angle follows a power law with the droplet's size. For sitting droplets we find that the there is an upper limit for the value of the gravity.

  5. Generalized closed-form model for analysis of asymmetric shaped charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, A.; Liaghat, G. H.; Ghayour, M.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a model that has less constraints than similar models and explains the collapse phenomenon in any desired order of geometrical asymmetries and in the presence of symmetric and asymmetric general-form wave fronts. It seems that, in this model, a complete generalized form of the classical jet formation theory has been developed. Available models that describe the symmetric jet and slug formation phenomenon are very good in such conditions. But the liner and confinement asymmetries, detonation wave front asymmetries, and other specifications, such as manufacturing tolerances, can affect the collapse and the behavior of the jet and slug. Some proposed models that describe asymmetric cases are not closed-form models or are only applicable for limited conditions, such as small asymmetries and a planar wave front. With the presented model, effects of concave, plane, and convex wave fronts on the off-axis velocity of the jet, other parameters of the jet and slug, and effects of an asymmetric wave front on jet formation for a completely symmetric liner and confinement geometry can be evaluated.

  6. Special-case closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van-Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2015-06-01

    The Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula is a general result for the quantity Z(X,Y)=ln ({{e}X}{{e}Y}), where X and Y are not necessarily commuting. For completely general commutation relations between X and Y, (the free Lie algebra), the general result is somewhat unwieldy. However in specific physics applications the commutator [X,Y], while non-zero, might often be relatively simple, which sometimes leads to explicit closed form results. We consider the special case [X,Y]=uX+vY+cI, and show that in this case the general result reduces to Furthermore we explicitly evaluate the symmetric function f(u,v)=f(v,u), demonstrating that and relate this to previously known results. For instance this result includes, but is considerably more general than, results obtained from either the Heisenberg commutator [P,Q]=-i\\hbar I or the creation-destruction commutator [a,{{a}\\dagger }]=I.

  7. Closed Form Equations for the Preliminary Design of a Heat-Pipe-Cooled Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    1998-01-01

    A set of closed form equations for the preliminary evaluation and design of a heat-pipe-cooled leading edge is presented. The set of equations can provide a leading-edge designer with a quick evaluation of the feasibility of using heat-pipe cooling. The heat pipes can be embedded in a metallic or composite structure. The maximum heat flux, total integrated heat load, and thermal properties of the structure and heat-pipe container are required input. The heat-pipe operating temperature, maximum surface temperature, heat-pipe length, and heat pipe-spacing can be estimated. Results using the design equations compared well with those from a 3-D finite element analysis for both a large and small radius leading edge.

  8. A parallel offline CFD and closed-form approximation strategy for computationally efficient analysis of complex fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allphin, Devin

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution approximations for complex fluid flow problems have become a common and powerful engineering analysis technique. These tools, though qualitatively useful, remain limited in practice by their underlying inverse relationship between simulation accuracy and overall computational expense. While a great volume of research has focused on remedying these issues inherent to CFD, one traditionally overlooked area of resource reduction for engineering analysis concerns the basic definition and determination of functional relationships for the studied fluid flow variables. This artificial relationship-building technique, called meta-modeling or surrogate/offline approximation, uses design of experiments (DOE) theory to efficiently approximate non-physical coupling between the variables of interest in a fluid flow analysis problem. By mathematically approximating these variables, DOE methods can effectively reduce the required quantity of CFD simulations, freeing computational resources for other analytical focuses. An idealized interpretation of a fluid flow problem can also be employed to create suitably accurate approximations of fluid flow variables for the purposes of engineering analysis. When used in parallel with a meta-modeling approximation, a closed-form approximation can provide useful feedback concerning proper construction, suitability, or even necessity of an offline approximation tool. It also provides a short-circuit pathway for further reducing the overall computational demands of a fluid flow analysis, again freeing resources for otherwise unsuitable resource expenditures. To validate these inferences, a design optimization problem was presented requiring the inexpensive estimation of aerodynamic forces applied to a valve operating on a simulated piston-cylinder heat engine. The determination of these forces was to be found using parallel surrogate and exact approximation methods, thus evidencing the comparative

  9. Closed-form expressions for ocean reverberation and signal excess with mode stripping and Lambert's law.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C H

    2003-11-01

    Closed-form expressions for two-way propagation and reverberation in variable depth ducts are derived for isovelocity water by using ray invariants and acoustic flux. These expressions include the transition to single mode propagation at long range. Three surface scattering laws are considered: Lambert, Lommel-Seeliger, and angle independent, and these are compared with a point target to give explicit signal-to-reverberation ratios. In particular, there is interesting and sometimes surprising behavior when the propagation obeys mode-stripping (the high angles are preferentially attenuated by bottom losses) whilst the scattering obeys Lambert's law (high angles are preferentially back-scattered). There may be conditions where the signal-to-reverberation ratio is independent of range so that there is no reverberation range limit. Bottom slope dependence of both target echo and reverberation is surprisingly weak. The implications of refraction are discussed. The angle dependence for a point or surface scatterer at a given range can be translated into arrival time, so it is possible to calculate the received pulse shape for one-way or two-way paths. Because the tail is exponential with a range-independent half-life that only depends on bottom reflection properties there is scope for extracting geoacoustic information from the pulse shape alone. This environmental time spread is also of use to sonar designers.

  10. A closed-form criterion for dislocation emission in nano-porous materials under arbitrary thermomechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, J. W.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2016-01-01

    Our traditional view of void nucleation is associated with interface debonding at second-phase particles. However, under extreme dynamic loading conditions second-phase particles may not necessarily be the dominant source of void nucleation sites. A few key experimental observations of laser spall surfaces support this assertion. Here, we describe an alternative mechanism to the traditional view, namely shock-induced vacancy generation and clustering followed by nanovoid growth mediated by dislocation emission. This mechanism only becomes active at very large stresses. It is therefore desirable to establish a closed-form criterion for the macroscopic stress required to activate dislocation emission in porous materials. Following an approach similar to Lubarda and co-workers, we derive the desired criterion by making use of stability arguments applied to the analytic solutions for the elastic interactions of dislocations and voids. Our analysis significantly extends that of Lubarda and co-workers by accounting for a more general stress state, finite porosity, surface tension, as well as temperature and pressure dependence. The resulting simple stress-based criterion is validated against a number of molecular dynamics simulations with favorable agreement.

  11. Closed form solution for a double quantum well using Gröbner basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acus, A.; Dargys, A.

    2011-07-01

    Analytical expressions for the spectrum, eigenfunctions and dipole matrix elements of a square double quantum well (DQW) are presented for a general case when the potential in different regions of the DQW has different heights and the effective masses are different. This was achieved by using a Gröbner basis algorithm that allowed us to disentangle the resulting coupled polynomials without explicitly solving the transcendental eigenvalue equation.

  12. Analytical characterization of the passive film formed on steel in solutions simulating the concrete interstitial electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Montemor, M.F.; Simoes, A.M.P.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    1998-05-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the effect of chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}) and fly ash on behavior of the passive film formed on steel in solutions simulating the concrete interstitial electrolyte. Results showed the presence of fly ash and of Cl{sup {minus}} led to an increase in the amount of iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) in outer layers of the film and to an increase in the thickness and water content of the passive film. Significant differences in composition and thickness were observed between the films formed in paste solutions and in calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]{sub 2}) solutions.

  13. Closed-form inverse kinematics for intra-operative mobile C-arm positioning with six degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lejing; Zou, Rui; Weidert, Simon; Landes, Juergen; Euler, Ekkehard; Burschka, Darius; Navab, Nassir

    2011-03-01

    For trauma and orthopedic surgery, maneuvering a mobile C-arm X-ray device into a desired position in order to acquire the right picture is a routine task. The precision and ease of use of the C-arm positioning becomes even more important for more advanced imaging techniques as parallax-free X-ray image stitching, for example. Standard mobile C-arms have only five degrees of freedom (DOF), which definitely restricts their motions that have six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. We have proposed a method to model the kinematics of the mobile Carm and operating table as an integrated 6DOF C-arm X-ray imaging system.1 This enables mobile C-arms to be positioned relative to the patient's table with six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. Moving mobile C-arms to a desired position and orientation requires finding the necessary joint values, which is an inverse kinematics problem. In this paper, we present closed-form solutions, i.e. analytic expressions, obtained in an algebraic way for the inverse kinematics problem of the 6DOF C-arm model. In addition, we implement a 6DOF C-arm system for interactively radiation-free C-arm positioning based on a continuous guidance from C-arm pose estimation. For this we employ a visual marker pattern attached under the operating table and a mobile C-arm system augmented by a video camera and mirror construction. In our experiment, repositioning C-arm to a pre-defined pose in a phantom study demonstrates the practicality and accuracy of our developed 6DOF C-arm system.

  14. 46 CFR 308.535 - Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B. 308.535 Section 308.535 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  15. Evolution of hydrogen from acidic aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions by reduced forms of isopolytungstates

    SciTech Connect

    Saidkhanov, S.S.; Parmon, V.N.; Savinov, E.N.

    1986-02-10

    The authors determine the specific nature of the hydrogen-releasing polytungstate (PT) species and investigate the features of H/sub 2/ evolution by this species. In aqueous and aqueous-alcohol solutions, reoxidation of the doubly reduced form of hexatungstate proceeds spontaneously, accompanied by hydrogen evolution; in contrast, the reduced form of the PT is stable with respect to reoxidation.

  16. Determination of Interstellar He Parameters Using Five Years of Data from the IBEX: Beyond Closed Form Approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Möbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Rahmanifard, F.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sokół, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Frisch, P.

    2015-10-01

    makes no assumptions or expansions with respect to the spin-axis pointing or frame of reference. Thus, we are able to move beyond closed-form approximations and utilize observations of interstellar He during the complete five year period from 2009 to 2013 when the primary component of interstellar He is most prominent. Chi-square minimization of simulations compared to observations results in a He ISN flow longitude of 75.°6 ± 1.°4, latitude of -5.°12 ± 0.°27, speed of 25.4 ± 1.1 km s-1, and temperature of 8000 ± 1300 K, where the uncertainties are related and apply along the IBEX parameter tube. This paper also provides documentation for a new release of ISN data and associated model runs.

  17. Calculation of the shape of a two-dimensional supersonic nozzle in closed form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunsolo, Dante

    1953-01-01

    The idea is advanced of making a supersonic nozzle by producing one, two, or three successive turns of the whole flow; with the result that the wall contour can be calculated exactly by means of the Prandtl-Meyer "Lost Solution."

  18. Hydraulic fracturing model based on a three-dimensional closed form

    SciTech Connect

    Bouteca, M.J. )

    1988-11-01

    The numerical model described in this paper was designed to provide a realistic three-dimensional (3D) solution for fracture propagation in minimal computation time. Comparisons with available results show good concordance for a wide range of data. The results of a parametric study are compared with the Nolte analysis of the propagation pressure.

  19. Experiment close out of lysimeter field testing of low-level radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. These experiments were recently shut down and the contents of the lysimeters have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radio nuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the examination of waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays after shut down. During this examination, the waste forms were characterized after removal from the lysimeters and the results compared to the findings of the original characterizations. Vertical soil cores were taken from the soil columns and analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides in the soils after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST and BLT code predictions of releases and movement, using recently developed partition coefficients and leachate measurements, to actual radio nuclide movement through the soil columns as determined from these core analyses.

  20. Characteristics and electrochemical mechanisms of a nanosilver solution formed by anodic dissolution with high DC voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Nguyen Duc; Thuy, Nguyen Minh; Nhi Tru, Nguyen

    2013-08-01

    Nanosilver solution, prepared by anodic dissolution with high DC voltage in doubly distilled water, is free of undesirable chemicals and forms a highly pure product which is suitable for different applications, especially in the medical and pharmaceutical fields. In this study high DC voltage electrolysis was implemented to form nanosilver solutions with varying electrode diameters, anode-cathode distances, and electrolysis duration. The process was monitored while the cell was in operation, and the characteristics of the resulting solution were analysed afterwards. Cell reactions included: colour changes in the solution bulk due to the reduction of silver ions forming nanoparticles, anodic dissolution of silver, intense gas evolution at both electrodes, and chemical reactions in the solution causing nanosilver formation. UV-Vis characteristics, particle size distribution, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, solution concentrations, conductivities, and ζ-potentials were all found to depend on the electrode's distances, temperature, electrolysis duration, and current density. Nanosilver preparation can thus be considered a combination of electrochemical reactions (such as silver dissolution at anode and water decomposition to generate hydrogen and oxygen), and chemical reactions between the electrolytic products from the solution bulk.

  1. A model for closing the inviscid form of the average passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Mulac, R. A.; Celestina, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for closing or mathematically completing the system of equations is proposed. The model describes the time average flow field through the blade passages of multistage turbomachinery. These average-passage equation systems govern a conceptual model useful in turbomachinery aerodynamic design and analysis. The closure model was developed to insure a consistency between these equations and the axisymmetric through-flow equations. The closure model was incorporated into a calculation code for use in the simulation of the flow field about a high-speed counter rotating propeller and a high-speed fan stage.

  2. A model for closing the inviscid form of the average-passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Mulac, R. A.; Celestina, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed for closing or mathematically completing the system of equations which describes the time average flow field through the blade passages of multistage turbomachinery. These equations referred to as the average passage equation system govern a conceptual model which has proven useful in turbomachinery aerodynamic design and analysis. The closure model is developed so as to insure a consistency between these equations and the axisymmetric through flow equations. The closure model was incorporated into a computer code for use in simulating the flow field about a high speed counter rotating propeller and a high speed fan stage. Results from these simulations are presented.

  3. A chloride capturing system via proton-induced structure transformation between opened- and closed-forms of dodecavanadates.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshitaka; Kikukawa, Yuji; Kuwajima, Sho; Hayashi, Yoshihito

    2016-05-01

    Chloride-incorporated dodecavanadates show two distinct structures of the monoprotonated-form [HV12O32(Cl)](4-) (closed-V12) with a spherical closed-structure and the opened-form [V12O32(Cl)](5-) (opened-V12). The reaction of closed-V12 with a stoichiometric amount of ethylenediamine drives the structure transformation reaction to opened-V12, quantitatively. From time dependent observations of (51)V NMR, a tube-type intermediate [V12O32(Cl)](5-) (tube-V12) was observed in the transformation process. Isolation of the intermediate was achieved by the deprotonation reaction of closed-V12 with diethylamine, and the structure transformation was confirmed by using the isolated intermediate. The reverse transformation from opened-V12 to closed-V12 was also achieved by addition of trifluoroacetic acid. The geometrical difference between closed-V12 and opened-V12 is reflected in the reactivity difference to the external reagents, and this was demonstrated by examining the chloride removal reaction by using a silver cation. The incorporated chloride was preserved in the closed-V12 cage even in the presence of a silver cation. In contrast, the chloride in opened-V12 was removed as AgCl by the silver cation. In addition, by the reaction of chloride-free opened-V12 with a quantitative amount of {Et4N}Cl retrieved opened-V12, showing the capability of opened-V12 to recapture a guest chloride in the cavity. This transformation between two isomeric dodecavanadate structures is regarded as the movement of a molecular mitt to catch a ball and secure it.

  4. Potassium Iodide ("KI"): Instructions to Make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form)

    MedlinePlus

    ... make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Preparation and Dosing Instructions for Use During a Nuclear Emergency To Make KI Solution (Liquid Form), using ...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....002 EC27SE91.030 H-9—Rescission Model Form (Refinancing with Original Creditor) NOTICE OF RIGHT TO CANCEL Your Right To Cancel You are entering into a new transaction to increase the amount of credit... received your new Truth in Lending disclosures; or (3) the date you received this notice of your right...

  6. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-05-09

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  7. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  8. Rock Physics Characterization of Porous Media Containing Hydrates Formed Out of Solution: Tetrathydrofuran VS. Dissolved Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicks, J. M.; Rydzy, M. B.; Spangenberg, E.; Batzle, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Methane hydrate formation in sediments from the dissolved gas phase is a tedious and time-consuming task, due to the relatively low solubility of methane in water. A number of studies on physical properties of hydrated sediments have been conducted on sediments containing tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrates instead. The use of THF as a hydrate former is convenient as it forms hydrate at atmospheric pressure and relatively high temperatures of about 277 K. It is completely miscible in water, thus forms hydrate out solution and promises homogeneous synthesis of THF hydrate in sediment. The applicability of THF as a proxy for methane hydrate formed out of solution, however, has often been questioned. To better understand whether THF hydrates represent a legitimate proxy for methane hydrates formed out of solution, ultrasonic velocity and resistivity measurements were performed on hydrated Ottawa Sand F110 sand and glass bead samples in conjunction with imaging techniques, such as micro X-ray computed tomography (MXCT), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thereby the tests were conducted on samples containing hydrates formed both, from methane dissolved in water and with the use of THF. The results show, that in terms of ultrasonic velocities, THF and methane hydrates exhibit the same trend. As the hydrate crystallized in the pore space, no increase in velocity was observed until a critical hydrate saturation of 35-50 percent was exceeded. On the other hand, the bulk electrical resistivity increased with increasing gas hydrate saturation. Comparison with current rock physics models suggested that the gas hydrate formed out of solution in both cases exhibits pore-filling/ load-bearing behavior, i.e. it suggests that the hydrate is formed away from the grains. This was supported through the imaging. This series of measurements provided the first direct comparison of THF and methane hydrates formed out of solution in terms of how their distribution and location in the pore

  9. General closed-form bit-error rate expressions for coded M-distributed atmospheric optical communications.

    PubMed

    Balsells, José M Garrido; López-González, Francisco J; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Miguel; Notario, Antonio Puerta

    2015-07-01

    In this Letter, general closed-form expressions for the average bit error rate in atmospheric optical links employing rate-adaptive channel coding are derived. To characterize the irradiance fluctuations caused by atmospheric turbulence, the Málaga or M distribution is employed. The proposed expressions allow us to evaluate the performance of atmospheric optical links employing channel coding schemes such as OOK-GSc, OOK-GScc, HHH(1,13), or vw-MPPM with different coding rates and under all regimes of turbulence strength. A hyper-exponential fitting technique applied to the conditional bit error rate is used in all cases. The proposed closed-form expressions are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations.

  10. General closed-form bit-error rate expressions for coded M-distributed atmospheric optical communications.

    PubMed

    Balsells, José M Garrido; López-González, Francisco J; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Miguel; Notario, Antonio Puerta

    2015-07-01

    In this Letter, general closed-form expressions for the average bit error rate in atmospheric optical links employing rate-adaptive channel coding are derived. To characterize the irradiance fluctuations caused by atmospheric turbulence, the Málaga or M distribution is employed. The proposed expressions allow us to evaluate the performance of atmospheric optical links employing channel coding schemes such as OOK-GSc, OOK-GScc, HHH(1,13), or vw-MPPM with different coding rates and under all regimes of turbulence strength. A hyper-exponential fitting technique applied to the conditional bit error rate is used in all cases. The proposed closed-form expressions are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. PMID:26125336

  11. Hysterically damped free and forced vibrations of axial and torsional bars by a closed form exact method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jae-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Hysterically damped free and forced vibrations of axial and torsional bars are investigated using a closed form exact method. The method is exact and yields closed form expressions for the vibratory displacements. This is in contrast with the well known eigenfunction superposition method which requires expressing the distributed forcing functions and the displacement response functions as infinite sums of free vibration eigenfunctions. The hysterically damped free vibration frequencies and corresponding damped mode shapes are calculated and plotted instead of undamped free vibration and mode shapes which is typically computed and applied in vibration problems. The hysterically damped natural frequency equations are exactly derived. Accurate axial or torsional amplitude vs. forcing frequency curves showing the forced response due to distributed loading are displayed with various hysteretic damping parameters.

  12. The effect of intravitreal injection of vehicle solutions on form deprivation myopia in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alexander H; Siegwart, John T; Frost, Michael R; Norton, Thomas T

    2016-04-01

    lntravitreal injection of substances dissolved in a vehicle solution is a common tool used to assess retinal function. We examined the effect of injection procedures (three groups) and vehicle solutions (four groups) on the development of form deprivation myopia (FDM) in juvenile tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates, starting at 24 days of visual experience (about 45 days of age). In seven groups (n = 7 per group), the myopia produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) was measured daily for 12 days during an 11-day treatment period. The FD eye was randomly selected; the contralateral eye served as an untreated control. The refractive state of both eyes was measured daily, starting just before FD began (day 1); axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 and after eleven days of treatment (day 12). Procedure groups: the myopia (treated eye - control eye refraction) in the FD group was the reference. The sham group only underwent brief daily anesthesia and opening of the conjunctiva to expose the sclera. The puncture group, in addition, had a pipette inserted daily into the vitreous. In four vehicle groups, 5 μL of vehicle was injected daily. The NaCl group received 0.85% NaCl. In the NaCl + ascorbic acid group, 1 mg/mL of ascorbic acid was added. The water group received sterile water. The water + ascorbic acid group received water with ascorbic acid (1 mg/mL). We found that the procedures associated with intravitreal injections (anesthesia, opening of the conjunctiva, and puncture of the sclera) did not significantly affect the development of FDM. However, injecting 5 μL of any of the four vehicle solutions slowed the development of FDM. NaCl had a small effect; myopia development in the last 6 days (-0.15 ± 0.08 D/day) was significantly less than in the FD group (-0.55 ± 0.06 D/day). NaCl + Ascorbic acid further slowed the development of FDM on several treatment days. H2O (-0.09 ± 0.05 D/day) and H2O + ascorbic acid

  13. Conceptual design of a closed loop nutrient solution delivery system for CELSS implementation in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Oleson, Mel W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.

    1990-01-01

    Described here are the results of a study to develop a conceptual design for an experimental closed loop fluid handling system capable of monitoring, controlling, and supplying nutrient solution to higher plants. The Plant Feeder Experiment (PFE) is designed to be flight tested in a microgravity environment. When flown, the PFX will provide information on both the generic problems of microgravity fluid handling and the specific problems associated with the delivery of the nutrient solution in a microgravity environment. The experimental hardware is designed to fit into two middeck lockers on the Space Shuttle, and incorporates several components that have previously been flight tested.

  14. Discovery of a solid solution of enantiomers in a racemate-forming system by seeding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Chen, Shuang; Guzei, Ilia A; Yu, Lian

    2006-09-13

    A racemic liquid of opposite enantiomers usually crystallizes as a racemic compound (racemate), rarely as a conglomerate, and even more rarely as a solid solution. We discovered a Type II solid solution (mixed crystal) of the enantiomers of the chiral drug tazofelone (TZF) by seeding its racemic liquid with enantiomerically pure crystals (enantiomorphs). Without seeding, the racemic liquid crystallized as a racemic compound. The crystal structure of this solid solution resembles that of the enantiomorph but has static disorder arising from the random substitution of enantiomers. This solid solution is a kinetic product of crystallization made possible by its faster growth rate compared to that of the competing racemate (by 4- to 40-fold between 80 and 146 degrees C). The free energy of the solid solution continuously varies with the enantiomeric composition between those of the conglomerate and the racemates. The existence of the TZF solid solution explains the absence of eutectic melting between crystals of different enantiomeric compositions. The ability of TZF to simultaneously form racemate and solid solution originates from its conformational flexibility. Similar solid solutions of enantiomers may exist in other systems and may be discovered in similar ways. The study demonstrates the use of cross-nucleation for discovering and engineering crystalline materials to optimize physical properties.

  15. Lateral boundary differentiability of solutions of parabolic equations in nondivergence form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongpan; Li, Dongsheng; Wang, Lihe

    The lateral boundary differentiability is shown for solutions of parabolic differential equations in nondivergence form under the assumptions that the parabolic boundary satisfies the exterior Dini condition and is punctually C1 differentiable one-sided in t-direction. The classical barrier technique, the maximum principle, the interior Harnack inequality and an iteration procedure are the main analytical tools.

  16. Spherical constituent particles formed by a multistage solution treatment in Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.B.; Chen, J.H.; Liu, J.Z. Liu, P.; Qin, F.; Cheng, Y.L.; Wu, C.L.

    2013-09-15

    The corrosion resistance and fracture toughness of Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloys are greatly affected by the remaining large constituent particles with sharp corners and sharp edges. Here, we show that with a careful high-temperature solution treatment, these constituent particles can be formed into spherical rather than irregular shapes. This results in better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties for the alloys than the conventional solution treatment. The complex microstructures of the formed spherical constituent particles and their formation mechanism were studied using focused ion beam (FIB), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). It was revealed that there are five types of spherical constituent particles formed after the special solution treatment, and each type has its own characteristic microstructural features. - Highlights: • Improved combined mechanical properties obtained by spheroidizing treatment. • Five spherical particles have been found in alloy treated by spheroidizing. • These particles have interesting structures, including quasicrystal, and so on. • It is the first time to observe petal-like η phase formed by solution treatment. • We reported a critical state to decompose the most constituents by spheroidizing.

  17. Cooling and Freezing Behaviors of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solution in a Closed Rectangular Container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narumi, Akira; Kashiwagi, Takao; Nakane, Ichirou

    This paper investigates cooling and freezing behaviors of NaCl aqueous solution in a rectangular container equipped with horizontal partitions of micro porous film in order to determine the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer through cell wall for the purpose of freezing food. For comparison, experiments were performed using partitions of copper plate, no partition, and water. These processes were visualized and measured using real-time laser holographic interferometry. It was found that there was very little difference in the cooling process due to partitions, but that there were significant differences in freezing process when NaCl aqueous solution is used.

  18. Differential transcriptional regulation of orthologous dps genes from two closely related heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Sandh, Gustaf; Nenninger, Anja; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Stensjö, Karin

    2015-03-01

    In cyanobacteria, DNA-binding proteins from starved cells (Dps) play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative and nutritional stresses. In this study, we have characterized the cell-type specificity and the promoter regions of two orthologous dps genes, Npun_R5799 in Nostoc punctiforme and alr3808 in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. A transcriptional start site (TSS), identical in location to the previously identified proximal TSS of alr3808, was identified for Npun_R5799 under both combined nitrogen supplemented and N2-fixing growth conditions. However, only alr3808 was also transcribed from a second distal TSS. Sequence homologies suggest that the promoter region containing the distal TSS is not conserved upstream of orthologous genes among heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. The analysis of promoter GFP-reporter strains showed a different role in governing cell-type specificity between the proximal and distal promoter of alr3808. We here confirmed the heterocyst specificity of the distal promoter of alr3808 and described a very early induction of its expression during proheterocyst differentiation. In contrast, the complete promoters of both genes were active in all cells. Even though Npun_R5799 and alr3808 are orthologs, the regulation of their respective expression differs, indicating distinctions in the function of these cyanobacterial Dps proteins depending on the strain and cell type.

  19. Differential transcriptional regulation of orthologous dps genes from two closely related heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Sandh, Gustaf; Nenninger, Anja; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Stensjö, Karin

    2015-03-01

    In cyanobacteria, DNA-binding proteins from starved cells (Dps) play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative and nutritional stresses. In this study, we have characterized the cell-type specificity and the promoter regions of two orthologous dps genes, Npun_R5799 in Nostoc punctiforme and alr3808 in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. A transcriptional start site (TSS), identical in location to the previously identified proximal TSS of alr3808, was identified for Npun_R5799 under both combined nitrogen supplemented and N2-fixing growth conditions. However, only alr3808 was also transcribed from a second distal TSS. Sequence homologies suggest that the promoter region containing the distal TSS is not conserved upstream of orthologous genes among heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. The analysis of promoter GFP-reporter strains showed a different role in governing cell-type specificity between the proximal and distal promoter of alr3808. We here confirmed the heterocyst specificity of the distal promoter of alr3808 and described a very early induction of its expression during proheterocyst differentiation. In contrast, the complete promoters of both genes were active in all cells. Even though Npun_R5799 and alr3808 are orthologs, the regulation of their respective expression differs, indicating distinctions in the function of these cyanobacterial Dps proteins depending on the strain and cell type. PMID:25663155

  20. Closed analytical solutions of Bohr Hamiltonian with Manning-Rosen potential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabab, M.; Lahbas, A.; Oulne, M.

    2015-11-01

    In the present paper, we have obtained closed analytical expressions for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Bohr Hamiltonian with the Manning-Rosen potential for γ-unstable nuclei as well as exactly separable rotational ones with γ ≈ 0. Some heavy nuclei with known β and γ bandheads have been fitted by using two parameters in the γ-unstable case and three parameters in the axially symmetric prolate deformed one. A good agreement with experimental data has been achieved.

  1. A remark on the asymptotic form of BPS multi-dyon solutions and their conserved charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinidis, C. P.; Ferreira, L. A.; Luchini, G.

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the gauge invariant, dynamically conserved charges, recently obtained from the integral form of the Yang-Mills equations, for the BPS multi-dyon solutions of a Yang-Mills-Higgs theory associated to any compact semi-simple gauge group G. Those charges are shown to correspond to the eigenvalues of the next-to-leading term of the asymptotic form of the Higgs field at spatial infinity, and so coinciding with the usual topological charges of those solutions. Such results show that many of the topological charges considered in the literature are in fact dynamical charges, which conservation follows from the global properties of classical Yang-Mills theories encoded into their integral dynamical equations. The conservation of those charges can not be obtained from the differential form of Yang-Mills equations.

  2. A novel form of {open_quotes}Tyrosinase-positive{close_quotes} oculocutaneous albinism

    SciTech Connect

    Fukai, K.; Lee, S.T.; Bundey, S.; Spritz, R.A. |

    1994-09-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. We have shown that typical ty-pos OCA (OCA2) results from mutations of the P gene in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. We have also shown that some patients diagnosed with ty-pos OCA actually have mild forms of type I OCA (OCAI), resulting from mutations at the tyrosinase (TYR) gene at 11q14-q21. However, in about one-third of patients with ty-pos OCA we have failed to identify abnormalities of either the P or TYR genes, suggesting the possible existence of a third ty-pos OCA locus. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a large, complex, inbred Pakistani kindred. Affected individuals exhibit slight skin pigmentation with no tanning, hair that is silver at birth and darkens somewhat over time, brown irides, and reduced visual acuity with nystagmus. SSCP/heteroduplex screening and complete DNA sequence analysis of TYR gene in the proband identified no abnormalities, and analysis of a CA repeat in the TYR gene promoter showed no linkage of ty-pos OCA to this marker in this kindred. SSCP/ heteroduplex screening of the P gene also detected no abnormalities, and the (inbred) proband was heterozygous for numerous intragenic polymorphisms. These data thus exclude TYP and P. We next carried out genetic linkage analyses and homozygisty mapping using various SSLP repeats at the locations of the human homologues of the mouse brown (TYRP, 9p23), slaty (13q32), and silver (12pter-q21) genes, all of which are associated with generalized hypopigmentation in mutant animals. However, we found no evidence of linkage of any of these markers. We are currently carrying out similar analyses using markers near the putative locations of the human homologues of several other mouse hypopigmentation genes in an effort to map this novel human ty-pos OCA locus.

  3. FORMING CLOSE-IN EARTH-LIKE PLANETS VIA A COLLISION-MERGER MECHANISM IN LATE-STAGE PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Jianghui; Jin Sheng; Tinney, C. G. E-mail: qingxiaojin@gmail.com

    2011-01-20

    The large number of exoplanets found to orbit their host stars in very close orbits have significantly advanced our understanding of the planetary formation process. It is now widely accepted that such short-period planets cannot have formed in situ, but rather must have migrated to their current orbits from a formation location much farther from their host star. In the late stages of planetary formation, once the gas in the protoplanetary disk has dissipated and migration has halted, gas giants orbiting in the inner disk regions will excite planetesimals and planetary embryos, resulting in an increased rate of orbital crossings and large impacts. We present the results of dynamical simulations for planetesimal evolution in this later stage of planet formation. We find that a mechanism is revealed by which the collision-merger of planetary embryos can kick terrestrial planets directly into orbits extremely close to their parent stars.

  4. The ectomycorrhizal morphotype Pinirhiza sclerotia is formed by Acephala macrosclerotiorum sp. nov., a close relative of Phialocephala fortinii.

    PubMed

    Münzenberger, Babette; Bubner, Ben; Wöllecke, Jens; Sieber, Thomas N; Bauer, Robert; Fladung, Matthias; Hüttl, Reinhard F

    2009-09-01

    Relatively few ectomycorrhizal fungal species are known to form sclerotia. Usually, sclerotia are initiated at the extraradical mycelium. In this study, we present anatomical and ultrastructural evidence for the formation of sclerotia directly in the hyphal mantle of the mycorrhizal morphotype Pinirhiza sclerotia. A dark-pigmented fungal strain was isolated from Pinirhiza sclerotia and identified by molecular tools as Acephala macrosclerotiorum sp. nov., a close relative of Phialocephala fortinii s.l. As dark septate fungi are known to be mostly endophytic, resyntheses with Pinus sylvestris and A. macrosclerotiorum as well as Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides and A. macrosclerotiorum or P. fortinii s.l. were performed under axenic conditions. No mycorrhizas were found when hybrid aspen was inoculated with A. macrosclerotiorum or P. fortinii. However, A. macrosclerotiorum formed true ectomycorrhizas in vitro with P. sylvestris. Anatomical and ultrastructural features of this ectomycorrhiza are presented. The natural and synthesized ectomycorrhizal morphotypes were identical and characterized by a thin hyphal mantle that bore sclerotia in a later ontogenetic stage. The Hartig net was well-developed and grew up to the endodermis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence at the anatomical and ultrastructural level that a close relative of P. fortinii s.l. forms true ectomycorrhizas with a coniferous host. PMID:19415343

  5. Solution to the problem of the close integration of satellite and inertial platform navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelov, V. A.; Sokolov, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    The problem of the close integration of a satellite and inertial navigation system (NA) constructed on the basis of a gyro-stabilized platform is solved. The features of the synthesis of an algorithm for nonlinear estimation of the NS state vector in view of the continuous character for the autonomous measurements and the discrete character for satellite measurements are studied. The developed algorithm for solving the navigation problem on the basis of the integrated NS allows one to provide a stable high-precision estimation of the parameters of motion for a movable object, including in the absence of satellite signals.

  6. Bediasite source materials: A solution to an endmember mixing problem exploiting closed data

    SciTech Connect

    Love, K.M.; Woronow, A. )

    1988-08-01

    Previous tektite studies proposed parent materials ranging from single lithologies to various three-endmember mixtures of igneous and sedimentary rocks. In part, this breadth of proposed parent materials resulted from the unavailability of proper statistical methods for analyzing percentage, or closed, data. However, new statistical techniques penetrate these data, and the bediasites, being random samples of endmember mixtures, afford opportunities to establish a paradigm for endmember identification, determine the minimum number of lithologic/geochemical endmembers contributing to the bediasite compositions, and estimate the major-element chemistries of those endmembers. The authors conclude that both the major-element chemistry and the correlations among major-element ratios for bediasites (1) cannot be explained solely as an effect of selective volatilization of a single source material, (2) require a minimum of two contributing endmember materials, and (3) suggest a binary mixture of endmembers chemically similar to a subarkose and a ferro-aluminum residual clay.

  7. The solution in functional rehabilitation after destruction of the larynx: The tracheostoma closed

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.; Rheims, D.; Attya, E. )

    1986-05-01

    A bayonet-shaped airway allowing free respiration and undisturbed deglutition was reconstructed in 2 young women who had undergone tracheotomy and radiotherapy for thyroid carcinoma. The laryngeal vestibule, glottis, and subglottis had been destroyed, and the air passages were closed. An external gutter and an anterior tracheal wall were created in a multistage procedure. In 1 patient, the hypopharynx and upper esophageal segment were reconstructed with bilateral pectoralis major musculocutaneous flaps, which disfigured the breast. The two displaced nipple-areola complexes were properly repositioned using skin expanders and island flap transfer, and the breast was remodeled with prostheses. Our results suggest that this method of laryngotracheal reconstruction may also be applied in laryngectomized patients in whom only part of the epiglottis and the aryepiglottic folds remain. Although the procedure is lengthy and difficult, it is recommended for extensive lesions in fully cooperative patients.

  8. Normal form solutions of dynamical systems in the basin of attraction of their fixed points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bountis, Tassos; Tsarouhas, George; Herman, Russell

    1998-10-01

    The normal form theory of Poincaré, Siegel and Arnol'd is applied to an analytically solvable Lotka-Volterra system in the plane, and a periodically forced, dissipative Duffing's equation with chaotic orbits in its 3-dimensional phase space. For the planar model, we determine exactly how the convergence region of normal forms about a nodal fixed point is limited by the presence of singularities of the solutions in the complex t-plane. Despite such limitations, however, we show, in the case of a periodically driven system, that normal forms can be used to obtain useful estimates of the basin of attraction of a stable fixed point of the Poincaré map, whose ``boundary'' is formed by the intersecting invariant manifolds of a second hyperbolic fixed point nearby.

  9. Lyotropic mesophases formed by solutions of sodium strearate in glycerol and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingbing; Joshi, Leela; Satyendra Kumar, Satyendra; Yaravoy, Yury; Teanoosh, Moaddel

    2004-03-01

    Solutions of sodium stearate in concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 wt %, in glycerol and glycerol + water exhibit two phases between room temperature and 100 °C for all mixtures. In the high temperature phase, the solutions flow easily while they form a gel phase with unique elastic properties in the low temperature phase. Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering measurements performed on partially deutrated samples reveal structural details of these solutions. The high temperature phase is found to be an isotropic dispersion of micellar aggregates, the lower temperature phase possesses more complex structure. These results augmented with results from differential scanning calorimetry, NMR proton relaxation and other techniques will be presented. Supported by Unilever Research, USA.

  10. A study of production of {alpha}-form plaster from FGD sludge in an aqueous solution at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, S.; Kirk, D.

    1996-12-31

    A process for directly converting FGD sludge solid into {alpha}-form plaster in an aqueous solution at atmospheric pressure with simultaneous collection of SO{sub 2} evolved has been studied. The reactant suspension comprises FGD sludge solid in a ratio of solid to liquid from 1:1.25 to 1:10, sulfuric acid from 5% to 30%, alkali earth metal chloride salts no more than 8% which serves as the catalyst for crystallization. Experiments are proceeded in pH values from acidic range to near neutral range in a temperature range from 80 C to the near boiling point of suspension. It has been found that the concentrations of acid in liquid and the reaction temperature are the most sensitive factors to the rate of dehydration of FGD gypsum. Increasing the ratio of solid to liquid is disadvantageous for growth of crystals even though it does not effect obviously on the rate of dehydration of FGD gypsum. Addition of glycerol less than 3% plays a role in stabilizing {alpha}-form calcium sulfate hemihydrate crystals occurring in solution long enough so that crystals grow big. On the other hand, the pH range is the most important to modify crystal habit in presence of succinic acid. The more closed to the neutral range of pH value the liquid is adjusted, the better stability of the crystals appears, the more favorable for producing big squat crystals in high quality the process is believed.

  11. A science-based approach to understanding waste form durability in open and closed nuclear fuel cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, M. T.; Ewing, R. C.

    2007-05-01

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: (a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; (b) formation and properties of U6+-secondary phases; (c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and (d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behaviour of the source term over long time periods (greater than 105 years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modelling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms 'tailored' to specific geologic settings.

  12. A Science-Based Approach to Understanding Waste Form Durability in Open and Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    M.T. Peters; R.C. Ewing

    2006-06-22

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: (a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; (b) formation and properties of U{sup 6+}-secondary phases; (c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and (d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behavior of the source term over long time periods (greater than 10{sup 5} years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modeling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms ''tailored'' to specific geologic settings.

  13. An asymptotic expansion of the solution of a matrix difference equation of general form

    SciTech Connect

    Sgibnev, M S

    2014-12-31

    An asymptotic expansion of the solution of an inhomogeneous matrix difference equation of general form is obtained. The case when there is no bound on the differences of the arguments is considered. The effect of the roots of the characteristic equation is taken into account. An integral estimate with a submultiplicative weight is established for the remainder in terms of the submultiplicative moment of the free term of the equation. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  14. {open_quotes}Open vessel{close_quotes} heat balance for TBP-nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Cavin, W.S.; Laurinat, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Heat balances were performed for both single phase (organic) and two phase (organic and aqueous) TBP/HNO{sub 3} solutions at temperatures above 100{degrees}C. The balance included the heat produced from oxidation minus losses from evaporation and butylnitrate formation by esterification. Net heat measurements were performed using an isothermal calorimeter. Losses from evaporation were determined from the volume of condensate produced (ice bath trap) and the component concentrate Carbon and nitrogen balances were performed to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction. The heat from oxidation was then calculated using the heats of formation of the reactants and products. Balances were obtained assuming that the heat from esterification was near zero (negligibly small). For two layered reaction systems the net heat was maintained endothermic, and constant with time, due to the transport of water to the organic phase by bubble mixing at the interface. This transported was replaced the water lost in the organic phase by evaporation.

  15. Benchmarking a new closed-form thermal analysis technique against a traditional lumped parameter, finite-difference method

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, K. D.; Bauer, T. H.

    2012-08-20

    A benchmarking effort was conducted to determine the accuracy of a new analytic generic geology thermal repository model developed at LLNL relative to a more traditional, numerical, lumped parameter technique. The fast-running analytical thermal transport model assumes uniform thermal properties throughout a homogenous storage medium. Arrays of time-dependent heat sources are included geometrically as arrays of line segments and points. The solver uses a source-based linear superposition of closed form analytical functions from each contributing point or line to arrive at an estimate of the thermal evolution of a generic geologic repository. Temperature rise throughout the storage medium is computed as a linear superposition of temperature rises. It is modeled using the MathCAD mathematical engine and is parameterized to allow myriad gridded repository geometries and geologic characteristics [4]. It was anticipated that the accuracy and utility of the temperature field calculated with the LLNL analytical model would provide an accurate 'birds-eye' view in regions that are many tunnel radii away from actual storage units; i.e., at distances where tunnels and individual storage units could realistically be approximated as physical lines or points. However, geometrically explicit storage units, waste packages, tunnel walls and close-in rock are not included in the MathCAD model. The present benchmarking effort therefore focuses on the ability of the analytical model to accurately represent the close-in temperature field. Specifically, close-in temperatures computed with the LLNL MathCAD model were benchmarked against temperatures computed using geometrically-explicit lumped-parameter, repository thermal modeling technique developed over several years at ANL using the SINDAG thermal modeling code [5]. Application of this numerical modeling technique to underground storage of heat generating nuclear waste streams within the proposed YMR Site has been widely reported [6

  16. Conceptual design of a closed loop nutrient solution delivery system for CELSS implementation in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Oleson, Mel W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to develop a conceptual design for an experimental, closed-loop fluid handling system capable of monitoring, controlling, and supplying nutrient solution to higher plants. The Plant Feeder Experiment (PFX) is designed to be flight tested in a micro-gravity (micro-g) environment and was developed under NASA's In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP). When flown, PFX will provide information on both the generic problems of micro-g fluid handling and the specific problems associated with the delivery of nutrient solution in a micro-g environment. The experimental hardware is designed to fit into two middeck lockers on the Space Shuttle, and incorporates several components that have previously been flight tested.

  17. Perspective: Closing the Dietary Fiber Gap: An Ancient Solution for a 21st Century Problem.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    An important gap exists between the daily amounts of fiber recommended in the human diet (28-42 g/d) and that which is actually consumed (median intake, 12-14 g/d). In fact, <5% of Americans meet the recommended intake for dietary fiber, and the magnitude of the gap is large, approximately a 50-70% shortfall. Because considerable evidence indicates that dietary fiber affects normal physiologic function and the onset of chronic diseases and their progression, the fiber gap represents an opportune target at which dietary interventions can be directed. This perspective considers whether a scientific basis exists for the current lack of emphasis on pulse crops, that is, grain legumes (common bean, chickpea, lentils, and garden pea) as a concentrated, inexpensive, and widely available source of dietary fiber. Attention is directed to this topic because the fiber gap has existed for decades with little improvement despite nutrition labeling, consumer education about the value of whole-grain cereal crop-based products, and the introduction of many fiber-enriched foods. The time is long overdue to identify additional approaches that have the potential to close the dietary fiber gap. To this end, the potential role of pulse crops in remediating this gap is examined. PMID:27422499

  18. Development and characterization of film forming polymeric solutions for skin drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zurdo Schroeder, Ines; Franke, Patrick; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Film forming polymeric solutions as a novel approach for skin drug delivery were developed and characterized concerning their mechanical properties and water vapor permeability. They were developed by varying type and content of the film forming polymer as well as nature and content of the plasticizer. The resulting formulations were evaluated according to five criteria: drying time, cosmetic attractiveness, outward stickiness, integrity on skin (after 18 h) and viscosity. Among the 14 tested polymers 10 film formers yielded formulations with a positive evaluation in all five test criteria. Selected formulations were then investigated for tensile strength and elongation at break in vitro and for water vapor permeability in vitro (WVP) and in vivo (TEWL). Their mechanical properties determined in vitro were found to be not predictive for the flexibility and abrasion resistance observed on living skin. Similar to this, the results derived from the WVP and the TEWL methods were not in accordance with each other. Obviously, the investigated in vitro methods do not characterize the properties of the thin films on living skin satisfactorily. Nevertheless, the identified film forming solutions are a promising approach and will provide the basis for the further development of this novel dosage form.

  19. Adsorption kinetics at the solid/solution interface: statistical rate theory at initial times of adsorption and close to equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Azizian, Saeid; Bashiri, Hadis

    2008-10-21

    The kinetics of solute adsorption at the solid/solution interface has been studied by statistical rate theory (SRT) at two limiting conditions, one at initial times of adsorption and the other close to equilibrium. A new kinetic equation has been derived for initial times of adsorption on the basis of SRT. For the first time a theoretical interpretation based on SRT has been provided for the modified pseudo-first-order (MPFO) kinetic equation which was proposed empirically by Yang and Al-Duri. It has been shown that the MPFO kinetic equation can be derived from the SRT equation when the system is close to equilibrium. On the basis of numerically generated points ( t, q) by the SRT equation, it has been shown that we can apply the new equation for initial times of adsorption in a larger time range in comparison to the previous q vs radical t linear equation. Also by numerical analysis of the generated kinetic data points, it is shown that application of the MPFO equation for modeling of whole kinetic data causes a large error for the data at initial times of adsorption. The results of numerical analysis are in perfect agreement with our theoretical derivation of the MPFO kinetic equation from the SRT equation. Finally, the results of the present theoretical study were confirmed by analysis of an experimental system. PMID:18788819

  20. Two-Dimensional Ordering of Solute Nanoclusters at a Close-Packed Stacking Fault: Modeling and Experimental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kimizuka, Hajime; Kurokawa, Shu; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakai, Akira; Ogata, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the equilibrium ordered structures at internal interfaces, especially in the case of nanometer-scale chemical heterogeneities, is an ongoing challenge in materials science. In this study, we established an ab-initio coarse-grained modeling technique for describing the phase-like behavior of a close-packed stacking-fault-type interface containing solute nanoclusters, which undergo a two-dimensional disorder-order transition, depending on the temperature and composition. Notably, this approach can predict the two-dimensional medium-range ordering in the nanocluster arrays realized in Mg-based alloys, in a manner consistent with scanning tunneling microscopy-based measurements. We predicted that the repulsively interacting solute-cluster system undergoes a continuous evolution into a highly ordered densely packed morphology while maintaining a high degree of six-fold orientational order, which is attributable mainly to an entropic effect. The uncovered interaction-dependent ordering properties may be useful for the design of nanostructured materials utilizing the self-organization of two-dimensional nanocluster arrays in the close-packed interfaces. PMID:25471232

  1. Acyclic forms of aldohexoses and ketohexoses in aqueous and DMSO solutions: conformational features studied using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Plazinski, Wojciech; Plazinska, Anita; Drach, Mateusz

    2016-04-14

    The molecular properties of aldohexoses and ketohexoses are usually studied in the context of their cyclic, furanose or pyranose structures which is due to the abundance of related tautomeric forms in aqueous solution. We studied the conformational features of a complete series of D-aldohexoses (D-allose, D-altrose, D-glucose, D-mannose, D-gulose, d-idose, D-galactose and D-talose) and D-ketohexoses (D-psicose, D-fructose, D-sorbose and D-tagatose) as well as of L-psicose by using microsecond-timescale molecular dynamics in explicit water and DMSO with the use of enhanced sampling methods. In each of the studied cases the preferred conformation corresponded to an extended chain structure; the less populated conformers included the quasi-cyclic structures, close to furanose rings and common for both aldo- and ketohexoses. The orientational preferences of the aldehyde or ketone groups are correlated with the relative populations of anomers characteristic of cyclic aldo- and ketohexoses, respectively, thus indicating that basic features of anomeric equilibria are preserved even if hexose molecules are not in their cyclic forms. No analogous relationship is observed in the case of other structural characteristics, such as the preferences of acyclic molecules to form either the furanose-or pyranose-like structures or maintaining the chair-like geometry of pseudo-pyranose rings.

  2. Exact solution to the problem of N bodies forming a multi-layer rotating structure.

    PubMed

    Smulsky, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Exact solutions to the problem of the Newtonian gravitational interaction of N material points moving around N 2 concentric circular orbits are considered. Each circular orbit contains N 3 axisymmetrically located bodies having identical masses. The structure as a whole rotates around its symmetry axis. Such structures are identical to the homographic-dynamics configurations, or planar central configurations, known from literature. Conceptually, those structures can be considered as structures formed by mutually embedded polygons with point bodies placed at polygon vortices. For structures involving less than 20 bodies, solutions were obtained using Hamiltonian-mechanics methods. In the study, the forces acting on each body in the rotating structure from the side of all other bodies were found. The differential motion equations of the bodies were reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations for the body masses. Solutions in various forms were obtained. For specifying the initial parameters and for calculating all other characteristics of the structures, a computer program RtCrcSt2.for has been developed. Structures comprising up to one million bodies have been calculated. Graphical images of obtained structures are presented, and their properties are described. Stability problems for examined structures are considered, and possible application of obtained results to celestial- and space-mechanics problems is discussed. PMID:26203407

  3. Exact solution to the problem of N bodies forming a multi-layer rotating structure.

    PubMed

    Smulsky, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Exact solutions to the problem of the Newtonian gravitational interaction of N material points moving around N 2 concentric circular orbits are considered. Each circular orbit contains N 3 axisymmetrically located bodies having identical masses. The structure as a whole rotates around its symmetry axis. Such structures are identical to the homographic-dynamics configurations, or planar central configurations, known from literature. Conceptually, those structures can be considered as structures formed by mutually embedded polygons with point bodies placed at polygon vortices. For structures involving less than 20 bodies, solutions were obtained using Hamiltonian-mechanics methods. In the study, the forces acting on each body in the rotating structure from the side of all other bodies were found. The differential motion equations of the bodies were reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations for the body masses. Solutions in various forms were obtained. For specifying the initial parameters and for calculating all other characteristics of the structures, a computer program RtCrcSt2.for has been developed. Structures comprising up to one million bodies have been calculated. Graphical images of obtained structures are presented, and their properties are described. Stability problems for examined structures are considered, and possible application of obtained results to celestial- and space-mechanics problems is discussed.

  4. Axially chiral macrocyclic E-alkene bearing bisazole component formed by sequential C-H homocoupling and ring-closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Shotaro; Somete, Takashi; Sugie, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Atsunori

    2012-05-18

    Clipping by ring-closing metathesis freezes rotation of a C-C bond to result in forming axial chirality. Treatment of bisbenzimidazole bearing an N-(3-butenyl) substituent with a Grubbs' catalyst undergoes ring-closing metathesis, in which the stereochemistry of the thus formed olefin was exclusively E-form. Analysis by HPLC with a chiral stationary column confirmed clear baseline separation of each enantiomer.

  5. The soil water characteristic as new class of closed-form parametric expressions for the flow duration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadegh, M.; Vrugt, J. A.; Gupta, H. V.; Xu, C.

    2016-04-01

    The flow duration curve is a signature catchment characteristic that depicts graphically the relationship between the exceedance probability of streamflow and its magnitude. This curve is relatively easy to create and interpret, and is used widely for hydrologic analysis, water quality management, and the design of hydroelectric power plants (among others). Several mathematical expressions have been proposed to mimic the FDC. Yet, these efforts have not been particularly successful, in large part because available functions are not flexible enough to portray accurately the functional shape of the FDC for a large range of catchments and contrasting hydrologic behaviors. Here, we extend the work of Vrugt and Sadegh (2013) and introduce several commonly used models of the soil water characteristic as new class of closed-form parametric expressions for the flow duration curve. These soil water retention functions are relatively simple to use, contain between two to three parameters, and mimic closely the empirical FDCs of 430 catchments of the MOPEX data set. We then relate the calibrated parameter values of these models to physical and climatological characteristics of the watershed using multivariate linear regression analysis, and evaluate the regionalization potential of our proposed models against those of the literature. If quality of fit is of main importance then the 3-parameter van Genuchten model is preferred, whereas the 2-parameter lognormal, 3-parameter GEV and generalized Pareto models show greater promise for regionalization.

  6. Solid state forms of 4-aminoquinaldine - From void structures with and without solvent inclusion to close packing

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Doris E.; Gelbrich, Thomas; Kahlenberg, Volker; Griesser, Ulrich J.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphs of 4-aminoquinaldine (4-AQ) have been predicted in silico and experimentally identified and characterised. The two metastable forms, AH (anhydrate) II and AH III, crystallise in the trigonal space group R3¯ and are less densely packed than the thermodynamically most stable phase AH I° (P21/c). AH II can crystallise and exist both, as a solvent inclusion compound and as an unsolvated phase. The third polymorph, AH III, is exclusively obtained by desolvation of a carbon tetrachloride solvate. Theoretical calculations correctly estimated the experimental 0K stability order, confirmed that AH II can exist without solvents, gave access to the AH III structure, and identified that there exists a subtle balance between close packing and number of hydrogen bonding interactions in the solid state of anhydrous 4-AQ. Furthermore, the prevalence of void space and solvent inclusion in R3¯ structures is discussed. PMID:26726294

  7. A Simple Closed-form Formula for Backward-Wave Start-Oscillation Condition for Millimeter-Wave Helix TWTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, S. K.; Kumar, Lalit; Basu, B. N.

    2008-06-01

    An accurate and simple closed-form formula, for backward-wave start-oscillation condition for a millimeter-wave helix traveling-wave tube amplifier was developed, using an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. The analysis considers the effects of circuit loss and also the variation of electron beam diameter corresponding to beam filling. The formula is simple and amenable to easy computation, even using a scientific calculator, and without resorting to exhaustive numerical iterative search followed in conventional analyses and, at the same time, without sacrificing the accuracy in results. The formula was validated against published results, and excellent accuracy was observed. The analysis has been further used for inferring some physical interpretations on the effects of beam-filling factor and circuit loss on the start-oscillation condition of a typical millimeter-wave helix traveling-wave tube.

  8. Trace organic solutes in closed-loop forward osmosis applications: influence of membrane fouling and modeling of solute build-up.

    PubMed

    D'Haese, Arnout; Le-Clech, Pierre; Van Nevel, Sam; Verbeken, Kim; Cornelissen, Emile R; Khan, Stuart J; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2013-09-15

    In this study, trace organics transport in closed-loop forward osmosis (FO) systems was assessed. The FO systems considered, consisted of an FO unit and a nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) unit, with the draw solution circulating between both units. The rejection of trace organics by FO, NF and RO was tested. It was found that the rejection rates of FO were generally comparable with NF and lower than RO rejection rates. To assess the influence of fouling in FO on trace organics rejection, FO membranes were fouled with sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin or by biofilm growth, after which trace organics rejection was tested. A negative influence of fouling on FO rejection was found which was limited in most cases, while it was significant for some compounds such as paracetamol and naproxen, indicating specific compound-foulant interactions. The transport mechanism of trace organics in FO was tested, in order to differentiate between diffusive and convective transport. The concentration of trace organics in the final product water and the build-up of trace organics in the draw solution were modeled assuming the draw solution was reconcentrated by NF/RO and taking into account different transport mechanisms for the FO membrane and different rejection rates by NF/RO. Modeling results showed that if the FO rejection rate is lower than the RO rejection rate (as is the case for most compounds tested), the added value of the FO-RO cycle compared to RO only at steady-state was small for diffusively and negative for convectively transported trace organics. Modeling also showed that trace organics accumulate in the draw solution.

  9. On the Shape of Meissner Solutions to a Limiting Form of Ginzburg-Landau Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Xingfei

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we study a semilinear system involving the curl operator, which is a limiting form of the Ginzburg-Landau model for superconductors in R^3 for a large value of the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. We consider the locations of the maximum points of the magnitude of solutions, which are associated with the nucleation of instability of the Meissner state for superconductors when the applied magnetic field is increased in the transition between the Meissner state and the vortex state. For small penetration depth, we prove that the location is not only determined by the tangential component of the applied magnetic field, but also by the normal curvatures of the boundary in some directions. This improves the result obtained by Bates and Pan in Commun. Math. Phys. 276, 571-610 (2007). We also show that the solutions decay exponentially in the normal direction away from the boundary if the penetration depth is small.

  10. Adsorption of micelle-forming surfactants from aqueous solutions on disperse titanium boride

    SciTech Connect

    Grodskii, A.S.; Komleva, E.A.; Frolov, Yu.G.

    1988-08-10

    Adsorption studies showed that nonionogenic and cationic surfactants are adsorbed on the surface of disperse titanium boride. Anionic surfactants are virtually not adsorbed due to the negative charge of the particles. It was found that in the region of low concentrations of surfactants in the solution, adsorption of Sintanols takes place in lyophobic regions and the surface of the particles becomes hydrophilic. The Sintamid molecules are adsorbed on the entire interface, including both hydrophobic and hydrophilic sections, with subsequent formation of bimolecular layers by adsorption on hydrophobic sections. Catamine-AB is adsorbed on hydrophilic sections of the surface also with the formation of bimolecular layers. Developed polymolecular layers up to 10-15 nm thick are formed on titanium boride particles from micellar solutions of nonionigenic and cationic surfactants.

  11. Systemic study on fluorescent switching systems composed of naphthopyran and benzimidazole in solution and film forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi; Wang, Guang; Wang, Mingxin

    2016-07-01

    The fluorescent photo-switching systems were prepared based on fluorescent benzimidazole and photochromic naphthopyran. Naphthopyran in this systems displayed excellent photochromic performance in tetrahydrofuran solutions and in PMMA films. The fluorescent emission of benzimidazole was modulated between "on" and "off" via the photoisomerization of naphthopyran in high-contrast due to the photoinduced energy transfer from benzimidazole to the open-form naphthopyran. Both the fluorescent photoswitching and the photochromism of benzimidazole-naphthopyran dyads in solutions and films displayed excellent fatigue resistance. The spaces between benzimidazole and naphthopyran affect the absorbance and fluorescence spectra of benzimidazole-naphthopyran dyads. The non-destructive readout ability of synthesized dyads in doped PMMA film was achieved.

  12. One-parameter families of supersymmetric isospectral potentials from Riccati solutions in function composition form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Chen, Pisin

    2014-04-01

    In the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we define a potential through a particular Riccati solution of the composition form (F∘f)(x)=F(f(x) and obtain a generalized Mielnik construction of one-parameter isospectral potentials when we use the general Riccati solution. Some examples for special cases of F and f are given to illustrate the method. An interesting result is obtained in the case of a parametric double well potential generated by this method, for which it is shown that the parameter of the potential controls the heights of the localization probability in the two wells, and for certain values of the parameter the height of the localization probability can be higher in the smaller well.

  13. Properties of edible films based on pullulan-chitosan blended film-forming solutions at different pH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influences of solution pH on the properties of pullulan-chitosan blended (Pul-Chi) films and the rheological properties of film-forming solutions were investigated. The extended conformation of chitosan in pH 4.0 solution increased intermolecular interactions with pullulan compared to the more compa...

  14. The structure of nanochannels formed by block copolymer solutions confined in nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Houyang; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2009-09-21

    Monte Carlo simulations are employed to obtain information about the radius and the roughness of the inner surface of the channels, which are generated by a family of block copolymer solutions confined in nanotubes. The fluctuations of the above quantities also have been calculated. The simulations have been carried out by varying the interactions between various kinds of segments and those between segments and the wall of the nanotubes, as well as the chemical structure of the copolymer and the nanotube diameter. The present simulations provide insight regarding the structure of ionic and water channels formed by protein in the phospholipid bilayers of the cell membrane.

  15. Study on closed recycling regeneration process of FeCl3 waste etching solution and recovery of Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X. F.; Zhou, X. T.; Wang, R. X.; Zhai, D. H.; Ran, H. H.

    2016-08-01

    FeCl3 etching solution is widely used in etching processes due to its strong oxidation and corrosion properties. However, significant amounts of waste etching solution is produced, which pollutes the environment and wastes materials. Aiming to address problems related to the use of recycled FeCl3 waste etching solution containing Cu, the crystallization regeneration process in an enterprise was improved and the copper element was recovered in the form of copper chloride crystal. Based on the original process, a hydrocyclone was added to preseparate the slurry. By investigating the change of the inlet flow rate and separation efficiency of the hydrocyclone with inlet pressure under different concentrations, the optimal inlet pressure was determined to be approximately 0.25Mpa. Experimental results indicated that the workload of the centrifuge was reduced by approximately 80%, the average specific surface area of the copper chloride crystal was decreased by 50%, the production of copper chloride crystal byproducts after washing process was increased by approximately 20% and regeneration of FeCl3 waste etching solution was also realized.

  16. Explicit solutions of normal form of driven oscillatory systems in entrainment bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouhas, George E.; Ross, John

    1988-11-01

    As in a prior article (Ref. 1), we consider an oscillatory dissipative system driven by external sinusoidal perturbations of given amplitude Q and frequency ω. The kinetic equations are transformed to normal form and solved for small Q near a Hopf bifurcation to oscillations in the autonomous system. Whereas before we chose irrational ratios of the frequency of the autonomous system ωn to ω, with quasiperiodic response of the system to the perturbation, we now choose rational coprime ratios, with periodic response (entrainment). The dissipative system has either two variables or is adequately described by two variables near the bifurcation. We obtain explicit solutions and develop these in detail for ωn/ω=1; 1:2; 2:1; 1:3; 3:1. We choose a specific dissipative model (Brusselator) and test the theory by comparison with full numerical solutions. The analytic solutions of the theory give an excellent approximation for the autonomous system near the bifurcation. The theoretically predicted and calculated entrainment bands agree very well for small Q in the vicinity of the bifurcation (small μ); deviations increase with increasing Q and μ. The theory is applicable to one or two external periodic perturbations.

  17. Eutectic growth: A closed problem for the solution of the steady-state growth of lamellar eutectics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anestiev, L.; Froyen, L.

    2002-07-01

    The Jackson and Hunt theory was modified in order to get a better understanding of the driving forces of the eutectic's growth kinetics. A solution of the diffusion problem, based on more rigorous boundary conditions, was obtained and kinetic members were added in order to account for the growth kinetics of the specific phases composing the eutectic. It was unambiguously shown that the eutectic's growth problem is a closed problem, e.g., no additional assumptions are needed in order to obtain the eutectic growth velocity as a function of the phase's composition and the lamellae's width. The model proposed in the present article was further used to model the growth kinetics of different alloys, which exhibit eutectic structure and to derive some important kinetic parameters from the existing experimental data.

  18. Corrosion resistance, chemistry, and mechanical aspects of Nitinol surfaces formed in hydrogen peroxide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Shabalovskay, Svetlana A.; Anderegg, James W.; Undisz, Andreas; Rettenmayr, Markus; Rondelli, Gianni C.

    2012-06-12

    Ti oxides formed naturally on Nitinol surfaces are only a few nanometers thick. To increase their thickness, heat treatments are explored. The resulting surfaces exhibit poor resistance to pitting corrosion. As an alternative approach to accelerate surface oxidation and grow thicker oxides, the exposure of Nitinol to strong oxidizing H2O2 aqueous solutions (3 and 30%) for various periods of time was used. Using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger spectroscopy, it was found that the surface layers with variable Ti (6–15 at %) and Ni (5–13 at %) contents and the thickness up to 100 nm without Ni-enriched interfaces could be formed. The response of the surface oxides to stress in superelastic regime of deformations depended on oxide thickness. In the corrosion studies performed in both strained and strain-free states using potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarizations, the surfaces treated in H2O2 showed no pitting in corrosive solution that was assigned to higher chemical homogeneity of the surfaces free of secondary phases and inclusions that assist better biocompatibility of Nitinol medical devices. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 100B: 1490–1499, 2012

  19. Solution NMR Studies of Antiamoebin, a Membrane Channel-Forming Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, T. P.; Harris, R.; Driscoll, P. C.; Wallace, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    Antiamoebin I is a membrane-active peptaibol produced by fungi of the species Emericellopsis which is capable of forming ion channels in membranes. Previous structure determinations by x-ray crystallography have shown the molecule is mostly helical, with a deep bend in the center of the polypeptide, and that the backbone structure is independent of the solvent used for crystallization. In this study, the solution structure of antiamoebin was determined by NMR spectroscopy in methanol, a solvent from which one of the crystal structures was determined. The ensemble of structures produced exhibit a right-handed helical C terminus and a left-handed helical conformation toward the N-terminus, in contrast to the completely right-handed helices found in the crystal structures. The NMR results also suggest that a “hinge” region exists, which gives flexibility to the polypeptide in the central region, and which could have functional implications for the membrane insertion process. A model for the membrane insertion and assembly process is proposed based on the antiamoebin solution and crystal structures, and is contrasted with the assembly and insertion mechanism proposed for other ion channel-forming polypeptides. PMID:12524274

  20. A Systematic Approach for Multidimensional, Closed-Form Analytic Modeling: Effective Intrinsic Carrier Concentrations in Ga 1-x Al x As Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Herbert S; Filliben, James J

    2002-01-01

    A critical issue identified in both the technology roadmap from the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association and the roadmaps from the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Inc. is the need for predictive computer simulations of processes, devices, and circuits. The goal of this paper is to respond to this need by representing the extensive amounts of theoretical data for transport properties in the multi-dimensional space of mole fractions of AlAs in Ga1- x Al x As, dopant densities, and carrier densities in terms of closed form analytic expressions. Representing such data in terms of closed-form analytic expressions is a significant challenge that arises in developing computationally efficient simulations of microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we present a methodology to achieve the above goal for a class of numerical data in the bounded two-dimensional space of mole fraction of AlAs and dopant density. We then apply this methodology to obtain closed-form analytic expressions for the effective intrinsic carrier concentrations at 300 K in n-type and p-type Ga1- x Al x As as functions of the mole fraction x of AlAs between 0.0 and 0.3. In these calculations, the donor density N D for n-type material varies between 10(16) cm(-3) and 10(19) cm(-3) and the acceptor density N A for p-type materials varies between 10(16) cm(-3) and 10(20) cm(-3). We find that p-type Ga1- x Al x As presents much greater challenges for obtaining acceptable analytic fits whenever acceptor densities are sufficiently near the Mott transition because of increased scatter in the numerical computer results for solutions to the theoretical equations. The Mott transition region in p-type Ga1- x Al x As is of technological significance for mobile wireless communications systems. This methodology and its associated principles, strategies, regression analyses, and graphics are expected to be applicable to other problems beyond the specific case of effective

  1. Analytical solutions and numerical tests of elastic and failure behaviors of close-packed lattice for brittle rocks and crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chu; Pollard, David D.; Shi, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Analytical solutions of elastic properties and failure modes of a two-dimensional close-packed discrete element model are proposed. Based on the assumption of small deformation, the conversion formulas between five inter-particle parameters of the lattice model and rock mechanical properties were derived. Using the formulas, the inter-particle parameters can be determined by Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (v), tensile strength (Tu), compressive strength (Cu), and coefficient of intrinsic friction (μi). The lattice defined by the parameters simulates the elastic and failure behaviors of rocks and crystals and therefore can be used to investigate the initiation and development of geological structures quantitatively. Furthermore, the solutions also provide a theoretical basis for the calibration of parameters of random discrete assemblies. The model of quartz was used as an example to validate the formulas and test the errors. The simulated results show that E and v converge to theoretical values when particle number increases. These elastic properties are almost constant when the magnitude of strain is lower than 10-3. The simulated Tu and Cu of a single three-element unit are also consistent with the formulas. However, due to the boundary effects and stress concentrations, Tu and Cu of lattices with multiple units are lower than the values predicted by the formulas. Therefore, greater Tu and Cu can be used in the formulas to counteract this effect. The model is applicable to the simulation of complicated structures that involve deformation and failure at different scales.

  2. Method of Forming a Composite Coating with Particle Materials that are Readily Dispersed in a Sprayable Polyimide Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Sang Q. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method for creating a composite form of coating from a sprayable solution of soluble polyimides and particle materials that are uniformly dispersed within the solution is described. The coating is formed by adding a soluble polyimide to a solvent, then stirring particle materials into the solution. The composite solution is sprayed onto a substrate and heated in an oven for a period of time in order to partially remove the solvent. The process may be repeated until the desired thickness or characteristic of the coating is obtained. The polyimide is then heated to at least 495 F, so that it is no longer soluble.

  3. Closed-form inverse kinematics for interventional C-arm X-ray imaging with six degrees of freedom: modeling and application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lejing; Fallavollita, Pascal; Zou, Rui; Chen, Xin; Weidert, Simon; Navab, Nassir

    2012-05-01

    For trauma and orthopedic surgery, maneuvering a mobile C-arm fluoroscope into a desired position to acquire an X-ray is a routine surgical task. The precision and ease of use of the C-arm becomes even more important for advanced interventional imaging techniques such as parallax-free X-ray image stitching. Today's standard mobile C-arms have been modeled with only five degrees of freedom (DOF), which definitely restricts their motions in 3-D Cartesian space. In this paper, we present a method to model both the mobile C-arm and patient's table as an integrated kinematic chain having six DOF without constraining table position. The closed-form solutions for the inverse kinematics problem are derived in order to obtain the required values for all C-arm joint and table movements to position the fluoroscope at a desired pose. The modeling method and the closed-form solutions can be applied to general isocentric or nonisocentric mobile C-arms. By achieving this we develop an efficient and intuitive inverse kinematics-based method for parallax-free panoramic X-ray imaging. In addition, we implement a 6-DOF C-arm system from a low-cost mobile fluoroscope to optimally acquire X-ray images based solely on the computation of the required movement for each joint by solving the inverse kinematics on a continuous basis. Through simulation experimentation, we demonstrate that the 6-DOF C-arm model has a larger working space than the 5-DOF model. C-arm repositioning experiments show the practicality and accuracy of our 6-DOF C-arm system. We also evaluate the novel parallax-free X-ray stitching method on phantom and dry bones. Using five trials, results show that parallax-free panoramas generated by our method are of high visual quality and within clinical tolerances for accurate evaluation of long bone geometry (i.e., image and metric measurement errors are less than 1% compared to ground-truth).

  4. Exact model reduction with delays: closed-form distributions and extensions to fully bi-directional monomolecular reactions

    PubMed Central

    Leier, Andre; Barrio, Manuel; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.

    2014-01-01

    In order to systematically understand the qualitative and quantitative behaviour of chemical reaction networks, scientists must derive and analyse associated mathematical models. However, biochemical systems are often very large, with reactions occurring at multiple time scales, as evidenced by signalling pathways and gene expression kinetics. Owing to the associated computational costs, it is then many times impractical, if not impossible, to solve or simulate these systems with an appropriate level of detail. By consequence, there is a growing interest in developing techniques for the simplification or reduction of complex biochemical systems. Here, we extend our recently presented methodology on exact reduction of linear chains of reactions with delay distributions in two ways. First, we report that it is now possible to deal with fully bi-directional monomolecular systems, including degradations, synthesis and generalized bypass reactions. Second, we provide all derivations of associated delays in analytical, closed form. Both advances have a major impact on further reducing computational costs, while still retaining full accuracy. Thus, we expect our new methodology to respond to current simulation needs in pharmaceutical, chemical and biological research. PMID:24694895

  5. Continuum representation of systems of dislocation lines: A general method for deriving closed-form evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monavari, Mehran; Sandfeld, Stefan; Zaiser, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Plasticity is governed by the evolution of, in general anisotropic, systems of dislocations. We seek to faithfully represent this evolution in terms of density-like variables which average over the discrete dislocation microstructure. Starting from T. Hochrainer's continuum theory of dislocations (CDD), we introduce a methodology based on the 'Maximum Information Entropy Principle' (MIEP) for deriving closed-form evolution equations for dislocation density measures of different order. These equations provide an optimum representation of the kinematic properties of systems of curved and connected dislocation lines with the information contained in a given set of density measures. The performance of the derived equations is benchmarked against other models proposed in the literature, using discrete dislocation dynamics simulations as a reference. As a benchmark problem we study dislocations moving in a highly heterogeneous, persistent slip-band-like geometry. We demonstrate that excellent agreement with discrete simulations can be obtained in terms of a very small number of averaged dislocation fields containing information about the edge and screw components of the total and excess (geometrically necessary) dislocation densities. From these the full dislocation orientation distribution which emerges as dislocations move through a channel-wall structure can be faithfully reconstructed.

  6. A copula-based closed-form binary logit choice model for accommodating spatial correlation across observational units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Chandra R.; Sener, Ipek N.

    2009-09-01

    This study focuses on accommodating spatial dependency in data indexed by geographic location. In particular, the emphasis is on accommodating spatial error correlation across observational units in binary discrete choice models. We propose a copula-based approach to spatial dependence modeling based on a spatial logit structure rather than a spatial probit structure. In this approach, the dependence between the logistic error terms of different observational units is directly accommodated using a multivariate logistic distribution based on the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstein (FGM) copula. The approach represents a simple and powerful technique that results in a closed-form analytic expression for the joint probability of choice across observational units, and is straightforward to apply using a standard and direct maximum likelihood inference procedure. There is no simulation machinery involved, leading to substantial computation gains relative to current methods to address spatial correlation. The approach is applied to teenagers’ physical activity participation levels, a subject of considerable interest in the public health, transportation, sociology, and adolescence development fields. The results indicate that failing to accommodate heteroscedasticity and spatial correlation can lead to inconsistent and inefficient parameter estimates, as well as incorrect conclusions regarding the elasticity effects of exogenous variables.

  7. Formulation and experimental evaluation of closed-form control laws for the rapid maneuvering of reactor neutronic power

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, J.A. . Nuclear Reactor Lab.)

    1989-09-01

    This report describes both the theoretical development and the experimental evaluation of a novel, robust methodology for the time-optimal adjustment of a reactor's neutronic power under conditions of closed-loop digital control. Central to the approach are the MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws' which determine the rate at which reactivity should be changed in order to cause a reactor's neutronic power to conform to a specified trajectory. Using these laws, reactor power can be safely raised by five to seven orders of magnitude in a few seconds. The MIT-SNL laws were developed to facilitate rapid increases of neutronic power on spacecraft reactors operating in an SDI environment. However, these laws are generic and have other applications including the rapid recovery of research and test reactors subsequent to an unanticipated shutdown, power increases following the achievement of criticality on commercial reactors, power adjustments on commercial reactors so as to minimize thermal stress, and automated startups. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the Sandia National Laboratories. Support was also provided by the US Department of Energy's Division of University and Industry Programs. The work described in this report is significant in that a novel solution to the problem of time-optimal control of neutronic power was identified, in that a rigorous description of a reactor's dynamics was derived in that the rate of change of reactivity was recognized as the proper control signal, and in that extensive experimental trials were conducted of these newly developed concepts on actual nuclear reactors. 43 refs., 118 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Effect of polymer matrix on structure of Se particles formed in aqueous solutions during redox process

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorova, E. I. Klechkovskaya, V. V.

    2010-12-15

    Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive microanalysis study of the structure of particles formed during the reduction of Se(IV) to Se(0) in aqueous solutions in the presence of amphiphilic polymers showed the formation of Se/polymer composite particles. The content of carbon inside the particles can be as large as 80 at %. Polymers deeply influence the structure of particles. Depending on polymers, the composite particles may be unstable with time and they spontaneously evolve from Se/polymer composite particles to crystalline particles of monoclinic Se. For the stable ones, addition of bacterial cellulose Acetobacter xylinum gel-film can induce crystallization in the particles which expel the polymeric material. The Se/polymer composite particles and Se crystalline particles exhibit different sensitivity to electron irradiation and stiffness.

  9. Nanostructures of colloidal complexes formed in oppositely charged polyelectrolyte/surfactant dilute aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, S.; Guillot, S.; Ritacco, H.; Boué, F.; Langevin, D.

    2007-07-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering measurements were performed on dilute solutions of carboxymethylcellulose/DTAB complexes in water in order to determine their size, shape and internal structures. At low polymer content, the complexes are spherical, rather monodisperse and probably made of polymer chains intercalated between surfactant micelles. Moreover, we show that these micelles have a similar cubic arrangement than found in polymer/surfactant precipitates formed at higher surfactant concentrations. At larger polymer content, in the semi-dilute polyelectrolyte regime, the complexes are larger, softer and polydisperse. However, they possess a similar internal structure in both regimes. Carboxymethylcellulose/CTAB complexes are also large, soft and polydisperse but do not seem to exhibit well-defined internal structures.

  10. Solution Structure and Dynamics of Human Hemoglobin in the Carbonmonoxy Form

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jing-Song; Zheng, Yu; Choy, Wing-Yiu; Simplaceanu, Virgil; Ho, Nancy T.; Ho, Chien; Yang, Daiwen

    2014-01-01

    The solution structure of HbCO A was refined using stereospecifically assigned methyl groups and residual dipolar couplings based on our previous NMR structure. The tertiary structures of individual chains were found to be very similar to the X-ray structures, while the quaternary structures in solution with low-salt resembled the X-ray R structure more than the R2 structure. On the basis of chemical shift perturbation by inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) titration and docking, we identified five possible IHP binding sites in HbCO A. Amide-water proton exchange experiments demonstrated that αThr38 located in the α1β2 interface and several loop regions in both α- and β-chains were dynamic on the sub-second timescale. Side-chain methyl dynamics revealed that methyl groups in the α1β2 interface were dynamic, but those in the α1β1 interface were quite rigid on the ns-ps and ms-µs timescales. All the data strongly suggest a dynamic α1β2 interface that allows conformational changes among different forms (like T, R, and R2) easily in solution. Binding of IHP to HbCO A induced small structural and dynamics changes in the α1β2 interface and the regions around the hemes, but did not increase the conformational entropy of HbCO A. The binding also caused conformational changes on the ms timescale, very likely arising from the relative motion of the α1β1 dimer with respect to the α2β2 dimer. Heterotropic effectors like IHP may change the oxygen affinity of Hb through modulating the relative motion of the two dimers and then further altering the structure of heme binding regions. PMID:23901897

  11. Evidence for phase separation during the crystallization of hyperquenched glassy clathrate hydrate forming solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulk, C. A.; Ba, Y.; Klug, D. D.; McLaurin, G.; Ripmeester, J. A.

    1999-04-01

    Tetrahydrofuran, a water-soluble cyclic ether molecule, is well known for its ability to form clathrate hydrates (cubic structure II, melting point 277.5 K). An aqueous solution of THF (17:1 molecular ratio) was hyperquenched (cooled at a rate of 106Ks-1) to 77 K to give recoverable samples of ˜1 g of metastable amorphous material. The crystallization process was studied on three complementary length scales by x-ray powder diffraction, quadrupole echo double resonance (QEDOR) NMR spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy as the amorphous material was annealed at temperatures between 80 and 190 K. Results show that phase separation of the two components occurred predominantly during the annealing process, resulting in clusters of crystalline THF and ice Ic before clathrate hydrate crystallization was initiated. During the hyperquenching process, the decreasing molecular mobility of water molecules between room temperature and the fictive temperature (the temperature below which the solution becomes structurally immobilized upon hyperquenching) inhibits growth of the crystal nuclei that normally would result in crystalline clathrate hydrate formation. Annealing the samples between 110-140 K showed that the local hydrogen bonded O-H--O structure of the water molecules changed toward the arrangement characteristic of crystalline ice Ic. We propose that this process forces the THF out of the glassy solution, thus increasing the THF cluster size in the deposit so that these become visible to diffraction. Further annealing, above 150-160 K caused large-scale growth of crystalline clathrate hydrate material, which then could be associated with a reduction in the THF cluster size, and ice Ic.

  12. Structure and properties of alizarin complex formed with alkali metal hydroxides in methanol solution.

    PubMed

    Jeliński, Tomasz; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Quantum chemical computations were used for prediction of the structure and color of alizarin complex with alkali metal hydroxides in methanolic solutions. The color prediction relying on the single Gaussian-like band once again proved the usefulness of the PBE0 density functional due to the observed smallest color difference between computed and experimentally derived values. It was found that the alkali metal hydroxide molecules can bind to the two oxygen atoms of both hydroxyl groups of alizarin or to one of these atoms and the oxygen atom from the keto group in a complex with three methanol molecules. This means that two electronic transitions need to be taken into account when considering the spectra of the studied complexes. The resulting bond lengths and angles are correlated with the properties of the alkali metal atoms. The molar mass, the atomic radius, and the Pauling electronegativity of studied metals are quite accurate predictors of the geometric properties of hydroxide complexes with alizarin in methanol solution. Graphical abstract The spectra of the neutral and monoanionic form of alizarin together with color changes resulting from addition of different metal hydroxides and represented in CIE color space. PMID:27178415

  13. Structure and properties of alizarin complex formed with alkali metal hydroxides in methanol solution.

    PubMed

    Jeliński, Tomasz; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Quantum chemical computations were used for prediction of the structure and color of alizarin complex with alkali metal hydroxides in methanolic solutions. The color prediction relying on the single Gaussian-like band once again proved the usefulness of the PBE0 density functional due to the observed smallest color difference between computed and experimentally derived values. It was found that the alkali metal hydroxide molecules can bind to the two oxygen atoms of both hydroxyl groups of alizarin or to one of these atoms and the oxygen atom from the keto group in a complex with three methanol molecules. This means that two electronic transitions need to be taken into account when considering the spectra of the studied complexes. The resulting bond lengths and angles are correlated with the properties of the alkali metal atoms. The molar mass, the atomic radius, and the Pauling electronegativity of studied metals are quite accurate predictors of the geometric properties of hydroxide complexes with alizarin in methanol solution. Graphical abstract The spectra of the neutral and monoanionic form of alizarin together with color changes resulting from addition of different metal hydroxides and represented in CIE color space.

  14. An empirical correlation between the enthalpy of solution of aqueous salts and their ability to form hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Pandelov, S.; Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pilles, Bert M.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

    2010-09-30

    The ability of aqueous salt solutions to form hydrates by cooling them at ambient pressure is probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy by examining the structure of the spectra in the hydrogen-bonding region (3,000 - 3,800 cm-1). A collection of 75 organic and inorganic salts in saturated solutions are examined. We have found a correlation between the enthalpy of solution of the salt and its ability to form a hydrate, namely that the salt’s enthalpy of solution is lower than the standard enthalpy of fusion of ice (6 kJ/mol). This observation can serve as an empirical rule that determines whether a salt will form a hydrate upon cooling from its aqueous solution.

  15. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of liquid solutions: a comparative study on the forms of liquid surface and liquid aerosol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyan; Guo, Lianbo; Li, Jiaming; Yi, Rongxing; Hao, Zhongqi; Shen, Meng; Zhou, Ran; Li, Kuohu; Li, Xiangyou; Lu, Yongfeng; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-09-10

    Liquid surface and liquid aerosol as the traditional liquid forms for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP), respectively, have been used to analyze chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) elements using LIBS in a liquid solution. The spectral differences, the effects of laser energy and laser frequency, the accumulated number of laser pulses, gate delay time, and the quantitative analyses for a liquid surface and a liquid aerosol were compared. The results showed that the liquid surface demonstrated a lower plasma threshold, higher optical emission intensity, and higher single-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the intensities of the liquid aerosol are better than those of the liquid surface. Furthermore, the results of the quantitative analyses of Cr I 357.86 nm and Cd I 361.05 nm of the liquid surface are close to those of the liquid aerosol. The limit of detections of Cr and Cd of the liquid surface were 2.764 and 86.869  μg/mL, which were close to those of liquid aerosol, 2.847  μg/mL of Cr and 97.635  μg/mL of Cd. For both the liquid surface and liquid aerosol, the coefficient of determination R2 of the calibration curve for Cr and Cd were above 0.99, and the average RSDs of Cr and Cd of the liquid surface were 0.027 and 0.054, which were similar to the 0.020 of Cr and 0.042 of Cd of the liquid aerosol. These results suggest that both the liquid surface and aerosol have similar detection abilities for water quality monitoring. PMID:27661382

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of liquid solutions: a comparative study on the forms of liquid surface and liquid aerosol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyan; Guo, Lianbo; Li, Jiaming; Yi, Rongxing; Hao, Zhongqi; Shen, Meng; Zhou, Ran; Li, Kuohu; Li, Xiangyou; Lu, Yongfeng; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-09-10

    Liquid surface and liquid aerosol as the traditional liquid forms for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP), respectively, have been used to analyze chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) elements using LIBS in a liquid solution. The spectral differences, the effects of laser energy and laser frequency, the accumulated number of laser pulses, gate delay time, and the quantitative analyses for a liquid surface and a liquid aerosol were compared. The results showed that the liquid surface demonstrated a lower plasma threshold, higher optical emission intensity, and higher single-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the intensities of the liquid aerosol are better than those of the liquid surface. Furthermore, the results of the quantitative analyses of Cr I 357.86 nm and Cd I 361.05 nm of the liquid surface are close to those of the liquid aerosol. The limit of detections of Cr and Cd of the liquid surface were 2.764 and 86.869  μg/mL, which were close to those of liquid aerosol, 2.847  μg/mL of Cr and 97.635  μg/mL of Cd. For both the liquid surface and liquid aerosol, the coefficient of determination R2 of the calibration curve for Cr and Cd were above 0.99, and the average RSDs of Cr and Cd of the liquid surface were 0.027 and 0.054, which were similar to the 0.020 of Cr and 0.042 of Cd of the liquid aerosol. These results suggest that both the liquid surface and aerosol have similar detection abilities for water quality monitoring.

  17. Measurement of contact angles of aqueous solutions on some rock forming minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, M.; Katsura, M.; Nakashima, S.

    2007-12-01

    Wetting properties of fluids on earth's materials are controlling fluid flows and dynamics of the geological systems. Although the wetting behavior of industrial materials have been widely examined often by contact angle measurements, contact angles of rock-forming materials have not been commonly measured. Therefore, we have been measuring contact angles of some representative rock-forming minerals. The surfaces of solid samples were polished successively by emery papers then by grinding powders (alumina: up to \\sharp3000: grain size about 5 micrometers). Water droplet from a micro-syringe needle are placed on solid surfaces by moving up the sample stage. Images of water drops on the solid surfaces are captured from the horizontal direction with a CCD camera. Contact angles can be determined from the height and the length of the images by assuming them to be parts of circles. Over 60 measurements of contact angles of pure water on (101) and (011) faces plates cut from a natural quartz single crystal were repeated. The average contact angles of pure water on (101) and (011) faces of quartz were 48 ± 5 degrees and 52 ± 3 degrees, respectively. Contact angles of pure water on a natural calcite single crystal was also measured in the same way to be 37 ± 8 degrees. Contact angles of various aqueous solutions such as NaCl and NaHCO3 on these minerals will also be measured in order to evaluate wetting properties of natural rock-water systems.

  18. Structural properties of films and rheology of film-forming solutions of chitosan gallate for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunhua; Tian, Jinhu; Li, Shan; Wu, Tiantian; Hu, Yaqin; Chen, Shiguo; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-08-01

    The chitosan gallates (CG) were obtained by free-radical-initiated grafting of gallic acid (GA) onto chitosan (CS) in this work. The chemical structures of the CG were corroborated by UV-vis, GPC and (1)H NMR analysis. The grafting reaction was accompanied with a degradation of the CS molecule. The shear-thinning flow behavior of CG film-forming solutions (CG FFS) decreased with the grafting amount of GA into CS chain, while the CG FFS grafted at a lower GA value behaved like a networks containing entangled or cross-linked polymer chains with a more elastic behavior. The increasing of GA grafting onto the CS chain led to a reduction of tensile strength, elongation at break and water resistance in the corresponding films, but increases in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were observed. The microstructure of the film was investigated using scanning electron and atomic force microscope, and the results were closely related to the observed film properties. PMID:27112845

  19. (19)F NMR studies of the leucine-isoleucine-valine binding protein: evidence that a closed conformation exists in solution.

    PubMed

    Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Vaughan, Mark D; Skeels, Matthew C; Honek, John F; Luck, Linda A

    2003-10-01

    The leucine-isoleucine-valine binding protein (LIV) found in the periplasmic space of E. coli has been used as a structural model for a number of neuronal receptors. This "venus fly trap" type protein has been characterized by crystallography in only the open form. Herein we have labeled LIV with 5-fluorotryptophan (5F-Trp) and difluoromethionine (DFM) in order to explore the structural dynamics of this protein and the application of DFM as a potential (19)F NMR structural probe for this family of proteins. Based on mass spectrometric analysis of the protein overproduced in the presence of DFM, approximately 30% of the five LIV methionine residues were randomly substituted with the fluorinated analog. Urea denaturation experiments imply a slight decrease in protein stability when DFM is incorporated into LIV. However, the fluorinated methionine did not alter leucine-binding activity upon its incorporation into the protein. Binding of L-leucine stabilizes both the unlabeled and DFM-labeled LIV, and induces the protein to adopt a three-state unfolding model in place of the two-state process observed for the free protein. The (19)F NMR spectrum of DFM-labeled LIV gave distinct resonances for the five Met residues found in LIV. 5F-Trp labeled LIV gave a well resolved spectrum for the three Trp residues. Trp to Phe mutants defined the resonances in the spectrum. The distinct narrowing in line width of the resonances when ligand was added identified the closed form of the protein.

  20. Physicochemical properties and anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity of film-forming solutions containing alpha-mangostin-rich extract.

    PubMed

    Asasutjarit, Rathapon; Larpmahawong, Papassara; Fuongfuchat, Asira; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Veeranondha, Sukitaya

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of formulation compositions on physicochemical properties and anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity of film-forming solutions containing alpha-mangostin-rich extract (AM). Film-forming solution bases and film-forming solutions containing AM were prepared by using Eudragit RL PO or Klucel LF or combinations of them as film-forming polymers. Rheological properties, pH values of the solutions, and mechanical properties of the dry films were investigated. An optimized formulation was selected and evaluated for the film surface, in vitro AM release, an anti-P. acnes activity, and potential for being a skin irritant. It was found that mechanical properties of the dry films were affected by total polymer contents, ratios of Klucel LF/Eudragit RL PO, AM, and contents of triethyl citrate. The film-forming solutions containing AM had pH values around 7.0. Their flow curves exhibited Newtonian flow behaviors. The optimized formulation provided films possessing smooth and nonporous surfaces. These films showed greater anti-P. acnes activity than their base films without toxicity to skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, AM released from the film matrix obeyed Higuchi's equation. In conclusion, the film-forming solutions containing AM had potential for treatment of acne vulgaris caused by P. acnes. However, further in vivo study is necessary to determine their efficacy and safety for using in patients suffering from acne vulgaris. PMID:24327275

  1. Strategies for Small Volume Resuscitation: Hyperosmotic-Hyperoncotic Solutions, Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carriers and Closed-Loop Resuscitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, George C.; Wade, Charles E.; Dubick, Michael A.; Atkins, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Logistic constraints on combat casualty care preclude traditional resuscitation strategies which can require volumes and weights 3 fold or greater than hemorrhaged volume. We present a review of quantitative analyses of clinical and animal data on small volume strategies using 1) hypertonic-hyperosmotic solutions (HHS); 2) hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and 3) closed-loop infusion regimens.Methods and Results: Literature searches and recent queries to industry and academic researchers have allowed us to evaluate the record of 81 human HHS studies (12 trauma trials), 19 human HBOCs studies (3trauma trials) and two clinical studies of closed-loop resuscitation.There are several hundreds animal studies and at least 82 clinical trials and reports evaluating small volume7.2%-7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) most often combined with colloids, e.g., dextran (HSD) or hetastarch(HSS). HSD and HSS data has been published for 1,108 and 392 patients, respectively. Human studies have documented volume sparing and hemodynamic improvements. Meta-analyses suggest improved survival for hypotensive trauma patients treated with HSD with significant reductions in mortality found for patients with blood pressure < 70 mmHg, head trauma, and penetrating injury requiring surgery. HSD and HSS have received regulatory approval in 14 and 3 countries, respectively, with 81,000+ units sold. The primary reported use was head injury and trauma resuscitation. Complications and reported adverse events are surprisingly rare and not significantly different from other solutions.HBOCs are potent volume expanders in addition to oxygen carriers with volume expansion greater than standard colloids. Several investigators have evaluated small volume hyperoncotic HBOCs or HS-HBOC formulations for hypotensive and normotensive resuscitation in animals. A consistent finding in resuscitation with HBOCs is depressed cardiac output. There is some evidence that HBOCs more efficiently unload

  2. Conformational change path between closed and open forms of C2 domain of coagulation factor V on a two-dimensional free-energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sangwook; Lee, Chang Jun; Pedersen, Lee G.

    2009-04-01

    We test a hypothesis that the closed form of the C2 domain of coagulation factor V is more stable than the open form in an aqueous environment using a two-dimensional free-energy calculation with a simple dielectric solvent model. Our result shows that while the free-energy difference between two forms is small, favoring the closed form, a two-dimensional free-energy surface (FES) reveals that a transition state (1.53 kcal/mol) exists between the two conformations. By mapping the one-dimensional order parameter ΔQ onto the two-dimensional FES, we search the conformational change path with the highest Boltzmann weighting factor between the closed and open form of the factor V C2 domain. The predicted transition path from the closed to open form is not that of simple side chain movements, but instead concerted movements of several loops. We also present a one-dimensional free-energy profile using a collective order parameter, which in a coarse manner locates the energy barriers found on the two-dimensional FES.

  3. Stabilized micelles of amphoteric polyurethane formed by thermoresponsive micellization in HCl aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yong; Zhang, Shifeng; Lin, Ouya; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2008-04-01

    The thermoresponsive micellization behavior of amphoteric polyurethane (APU) was studied in HCl aqueous solution (pH 2.0) through light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent measurement. When APU concentration is high enough, nonreversible assembly of macromolecules can be observed with temperature decreasing from 25 to 4 degrees C. However, micelles reaching equilibrium at 4 degrees C can self-assemble reversibly in the temperature range of 4-55 degrees C. According to our research, we found it is the temperature sensitivity of the poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) segments that leads to the reassembly of APU at lower temperature. We proposed that core-shell-corona micelles ultimately form with hydrophobic core, PPO shell, and hydrophilic corona when temperature increases from 4 to 25 degrees C. This structure is very stable and does not change at higher temperatures (25-55 degrees C). That provides a new way to obtain stable micelles with small size and narrow size distribution at higher concentration of APU.

  4. Stabilized micelles of amphoteric polyurethane formed by thermoresponsive micellization in HCl aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yong; Zhang, Shifeng; Lin, Ouya; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2008-04-01

    The thermoresponsive micellization behavior of amphoteric polyurethane (APU) was studied in HCl aqueous solution (pH 2.0) through light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent measurement. When APU concentration is high enough, nonreversible assembly of macromolecules can be observed with temperature decreasing from 25 to 4 degrees C. However, micelles reaching equilibrium at 4 degrees C can self-assemble reversibly in the temperature range of 4-55 degrees C. According to our research, we found it is the temperature sensitivity of the poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) segments that leads to the reassembly of APU at lower temperature. We proposed that core-shell-corona micelles ultimately form with hydrophobic core, PPO shell, and hydrophilic corona when temperature increases from 4 to 25 degrees C. This structure is very stable and does not change at higher temperatures (25-55 degrees C). That provides a new way to obtain stable micelles with small size and narrow size distribution at higher concentration of APU. PMID:18294012

  5. Carbon enters silica forming a cristobalite-type CO2-SiO2 solid solution.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Gorelli, Federico A; Bini, Roberto; Salamat, Ashkan; Garbarino, Gaston; Levelut, Claire; Cambon, Olivier; Haines, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Extreme conditions permit unique materials to be synthesized and can significantly update our view of the periodic table. In the case of group IV elements, carbon was always considered to be distinct with respect to its heavier homologues in forming oxides. Here we report the synthesis of a crystalline CO2-SiO2 solid solution by reacting carbon dioxide and silica in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (P = 16-22 GPa, T>4,000 K), showing that carbon enters silica. Remarkably, this material is recovered to ambient conditions. X-ray diffraction shows that the crystal adopts a densely packed α-cristobalite structure (P4(1)2(1)2) with carbon and silicon in fourfold coordination to oxygen at pressures where silica normally adopts a sixfold coordinated rutile-type stishovite structure. An average formula of C0.6(1)Si0.4(1)O2 is consistent with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results. These findings may modify our view on oxide chemistry, which is of great interest for materials science, as well as Earth and planetary sciences. PMID:24781844

  6. Rheology of Film-Forming Solutions Prepared with Modified Banana Starch and Plasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Gómez, Yaritza; Sánchez-Rivera, Mirna; Romero-Bastida, Claudia; González-Soto, Rosalía; Bello-Pérez, Arturo; Solorza-Feria, Javier

    2008-07-01

    The physical properties of edible films depend to a great extent on those of their components; the biopolymer and the plasticizer, which define its physical changes during heat processing and handling. The aim of this work was to determine the rheological profile of film forming solutions (FFS) composed of native and modified (oxidized) banana starch and the plasticizer glycerol. Samples of FFS, composed by 4%(w/w) of native and oxidized banana starch and glycerol (4%(w/w) were prepared. Two types of rheological tests were undertaken using a strain controlled Rheometer TA Instruments, model AR1000, with a cone and plate system, 60 mm of diameter and angle of 2°: a) isothermal oscillatory (amplitude and frequency) tests at 25 °C, 90 °C and once cooled down, at 25 °C. b) temperature sweeps, run as the samples were heated up from 25 °C to 90 °C and also when cooled down to 25 °C. The isothermal tests showed that all pastes produced, behaved as weak viscoelastic gel-like materials, with the elastic modulus (G')> the viscous modulus (G″) over the entire frequency range. The temperature sweeps also showed that all viscoelastic FFS, behaved as mainly elastic materials over the temperature range. Overall, FFS from native starch yielded gels with higher moduli values than those of the oxidized ones.

  7. A semi-analytical solution for elastic analysis of rotating thick cylindrical shells with variable thickness using disk form multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zamani Nejad, Mohammad; Jabbari, Mehdi; Ghannad, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Using disk form multilayers, a semi-analytical solution has been derived for determination of displacements and stresses in a rotating cylindrical shell with variable thickness under uniform pressure. The thick cylinder is divided into disk form layers form with their thickness corresponding to the thickness of the cylinder. Due to the existence of shear stress in the thick cylindrical shell with variable thickness, the equations governing disk layers are obtained based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). These equations are in the form of a set of general differential equations. Given that the cylinder is divided into n disks, n sets of differential equations are obtained. The solution of this set of equations, applying the boundary conditions and continuity conditions between the layers, yields displacements and stresses. A numerical solution using finite element method (FEM) is also presented and good agreement was found.

  8. (19)F NMR studies of the leucine-isoleucine-valine binding protein: evidence that a closed conformation exists in solution.

    PubMed

    Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Vaughan, Mark D; Skeels, Matthew C; Honek, John F; Luck, Linda A

    2003-10-01

    The leucine-isoleucine-valine binding protein (LIV) found in the periplasmic space of E. coli has been used as a structural model for a number of neuronal receptors. This "venus fly trap" type protein has been characterized by crystallography in only the open form. Herein we have labeled LIV with 5-fluorotryptophan (5F-Trp) and difluoromethionine (DFM) in order to explore the structural dynamics of this protein and the application of DFM as a potential (19)F NMR structural probe for this family of proteins. Based on mass spectrometric analysis of the protein overproduced in the presence of DFM, approximately 30% of the five LIV methionine residues were randomly substituted with the fluorinated analog. Urea denaturation experiments imply a slight decrease in protein stability when DFM is incorporated into LIV. However, the fluorinated methionine did not alter leucine-binding activity upon its incorporation into the protein. Binding of L-leucine stabilizes both the unlabeled and DFM-labeled LIV, and induces the protein to adopt a three-state unfolding model in place of the two-state process observed for the free protein. The (19)F NMR spectrum of DFM-labeled LIV gave distinct resonances for the five Met residues found in LIV. 5F-Trp labeled LIV gave a well resolved spectrum for the three Trp residues. Trp to Phe mutants defined the resonances in the spectrum. The distinct narrowing in line width of the resonances when ligand was added identified the closed form of the protein. PMID:12956607

  9. How Closely Related Are Conformations of Protein Ions Sampled by IM-MS to Native Solution Structures?

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Hua; Russell, David H

    2015-09-01

    Here, we critically evaluate the effects of changes in the ion internal energy (E(int)) on ion-neutral collision cross sections (CCS) of ions of two structurally diverse proteins, specifically the [M + 6H](6+) ion of ubiquitin (ubq(6+)), the [M + 5H](5+) ion of the intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) apo-metallothionein-2A (MT), and its partially- and fully-metalated isoform, the [CdiMT](5+) ion. The ion-neutral CCS for ions formed by "native-state" ESI show a strong dependence on E(int). Collisional activation is used to increase E(int) prior to the ions entering and within the traveling wave (TW) ion mobility analyzer. Comparisons of experimental CCSs with those generated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for solution-phase ions and solvent-free ions as a function of temperature provide new insights about conformational preferences and retention of solution conformations. The E(int)-dependent CCSs, which reveal increased conformational diversity of the ion population, are discussed in terms of folding/unfolding of solvent-free ions. For example, ubiquitin ions that have low internal energies retain native-like conformations, whereas ions that are heated by collisional activation possess higher internal energies and yield a broader range of CCS owing to increased conformational diversity due to losses of secondary and tertiary structures. In contrast, the CCS profile for the IDP apoMT is consistent with kinetic trapping of an ion population composed of a wide range of conformers, and as the E(int) is increased, these structurally labile conformers unfold to an elongated conformation.

  10. How Closely Related Are Conformations of Protein Ions Sampled by IM-MS to Native Solution Structures?

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Hua; Russell, David H

    2015-09-01

    Here, we critically evaluate the effects of changes in the ion internal energy (E(int)) on ion-neutral collision cross sections (CCS) of ions of two structurally diverse proteins, specifically the [M + 6H](6+) ion of ubiquitin (ubq(6+)), the [M + 5H](5+) ion of the intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) apo-metallothionein-2A (MT), and its partially- and fully-metalated isoform, the [CdiMT](5+) ion. The ion-neutral CCS for ions formed by "native-state" ESI show a strong dependence on E(int). Collisional activation is used to increase E(int) prior to the ions entering and within the traveling wave (TW) ion mobility analyzer. Comparisons of experimental CCSs with those generated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for solution-phase ions and solvent-free ions as a function of temperature provide new insights about conformational preferences and retention of solution conformations. The E(int)-dependent CCSs, which reveal increased conformational diversity of the ion population, are discussed in terms of folding/unfolding of solvent-free ions. For example, ubiquitin ions that have low internal energies retain native-like conformations, whereas ions that are heated by collisional activation possess higher internal energies and yield a broader range of CCS owing to increased conformational diversity due to losses of secondary and tertiary structures. In contrast, the CCS profile for the IDP apoMT is consistent with kinetic trapping of an ion population composed of a wide range of conformers, and as the E(int) is increased, these structurally labile conformers unfold to an elongated conformation. PMID:26115967

  11. Structurally functional changes in the microbiota of nutrient solution with addition of liquid human wastes, used for growing plants in a closed ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Borodina, E. V.; Markov, A. A.

    The investigations have proved the dependence of microbial community of nutrient solution development upon the specific conditions of a closed human life-support ecological system: the time of using permanent solution, introduction of additives into the nutrient medium and system gas exchange closure. For the first time, liquid human wastes were introduced into the nutrient solution to increase the mass exchange closure. Correlation analysis revealed the direct dependence between the time of liquid native human excretions introduction into the nutrient solution and the development of organisms participating in nitrogen transformation and growth of microflora potentially dangerous for humans and plants. With the help of correlation analysis it has been determined that particularly close connection exists between the duration of introduction of liquid human wastes and bacteria Escherichia coli, denitrificators, ammonificators and urobacteria. The correlation coefficient for these microbial groups was: r = 0,78. The investigations showed that by the end of experiment the microbial community of nutrient solution fulfilled the role of native urine destructor successfully. Thus, introduction of human native excretions (at 70% substitution of nitrate nitrogen with urine nitrogen) into the nutrient solution used for growing wheat monoculture in a closed ecosystem is possible.

  12. Stratification of a Foam Film Formed from a Nonionic Micellar Solution: Experiments and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongju; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, Darsh

    2016-05-17

    Thin liquid films containing surfactant micelles or other nanocolloidal particles are considered to be the key structural elements of foams containing gas and liquid. We report here the experimental results and theoretical modeling for the phenomenon of the stratification (stepwise thinning) of a foam film formed from a nonionic micellar solution. The film stratification phenomenon was experimentally observed by reflected light microinterferometry. We observed that the stepwise layer-by-layer decrease of the film thickness is due to the appearance and growth of a dark spot of one layer less than the film thickness in the film. The dark spot expansion is driven by the diffusion of the dislocation (or vacancy) in the micellar lattice. The vacancies from the meniscus diffuse and condense into the dark spot, leading to its expansion inside the film. We experimentally observed the expansion of the dark spot at various film thicknesses (i.e., the number of micellar layers) and at different film sizes. We also measured the contact angle between the film and the meniscus; we used the data to estimate the structural film interaction energy barrier and the apparent diffusion coefficient. We used the two-dimensional diffusion model to model the dynamics of the dark spot expansion with consideration to the apparent diffusion coefficient and the film size. The model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental observations. On the basis of this model, we carried out a parametric study depicting the effects of the film thickness (or the number of micellar layers) and film area on the rate of the dark spot expansion. We also generalized the model previously proposed by Kralchevsky et al. [ Langmuir 1990 , 6 , 1180 - 1189 ], incorporating the effects of the film size, film thickness, and apparent diffusion coefficient to predict the dark spot expansion rate.

  13. Effects of Lugol's iodine solution and formalin on cell volume of three bloom-forming dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Yongfang

    2016-09-01

    Fixatives are traditionally used in marine ecosystem research. The bias introduced by fixatives on the dimensions of plankton cells may lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the carbon biomass. To determine the impact of traditional fixatives on dinoflagellates during short- and long-term fixation, we analyzed the degree of change in three bloom-forming dinoflagellates (Prorocentrum micans, Scrippsiella trochoidea and Noctiluca scintillans) brought about by Lugol's iodine solution (hereafter Lugol's) and formalin. The fixation effects were species-specific. P. micans cell volume showed no significant change following long-term preservation, and S. trochoidea swelled by approximately 8.06% in Lugol's and by 20.97% in formalin as a percentage of the live cell volume, respectively. N. scintillans shrank significantly in both fixatives. The volume change due to formalin in N. scintillans was not concentration-dependent, whereas the volume shrinkage of N. scintillans cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 2% was nearly six-fold that in cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 0.6%-0.8%. To better estimate the volume of N. scintillans fixed in formalin at a concentration of 5%, we suggest that the conversion relationship was as follows: volume of live cell=volume of intact fixed cell/0.61. Apart from size change, damage induced by fixatives on N. scintillans was obvious. Lugol's is not a suitable fixative for N. scintillans due to high frequency of broken cells. Accurate carbon biomass estimate of N. scintillans should be performed on live samples. These findings help to improve the estimate of phytoplankton cell volume and carbon biomass in marine ecosystem.

  14. An Alternate Set of Basis Functions for the Electromagnetic Solution of Arbitrarily-Shaped, Three-Dimensional, Closed, Conducting Bodies Using Method of Moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.; Baginski, Michael E.; Rao, Sadasiva M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present an alternate set of basis functions, each defined over a pair of planar triangular patches, for the method of moments solution of electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems associated with arbitrarily-shaped, closed, conducting surfaces. The present basis functions are point-wise orthogonal to the pulse basis functions previously defined. The prime motivation to develop the present set of basis functions is to utilize them for the electromagnetic solution of dielectric bodies using a surface integral equation formulation which involves both electric and magnetic cur- rents. However, in the present work, only the conducting body solution is presented and compared with other data.

  15. Resonance Raman characterization of different forms of ground-state 8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinoline caged acetate in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    An, Hui-Ying; Ma, Chensheng; Nganga, Jameil L; Zhu, Yue; Dore, Timothy M; Phillips, David Lee

    2009-03-26

    The 8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinolinyl group (BHQ) is a derivative of 7-hydroxyquinoline (7-HQ) and BHQ molecules coexisting as different forms in aqueous solution. Absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopic methods were used to examine 8-bromo-7-hydroxyquinoline protected acetate (BHQ-OAc) in acetonitrile (MeCN), H(2)O/MeCN (60:40, v/v, pH 6 approximately 7), and NaOH-H(2)O/MeCN (60:40, v/v, pH 11 approximately 12) to obtain a better characterization of the forms of the ground-state species of BHQ-OAc in aqueous solutions and to examine their properties. The absorption spectra of BHQ-OAc in water show no absorption bands of the tautomeric species unlike the strong band at about 400 nm observed for the tautomeric form in 7-HQ aqueous solution. The resonance Raman spectra in conjunction with Raman spectra predicted from density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the observation of a double Raman band system characteristic of the neutral form (the nominal C=C ring stretching, C-N stretching, and O-H bending modes at 1564 and 1607 cm(-1)) and a single Raman band diagnostic of the enol-deprotonated anionic form (the nominal C=C ring, C-N, and C-O(-) stretching modes in the 1593 cm(-1) region). These results suggest that the neutral form of BHQ-OAc is the major species in neutral aqueous solution. There is a modest increase in the amount of the anionic form and a big decrease in the amount of the tautomeric form of the molecules for BHQ-OAc compared to 7-HQ in neutral aqueous solution. The presence of the 8-bromo group and/or competitive hydrogen bonding that hinder the formation and transfer process of a BHQ-OAc-water cyclic complex may be responsible for this large substituent effect. PMID:19296708

  16. Properties of a photonic crystal formed in a solution featuring the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, D. A.; Rytik, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that a solution featuring the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) oscillating chemical reaction can exhibit the properties of a photonic crystal with alternating bandgap width. Thicknesses and dielectric permittivities of structural elements in the BR reaction solution have been determined by measuring the reflection and transmission spectra of microwave radiation in the range of 5-8 GHz.

  17. Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP): ultra-fast kernel ELM-based classification with non-iterative closed-form weight calculation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Manuel; Cernadas, Eva; Barro, Senén; Ribeiro, Jorge; Neves, José

    2014-02-01

    The Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP) (Fernández-Delgado et al., 2010) is a very simple and fast kernel-based classifier, related to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and to the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) (Huang, Wang, & Lan, 2011), whose α-coefficients are calculated directly, without any iterative training, using an analytical closed-form expression which involves only the training patterns. The DKP, which is inspired by the Direct Parallel Perceptron, (Auer et al., 2008), uses a Gaussian kernel and a linear classifier (perceptron). The weight vector of this classifier in the feature space minimizes an error measure which combines the training error and the hyperplane margin, without any tunable regularization parameter. This weight vector can be translated, using a variable change, to the α-coefficients, and both are determined without iterative calculations. We calculate solutions using several error functions, achieving the best trade-off between accuracy and efficiency with the linear function. These solutions for the α coefficients can be considered alternatives to the ELM with a new physical meaning in terms of error and margin: in fact, the linear and quadratic DKP are special cases of the two-class ELM when the regularization parameter C takes the values C=0 and C=∞. The linear DKP is extremely efficient and much faster (over a vast collection of 42 benchmark and real-life data sets) than 12 very popular and accurate classifiers including SVM, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Adaboost, Random Forest and Bagging of RPART decision trees, Linear Discriminant Analysis, K-Nearest Neighbors, ELM, Probabilistic Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function neural networks and Generalized ART. Besides, despite its simplicity and extreme efficiency, DKP achieves higher accuracies than 7 out of 12 classifiers, exhibiting small differences with respect to the best ones (SVM, ELM, Adaboost and Random Forest), which are much slower. Thus, the DKP provides an easy and fast way

  18. Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP): ultra-fast kernel ELM-based classification with non-iterative closed-form weight calculation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Manuel; Cernadas, Eva; Barro, Senén; Ribeiro, Jorge; Neves, José

    2014-02-01

    The Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP) (Fernández-Delgado et al., 2010) is a very simple and fast kernel-based classifier, related to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and to the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) (Huang, Wang, & Lan, 2011), whose α-coefficients are calculated directly, without any iterative training, using an analytical closed-form expression which involves only the training patterns. The DKP, which is inspired by the Direct Parallel Perceptron, (Auer et al., 2008), uses a Gaussian kernel and a linear classifier (perceptron). The weight vector of this classifier in the feature space minimizes an error measure which combines the training error and the hyperplane margin, without any tunable regularization parameter. This weight vector can be translated, using a variable change, to the α-coefficients, and both are determined without iterative calculations. We calculate solutions using several error functions, achieving the best trade-off between accuracy and efficiency with the linear function. These solutions for the α coefficients can be considered alternatives to the ELM with a new physical meaning in terms of error and margin: in fact, the linear and quadratic DKP are special cases of the two-class ELM when the regularization parameter C takes the values C=0 and C=∞. The linear DKP is extremely efficient and much faster (over a vast collection of 42 benchmark and real-life data sets) than 12 very popular and accurate classifiers including SVM, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Adaboost, Random Forest and Bagging of RPART decision trees, Linear Discriminant Analysis, K-Nearest Neighbors, ELM, Probabilistic Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function neural networks and Generalized ART. Besides, despite its simplicity and extreme efficiency, DKP achieves higher accuracies than 7 out of 12 classifiers, exhibiting small differences with respect to the best ones (SVM, ELM, Adaboost and Random Forest), which are much slower. Thus, the DKP provides an easy and fast way

  19. Sub-Tg relaxations due to dipolar solutes in nonpolar glass-forming solvents.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Md; Murthy, S S N

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that rigid dipolar solutes (in smaller quantity) dispersed in a nonpolar glassy matrix exhibit a sub-T(g) (or beta(s)) relaxation due to the solute often designated as Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation, which is intermolecular in nature. In this article, we report the results of our study of such a sub-T(g) process in a wide variety of dipolar solutes in different glassy systems using dielectric spectroscopy over a frequency range of 20-10(6) Hz down to a temperature of 77 K. The T(g) of these solutions are determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The solvents used in this study are o-terphenyl (OTP), isopropylbenzene (IPB), and methylcyclohexane. In the case of rigid molecular solutes, like mono-halogen benzenes, the activation energy (DeltaE(beta)) of the beta(s) process is found to increase with decreasing T(g) of the solvent, with a corresponding decrease in the magnitude of the beta(s) process. In the case of more symmetrical molecular solute, for example, tert-butylchloride, the change in DeltaE(beta) is not very appreciable. These results emphasize the importance of the size of the cage of the host matrix in the relaxation of the solute molecules. We have also studied the sub-T(g) relaxation(s) due to some flexible molecular solutes, viz., 1butylbromide, 1hexylbromide, 1butylacetate, and benzylacetate. These solutes in IPB matrix exhibit only one relaxation, whereas in OTP matrix they exhibit an additional sub-T(g) process, which may be identified with a JG type of relaxation. These observations lead us to the conclusion that the beta process observed in the glassy states of these pure solutes is predominantly intramolecular in nature.

  20. CLOSING THE GAP IN THE SOLUTIONS OF THE STRONG EXPLOSION PROBLEM: AN EXPANSION OF THE FAMILY OF SECOND-TYPE SELF-SIMILAR SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2010-11-01

    Shock waves driven by the release of energy at the center of a cold ideal gas sphere of initial density {rho} {proportional_to} r {sup -}{omega} approach a self-similar behavior, with velocity R-dot {proportional_to}R{sup {delta}}, as R {yields} {infinity}. For {omega}>3 the solutions are second-type solutions, i.e., {delta} is determined by the requirement that the flow should include a sonic point. No solution satisfying this requirement exists, however, in the 3 {<=} {omega} {<=} {omega}{sub g}({gamma}) 'gap' ({omega}{sub g} = 3.26 for adiabatic index {gamma} = 5/3). We argue that in general second-type solutions should not be required to include a sonic point. Rather, it is sufficient to require the existence of a characteristic line r{sub c} (t), such that the energy in the region r{sub c} (t) < r < R approaches a constant as R {yields} {infinity}, and an asymptotic solution given by the self-similar solution at r{sub c} (t) < r < R and deviating from it at r < r{sub c} may be constructed. The two requirements coincide for {omega}>{omega}{sub g} and the latter identifies {delta} = 0 solutions as the asymptotic solutions for 3 {<=} {omega} {<=} {omega}{sub g} (as suggested by Gruzinov). In these solutions, r{sub c} is a C{sub 0} characteristic. Using numerical solutions of the hydrodynamic equations, it is difficult to check whether the flow indeed approaches a {delta} = 0 self-similar behavior as R {yields} {infinity}, due to the slow convergence to self-similarity for {omega} {approx} 3. We show that in this case the flow may be described by a modified self-similar solution, d ln R-dot/d ln R = {delta} with slowly varying {delta}(R), {eta} {identical_to} d{delta}/dln R << 1, and spatial profiles given by a sum of the self-similar solution corresponding to the instantaneous value of {delta} and a self-similar correction linear in {eta}. The modified self-similar solutions provide an excellent approximation to numerical solutions obtained for {omega} {approx} 3

  1. Closing the Gap in the Solutions of the Strong Explosion Problem: An Expansion of the Family of Second-type Self-similar Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2010-11-01

    Shock waves driven by the release of energy at the center of a cold ideal gas sphere of initial density ρ vprop r -ω approach a self-similar behavior, with velocity \\dot{R}∝ R^δ, as R → ∞. For ω>3 the solutions are second-type solutions, i.e., δ is determined by the requirement that the flow should include a sonic point. No solution satisfying this requirement exists, however, in the 3 <= ω <= ω g (γ) "gap" (ω g = 3.26 for adiabatic index γ = 5/3). We argue that in general second-type solutions should not be required to include a sonic point. Rather, it is sufficient to require the existence of a characteristic line rc (t), such that the energy in the region rc (t) < r < R approaches a constant as R → ∞, and an asymptotic solution given by the self-similar solution at rc (t) < r < R and deviating from it at r < rc may be constructed. The two requirements coincide for ω>ω g and the latter identifies δ = 0 solutions as the asymptotic solutions for 3 <= ω <= ω g (as suggested by Gruzinov). In these solutions, rc is a C 0 characteristic. Using numerical solutions of the hydrodynamic equations, it is difficult to check whether the flow indeed approaches a δ = 0 self-similar behavior as R → ∞, due to the slow convergence to self-similarity for ω ~ 3. We show that in this case the flow may be described by a modified self-similar solution, d ln \\dot{R}/d ln R=δ with slowly varying δ(R), η ≡ dδ/dln R Lt 1, and spatial profiles given by a sum of the self-similar solution corresponding to the instantaneous value of δ and a self-similar correction linear in η. The modified self-similar solutions provide an excellent approximation to numerical solutions obtained for ω ~ 3 at large R, with δ → 0 (and η ≠ 0) for 3 <= ω <= ω g .

  2. Foam-forming properties of solutions of surfactants with high solubilizing power

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglyakov, P.M.; Baranov, A.G.; Pul'ver, N.E.; Khristov, Kh.I.; Buzaeva, T.V.; Ekserova, D.R.

    1988-09-01

    The conditions of formation of micellar aqueous solutions of different surfactants (SF) (concentration and ratio of components) with a high solubilizing power were established for three systems. Transparent low-viscosity solutions were obtained in all cases only with a certain concentration of oil. The stability of the foams in these systems is a function of the nature of the SF and the state of the system (homogeneous or heterogeneous) and the concentration of oil. Stratification with the formation of a large number of metastable multilayer films whose thickness and stability are a function of the capillary (disjoining) pressure is observed in free films of the same solutions.

  3. New Factorization Techniques and Parallel (log N) Algorithms for Forward Dynamics Solution of Single Closed-Chain Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir

    1993-01-01

    In this paper parallel 0(log N) algorithms for dynamic simulation of single closed-chain rigid multibody system as specialized to the case of a robot manipulatoar in contact with the environment are developed.

  4. NikD, AN UNUSUAL AMINO ACID OXIDASE ESSENTIAL FOR NIKKOMYCIN BIOSYNTHESIS: STRUCTURES OF CLOSED AND OPEN FORMS AT 1.15 AND 1.90 Å RESOLUTION

    PubMed Central

    Carrell, Christopher J.; Bruckner, Robert C.; Venci, David; Zhao, Gouhua; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman; Mathews, F. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Summary NikD is an unusual amino acid oxidizing enzyme that contains covalently bound FAD, catalyzes a 4-electron oxidation of piperideine-2-carboxylic acid to picolinate and plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of nikkomycin antibiotics. Crystal structures of closed and open forms of nikD, a two-domain enzyme, have been determined to resolutions of 1.15 and 1.9 Å, respectively. The two forms differ by an 11° rotation of the catalytic domain with respect to the FAD-binding domain. The active site is inaccessible to solvent in the closed form; an endogenous ligand, believed to be picolinate, is bound close to and parallel with the flavin ring, an orientation compatible with redox catalysis. The active site is solvent accessible in the open form but the picolinate ligand is approximately perpendicular to the flavin ring and a tryptophan is stacked above the flavin ring. NikD also contains a mobile cation binding loop. PMID:17697998

  5. Aragonite nanorods in calcium carbonate/polymer hybrids formed through self-organization processes from amorphous calcium carbonate solution.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Kato, Takashi

    2014-04-24

    Nanostructured inorganic/polymer hybrid thin films comprising aragonite nanorods derived from aqueous suspensions of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) are prepared. For the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃)/polymer hybrids, spincoated and annealed films of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) that function as polymer matrices are soaked in aqueous colloidal solutions dispersing ACC stabilized by poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). In the initial stage, calcite thin films form on the surface. Subsequently, aragonite crystals start to form inside the PVA matrix that contains PVA crystallites which induce aragonite nucleation. Nanostructured hybrids composed of calcite thin films consisting of nanoparticles and assembled aragonite nanorods are formed in the matrices of PVA.

  6. Maximal breaking of symmetry at critical angles and a closed-form expression for angular deviations of the Snell law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Manoel P.; Carvalho, Silvânia A.; De Leo, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    A detailed analysis of the propagation of laser Gaussian beams at critical angles shows under which conditions it is possible to maximize the breaking of symmetry in the angular distribution and for which values of the laser wavelength and beam waist it is possible to find an analytic formula for the maximal angular deviation from the optical path predicted by the Snell law. For beam propagation through N dielectric blocks and for a maximal breaking of symmetry, a closed expression for the Goos-Hänchen shift is obtained. The multiple-peak phenomenon clearly represents additional evidence of the breaking of symmetry in the angular distribution of optical beams. Finally, the laser wavelength and beam-waist conditions to produce focal effects in the outgoing beam are also briefly discussed.

  7. Solution structure of peptide AG4 used to form silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Dae-Hee; Woo, Yoonkyung; Hur, Ho-Gil; Lim, Yoongho

    2008-11-21

    The preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is of great interest due to their various biological activities, such as observed in their antimicrobial and wound healing actions. Moreover, the formation of AgNPs using silver-binding peptide has certain advantages because they can be made in aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The solution structure of the silver-binding peptide AG4 was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the site of the AG4 interaction with AgNPs was elucidated.

  8. FormScanner: Open-Source Solution for Grading Multiple-Choice Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chadwick; Lo, Glenn; Young, Kaisa; Borsetta, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The multiple-choice exam remains a staple for many introductory physics courses. In the past, people have graded these by hand or even flaming needles. Today, one usually grades the exams with a form scanner that utilizes optical mark recognition (OMR). Several companies provide these scanners and particular forms, such as the eponymous…

  9. Metallicities of Low Mass Inefficient Star Forming Dwarfs in S4G: Testing the Closed Box Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Myles; Stirewalt, Sabrina; Sheth, Kartik; de Swardt, Bonita; Walter, Donald

    2015-03-01

    Low mass dwarf galaxies are the most numerous extragalactic population in the Local Universe. Many gas-rich dwarfs appear to be forming stars less efficiently than normal, massive disk galaxies and are therefore important laboratories for the study of star formation. Here we present new observations using the Palomar Double Spectrograph for 19 dwarf galaxies from the S4G Survey with the lowest stellar to HI mass ratios. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate a wide range of metallicities which vary by as much as 0.5 dex in a single galaxy in different star forming regions. Such a dispersion in metallicities favors an open box model and the results suggest a varied star formation history, possibly induced via minor mergers and accretion. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO), National Science Foundation(NSF), and the National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) Cville Cohort. Additional support was provided by NSF Awards AST-0750814 and AST-1358913 to South Carolina State University.

  10. A Transition to a Compact Form of DNA in Polymer Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, L. S.

    1971-01-01

    In the presence of over-threshold concentrations of simple neutral polymers and salts, DNA undergoes a cooperative change in its solution structure. Sedimentation studies at low DNA concentrations show that phage DNA molecules collapse into particles approaching the compactness of the contents of phage heads. The interaction between DNA and polymers is thought to be nonspecifically replusive. PMID:5288774

  11. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... exclusivity (69 FR 501, January 6, 2004). The supplemental ANADA is approved as of September 21, 2011, and 21... parasites when cattle are treated with a topical solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective... parasites. The supplemental ANADA adds claims for persistent effectiveness against various species...

  12. Comparison of phosphorus forms in three extracts of dairy feces by solution 31P NMR analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using solution 31P NMR spectroscopy, we compared three extractants, deionized water, sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) with fresh sodium dithionite (NaAc-SD), and 0.25 M NaOH-0.05 M EDTA (NaOH-EDTA), for the profile of P compounds in two dairy fecal samples. Phosphorus extracted was 35% for water, and...

  13. Evaluating the effects of plasticizer interactions with HPMC on the tack-behavior of polymer film-forming coating solutions.

    PubMed

    Saringat, Haji Baie; Sheikh, Khalid Ahmad; Khan, Gul Majid

    2004-07-01

    Tack is a concept that is widely used to describe the forces or energies involved in the separation of two parallel surfaces initially in contact through an intervening thin liquid film. The tackiness may cause tablets to stick with each other or to the walls of the coating apparatus. In this study, the HPMC coating solutions were evaluated for their tackiness and the effects of interactions between the polymer and plasticizers on the tack behavior of HPMC film-forming coating solutions were investigated, using type TA-XT2 texture analyzer. It was found that experimental factors such as the contact time, rate of separation and volume of the film-forming test solution could effectively influence the magnitude of tack behavior. Moreover, up to certain levels, the addition of plasticizers such as PEG 400 & 1000 and of triacetin caused a reduction in the tack value of the polymer solutions. It was concluded that in general, the tackiness depended upon the molecular weight and/or type and concentration of a plasticizer. The efficiency of plasticizers used to reduce the tackiness of HPMC solutions ranked as PEG1000 > triacetin > PEG400. PMID:16414595

  14. Evaluating the effects of plasticizer interactions with HPMC on the tack-behavior of polymer film-forming coating solutions.

    PubMed

    Saringat, Haji Baie; Sheikh, Khalid Ahmad; Khan, Gul Majid

    2004-07-01

    Tack is a concept that is widely used to describe the forces or energies involved in the separation of two parallel surfaces initially in contact through an intervening thin liquid film. The tackiness may cause tablets to stick with each other or to the walls of the coating apparatus. In this study, the HPMC coating solutions were evaluated for their tackiness and the effects of interactions between the polymer and plasticizers on the tack behavior of HPMC film-forming coating solutions were investigated, using type TA-XT2 texture analyzer. It was found that experimental factors such as the contact time, rate of separation and volume of the film-forming test solution could effectively influence the magnitude of tack behavior. Moreover, up to certain levels, the addition of plasticizers such as PEG 400 & 1000 and of triacetin caused a reduction in the tack value of the polymer solutions. It was concluded that in general, the tackiness depended upon the molecular weight and/or type and concentration of a plasticizer. The efficiency of plasticizers used to reduce the tackiness of HPMC solutions ranked as PEG1000 > triacetin > PEG400.

  15. Spectral and electroluminescent properties of coordination compounds of terbium (III) with ibuprofen (in solid form, chloroform solutions, and polyvinylcarbazole films)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonova, L. G.; Kopylova, T. N.; Degtyarenko, K. M.; Ponarin, N. V.; Meshkova, S. B.; Zheltvai, I. I.

    2015-08-01

    Spectral properties of terbium (III) complexes with composition of TbL3DL, where L is an anion of d,l-2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propanoic acid (ibuprofen) and DL is 2,2'-dipyridyl (Dipy), 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen), or triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), have been studied in a solid form, chloroform solutions, and polyvinylcarbazole (PVC) films. It has been demonstrated that, in PVC films, occupation of the emitting level of terbium (III) involves the participation of polymer. The emission decay lifetimes of terbium in the chloroform solutions and PVC films have been measured. The possibility of the appearance of electroluminescence of complexes in PVC films has been studied.

  16. Closed-form formulas for the effective properties of random particulate nanocomposites with complete Gurtin-Murdoch model of material surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, Lidiia; Bargmann, Swantje; Stolarski, Henryk

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present an approach allowing for inclusion of the complete Gurtin-Murdoch material surface equations in methods leading to closed-form formulas defining effective properties of particle-reinforced nanocomposites. Considering that all previous developments of the closed-form formulas for effective properties employ only some parts of the Gurtin-Murdoch model, its complete inclusion constitutes the main focus of this work. To this end, the recently introduced new notion of the energy-equivalent inhomogeneity is generalized to precisely include all terms of the model. The crucial aspect of that generalization is the identification of the energy associated with the last term of the Gurtin-Murdoch equation, i.e., with the surface gradient of displacements. With the help of that definition, the real nanoparticle and its surface possessing its own distinct elastic properties and residual stresses are replaced by an energy-equivalent inhomogeneity with properties incorporating all surface effects. Such equivalent inhomogeneity can then be used in combination with any existing homogenization method. In this work, the method of conditional moments is used to analyze composites with randomly dispersed spherical nanoparticles. Closed-form expressions for effective moduli are derived for both bulk and shear moduli. As numerical examples, nanoporous aluminum is investigated. The normalized bulk and shear moduli of nanoporous aluminum as a function of residual stresses are analyzed and evaluated in the context of other theoretical predictions.

  17. Closed form unsupervised registration of multi-temporal structure from motion-multiview stereo data using non-linearly weighted image features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seers, T. D.; Hodgetts, D.

    2013-12-01

    between input image sets, our method has major advantages over conventional iterative least squares minimization based methods (e.g. Iterative Closest Point variants), acting only on rigid areas of target scenes, being capable of reliably estimating the scaling factor and requiring no incipient estimation of the transformation to initialize (i.e. manual rough alignment). Moreover, because the solution is closed form, convergence is considerably more expedient that most iterative methods. It is hoped that the availability of improved co-registration routines, such as the one presented here, will facilitate the routine collection of multi-temporal topographic datasets by a wider range of geoscience practitioners.

  18. Sixty years from discovery to solution: crystal structure of bovine liver catalase form III

    SciTech Connect

    Foroughi, Leila M.; Kang, You-Na; Matzger, Adam J.

    2012-03-27

    The crystallization and structural characterization of bovine liver catalase (BLC) has been intensively studied for decades. Forms I and II of BLC have previously been fully characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Form III has previously been analyzed by electron microscopy, but owing to the thinness of this crystal form an X-ray crystal structure had not been determined. Here, the crystal structure of form III of BLC is presented in space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.7, b = 173.7, c = 186.3 {angstrom}. The asymmetric unit is composed of the biological tetramer, which is packed in a tetrahedron motif with three other BLC tetramers. This higher resolution structure has allowed an assessment of the previously published electron-microscopy studies.

  19. Sixty years from discovery to solution: crystal structure of bovine liver catalase form III.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Leila M; Kang, You Na; Matzger, Adam J

    2011-09-01

    The crystallization and structural characterization of bovine liver catalase (BLC) has been intensively studied for decades. Forms I and II of BLC have previously been fully characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Form III has previously been analyzed by electron microscopy, but owing to the thinness of this crystal form an X-ray crystal structure had not been determined. Here, the crystal structure of form III of BLC is presented in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 68.7, b = 173.7, c = 186.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is composed of the biological tetramer, which is packed in a tetrahedron motif with three other BLC tetramers. This higher resolution structure has allowed an assessment of the previously published electron-microscopy studies. PMID:21904028

  20. Low-molecular-weight adiponectin is more closely associated with disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis than other adiponectin multimeric forms.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Yang, Li; Ma, Cui-Li; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Rui; Bi, Li-qi

    2015-06-01

    Adiponectin is divided into high-molecular-weight (HMW), medium-molecular-weight (MMW), and low-molecular-weight (LMW) forms. These forms differ not only in the number of adiponectin molecules but also in their biological activity. There are conflicting findings regarding the role of adiponectin in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Moreover, few reports have described the relationships between serum adiponectin multimers levels and RA. Therefore, we examined the association of total adiponectin and its multimers with RA. Two study groups were examined: 180 recently diagnosed untreated RA patients with disease duration less than 1 year (RA group) and 160 age- and sex-matched control subjects (control group). RA-related factors, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, complete lipid profile, and adiponectin multimers were measured. The levels of total adiponectin and each multimer of adiponectin were significantly lower in the RA than in the control (P < 0.01). Serum levels of total, HMW, MMW, and LMW were positively correlated with triglycerides levels and negatively correlated with the Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28). Multivariate regression analysis showed that total, HMW, and MMW adiponectin were independently associated with serum triglycerides level. LMW adiponectin was independently correlated with serum triglycerides level and DAS28. The decreased LMW adiponectin levels may be associated with disease activity of RA.

  1. Morphological analysis of pits formed on Al 2024-T3 in chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. W. J.; Bustamante, A. G.; Codaro, E. N.; Nakazato, R. Z.; Hein, L. R. O.

    2004-09-01

    It has been used a new image analysis method, based on segmentation by shape parameters, for pits morphology examination from Al 2024 aluminum-copper alloy in chloride aqueous solution. Corrosion behavior of this alloys in naturally aerated 3.5% NaCl solution has been investigated through open circuit potential measurements. Afterwards, pits have been characterized by image analysis taking density and size measurements right from corroded surfaces. Morphological investigation has been conducted for profiles, cut orthogonally from mean surface planes, and observed through light microscopy. Image analysis data could demonstrate that pits are wider than deep, evoluting for conical, quasi-conical or irregular shapes. Most pits have presented a quasi-conical morphology, but the wider ones have evoluted to an irregular shape influenced by sub-surface microstructure. Image analysis based on shape segmentation could enhance the differences on morphological behavior.

  2. Removal of Lead Hydroxides Complexes from Solutions Formed in Silver/Gold: Cyanidation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parga, José R.; Martinez, Raul Flores; Moreno, Hector; Gomes, Andrew Jewel; Cocke, David L.

    2014-04-01

    The presence of lead hydroxides in "pregnant cyanide solution" decreases the quality of the Dore obtained in the recovery processes of gold and silver, so it is convenient to remove them. The adsorbent capacity of the low cost cow bone powder was investigated for the removal of lead ions from a solution of lead hydroxide complexes at different initial metal ion concentrations (10 to 50 mg/L), and reaction time. Experiments were carried out in batches. The maximum sorption capacity of lead determined by the Langmuir model was found to be 126.58 mg/g, and the separation factor R L was between 0 and 1, indicating a significant affinity of bone for lead. Experimental data follow pseudo-second order kinetics suggesting chemisorption. It is concluded that cow bone powder can be successfully used for the removal of lead ions, and improves the quality of the silver-gold cyanides precipitate.

  3. The effect of intramolecular H-bonds on the aqueous solution continuum description of the N-protonated form of dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagona, Giuliano; Ghio, Caterina

    1996-04-01

    The conformational properties in vacuo and in solution of N-protonated dopamine have been studied making use of ab initio SCF calculations in vacuo and free energy calculations in aqueous solution, in the framework of the polarizable continuum model (PCM), on the STO-3G, 4-31G and 6-31G ∗ optimized geometries obtained in vacuo. The in vacuo energy profiles along a few sections of the potential energy surface turn out to be very close for the extended basis sets, while the STO-3G eresults are slightly dispalced. The largest difference between the minimal and the extended basis sets is found for the perpendicular arrangement, which is however the lowest energy profile with low barriers to the CCCN rotation both invacuo and in solution. The solvent stabilizes the trans over the gauche rotamers. Teh conformers without intramolecular H-bond between the -OH side chains are favored by the solvent, which makes the planar i, anti conformers as stable as the corresponding conformers with an intramolecular H-bond in aqueous solution. The solvation free energy is considerably less basis set dependent than the potential energy in vacuo. The ab initio PCM results slightly favor the planar 1 form over the planar 2 form whereas the semiempirical AMSOL results of Urban, Cramer and Famini (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114 (1992) 8226) do the opposite. The cavitation free energy is nearly independent of the basis set. The almost constant (about 4.4 kcal/mol) cavitation and dispersion-repulsion corrections do not affect the differential quantities.

  4. Solution-Derived, Chloride-Containing Minerals as a Waste Form for Alkali Chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Lepry, William C.

    2012-10-01

    Sodalite [Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2] and cancrinite [(Na,K)6Ca2Al6Si6O24Cl4] are environmentally stable, chloride-containing minerals and are a logical waste form option for the mixed alkali chloride salt waste stream that is generated from a proposed electrochemical separations process during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to the volatility of chloride salts at moderate temperatures, the ideal processing route for these salts is a low-temperature approach such as the sol-gel process. The sodalite structure can be easily synthesized by the sol-gel process; however, it is produced in the form of a fine powder with particle sizes on the order of 1–10 µm. Due to the small particle size, these powders require additional treatment to form a monolith. In this study, the sol-gel powders were pressed into pellets and fired to achieve > 90% of theoretical density. The cancrinite structure, identified as the best candidate mineral form in terms of waste loading capacity, was only produced on a limited basis following the sol-gel process and converted to sodalite upon firing. Here we discuss the sol-gel process specifics, chemical durability of select waste forms, and the steps taken to maximize chloride-containing phases, decrease chloride loss during pellet firing, and increase pellet densities.

  5. The N-terminal actin-binding tandem calponin-homology (CH) domain of dystrophin is in a closed conformation in solution and when bound to F-actin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surinder M; Mallela, Krishna M G

    2012-11-01

    Deficiency of the vital muscle protein dystrophin triggers Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, but the structure-function relationship of dystrophin is poorly understood. To date, molecular structures of three dystrophin domains have been determined, of which the N-terminal actin-binding domain (N-ABD or ABD1) is of particular interest. This domain is composed of two calponin-homology (CH) domains, which form an important class of ABDs in muscle proteins. A previously determined x-ray structure indicates that the dystrophin N-ABD is a domain-swapped dimer, with each monomer adopting an extended, open conformation in which the two CH domains do not interact. This structure is controversial because it contradicts functional studies and known structures of similar ABDs from other muscle proteins. Here, we investigated the solution conformation of the dystrophin N-ABD using a very simple and elegant technique of pyrene excimer fluorescence. Using the wild-type protein, which contains two cysteines, and the corresponding single-cysteine mutants, we show that the protein is a monomer in solution and is in a closed conformation in which the two CH domains seem to interact, as observed from the excimer fluorescence of pyrene-labeled wild-type protein. Excimer fluorescence was also observed in its actin-bound form, indicating that the dystrophin N-ABD binds to F-actin in a closed conformation. Comparison of the dystrophin N-ABD conformation with other ABDs indicates that the tandem CH domains in general may be monomeric in solution and predominantly occur in closed conformation, whereas their actin-bound conformations may differ.

  6. Interpretation of leaching data for cementitious waste forms using analytical solutions based on mass transport theory and empiricism

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Godbee, H.W.; Tallent, O.K.; Nestor, C.W. Jr. )

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of leaching data using analytical solutions based on mass transport theory and empiricism is presented. The waste forms leached to generate the data used in this analysis were prepared with a simulated radioactive waste slurry with traces of potassium ion, manganese ions, carbonate ions, phosphate ions, and sulfate ions solidified with several blends of cementitious materials. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the results of ANS - 16.1 tests. Data of fraction leached versus time is presented and discussed.

  7. Cryochemical method for forming spherical metal oxide particles from metal salt solutions

    DOEpatents

    Tinkle, M.C.

    1973-12-01

    A method is described of preparing small metal oxide spheres cryochemically utilizing metal salts (e.g., nitrates) that cannot readily be dried and calcined without loss of sphericity of the particles. Such metal salts are cryochemically formed into small spheres, partially or completely converted to an insoluble salt, and dried and calcined. (Official Gazette)

  8. The importance of functional form in optimal control solutions of problems in population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Optimal control theory is finding increased application in both theoretical and applied ecology, and it is a central element of adaptive resource management. One of the steps in an adaptive management process is to develop alternative models of system dynamics, models that are all reasonable in light of available data, but that differ substantially in their implications for optimal control of the resource. We explored how the form of the recruitment and survival functions in a general population model for ducks affected the patterns in the optimal harvest strategy, using a combination of analytical, numerical, and simulation techniques. We compared three relationships between recruitment and population density (linear, exponential, and hyperbolic) and three relationships between survival during the nonharvest season and population density (constant, logistic, and one related to the compensatory harvest mortality hypothesis). We found that the form of the component functions had a dramatic influence on the optimal harvest strategy and the ultimate equilibrium state of the system. For instance, while it is commonly assumed that a compensatory hypothesis leads to higher optimal harvest rates than an additive hypothesis, we found this to depend on the form of the recruitment function, in part because of differences in the optimal steady-state population density. This work has strong direct consequences for those developing alternative models to describe harvested systems, but it is relevant to a larger class of problems applying optimal control at the population level. Often, different functional forms will not be statistically distinguishable in the range of the data. Nevertheless, differences between the functions outside the range of the data can have an important impact on the optimal harvest strategy. Thus, development of alternative models by identifying a single functional form, then choosing different parameter combinations from extremes on the likelihood

  9. Solution of the Boundary Value Problems with Boundary Conditions in the Form of Gravitational Curvatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprlak, M.; Novak, P.; Pitonak, M.; Hamackova, E.

    2015-12-01

    Values of scalar, vectorial and second-order tensorial parameters of the Earth's gravitational field have been collected by various sensors in geodesy and geophysics. Such observables have been widely exploited in different parametrization methods for the gravitational field modelling. Moreover, theoretical aspects of these quantities have extensively been studied and are well understood. On the other hand, new sensors for observing gravitational curvatures, i.e., components of the third-order gravitational tensor, are currently under development. This fact may be documented by the terrestrial experiments Dulkyn and Magia, as well as by the proposal of the gravity-dedicated satellite mission called OPTIMA. As the gravitational curvatures represent new types of observables, their exploitation for modelling of the Earth's gravitational field is a subject of this study. Firstly, we derive integral transforms between the gravitational potential and gravitational curvatures, i.e., we find analytical solutions of the boundary value problems with gravitational curvatures as boundary conditions. Secondly, properties of the corresponding Green kernel functions are studied in the spatial and spectral domains. Thirdly, the correctness of the new analytical solutions is tested in a simulation study. The presented mathematical apparatus reveal important properties of the gravitational curvatures. It also extends the Meissl scheme, i.e., an important theoretical paradigm that relates various parameters of the Earth's gravitational field.

  10. Current applications of foams formed from mixed surfactant-polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Bureiko, Andrei; Trybala, Anna; Kovalchuk, Nina; Starov, Victor

    2015-08-01

    Foams cannot be generated without the use of special foaming agents, as pure liquids do not foam. The most common foaming agents are surfactants, however often for foam stability one active agent is not enough, it is necessary to add other component to increase foam lifetime. Foams on everyday use are mostly made from mixture of different components. Properly chosen combinations of two active ingredients lead to a faster foam formation and increased foam stability. During the last decade polymers (mainly polyelectrolytes and proteins) have become frequently used additives to foaming solutions. Mixtures of surfactants and polymers often demonstrate different foaming properties in comparison to surfactant only or polymer only solutions. The nature of surfactant-polymer interactions is complicated and prediction of resulting foaming properties of such formulations is not straightforward. Properties and foaming of surfactant-polymer mixtures are discussed as well as current applications of foams and foaming agents as foams are widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceutics, medicine and the food industry.

  11. Cracks and blisters formed close to a silicon wafer surface by He-H co-implantation at low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkashin, N.; Daghbouj, N.; Darras, F.-X.; Fnaiech, M.; Claverie, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the effect of reducing the implantation energy towards low keV values on the areal density of He and H atoms stored within populations of blister cavities formed by co-implantation of the same fluence of He then H ions into Si(001) wafers and annealing. Using a variety of experimental techniques, we have measured blister heights and depth from the surface, diameter, areal density of the cracks from which they originate as functions of implantation energy and fluence. We show that there is a direct correlation between the diameters of the cracks and the heights of the associated blisters. This correlation only depends on the implantation energy, i.e., only on the depth at which the cracks are located. Using finite element method modeling, we infer the pressure inside the blister cavities from the elastic deformations they generate, i.e., from the height of the blisters. From this, we demonstrate that the gas pressure within a blister only depends on the diameter of the associated crack and not on its depth position and derive an analytical expression relating these parameters. Relating the pressure inside a blister to the respective concentrations of gas molecules it contains, we deduce the areal densities of He and H atoms contained within the populations of blisters. After low-energy implantations (8 keV He+, 3 keV H+), all the implanted He and H atoms contribute to the formation of the blisters. There is no measurable exo-diffusion of any of the implanted gases, in contrast to what was assumed at the state of the art to explain the failure of the Smart-Cut technology when using very low energy ion implantation for the fabrication of ultra-thin layers. Alternative explanations must be investigated.

  12. Cracks and blisters formed close to a silicon wafer surface by He-H co-implantation at low energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cherkashin, N. Darras, F.-X.; Claverie, A.; Daghbouj, N.; Fnaiech, M.

    2015-12-28

    We have studied the effect of reducing the implantation energy towards low keV values on the areal density of He and H atoms stored within populations of blister cavities formed by co-implantation of the same fluence of He then H ions into Si(001) wafers and annealing. Using a variety of experimental techniques, we have measured blister heights and depth from the surface, diameter, areal density of the cracks from which they originate as functions of implantation energy and fluence. We show that there is a direct correlation between the diameters of the cracks and the heights of the associated blisters. This correlation only depends on the implantation energy, i.e., only on the depth at which the cracks are located. Using finite element method modeling, we infer the pressure inside the blister cavities from the elastic deformations they generate, i.e., from the height of the blisters. From this, we demonstrate that the gas pressure within a blister only depends on the diameter of the associated crack and not on its depth position and derive an analytical expression relating these parameters. Relating the pressure inside a blister to the respective concentrations of gas molecules it contains, we deduce the areal densities of He and H atoms contained within the populations of blisters. After low-energy implantations (8 keV He{sup +}, 3 keV H{sup +}), all the implanted He and H atoms contribute to the formation of the blisters. There is no measurable exo-diffusion of any of the implanted gases, in contrast to what was assumed at the state of the art to explain the failure of the Smart-Cut technology when using very low energy ion implantation for the fabrication of ultra-thin layers. Alternative explanations must be investigated.

  13. Temperature and density relaxation close to the liquid-gas critical point: an analytical solution for cylindrical cells.

    PubMed

    Carlès, Pierre; Zhong, Fang; Weilert, Mark; Barmatz, M

    2005-04-01

    We present a study of the temperature and density equilibration near the liquid-gas critical point of a composite system consisting of a thin circular disk of near-critical fluid surrounded by a copper wall. This system is a simplified model for a proposed space experiment cell that would have 60 thin fluid layers separated by perforated copper plates to aid in equilibration. Upper and lower relaxation time limits that are based on radial and transverse diffusion through the fluid thickness are shown to be too significantly different for a reasonable estimate of the time required for the space experiment. We therefore have developed the first rigorous analytical solution of the piston effect in two dimensions for a cylindrically symmetric three-dimensional cell, including the finite conductivity of the copper wall. This solution covers the entire time evolution of the system after a boundary temperature step, from the early piston effect through the final diffusive equilibration. The calculation uses a quasistatic approximation for the copper and a Laplace-transform solution to the piston effect equation in the fluid. Laplace inversion is performed numerically. The results not only show that the equilibration is divided into three temporal regimes but also give an estimate of the amplitudes of the remaining temperature and density inhomogeneity in each regime. These results yield characteristic length scales for each of the regimes that are used to estimate the expected relaxation times in the one- and two-phase regions near the critical point.

  14. The histone chaperones Vps75 and Nap1 form ring-like, tetrameric structures in solution.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Andrew; Hammond, Colin M; Stirling, Andrew; Ward, Richard; Shang, Weifeng; El-Mkami, Hassane; Robinson, David A; Svergun, Dmitri I; Norman, David G; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2014-05-01

    NAP-1 fold histone chaperones play an important role in escorting histones to and from sites of nucleosome assembly and disassembly. The two NAP-1 fold histone chaperones in budding yeast, Vps75 and Nap1, have previously been crystalized in a characteristic homodimeric conformation. In this study, a combination of small angle X-ray scattering, multi angle light scattering and pulsed electron-electron double resonance approaches were used to show that both Vps75 and Nap1 adopt ring-shaped tetrameric conformations in solution. This suggests that the formation of homotetramers is a common feature of NAP-1 fold histone chaperones. The tetramerisation of NAP-1 fold histone chaperones may act to shield acidic surfaces in the absence of histone cargo thus providing a 'self-chaperoning' type mechanism. PMID:24688059

  15. The histone chaperones Vps75 and Nap1 form ring-like, tetrameric structures in solution

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Andrew; Hammond, Colin M.; Stirling, Andrew; Ward, Richard; Shang, Weifeng; El-Mkami, Hassane; Robinson, David A.; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Norman, David G.; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    NAP-1 fold histone chaperones play an important role in escorting histones to and from sites of nucleosome assembly and disassembly. The two NAP-1 fold histone chaperones in budding yeast, Vps75 and Nap1, have previously been crystalized in a characteristic homodimeric conformation. In this study, a combination of small angle X-ray scattering, multi angle light scattering and pulsed electron–electron double resonance approaches were used to show that both Vps75 and Nap1 adopt ring-shaped tetrameric conformations in solution. This suggests that the formation of homotetramers is a common feature of NAP-1 fold histone chaperones. The tetramerisation of NAP-1 fold histone chaperones may act to shield acidic surfaces in the absence of histone cargo thus providing a ‘self-chaperoning’ type mechanism. PMID:24688059

  16. Characterization of corrosion products formed on different surfaces of steel exposed to simulated groundwater solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiufa; Gao, Kewei; Wang, Yanbin; Pang, Xiaolu

    2015-08-01

    The corrosion behavior of a low alloy steel in simulated groundwater was investigated. The upward surface of the steel underwent more serious corrosion than the downward surface. The corrosion products formed on the upward and downward surfaces were characterized by SEM, EDX, and XRD, and the electrochemical properties of bare and rusted samples were analyzed. The difference in the corrosion rates of the different surfaces of the steel could be attributed to the potential difference between the upward and downward surfaces as well as the higher amount of CaCO3 deposits on the downward surface leading to a compact corrosion product.

  17. Replacement of barite by a (Ba,Ra)SO4 solid solution at close-to-equilibrium conditions: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, F.; Curti, E.; Klinkenberg, M.; Rozov, K.; Bosbach, D.

    2015-04-01

    Solid solution formation between RaSO4 and BaSO4 has long been recognized as a process which potentially controls the Ra concentration in the environment. Here, we have systematically studied the replacement of pure barite by a (Ba,Ra)SO4 solid solution in 0.1 M NaCl through batch experiments extending up to 883 days at close-to-equilibrium (CTE) conditions, which are relevant to disposal of nuclear waste in a deep geological repository. Kinetic and thermodynamic models were applied to support the interpretation of the experiments, which were carried out at room temperature and at two distinct solid/liquid ratio (0.5 or 5 g/L). Different stages of recrystallization were observed, based on the rate of removal of Ra from aqueous solution. After a first slow kinetic step, a change in the slope of the aqueous Ra concentration vs. time is observed, suggesting nucleation of a new (Ba,Ra)SO4 phase from supersaturation. If this stage was considered to reflect equilibrium between aqueous and solid solution, one would infer ideality or even negative interaction parameters (a0 ⩽ 0). After this fast nucleation step, in the 0.5 g/L experiments the Ra concentrations in the aqueous solution slowly increase, approaching a concentration close to that required for equilibrium with a regular (Ba,Ra)SO4 solid solution with an interaction parameter a0 = 1.0. Therefore, these data suggest a non-equilibrium Ra entrapment during the nucleation phase of the replacement, followed by slow recrystallization toward true thermodynamic solid solution equilibrium. Moreover, an interaction parameter value of a0 = 1.0 was inferred from our experiments, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions from atomistic simulations. A key result from this study is that aqueous solution and binary (Ba,Ra)SO4 approach full thermodynamic equilibrium within laboratory time scales (2.5 years). This justifies assuming complete thermodynamic equilibrium for this system in geochemical calculations of

  18. Proposed solution to the {open_quotes}k{sub eff} of the world{close_quotes} problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbard, E.M.; Roussel, B.

    1995-12-31

    In 1971 Whitesides posed a Monte Carlo (MC) problem which he called {open_quotes}computing the k{sub eff} of the world.{close_quotes} This problem is still troublesome today. The problem arose in MC studies of a 9 x 9 x 9 configuration of weakly coupled Pu spheres, initially identical, with the whole array surrounded by water. The MC eigenvalue for this array was .93. When the central sphere was replaced by another, just critical in isolation, the MC eigenvalue was still .93. Here we consider a model problem somewhat analogous to Whitesides`, and use it (1) to illustrate the difficulties in the simplest traditional MC approach, and (2) to explore an alternative approach.

  19. Are three forms of potentially lethal damage expressed after X irradiation by treatment with hypertonic solutions in Chinese hamster V79 cells?

    SciTech Connect

    Ikebuchi, Makoto; Kimura, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Takashi; Hill, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    X rays have been shown to induce two forms of potentially lethal damage (PLD), {open_quotes}fast-repairing{close_quotes} PLD and {open_quotes}slowly repairing PLD, whose repair is completed in 1 h and 4-6 h, respectively. In this study three modes of treatment with hypertonic solutions containing different NaCl concentrations for different durations (0.5 M for 30 min, 0.225 M for 4 h, 0.16 M for 16 h) were examined to determine which form of PLD is expressed under each condition. These three modes of treatment enhanced the cell-killing action of X rays on actively growing V79 cells due to fixation of PLD. The kinetics of recovery from PLD was assessed by delayed treatments with hypertonic solutions. Cells exposed to one of the three treatments had completed recovery times of 1, 4 and 8 h, respectively, suggesting the possibility that these three modes of treatment cause the expression of different forms of PLD. As has been reported, treatment with 0.5 M NaCl for 30 min expressed fast-repairing PLD. The independence of the PLD expressed after 0.5 M NaCl for 30 min was shown by combined treatment with the two modes, which reduced survival to the level that would be reached if the two modes acted independently. The data on the recovery time and on the inhibition by 0.225 M NaCl of recovery from slowly repairing PLD in plateau-phase cells indicated that the PLD expressed after 0.225 M NaCl for 4 h may be related to slowly repairing PLD. The combined treatment of 0.16 M NaCl for 16 h with 0.225 M NaCl for 4 h indicated independent action, albeit incomplete, of the PLD expressed after 0.16 M NaCl for 16 h from slowly repairing PLD. We propose for the first time that {open_quotes}very slowly repairing{close_quotes} PLD is expressed after 0.16 M NaCl for 16 h in exponentially growing cells and that therefore three forms of PLD are expressed by hypertonic treatments after X irradiation. 31 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Darboux Transformation and N-soliton Solution for Extended Form of Modified Kadomtsev—Petviashvili Equation with Variable-Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xing-Yu; Chen, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The extended form of modified Kadomtsev—Petviashvili equation with variable-coefficient is investigated in the framework of Painlevé analysis. The Lax pairs are obtained by analysing two Painlevé branches of this equation. Starting with the Lax pair, the N-times Darboux transformation is constructed and the N-soliton solution formula is given, which contains 2n free parameters and two arbitrary functions. Furthermore, with different combinations of the parameters, several types of soliton solutions are calculated from the first order to the third order. The regularity conditions are discussed in order to avoid the singularity of the solutions. Moreover, we construct the generalized Darboux transformation matrix by considering a special limiting process and find a rational-type solution for this equation. Supported by the Global Change Research Program of China under Grant No. 2015CB953904, National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275072 and 11435005, Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20120076110024, The Network Information Physics Calculation of basic research innovation research group of China under Grant No. 61321064, Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center of Trustworthy Software for Internet of Things under Grant No. ZF1213, Shanghai Minhang District talents of high level scientific research project

  1. Exact closed-form expressions for the performance of the split-symbol moments estimator of signal-to-noise ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, the performance of the split-symbol moments estimator (SSME) of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been evaluated by means of approximate expressions for the estimator mean and variance. These are asymptotic formulas in the sense that they become accurate as the number of estimator samples gets large. Here, exact closed-form expressions are obtained for the same quantities. These expressions confirm the accuracy of the previously derived asymptotic results, and, unlike the asymptotic formulas, they are useful even when the number of samples is small. It is also shown that the conventional split-symbol estimator can be trivially scaled to form a signal-to-noise ratio estimator which is precisely unbiased (as long as the estimate is based on more than two split-symbols).

  2. Nonlinear (time domain) and linearized (time and frequency domain) solutions to the compressible Euler equations in conservation law form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreenivas, Kidambi; Whitfield, David L.

    1995-01-01

    Two linearized solvers (time and frequency domain) based on a high resolution numerical scheme are presented. The basic approach is to linearize the flux vector by expressing it as a sum of a mean and a perturbation. This allows the governing equations to be maintained in conservation law form. A key difference between the time and frequency domain computations is that the frequency domain computations require only one grid block irrespective of the interblade phase angle for which the flow is being computed. As a result of this and due to the fact that the governing equations for this case are steady, frequency domain computations are substantially faster than the corresponding time domain computations. The linearized equations are used to compute flows in turbomachinery blade rows (cascades) arising due to blade vibrations. Numerical solutions are compared to linear theory (where available) and to numerical solutions of the nonlinear Euler equations.

  3. Forming buried junctions to enhance the photovoltage generated by cuprous oxide in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Dai, Pengcheng; Li, Wei; Xie, Jin; He, Yumin; Thorne, James; McMahon, Gregory; Zhan, Jinhua; Wang, Dunwei

    2014-12-01

    Whereas wide-bandgap metal oxides have been extensively studied for the photooxidation of water, their utilization for photoreduction is relatively limited. An important reason is the inability to achieve meaningful photovoltages with these materials. Using Cu2 O as a prototypical photocathode material, it is now shown that the photovoltage barrier can be readily broken by replacing the semiconductor/water interface with a semiconductor/semiconductor one. A thin ZnS layer (ca. 5 nm) was found to form high-quality interfaces with Cu2 O to increase the achievable photovoltage from 0.60 V to 0.72 V. Measurements under no net exchange current conditions confirmed that the change was induced by a thermodynamic shift of the flatband potentials rather than by kinetic factors. The strategy is compatible with efforts aimed at stabilizing the cathode that otherwise easily decomposes and with surface catalyst decorations for faster hydrogen evolution reactions. A combination of NiMo and CoMo dual-layer alloy catalysts was found to be effective in promoting hydrogen production under simulated solar radiation.

  4. Stabilization of the restriction enzyme EcoRI dried with trehalose and other selected glass-forming solutes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S; Buera, M P; Moreno, S; Chirife, J

    1997-01-01

    The stabilization of the restriction enzyme EcoRI by its incorporation into aqueous glass-forming carbohydrate or polymer solutions, followed by vacuum-drying to low moisture, has been studied. Glass-forming solutes included trehalose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, raffinose, maltodextrin DE 10, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (molecular weight 40,000, PVP). Among the solutes examined, trehalose and sucrose protected the enzyme most effectively during storage at 37 and 45 degrees C. The restriction enzyme dried with trehalose or sucrose maintained its activity without detectable loss for at least 20 days at 37 degrees C and 12 days at 45 degrees C. In contrast, the activity of the enzyme dried with maltodextrin or PVP was reduced during vacuum desiccation and also it decreased remarkably during storage at the same temperatures. Stored (37/45 degrees C) vacuum-dried trehalose and sucrose systems were either a dense paste or a very viscous syrup, and this indicated that they were not glassy. Moreover, no relationship was found between the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the pure added solute and enzyme protection during storage, since, e.g., sucrose which has significantly lower Tg values protected the enzyme much better than either maltose, lactose, maltodextrin, or PVP. The trisaccharide raffinose offered good protection of enzyme activity, and its role as a novel excipient matrix for labile enzyme stabilization deserves further investigation. The stability of enzyme EcoRI was rapidly lost when the vacuum-dried trehalose and sucrose systems were humidified to 58% relative humidity and stored at 45 degrees C, and this was attributed to disaccharide crystallization.

  5. Solution-processed crack-free oxide films formed using SiO2 nanoparticles and organoalkoxysiloxane precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Moonkyong; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2015-07-01

    Crack-free uniform oxide films were deposited by spin-on-glass method using a mixture solution of organoalkoxysiloxane network former and SiO2 nanoparticles. In the range of molar ratio of SiO2 nanoparticles to oragnoalkoxysiloxanes between 0.6:1 and 1:1, stable sols were formed and smooth and uniform oxide films could be obtained. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical properties of the films, and we found that Sisbnd Osbnd Si structures were effectively formed via condensation reactions during curing at 150 °C. The effect of three different organic side groups in the organoalkoxsiloxane on the film properties was investigated. Precursors containing methyl groups effectively formed Sisbnd Osbnd Si network with SiO2 nanoparticles, which was confirmed by the increased intensity of the Sisbnd O asymmetric stretching mode at 1080 cm-1 in the FT-IR spectra. Smooth and continuous films were obtained using precursors containing methyl and phenyl groups, with root-mean-square surface roughness of 1.05 nm (methyl precursor) and 1.16 nm (phenyl precursor). The shrinkage of the oxide film formed with phenyl groups was less than 1%. The dielectric properties of the oxide films were characterized, and we observed leakage currents in the range of 10-9 to 10-8 A/cm2 just prior to the dielectric breakdown with the films formed using precursors containing methyl and phenyl groups

  6. Did the Mississippian Lodgepole buildup at Dickinson Field (North Dakota) form as a gas seep ({open_quotes}vent{close_quotes}) community?

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.

    1996-10-01

    The Lower Mississippian Lodgepole carbonate buildup reservoir at Dickinson Field in Stark County, North Dakota, has been widely reported as being a Waulsortian (or Waulsortian-like) mound. The term {open_quotes}Waulsortian mound{close_quotes} is used for a variety of Early Mississippian carbonate buildups that share a number of features including an abundance of carbonate mud, a {open_quotes}framework{close_quotes} of organisms such as fenestrate bryozoans and crinoids that tended to trap or baffle sediment, and a general absence of marine-cemented reef framework. Although the age of the Lodgepole mound at Dickinson Field qualifies it to be a Waulsortian mound, petrographic study of cores reveals that the reservoir rocks are quite unlike those in true Waulsortian mounds. Instead of being dominated by carbonate mud, the Lodgepole mound core is dominated by marine cement. Furthermore, ostracods and microbial limestones are common in the mound core where they occur with crinoid debris and small amounts of bryozoan, coral, and brachiopod debris. The abundant microbial limestones and marine cement indicate that the Dickinson mound formed as a lithified reef on the sea floor rather than as a Waulsortian mud mound. The microbial limestones, marine cement, and common ostracods in the mount core, and the fact that the mound nucleated almost directly o top of the Bakken Shale, suggest that the Dickinson Lodgepole mound formed at the site of a submarine spring and gas seep.

  7. Enhancing and sustaining the topical ocular delivery of fluconazole using chitosan solution and poloxamer/chitosan in situ forming gel.

    PubMed

    Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; de Freitas, Osvaldo; Rocha, Eduardo Melani; Lopez, Renata F V

    2011-10-01

    Fungal keratitis is a serious disease that can lead to loss of vision. Unfortunately, current therapeutic options often result in poor bioavailability of antifungal agents due to protective mechanisms of the eye. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of a chitosan solution as well as an in situ gel-forming system comprised of poloxamer/chitosan as vehicles for enhanced corneal permeation and sustained release of fluconazole (FLU). For this, in vitro release and ex vivo corneal permeation experiments were carried out as a function of chitosan concentration from formulation containing the chitosan alone and combined with the thermosensitive polymer, poloxamer. Microdialysis was employed in a rabbit model to evaluate the in vivo performance of the formulations. The in vitro release studies showed the sustained release of FLU from the poloxamer/chitosan formulation. Ex vivo permeation studies across porcine cornea demonstrated that the formulations studied have a permeation-enhancing effect that is independent of chitosan concentration in the range from 0.5 to 1.5% w/w. The chitosan solutions alone showed the greatest ex vivo drug permeation; however, the poloxamer/chitosan formulation presented similar in vivo performance than the chitosan solution at 1.0%; both formulations showed sustained release and about 3.5-fold greater total amount of FLU permeated when compared to simple aqueous solutions of the drug. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that both the in situ gelling formulation evaluated and the chitosan solution are viable alternatives to enhance ocular bioavailability in the treatment of fungal keratitis.

  8. Behavior of Paramecium sp. in solutions containing Sr and Pb: Do Paramecium sp. alter chemical forms of those metals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Koka, Masahi; Satoh, Takahiro; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2011-10-01

    The behavior of Paramecium sp. (Paramecium bursaria) in aqueous solutions containing Sr and Pb was investigated to determine the role of protozoa in the migration of radionuclides in the environment. Precultured living cells of P. bursaria were exposed to aqueous solutions containing 0.01 or 0.05 mM Sr or Pb at pH 7 for 24 h. For comparison, pre-killed cells were treated with the metal solutions in the same way. Two-dimensional elemental mappings of cells were obtained by micro-PIXE. Aquatic species of Sr and Pb were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled online to ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and inductivity coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The amounts of Sr adsorbed or taken up by the cells surviving for 24 h and adsorbed on pre-killed cells were below the detection limit. Cells of P. bursaria adsorbed or took up a fraction of Pb. The Pb adsorbed or taken up by the cells surviving for 24 h in the Pb solution was barely detectable, while the Pb adsorbed on pre-killed cells was clearly mappable. These findings suggest that living cells of P. bursaria have functions that reduce adsorption or uptake of Pb on the cells. Quantitative and SEC-UV-ICP-MS analyses of the Sr and Pb in aqueous phases showed no clear evidences that living cells of P. bursaria alter the chemical form of Sr or Pb remaining in the aqueous phases after the cell-solution contact.

  9. Klebsormidium flaccidum, a charophycean green alga, exhibits cold acclimation that is closely associated with compatible solute accumulation and ultrastructural changes.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Manabu; Matsui, Kenji; Uemura, Matsuo

    2008-06-01

    To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms and subsequent evolutionary aspects of plant cold acclimation, we examined the effect of cold acclimation on freezing tolerance in Klebsormidium flaccidum, a green alga belonging to Charophyceae, a sister group of land plants. Freezing tolerance of K. flaccidum was significantly enhanced by cold treatment: survival increased from 15% at -10 degrees C when grown at 18 degrees C to 55 and 85% after exposure at 2 degrees C for 2 and 7 d, respectively. Accompanying the development of freezing tolerance, soluble sugars (glucose and sucrose), a putative glycoside and amino acids, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), accumulated to high levels in the alga, suggesting that these solutes play a crucial role in the cold acclimation of K. flaccidum. Interestingly, the application of abscisic acid (ABA) did not change the freezing tolerance of the alga. We also observed changes in cell structure, including increased numbers and sizes of starch grains in chloroplasts, chloroplast enlargement, vacuole size reduction and cytoplasmic volume increase. These results suggest that K. flaccidum responds well to cold treatment and develops freezing tolerance in a process comparable to that of land plants.

  10. A comparison of the degradation products formed in aerated, aqueous alpha-D-glucose solutions by ultrasound and gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Heusinger, H

    1987-12-01

    The degradation products formed in aerated aqueous alpha-D-glucose solutions by cleavage of the carbon skeleton by ultrasound and gamma irradiation are compared. Common products present for both types of irradiation are: D-glyceraldehyde, D-glyceric acid, hydroxy-malondialdehyde, 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxo-butanoic acid, tetrodialdose, D-arabinoic acid and D-xylose. 2,3,4-Trihydroxy-5-oxo-pentoic acid and D-arabinose could be detected only by radiolysis and evidence for the formation of 2-hydroxy-3-oxo-pentoic acid was only obtained in sonolysis. These fragmentation products are supposed to be formed by reactions of the glucose-peroxyl radicals with HO2-radicals. Based on the reactions of peroxyl radicals given in the literature, a mechanism is proposed which leads to the observed products.

  11. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at PHS close to or above the pK.sub.a of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Tung, Lisa A.

    1992-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH.sub.a into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. the acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carobxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia.

  12. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at pHs close to or above the pK[sub a] of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Tung, L.A.

    1992-07-21

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH[sub a] into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carboxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia. 8 figs.

  13. Seasonal change in the level and the chemical forms of aluminum in soil solution under a Japanese cedar forest.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Tomonari; Usami, Yosuke; Aizawa, Sho-ichi; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Satake, Ken-ichi

    2003-12-30

    The level of dissolved aluminum and its chemical forms in soil solutions consecutively collected by a porous cup vacuum sampler were monitored over a period from January 2001 to December 2001 at a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forestry area susceptible to acid deposition to characterize current soil dynamics and to evaluate potential tree damages. Distinction and characterization of Al species with differential toxicities were performed by two complementary speciation techniques; cation-exchange HPLC with fluorometric detection using 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS) and size-fractionation/inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The concentrations of free Al (mainly Al3+ and Al(OH)2+) and inert Al (existing as the complexed and/or colloidal forms) ranged between 0-150 microM and 10-50 microM, respectively. The concentrations of inert Al were mostly below 40 microM during an annual cycle and showed no marked seasonal variation, while free Al concentrations showed a clear tendency to increase in the spring and summer seasons (in the period from April to August) probably due to the enhanced activity of microbial nitrification and the resultant soil acidification. Major cations and anions were also regularly determined and their seasonal changes were correlated with that of the dissolved Al concentration. Correlations between total Al (mainly existing as free Al) and the related species (and environmental conditions) were as follows: Al and Mg (R=0.96, P<0.01), Al and Ca (R=0.97, P<0.01), Al and NO3- (R=0.68, P<0.01), Al and temperature (R=0.68, P<0.01), Al and solution pH (R=-0.61, P<0.01), solution pH and NO3- (R=-0.65, P<0.01).

  14. Effect of lithium on the properties of a liquid crystal formed by sodium dodecylsulphate and decanol in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Bahamonde-Padilla, V E; Espinoza, Javier; Weiss-López, B E; Cascales, J J López; Montecinos, R; Araya-Maturana, R

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the molecular interactions that rule the physicochemical properties of molecular assemblies is of particular interest when trying to explain the behavior of much more complicated systems, such as the cell membranes. This work was devoted to study a discotic nematic lyotropic liquid crystal, formed by sodium dodecylsulphate (3% SDS-d25) and decanol (20% DeOH-α-d2), dissolved in aqueous solutions (0.1% D2O) of Na2SO4 or Li2SO4. The average size of the aggregates was estimated using fluorescence quenching experiments, and their dynamics were studied by measuring the (2)H-NMR quadrupole splitting (ΔνQ) and the longitudinal relaxation times (T1) of the deuterated species. To provide an atomic insight into these assemblies, molecular dynamics simulations of the systems were carried out with atomic detail. As a previous step in this study, a reparameterization of the standard GROMOS 87 force field was required to perform the equilibrated simulations and to prevent instabilities emerging during the simulations. Finally, an excellent agreement between simulation and experimental data was obtained. In addition, variations in the long range electrostatic interactions at the aggregate/solution interface, the orientation and the reorientational relaxation time of the water dipole, the translational diffusion coefficient of sodium ions, and the amphiphile-counterion coordination associated with the presence of Li(+) in the solution were other key aspects investigated to explain the variation in the quadrupole splittings (ΔνQ) in the presence of lithium in solution.

  15. Structural-acoustic optimum design of shell structures in open/closed space based on a free-form optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Masatoshi; Shimoide, Kensuke; Shi, Jin-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Noise reduction by structural geometry optimization has attracted much attention among designers. In the present work, we propose a free-form optimization method for the structural-acoustic design optimization of shell structures to reduce the noise of a targeted frequency or frequency range in an open or closed space. The objective of the design optimization is to minimize the average structural vibration-induced sound pressure at the evaluation points in the acoustic field under a volume constraint. For the shape design optimization, we carry out structural-acoustic coupling analysis and adjoint analysis to calculate the shape gradient functions. Then, we use the shape gradient functions in velocity analysis to update the shape of shell structures. We repeat this process until convergence is confirmed to obtain the optimum shape of the shell structures in a structural-acoustic coupling system. The numerical results for the considered examples showed that the proposed design optimization process can significantly reduce the noise in both open and closed spaces.

  16. Closed-form analytical model of static noise margin for ultra-low voltage eight-transistor tunnel FET static random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuketa, Hiroshi; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Fukuda, Koichi; Mori, Takahiro; Morita, Yukinori; Masahara, Meishoku; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Variations of eight-transistor (8T) tunnel FET (TFET) static random access memory (SRAM) cells at ultra-low supply voltage (V DD) of 0.3 V are discussed. A closed-form analytical model for the static noise margin (SNM) of the TFET SRAM cells is proposed to clarify the dependence of SNM on device parameters and is verified by simulations. The SNM variations caused by process variations are investigated using the proposed model, and we show a requirement for the threshold voltage (V TH) variation in the TFET SRAM design, which indicates that the V TH variation must be reduced as the subthreshold swing becomes steeper. In addition, a feasibility of the TFET SRAM cells operating at V DD = 0.3 V in two different process technologies is evaluated using the proposed model.

  17. An exact, closed-form expression of the integral chord-length distribution for the calculation of single-event upsets induced by cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luke, Keung L.; Buehler, Martin G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of an exact closed-form expression of the integral chord-length distribution for the calculation of single-event upsets (SEUs) in an electronic memory cell, caused by cosmic rays. Results computed for two rectangular parallelepipeds using this exact expression are compared with those computed with Bradford's (1979) semiexact expression of C(x). It is found that the values of C(x) are identical for x equal or smaller than b but are vastly different for x greater than b. Moreover, while C(x) of Bradford gives reasonably accurate values of SEU rate for certain sets of computational parameters, it gives values more than 10 times larger than the correct values for other sets of parameters.

  18. Structure and composition of Fe-OM co-precipitates that form in soil-derived solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Wieczorek, Arkadiusz K.; Händel, Matthias; Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai U.

    2015-11-01

    Iron oxides represent a substantial fraction of secondary minerals and particularly affect the reactive properties of natural systems in which they formed, e.g. in soils and sediments. Yet, it is still obscure how transient conditions in the solution will affect the properties of in situ precipitated Fe oxides. Transient compositions, i.e. compositions that change with time, arise due to predominant non-equilibrium states in natural systems, e.g. between liquid and solid phases in soils. In this study, we characterize Fe-OM co-precipitates that formed in pH-neutral exfiltrates from anoxic topsoils under transient conditions. We applied soil column outflow experiments, in which Fe2+ was discharged with the effluent from anoxic soil and subsequently oxidized in the effluent due to contact with air. Our study features three novel aspects being unconsidered so far: (i) the transient composition of soil-derived solutions, (ii) that pedogenic Fe oxides instead of Fe salts serve as major source for Fe2+ in soil solution and (iii) the presence of exclusively soil-derived organic and inorganic compounds during precipitation. The experiments were carried out with two topsoil materials that differed in composition, texture and land use. Derived from Mössbauer spectroscopy, broad distributions in quadrupole splittings (0-2 mm s-1) and magnetic hyperfine fields (35-53 T) indicated the presence of low-crystalline ferrihydrite and even lower crystalline Fe phases in all Fe-OM co-precipitates. There was no unequivocal evidence for other Fe oxides, i.e. lepidocrocite and (nano)goethite. The Fe-OM co-precipitates contained inorganic (P, sulfate, silicate, Al, As) and organic compounds (proteins, polysaccharides), which were concurrently discharged from the soils. Their content in the Fe-OM co-precipitates was controlled by their respective concentration in the soil-derived solution. On a molar basis, OC and Fe were the main components in the Fe-OM co-precipitates (OC/Fe ratio = 0

  19. Shear-induced concentration fluctuations and form factor changes in polymer solution in the good-solvent regime.

    PubMed

    Morfin, I; Lindner, P; Boué, F

    2004-09-01

    Small-Angle Scattering from sheared semidilute polymer solution is reported in the good-solvent regime, at variance with former light and neutron measurements in the theta regime. First, concentration fluctuations are observed: the scattering increases noticeably along the flow at low q, but at variance with former results for the theta-solvent regime, no demixing is observed at higher shear. Here, instead, the effects follow a time-temperature superposition and saturate above a Weissenberg number around 5, like the stress which is known to present a plateau for these systems. Using the Zero Average Contrast technique, we have also measured the form factor, which displays the same saturation effect reaching a deformation ratio of the order of 2. These results agree with the Convective Constraint Release models (CCR) elaborated in order to predict the stress effects in the non-Newtonian regime (Marrucci-Ianniruberto) and their extension predicting also the scattering (Likhtman-Milner-McLeish).

  20. Hierarchical Structure of Supramolecular Polymers Formed by N,N'-Di(2-ethylhexyl)urea in Solutions.

    PubMed

    Świergiel, Jolanta; Bouteiller, Laurent; Jadżyn, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Supramolecular chain polymers formed by N,N'-di(2-ethylhexyl)urea (EHU) dissolved at low concentrations (up to 0.1 mole fraction) in heptane were investigated with the use of the dielectric spectroscopy. The experimental data show an exceptional ability of the chains for the antiparallel self-aggregation due to dipole-dipole interactions, leading to an anomalous dependence of the static permittivity of EHU + heptane solutions on temperature and concentration of the urea. The primary molecular assembly into polymeric chains is therefore followed by a secondary bundling of the chains which facilitates a longitudinal translation of the chains. That peculiarity and an asymmetry of the alkyl substituent in the EHU molecule making the system a mixture of diastereoisomers of unfavorable packing of the side group, are the most probable molecular mechanisms which prevent the crystallization of EHU-the only known liquid urea derivative. PMID:26371560

  1. Bimolecular recombination reactions: K-adiabatic and K-active forms of the bimolecular master equations and analytic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderi, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Expressions for a K-adiabatic master equation for a bimolecular recombination rate constant krec are derived for a bimolecular reaction forming a complex with a single well or complexes with multiple well, where K is the component of the total angular momentum along the axis of least moment of inertia of the recombination product. The K-active master equation is also considered. The exact analytic solutions, i.e., the K-adiabatic and K-active steady-state population distribution function of reactive complexes, g(EJK) and g(EJ), respectively, are derived for the K-adiabatic and K-active master equation cases using properties of inhomogeneous integral equations (Fredholm type). The solutions accommodate arbitrary intermolecular energy transfer models, e.g., the single exponential, double exponential, Gaussian, step-ladder, and near-singularity models. At the high pressure limit, the krec for both the K-adiabatic and K-active master equations reduce, respectively, to the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory (high pressure limit expressions). Ozone and its formation from O + O2 are known to exhibit an adiabatic K. The ratio of the K-adiabatic to the K-active recombination rate constants for ozone formation at the high pressure limit is calculated to be ˜0.9 at 300 K. Results on the temperature and pressure dependence of the recombination rate constants and populations of O3 will be presented elsewhere.

  2. Adsorption equilibria between liposome membrane formed of phosphatidylcholine and aqueous sodium chloride solution as a function of pH.

    PubMed

    Kotyńska, J; Figaszewski, Z A

    2005-12-30

    The effect has been studied of the adsorption of ions (H(+), Na(+), OH(-), Cl(-)) which are present in solution upon the electric charge of the liposome membrane formed of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The surface charge density of the membrane was determined as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration from electrophoretic mobility measurements. The measurements were carried out by the laser-Doppler microelectrophoresis method. A four-equilibria model has been proposed to describe the phenomena occurring on the membrane surface. The equilibria in which the adsorption of other ions on the liposome membrane surface was involved were assumed to exist beside the equilibria in which the H(+) and OH(-) ions were engaged. The idea was confirmed by mathematical calculations. Association constants of the liposome membrane surface with ions of solution (K(AH), K(ANa), K(BOH), K(BCl)) were determined. The proposed model has been proved to be correct by comparing the resulting theoretic charge variation curves of the lecithin membrane with the experimental data.

  3. Bimolecular recombination reactions: K-adiabatic and K-active forms of the bimolecular master equations and analytic solutions.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Nima

    2016-03-28

    Expressions for a K-adiabatic master equation for a bimolecular recombination rate constant krec are derived for a bimolecular reaction forming a complex with a single well or complexes with multiple well, where K is the component of the total angular momentum along the axis of least moment of inertia of the recombination product. The K-active master equation is also considered. The exact analytic solutions, i.e., the K-adiabatic and K-active steady-state population distribution function of reactive complexes, g(EJK) and g(EJ), respectively, are derived for the K-adiabatic and K-active master equation cases using properties of inhomogeneous integral equations (Fredholm type). The solutions accommodate arbitrary intermolecular energy transfer models, e.g., the single exponential, double exponential, Gaussian, step-ladder, and near-singularity models. At the high pressure limit, the krec for both the K-adiabatic and K-active master equations reduce, respectively, to the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory (high pressure limit expressions). Ozone and its formation from O + O2 are known to exhibit an adiabatic K. The ratio of the K-adiabatic to the K-active recombination rate constants for ozone formation at the high pressure limit is calculated to be ∼0.9 at 300 K. Results on the temperature and pressure dependence of the recombination rate constants and populations of O3 will be presented elsewhere. PMID:27036434

  4. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiying; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Fengchang; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P; He, Zhongqi; Song, Lirong; Fan, Mingle

    2016-04-01

    Debris from aquatic macrophytes and algae are important recycling sources of phosphorus (P), which can result in continuing blooms of algae by recycling bioavailable P in the eutrophic lakes. However, knowledge of forms of P in aquatic macrophytes and algae and their contribution to internal loads of P in lakes is limited. Without such knowledge, it is difficult to develop appropriate strategies to remediate and or restore aquatic ecosystems that have become eutrophic. Therefore, in this work, P was extracted from six types of aquatic macrophytes and algae collected from Tai Lake of China and characterized by use of solution (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. When extracted by 0.5 M NaOH-25 mM EDTA, extraction recovery of total P(TP) and organic P(Po) exceeded 90 %. Concentrations of Po in algae and aquatic macrophytes were 5552 mg kg(-1) and 1005 mg kg(-1) and accounted for 56.0 and 47.2 % of TP, respectively. When Po, including condensed P, was characterized by solution (31)P-NMR Po in algae included orthophosphate monoesters (79.8 %), pyrophosphate (18.2 %), and orthophosphate diester (2.0 %), and Po in aquatic macrophytes included orthophosphate monoesters (90.3 %), pyrophosphate (4.2 %), and orthophosphate diester (5.5 %). Additionally, orthophosphate monoesters in algal debris mainly included β-glycerophosphate (44.1 %), α-glycerophosphate (13.5 %), and glucose 6-phosphate (13.5 %). Orthophosphate monoesters in aquatic macrophytes mainly included β-glycerophosphate (27.9 %), α-glycerophosphate (24.6 %), and adenosine 5' monophosphate (8.2 %). Results derived from this study will be useful in better understanding nutrient cycling, relevant eutrophication processes, and pollution control for freshwater lakes.

  5. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM-INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM-PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM-PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM-INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N-H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM-PAM cocrystal, while ACM-CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid-carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM-INA, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM-PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM-PPZ salt and ACM-nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM-PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine salt of acemetacin exhibits superior

  6. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    PubMed Central

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N—H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine

  7. Ordered Regions of Channel Nucleoporins Nup62, Nup54, and Nup58 Form Dynamic Complexes in Solution*

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alok; Solmaz, Sozanne R.; Blobel, Günter; Melčák, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Three out of ∼30 nucleoporins, Nup62, Nup54, and Nup58, line the nuclear pore channel. These “channel” nucleoporins each contain an ordered region of ∼150–200 residues, which is predicted to be segmented into 3–4 α-helical regions of ∼40–80 residues. Notably, these segmentations are evolutionarily conserved between uni- and multicellular eukaryotes. Strikingly, the boundaries of these segments match our previously reported mapping and crystal data, which collectively identified two “cognate” segments of Nup54, each interacting with cognate segments, one in Nup58 and the other one in Nup62. Because Nup54 and Nup58 cognate segments form crystallographic hetero- or homo-oligomers, we proposed that these oligomers associate into inter-convertible “mid-plane” rings: a single large ring (40–50 nm diameter, consisting of eight hetero-dodecamers) or three small rings (10–20 nm diameter, each comprising eight homo-tetramers). Each “ring cycle” would recapitulate “dilation” and “constriction” of the nuclear pore complex's central transport channel. As for the Nup54·Nup62 interactome, it forms a 1:2 triple helix (“finger”), multiples of which project alternately up and down from mid-plane ring(s). Collectively, our previous crystal data suggested a copy number of 128, 64, and 32 for Nup62, Nup54, and Nup58, respectively, that is, a 4:2:1 stoichiometry. Here, we carried out solution analysis utilizing the entire ordered regions of Nup62, Nup54, and Nup58, and demonstrate that they form a dynamic “triple complex” that is heterogeneously formed from our previously characterized Nup54·Nup58 and Nup54·Nup62 interactomes. These data are consistent both with our crystal structure-deduced copy numbers and stoichiometries and also with our ring cycle model for structure and dynamics of the nuclear pore channel. PMID:26025361

  8. Structures of polynuclear complexes of palladium(II) and platinum(II) formed by slow hydrolysis in acidic aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Torapava, Natallia; Elding, Lars I; Mändar, Hugo; Roosalu, Kaspar; Persson, Ingmar

    2013-06-01

    The aqua ions of palladium(II) and platinum(II) undergo extremely slow hydrolysis in strongly acidic aqueous solution, resulting in polynuclear complexes. The size and structures of these species have been determined by EXAFS and small angle X-ray scattering, SAXS. For palladium(II), the EXAFS data show that the Pd-O and Pd···Pd distances are identical to those of crystalline palladium(II) oxide, but the intensities of the Pd···Pd distances in the Fourier transform at 3.04 and 3.42 Å are significantly lower compared to those of crystalline PdO. Furthermore, no Pd···Pd distances beyond 4 Å are observed. These observations strongly indicate that the polynuclear palladium(II) complexes are oxido- and hydroxido-bridged species with the same core structure as solid palladium(II) oxide. Based on the number of Pd···Pd distances, as derived from the EXAFS data, their size can be estimated to be approximately two unit cells, or ca. 1.0 nm(3). For platinum(II), EXAFS data of the polynuclear species formed in the slow hydrolysis process show Pt-O and Pt···Pt distances identical to those of amorphous platinum(II) oxide, precipitating from the solution studied. The Pt···Pt distances are somewhat different from those reported for crystalline platinum(II) oxide. The polynuclear platinum(II) complexes have a similar structure to the palladium ones, but they are somewhat larger, with an estimated diameter of 1.5-3.0 nm. It has not been possible to precipitate any of these species by ultracentrifugation. They are detectable by SAXS, indicating diameters between 0.7 and 2 nm, in excellent agreement with the EXAFS observations. The number of oxido- relative to hydroxido bridges will increase with increasing size of the complex. The charge of the complexes will remain about the same, +4, at growth, with approximate formulas [Pd10O4(OH)8(H2O)12](4+) and [Pt14O8(OH)8(H2O)12](4+) for complexes with a size of 2 and 3 unit cells of the corresponding solid metal oxide

  9. Effect of co-solutes and process variables on crystallinity and the crystal form of freeze-dried myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Kusano, Riho; Arai, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ito, Masataka; Shibata, Hiroko; Sugano, Kiyohiko; Goda, Yukihiro; Terada, Katsuhide

    2016-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how co-solutes affect the crystallization of small solute molecules during freeze-drying and subsequent storage. Crystallization profiles of myo-inositol and its mixture with dextran 40k in frozen solutions and dried solids were assessed by thermal analysis (DSC), powder-X-ray diffraction, and simultaneous DSC and PXRD analysis. Higher mass ratios of dextran maintained myo-inositol in the non-crystalline mixture state, in frozen solutions, during freeze-drying process, and exposure of dried solids to higher temperatures. Co-lyophilization with a lower mass ratio of dextran resulted in solids containing a variety of myo-inositol crystal forms and crystallinity depending on the composition and thermal history of the process. Heating of some inositol-rich amorphous solids showed crystallization of myo-inositol in the metastable form and its transition to stable form before melting. Heat-treatment of inositol-rich frozen solutions resulted in high crystallinity stable-form inositol solids, leaving dextran in the amorphous state. Sufficient direct molecular interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding) should explain the stability of dextran-rich amorphous solids. Optimizing solute composition and processes should be a potent way to control crystal form and crystallinity of components in freeze-dried formulations. PMID:27282535

  10. Comparative proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of amantadine complexes formed in aqueous solutions with three major cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Lis-Cieplak, Agnieszka; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

    2014-01-01

    Host-guest complexes of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD, respectively) with amantadine (1-aminoadamantane, AMA; an antiviral agent) were characterized in aqueous solutions using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Host-guest molecular interactions were manifested by changes in the chemical shifts of AMA protons. NMR Job's plots showed that the stoichiometry of all the studied complexes was 1:1. Two-dimensional T-ROESY experiments demonstrated that the complexes were formed by different degrees of incorporation of the adamantyl group of AMA into the CD cavity. The mode of AMA binding was proposed. The AMA molecule came into the α-CD cavity (the smallest size) or β-CD cavity (the intermediate size) through its wide entrance to become shallowly or deeply accommodated, respectively. In the complex of AMA with γ-CD (the largest cavity size), the adamantyl group was also quite deeply inserted into the CD cavity, but it arrived there through the narrow cavity entrance. It was found that the adamantyl group of AMA was best accommodated by the β-CD cavity. The binding constants Kaa of the studied complexes (in M(-1) ), determined from DOSY NMR, were fairly high; their values in an ascending order were: α-CD (183) < γ-CD (306) ≪ β-CD (5150).

  11. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghani, N T; Rizk, M S; Mostafa, M

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL(-1), using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ≥0.995 (n=6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  12. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Ghani, N. T.; Rizk, M. S.; Mostafa, M.

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL-1, using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ⩾0.995 (n = 6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ⩽1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  13. Some aspects of the aqueous solution chemistry of the Na+/Ca2+/OH-/Cit3- system: The structure of a new calcium citrate complex forming under hyperalkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gácsi, Attila; Kutus, Bence; Buckó, Ákos; Csendes, Zita; Peintler, Gábor; Pálinkó, István; Sipos, Pál

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we show that in hyperalkaline (pH > 13) aqueous solutions, Ca2+ forms a new, so far unknown complex species with the citrate ion, the structure of which is different from the well-known CaCit-(aq) species present in solutions of close to neutral pH. The solubility of Ca3Cit2(s) was found to increase significantly under hyperalkaline conditions. The decrease in the electric conductivity and the variations observed in the freezing point depression of such solutions also indicate complexation. From 1H NMR measurements, in this complex, the citrate ion is suggested to be in quadruply deprotonated form. From the variation of the 2JHH geminal proton coupling constant, two neighboring carboxylate groups are coordinated to the calcium ion in a monodentate mode (besides the alcoholate). The optimal structure of the complex with the composition of CaCitH-12-(aq) has also been calculated using DFT calculations, applying the Polarizable Continuum Model. Sodium ion-pairing was found to compete efficiently with this calcium complexation process, and in solutions with high Na-ion content, the equilibria are shifted towards the formation of NaCit2-(aq) and Na2Cit-(aq) ion pairs.

  14. Use of a molecular form technique for the penetration of supersaturated solutions of salicylic acid across silicone membranes and human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leveque, N; Raghavan, S L; Lane, M E; Hadgraft, J

    2006-08-01

    Permeation enhancement of salicylic acid (SA) from supersaturated solutions formed using a 'molecular form' technique was investigated. In a conventional cosolvent technique, two solvents are used, one in which the drug is considerably more soluble than the other. Propylene glycol and water have been predominantly used as cosolvents to create supersaturation in skin permeation enhancement. In this paper, we report the use of buffer solutions with different pHs as media for producing different molecular forms. Supersaturated solutions were prepared using pH 8:pH 2 (80:20 v/v), which gave a nominal pH when mixed of around 5. Model silicone membranes and human skin were used. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) was employed to stabilise the supersaturated states. Stability data showed that while the SA supersaturated solutions without HPMC crystallised between 15 min and 46 h depending on the degree of supersaturation, the solutions with HPMC were stable for more than 2 months. The flux of SA increased with the degree of saturation for solutions prepared in a 80:20 buffer pH 8/buffer pH 2 mixture. Although the fluxes of SA with and without HPMC were similar both through silicone membrane and human skin, HPMC was found to be effective in increasing the stability of supersaturated solutions of SA.

  15. The IAB Iron-Meteorite Complex: A Group, Five Subgroups, Numerous Grouplets, Closely Related, Mainly Formed by Crystal Segregation in Rapidly Cooling Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    2002-01-01

    We present new data or iron meteorites that are members of group IAB or are closely related to this large group, and we have also reevaluated some of our earlier data for these irons. In the past it was not possible to distinguish IAB and IIICD irons on the basis of their positions on element-Ni diagrams. We now find that plotting, the new and revised data yields six sets of compact fields on element-Au diagrams, each set corresponding to a compositional group. The largest set includes the majority (approximately equal to 70) of irons previously designated IA: We christened this set the IAB main group. The remaining five sets we designate subgroups within the IAB complex. Three of these subgroups have Au contents similar to the main group, and form parallel trends in most element-Ni diagrams. The groups originally designated IIIC and IIID are two of these subgroups: they are now well resolved from each other and from the main group. The other low-Au subgroup has Ni contents just above the main group. Two other IAB subgroups have appreciably higher Au contents than the main group and show weaker compositional links to it. We have named these five subgroups on the basis of their Au and Ni contents. The three subgroups having Au contents similar to the main group are the low-Au (L) subgroups the two others the high-Au (H) subgroups. The Ni contents are designated high (H), medium (M), or low (L). Thus the old group IIID is now the sLH subgroup. the old group IIIC is the sLM subgroup. In addition, eight irons assigned to two grouplets plot between sLL and sLM on most element-Au diagrams. A large number (27) of related irons plot outside these compact fields but nonetheless appear to be sufficiently related to also be included in the IAB complex.

  16. Specific initiation of replication at the right-end telomere of the closed species of minute virus of mice replicative-form DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Baldauf, A Q; Willwand, K; Mumtsidu, E; Nüesch, J P; Rommelaere, J

    1997-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro system that supports the replication of natural DNA templates of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM). MVM virion DNA, a single-stranded molecule bracketed by short, terminal, self-complementary sequences, is converted into double-stranded replicative-form (RF) DNA when incubated in mouse A9 fibroblast extract. The 3' end of the newly synthesized complementary strand is ligated to the right-end hairpin of the virion strand, resulting in the formation of a covalently closed RF (cRF) molecule as the major conversion product. cRF DNA is not further replicated in A9 cell extract alone. On addition of purified MVM nonstructural protein NS1 expressed from recombinant baculoviruses or vaccinia viruses, cRF DNA is processed into a right-end (5' end of the virion strand) extended form (5'eRF). This is indicative of NS1-dependent nicking of the right-end hairpin at a distinct position, followed by unfolding of the hairpin and copying of the terminal sequence. In contrast, no resolution of the left-end hairpin can be detected in the presence of NS1. In the course of the right-end nicking reaction, NS1 gets covalently attached to the right-end telomere of the DNA product, as shown by immunoprecipitation with NS1-specific antibodies. The 5'eRF product is the target for additional rounds of NS1-induced nicking and displacement synthesis at the right end, arguing against the requirement of the hairpin structure for recognition of the DNA substrate by NS1. Further processing of the 5'eRF template in vitro leads to the formation of dimeric RF (dRF) DNA in a left-to-left-end configuration, presumably as a result of copying of the whole molecule by displacement synthesis initiated at the right-end telomere. Formation of dRF DNA is highly stimulated by NS1. The experimental results presented in this report support various assumptions of current models of parvovirus DNA replication and provide new insights into the replication functions of

  17. A kinetic model for the formation of hierarchical nanostructures during the evaporation of phase-forming compound solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikhov, I. V.; Alekseeva, O. V.; Rudin, V. N.; Kozlovskaya, E. D.; Noskov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    A kinetic model for the precipitation of a dispersed compound from solutions is formulated, based on a description of the evolution in the function of its particle distribution according to its states during precipitation. A boundary problem about the precipitation of a compound during the evaporation of a solvent from a solution under conditions in which the rate of aggregate formation is high is considered. The solution to this boundary problem can be used to describe the formation of a film of polystyrene during the evaporation of its solution in toluene and o-xylene deposited onto a substrate.

  18. Kinematics and dynamics of robotic systems with multiple closed loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang-De

    The kinematics and dynamics of robotic systems with multiple closed loops, such as Stewart platforms, walking machines, and hybrid manipulators, are studied. In the study of kinematics, focus is on the closed-form solutions of the forward position analysis of different parallel systems. A closed-form solution means that the solution is expressed as a polynomial in one variable. If the order of the polynomial is less than or equal to four, the solution has analytical closed-form. First, the conditions of obtaining analytical closed-form solutions are studied. For a Stewart platform, the condition is found to be that one rotational degree of freedom of the output link is decoupled from the other five. Based on this condition, a class of Stewart platforms which has analytical closed-form solution is formulated. Conditions of analytical closed-form solution for other parallel systems are also studied. Closed-form solutions of forward kinematics for walking machines and multi-fingered grippers are then studied. For a parallel system with three three-degree-of-freedom subchains, there are 84 possible ways to select six independent joints among nine joints. These 84 ways can be classified into three categories: Category 3:3:0, Category 3:2:1, and Category 2:2:2. It is shown that the first category has no solutions; the solutions of the second category have analytical closed-form; and the solutions of the last category are higher order polynomials. The study is then extended to a nearly general Stewart platform. The solution is a 20th order polynomial and the Stewart platform has a maximum of 40 possible configurations. Also, the study is extended to a new class of hybrid manipulators which consists of two serially connected parallel mechanisms. In the study of dynamics, a computationally efficient method for inverse dynamics of manipulators based on the virtual work principle is developed. Although this method is comparable with the recursive Newton-Euler method for

  19. Approximate solutions of the eigenvalue equation near cutoff for TE0mand TM0m modes for a step index fiber optic: new forms and considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Carmen L.; Schiopu, Paul

    1998-07-01

    In this work the authors intend to present a new approximate technique of solving the characteristic (eigenvalue) equation for a step index fiber optic near cut-off. To illustrate this new method, there are presented (and demonstrated) two particular forms, corresponding to the case v equals 0 (TE0m and TM0m modes). Solutions of these equations are compared with other solutions suggested by Marcuse and--also--it is analyzed the accuracy of our results compared with the general solution of the characteristic equation.

  20. Monomeric Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 Peptides in Solution Adopt Very Similar Ramachandran Map Distributions That Closely Resemble Random Coil

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the aggregation and fibrillation of amyloid peptides Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 into amyloid plaques. Despite strong potential therapeutic interest, the structural pathways associated with the conversion of monomeric Aβ peptides into oligomeric species remain largely unknown. In particular, the higher aggregation propensity and associated toxicity of Aβ1–42 compared to that of Aβ1–40 are poorly understood. To explore in detail the structural propensity of the monomeric Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 peptides in solution, we recorded a large set of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters, including chemical shifts, nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), and J couplings. Systematic comparisons show that at neutral pH the Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 peptides populate almost indistinguishable coil-like conformations. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectra collected at very high resolution remove assignment ambiguities and show no long-range NOE contacts. Six sets of backbone J couplings (3JHNHα, 3JC′C′, 3JC′Hα, 1JHαCα, 2JNCα, and 1JNCα) recorded for Aβ1–40 were used as input for the recently developed MERA Ramachandran map analysis, yielding residue-specific backbone ϕ/ψ torsion angle distributions that closely resemble random coil distributions, the absence of a significantly elevated propensity for β-conformations in the C-terminal region of the peptide, and a small but distinct propensity for αL at K28. Our results suggest that the self-association of Aβ peptides into toxic oligomers is not driven by elevated propensities of the monomeric species to adopt β-strand-like conformations. Instead, the accelerated disappearance of Aβ NMR signals in D2O over H2O, particularly pronounced for Aβ1–42, suggests that intermolecular interactions between the hydrophobic regions of the peptide dominate the aggregation process. PMID:26780756

  1. Monomeric Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) Peptides in Solution Adopt Very Similar Ramachandran Map Distributions That Closely Resemble Random Coil.

    PubMed

    Roche, Julien; Shen, Yang; Lee, Jung Ho; Ying, Jinfa; Bax, Ad

    2016-02-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the aggregation and fibrillation of amyloid peptides Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) into amyloid plaques. Despite strong potential therapeutic interest, the structural pathways associated with the conversion of monomeric Aβ peptides into oligomeric species remain largely unknown. In particular, the higher aggregation propensity and associated toxicity of Aβ(1-42) compared to that of Aβ(1-40) are poorly understood. To explore in detail the structural propensity of the monomeric Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) peptides in solution, we recorded a large set of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters, including chemical shifts, nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), and J couplings. Systematic comparisons show that at neutral pH the Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) peptides populate almost indistinguishable coil-like conformations. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectra collected at very high resolution remove assignment ambiguities and show no long-range NOE contacts. Six sets of backbone J couplings ((3)JHNHα, (3)JC'C', (3)JC'Hα, (1)JHαCα, (2)JNCα, and (1)JNCα) recorded for Aβ(1-40) were used as input for the recently developed MERA Ramachandran map analysis, yielding residue-specific backbone ϕ/ψ torsion angle distributions that closely resemble random coil distributions, the absence of a significantly elevated propensity for β-conformations in the C-terminal region of the peptide, and a small but distinct propensity for αL at K28. Our results suggest that the self-association of Aβ peptides into toxic oligomers is not driven by elevated propensities of the monomeric species to adopt β-strand-like conformations. Instead, the accelerated disappearance of Aβ NMR signals in D2O over H2O, particularly pronounced for Aβ(1-42), suggests that intermolecular interactions between the hydrophobic regions of the peptide dominate the aggregation process.

  2. Electrolysis products in a system formed by Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution with Al (OH)/sub 3/ hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Epifanov, Y.V.; Kul'skii, L.A.; Matskevich, E.S.

    1985-11-01

    This paper examines the dissolution of aluminum hydroxide gel on the electrolysis of aqueous electrolyte solutions and determine the compositions of the resulting compounds and the current yields. The authors used sodium sulfate to provide equivalent production of acid or alkali in the anode and cathode chambers. There is close correspondence between the anolyte and catholyte potentiometric and conductometric titration curves, which means that the methods can be used to analyze the electrolysis products in electrochemical coagulant regeneration. Data presented for determining the contents of the soluble aluminum compounds in the anolyte and catholyte in relation to the amount of electricity passed. It is shown that electrolysis in the system Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution + Al (OH)/sub 3/ hydrogel in a diaphragmed electrolyzer provides water-soluble aluminum compounds: aluminum sulfate as intermediate and basic salts in the anolyte and an alkaline solution of sodium aluminate in the catholyte.

  3. Modifying Optical Properties of ZnO Films by Forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O Solid Solutions via Spray Pyrolysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Anne K.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Russell, Cianan B.; Fornes, William L.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Shih, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective experiment for the development and characterization of semiconductors using Uv-vis spectroscopy is described. The study shows that the optical properties of ZnO films can be easily modified by forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O solid solutions via spray pyrolysis.

  4. Development of an analytical technique for the detection of alteration minerals formed in bentonite by reaction with alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, H.; Shibata, M.; Owada, H.; Kaneko, M.; Kuno, Y.; Asano, H.

    A multibarrier system consisting of cement-based backfill, structures and support materials, and a bentonite-based buffer material has been studied for the TRU waste disposal concept being developed in Japan, the aim being to restrict the migration of radionuclides. Concern regarding bentonite-based materials in this disposal environment relates to long-term alteration under hyper-alkaline conditions due to the presence of cementitious materials. In tests simulating the interaction between bentonite and cement, formation of secondary minerals due to alteration reactions under the conditions expected for geological disposal of TRU waste (equilibrated water with cement at low liquid/solid ratio) has not been observed, although alteration was observed under extremely hyper-alkaline conditions with high temperatures. This was considered to be due to the fact that analysis of C-S-H gel formed at the interface as a secondary mineral was difficult using XRD, because of its low crystallinity and low content. This paper describes an analytical technique for the characterization of C-S-H gel using a heavy liquid separation method which separates C-S-H gel from Kunigel V1 bentonite (bentonite produced in Japan) based on the difference in specific gravity between the crystalline minerals constituting Kunigel V1 and the secondary C-S-H gel. For development of C-S-H gel separation methods, simulated alteration samples were prepared by mixing 990 mg of unaltered Kunigel V1 and 10 mg of C-S-H gel synthesized using pure chemicals at a ratio of Ca/Si = 1.2. The simulated alteration samples were dispersed in bromoform-methanol mixtures with specific gravities ranging from 2.00 to 2.57 g/cm 3 and subjected to centrifuge separation to recover the light density fraction. Subsequent XRD analysis to identify the minerals was complemented by dissolution in 0.6 N hydrochloric acid to measure the Ca and Si contents. The primary peak (2 θ = 29.4°, Cu Kα) and secondary peaks (2 θ = 32.1

  5. Estimating central tendency from a single spot measure: A closed-form solution for lognormally distributed biomarker data for risk assessment at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Sobus, Jon R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure-based risk assessment employs large cross-sectional data sets of environmental and biomarker measurements to predict population statistics for adverse health outcomes. The underlying assumption is that long-term (many years) latency health problems including cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma are triggered by lifetime exposures to environmental stressors that interact with the genome. The aim of this study was to develop a specific predictive method that provides the statistical parameters for chronic exposure at the individual level based upon a single spot measurement and knowledge of global summary statistics as derived from large data sets. This is a profound shift in exposure and health statistics in that it begins to answer the question "How large is my personal risk?" rather than just providing an overall population-based estimate. This approach also holds value for interpreting exposure-based risks for small groups of individuals within a community in comparison to random individuals from the general population. PMID:27587289

  6. Thermal inkjet application in the preparation of oral dosage forms: dispensing of prednisolone solutions and polymorphic characterization by solid-state spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, Peter A; Kane, Kevin M; Ashvar, Claudine S; Albrecht, Mary; Smith, Pamela A

    2008-07-01

    The utility of thermal inkjet (TIJ) technology for preparing solid dosage forms of drugs was examined. Solutions of prednisolone in a solvent mixture of ethanol, water, and glycerol (80/17/3 by volume) were dispensed onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-coated fiberglass films using TIJ cartridges and a personal printer and using a micropipette for comparison. The post-dried, TIJ-dispensed samples were shown to contain a mixture of prednisolone Forms I and III based on PXRD analyses that were confirmed by Raman analyses. The starting commercial material was determined to be Form I. Samples prepared by dispensing the solution from a micropipette initially showed only Form I; subsequent Raman mapping of these samples revealed the presence of two polymorphs. Raman mapping of the TIJ-dispensed samples also showed both polymorphs. The results indicate that the solvent mixture used in the dispensing solution combined with the thermal treatment of the samples after dispensing were likely the primary reason for the generation of the two polymorphs. The advantages of using a multidisciplinary approach to characterize drug delivery systems are demonstrated using solid state mapping techniques. Both PXRD and Raman spectroscopy were needed to fully characterize the samples. Finally, this report clarifies prednisolone's polymorphic nomenclature existent in the scientific literature.

  7. New oral dosage form for elderly patients. III. Stability of trichlormethiazide in silk fibroin gel and various sugar solutions.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, T; Maeda, R; Muramatsu, E; Suzuki, M; Sugihara, M; Nakajima, S

    2000-10-01

    The hydrolysis of trichlormethiazide (TCM) in silk fibroin gel (SFG) prepared in various sugar solutions (such as ribose, fructose, mannose, and glucose solutions) was determined. The hydrolysis rate of TCM differed with the variety of sugars utilized in this study; that is, it decreased in the following order: ribose > fructose > mannose > glucose. To investigate the relationship between the hydrolysis rate of TCM and the physicochemical properties of the sugar molecule, the amount of unfrozen water of sugar molecules was calculated from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The amount of unfrozen water increased with an increase in the number of the equatorial OH groups n(e-OH) per sugar molecule that are able to hydrate favorably to the surrounding water molecules. The hydrolysis rate constant decreased with increase in n(e-OH); glucose, having a large n(e-OH) in this study could effectively stabilize TCM.

  8. Boosting the voltage of a salinity-gradient-power electrochemical cell by means of complex-forming solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, M.; Misuri, L.; Carati, A.; Brogioli, D.

    2014-07-01

    We report experiments on a concentration cell with zinc electrodes and ZnCl2 solutions at different concentrations, separated by a porous diaphragm. The cell is aimed at the conversion of the free energy associated to the concentration difference into electrical energy, for renewable and clean energy applications. Usually, the diffusion of the solute across the diaphragm constitutes a waste of free energy, which impairs the voltage generation of the concentration cell with respect to other well-known techniques that work quasi-reversibly, such as reverse electrodialysis or the "mixing entropy battery." Quite surprisingly, we find that the voltage produced by our concentration cell is significantly higher than the voltage obtained with the other quasi-reversible techniques. We show that the surplus voltage comes from the active transformation of the mixing free energy into electrical energy performed by the liquid junction, and we show the connection with the negative apparent transference number of the zinc ion. This fortunate consequence of using ZnCl2 solution is ultimately related to the formation of complexes. We present the results of a cell for power production, which has excellent performances with respect to known salinity-difference-power methods.

  9. Corrosion resistance and durability of superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Yoshitake; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2011-04-19

    The corrosion resistant performance and durability of the superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution were investigated using electrochemical and contact angle measurements. The durability of the superhydrophobic surface in corrosive 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution was elucidated. The corrosion resistant performance of the superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The EIS measurements and appropriate equivalent circuit models revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of magnesium alloy AZ31. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test was performed to investigate the adhesion of the superhydrophobic film to the magnesium alloy surface. The corrosion formation mechanism of the superhydrophobic surface formed on the magnesium alloy was also proposed.

  10. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches evaluated for making solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt selected to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (∼92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.

  11. Study of the Formation and Solution Properties of Worm-Like Micelles Formed Using Both N-Hexadecyl-N-Methylpiperidinium Bromide-Based Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhihu; Dai, Caili; Feng, Haishun; Liu, Yifei; Wang, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of worm-like micelles formed by mixing the cationic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide (C16MDB) with the anionic surfactant sodium laurate (SL) in aqueous solutions were investigated using rheological measurements. The effects of sodium laurate and temperature on the worm-like micelles and the mechanism of the observed shear thinning phenomenon and pseudoplastic behavior were systematically investigated. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further ascertained existence of entangled worm-like micelles. PMID:25296131

  12. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic macrophytes and algae are important sources of phosphorus (P) in the lake environment that cause blooms of algae under certain biogeochemical conditions. However, the knowledge of forms of P in these plants and algae and their contribution to internal loads of lake P is very limited. Witho...

  13. Modeling the self-assembly of lipids and nanotubes in solution: forming vesicles and bicelles with transmembrane nanotube channels.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Kuksenok, Olga; Nayhouse, Michael J; Little, Steven R; Balazs, Anna C

    2011-06-28

    Via dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we simulate the self-assembly of end-functionalized, amphiphilic nanotubes and lipids in a hydrophilic solvent. Each nanotube encompasses a hydrophobic stalk and two hydrophilic ends, which are functionalized with end-tethered chains. With a relatively low number of the nanotubes in solution, the components self-assemble into stable lipid-nanotube vesicles. As the number of nanotubes is increased, the system exhibits a vesicle-to-bicelle transition, resulting in stable hybrid bicelle. Moreover, our results reveal that the nanotubes cluster into distinct tripod-like structures within the vesicles and aggregate into a ring-like assembly within the bicelles. For both the vesicles and bicelles, the nanotubes assume trans-membrane orientations, with the tethered hairs extending into the surrounding solution or the encapsulated fluid. Thus, the hairs provide a means of regulating the transport of species through the self-assembled structures. Our findings provide guidelines for creating nanotube clusters with distinctive morphologies that might be difficult to achieve through more conventional means. The results also yield design rules for creating synthetic cell-like objects or microreactors that can exhibit biomimetic functionality.

  14. Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution processed red emitters with evaporated blue common layer structure

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul

    2015-01-01

    We prepared highly-efficient solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue common layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2’)tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m2. To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-processed small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device. PMID:26514274

  15. Multi-grid domain decomposition approach for solution of Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variable form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Hwar-Ching; Ramaswamy, Bala

    1993-01-01

    The new multigrid (or adaptive) pseudospectral element method was carried out for the solution of incompressible flow in terms of primitive variable formulation. The desired features of the proposed method include the following: (1) the ability to treat complex geometry; (2) high resolution adapted in the interesting areas; (3) requires minimal working space; and (4) effective in a multiprocessing environment. The approach for flow problems, complex geometry or not, is to first divide the computational domain into a number of fine-grid and coarse-grid subdomains with the inter-overlapping area. Next, it is necessary to implement the Schwarz alternating procedure (SAP) to exchange the data among subdomains, where the coarse-grid correction is used to remove the high frequency error that occurs when the data interpolation from the fine-grid subdomain to the coarse-grid subdomain is conducted. The strategy behind the coarse-grid correction is to adopt the operator of the divergence of the velocity field, which intrinsically links the pressure equation, into this process. The solution of each subdomain can be efficiently solved by the direct (or iterative) eigenfunction expansion technique with the least storage requirement, i.e. O(N(exp 3)) in 3-D and O(N(exp 2)) in 2-D. Numerical results of both driven cavity and jet flow will be presented in the paper to account for the versatility of the proposed method.

  16. Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution processed red emitters with evaporated blue common layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul

    2015-10-01

    We prepared highly-efficient solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue common layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2’)tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m2. To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-processed small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device.

  17. Closed form expressions for crack mouth displacements and stress intensity factors for chevron notched short bar and short rod specimens based on experimental compliance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubsey, R. T.; Orange, T. W.; Pierce, W. S.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A set of equations are presented describing certain fracture mechanics parameters for chevron notch bar and rod specimens. They are developed by fitting compliance calibration data reported earlier. The equations present the various parameters in their most useful forms. The data encompass the entire range of the specimen geometries most commonly used. Their use will facilitate the testing and analysis of brittle metals, ceramics, and glasses.

  18. The Truncated Human Telomeric Sequence forms a Hybrid-Type Intramolecular Mixed Parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex Structure in K(+) Solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxia; Cheng, Dengfeng; Ge, Min; Lin, Weizhen

    2016-07-01

    In 80-90% tumor cells, telomerase becomes active and stabilizes the length of telomeres. The formation and stabilization of G-quadruplexes formed from human telomeric sequences have been proved able to inhibit the activity of telomerase, thus human telomeric G-quadruplex structure has become a potential target for the development of cancer therapy. Hence, structure of G-quadruplex formed in K(+) solution has been an attractive hotspot for further studies. However, the exact structure of human telomeric G-quadruplex in K(+) is extremely controversial, this study provides information for the understanding of different G-quadruplexes. Here, we report that 22nt and 24nt human telomeric sequences form unimolecular hybrid-type mixed parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex in K(+) solution elucidated utilizing Circular Dichroism, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and gel electrophoresis. Moreover, individual configuration of these two sequences was speculated in this study. The detailed structure information of the G-quadruplex formed under physiologically relevant condition is necessary for structure-based rational drug design.

  19. The Truncated Human Telomeric Sequence forms a Hybrid-Type Intramolecular Mixed Parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex Structure in K(+) Solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxia; Cheng, Dengfeng; Ge, Min; Lin, Weizhen

    2016-07-01

    In 80-90% tumor cells, telomerase becomes active and stabilizes the length of telomeres. The formation and stabilization of G-quadruplexes formed from human telomeric sequences have been proved able to inhibit the activity of telomerase, thus human telomeric G-quadruplex structure has become a potential target for the development of cancer therapy. Hence, structure of G-quadruplex formed in K(+) solution has been an attractive hotspot for further studies. However, the exact structure of human telomeric G-quadruplex in K(+) is extremely controversial, this study provides information for the understanding of different G-quadruplexes. Here, we report that 22nt and 24nt human telomeric sequences form unimolecular hybrid-type mixed parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex in K(+) solution elucidated utilizing Circular Dichroism, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and gel electrophoresis. Moreover, individual configuration of these two sequences was speculated in this study. The detailed structure information of the G-quadruplex formed under physiologically relevant condition is necessary for structure-based rational drug design. PMID:26867976

  20. Changes in soil toxicity by phosphate-aided soil washing: effect of soil characteristics, chemical forms of arsenic, and cations in washing solutions.

    PubMed

    Jho, Eun Hea; Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-01-01

    This study was set to investigate the changes in the toxicity of arsenic (As)-contaminated soils after washing with phosphate solutions. The soil samples collected from two locations (A: rice paddy and B: forest land) of a former smelter site were contaminated with a similar level of As. Soil washing (0.5 M phosphate solution for 2 h) removed 24.5% As, on average, in soil from both locations. Regardless of soil washing, Location A soil toxicities, determined using Microtox, were greater than that of Location B and this could be largely attributed to different soil particle size distribution. With soils from both locations, the changes in As chemical forms resulted in either similar or greater toxicities after washing. This emphasizes the importance of considering ecotoxicological aspects, which are likely to differ depending on soil particle size distribution and changes in As chemical forms, in addition to the total concentration based remedial goals, in producing ecotoxicologically-sound soils for reuse. In addition, calcium phosphate used as the washing solution seemed to contribute more on the toxic effects of the washed soils than potassium phosphate and ammonium phosphate. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to use potassium or ammonium phosphate than calcium phosphate for phosphate-aided soil washing of the As-contaminated soils. PMID:25482580

  1. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches attempted to make solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solutionbased synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3- SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2Omore » and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.« less

  2. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches attempted to make solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solutionbased synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3- SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.

  3. Self-assembled metallogels formed from N,N',N''-tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide in aqueous solution induced by Fe(III)/Fe(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jin-Lian; Jia, Xin-Jian; Liu, Hui-Jin; Luo, Xu-Zhong; Hong, San-Guo; Zhang, Ning; Huang, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report self-assembled metallogels formed from a ligand of trimesic amide, N,N',N''-tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide (TPTA), induced by Fe(III)/Fe(II) ions. TPTA is difficult to dissolve in water even in the presence of some metal ions such as Cu(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), K(+), Na(+) and Mg(2+) under heating, and it exhibits no gelation ability. Interestingly, upon heating TPTA can be dissolved easily in aqueous solution containing Fe(3+)/Fe(2+), and subsequently self-assembled into metallogels after cooling. The metallogels could also be formed in aqueous solutions of mixed metal ions containing Fe(3+)/Fe(2+), indicating that the other metal ions do not affect the formation of Fe(III)-TPTA and Fe(II)-TPTA metallogels. The high selectivity of metallogel formation to Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) may be used for application in the test of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+). The metallogels obtained are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, rheological measurements and scanning tunneling microscopy. The results indicate that TPTA can self-assemble into fibrous aggregates in Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) aqueous solution through the metal-ligand interactions and intermolecular hydrogen bonding. This kind of metallogel also possesses good mechanical properties and thermoreversibility. PMID:26456396

  4. Efficacy of a Solution-Based Approach for Making Sodalite Waste Forms for an Oxide Reduction Salt Utilized in the Reprocessing of Used Uranium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyas, Josef; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes various approaches for making sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to recover uranium from used oxide fuel. The approaches include sol-gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt.

  5. Interpretation of leaching data for cementitious waste forms using analytical solutions based on mass transport theory and empiricism

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Godbee, H.W.; Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Nestor, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated importance of diffusion control in leaching, other mechanisms have been observed to play a role and leaching from porous solid bodies is not simple diffusion. Only simple diffusion theory has been developed well enough for extrapolation, as yet. The well developed diffusion theory, used in data analysis by ANSI/ANS-16.1 and the NEWBOX program, can help in trying to extrapolate and predict the performance of solidified waste forms over decades and centuries, but the limitations and increased uncertainty must be understood in so doing. Treating leaching as a semi-infinite medium problem, as done in the Cote model, results in simpler equations, but limits, application to early leaching behavior when less than 20% of a given component has been leached. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. The role of normal versus twisted intramolecular charge transfer fluorescence in predicting the forms of inclusion complexes of ethyl-4-dialkylaminobenzoate with α-cyclodextrin in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Al-Hassan, Khader A

    2013-11-01

    An evidence is introduced through the b- and the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) fluorescence of ethyl-4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzoate (EDMAB) and ethyl-4-(N,N-diethylamino)benzoate (EDEAB), confirming the role of donor size on the formation and emission of various inclusion complexes formed between these probes and α-CD in aqueous solution. A large variation in the b-fluorescence band of EDEAB as compared to that of EDMAB and a large variation in the TICT-fluorescence band of EDMAB as compared to that EDEAB, as the concentration of α-CD is increased in their aqueous solutions are observed. These variations are supported by time resolved fluorescence (TRF) spectra, fluorescence decay lifetimes and red edge effect (REE) results.

  7. Fluorescence enhancement of 1-napthol-5-sulfonate by forming inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Shafi, Ayman A.; Al-Shihry, Shar S.

    2009-04-01

    Fluorescence enhancement of 1-naphthol-5-sulfonate (1N5S) upon inclusion in β-cyclodextrin is studied by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetery techniques. The spectral shifts were only observed in the emission spectra in different solvents and were found to be directly correlated to the solvent's hydrogen-bond donor strength (α). Spectral changes in the absorption spectra upon the addition of β-cyclodextrin to 1N5S in aqueous medium were too small to allow for the determination of the binding constant. On the other hand; fluorescence measurements show that the emission of both the anionic and neutral forms of 1N5S increase upon the addition of β-cyclodextrin with an increase in the quantum yield by about 60%. Fluorescence measurements show 1:1 inclusion of 1N5S in the β-cyclodextrin cavity with an association constant of 88 ± 10 M -1. 1H NMR studies are used to confirm the inclusion and to provide information on the geometry of 1N5S inside the cavity of β-cyclodextrin.

  8. The double-dust solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, D.

    2002-04-01

    An exact solution describing the static gravitational field produced by the superposition of two dust beams of equal mass density but opposite propagation direction is given in a closed form. In particular, the cylindrically symmetric situation is considered in which the two dust components move on trajectories screwing around the axis. In this case, the solution can be matched to the Levi-Civita external vacuum solution at any value of the radial coordinate. The axis is regular and the mass density is positive everywhere in the interior region of the global solution. The dominant energy condition is satisfied.

  9. Commentary to the article "Human skin penetration of the major components of Australian tea tree oil applied in its pure form and as a 20% solution in vitro".

    PubMed

    Cal, Krzysztof

    2008-03-01

    This note summarises recent studies on skin penetration of terpinen-4-ol, which is the main component of tea tree oil [S.E. Cross, M. Russell, I. Southwell, M.S. Roberts, Human skin penetration of the major components of Australian tea tree oil applied in its pure form and as a 20% solution in vitro, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2007.10.002 (in press)]. The influence of different experimental models on obtained skin penetration results is discussed.

  10. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System.

    PubMed

    Lavrynenko, O M; Pavlenko, O Yu; Shchukin, Yu S

    2016-12-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations. PMID:26847693

  11. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System.

    PubMed

    Lavrynenko, O M; Pavlenko, O Yu; Shchukin, Yu S

    2016-12-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations.

  12. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrynenko, O. M.; Pavlenko, O. Yu; Shchukin, Yu S.

    2016-02-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations.

  13. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  14. [Closing diastemas].

    PubMed

    Vieira, L C; Pereira, J C; Coradazzi, J L; Francischone, C E

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe a clinical case of closing upper central incisives diastema, reconstructiva of a conoid upper lateral and the rechaping of an upper canine to a lateral incisive. The material used was composite resin.

  15. Study of a Li-air battery having an electrolyte solution formed by a mixture of an ether-based aprotic solvent and an ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchetto, Laura; Salomon, Mark; Scrosati, Bruno; Croce, Fausto

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that cyclic and linear carbonates are unstable when used in rechargeable Li-air batteries employing aprotic solvents mostly due to the cathodic formation of superoxide during the oxygen reduction reaction. In particular, it has been ascertained that nucleophilic attack by superoxide anion radical, O2-rad , at O-alkyl carbon is a common mechanism of decomposition of organic carbonates. Moreover, theoretical calculations showed that ether chemical functionalities are stable against nucleophilic substitution induced by superoxide. Aim of this study is to report on a new electrolyte solution for Li-air battery formed by a mixture of an ether-based aprotic solvent with an ionic liquid (IL). The IL-based electrolyte was obtained by mixing the pure ionic liquid N-methyl-(n-butyl) pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide (here denoted as PYR14TFSI) to a 0.91 M solution of lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) in tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl etcher (TEGDME). We observed that the presence of IL beneficially affects the kinetics and the reversibility of the oxygen reactions involved at the cathode. The most significant result being a lower overvoltage for the charge reaction, compared to a Li/air cell containing the same electrolyte solution without IL.

  16. Theoretical study on molecular property of protactinium(V) and uranium(VI) oxocations: why does protactinium(V) form monooxo cations in aqueous solution?

    PubMed

    Toraishi, Takashi; Tsuneda, Takao; Tanaka, Satoru

    2006-12-14

    The stability of Pa(V) and U(VI) oxocations in aqueous solution were theoretically investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. As a result, the present calculations clearly supported an experimental result from an energetic point of view that monooxo protactinyl cation, PaO3+, is a preferable species for Pa(V) in aqueous solution, although dioxo protactinyl cation, PaO2+, is not a feasible form. By an analysis of molecular orbitals, we revealed that 6d orbitals of Pa(V) destabilize the pi orbitals of PaO2+, because 6d-2p antibonding orbital conflicts with another 5f-2p bonding orbital. For stable dioxo uranyl cation, UO2(2+), we found that 6d orbitals of U(VI), in contrast, form a bonding orbital with the 2p orbitals, and this bonding orbital coexists at an angle with the 5f-2p bonding orbital due to an electron correlation.

  17. Theoretical study on molecular property of protactinium(V) and uranium(VI) oxocations: why does protactinium(V) form monooxo cations in aqueous solution?

    PubMed

    Toraishi, Takashi; Tsuneda, Takao; Tanaka, Satoru

    2006-12-14

    The stability of Pa(V) and U(VI) oxocations in aqueous solution were theoretically investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. As a result, the present calculations clearly supported an experimental result from an energetic point of view that monooxo protactinyl cation, PaO3+, is a preferable species for Pa(V) in aqueous solution, although dioxo protactinyl cation, PaO2+, is not a feasible form. By an analysis of molecular orbitals, we revealed that 6d orbitals of Pa(V) destabilize the pi orbitals of PaO2+, because 6d-2p antibonding orbital conflicts with another 5f-2p bonding orbital. For stable dioxo uranyl cation, UO2(2+), we found that 6d orbitals of U(VI), in contrast, form a bonding orbital with the 2p orbitals, and this bonding orbital coexists at an angle with the 5f-2p bonding orbital due to an electron correlation. PMID:17149850

  18. Effects on the accumulation of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc of adding the two inorganic forms of selenium to solution cultures of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Longchamp, M; Angeli, N; Castrec-Rouelle, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of selenate or selenite to common fertilizers for crop production could be an effective way of producing selenium-rich food and feed. However, this would be feasible only if the increase in plant selenium (Se) content did not negatively influence the uptake of other essential elements. We therefore need to understand the interactions between Se and other major and trace elements during uptake by the plant. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of inorganic forms of Se on the accumulation of selected macronutrients (Ca and Mg) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu). Those essential elements are involved in the oxidative balance of cells. Zea mays seedlings were grown hydroponically in growth chambers in nutrient solutions to which we added 10, 50 or 1000 μg.L(-1) of selenate and/or selenite. Cation accumulation was significantly affected by the addition of 50 μg.L(-1) or 1000 μg.L(-1) Se, but not by the presence of 10 μg.L(-1) of Se in the nutrient solution. The highest concentration (1000 μg.L(-1)) of Se in the nutrient solution affected the accumulation of essential cations in Zea mays: selenate tended to increase the accumulation of Mg, Zn and Mn, whereas a selenate/selenite mixture tended to decrease the accumulation of Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn. Only Fe accumulation was unaffected by Se whatever its form or concentration. Selenium may also affect the distribution of cations on Zea mays. For example, levels of Mg and Zn translocation to the shoots were lower in the presence of selenite.

  19. Proton NMR sequential resonance assignments, secondary structure, and global fold in solution of the major (trans-Pro43) form of bovine calbindin D sub 9k

    SciTech Connect

    Koerdel, J.; Forsen, S.; Chazin, W.J. )

    1989-08-22

    A wide range of two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR experiments have been used to completely assign the 500-MHz {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of recombinant Ca{sup 2+}-saturated bovine calbindin D{sub 9k}. In solution, calbindin D{sub 9k} exists as an equilibrium mixture of isoforms with trans (75%) and cis (25%) isomers of the peptide bond at Pro43 which results in two sets of {sup 1}H NMR signals from approximately half of the amino acids. The complete {sup 1}H NMR assignments for the major, trans-pro43 isoform are presented here. By use of an integrated strategy for spin system identification, 62 of the 76 spin systems could be assigned to the appropriate residue type. Sequence-specific assignments were then obtained by the standard method. Secondary structure elements were identified on the basis of networks of sequential and medium-range nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), {sup 3}J{sub HN{alpha}} spin coupling constants, and the location of slowly exchanging amide protons. Four helical segments and a short {beta}-sheet between the two calcium binding loops are found. These elements of secondary structure and a few additional long-range NOEs provide the global fold. Good agreement is found between the solution and crystal structures of the minor A form of bovine calbindin D{sub 9k} and between the solution structures of the minor A form of bovine calbindin D{sub 9k} and intact porcine calbindin D{sub 9k}.

  20. Various Boussinesq solitary wave solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The generalized Boussinesq (gB) equations have been used to model nonlinear wave evolution over variable topography and wave interactions with structures. Like the KdV equation, the gB equations support a solitary wave solution which propagates without changing shape, and this solitary wave is often used as a primary test case for numerical studies of nonlinear waves using either the gB or other model equations. Nine different approximate solutions of the generalized Boussinesq equations are presented with simple closed form expressions for the wave elevation and wave speed. Each approximates the free propagation of a single solitary wave, and eight of these solutions are newly obtained. The author compares these solutions with the well known KdV solution, Rayleigh`s solution, Laitone`s higher order solution, and ``exact`` numerical integration of the gB equations. Existing experimental data on solitary wave shape and wave speed are compared with these models.

  1. Jet-boundary and Plan-form Corrections for Partial-Span Models with Reflection-Plane, End-Plate, or No End-Plate in a Closed Circular Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Deters, Owen J

    1946-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the jet-boundary and plan-form corrections necessary for application to test data for a partial-span model with a reflection plane, an end plate, or no end plate in a closed circular wind tunnel. Examples are worked out for a partial-span model with each of the three end conditions in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel and the corrections are applied to measured values of lift, drag, pitching-moment, rolling-moment, and yawing-moment coefficients.

  2. The partially closed Griffith crack. [under polynomial loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thresher, R. W.; Smith, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    A solution is presented for a Griffith crack subjected to an arbitrary polynomial loading function which causes one end of the crack to remain closed. Closed form expressions are presented for the crack opening length and for the stress and displacements in the plane of the crack. The special case of pure bending is presented as an example and for this case the stress intensity factor is computed.

  3. Closed description of arbitrariness in resolving quantum master equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-07-01

    In the most general case of the Delta exact operator valued generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion operator, we present a closed solution for the transformed master action in terms of the original master action in the closed form of the corresponding path integral. We show in detail how that path integral reduces to the known result in the case of being the Delta exact generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion function.

  4. Oxidation of Nitric Oxide in Aqueous Solution to Nitrite but not Nitrate: Comparison with Enzymatically Formed Nitric Oxide From L-Arginine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignarro, Louis J.; Fukuto, Jon M.; Griscavage, Jeannete M.; Rogers, Norma E.; Byrns, Russell E.

    1993-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) in oxygen-containing aqueous solution has a short half-life that is often attributed to a rapid oxidation to both NO^-_2 and NO^-_3. The chemical fate of NO in aqueous solution is often assumed to be the same as that in air, where NO is oxidized to NO_2 followed by dimerization to N_2O_4. Water then reacts with N_2O_4 to form both NO^-_2 and NO^-_3. We report here that NO in aqueous solution containing oxygen is oxidized primarily to NO^-_2 with little or no formation of NO^-_3. In the presence of oxyhemoglobin or oxymyoglobin, however, NO and NO^-_2 were oxidized completely to NO^-_3. Methemoglobin was inactive in this regard. The unpurified cytosolic fraction from rat cerebellum, which contains constitutive NO synthase activity, catalyzed the conversion of L-arginine primarily to NO^-_3 (NO^-_2/NO^-_3 ratio = 0.25). After chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel or affinity chromatography using 2',5'-ADP-Sepharose 4B, active fractions containing NO synthase activity catalyzed the conversion of L-arginine primarily to NO^-_2 (NO^-_2/NO^-_3 ratio = 5.6) or only to NO^-_2, respectively. Unpurified cytosol from activated rat alveolar macrophages catalyzed the conversion of L-arginine to NO^-_2 without formation of NO^-_3. Addition of 30 μM oxyhemoglobin to all enzyme reaction mixtures resulted in the formation primarily of NO^-_3 (NO^-_2/NO^-_3 ratio = 0.09 to 0.20). Cyanide ion, which displaces NO^-_2 from its binding sites on oxyhemoglobin, inhibited the formation of NO^-_3, thereby allowing NO^-_2 to accumulate. These observations indicate clearly that the primary decomposition product of NO in aerobic aqueous solution is NO^-_2 and that further oxidation to NO^-_3 requires the presence of additional oxidizing species such as oxyhemoproteins.

  5. Two forms of sodium titanium(III) diphosphate: α-NaTiP 2O 7 closely related to β-cristobalite and β-NaTiP 2O 7 isotypic with NaFeP 2O 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclaire, A.; Benmoussa, A.; Borel, M. M.; Grandin, A.; Raveau, B.

    1988-12-01

    The structures of two new forms of a titanium(III) phosphate NaTiP 2O 7 have been determined. One of them, β-NaTiP 2O 7 [ a = 7.394(1)Å, b = 7.936(3)Å, c = 9.726(3)Å β = 11.85(2)° {P2 1}/{c}], is isotypic with NaFeP 2O 7 which has been previously described. The other form, α-NaTiP 2O 7 [ a = 8.697(1)Å, b = 5.239(7)Å, c = 13.293(3)Å, β = 116.54(1)°, {P2 1}/{c}], is found to be closely related to the structure of β-cristobalite and of carnegieite and is described as a "pseudo-hexagonal" framework characterized by intersecting tunnels.

  6. Closed-form expression for the magnetic shielding constant of the relativistic hydrogenlike atom in an arbitrary discrete energy eigenstate: Application of the Sturmian expansion of the generalized Dirac-Coulomb Green function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefańska, Patrycja

    2016-07-01

    We present analytical derivation of the closed-form expression for the dipole magnetic shielding constant of a Dirac one-electron atom being in an arbitrary discrete energy eigenstate. The external magnetic field, by which the atomic state is perturbed, is assumed to be weak, uniform, and time independent. With respect to the atomic nucleus we assume that it is pointlike, spinless, motionless, and of charge Z e . Calculations are based on the Sturmian expansion of the generalized Dirac-Coulomb Green function [R. Szmytkowski, J. Phys. B 30, 825 (1997), 10.1088/0953-4075/30/4/007; erratum R. Szmytkowski, J. Phys. B 30, 2747(E) (1997), 10.1088/0953-4075/30/11/023], combined with the theory of hypergeometric functions. The final result is of an elementary form and agrees with corresponding formulas obtained earlier by other authors for some particular states of the atom.

  7. Design and Synthesis of Chiral Zn2+ Complexes Mimicking Natural Aldolases for Catalytic C–C Bond Forming Reactions in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Susumu; Sonoike, Shotaro; Kitamura, Masanori; Aoki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Extending carbon frameworks via a series of C–C bond forming reactions is essential for the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceutically active compounds, active agrochemical ingredients, and a variety of functional materials. The application of stereoselective C–C bond forming reactions to the one-pot synthesis of biorelevant compounds is now emerging as a challenging and powerful strategy for improving the efficiency of a chemical reaction, in which some of the reactants are subjected to successive chemical reactions in just one reactor. However, organic reactions are generally conducted in organic solvents, as many organic molecules, reagents, and intermediates are not stable or soluble in water. In contrast, enzymatic reactions in living systems proceed in aqueous solvents, as most of enzymes generally function only within a narrow range of temperature and pH and are not so stable in less polar organic environments, which makes it difficult to conduct chemoenzymatic reactions in organic solvents. In this review, we describe the design and synthesis of chiral metal complexes with Zn2+ ions as a catalytic factor that mimic aldolases in stereoselective C–C bond forming reactions, especially for enantioselective aldol reactions. Their application to chemoenzymatic reactions in aqueous solution is also presented. PMID:24481060

  8. Solvent effect on UV/Vis absorption and emission spectra in aqueous solution based on a modified form of solvent reorganization energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, HaiSheng; Ming, MeiJun; Zhu, Jun; Ma, JianYi; Li, XiangYuan

    2013-09-01

    In this Letter, novel form of solvatochromic shifts for absorption and emission spectra are proposed. As a typical test, the lowest transitions of s-trans-acrolein in aqueous solution are investigated. The obtained absorption solvent shift of 0.22 eV is in good agreement with the experimental value of 0.20 eV. In addition, we predict emission solvent shift of -0.16 eV. This value seems more reasonable comparing with the value of -0.12 eV by the traditional theory. The contributions to the shift are discussed and electrostatic polarization components are found to be crucial for electronic spectra of acrolein in water.

  9. Characterization of air-formed surface oxide film on a Co-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (MP35N) and its change in Hanks' solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Akiko; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Suzuki, Yuta; Katayama, Keiichi; Hanawa, Takao; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2012-05-01

    The air-formed surface oxide films used for stents were characterized to determine their composition and chemical state on a Co-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy. The change of the films in Hanks' solution was used to estimate the reconstruction of the film in the human body. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the composition of the film and substrate, as well as the film's thickness. The surface oxide film on the Co-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (when mechanically polished) consists of oxide species of cobalt, nickel, chromium, and molybdenum, contains a large amount of OH-, and has a thickness of approximately 2.5 nm. Cations exist in the oxide as Co2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, Mo4+, Mo5+, and Mo6+. Chromium is enriched and cobalt and nickel are depleted in the oxide; however, nickel is enriched and cobalt is depleted in the substrate alloy just under the surface oxide film. Concentration of chromium was low and that of nickel was high at small take-off angles. This indicates that distribution of chromium is greater in the inner layer, but nickel is distributed more in the outer layer of the surface oxide film. During immersion in Hanks' solution, cobalt and nickel dissolved, and the film composition changed to mostly chromium oxide (Cr3+), along with small amounts of cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum oxides, and calcium phosphate containing magnesium, potassium, and carbonate. After immersion in Hanks' solution, the thickness of the surface layer containing calcium phosphate increased to more than 4 nm, while the amount of OH- increased. The amount of cobalt and nickel in the surface oxide film and in the substrate alloy just below the oxide decreased during immersion.

  10. Bio-nanocomposite films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals: Rheology of film-forming solutions, transparency, water vapor barrier and tensile properties of films.

    PubMed

    El Miri, Nassima; Abdelouahdi, Karima; Barakat, Abdellatif; Zahouily, Mohamed; Fihri, Aziz; Solhy, Abderrahim; El Achaby, Mounir

    2015-09-20

    This study was aimed to develop bio-nanocomposite films of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/starch (ST) polysaccharide matrix reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using the solution casting method. The CNC were extracted at the nanometric scale from sugarcane bagasse via sulfuric acid hydrolysis and used as reinforcing phase to produce CMC/ST-CNC bio-nanocomposite films at different CNC loading levels (0.5-5.0 wt%). Steady shear viscosity and dynamic viscoelastic measurements of film-forming solution (FFS) of neat CMC, CMC/ST blend and CMC/ST-CNC bio-nanocomposites were evaluated. Viscosity measurements revealed that a transition from Newtonian behavior to shear thinning occurred when CNC were added. The dynamic tests confirmed that all FFS have a viscoelastic behavior with an entanglement network structure, induced by the hydrogen bonding. In regard to the cast film quality, the rheological data showed that all FFS were suitable for casting of films at ambient temperature. The effect of CNC addition on the optical transparency, water vapor permeability (WVP) and tensile properties of bio-nanocomposite films was studied. It was found that bio-nanocomposite films remain transparent due to CNC dispersion at the nanoscale. The WVP was significantly reduced and the elastic modulus and tensile strength were increased gradually with the addition of CNC. Herein, the steps to form new eco-friendly bio-nanocomposite films were described by taking advantage of the combination of CMC, ST and CNC. The as-produced films exhibited good optical transparency, reduced WVP and enhanced tensile properties, which are the main properties required for packaging applications. PMID:26050901

  11. Bio-nanocomposite films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals: Rheology of film-forming solutions, transparency, water vapor barrier and tensile properties of films.

    PubMed

    El Miri, Nassima; Abdelouahdi, Karima; Barakat, Abdellatif; Zahouily, Mohamed; Fihri, Aziz; Solhy, Abderrahim; El Achaby, Mounir

    2015-09-20

    This study was aimed to develop bio-nanocomposite films of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/starch (ST) polysaccharide matrix reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using the solution casting method. The CNC were extracted at the nanometric scale from sugarcane bagasse via sulfuric acid hydrolysis and used as reinforcing phase to produce CMC/ST-CNC bio-nanocomposite films at different CNC loading levels (0.5-5.0 wt%). Steady shear viscosity and dynamic viscoelastic measurements of film-forming solution (FFS) of neat CMC, CMC/ST blend and CMC/ST-CNC bio-nanocomposites were evaluated. Viscosity measurements revealed that a transition from Newtonian behavior to shear thinning occurred when CNC were added. The dynamic tests confirmed that all FFS have a viscoelastic behavior with an entanglement network structure, induced by the hydrogen bonding. In regard to the cast film quality, the rheological data showed that all FFS were suitable for casting of films at ambient temperature. The effect of CNC addition on the optical transparency, water vapor permeability (WVP) and tensile properties of bio-nanocomposite films was studied. It was found that bio-nanocomposite films remain transparent due to CNC dispersion at the nanoscale. The WVP was significantly reduced and the elastic modulus and tensile strength were increased gradually with the addition of CNC. Herein, the steps to form new eco-friendly bio-nanocomposite films were described by taking advantage of the combination of CMC, ST and CNC. The as-produced films exhibited good optical transparency, reduced WVP and enhanced tensile properties, which are the main properties required for packaging applications.

  12. Accurate theoretical prediction of vibrational frequencies in an inhomogeneous dynamic environment: A case study of a glutamate molecule in water solution and in a protein-bound form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranskiy, Kirill; Kurnikova, Maria

    2004-07-01

    We propose a hierarchical approach to model vibrational frequencies of a ligand in a strongly fluctuating inhomogeneous environment such as a liquid solution or when bound to a macromolecule, e.g., a protein. Vibrational frequencies typically measured experimentally are ensemble averaged quantities which result (in part) from the influence of the strongly fluctuating solvent. Solvent fluctuations can be sampled effectively by a classical molecular simulation, which in our model serves as the first, low level of the hierarchy. At the second high level of the hierarchy a small subset of system coordinates is used to construct a patch of the potential surface (ab initio) relevant to the vibration in question. This subset of coordinates is under the influence of an instantaneous external force exerted by the environment. The force is calculated at the lower level of the hierarchy. The proposed methodology is applied to model vibrational frequencies of a glutamate in water and when bound to the Glutamate receptor protein and its mutant. Our results are in close agreement with the experimental values and frequency shifts measured by the Jayaraman group by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy [Q. Cheng et al., Biochem. 41, 1602 (2002)]. Our methodology proved useful in successfully reproducing vibrational frequencies of a ligand in such a soft, flexible, and strongly inhomogeneous protein as the Glutamate receptor.

  13. Experimental simulation of closed timelike curves.

    PubMed

    Ringbauer, Martin; Broome, Matthew A; Myers, Casey R; White, Andrew G; Ralph, Timothy C

    2014-01-01

    Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein's field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into nonlinearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics--essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the nonlinear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction and the influence of decoherence.

  14. Experimental simulation of closed timelike curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringbauer, Martin; Broome, Matthew A.; Myers, Casey R.; White, Andrew G.; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2014-06-01

    Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein’s field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into nonlinearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics—essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the nonlinear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction and the influence of decoherence.

  15. Experimental simulation of closed timelike curves.

    PubMed

    Ringbauer, Martin; Broome, Matthew A; Myers, Casey R; White, Andrew G; Ralph, Timothy C

    2014-01-01

    Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein's field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into nonlinearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics--essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the nonlinear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction and the influence of decoherence. PMID:24942489

  16. Influence of passive potential on the electronic property of the passive film formed on Ti in 0.1 M HCl solution during ultrasonic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Li, D G; Wang, J D; Chen, D R; Liang, P

    2016-03-01

    The influence of the applied passive potential on the electronic property of the passive film formed on Ti at different potentials in 0.1M HCl solution during ultrasonic cavitation, was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and Mott-Schottky plot. The influence of the applied passive potential on the structure and composition of the passive film was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results showed that the applied passive potential can obviously affect the electronic property of the passive film formed on Ti during ultrasonic cavitation. The resistance of the passive film increased, and the donor density of the passive film decreased with increasing the potential. The flat band potential moved to positive direction and the band gap of the passive film moved to negative direction with increasing potential. AES and XPS results indicated that the thickness of the passive film increased evidently with applying passive potential. The passive film was mainly composed of the mixture of TiO and TiO2. While the TiO2 content increased with increasing the applied passive potential, and the crystallization of the passive film increased with the increased potential.

  17. Behavior of the potential antitumor V(IV)O complexes formed by flavonoid ligands. 1. Coordination modes and geometry in solution and at the physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Daniele; Ugone, Valeria; Lubinu, Giuseppe; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2014-11-01

    The coordination modes and geometry assumed in solution by the potent antitumor oxidovanadium(IV) complexes formed by different flavonoids were studied by spectroscopic (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, EPR) and computational (Density Functional Theory, DFT) methods. A series of bidentate flavonoid ligands (L) with increasing structural complexity was examined, which can involve (CO, O(-)) donors and formation of five- and six-membered chelate rings, or (O(-), O(-)) donors and five-membered chelate rings. The geometry corresponding to these coordination modes can be penta-coordinated, [VOL2], or cis-octahedral, cis-[VOL2(H2O)]. The results show that, at physiological pH, ligands provided with (CO, O(-)) donor set yield cis-octahedral species with "maltol-like" coordination when five-membered chelate rings are formed (as with 3-hydroxyflavone), while penta-coordinated structures with "acetylacetone-like" coordination are preferred when the chelate rings are six-membered (as with chrysin). When both the binding modes are possible, as with morin, the "acetylacetone-like" coordination is observed. For the ligands containing a catecholic donor set, such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein, fisetin, quercetin and rutin, the formation of square pyramidal complexes with (O(-), O(-)) "catechol-like" coordination and five-membered chelate rings is preferred at physiological pH. The determination of the different coordination modes and geometry is important to define the biotransformation in the blood and the interaction of these complexes with the biological membranes.

  18. Effect of ultrasonic cavitation on the diffusivity of a point defect in the passive film on formed Nb in 0.5 M HCl solution.

    PubMed

    Li, D G

    2015-11-01

    This work primarily focused on the influence of ultrasonic cavitation on the transport property of the point defect in the passive film on formed Nb in 0.5M HCl solution via electrochemical techniques based on the point defect model (PDM). The influence of ultrasonic cavitation on the composition and structure of the passive film was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The transport property of a point defect in the passive film was characterized by the diffusivity of the point defect (D0). The influences of the ultrasonic cavitation power, passivated time and the distance between horn bottom and sample surface on D0 were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the passive film formed on Nb was an n-type semiconductor with a donor density (ND) ranging from 10(19) cm(-3) to 10(20) cm(-3) in the case of static state, while the order of ND increased one to two times by applying ultrasonic cavitation during film formation. The diffusivity of the point defect (D0) in the passive film formed on Nb at 0.5 V for 1 h in a 0.5 M HCl solution in the static state was calculated to be 9.704×10(-18) cm(2) s(-1), and it increased to 1.255×10(-16) cm(2) s(-1), 7.259×10(-16) cm(2) s(-1) and 7.296×10(-15) cm(2) s(-1) when applying the 180 W, 270 W and 450 W ultrasonic cavitation powers during film formation. D0 increased with the increment of the ultrasonic cavitation power, and decreased with the increased in formation time and distance between the horn bottom and sample surface. AES results showed the film structure and composition were changed by applying the ultrasonic cavitation. XPS results revealed that the passive film was mainly composed of Nb2O5 in the static state, and the low valence Nb-oxide (NbO) appeared in the passive film except Nb2O5 in the case of applying a 270 W ultrasonic cavitation power.

  19. Homo- and hetero-oligomeric interactions between G-protein-coupled receptors in living cells monitored by two variants of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET): hetero-oligomers between receptor subtypes form more efficiently than between less closely related sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Douglas; Kellett, Elaine; McVey, Mary; Rees, Stephen; Milligan, Graeme

    2002-01-01

    Homo- and hetero-oligomerization of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) were examined in HEK-293 cells using two variants of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). BRET(2) (a variant of BRET) offers greatly improved separation of the emission spectra of the donor and acceptor moieties compared with traditional BRET. Previously recorded homo-oligomerization of the human delta-opioid receptor was confirmed using BRET(2). Homo-oligomerization of the kappa-opioid receptor was observed using both BRET techniques. Both homo- and hetero-oligomers, containing both delta- and kappa-opioid receptors, were unaffected by the presence of receptor ligands. BRET detection of opioid receptor homo- and hetero-oligomers required expression of 50,000-100,000 copies of the receptor energy acceptor construct per cell. The effectiveness of delta-kappa-opioid receptor hetero-oligomer formation was as great as for homomeric interactions. The capacity of the two opioid receptors to form oligomeric complexes with the beta(2)-adrenoceptor was also assessed. Although such interactions were detected, at least 250,000 copies per cell of the energy acceptor were required. Requirement for high levels of receptor expression was equally pronounced in attempts to measure hetero-oligomer formation between the kappa-opioid receptor and the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor-1. These studies indicate that constitutively formed homo- and hetero-oligomers of opioid receptor subtypes can be detected in living cells containing less than 100,000 copies of the receptors. However, although hetero-oligomeric interactions between certain less closely related GPCRs can be detected, they appear to be of lower affinity than homo- or hetero-oligomers containing closely related sequences. Interactions recorded between certain GPCR family members in heterologous expression systems are likely to be artefacts of extreme levels of overexpression. PMID:11971762

  20. Closing the Skills Gap: New Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning, Chicago, IL.

    The first two chapters of this report recount the history and organizational goals of the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) and then list challenges and barriers to adult training and education. Chapter 3 describes characteristics of programs that would respond to the skill-building challenge: (1) provide opportunities to all…

  1. Bilinear forms and dark-soliton solutions for a fifth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chen; Gao, Yi-Tian; Lan, Zhong-Zhou; Yang, Jin-Wei; Su, Chuan-Qi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a fifth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is investigated, which describes the propagation of the attosecond pulses in an optical fiber. Via the Hirota’s method and auxiliary functions, bilinear forms and dark one-, two- and three-soliton solutions are obtained. Propagation and interaction of the solitons are discussed graphically: We observe that the solitonic velocities are only related to β1(x), β2(x), β3(x) and β4(x), the coefficients of the second-, third-, fourth- and fifth-order terms, respectively, with x being the scaled distance, while the solitonic amplitudes are related to β1(x), β2(x), β3(x), β4(x) as well as the wave number. When β1(x), β2(x), β3(x) and β4(x) are the constants, or the linear, quadratic and trigonometric functions of x, we obtain the linear, parabolic, cubic and periodic dark solitons, respectively. Interactions between (among) the two (three) solitons are depicted, which can be regarded to be elastic because the solitonic amplitudes remain unchanged except for some phase shifts after each interaction in an optical fiber.

  2. The genes encoding gonadal and nongonadal forms of 3[beta]-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/[Delta][sup 5]-[Delta][sup 4] isomerase are closely linked on mouse chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, P.A.; Meisler, M.H.; Payne, A.H. ); Taylor, B.A. )

    1993-04-01

    The biosynthesis of steroid hormones in the gonads and adrenal glands requires the activities of the enzyme 3[beta]-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenanse/isomerase (3[beta]HSD) which catalyzes the NAD[sup +]-dependant dehydrogenation and subsequent [Delta][sup 5] [r arrow] [Delta][sup 4] isomerization of[Delta][sup 5]-3[beta]-hydroxysteriods to [Delta][sup 4]-3-ketosteroids. The mouse expresses four isoforms of 3[beta]HSD. 3[beta]HSD I is expressed in gonads and adrenal glands and appears to be the major steroidogenic form, 3[beta]HSDs II and III are expressed in both liver and kidneys, and 3[beta]HSD IV has been detected only in kidneys. To determine the genetic relationship between the 3[beta]HSD isoforms, the authors have mapped the chromosomal locations of the four genes by linkage analysis using gene-specific process derived from the 3[prime] untranslated regions of 3 [beta]HSD cDNA clones. The four 3[beta]HSD structural genes (Hsd3b) are closely linked within a segment of chromosome 3 that is conserved on human chromosome 1. The order of markers on Chr 3 surrounding Hsd3b is: centromere-Gba-(4.4 [+-] 2.2)-Hsd3b-(3.3 [+-] 1.9)-Tshb-(6.7 [+-] 2.7)-Amy-1. 28 refs., 5 figs.

  3. On the adiabatic to diabatic states transformation in the presence of a conical intersection: A most diabatic basis from the solution to a Poisson{close_quote}s equation. I

    SciTech Connect

    Sadygov, R.G.; Yarkony, D.R.

    1998-07-01

    We report the first determination of a {open_quotes}most{close_quotes} diabatic basis for a triatomic molecule based exclusively on {ital ab initio} derivative couplings that takes careful account of the limitations imposed by the nonremovable part of those couplings. Baer [Chem. Phys. Lett. {bold 35}, 112 (1975)] showed that an orthogonal transformation from adiabatic states to diabatic states cannot remove all the derivative coupling unless the curl of the derivative coupling vanishes. Subsequently, Mead and Truhlar [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 77}, 6090 (1982)] observed that this curl does not, in general, vanish so that some of the derivative coupling is nonremovable. This observation and the historical lack of efficient algorithms for the evaluation of the derivative coupling led to a variety of methods for determining approximate diabatic bases that avoid computation of the derivative couplings. These methods neglect an indeterminate portion of the derivative coupling. Mead and Truhlar also observed that near an avoided crossing of two states the rotation angle to a most diabatic basis, i.e., the basis in which the removable part of the derivative coupling has been transformed away, could be obtained from the solution of a Poisson{close_quote}s equation requiring only knowledge of the derivative couplings. Here a generalization of this result to the case of a conical intersection is used to determine a most diabatic basis for a section of the 1thinsp{sup 1}A{sup {prime}} and 2thinsp{sup 1}A{sup {prime}} potential energy surfaces of HeH{sub 2} that includes the minimum energy point on the seam of conical intersection. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Analytical solution for the Feynman ratchet.

    PubMed

    Pesz, Karol; Gabryś, Barbara J; Bartkiewicz, Stanisław J

    2002-12-01

    A search for an analytical, closed form solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with periodic, asymmetric potentials (ratchets) is presented. It is found that logarithmic-type potential functions (related to "entropic" ratchets) allow for an approximate solution within a certain range of parameters. An expression for the net current is calculated and it is shown that the efficiency of the rocked entropic ratchet is always low.

  5. {1 0 0} and {1 1 1} forms of the NaCl crystals coexisting in growth from pure aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquilano, Dino; Pastero, Linda; Bruno, Marco; Rubbo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Many papers dealing with the NaCl crystal morphology have been published since the 1960s. It is commonly recognized that solution-grown halite crystals usually show a richer morphology compared with those obtained from the vapour growth. Beside the cube, the {1 1 1} octahedron occurs both in the presence of surface-specific impurities and under well-defined supersaturations, in pure aqueous solution. In this paper, we confine our attention to the occurrence of the octahedron in growth from pure aqueous solution. Experimentally this was achieved cooling a saturated solution at 95 °C and following different temperature gradients. The octahedron stability in pure solution is discussed on the basis of the "octopole hypothesis" about the stability of the reconstructed NaCl (1 1 1) surface.

  6. 7 CFR 1942.123 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan closing. 1942.123 Section 1942.123 Agriculture... Loan closing. (a) Ordering loan checks. Checks will not be ordered until: (1) Form FmHA or its... closing instructions, except for those actions which are to be completed on the date of loan closing...

  7. 7 CFR 1942.123 - Loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan closing. 1942.123 Section 1942.123 Agriculture... Loan closing. (a) Ordering loan checks. Checks will not be ordered until: (1) Form FmHA or its... closing instructions, except for those actions which are to be completed on the date of loan closing...

  8. Scaling laws and accurate small-amplitude stationary solution for the motion of a planar vortex filament in the Cartesian form of the local induction approximation.

    PubMed

    Van Gorder, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    We provide a formulation of the local induction approximation (LIA) for the motion of a vortex filament in the Cartesian reference frame (the extrinsic coordinate system) which allows for scaling of the reference coordinate. For general monotone scalings of the reference coordinate, we derive an equation for the planar solution to the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation governing the LIA. We proceed to solve this equation perturbatively in small amplitude through an application of multiple-scales analysis, which allows for accurate computation of the period of the planar vortex filament. The perturbation result is shown to agree strongly with numerical simulations, and we also relate this solution back to the solution obtained in the arclength reference frame (the intrinsic coordinate system). Finally, we discuss nonmonotone coordinate scalings and their application for finding self-intersections of vortex filaments. These self-intersecting vortex filaments are likely unstable and collapse into other structures or dissipate completely.

  9. Closing the loop with blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Jacopo

    signal reconstruction from motion blur. By modeling the image sensor as a time to pixel domain integrative transformation, these problems are recast in nonlinear least square ones where a spatial error metric, i.e., the pixel domain error between measurements and image predictions, is minimized to obtain the desired solutions. Such operation corresponds to the inversion of the image sensor integral transformation, which is an ill posed problem that requires some form of regularization to avoid alias solutions. This regularization is provided in the form of different parametric models of the unknown time domain signal with different constraints on the parameters depending on the studied problem. Depending on the application, this model varies, e.g., it is a sine wave with undetermined amplitude and phase in a system identification problem, or the output of a linear time invariant system with unknown initial conditions in an estimation one. Even when no prior assumption on the signal source is made nor information on its parametric model is available, it is still possible to reasonably approximate the motion. In the signal reconstruction problem the signal can be modeled, e.g., as a Taylor series expansion within the exposure window, provided that attention is paid to representing the signal to a desired threshold of approximation. This work proves the utility of exploiting motion blurred measurements in a variety of classic control problems, departing from the traditional idea of considering motion blur an undesired artifact to be avoided, mitigated, or actively removed.

  10. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  11. Modification of water, aqueous solutions, and dielectric films in diffuse discharge formed by fast electron preionization at the short front of a voltage pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlovskii, V. M.; Panarin, V. A.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Formation of a diffuse discharge at a short front of voltage pulse (less than 1 ns), as well as when placing water, water solutions, and dielectric film inside the discharge, is studied. A volumetric discharge was observed in water on the anode when placing dielectric film (polyethylene, vinyl chloride-methyl methacrylate (VCMMA), etc.), water, or aqueous solutions of 3% hydrogen dioxide or 18% KMgO4 inside the discharge. The change in the absorption spectrum of substance was found after multiple discharge switching on. Fourier analysis of the infrared absorption spectra showed the difference between the spectra of exposed and unexposed polyethylene film. The changes in the absorption spectra of water, 3% hydrogen dioxide and 18% KMgO4 aqueous solutions are related with expansion of the band of valence oscillations of OH-groups without clearly expressed maxima (for the studied liquids). Therefore, volumetric diffuse discharge in molecular and atomic gases can be used in modifying dielectrics, water and aqueous solutions.

  12. Mosaic-skeleton method as applied to the numerical solution of three-dimensional Dirichlet problems for the Helmholtz equation in integral form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashirin, A. A.; Smagin, S. I.; Taltykina, M. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    Interior and exterior three-dimensional Dirichlet problems for the Helmholtz equation are solved numerically. They are formulated as equivalent boundary Fredholm integral equations of the first kind and are approximated by systems of linear algebraic equations, which are then solved numerically by applying an iteration method. The mosaic-skeleton method is used to speed up the solution procedure.

  13. Rings from Close Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Weve recently discovered narrow sets of rings around two minor planets orbiting in our solar system. How did these rings form? A new study shows that they could be a result of close encounters between the minor planets and giants like Jupiter or Neptune.Unexpected Ring SystemsPositions of the centaurs in our solar system (green). Giant planets (red), Jupiter trojans (grey), scattered disk objects (tan) and Kuiper belt objects (blue) are also shown. [WilyD]Centaurs are minor planets in our solar system that orbit between Jupiter and Neptune. These bodies of which there are roughly 44,000 with diameters larger than 1 km have dynamically unstable orbits that cross paths with those of one or more giant planets.Recent occultation observations of two centaurs, 10199 Chariklo and 2060 Chiron, revealed that these bodies both host narrow ring systems. Besides our four giant planets, Chariklo and Chiron are the only other bodies in the solar system known to have rings. But how did these rings form?Scientists have proposed several models, implicating collisions, disruption of a primordial satellite, or dusty outgassing. But a team of scientists led by Ryuki Hyodo (Paris Institute of Earth Physics, Kobe University) has recently proposed an alternative scenario: what if the rings were formed from partial disruption of the centaur itself, after it crossed just a little too close to a giant planet?Tidal Forces from a GiantHyodo and collaborators first used past studies of centaur orbits to estimate that roughly 10% of centaurs experience close encounters (passing within a distance of ~2x the planetary radius) with a giant planet during their million-year lifetime. The team then performed a series of simulations of close encounters between a giant planet and a differentiated centaur a body in which the rocky material has sunk to form a dense silicate core, surrounded by an icy mantle.Some snapshots of simulation outcomes (click for a closer look!) for different initial states of

  14. All the solutions of the form M2 × WΣd - 2 for Lovelock gravity in vacuum in the Chern-Simons case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Julio

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we classify a certain family of solutions of Lovelock gravity in the Chern-Simons (CS) case, in arbitrary (odd) dimension, d ⩾ 5. The spacetime is characterized by admitting a metric that is a warped product of a two-dimensional spacetime M2 and an (a priori) arbitrary Euclidean manifold Σd-2 of dimension d - 2. We show that the solutions are naturally classified in terms of the equations that restrict Σd-2. According to the strength of such constraints we found the following branches in which Σd-2 has to fulfill: a Lovelock equation with a single vacuum (Euclidean Lovelock Chern-Simons in dimension d - 2), a single scalar equation that is the trace of an Euclidean Lovelock CS equation in dimension d - 2, or finally a degenerate case in which Σd-2 is not restricted at all. We show that all the cases have some degeneracy in the sense that the metric functions are not completely fixed by the field equations. This result extends the static five-dimensional case previously discussed in Dotti et al. [Phys. Rev. D 76, 064038 (2007)], 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.064038, and it shows that in the CS case, the inclusion of higher powers in the curvature does not introduce new branches of solutions in Lovelock gravity. Finally, we comment on how the inclusion of a non-vanishing torsion may modify this analysis.

  15. The solution structure of the soluble form of the lipid-modified azurin from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the electron donor of cytochrome c peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Cláudia S; Saraiva, Ivo H; Carreira, Cíntia; Devreese, Bart; Matzapetakis, Manolis; Pauleta, Sofia R

    2016-02-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae colonizes the genitourinary track, and in these environments, especially in the female host, the bacteria are subjected to low levels of oxygen, and reactive oxygen and nitrosyl species. Here, the biochemical characterization of N. gonorrhoeae Laz is presented, as well as, the solution structure of its soluble domain determined by NMR. N. gonorrhoeae Laz is a type 1 copper protein of the azurin-family based on its spectroscopic properties and structure, with a redox potential of 277±5 mV, at pH7.0, that behaves as a monomer in solution. The globular Laz soluble domain adopts the Greek-key motif, with the copper center located at one end of the β-barrel coordinated by Gly48, His49, Cys113, His118 and Met122, in a distorted trigonal geometry. The edge of the His118 imidazole ring is water exposed, in a surface that is proposed to be involved in the interaction with its redox partners. The heterologously expressed Laz was shown to be a competent electron donor to N. gonorrhoeae cytochrome c peroxidase. This is an evidence for its involvement in the mechanism of protection against hydrogen peroxide generated by neighboring lactobacilli in the host environment. PMID:26589091

  16. Study of the corrosion products formed on a multiphase CuAlBe alloy in a sodium chloride solution by micro-Raman and in situ AFM measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montecinos, S.; Simison, S. N.

    2011-06-01

    The corrosion products formed on a multiphase Cu-11.40Al-0.55Be (wt.%) alloy in 3.5% NaCl at open circuit potential, and their evolution with immersion time were studied mainly by micro-Raman and in situ AFM measurements. The aluminium content of each phase affects the formation of the corrosion products on them. After 1 day of immersion, γ 2 precipitates were more susceptible to dealuminization, while α' phase exhibited a high corrosion stability. The corrosion products evolved with immersion time, and CuCl 2 and a Cu 2O/CuO double layer film were the stable products formed on all the phases after long times.

  17. Solution Structure of an Amyloid-Forming Protein During Photoinitiated Hexamer-Dodecamer Transitions Revealed Through Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hamill,A.; Wang, S.; Lee, Jr., C.

    2007-01-01

    Shape-reconstruction analysis applied to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data is used to determine the in vitro conformations of {alpha}-chymotrypsin oligomers that form as a result of partial unfolding with a photoresponsive surfactant. In the presence of the photoactive surfactant under visible light, the native oligomers (dimers or compact hexamers) rearrange into expanded corkscrew-like hexamers. Converting the surfactant to the photopassive form with UV light illumination causes the hexamers to laterally aggregate and intertwine into dodecamers with elongated, twisted conformations containing cross-sectional dimensions similar to amyloid protofilaments. Secondary-structure measurements with FT-IR indicate that this photoinduced hexamer-to-dodecamer association occurs through intermolecular {beta} sheets stabilized with hydrogen bonds, similar to amyloid formation. Traditional structural characterization techniques such as X-ray crystallography and NMR are not easily amenable to the study of these non-native protein conformations; however, SANS is ideally suited to the study of these associated intermediates, providing direct observation of the mechanism of oligomeric formation in an amyloid-forming protein. Combined with photoinitiated hexamer-to-dodecamer associations in the presence of the photoresponsive surfactant, this study could provide unique insight into the amyloidosis disease pathway, as well as novel disease treatment strategies.

  18. Cobalt concentration effect in Pt 1- xCo x on the reversible potential for forming OH ads from H 2O ads in acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roques, Jérôme; Anderson, Alfred B.

    2005-05-01

    We present results of a periodic spin-density-functional theory study of the effect of the cobalt concentration in Pt x-1 Co x surfaces on the reversible potential for forming OH(ads) from H 2O(ads). Adsorbed OH is recognized as a poison to oxygen cathodes that contributes to the high O 2 reduction overpotential. Five surface compositions with a cobalt concentration of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were studied, and these surfaces were covered with a monolayer Pt skin. The OH(ads) formation potential was found to depend significantly on the sub-surface composition. Alloying platinum with cobalt atoms led to an increasingly positive shift of the reversible potential for forming OH(ads), as the amount of cobalt is increased. Beyond 75% cobalt concentration the effect levels off. Experimentally, the Pt 3Co alloy has been well studied and is believed to be covered by a Pt skin and the potential for OH(ads) formation on it, from water oxidation, is shifted positive. The present theoretical results suggest that if Pt skins form on alloys more concentrated in Co than Pt 3Co, the positive shift in the potential for OH(ads) formation will be greater and, on an oxygen cathode in a fuel cell, the overpotential for O 2 reduction will be even less.

  19. Perturbation solutions of combustion instability problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Googerdy, A.; Peddieson, J., Jr.; Ventrice, M.

    1979-01-01

    A method involving approximate modal analysis using the Galerkin method followed by an approximate solution of the resulting modal-amplitude equations by the two-variable perturbation method (method of multiple scales) is applied to two problems of pressure-sensitive nonlinear combustion instability in liquid-fuel rocket motors. One problem exhibits self-coupled instability while the other exhibits mode-coupled instability. In both cases it is possible to carry out the entire linear stability analysis and significant portions of the nonlinear stability analysis in closed form. In the problem of self-coupled instability the nonlinear stability boundary and approximate forms of the limit-cycle amplitudes and growth and decay rates are determined in closed form while the exact limit-cycle amplitudes and growth and decay rates are found numerically. In the problem of mode-coupled instability the limit-cycle amplitudes are found in closed form while the growth and decay rates are found numerically. The behavior of the solutions found by the perturbation method are in agreement with solutions obtained using complex numerical methods.

  20. Solution to the backward-Kolmogorov equation for a nonstationary oscillation problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomos, G. P.; Spanos, P.-T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The transition probability density function of a Markovian approximation of the response amplitude of an oscillator under nonstationary excitation is determined in an analytical form. A solution is presented for the associated backward-Kolmogorov equation by transforming the equation into a form amenable to solution by the method of the separation of variables. This procedure results in a boundary value problem which is then solved by using an infinite series of Laguerre polynomials. It is found that the infinite series solution is equivalent to a closed-form solution involving a Bessel function.

  1. Premixed flames in closed cylindrical tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzener, Philippe; Matalon, Moshe

    2001-09-01

    We consider the propagation of a premixed flame, as a two-dimensional sheet separating unburned gas from burned products, in a closed cylindrical tube. A nonlinear evolution equation, that describes the motion of the flame front as a function of its mean position, is derived. The equation contains a destabilizing term that results from the gas motion induced by thermal expansion and has a memory term associated with vorticity generation. Numerical solutions of this equation indicate that, when diffusion is stabilizing, the flame evolves into a non-planar form whose shape, and its associated symmetry properties, are determined by the Markstein parameter, and by the initial data. In particular, we observe the development of convex axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric flames, tulip flames and cellular flames.

  2. Thermodynamic and microscopic equilibrium constants of molecular species formed from pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and 2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid in aqueous and D/sub 2/O solution

    SciTech Connect

    Szpoganicz, B.; Martell, A.E.

    1984-09-19

    Schiff base formation between pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and 2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid (APP) has been investigated by measurement of the corresponding NMR and electronic absorption spectra. A value of 0.26 was found for the formation constant of the completely deprotonated Schiff base species, and is much smaller than the values reported for pyridoxal-..beta..-chloroalanine and pyridoxal-O-phosphoserine. The protonation constants for the aldehyde and hydrate forms of PLP were determined in D/sub 2/O by measurement of the variation of chemical shifts with pD (pH in D/sub 2/O). The hydration constants of PLP were determined in a pD range 2-12, and species distributions were calculated. The protonation constants of the APP-PLP Schiff base determined by NMR in D/sub 2/O were found to have the log values 12.54, 8.10, 6.70, and 5.95, and the species distributions were calculated for a range of pD values. Evidence is reported for hydrogen bonding involving the phosphate and phosphonate groups of the diprotonated Schiff base. The cis and trans forms of the Schiff bases were distinguished with the aid of the nuclear Overhauser effect. 43 references, 9 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Fused deposition modeling provides solution for magnetic resonance imaging of solid dosage form by advancing design quickly from prototype to final product.

    PubMed

    Charest, Ken; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L; Cinicola, Daniel; Clausen, Andrew M

    2013-02-01

    The release profile of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from its solid dosage form is an important aspect of drug development as it is often used to predict potential drug release characteristics of a product in vivo. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a nondestructive technique that captures the physical changes of solid dosage forms during dissolution. An example that highlights this application is in the dissolution of modified-release tablet studies. As the tablet dissolves, API disperses in a hydrogel matrix within the tablet, and swelling of the hydrogel layer eventually leads to release of API over time. To achieve optimum signal-to-noise ratios, the tablet should be placed in the most homogeneous region of the magnet and remain there throughout the dissolution experiment. Moreover, the tablet holder must maintain the tablet position without interfering with the natural dissolution process, such as by crushing the softened tablet. This can be difficult because the size, shape, and rigidity of the tablet change during dissolution. This article describes the process, material, and manufacture of a novel device that meets these challenges, with emphasis on how additive manufacturing on a 3D printer enabled an efficient and inexpensive process of design improvements.

  4. Fused deposition modeling provides solution for magnetic resonance imaging of solid dosage form by advancing design quickly from prototype to final product.

    PubMed

    Charest, Ken; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L; Cinicola, Daniel; Clausen, Andrew M

    2013-02-01

    The release profile of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from its solid dosage form is an important aspect of drug development as it is often used to predict potential drug release characteristics of a product in vivo. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a nondestructive technique that captures the physical changes of solid dosage forms during dissolution. An example that highlights this application is in the dissolution of modified-release tablet studies. As the tablet dissolves, API disperses in a hydrogel matrix within the tablet, and swelling of the hydrogel layer eventually leads to release of API over time. To achieve optimum signal-to-noise ratios, the tablet should be placed in the most homogeneous region of the magnet and remain there throughout the dissolution experiment. Moreover, the tablet holder must maintain the tablet position without interfering with the natural dissolution process, such as by crushing the softened tablet. This can be difficult because the size, shape, and rigidity of the tablet change during dissolution. This article describes the process, material, and manufacture of a novel device that meets these challenges, with emphasis on how additive manufacturing on a 3D printer enabled an efficient and inexpensive process of design improvements. PMID:22933617

  5. Action of nicking-closing enzyme on supercoiled and nonsupercoiled closed circular DNA: formation of a Boltzmann distribution of topological isomers.

    PubMed Central

    Pulleyblank, D E; Shure, M; Tang, D; Vinograd, J; Vosberg, H P

    1975-01-01

    Highly purified nicking-closing enzyme from mouse cells in 20-fold enzyme/substrate excess converts closed circular native PM2, ColE1, and Minicol DNA into limit product sets of DNAs. Each set has a mean degree of supercoiling of approximately zero. The individual species in the sets differ by deltatau = +/-1, +/-2, etc., and the relative masses fit a Boltzmann distribution. It was also demonstrated that "nonsupercoiled" closed circular duplex molecules serve as substrates for the nicking-closing enzyme, and that a distribution of topological isomers is generated. Polynucleotide ligase, acting on nicked circular DNA, forms under the same conditions, the same set of closed DNAs. The latter enzyme freezes the population into sets of molecules otherwise in configurational equilibrium in solution. Images PMID:1060106

  6. Onset of the alpha-relaxation in the glass-forming solution LiCl-6H2O revealed by Brillouin scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Santucci, S C; Comez, L; Scarponi, F; Monaco, G; Verbeni, R; Legrand, J-F; Masciovecchio, C; Gessini, A; Fioretto, D

    2009-10-21

    We measured the dynamic structure factor of the liquid and glassy phases of the LiCl-6H(2)O solution by means of inelastic scattering of radiation in the visible, UV, and x-ray range, between 1 GHz and 10 THz, and by means of photon-correlation spectroscopy, between 0.01 Hz and 20 kHz. The measurements were performed in the temperature range between 353 and 80 K. Our data show that a single-relaxation process exists at high temperature, which has features similar to those of the single relaxation of pure water. Upon cooling the system below approximately 220 K, this single mode starts to differentiate two processes, a structural (alpha-) and a secondary (beta-) relaxation. As the temperature is decreased, the beta-relaxation is the vanishing continuation of the single, high-temperature process, while the onset of the alpha-relaxation occurs at the expense of the beta-process. PMID:20568872

  7. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  8. The poly dA strand of poly dA.poly dT adopts an A-form in solution: a UV resonance Raman study.

    PubMed Central

    Jollès, B; Laigle, A; Chinsky, L; Turpin, P Y

    1985-01-01

    The study by resonance Raman spectroscopy with a 257 nm excitation wave-length of adenine in two single-stranded polynucleotides, poly rA and poly dA, and in three double-stranded polynucleotides, poly dA.poly dT, poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT) and poly rA.poly rU, allows one to characterize the A-genus conformation of polynucleotides containing adenine and thymine bases. The characteristic spectrum of the A-form of the adenine strand is observed, except small differences, for poly rA, poly rA.poly rU and poly dA.poly dT. Our results prove that it is the adenine strand which adopts the A-family conformation in poly dA.poly dT. PMID:4000953

  9. Solution and solid-state study of the structure of azo-coupling products from isomeric enaminones possessing tert-butyl group: An unprecedented observation of pure hydrazo form in azo coupled N-alkyl β-enaminones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimůnek, Petr; Padělková, Zdeňka; Macháček, Vladimír

    2014-10-01

    The structure of the azo-coupling products from enaminones derived from 4,4-dimethyl-1-phenylpentane-1,3-dione has been studied by means of solution-state 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The presence of bulky tert-butyl group hinders or even prevents from the formation of planar conjugated heterodiene system Hsbnd Nsbnd Cdbnd Csbnd Ndbnd N with an intramolecular hydrogen bond Nsbnd H⋯Ndbnd which is the prerequisite for fast tautomeric exchange imino-hydrazo - enamino-azo. The minor amount of azo compounds is formed by a proton exchange through a hydrogen bond Nsbnd H⋯N, which is either intramolecular (in solution) or intermolecular (solid state). The intermolecular exchange proceeds via the dimers of the azo coupling products. This is unprecedented result among the similar molecules hitherto studied.

  10. Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, Ralph H.

    2008-03-01

    Pierre-Gilles de Gennes once described polyelectrolytes as the ``least understood form of condensed matter''. In this talk, I will describe the state of the polyelectrolyte field before and after de Gennes' seminal contributions published 1976-1980. De Gennes clearly explained why electrostatic interactions only stretch the polyelectrolyte chains on intermediate scales in semidilute solution (between the electrostatic blob size and the correlation length) and why the scattering function has a peak corresponding to the correlation length (the distance to the next chain). Despite many other ideas being suggested since then, the simple de Gennes scaling picture of polyelectrolyte conformation in solution has stood the test of time. How that model is used today, including consequences for dynamics in polyelectrolyte solutions, and what questions remain, will clarify the importance of de Gennes' ideas.

  11. A Novel Hypercomplex Solution to Kepler's Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condurache, C.; Martinuşi, V.

    2007-05-01

    By using a Sundman like regularization, we offer a unified solution to Kepler's problem by using hypercomplex numbers. The fundamental role in this paper is played by the Laplace-Runge-Lenz prime integral and by the hypercomplex numbers algebra. The procedure unifies and generalizes the regularizations offered by Levi-Civita and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel. Closed form hypercomplex expressions for the law of motion and velocity are deduced, together with inedite hypercomplex prime integrals.

  12. Microstructure and stability of a lamellar liquid crystalline and gel phase formed by a polyglycerol ester mixture in dilute aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Duerr-Auster, N; Kohlbrecher, J; Zuercher, T; Gunde, R; Fischer, P; Windhab, E

    2007-12-18

    The self-assembly behavior of a commercial mixture of polyglycerol fatty acid esters (PGE) and water is investigated as a function of temperature and surfactant content. The phase diagram of this pseudo-binary mixture was characterized using a combination of cross-polarized light and freeze-fracture electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Our experiments show that the morphology of the supramolecular aggregates is lamellar and present in the form of a continuous or dispersed phase (multilamellar vesicles) depending on the water content of the system. Under the effect of temperature, the short- and long-range order of the bimolecular layers successively changes from a biphasic surfactant dispersion to a lamellar liquid-crystalline (Lalpha) and a stable lamellar gel phase (Lbeta) upon cooling; this transition is found to be irreversible. Formation of the lamellar aggregates can be related to the average molecular structure and shape factor of PGE. The stability of the resulting gel phase (Lbeta) appears to be due to the presence of small amounts of unreacted ionic co-surfactant, namely, fatty acid soaps, in this per se nonionic commercial mixture.

  13. Transport and deposition of Suwannee River Humic Acid/Natural Organic Matter formed silver nanoparticles on silica matrices: the influence of solution pH and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Akaighe, Nelson; Depner, Sean W; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Sohn, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The transport and deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formed from Ag(+) reduction by Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) and Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter (SRNOM) utilizing a silica matrix is reported. The morphology and stability of the AgNPs was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The percentage conversion of the initial [Ag(+)] to [AgNPs] was determined from a combination of atomic absorption (AAS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and centrifugation techniques. The results indicate higher AgNP transport and consequently low deposition in the porous media at basic pH conditions and low ionic strength. However, at low acidic pH and high ionic strength, especially with the divalent metallic cations, the mobility of the AgNPs in the porous media was very low, most likely due to NP aggregation. Overall, the results suggest the potential for AgNP contamination of subsurface soils and groundwater aquifers is mostly dependent on their aggregation state, controlled by the soil water and sediment ionic strength and pH.

  14. Time-dependent solutions for a stochastic model of gene expression with molecule production in the form of a compound Poisson process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrak, Jakub; Ochab-Marcinek, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We study a stochastic model of gene expression, in which protein production has a form of random bursts whose size distribution is arbitrary, whereas protein decay is a first-order reaction. We find exact analytical expressions for the time evolution of the cumulant-generating function for the most general case when both the burst size probability distribution and the model parameters depend on time in an arbitrary (e.g., oscillatory) manner, and for arbitrary initial conditions. We show that in the case of periodic external activation and constant protein degradation rate, the response of the gene is analogous to the resistor-capacitor low-pass filter, where slow oscillations of the external driving have a greater effect on gene expression than the fast ones. We also demonstrate that the n th cumulant of the protein number distribution depends on the n th moment of the burst size distribution. We use these results to show that different measures of noise (coefficient of variation, Fano factor, fractional change of variance) may vary in time in a different manner. Therefore, any biological hypothesis of evolutionary optimization based on the nonmonotonic dependence of a chosen measure of noise on time must justify why it assumes that biological evolution quantifies noise in that particular way. Finally, we show that not only for exponentially distributed burst sizes but also for a wider class of burst size distributions (e.g., Dirac delta and gamma) the control of gene expression level by burst frequency modulation gives rise to proportional scaling of variance of the protein number distribution to its mean, whereas the control by amplitude modulation implies proportionality of protein number variance to the mean squared.

  15. Analytical solutions for the coefficient of variation of the volume-averaged solute concentration in heterogeneous aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabala, Z. J.

    1997-08-01

    Under the assumption that local solute dispersion is negligible, a new general formula (in the form of a convolution integral) is found for the arbitrary k-point ensemble moment of the local concentration of a solute convected in arbitrary m spatial dimensions with general sure initial conditions. From this general formula new closed-form solutions in m=2 spatial dimensions are derived for 2-point ensemble moments of the local solute concentration for the impulse (Dirac delta) and Gaussian initial conditions. When integrated over an averaging window, these solutions lead to new closed-form expressions for the first two ensemble moments of the volume-averaged solute concentration and to the corresponding concentration coefficients of variation (CV). Also, for the impulse (Dirac delta) solute concentration initial condition, the second ensemble moment of the solute point concentration in two spatial dimensions and the corresponding CV are demonstrated to be unbound. For impulse initial conditions the CVs for volume-averaged concentrations axe compared with each other for a tracer from the Borden aquifer experiment. The point-concentration CV is unacceptably large in the whole domain, implying that the ensemble mean concentration is inappropriate for predicting the actual concentration values. The volume-averaged concentration CV decreases significantly with an increasing averaging volume. Since local dispersion is neglected, the new solutions should be interpreted as upper limits for the yet to be derived solutions that account for local dispersion; and so should the presented CVs for Borden tracers. The new analytical solutions may be used to test the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations or other numerical algorithms that deal with the stochastic solute transport. They may also be used to determine the size of the averaging volume needed to make a quasi-sure statement about the solute mass contained in it.

  16. A scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the phases formed by the sulfur adsorption on Au(100) from an alkaline solution of 1,4-piperazine(bis)-dithiocarbamate of potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Javier A.; Valenzuela B., José; Cao Milán, R.; Herrera, José; Farías, Mario H.; Hernández, Mayra P.

    2014-11-01

    Piperazine-dithiocarbamate of potassium (K2DTC2pz) was used as a new precursor for the spontaneous deposition of sulfur on the Au(100) surface in alkaline solution. Two new sulfur phases were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These phases were formed by six sulfur atoms (S6 phase, hexamer) and by four sulfur atoms (S4 phase, tetramer with (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) structure), and they were observed in coexistence with the well-known quasi-square patterns formed by eight sulfur atoms (S8 phase, octomer). A model was proposed where sulfur multilayers were formed by a (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) phase adsorbed directly on the gold surface while one of the other structures: hexamers or octomers were deposited on top. Sulfur layers were formed on gold terraces, vacancies and islands produced by lifting reconstructed surface. Sequential high-resolution STM images allowed the direct observation of the dynamic of the octomers, while the (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) structure remained static. Images also showed the reversible association/dissociation of the octomer.

  17. Analytical solutions for static elastic deformations of wire ropes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K.; Cochran, J. E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops closed-form solutions for extension of twisted wire ropes subjected to axial forces for two different end conditions. The analytical results are compared with the corresponding numerical results obtained by Costello and Phillips. A close agreement between the two establishes validity of the analytical solutions. Finally, an expression for the effective rigidity modulus of the wire ropes is obtained in terms of the helix angle and the number of helical wires in the rope for each of the two end conditions.

  18. Temperature dependent cubic and hexagonal close packing in micellar structures.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nicole; Gerth, Stefan; Gutfreund, Philipp; Wolff, Max

    2014-11-14

    The interfacial structure and phase diagram of a micellar solution formed by the three block copolymer (EO20-PO70-EO20) also known as P123 solved in deuterated water close to a solid boundary is investigated with respect to temperature. We find a hysteretic behavior of the d-spacing of the micellar crystal and a spontaneous change in the lateral correlation length going hand in hand with a structural reorganization between cubic and hexagonal. The phase transitions may be initiated by a change in the shape of the micelles from spherical to elongated together with a minimization of the polymer water interface. PMID:25212786

  19. Pinching solutions of slender cylindrical jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Orellana, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Simplified equations for slender jets are derived for a circular jet of one fluid flowing into an ambient second fluid, the flow being confined in a circular tank. Inviscid flows are studied which include both surface tension effects and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. For slender jets a coupled nonlinear system of equations is found for the jet shape and the axial velocity jump across it. The equations can break down after a finite time and similarity solutions are constructed, and studied analytically and numerically. The break-ups found pertain to the jet pinching after a finite time, without violation of the slender jet ansatz. The system is conservative and admissible singular solutions are those which conserve the total energy, mass, and momentum. Such solutions are constructed analytically and numerically, and in the case of vortex sheets with no surface tension certain solutions are given in closed form.

  20. School Closings in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, James; Sludden, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the School District of Philadelphia closed six schools. In 2013, it closed 24. The closure of 30 schools has occurred amid a financial crisis, headlined by the district's $1.35 billion deficit. School closures are one piece of the district's plan to cut expenditures and close its budget gap. The closures are also intended to…

  1. A single crystal x-ray study of the fluorite-related {open_quotes}solid solutions{close_quotes} of CeO{sub 2}-YO{sub 1.5}

    SciTech Connect

    Gabbitas, N.; Thompson, J.G.; Withers, R.L.; Rae, A.D.

    1995-02-15

    A study of the (1 - {delta})CeO{sub 2} {circ} {delta}YO{sub 1.5} solid solution has been undertaken to understand the origin of the two-phase region that occurs between the fluorite-type, 0-{approximately}50 mole% YO{sub 1.5}, and C-type, {approximately}73-100 mole% YO{sub 1.5}, solid solutions. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data have been collected at 49.7, 73.0, and 79.8 mole% YO{sub 1.5}(cubic, Ia3, a = 10.757(2), 10.698(4), 10.678(3) {Angstrom}, Z = 32) and the structures refined to R{sub 1} = 0.0841, 0.0146, and 0.0202 for 29, 25, and 72 independent reflections, respectively. The deviations from the ideal fluorite structure were examined and an apparent discontinuity observed for the metal atom shift allowed by Ia3 symmetry. Previously suggested metal atom ordering was not observed in the C-type structure. Models have been proposed to understand the limiting compositions of the fluorite-type and C-type solid solutions.

  2. Novel insights on the stabilising solution to the continuous-time algebraic Riccati equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    In the present paper we present a closed-form solution, as a function of the closed-loop poles, for the continuous-time algebraic Riccati equations (CAREs) related to single-input single-output systems with non-repeated poles. The proposed solution trades the standard numerical algorithm approach for one based on a spectral factorisation argument, offering potential insight into any control technique based on a CARE and its solution. As an example, we present the equivalence of two fairly recent control over network results. Furthermore we apply the proposed result to the formula for the optimal regulator gain matrix k (or equivalently the Luenberger's observer gain l) and present an example. Finally, we conclude by discussing the possible extension of the proposed closed-form solution to the repeated eigenvalues case and to the case when the CARE is related to multiple-input multiple-output systems.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulating Concrete Forms

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-10-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project investigated insulating concrete forms—rigid foam, hollow walls that are filled with concrete for highly insulated, hurricane-resistant construction.

  4. The closed fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  5. Symmetries of Helmholtz forms and globally variational dynamical forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palese, Marcella; Winterroth, Ekkehart

    2012-02-01

    Invariance properties of classes in the variational sequence suggested to Krupka et al. the idea that there should exist a close correspondence between the notions of variationality of a differential form and invariance of its exterior derivative. It was shown by them that the invariance of a closed Helmholtz form of a dynamical form is equivalent with local variationality of the Lie derivative of the dynamical form, so that the latter is locally the Euler-Lagrange form of a Lagrangian. We show that the corresponding local system of Euler-Lagrange forms is variationally equivalent to a global Euler-Lagrange form.

  6. On Closed Shells in Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M. G.

    1948-02-01

    It has been suggested in the past that special numbers of neutrons or protons in the nucleus form a particularly stable configuration.{sup1} The complete evidence for this has never been summarized, nor is it generally recognized how convincing this evidence is. That 20 neutrons or protons (Ca{sup40}) form a closed shell is predicted by the Hartree model. A number of calculations support this fact.{sup2} These considerations will not be repeated here. In this paper, the experimental facts indicating a particular stability of shells of 50 and 82 protons and of 50, 82, and 126 neutrons will be listed.

  7. Second-order analytic solutions for re-entry trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Kyou

    1993-01-01

    With the development of aeroassist technology, either for near-earth orbital transfer with or without a plane change or for planetary aerocapture, it is of interest to have accurate analytic solutions for reentry trajectories in an explicit form. Starting with the equations of motion of a non-thrusting aerodynamic vehicle entering a non-rotating spherical planetary atmosphere, a normalization technique is used to transform the equations into a form suitable for an analytic integration. Then, depending on the type of planar entry modes with a constant angle-of-attack, namely, ballistic fly-through, lifting skip, and equilibrium glide trajectories, the first-order solutions are obtained with the appropriate simplification. By analytic continuation, the second-order solutions for the altitude, speed, and flight path angle are derived. The closed form solutions lead to explicit forms for the physical quantities of interest, such as the deceleration and aerodynamic heating rates. The analytic solutions for the planar case are extended to three-dimensional skip trajectories with a constant bank angle. The approximate solutions for the heading and latitude are developed to the second order. In each type of trajectory examined, explicit relations among the principal variables are in a form suitable for guidance and navigation purposes. The analytic solutions have excellent agreement with the numerical integrations. They also provide some new results which were not reported in the existing classical theory.

  8. Analytical solution of average path length for Apollonian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Chen, Lichao; Zhou, Shuigeng; Fang, Lujun; Guan, Jihong; Zou, Tao

    2008-01-01

    With the help of recursion relations derived from the self-similar structure, we obtain the solution of average path length, dmacr t , for Apollonian networks. In contrast to the well-known numerical result dmacr t∝(lnNt)3/4 [J. S. Andrade, Jr. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 018702 (2005)], our rigorous solution shows that the average path length grows logarithmically as dmacr t∝lnNt in the infinite limit of network size Nt . The extensive numerical calculations completely agree with our closed-form solution.

  9. Simple solutions of multilayered discs subjected to biaxial moment loading.

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Kelly, J R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive a simple closed-form solution for the stress distribution through the thickness of multilayered discs subjected to biaxial moment loading, such that it can be used readily to evaluate the biaxial strength of multilayered dental ceramics using biaxial flexure tests. Methods A simple analytical model was developed to derive the stress distribution through the thickness of multilayered discs subjected to biaxial moment loading. The accuracy of the solution was verified by comparing with previous rigorous analytical solutions and finite element results. The results obtained from Roark's formulas for bilayered discs were also included for comparison.

  10. Multinuclear magnetic resonance studies of the 2Feter dot 2S sup * ferredoxin from Anabaena species strain PCC 7120. 1. Sequence-specific hydrogen-1 resonance assignments and secondary structure in solution of the oxidized form

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Byung-Ha; Markley, J.L. )

    1990-04-24

    Complete sequence-specific assignments were determined for the diamagnetic {sup 1}H resonances from Anabaena 7120 ferredoxin. A novel assignment procedure was followed whose first step was the identification of the {sup 13}C spin systems of the amino acids by a {sup 13}C({sup 13}C) double quantum correlation experiment. Then, the {sup 1}H spin systems of the amino acids were identified from the {sup 13}C spin systems by means of direct and relayed {sup 1}H({sup 13}C) single-bond correlations. The sequential resonance assignments were based mainly on conventional interresidue {sup 1}H{sup {alpha}}{sub i}-{sup 1}H{sup N}{sub i+1} NOE connectivities. Resonances from 18 residues were not resolved in two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR spectra. When these residues were mapped onto the X-ray crystal structure of the homologous ferredoxin from Spirulina platensis, it was found that they correspond to amino acids close to the paramagnetic 2Fe{center dot}2S cluster. Cross peaks in two-dimensional homonuclear {sup 1}H NMR spectra were not observed for any protons closer than about 7.8 {angstrom} to both iron atoms. Secondary structural features identified in solution include two antiparallel {beta}-sheets, one parallel {beta}-sheet, and one {alpha}-helix.

  11. An approximate solution for one-dimensional absorption in unsaturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Robert W.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    1989-06-01

    The "boundary layer" or "integral" method is used to derive a closed-form approximate solution for one-dimensional absorption of water in an unsaturated porous medium whose characteristic curves are of the van Genuchten type. In this approach, an assumed saturation profile is substituted into the governing equation, and integrated from the boundary out to the wetting front. This yields closed-form solutions for the front location and the instantaneous liquid flux at the boundary. The accuracy of this solution in predicting the flux, as determined by comparison with numerical solutions utilizing a Boltzmann-type transformation, is always within 15%, for any value of the initial saturation. As an example of the use of this approximate solution, saturation profiles are calculated for absorption into the Topopah Spring volcanic tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of the proposed nuclear waste repository.

  12. Surviving a School Closing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witt, Peter M.; Moccia, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    When a beloved school closes, community emotions run high. De Witt and Moccia, administrators in the Averill Park School District in upstate New York, describe how their district navigated through parents' anger and practical matters in closing a small neighborhood elementary school and transferring all its students to another school. With a group…

  13. 7 CFR 1955.109 - Processing and closing (CONACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing and closing (CONACT). 1955.109 Section... Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (conact) Real Property § 1955.109 Processing and closing (CONACT... repayment ability. (b) (c) Form of payment. Payments at closing will be in the form of cash, cashier's...

  14. 7 CFR 1955.109 - Processing and closing (CONACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing and closing (CONACT). 1955.109 Section... Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (conact) Real Property § 1955.109 Processing and closing (CONACT... repayment ability. (b) (c) Form of payment. Payments at closing will be in the form of cash, cashier's...

  15. 7 CFR 1955.109 - Processing and closing (CONACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing and closing (CONACT). 1955.109 Section... Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (conact) Real Property § 1955.109 Processing and closing (CONACT... repayment ability. (b) (c) Form of payment. Payments at closing will be in the form of cash, cashier's...

  16. 7 CFR 3565.305 - Mortgage and closing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mortgage and closing requirements. 3565.305 Section... and closing requirements. It is the lender's responsibility to ensure that the loan closing statement and required loan documents are in a form acceptable to the Agency and included in the closing...

  17. 7 CFR 3565.305 - Mortgage and closing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mortgage and closing requirements. 3565.305 Section... and closing requirements. It is the lender's responsibility to ensure that the loan closing statement and required loan documents are in a form acceptable to the Agency and included in the closing...

  18. 7 CFR 1927.54 - Requirements for closing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for closing agents. 1927.54 Section 1927... PROGRAM REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.54 Requirements for closing agents. (a) Form of title certification. State Offices are directed...

  19. Closed-form decomposition of one-loop massive amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-15

    We present formulas for the coefficients of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-point master integrals for one-loop massive amplitudes. The coefficients are derived from unitarity cuts in D dimensions. The input parameters can be read off from any unitarity-cut integrand, as assembled from tree-level expressions, after simple algebraic manipulations. The formulas presented here are suitable for analytical as well as numerical evaluation. Their validity is confirmed in two known cases of helicity amplitudes contributing to gg{yields}gg and gg{yields}gH, where the masses of the Higgs and the fermion circulating in the loop are kept as free parameters.

  20. Closed Form Expressions for an Integral Involving the Coulomb Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcisaac, K.; Gottschalk, J. E.; Maslen, E. N.

    1986-12-01

    Expressions for an integral related to the Coulomb potential are given. The expressions are in terms of logarithms and polynomials or logarithms and sums of Legendre polynomials. Identities relating an infinite sum of Legendre polynomials to a finite sum of Legendre polynomials can be deduced. This expression can be used in the domain to t → 1, z → 1 where quadrature fails.

  1. Pseudo Algebraically Closed Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bary-Soroker, Lior

    2009-07-01

    This PhD deals with the notion of pseudo algebraically closed (PAC) extensions of fields. It develops a group-theoretic machinery, based on a generalization of embedding problems, to study these extensions. Perhaps the main result is that although there are many PAC extensions, the Galois closure of a proper PAC extension is separably closed. The dissertation also contains the following subjects. The group theoretical counterpart of pseudo algebraically closed extensions, the so-called projective pairs. Applications to seemingly unrelated subjects, e.g., an analog of Dirichlet's theorem about primes in arithmetic progression for polynomial rings in one variable over infinite fields.

  2. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  3. Maximum likelihood molecular clock comb: analytic solutions.

    PubMed

    Chor, Benny; Khetan, Amit; Snir, Sagi

    2006-04-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM), are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model--three taxa, two state characters, under a molecular clock. Four taxa rooted trees have two topologies--the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). In a previous work, we devised a closed form analytic solution for the ML molecular clock fork. In this work, we extend the state of the art in the area of analytic solutions ML trees to the family of all four taxa trees under the molecular clock assumption. The change from the fork topology to the comb incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system and requires novel techniques and approaches. We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations. We finally use tools from algebraic geometry (e.g., Gröbner bases, ideal saturation, resultants) and employ symbolic algebra software to obtain analytic solutions for the comb. We show that in contrast to the fork, the comb has no closed form solutions (expressed by radicals in the input data). In general, four taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that under the molecular clock assumption, the comb has a unique (local and global) ML point. (Such uniqueness was previously shown for the fork.).

  4. Class of solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, H. S.; Bezerra, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    We show that the solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in a homogeneous and isotropic universe are given by triconfluent Heun functions for the spatially closed, flat, and open geometries of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with different forms of energy. In a matter-dominated universe, we find the polynomial solution and the energy density spectrum. In the cases of radiation-dominated and vacuum universes, there are no polynomial solutions as shown.

  5. Time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose , D.M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2008-04-01

    We present a spectrally accurate numerical method for finding non-trivial time-periodic solutions of non-linear partial differential equations. The method is based on minimizing a functional (of the initial condition and the period) that is positive unless the solution is periodic, in which case it is zero. We solve an adjoint PDE to compute the gradient of this functional with respect to the initial condition. We include additional terms in the functional to specify the free parameters, which, in the case of the Benjamin-Ono equation, are the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase and the real part of one of the Fourier modes at t = 0. We use our method to study global paths of non-trivial time-periodic solutions connecting stationary and traveling waves of the Benjamin-Ono equation. As a starting guess for each path, we compute periodic solutions of the linearized problem by solving an infinite dimensional eigenvalue problem in closed form. We then use our numerical method to continue these solutions beyond the realm of linear theory until another traveling wave is reached (or until the solution blows up). By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the analytical form of the solutions on the path connecting the one-hump stationary solution to the two-hump traveling wave. We then derive exact formulas for these solutions by explicitly solving the system of ODE's governing the evolution of solitons using the ansatz suggested by the numerical simulations.

  6. Exact solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation via similarity reduction and applications to magnetically confined plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltsas, Dimitrios A.; Throumoulopoulos, George N.

    2016-10-01

    We derive exact solutions of a linear form of the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation, including incompressible equilibrium flow, using ansatz-based similarity reduction methods. The linearity of the equilibrium equation allows linear combinations of solutions in order to obtain axisymmetric MHD equilibria with closed and nested magnetic surfaces which are favorable for the effective confinement of laboratory plasmas. In addition, employing the same reduction methods we obtain analytical solutions for several non-linear forms of the GS equation. In this context analytic force-free solutions in both linear and nonlinear regimes are also derived.

  7. Reflux condensation in a closed tube

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, C.L.

    1984-10-01

    Reflux condensation which may have an appreciable effect on the reflood process in the reactor core during the loss-of-coolant accident is investigated experimentally and analytically in the present work using the vertical two-phase closed thermosyphon. The condensation heat transfer coefficients of the countercurrent vapor-liquid flows are locally measured along the condenser wall. The results indicate that Nusselt's solution for film condensation cannot interpret satisfactorily the observed trend. Further improvements are made to consider the effects of interfacial shear, waviness and non-condensable gas on condensation. The vapor shear retards the condensate flow and thus increases the film thickness, which results in lower heat transfer coefficients than those calculated from Nusselt theory. Modified Fanning friction factors which account for the augmentation of interfacial shear through phase change are used to evaluate the reduction of heat transfer by vapor shear. On the other hand, the waves appearing on the interface can enhance heat transfer rates. Such enhancement is determined by solving numerically the nonlinear equation for the wavy interface. When non-condensable gases are present in the system, they will accumulate at the condenser end forming a gas barrier to the vapor and shut off that portion. A two-dimensional model is developed to include both axial and radial diffusion of gas mass. This two-dimensional analysis indicates the inadequacy of the common one-dimensional diffuse-front model in considering only axial diffusion of gas in most physical systems.

  8. Closed inductively coupled plasma cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, Thomas J.; Palmer, Byron A.; Hof, Douglas E.

    1990-01-01

    A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy.

  9. Closed inductively coupled plasma cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, T.J.; Palmer, B.A.; Hof, D.E.

    1990-11-06

    A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies is disclosed. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy. 1 fig.

  10. Skyrme-Einstein closed cosmic chiral strings

    SciTech Connect

    Rybakov, Yu. P. Ivanova, I. S.

    2007-07-15

    Within the theory of general relativity, the configuration of a closed string (vortex) characterized by a topological charge of the degree type is described for the Skyrme-Einstein SU (2) chiral model. In the approximation of a large vortex-closure radius (a), a solution to equations of motion is obtained, along with estimates for the vortex energy and radius.

  11. Non-supersymmetric D1/D5, F/NS5 and closed string tachyon condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. X.; Roy, Shibaji; Wang, Zhao-Long; Wu, Rong-Jun

    2009-09-01

    We construct the intersecting non-supersymmetric (non-susy) D1/D5 solution of type IIB string theory. While, as usual, the solution is charged under an electric two-form and an electric six-form gauge field, it also contains a non-susy chargeless (non-BPS) D0-brane. The S-dual of this solution is the non-susy F/NS5 solution. We show how these solutions nicely interpolate between the corresponding black (or non-extremal) solutions and the Kaluza-Klein (KK) "bubble of nothing" (BON) by continuously changing some parameters characterizing the solutions from one set of values to another. We show, by a time symmetric general bubble initial data analysis, that the final bubbles in these cases are static and stable and the interpolations can be physically interpreted as closed string tachyon condensation. As special cases, we recover the transition of two charge black F-string to BON, considered by Horowitz, and also the transition from AdS 3 black hole to global AdS 3.

  12. Grafts in "closed" rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Scattolin, A; D'Ascanio, L

    2013-06-01

    Rhinoplasty is a fascinating and complex surgical procedure aiming at attaining a well-functioning and aesthetically pleasant nose. The use of grafts is of the utmost importance for the nasal surgeon to achieve such results. However, the philosophy and technical use of nasal grafts are different in "closed" and "open" rhinoplasty. The aim of this paper is not detailed description of the numerous grafts reported in the literature; we will describe the main principles of grafts use in "closed" rhinoplasty derived from our experience, with special reference to the philosophical and technical differences in their employment between "closed" and "open" rhinoplasty. Some cases are reported as an example of graft use in "endonasal" approach rhinoplasty.

  13. Complete solution for unambiguous discrimination of three pure states with real inner products

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M.; Hayashi, A.

    2010-09-15

    Complete solutions are given in a closed analytic form for unambiguous discrimination of three general pure states with real mutual inner products. For this purpose, we first establish some general results on unambiguous discrimination of n linearly independent pure states. The uniqueness of solution is proved. The condition under which the problem is reduced to an (n-1)-state problem is clarified. After giving the solution for three pure states with real mutual inner products, we examine some difficulties in extending our method to the case of complex inner products. There is a class of set of three pure states with complex inner products for which we obtain an analytical solution.

  14. Spatiotemporal decomposition of solute dispersion in watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riml, Joakim; Wörman, Anders

    2015-04-01

    Information about the effect of different dispersion mechanisms on the solute response in watersheds is crucial for understanding the temporal dynamics of many water quality problems. However, to quantify these processes from stream water quality time series may be difficult because the governing mechanisms responsible for the concentration fluctuations span a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. In an attempt to address the quantification problem, we propose a novel methodology that includes a spectral decomposition of the watershed solute response using a distributed solute transport model for the network of transport pathways in surface and subsurface water. Closed form solutions of the transport problem in both the Laplace and Fourier domains are used to derive formal expressions of (i) the central temporal moments of a solute pulse response and (ii) the power spectral response of a solute concentration time series. By evaluating high-frequency hydrochemical data from the Upper Hafren Watershed, Wales, we linked the watershed dispersion mechanisms to the damping of the concentration fluctuations in different frequency intervals reflecting various environments responsible for the damping. The evaluation of the frequency-dependent model parameters indicate that the contribution of the different environments to the concentration fluctuations at the watershed effluent varies with period. For the longest periods (predominantly groundwater transport pathways) we found that the frequency typical transport time of chloride was 100 times longer and that sodium had a 2.5 times greater retardation factor compared with the shortest periods (predominantly shallow groundwater and surface water transport pathways).

  15. Electromagnetic fields radiated from a lightning return stroke - Application of an exact solution to Maxwell's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Meneghini, R.

    1978-01-01

    A solution is presented for the electromagnetic fields radiated by an arbitrarily oriented current filament over a conducting ground plane in the case where the current propagates along the filament at the speed of light, and this solution is interpreted in terms of radiation from lightning return strokes. The solution is exact in the fullest sense; no mathematical approximations are made, and the governing differential equations and boundary conditions are satisfied. The solution has the additional attribute of being specified in closed form in terms of elementary functions. This solution is discussed from the point of view of deducing lightning current wave forms from measurements of the electromagnetic fields and understanding the effects of channel tortuosity on the radiated fields. In addition, it is compared with two approximate solutions, the traditional moment approximation and the Fraunhofer approximation, and a set of criteria describing their applicability are presented and interpreted.

  16. The passage of an infinite swept airfoil through an oblique gust. [approximate solution for aerodynamic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    An approximate solution is reported for the unsteady aerodynamic response of an infinite swept wing encountering a vertical oblique gust in a compressible stream. The approximate expressions are of closed form and do not require excessive computer storage or computation time, and further, they are in good agreement with the results of exact theory. This analysis is used to predict the unsteady aerodynamic response of a helicopter rotor blade encountering the trailing vortex from a previous blade. Significant effects of three dimensionality and compressibility are evident in the results obtained. In addition, an approximate solution for the unsteady aerodynamic forces associated with the pitching or plunging motion of a two dimensional airfoil in a subsonic stream is presented. The mathematical form of this solution approaches the incompressible solution as the Mach number vanishes, the linear transonic solution as the Mach number approaches one, and the solution predicted by piston theory as the reduced frequency becomes large.

  17. A new type of self-supported, polymeric Ru-carbene complex for homogeneous catalysis and heterogeneous recovery: synthesis and catalytic activities for ring-closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Wei; Kim, Ju Hyun; Shin, Hyunik; Lee, Sang-Gi

    2008-08-01

    A novel 2nd generation Grubbs-type catalyst tethering an isopropoxystyrene has been synthesized and automatically polymerized in solution to form a self-supported polymeric Ru-carbene complex, which catalyzed ring-closing metathesis homogeneously, but was recovered heterogeneously.

  18. Closing the Loop Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    Closing the Loop (CTL) is a science curriculum designed to introduce students to integrated waste management through awareness. This document presents five lesson plans focusing on developing an understanding of natural resources, solid wastes, conservation, and the life of landfills. Contents include: (1) "What Are Natural Resources?"; (2)…

  19. Closing the Performance Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Cheryl G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the principal of a K-2, 400-student suburban elementary school near Flint, Michigan, worked with her staff and superintendent to develop and implement a strategic plan to close the student achievement gap. Reports significant improvement in reading and math scores after 1 year. (PKP)

  20. Review: The Closing Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Two views of prominent biologists are presented side-by-side. Focal point is Barry Commoner's book, The Closing Circle, with a subsequent review by Paul Ehrlich. Growth of population, increases in affluence, and increased pollution from products of technology are considered. (BL)

  1. Closed Small Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... (right)   The structure of tightly packed "closed cells" in a layer of marine stratocumulus over the southeastern Pacific Ocean ... into interesting structures such as those shown here. These cells are notably small, with diameters ranging from 10-15 kilometers, instead ...

  2. On the first G 1 stiff fluid spike solution in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, A. A.; Gregoris, D.; Lim, W. C.

    2016-11-01

    Using the Geroch transformation we obtain the first example of an exact stiff fluid spike solution to the Einstein field equations in a closed form exhibiting a spacelike G 1 group of symmetries (i.e., with a single isometry). This new solution is of Petrov type I and exhibits a spike crossing which persists to the past, which allows us to better understand spike crossings in the context of structure formation.

  3. Rational extension and Jacobi-type X{sub m} solutions of a quantum nonlinear oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Roy, Barnana

    2013-12-15

    We construct a rational extension of a recently studied nonlinear quantum oscillator model. Our extended model is shown to retain exact solvability, admitting a discrete spectrum and corresponding closed-form solutions that are expressed through Jacobi-type X{sub m} exceptional orthogonal polynomials.

  4. Exact Analytical Solution of the Klein-Gordon Equation in the Generalized Woods-Saxon Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrak, O.; Sahin, D.

    2015-09-01

    The exact analytical solution of the Klein-Gordon equation for the spin-0 particles in the generalized Woods-Saxon potential is presented. The bound state energy eigenvalues and corresponding wave functions are obtained in the closed forms. The correlations between the potential parameters and energy eigenvalues are examined for π0 particles.

  5. Temperature stability of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] in the form of a solution or in the lyophilized form during storage at -80 °C, 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C or pasteurization at 70 °C.

    PubMed

    Bian, Y Z; Guo, C; Chang, T M S

    2016-01-01

    Polyhemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase (Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA]) contains all three major functions of red blood cells (RBCs) at an enhanced level. It transports oxygen, removes oxygen radicals and transports carbon dioxide. Our previous studies in a 90-min 30 mm Hg Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) sustained hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it is more effective than blood in the lowering of elevated intracellular pCO2, recovery of ST-elevation and histology of the heart and intestine. This paper is to analyze the storage and temperature stability. Allowable storage time for RBC is about 1 d at room temperature and 42 d at 4 °C. Also, RBC cannot be pasteurized to remove infective agents like HIV and Ebola. PolyHb can be heat sterilized and can be stored for 1 year even at room temperature. However, Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] contains both Hb and enzymes and enzymes are particularly sensitive to storage and heat. We thus carried out studies to analyze its storage stability at different temperatures and heat pasteurization stability. Results of storage stability show that lyophilization extends the storage time to 1 year at 4 °C and 40 d at room temperature (compared to respectively, 42 d and 1 d for RBC). After the freeze-dry process, the enzyme activities of Poly-[SFHb-SOD-CAT-CA] was 100 ± 2% for CA, 100 ± 2% for SOD and 93 ± 3.5% for CAT. After heat pasteurization at 70 °C for 2 h, lyophilized Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] retained good enzyme activities of CA 97 ± 4%, SOD 100 ± 2.5% and CAT 63.8 ± 4%. More CAT can be added during the crosslinking process to maintain the same enzyme ratio after heat pasteurization. Heat pasteurization is possible only for the lyophilized form of Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] and not for the solution. It can be easily reconstituted by dissolving in suitable solutions that continues to have good storage stability though less than that for the lyophilized form. According to the P50 value, Poly-[SFHb-SOD-CAT-CA] retains its

  6. Temperature stability of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] in the form of a solution or in the lyophilized form during storage at -80 °C, 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C or pasteurization at 70 °C.

    PubMed

    Bian, Y Z; Guo, C; Chang, T M S

    2016-01-01

    Polyhemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase (Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA]) contains all three major functions of red blood cells (RBCs) at an enhanced level. It transports oxygen, removes oxygen radicals and transports carbon dioxide. Our previous studies in a 90-min 30 mm Hg Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) sustained hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it is more effective than blood in the lowering of elevated intracellular pCO2, recovery of ST-elevation and histology of the heart and intestine. This paper is to analyze the storage and temperature stability. Allowable storage time for RBC is about 1 d at room temperature and 42 d at 4 °C. Also, RBC cannot be pasteurized to remove infective agents like HIV and Ebola. PolyHb can be heat sterilized and can be stored for 1 year even at room temperature. However, Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] contains both Hb and enzymes and enzymes are particularly sensitive to storage and heat. We thus carried out studies to analyze its storage stability at different temperatures and heat pasteurization stability. Results of storage stability show that lyophilization extends the storage time to 1 year at 4 °C and 40 d at room temperature (compared to respectively, 42 d and 1 d for RBC). After the freeze-dry process, the enzyme activities of Poly-[SFHb-SOD-CAT-CA] was 100 ± 2% for CA, 100 ± 2% for SOD and 93 ± 3.5% for CAT. After heat pasteurization at 70 °C for 2 h, lyophilized Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] retained good enzyme activities of CA 97 ± 4%, SOD 100 ± 2.5% and CAT 63.8 ± 4%. More CAT can be added during the crosslinking process to maintain the same enzyme ratio after heat pasteurization. Heat pasteurization is possible only for the lyophilized form of Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] and not for the solution. It can be easily reconstituted by dissolving in suitable solutions that continues to have good storage stability though less than that for the lyophilized form. According to the P50 value, Poly-[SFHb-SOD-CAT-CA] retains its

  7. Permission Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    The prevailing practice in public schools is to routinely require permission or release forms for field trips and other activities that pose potential for liability. The legal status of such forms varies, but they are generally considered to be neither rock-solid protection nor legally valueless in terms of immunity. The following case and the…

  8. Exocharmic Reactions up Close

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramette, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    The exocharmic reactions that can be observed microscopically are discussed. The students can discover the optimal concentration of an acidic lead nitrate solution, so that a crystal of potassium iodide, nudged to the edge of a drop, results in glinting golden hexagons of lead iodide.

  9. Close relative equilibria of identical point vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirksen, Tobias; Aref, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    Via numerical solution of the classical problem of relative equilibria for identical point vortices on the unbounded plane we have found configurations that are very close to the analytically known, centered, symmetrically arranged, nested equilateral triangles. Numerical solutions of this kind were found for 3 n + 1 vortices, where n = 2 , 3 , ... , 30 . A sufficient, although apparently not necessary, condition for this phenomenon of close solutions is that the ``core'' of the configuration is marginally stable, as occurs for a central vortex surrounded by an equilateral triangle. The open, regular heptagon also has this property, and new relative equilibria close to the nested, symmetrically arranged, regular heptagons have been found. The centered regular nonagon is also marginally stable. Again, a new family of close relative equilibria has been found. The closest relative equilibrium pairs occur, however, for symmetrically nested equilateral triangles. The numerical evidence is surveyed and related recent work mentioned. A Letter in Physics of Fluids 23 (2011) 051706 is available. Supported in part by the Danish National Research Foundation through a Niels Bohr visiting professorship.

  10. Closed-loop anesthesia.

    PubMed

    LE Guen, Morgan; Liu, Ngai; Chazot, Thierry; Fischler, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Automated anesthesia which may offer to the physician time to control hemodynamic and to supervise neurological outcome and which may offer to the patient safety and quality was until recently consider as a holy grail. But this field of research is now increasing in every component of general anesthesia (hypnosis, nociception, neuromuscular blockade) and literature describes some successful algorithms - single or multi closed-loop controller. The aim of these devices is to control a predefined target and to continuously titrate anesthetics whatever the patients' co morbidities and surgical events to reach this target. Literature contains many randomized trials comparing manual and automated anesthesia and shows feasibility and safety of this system. Automation could quickly concern other aspects of anesthesia as fluid management and this review proposes an overview of closed-loop systems in anesthesia.

  11. Laterally closed lattice homomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumi, Mohamed Ali; Toumi, Nedra

    2006-12-01

    Let A and B be two Archimedean vector lattices and let be a lattice homomorphism. We call that T is laterally closed if T(D) is a maximal orthogonal system in the band generated by T(A) in B, for each maximal orthogonal system D of A. In this paper we prove that any laterally closed lattice homomorphism T of an Archimedean vector lattice A with universal completion Au into a universally complete vector lattice B can be extended to a lattice homomorphism of Au into B, which is an improvement of a result of M. Duhoux and M. Meyer [M. Duhoux and M. Meyer, Extended orthomorphisms and lateral completion of Archimedean Riesz spaces, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 98 (1984) 3-18], who established it for the order continuous lattice homomorphism case. Moreover, if in addition Au and B are with point separating order duals (Au)' and B' respectively, then the laterally closedness property becomes a necessary and sufficient condition for any lattice homomorphism to have a similar extension to the whole Au. As an application, we give a new representation theorem for laterally closed d-algebras from which we infer the existence of d-algebra multiplications on the universal completions of d-algebras.

  12. Analytically-derived sensitivities in one-dimensional models of solute transport in porous media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopman, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Analytically-derived sensitivities are presented for parameters in one-dimensional models of solute transport in porous media. Sensitivities were derived by direct differentiation of closed form solutions for each of the odel, and by a time integral method for two of the models. Models are based on the advection-dispersion equation and include adsorption and first-order chemical decay. Boundary conditions considered are: a constant step input of solute, constant flux input of solute, and exponentially decaying input of solute at the upstream boundary. A zero flux is assumed at the downstream boundary. Initial conditions include a constant and spatially varying distribution of solute. One model simulates the mixing of solute in an observation well from individual layers in a multilayer aquifer system. Computer programs produce output files compatible with graphics software in which sensitivities are plotted as a function of either time or space. (USGS)

  13. The Second Extracellular Loop of Pore-Forming Subunits of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters for Basic Amino Acids Plays a Crucial Role in Interaction with the Cognate Solute Binding Protein(s)▿

    PubMed Central

    Eckey, Viola; Weidlich, Daniela; Landmesser, Heidi; Bergmann, Ulf; Schneider, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    In the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus, the uptake of basic amino acids is mediated by an ABC transporter composed of the substrate binding protein (receptor) ArtJ and a homodimer each of the pore-forming subunit, ArtM, and the nucleotide-binding subunit, ArtP. We recently identified two putative binding sites in ArtJ that might interact with the Art(MP)2 complex, thereby initiating the transport cycle (A. Vahedi-Faridi et al., J. Mol. Biol. 375:448-459, 2008). Here we investigated the contribution of charged amino acid residues in the second extracellular loop of ArtM to contact with ArtJ. Our results demonstrate a crucial role for residues K177, R185, and E188, since mutations to oppositely charged amino acids or glutamine led to a complete loss of ArtJ-stimulated ATPase activity of the complex variants in proteoliposomes. The defects could not be suppressed by ArtJ variants carrying mutations in site I (K39E and K152E) or II (E163K and D170K), suggesting a more complex interplay than that by a single salt bridge. These findings were supported by cross-linking assays demonstrating physical proximity between ArtJ(N166C) and ArtM(E182C). The importance of positively charged residues for receptor-transporter interaction was underscored by mutational analysis of the closely related transporter HisJ/LAO-HisQMP2 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. While transporter variants with mutated positively charged residues in HisQ displayed residual ATPase activities, corresponding mutants of HisM could no longer be stimulated by HisJ/LAO. Interestingly, the ATPase activity of the HisQM(K187E)P2 variant was inhibited by l- and d-histidine in detergent, suggesting a role of the residue in preventing free histidine from gaining access to the substrate binding site within HisQM. PMID:20154136

  14. The second extracellular loop of pore-forming subunits of ATP-binding cassette transporters for basic amino acids plays a crucial role in interaction with the cognate solute binding protein(s).

    PubMed

    Eckey, Viola; Weidlich, Daniela; Landmesser, Heidi; Bergmann, Ulf; Schneider, Erwin

    2010-04-01

    In the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus, the uptake of basic amino acids is mediated by an ABC transporter composed of the substrate binding protein (receptor) ArtJ and a homodimer each of the pore-forming subunit, ArtM, and the nucleotide-binding subunit, ArtP. We recently identified two putative binding sites in ArtJ that might interact with the Art(MP)(2) complex, thereby initiating the transport cycle (A. Vahedi-Faridi et al., J. Mol. Biol. 375:448-459, 2008). Here we investigated the contribution of charged amino acid residues in the second extracellular loop of ArtM to contact with ArtJ. Our results demonstrate a crucial role for residues K177, R185, and E188, since mutations to oppositely charged amino acids or glutamine led to a complete loss of ArtJ-stimulated ATPase activity of the complex variants in proteoliposomes. The defects could not be suppressed by ArtJ variants carrying mutations in site I (K39E and K152E) or II (E163K and D170K), suggesting a more complex interplay than that by a single salt bridge. These findings were supported by cross-linking assays demonstrating physical proximity between ArtJ(N166C) and ArtM(E182C). The importance of positively charged residues for receptor-transporter interaction was underscored by mutational analysis of the closely related transporter HisJ/LAO-HisQMP(2) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. While transporter variants with mutated positively charged residues in HisQ displayed residual ATPase activities, corresponding mutants of HisM could no longer be stimulated by HisJ/LAO. Interestingly, the ATPase activity of the HisQM(K187E)P(2) variant was inhibited by l- and d-histidine in detergent, suggesting a role of the residue in preventing free histidine from gaining access to the substrate binding site within HisQM. PMID:20154136

  15. An insect-induced novel plant phenotype for sustaining social life in a closed system.

    PubMed

    Kutsukake, Mayako; Meng, Xian-Ying; Katayama, Noboru; Nikoh, Naruo; Shibao, Harunobu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-01-01

    Foraging, defense and waste disposal are essential for sustaining social insect colonies. Hence, their nest generally has an open structure, wherein specialized castes called workers and soldiers perform these tasks. However, some social aphids form completely closed galls, wherein hundreds to thousands of insects grow and reproduce for several months in isolation. Why these social aphids are not drowned by accumulated honeydew has been an enigma. Here we report a sophisticated biological solution to the waste problem in the closed system: the gall inner surface is specialized for absorbing water, whereby honeydew is promptly removed via the plant vascular system. The water-absorbing closed galls have evolved at least twice independently among social aphids. The plant-mediated waste removal, which entails insect's manipulation of plant morphogenesis and physiology, comprises a previously unknown mechanism of nest cleaning, which can be regarded as 'extended phenotype' and 'indirect social behavior' of the social aphids.

  16. Good form.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-03-01

    New standardized prior authorization forms for health care services and prescription drugs released by the Texas Department of Insurance promise to alleviate administrative busy work and its related costs.

  17. Solution thermodynamic stability of complexes formed with the octadentate hydroxypyridinonate ligand 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO): a critical feature for efficient chelation of lanthanide(IV) and actinide(IV) ions.

    PubMed

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2013-08-01

    The solution thermodynamics of water-soluble complexes formed between Ce(III), Ce(IV), Th(IV) and the octadentate chelating agent 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) were investigated. Several techniques including spectrofluorimetric and automated spectrophotometric titrations were used to overcome the slow spontaneous oxidation of Ce(III) complexes yielding to stability constants of log β110 = 17.4 ± 0.5, log β11-1 = 8.3 ± 0.4 and log β111 = 21.2 ± 0.4 for [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))](-), [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO)(OH)](2-), and [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO)H], respectively. Using the spectral properties of the hydroxypyridinonate chelator in ligand competition titrations against nitrilotriacetic acid, the stability constant log β110 = 41.5 ± 0.5 was determined for [Ce(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. Finally, the extraordinarily stable complex [Ce(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] was used in Th(IV) competition titrations, resulting in a stability constant of log β110 = 40.1 ± 0.5 for [Th(IV)3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates, they are discussed with respect to the ionic radius and oxidation state of each cationic metal, and allow predictions on the stability of other actinide complexes including [U(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], [Np(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. Comparisons with the standard ligand diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) provide a thermodynamic basis for the observed significantly higher efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as an in vivo actinide decorporation agent. PMID:23855806

  18. Solution thermodynamic stability of complexes formed with the octadentate hydroxypyridinonate ligand 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO): A critical feature for efficient chelation of lanthanide(IV) and actinide(IV) ions

    PubMed Central

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    The solution thermodynamics of water soluble complexes formed between Ce(III), Ce(IV), Th(IV) and the octadentate chelating agent 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) were investigated. Several techniques including spectrofluorimetric and automated spectrophotometric titrations were used to overcome the slow spontaneous oxidation of Ce(III) complexes yielding to stability constants of log β110 = 17.4 ± 0.5, log β11-1 = 8.3 ± 0.4 and log β111 = 21.2 ± 0.4 for [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]−, [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO)(OH)]2− and [Ce(III)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO)H], respectively. Using the spectral properties of the hydroxypyridinonate chelator in ligand competition titrations against nitrilotriacetic acid, the stability constant log β110 = 41.5 ± 0.5 was determined for [Ce(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. Finally, the extraordinarily stable complex [Ce(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] was used in Th(IV) competition titrations, resulting in a stability constant of log β110 = 40.1 ± 0.5 for [Th(IV)3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates, they are discussed with respect to the ionic radius and oxidation state of each cationic metal and allow predictions on the stability of other actinide complexes including [U(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], [Np(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))]. Comparisons with the standard ligand diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) provide a thermodynamic basis for the observed significantly higher efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as an in vivo actinide decorporation agent. PMID:23855806

  19. Navy closes Antarctic unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After 42 years as a key participant in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP), the U.S. Navy held a ceremony on February 20 to commemorate the closing of its Naval Antarctic Support Unit stationed in New Zealand. The Navy originally had announced its decision to "disestablish" the unit in 1993, citing new global priorities with the end of the Cold War.The Navy will continue to provide limited flight support to the USAP through the end of the 1998-1999 austral research season.

  20. Evaluation of Closed Stress Corrosion Cracks in Ni-Based Alloy Weld Metal Using Subharmonic Phased Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horinouchi, Satoshi; Ikeuchi, Masako; Shintaku, Yohei; Ohara, Yoshikazu; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    2012-07-01

    Closed stress corrosion cracks (SCCs) have been generated in Ni-based alloy weld metal in nuclear power plants. The ultrasonic inspection is difficult because of the crack closure. For the application of new inspection methods and training/educating of inspection engineers, realistic closed SCC specimens are required. However, there is no means for forming such SCC specimens in a reasonable amount of time. Here, we present a two-step method. The first step is to form an open SCC in chemical solution. The second step is to close the SCC by generating oxide films between the crack faces in high-temperature pressurized water (HTPW). To verify the crack closure, we used a closed-crack imaging apparatus, the subharmonic phased array for crack evaluation (SPACE). Consequently, we found that parts of the SCC after 1321 h immersion were closed in the HTPW. Thus, we verified the two-step method for forming realistic closed SCC specimens in a reasonable amount of time.