Science.gov

Sample records for closed form solutions

  1. Optimal Mortgage Refinancing: A Closed Form Solution.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sumit; Driscoll, John C; Laibson, David I

    2013-06-01

    We derive the first closed-form optimal refinancing rule: Refinance when the current mortgage interest rate falls below the original rate by at least [Formula: see text] In this formula W(.) is the Lambert W-function, [Formula: see text]ρ is the real discount rate, λ is the expected real rate of exogenous mortgage repayment, σ is the standard deviation of the mortgage rate, κ/M is the ratio of the tax-adjusted refinancing cost and the remaining mortgage value, and τ is the marginal tax rate. This expression is derived by solving a tractable class of refinancing problems. Our quantitative results closely match those reported by researchers using numerical methods.

  2. Optimal Mortgage Refinancing: A Closed Form Solution

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sumit; Driscoll, John C.; Laibson, David I.

    2013-01-01

    We derive the first closed-form optimal refinancing rule: Refinance when the current mortgage interest rate falls below the original rate by at least 1ψ[ϕ+W(−exp(−ϕ))]. In this formula W(.) is the Lambert W-function, ψ=2(ρ+λ)σ,ϕ=1+ψ(ρ+λ)κ∕M(1−τ), ρ is the real discount rate, λ is the expected real rate of exogenous mortgage repayment, σ is the standard deviation of the mortgage rate, κ/M is the ratio of the tax-adjusted refinancing cost and the remaining mortgage value, and τ is the marginal tax rate. This expression is derived by solving a tractable class of refinancing problems. Our quantitative results closely match those reported by researchers using numerical methods. PMID:25843977

  3. A simple closed-form solution for assessing concentration uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F. P. J.; Fiori, Aldo; Bellin, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    We propose closed-form approximate solutions for the moments of a nonreactive tracer that can be used in applications, such as risk analysis. This is in line with the tenet that analytical solutions provide useful information, with minimum cost, during initial site characterization efforts and can serve as a preliminary screening tool when used with prior knowledge. We show that with the help of a few assumptions, the first-order solutions of the concentration moments proposed by Fiori and Dagan (2000) can be further simplified to assume a form similar to well-known deterministic solutions, therefore facilitating their use in applications. A highly anisotropic formation is assumed, and we neglect the transverse components of the two-particle correlation trajectory. The proposed solution compares well with the work of Fiori and Dagan while presenting the same simplicity of use of existing solutions for homogeneous porous media.

  4. Closed-form solutions of performability. [in computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that if computing system performance is degradable then system evaluation must deal simultaneously with aspects of both performance and reliability. One approach is the evaluation of a system's performability which, relative to a specified performance variable Y, generally requires solution of the probability distribution function of Y. The feasibility of closed-form solutions of performability when Y is continuous are examined. In particular, the modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system is considered whose performance Y is the (normalized) average throughput rate realized during a bounded interval of time. Employing an approximate decomposition of the model, it is shown that a closed-form solution can indeed be obtained.

  5. Closed-form solutions to surface Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umerski, A.

    1997-02-01

    We obtain closed-form analytic solutions for surface Green's functions within arbitrary multiorbital models. The formulation is completely general, and is equally valid for empirical tight binding, linear-muffin-tin-orbital tight binding, screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker and other Green's-function equivalent formalisms, where the Hamiltonian can be put into a localized (i.e., block-band) form. The solutions are applicable to finite or semi-infinite surface systems, with quite general substrate and overlayers, or even to superlattices. This is achieved by solving Dyson's equations by means of a matrix-valued extension of the Möautbius transformation. The analytical properties of the solutions are discussed, and by considering their asymptotic limit, a simple closed form for the exact (semi-infinite) surface Green's function is obtained. The numerical calculation of the surface Green's function (or of observable quantities such as the density of states) using this closed form is compared with previously known iterative procedures. We find that it is far faster, far more stable, and more accurate than the best iterative method.

  6. A Closed Form Solution for an Unorthodox Trigonometric Integral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    A closed form solution for the trigonometric integral [integral]sec[superscript 2k+1]xdx, k=0,1,2,..., is presented in this article. The result will fill the gap in another trigonometric integral [integral]sec[superscript 2m+1] x tan[superscript 2n]xdx, which is neglected by most of the calculus textbooks due to its foreseeable unorthodox solution…

  7. Closed-form solution of decomposable stochastic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, Jon A.

    1992-01-01

    Equations to compute failure probabilities of the total (combined) model without a complete solution of the combined model are presented. A closed-form analytical approach to presentation of probabilities is used on the bases of the Symbolic Hierarchical Automated Reliability and Performance Evaluator tool. The techniques under consideration make it possible to compute the probability function for a much wider class of systems at a reduced computational cost.

  8. A Closed Form Solution for an Unorthodox Trigonometric Integral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    A closed form solution for the trigonometric integral [integral]sec[superscript 2k+1]xdx, k=0,1,2,..., is presented in this article. The result will fill the gap in another trigonometric integral [integral]sec[superscript 2m+1] x tan[superscript 2n]xdx, which is neglected by most of the calculus textbooks due to its foreseeable unorthodox solution…

  9. Determination of closed form solution for acceptance sampling using ANN.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, D; Selladurai, V; Nagaraj, P

    2004-01-01

    Tabled sampling schemes such as MIL-STD-105D offer limited flexibility to quality control engineers in designing sampling plans to meet specific needs. We describe a closed form solution to determine the AQL indexed single sampling plan using an artificial neural network (ANN). To determine the sample size and the acceptance number, feed-forward neural networks with sigmoid neural function are trained by a back propagation algorithm for normal, tightened, and reduced inspections. From these trained ANNs, the relevant weight and bias values are obtained. The closed form solutions to determine the sampling plans are obtained using these values. Numerical examples are provided for using these closed form solutions to determine sampling plans for normal, tightened, and reduced inspections. The proposed method does not involve table look-ups or complex calculations. Sampling plan can be determined by using this method, for any required acceptable quality level and lot size. Suggestions are provided to duplicate this idea for applying to other standard sampling table schemes.

  10. Delay chemical master equation: direct and closed-form solutions.

    PubMed

    Leier, Andre; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T

    2015-07-08

    The stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) describes the time evolution of a discrete nonlinear Markov process. This stochastic process has a probability density function that is the solution of a differential equation, commonly known as the chemical master equation (CME) or forward-Kolmogorov equation. In the same way that the CME gives rise to the SSA, and trajectories of the latter are exact with respect to the former, trajectories obtained from a delay SSA are exact representations of the underlying delay CME (DCME). However, in contrast to the CME, no closed-form solutions have so far been derived for any kind of DCME. In this paper, we describe for the first time direct and closed solutions of the DCME for simple reaction schemes, such as a single-delayed unimolecular reaction as well as chemical reactions for transcription and translation with delayed mRNA maturation. We also discuss the conditions that have to be met such that such solutions can be derived.

  11. Closed-form solution of decomposable stochastic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, Jon A.

    1990-01-01

    Markov and semi-Markov processes are increasingly being used in the modeling of complex reconfigurable systems (fault tolerant computers). The estimation of the reliability (or some measure of performance) of the system reduces to solving the process for its state probabilities. Such a model may exhibit numerous states and complicated transition distributions, contributing to an expensive and numerically delicate solution procedure. Thus, when a system exhibits a decomposition property, either structurally (autonomous subsystems), or behaviorally (component failure versus reconfiguration), it is desirable to exploit this decomposition in the reliability calculation. In interesting cases there can be failure states which arise from non-failure states of the subsystems. Equations are presented which allow the computation of failure probabilities of the total (combined) model without requiring a complete solution of the combined model. This material is presented within the context of closed-form functional representation of probabilities as utilized in the Symbolic Hierarchical Automated Reliability and Performance Evaluator (SHARPE) tool. The techniques adopted enable one to compute such probability functions for a much wider class of systems at a reduced computational cost. Several examples show how the method is used, especially in enhancing the versatility of the SHARPE tool.

  12. A Closed Form Vectorial Solution to the Relative Orbital Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condurache, C.; Martinuşi, V.

    2007-05-01

    Time-explicit solutions for relative Keplerian dynamics are presented for the general case in which the reference trajectory is elliptic, parabolic or hyperbolic. The non-linear differential equation modeling the motion is solved by means of tensorial and vectorial regularization methods. This regularizing procedure extends the approaches of Levi-Civita and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel in the case of Kepler problem in rotating reference frames. The solution generalizes the approximate results obtained from Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire, Lawden and Tschauner-Hempel equations. The approximate solutions derived from the liniarized models are in fact the first linear approximation of the exact solution the authors have found.

  13. Closed-form solutions for atomspheric flight with applications to shuttle guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Closed-form solutions for the motion of a rocket-powered vehicle during atmospheric ascent and closed-form solutions for unpowered atmospheric reentry are developed. These closed-form solutions are then used to develop a simplified guidance scheme and to develop a variation-of-parameters integration of more accurate equations of motion with the closed-form solutions as base solutions. The variation-of-parameters integration of the more accurate equations of motion also allows the transition partial derivative matrices associated with these equations to be easily developed. Then the partial derivative transition matrices are used to develop a guidance scheme based on the more accurate equations of motion instead of the less accurate closed-form solutions.

  14. Closed-form solutions for a class of optimal quadratic regulator problems with terminal constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J.-N.; Turner, J. D.; Chun, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Closed-form solutions are derived for coupled Riccati-like matrix differential equations describing the solution of a class of optimal finite time quadratic regulator problems with terminal constraints. Analytical solutions are obtained for the feedback gains and the closed-loop response trajectory. A computational procedure is presented which introduces new variables for efficient computation of the terminal control law. Two examples are given to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the theory.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic viscous flow over a nonlinearly moving surface: Closed-form solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tiegang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a nonlinearly (power-law velocity) moving surface is investigated analytically and solutions are presented for a few special conditions. The solutions are obtained in closed forms with hyperbolic functions. The effects of the magnetic, the wall moving, and the mass transpiration parameters are discussed. These solutions are important to show the flow physics as well as to be used as bench mark problems for numerical validation and development of new solution schemes.

  16. Closed-form solutions for estimating a rigid motion from plane correspondences extracted from point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshelham, Kourosh

    2016-04-01

    Registration is often a prerequisite step in processing point clouds. While planar surfaces are suitable features for registration, most of the existing plane-based registration methods rely on iterative solutions for the estimation of transformation parameters from plane correspondences. This paper presents a new closed-form solution for the estimation of a rigid motion from a set of point-plane correspondences. The role of normalization is investigated and its importance for accurate plane fitting and plane-based registration is shown. The paper also presents a thorough evaluation of the closed-form solutions and compares their performance with the iterative solution in terms of accuracy, robustness, stability and efficiency. The results suggest that the closed-form solution based on point-plane correspondences should be the method of choice in point cloud registration as it is significantly faster than the iterative solution, and performs as well as or better than the iterative solution in most situations. The normalization of the point coordinates is also recommended as an essential preprocessing step for point cloud registration. An implementation of the closed-form solutions in MATLAB is available at: http://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/kkhoshelham/research.html#directmotion.

  17. An efficient closed-form solution for acoustic emission source location in three-dimensional structures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xibing; Dong, Longjun

    2014-02-15

    This paper presents an efficient closed-form solution (ECS) for acoustic emission(AE) source location in three-dimensional structures using time difference of arrival (TDOA) measurements from N receivers, N ≥ 6. The nonlinear location equations of TDOA are simplified to linear equations. The unique analytical solution of AE sources for unknown velocity system is obtained by solving the linear equations. The proposed ECS method successfully solved the problems of location errors resulting from measured deviations of velocity as well as the existence and multiplicity of solutions induced by calculations of square roots in existed close-form methods.

  18. Propagation of sound waves through a linear shear layer - A closed form solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Closed form solutions are presented for sound propagation from a line source in or near a shear layer. The analysis is exact for all frequencies and is developed assuming a linear velocity profile in the shear layer. This assumption allows the solution to be expressed in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. The solution is presented for a line monopole source first embedded in the uniform flow and then in the shear layer. Solutions are also discussed for certain types of dipole and quadrupole sources. Asymptotic expansions of the exact solutions for small and large values of Strouhal number give expressions which correspond to solutions previously obtained for these limiting cases.

  19. Propagation of sound waves through a linear shear layer: A closed form solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Closed form solutions are presented for sound propagation from a line source in or near a shear layer. The analysis was exact for all frequencies and was developed assuming a linear velocity profile in the shear layer. This assumption allowed the solution to be expressed in terms of parabolic cyclinder functions. The solution is presented for a line monopole source first embedded in the uniform flow and then in the shear layer. Solutions are also discussed for certain types of dipole and quadrupole sources. Asymptotic expansions of the exact solutions for small and large values of Strouhal number gave expressions which correspond to solutions previously obtained for these limiting cases.

  20. Closed form solution to the semi-infinite cylindrical shell problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, J. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Reconsideration of the problem of a complete semiinfinite circular cylindrical shell with a square cage investigated earlier by Reissner and Simmonds (1966). It is shown that the solution can be found in closed form rather than in the form of Fourier series, provided that the boundary data on the end of the shell are 'slowly varying.'

  1. Closed-form solutions of performability. [modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Methods which yield closed form performability solutions for continuous valued variables are developed. The models are similar to those employed in performance modeling (i.e., Markovian queueing models) but are extended so as to account for variations in structure due to faults. In particular, the modeling of a degradable buffer/multiprocessor system is considered whose performance Y is the (normalized) average throughput rate realized during a bounded interval of time. To avoid known difficulties associated with exact transient solutions, an approximate decomposition of the model is employed permitting certain submodels to be solved in equilibrium. These solutions are then incorporated in a model with fewer transient states and by solving the latter, a closed form solution of the system's performability is obtained. In conclusion, some applications of this solution are discussed and illustrated, including an example of design optimization.

  2. An exact closed form solution for constant area compressible flow with friction and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturas, J. I.

    1971-01-01

    The well-known differential equation for the one-dimensional flow of a compressible fluid with heat transfer and wall friction has no known solution in closed form for the general case. This report presents a closed form solution for the special case of constant heat flux per unit length and constant specific heat. The solution was obtained by choosing the square of a dimensionless flow parameter as one of the independent variables to describe the flow. From this exact solution, an approximate simplified form is derived that is applicable for predicting subsonic flow performance characteristics for many types of constant area passages in internal flow. The data included in this report are considered sufficiently accurate for use as a guide in analyzing and designing internal gas flow systems.

  3. Closed-form solution of the Ogden-Hill's compressible hyperelastic model for ramp loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezvai, Szabolcs; Kossa, Attila

    2017-05-01

    This article deals with the visco-hyperelastic modelling approach for compressible polymer foam materials. Polymer foams can exhibit large elastic strains and displacements in case of volumetric compression. In addition, they often show significant rate-dependent properties. This material behaviour can be accurately modelled using the visco-hyperelastic approach, in which the large strain viscoelastic description is combined with the rate-independent hyperelastic material model. In case of polymer foams, the most widely used compressible hyperelastic material model, the so-called Ogden-Hill's model, was applied, which is implemented in the commercial finite element (FE) software Abaqus. The visco-hyperelastic model is defined in hereditary integral form, therefore, obtaining a closed-form solution for the stress is not a trivial task. However, the parameter-fitting procedure could be much faster and accurate if closed-form solution exists. In this contribution, exact stress solutions are derived in case of uniaxial, biaxial and volumetric compression loading cases using ramp-loading history. The analytical stress solutions are compared with the stress results in Abaqus using FE analysis. In order to highlight the benefits of the analytical closed-form solution during the parameter-fitting process experimental work has been carried out on a particular open-cell memory foam material. The results of the material identification process shows significant accuracy improvement in the fitting procedure by applying the derived analytical solutions compared to the so-called separated approach applied in the engineering practice.

  4. Exact closed-form solutions of the Dirac equation for a class of effective Morse potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Antonio S. de; Hott, Marcelo

    2004-12-02

    Exact bounded solutions for a fermion subject to exponential scalar potential in 1 + 1 dimensions are found in closed form. We discuss the existence of zero modes which are related to the ultrarelativistic limit of the Dirac equation and are responsible for the induction of a fractional fermion number on the vacuum.

  5. Closed-form solution of the Ogden-Hill's compressible hyperelastic model for ramp loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezvai, Szabolcs; Kossa, Attila

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with the visco-hyperelastic modelling approach for compressible polymer foam materials. Polymer foams can exhibit large elastic strains and displacements in case of volumetric compression. In addition, they often show significant rate-dependent properties. This material behaviour can be accurately modelled using the visco-hyperelastic approach, in which the large strain viscoelastic description is combined with the rate-independent hyperelastic material model. In case of polymer foams, the most widely used compressible hyperelastic material model, the so-called Ogden-Hill's model, was applied, which is implemented in the commercial finite element (FE) software uc(Abaqus). The visco-hyperelastic model is defined in hereditary integral form, therefore, obtaining a closed-form solution for the stress is not a trivial task. However, the parameter-fitting procedure could be much faster and accurate if closed-form solution exists. In this contribution, exact stress solutions are derived in case of uniaxial, biaxial and volumetric compression loading cases using ramp-loading history. The analytical stress solutions are compared with the stress results in uc(Abaqus) using FE analysis. In order to highlight the benefits of the analytical closed-form solution during the parameter-fitting process experimental work has been carried out on a particular open-cell memory foam material. The results of the material identification process shows significant accuracy improvement in the fitting procedure by applying the derived analytical solutions compared to the so-called separated approach applied in the engineering practice.

  6. Closed-form solutions and scaling laws for Kerr frequency combs

    PubMed Central

    Renninger, William H.; Rakich, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    A single closed-form analytical solution of the driven nonlinear Schrödinger equation is developed, reproducing a large class of the behaviors in Kerr-comb systems, including bright-solitons, dark-solitons, and a large class of periodic wavetrains. From this analytical framework, a Kerr-comb area theorem and a pump-detuning relation are developed, providing new insights into soliton- and wavetrain-based combs along with concrete design guidelines for both. This new area theorem reveals significant deviation from the conventional soliton area theorem, which is crucial to understanding cavity solitons in certain limits. Moreover, these closed-form solutions represent the first step towards an analytical framework for wavetrain formation, and reveal new parameter regimes for enhanced Kerr-comb performance. PMID:27108810

  7. Aerodynamic Lift and Moment Calculations Using a Closed-Form Solution of the Possio Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jensen; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present closed-form formulas for the lift and moment coefficients of a lifting surface in two dimensional, unsteady, compressible, subsonic flow utilizing a newly developed explicit analytical solution of the Possio equation. Numerical calculations are consistent with previous numerical tables based on series expansions or ad hoc numerical schemes. More importantly, these formulas lend themselves readily to flutter analysis, compared with the tedious table-look-up schemes currently in use.

  8. A General Closed-Form Solution for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Antenna Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav; Chen, J. Roger; Hashmall, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    antenna orientation. The nominal geometry for the HGA involves an outer gimbal axis that is exactly perpendicular to the inner gimbal axis, and a target direction that is exactly perpendicular to the outer gimbal axis. For this nominal geometry, closed-form solutions of the desired gimbal angles are simple to get for a desired target direction specified in the spacecraft body fame. If the gimbal axes and the antenna boresight are slightly misaligned, the nominal closed-form solution is not sufficiently accurate for computing the gimbal angles needed to point at a target. In this situation, either a general closed-form solution has to be developed for a mechanism with general geometries, or a correction scheme has to be applied to the nominal closed-form solutions. The latter has been adopted for Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) as can be seen in Reference 1, and the former has been used for LRO. The advantage of the general closed-form solution is the use of a small number of parameters for the correction of nominal solutions, especially in the regions near singularities. Singularities here refer to cases when the nominal closed-form solutions have two or more solutions. Algorithm complexity, however, is the disadvantage of the general closed-form solution.

  9. The closed-form solution of the reduced Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation for nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lincong; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to obtain the closed-form solution of the reduced Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation for single degree of freedom nonlinear systems under external and parametric Gaussian white noise excitations. The assumed stationary probability density function consists of an exponential polynomial with a logarithmic term to account for parametric excitations. The undetermined coefficients in the assumed solution are computed with the help of an iterative method of weighted residue. We have found that the iterative process generates a sequence of solutions that converge to the exact solutions if they exist. Three examples with known exact steady-state probability density functions are used to demonstrate the convergence of the proposed method.

  10. a Weighted Closed-Form Solution for Rgb-D Data Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestena, K. M.; Dos Santos, D. R.; Oilveira, E. M., Jr.; Pavan, N. L.; Khoshelham, K.

    2016-06-01

    Existing 3D indoor mapping of RGB-D data are prominently point-based and feature-based methods. In most cases iterative closest point (ICP) and its variants are generally used for pairwise registration process. Considering that the ICP algorithm requires an relatively accurate initial transformation and high overlap a weighted closed-form solution for RGB-D data registration is proposed. In this solution, we weighted and normalized the 3D points based on the theoretical random errors and the dual-number quaternions are used to represent the 3D rigid body motion. Basically, dual-number quaternions provide a closed-form solution by minimizing a cost function. The most important advantage of the closed-form solution is that it provides the optimal transformation in one-step, it does not need to calculate good initial estimates and expressively decreases the demand for computer resources in contrast to the iterative method. Basically, first our method exploits RGB information. We employed a scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) for extracting, detecting, and matching features. It is able to detect and describe local features that are invariant to scaling and rotation. To detect and filter outliers, we used random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm, jointly with an statistical dispersion called interquartile range (IQR). After, a new RGB-D loop-closure solution is implemented based on the volumetric information between pair of point clouds and the dispersion of the random errors. The loop-closure consists to recognize when the sensor revisits some region. Finally, a globally consistent map is created to minimize the registration errors via a graph-based optimization. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with a Kinect dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed method can properly map the indoor environment with an absolute accuracy around 1.5% of the travel of a trajectory.

  11. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  12. Closed-form solutions for free vibration of rectangular FGM thin plates resting on elastic foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T. F.; Xing, Y. F.

    2016-12-01

    This article presents closed-form solutions for the frequency analysis of rectangular functionally graded material (FGM) thin plates subjected to initially in-plane loads and with an elastic foundation. Based on classical thin plate theory, the governing differential equations are derived using Hamilton's principle. A neutral surface is used to eliminate stretching-bending coupling in FGM plates on the basis of the assumption of constant Poisson's ratio. The resulting governing equation of FGM thin plates has the same form as homogeneous thin plates. The separation-of-variables method is adopted to obtain solutions for the free vibration problems of rectangular FGM thin plates with separable boundary conditions, including, for example, clamped plates. The obtained normal modes and frequencies are in elegant closed forms, and present formulations and solutions are validated by comparing present results with those in the literature and finite element method results obtained by the authors. A parameter study reveals the effects of the power law index n and aspect ratio a/ b on frequencies.

  13. Closed-Form Solutions for Free Vibration Frequencies of Functionally Graded Euler-Bernoulli Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. R.; Chang, H.

    2017-03-01

    The bending vibration of a functionally graded Euler-Bernoulli beam is investigated by the transformed-section method. The material properties of the functionally graded beam (FGB) are assumed to vary across its thickness according to a simple power law. Closed-form solutions for free vibration frequencies of FGBs with classical boundary conditions are derived. Some analytical results are compared with numerical results found in the published literature to verify the accuracy of the model presented, and a good agreement between them is observed.

  14. A closed-form solution to tensor voting: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tai-Pang; Yeung, Sai-Kit; Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung; Medioni, Gérard

    2012-08-01

    We prove a closed-form solution to tensor voting (CFTV): Given a point set in any dimensions, our closed-form solution provides an exact, continuous, and efficient algorithm for computing a structure-aware tensor that simultaneously achieves salient structure detection and outlier attenuation. Using CFTV, we prove the convergence of tensor voting on a Markov random field (MRF), thus termed as MRFTV, where the structure-aware tensor at each input site reaches a stationary state upon convergence in structure propagation. We then embed structure-aware tensor into expectation maximization (EM) for optimizing a single linear structure to achieve efficient and robust parameter estimation. Specifically, our EMTV algorithm optimizes both the tensor and fitting parameters and does not require random sampling consensus typically used in existing robust statistical techniques. We performed quantitative evaluation on its accuracy and robustness, showing that EMTV performs better than the original TV and other state-of-the-art techniques in fundamental matrix estimation for multiview stereo matching. The extensions of CFTV and EMTV for extracting multiple and nonlinear structures are underway.

  15. An explicit closed-form analytical solution for European options under the CGMY model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenting; Du, Meiyu; Xu, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the analytical pricing of European path-independent options under the CGMY model, which is a particular type of pure jump Le´vy process, and agrees well with many observed properties of the real market data by allowing the diffusions and jumps to have both finite and infinite activity and variation. It is shown that, under this model, the option price is governed by a fractional partial differential equation (FPDE) with both the left-side and right-side spatial-fractional derivatives. In comparison to derivatives of integer order, fractional derivatives at a point not only involve properties of the function at that particular point, but also the information of the function in a certain subset of the entire domain of definition. This ;globalness; of the fractional derivatives has added an additional degree of difficulty when either analytical methods or numerical solutions are attempted. Albeit difficult, we still have managed to derive an explicit closed-form analytical solution for European options under the CGMY model. Based on our solution, the asymptotic behaviors of the option price and the put-call parity under the CGMY model are further discussed. Practically, a reliable numerical evaluation technique for the current formula is proposed. With the numerical results, some analyses of impacts of four key parameters of the CGMY model on European option prices are also provided.

  16. Katabatic Flow: A Closed-Form Solution with Spatially-Varying Eddy Diffusivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giometto, M. G.; Grandi, R.; Fang, J.; Monkewitz, P. A.; Parlange, M. B.

    2017-02-01

    The Nieuwstadt closed-form solution for the stationary Ekman layer is generalized for katabatic flows within the conceptual framework of the Prandtl model. The proposed solution is valid for spatially-varying eddy viscosity and diffusivity (O'Brien type) and constant Prandtl number ( Pr). Variations in the velocity and buoyancy profiles are discussed as a function of the dimensionless model parameters z_0 ≡ hat{z}_0 hat{N}^2 Pr sin {(α )} |hat{b}_s |^{-1} and λ ≡ hat{u}_{ref}hat{N} √{Pr} |hat{b}_s |^{-1}, where hat{z}_0 is the hydrodynamic roughness length, hat{N} is the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, α is the surface sloping angle, hat{b}_s is the imposed surface buoyancy, and hat{u}_{ref} is a reference velocity scale used to define eddy diffusivities. Velocity and buoyancy profiles show significant variations in both phase and amplitude of extrema with respect to the classic constant it{K} model and with respect to a recent approximate analytic solution based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin theory. Near-wall regions are characterized by relatively stronger surface momentum and buoyancy gradients, whose magnitude is proportional to z_0 and to λ . In addition, slope-parallel momentum and buoyancy fluxes are reduced, the low-level jet is further displaced toward the wall, and its peak velocity depends on both z_0 and λ.

  17. Dielectric elastomer composites: A general closed-form solution in the small-deformation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Stephen A.; Lefèvre, Victor; Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    2015-10-01

    A solution for the overall electromechanical response of two-phase dielectric elastomer composites with (random or periodic) particulate microstructures is derived in the classical limit of small deformations and moderate electric fields. In this limit, the overall electromechanical response is characterized by three effective tensors: a fourth-order tensor describing the elasticity of the material, a second-order tensor describing its permittivity, and a fourth-order tensor describing its electrostrictive response. Closed-form formulas are derived for these effective tensors directly in terms of the corresponding tensors describing the electromechanical response of the underlying matrix and the particles, and the one- and two-point correlation functions describing the microstructure. This is accomplished by specializing a new iterative homogenization theory in finite electroelastostatics (Lopez-Pamies, 2014) to the case of elastic dielectrics with even coupling between the mechanical and electric fields and, subsequently, carrying out the pertinent asymptotic analysis. Additionally, with the aim of gaining physical insight into the proposed solution and shedding light on recently reported experiments, specific results are examined and compared with an available analytical solution and with new full-field simulations for the special case of dielectric elastomers filled with isotropic distributions of spherical particles with various elastic dielectric properties, including stiff high-permittivity particles, liquid-like high-permittivity particles, and vacuous pores.

  18. Stresses in adhesively bonded joints: A closed form solution. [plate theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.; Aydinoglu, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The plane strain of adhesively bonded structures which consist of two different orthotropic adherents is considered. Assuming that the thicknesses of the adherends are constant and are small in relation to the lateral dimensions of the bonded region, the adherends are treated as plates. The transverse shear effects in the adherends and the in-plane normal strain in the adhesive are taken into account. The problem is reduced to a system of differential equations for the adhesive stresses which is solved in closed form. A single lap joint and a stiffened plate under various loading conditions are considered as examples. To verify the basic trend of the solutions obtained from the plate theory a sample problem is solved by using the finite element method and by treating the adherends and the adhesive as elastic continua. The plate theory not only predicts the correct trend for the adhesive stresses but also gives rather surprisingly accurate results.

  19. Similarity measure learning in closed-form solution for image classification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Tang, Yuan Yan; Chen, C L Philip; Fang, Bin; Shang, Zhaowei; Lin, Yuewei

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a measure is essential in many multimedia applications. Recently, distance learning is becoming an active research problem. In fact, the distance is the natural measure for dissimilarity. Generally, a pairwise relationship between two objects in learning tasks includes two aspects: similarity and dissimilarity. The similarity measure provides different information for pairwise relationships. However, similarity learning has been paid less attention in learning problems. In this work, firstly, we propose a general framework for similarity measure learning (SML). Additionally, we define a generalized type of correlation as a similarity measure. By a set of parameters, generalized correlation provides flexibility for learning tasks. Based on this similarity measure, we present a specific algorithm under the SML framework, called correlation similarity measure learning (CSML), to learn a parameterized similarity measure over input space. A nonlinear extension version of CSML, kernel CSML, is also proposed. Particularly, we give a closed-form solution avoiding iterative search for a local optimal solution in the high-dimensional space as the previous work did. Finally, classification experiments have been performed on face databases and a handwritten digits database to demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of CSML and KCSML.

  20. Structure of steady state accretion shocks with several cooling functions: Closed integral-form solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kinwah; Chanmugam, G.; Shaviv, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present, for the first time, a closed integral-form solution to the accretion shock structures for the case where the cooling is due to optically thin bremsstrahlung emission and a series of power-law cooling functions of density and temperature. Our results can provide useful checks on numerical calculations and simple accurate estimates for valuable parameters such as the shock height. For the case where the cooling rate j = (2/3)Arho(exp 2)(P/rho)(exp 1/2)(1 + epsilon (sub s)(P/P(sub s)(exp alpha)(rho(sub s)/rho)(exp beta)), we find that a substantial amount of the accretion energy is released at the base of the accretion shock in the form of bremsstrahlung radiation. This implies that for a cyclotron-dominated shock (qualitatively given by alpha = 2.0, beta = 3.85, and epsilon(sub s) is much greater than 1), bremsstrahlung cooling still plays a crucial role in determining the shock structure. Our results are shown to be consistent with detailed numerical calculations.

  1. Mechanical Behavior of Salt Caverns: Closed-Form Solutions vs Numerical Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Bérest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Creep closure and structural stability of a cylindrical elongated cavern leached out from a salt formation are discussed. The Norton-Hoff creep law, or "power law", is used to capture the main features of salt rheological behavior. Two failure criteria are considered: (1) shear stresses must not be larger than a certain fraction of the mean stress (dilation criterion); and (2) the effective stress at the cavern wall (actual stress plus cavern fluid pressure) must not be tensile. The case of a brine-filled cavern whose pressure is kept constant is discussed first. It is proved that creep closure reaches a steady state such that stresses in the rock mass remain constant. However, decades are needed to reach such a state. During the transient phase that results from the slow redistribution of stresses in the rock mass, deviatoric stresses decrease at the vicinity of the cavern wall, and onset of dilation is less and less likely. At this point, the case of a rapid brine pressure increase, typical of a tightness test, is considered. It is proved that during such a swift pressure increase, cavern behavior is almost perfectly elastic; there is no risk of dilation onset. However, even when cavern pressure remains significantly smaller than geostatic, the effective stress at cavern wall can become tensile. These results, obtained through numerical computations, are confirmed by closed-form solutions obtained in the case of an idealized perfectly cylindrical cavern; these solutions provide a better insight into the main structural features of the behavior of the cavern.

  2. Application of closed-form solutions to a mesh point field in silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamorte, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    A computer simulation method is discussed that provides for equivalent simulation accuracy, but that exhibits significantly lower CPU running time per bias point compared to other techniques. This new method is applied to a mesh point field as is customary in numerical integration (NI) techniques. The assumption of a linear approximation for the dependent variable, which is typically used in the finite difference and finite element NI methods, is not required. Instead, the set of device transport equations is applied to, and the closed-form solutions obtained for, each mesh point. The mesh point field is generated so that the coefficients in the set of transport equations exhibit small changes between adjacent mesh points. Application of this method to high-efficiency silicon solar cells is described; and the method by which Auger recombination, ambipolar considerations, built-in and induced electric fields, bandgap narrowing, carrier confinement, and carrier diffusivities are treated. Bandgap narrowing has been investigated using Fermi-Dirac statistics, and these results show that bandgap narrowing is more pronounced and that it is temperature-dependent in contrast to the results based on Boltzmann statistics.

  3. Wave propagation in strain gradient poroelastic medium with microinertia: closed-form and finite element solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, Giuseppe; Scala, Ilaria; Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Naili, Salah

    2017-06-01

    This article is about ultrasonic wave propagation in microstructured porous media. The classic Biot's model is enriched using a strain gradient approach to be able to capture high-order effects when the wavelength approaches the characteristic size of the microstructure. In order to reproduce actual transmission/reflection experiments performed on poroelastic samples, and to validate the choice of the model, the computation of the time domain response is necessary, as it allows for a direct comparison with experimental results. For obtaining the time response, we use two strategies: on the one hand we compute the closed form solution by using the Laplace and Fourier transforms techniques; on the other hand we used a finite element method. The results are presented for a transmission/reflection test performed on a poroelastic sample immersed in water. The effects introduced by the strain gradient terms are visible in the time response and in agreement with experimental observations. The results can be exploited in characterization of mechanical properties of poroelastic media by enhancing the reliability of quantitative ultrasound techniques.

  4. Closed-form solution for loop transfer recovery via reduced-order observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Barton J.

    1989-01-01

    A well-known property of the reduced-order observer is exploited to obtain the controller solution of the loop transfer recovery problem. In that problem, the controller is sought that generates some desired loop shape at the plant's input or output channels. Past approaches to this problem have typically yielded controllers generating loop shapes that only converge pointwise to the desired loop shape. In the proposed approach, however, the solution (at the input) is obtained directly when the plant's first Markov parameter is full rank. In the more general case when the plant's first Markov parameter is not full rank, the solution is obtained in an analogous manner by appending a special set of input and output signals to the original set. A dual form of the reduced-order observer is shown to yield the LTR solution at the output channel.

  5. Closed-form solution for loop transfer recovery via reduced-order observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Barton J.

    1989-01-01

    A well-known property of the reduced-order observer is exploited to obtain the controller solution of the loop transfer recovery problem. In that problem, the controller is sought that generates some desired loop shape at the plant's input or output channels. Past approaches to this problem have typically yielded controllers generating loop shapes that only converge pointwise to the desired loop shape. In the proposed approach, however, the solution (at the input) is obtained directly when the plant's first Markov parameter is full rank. In the more general case when the plant's first Markov parameter is not full rank, the solution is obtained in an analogous manner by appending a special set of input and output signals to the original set. A dual form of the reduced-order observer is shown to yield the LTR solution at the output channel.

  6. A closed-form solution for the price of cross-commodity electricity derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitakis, D.; Xanthopoulos, S.; Yannacopoulos, A. N.

    2006-11-01

    We present a method for the valuation of two types of cross-commodity electricity options, European spark spread options and locational spread options. Since the underlying assets here are non-tradeable, the methodology of Black-Scholes-Merton cannot be directly applied. Nevertheless, assuming only absence of arbitrage we provide a closed-form analytic formula for the price of the derivatives in the case where the spot prices of the underlying process follow an exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.

  7. A closed form solution to the one-ball geolocation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. J.; Townsend, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    We address the problem of determining the source location of an electromagnetic signal from the signal received by one or more moving receivers. We base our process on cross-spectral methods that were developed in the early 1980's for analysis and demodulation/despreading of communication and spread spectrum signals and were later applied to speech processing and speech enhancement. In this article, we expand the concept of robust polynomial tracking, which we demonstrate may be used to solve for the emitter location in closed form. This is accomplished by generating and solving a system of equations representing curves, each of which passes through the emitter location.

  8. A Closed-Form Solution to Retinex with Nonlocal Texture Constraints.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Tan, Ping; Dai, Qiang; Shen, Li; Wu, Enhua; Lin, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    We propose a method for intrinsic image decomposition based on retinex theory and texture analysis. While most previous methods approach this problem by analyzing local gradient properties, our technique additionally identifies distant pixels with the same reflectance through texture analysis, and uses these nonlocal reflectance constraints to significantly reduce ambiguity in decomposition. We formulate the decomposition problem as the minimization of a quadratic function which incorporates both the retinex constraint and our nonlocal texture constraint. This optimization can be solved in closed form with the standard conjugate gradient algorithm. Extensive experimentation with comparisons to previous techniques validate our method in terms of both decomposition accuracy and runtime efficiency.

  9. Closed form solutions and dominant elimination pathways of simultaneous first-order and Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaotian; Li, Jun; Nekka, Fahima

    2015-04-01

    The current study aims to provide the closed form solutions of one-compartment open models exhibiting simultaneous linear and nonlinear Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics for single- and multiple-dose intravenous bolus administrations. It can be shown that the elimination half-time ([Formula: see text]) has a dose-dependent property and is upper-bounded by [Formula: see text] of the first-order elimination model. We further analytically distinguish the dominant role of different elimination pathways in terms of model parameters. Moreover, for the case of multiple-dose intravenous bolus administration, the existence and local stability of the periodic solution at steady state are established. The closed form solutions of the models are obtained through a newly introduced function motivated by the Lambert W function.

  10. Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid over an oscillating vertical plate.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farhad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flows of a second grade fluid near an isothermal vertical plate oscillating in its plane using the Laplace transform technique are established. Expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained and displayed graphically for different values of Prandtl number Pr, thermal Grashof number Gr, viscoelastic parameter α, phase angle ωτ and time τ. Numerical values of skin friction τ 0 and Nusselt number Nu are shown in tables. Some well-known solutions in literature are reduced as the limiting cases of the present solutions.

  11. Closed Form Solutions for Unsteady Free Convection Flow of a Second Grade Fluid over an Oscillating Vertical Plate

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Farhad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flows of a second grade fluid near an isothermal vertical plate oscillating in its plane using the Laplace transform technique are established. Expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained and displayed graphically for different values of Prandtl number Pr, thermal Grashof number Gr, viscoelastic parameter α, phase angle ωτ and time τ. Numerical values of skin friction τ0 and Nusselt number Nu are shown in tables. Some well-known solutions in literature are reduced as the limiting cases of the present solutions. PMID:24551033

  12. An approximate closed-form solution for lead lag damping of rotor blades in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Simple stability methods are used to derive an approximate, closed-form expression for the lead-lag damping of rotor blades in hover. Destabilizing terms are shown to be a result of two dynamic mechanisms. First, the destabilizing aerodynamic forces that can occur when blade lift is higher than a critical value are maximized when the blade motion is in a straight line equidistant from the blade chord and the average direction of the air flow velocity. This condition occurs when the Coriolis terms vanish and when the elastic coupling terms align the blade motion with this least stable direction. Second, the nonconservative stiffness terms that result from pitch-flap or pitch-lag coupling can add or subtract energy from the system depending upon whether the motion of the blade tip is clockwise or counterclockwise.

  13. Adaptive Filtering for Large Space Structures: A Closed-Form Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, H. E.; Schaechter, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    In a previous paper Schaechter proposes using an extended Kalman filter to estimate adaptively the (slowly varying) frequencies and damping ratios of a large space structure. The time varying gains for estimating the frequencies and damping ratios can be determined in closed form so it is not necessary to integrate the matrix Riccati equations. After certain approximations, the time varying adaptive gain can be written as the product of a constant matrix times a matrix derived from the components of the estimated state vector. This is an important savings of computer resources and allows the adaptive filter to be implemented with approximately the same effort as the nonadaptive filter. The success of this new approach for adaptive filtering was demonstrated using synthetic data from a two mode system.

  14. A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow using the Lambert-W function.

    PubMed

    Hall, A J; Minchin, P E H

    2013-12-01

    A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow is presented. This incorporates the basic Münch flow model of phloem transport, the cohesion model of xylem flow, and local variation in the xylem water potential and lateral water flow along the transport pathway. Use of the Lambert-W function allows this solution to be obtained under much more general and realistic conditions than has previously been possible. Variation in phloem resistance (i.e. viscosity) with solute concentration, and deviations from the Van't Hoff expression for osmotic potential are included. It is shown that the model predictions match those of the equilibrium solution of a numerical time-dependent model based upon the same mechanistic assumptions. The effect of xylem flow upon phloem flow can readily be calculated, which has not been possible in any previous analytical model. It is also shown how this new analytical solution can handle multiple sources and sinks within a complex architecture, and can describe competition between sinks. The model provides new insights into Münch flow by explicitly including interactions with xylem flow and water potential in the closed-form solution, and is expected to be useful as a component part of larger numerical models of entire plants.

  15. Closed-form analytical solutions of the time difference of arrival source location problem for minimal element monitoring arrays.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Steven J

    2010-05-01

    Closed-form analytical solutions are found for the time difference of arrival (TDOA) source location problem. Solutions are found for both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) source location by formulating the TDOA equations in, respectively, polar and spherical coordinate systems, with the radial direction coincident with the assumed geodesic path of signal propagation to a reference sensor. Quadratic equations for TDOA 2D and 3D source location based on the spherical intersection (SX) scheme, in some cases permitting dual physical solutions, are found for three and four sensor element monitoring arrays, respectively. A method of spherical intersection subarrays (SXSAs) is developed to derive from these quadratic equations globally unique closed-form analytical solutions for TDOA 2D and 3D source location, for four and five sensor element monitoring arrays, respectively. Errors in 2D source location for introduced bias in time differences of arrival are shown to have a strong geometrical dependence. The SXSA and SX methods perform well in terms of accuracy and precision at high levels of arrival time bias for both 2D and 3D source location and are much more efficient than nonlinear least-squares schemes. The SXSA scheme may have particular applicability to accurately solving source location problems in demanding real-time situations.

  16. Evolution of spherical cavitation bubbles: Parametric and closed-form solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancas, Stefan C.; Rosu, Haret C.

    2016-02-01

    We present an analysis of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a three dimensional vacuous bubble in water. In the simplest case when the effects of surface tension are neglected, the known parametric solutions for the radius and time evolution of the bubble in terms of a hypergeometric function are briefly reviewed. By including the surface tension, we show the connection between the Rayleigh-Plesset equation and Abel's equation, and obtain the parametric rational Weierstrass periodic solutions following the Abel route. In the same Abel approach, we also provide a discussion of the nonintegrable case of nonzero viscosity for which we perform a numerical integration.

  17. Method for estimating closed-form solutions of the light diffusion equation for turbid media of any boundary shape

    PubMed Central

    Alqasemi, Umar; Salehi, Hassan S.; Zhu, Quing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a method of estimating an approximate closed-form solution to the light diffusion equation for any type of geometry involving Dirichlet’s boundary condition with known source location. It is based on estimating the optimum locations of multiple imaginary point sources to cancel the fluence at the extrapolated boundary by constrained optimization using a genetic algorithm. The mathematical derivation of the problem to approach the optimum solution for the direct-current type of diffuse optical systems is described in detail. Our method is first applied to slab geometry and compared with a truncated series solution. After that, it is applied to hemispherical geometry and compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. The method provides a fast and sufficiently accurate fluence distribution for optical reconstruction. PMID:26831771

  18. Closed form solutions of constrained trajectories - Application in optimal ascent of aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping; Samsundar, John

    1992-01-01

    The present consideration of the flight trajectory of hypersonic aerospace vehicles subject to a class of path constraints notes the constrained dynamics to constitute a natural two-timescale system, so that problems of trajectory optimization and guidance can be dramatically simplified by means of the asymptotic analytical solutions thus obtained. An illustrative application in ascent trajectory optimization for an aerospace vehicle is presented.

  19. Closed-Form Solution for the Effect of Fuel Decay and Thermoelectric Degradation on Output of SiGe RTGs

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1991-08-01

    Presented at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA August 4-9, 1991. The paper derives a closed-form solution for the long-term effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the performance of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators employing silicon-germanium converter elements. RTGs of this type were used to power the recent Galileo and Ulysses space exploration missions, and are slated for use on the upcoming CRAF and Cassini missions. The method described applies not only to uniform-temperature RTGs, but also to RTGs with significant axial and circumferential variations in the couples' cold-junction temperatures and voltages (due to unsymmetrically obstructed heat rejection paths). This is important for the mutually blocking RTGs on the CRAF and Cassini spacecraft, and even more so for the reflector-blocked Solar Probe RTGs. The method for predicting RTG degradation that is dervied in this paper is based on both analytical and experimental data. It accounts for the effect of diminishing hot-junction temperatures on thermoelectric degradation rates. The method leads to an integral equation, for which the author was able to derive a closed-form solution. The solution was successfully validated by comparison with long-term test data. It enables the RTG designer to predict the power output profile throughout the mission, to ensure that it satisfies the mission's power demand profile. There are four copies in the file.

  20. Closed-form solution of mid-potential between two parallel charged plates with more extensive application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiang-Yu; Yang, Chen; Zhou, Guo-Qing

    2015-10-01

    Efficient calculation of the electrostatic interactions including repulsive force between charged molecules in a biomolecule system or charged particles in a colloidal system is necessary for the molecular scale or particle scale mechanical analyses of these systems. The electrostatic repulsive force depends on the mid-plane potential between two charged particles. Previous analytical solutions of the mid-plane potential, including those based on simplified assumptions and modern mathematic methods, are reviewed. It is shown that none of these solutions applies to wide ranges of inter-particle distance from 0 to 10 and surface potential from 1 to 10. Three previous analytical solutions are chosen to develop a semi-analytical solution which is proven to have more extensive applications. Furthermore, an empirical closed-form expression of mid-plane potential is proposed based on plenty of numerical solutions. This empirical solution has extensive applications, as well as high computational efficiency. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB026103), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51009136), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK2011212).

  1. Computationally simple, analytic, closed form solution of the Coulomb self-interaction problem in Kohn Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gonis, Antonios; Daene, Markus W; Nicholson, Don M; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    We have developed and tested in terms of atomic calculations an exact, analytic and computationally simple procedure for determining the functional derivative of the exchange energy with respect to the density in the implementation of the Kohn Sham formulation of density functional theory (KS-DFT), providing an analytic, closed-form solution of the self-interaction problem in KS-DFT. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method through ground-state calculations of the exchange potential and energy for atomic He and Be atoms, and comparisons with experiment and the results obtained within the optimized effective potential (OEP) method.

  2. A closed form solution for the rapid shear of homogeneous turbulence in a rotating frame with and without stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassinos, S. C.

    2000-11-01

    A closed-form solution for the evolution of one-point statistics is derived for the case of initially two-dimensional three-component (2D-3C) homogeneous turbulence deformed by rapid shear in a rotating frame. Cases with and without stratification are considered. Except for small total shear, the analytical result is shown to be in good agreement with the numerical solution of the governing equations, linearized for rapid distortions, and solved for the more general initial case of 3D-3C isotropic homogeneous turbulence. Based on this agreement, we show that the closed-from solution provides insight into the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of frame rotation on homogeneous stratified shear flow, and provides a useful reference point for the one-point modeling of rotated and stratified shear flows. This analysis provides insights on the stability of stratified homogeneous shear flows that are missed by the standard two-dimensional two-component (2D-2C) treatment of stability issues in these flows.

  3. Closed-form analytical solutions for assessing the consequences of sea-level rise on unconfined sloping island aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnaux, R.

    2016-04-01

    Closed-form analytical solutions for assessing the consequences of sea-level rise on fresh groundwater oceanic island lenses are provided for the cases of both strip and circular islands. Solutions are proposed for directly calculating the change in the thickness of the lens, the changes in volume and the changes in travel time of fresh groundwater within island aquifers. The solutions apply for homogenous aquifers recharged by surface infiltration and discharged by a down-gradient, fixed-head boundary. They also take into account the inland shift of the ocean due to land surface inundation, this shift being determined by the coastal slope of inland aquifers. The solutions are given for two simple island geometries: circular islands and strip islands. Base case examples are presented to illustrate, on one hand, the amplitude of the change of the fresh groundwater lens thickness and the volume depletion of the lens in oceanic island with sea-level rise, and on the other hand, the shortening of time required for groundwater to discharge into the ocean. These consequences can now be quantified and may help decision-makers to anticipate the effects of sea-level rise on fresh groundwater availability in oceanic island aquifers.

  4. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  5. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  6. Exact closed-form solution of the hyperbolic equation of string vibrations with material relaxation properties taken into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinov, I. V.; Kudinov, V. A.

    2014-09-01

    The differential equation of damped string vibrations was obtained with the finite speed of extension and strain propagation in the Hooke's law formula taken into account. In contrast to the well-known equations, the obtained equation contains the first and third time derivatives of the displacement and the mixed derivative with respect to the space and time variables. Separation of variables was used to obtain its exact closed-form solution, whose analysis showed that, for large values of the relaxation coefficient, the string return to the initial state after its escape from equilibrium is accompanied by high-frequency low-amplitude damped vibrations, which occur on the initial time interval only in the region of positive displacements. And in the limit, for some large values of the relaxation coefficient, the string return to the initial state occurs practically without any oscillatory process.

  7. Closed-form stochastic solutions for non-equilibrium dynamics and inheritance of cellular components over many cell divisions.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Iain G; Jones, Nick S

    2015-08-08

    Stochastic dynamics govern many important processes in cellular biology, and an underlying theoretical approach describing these dynamics is desirable to address a wealth of questions in biology and medicine. Mathematical tools exist for treating several important examples of these stochastic processes, most notably gene expression and random partitioning at single-cell divisions or after a steady state has been reached. Comparatively little work exists exploring different and specific ways that repeated cell divisions can lead to stochastic inheritance of unequilibrated cellular populations. Here we introduce a mathematical formalism to describe cellular agents that are subject to random creation, replication and/or degradation, and are inherited according to a range of random dynamics at cell divisions. We obtain closed-form generating functions describing systems at any time after any number of cell divisions for binomial partitioning and divisions provoking a deterministic or random, subtractive or additive change in copy number, and show that these solutions agree exactly with stochastic simulation. We apply this general formalism to several example problems involving the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA during development and organismal lifetimes.

  8. Closed-form stochastic solutions for non-equilibrium dynamics and inheritance of cellular components over many cell divisions

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Iain G.; Jones, Nick S.

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics govern many important processes in cellular biology, and an underlying theoretical approach describing these dynamics is desirable to address a wealth of questions in biology and medicine. Mathematical tools exist for treating several important examples of these stochastic processes, most notably gene expression and random partitioning at single-cell divisions or after a steady state has been reached. Comparatively little work exists exploring different and specific ways that repeated cell divisions can lead to stochastic inheritance of unequilibrated cellular populations. Here we introduce a mathematical formalism to describe cellular agents that are subject to random creation, replication and/or degradation, and are inherited according to a range of random dynamics at cell divisions. We obtain closed-form generating functions describing systems at any time after any number of cell divisions for binomial partitioning and divisions provoking a deterministic or random, subtractive or additive change in copy number, and show that these solutions agree exactly with stochastic simulation. We apply this general formalism to several example problems involving the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA during development and organismal lifetimes. PMID:26339194

  9. A closed-form solution of wake-fields in an elliptical pill-box by using an elliptical coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. S.; Chen, K. W.

    1989-10-01

    It was known from a complete model analysis1,2 that the wake potential in the pill-box cavity is predominantly determined by a few longitudinal modes counting from the fundamental longitudinal mode. An approach to find the longitudinal modes of an elliptical cavity is developed by means of the coordinate transformation method. It is found that the field configuration and eigenfrequencies of the elliptical cavity can be expressed in a closed form in terms of Mathieu functions. Inserting the closed form solution of modes into the previous analytical formula for the wake field, the wake field is expressed too in a closed form solution, which is convenient for numerical calculation. Thus, a numerical method to calculate expediently the wake field is developed, and a model calculation is presented.

  10. A general closed-form solution for the static pull-in voltages of electrostatically actuated MEMS/NEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maani Miandoab, Ehsan; Nejat Pishkenari, Hossein; Meghdari, Ali; Fathi, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    In this article, an analytical method for calculating pull-in voltage is proposed. This method can accurately predict pull-in voltage of clamped-free, clamped-clamped and curved micro- and nano-beams. In this study, mid-plane stretching, axial stress, initial deformation and the effect of size are taken into account. To achieve this goal, governing equation of beam based on modified couple stress theory was first derived and then transformed to a single degree of freedom (D.O.F) model by Galerkin method. In this model, electrostatic force appears in integral form which is approximated to non-integral form employing Genetic Algorithm. This single degree of freedom model provides means for obtaining critical deflection of beam and is used to find the general closed-form expression for pull-in voltage. The validation of the method was carried out by comparing the results with the existing literature.

  11. Closed form solution for a conductive-convective-radiative annular fin with multiple nonlinearities and its inverse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Rajiv; Mallick, Ashis; Prasad, Dilip K.

    2017-03-01

    The performance characteristics and temperature field of conducting-convecting-radiating annular fin are investigated. The nonlinear variation of thermal conductivity, power law dependency of heat transfer coefficient, linear variation of surface emissivity, and heat generation with the temperature are considered in the analysis. A semi-analytical approach, homotopy perturbation method is employed to solve the nonlinear differential equation of heat transfer. The analysis is presented in non-dimensional form, and the effect of various non-dimensional thermal parameters such as conduction-convection parameter, conduction-radiation parameter, linear and nonlinear variable thermal conductivity parameter, emissivity parameter, heat generation number and variable heat generation parameter are studied. For the correctness of the present analytical solution, the results are compared with the results available in the literature. In addition to forward problem, an inverse approach namely differential evolution method is employed for estimating the unknown thermal parameters for a given temperature field. The temperature fields are reconstructed using the inverse parameters and found to be in good agreement with the forward solution.

  12. Closed-form exact solution to H(infinity) optimization of dynamic vibration absorbers: II. Application to different performance indexes for vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Toshihiko; Nishihara, Osamu

    2000-04-01

    Recently, Nishihara and Matsuhisa have proposed a new theory for attaining the H(infinity) optimization of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) in the linear vibratory systems. The H(infinity) optimization of DVA is a classical optimization problem, and already solved more than 50 years ago. All of us know the solution through the textbook written by Den Hartog. The new theory proposed them gives us the exact algebraic solution of the problem. In the first report, we have expounded the theory and showed the procedure of finding the algebraic solution to a typical performance index (compliance transfer function) of the viscous damped system. In this paper, we will apply this theory to another performance indexes: mobility and accelerance transfer functions for force excitation system, and the absolute and relative displacement responses to acceleration, velocity or displacement input to foundation for motion excitation system. We apply this theory not only the viscous damped system but also the hysteretic damped system. As a result, we found the closed-form exact solutions in every performance indexes when the primary system has no damping. The solutions obtained here are compared with the classical ones solved by the fixed-points theory. We further apply this theory to design of DVAs attached to damped primary systems, and found the closed-form exact solutions to some performance indexes of the hysteretic damped system.

  13. Closed-Form Solutions for a Circular Tunnel in Elastic-Brittle-Plastic Ground with the Original and Generalized Hoek-Brown Failure Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ran; Tonon, Fulvio

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents a closed-form solution for the convergence curve of a circular tunnel in an elasto-brittle-plastic rock mass with both the Hoek-Brown and generalized Hoek-Brown failure criteria, and a linear flow rule, i.e., the ratio between the minor and major plastic strain increments is constant. The improvement over the original solution of Brown et al. (J Geotech Eng ASCE 109(1):15-39, 1983) consists of taking into account the elastic strain variation in the plastic annulus, which was assumed to be fixed in the original solution by Brown et al. The improvement over Carranza-Torres' solution (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41(Suppl 1):629-639, 2004) consists of providing a closed-form solution, rather than resorting to numerical integration of an ordinary differential equation. The presented solution, by rigorously following the theory of plasticity, takes into account that the elastic strain components change with radial and circumferential stress changes within the plastic annulus. For the original Hoek-Brown failure criterion, disregarding the elastic strain change leads to underestimate the convergence by up to 55%. For a rock mass failing according to the generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion, using the original failure criterion leads to a high probability (97%) of underestimating the convergence by up to 100%. As a consequence, the onset or degree of squeezing may be underestimated, and the loading on the support/reinforcement calculated with the convergence/confinement method may be largely underestimated.

  14. A closed-form trim solution yielding minimum trim drag for airplanes with multiple longitudinal-control effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Sliwa, Steven M.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1989-01-01

    Airplane designs are currently being proposed with a multitude of lifting and control devices. Because of the redundancy in ways to generate moments and forces, there are a variety of strategies for trimming each airplane. A linear optimum trim solution (LOTS) is derived using a Lagrange formulation. LOTS enables the rapid calculation of the longitudinal load distribution resulting in the minimum trim drag in level, steady-state flight for airplanes with a mixture of three or more aerodynamic surfaces and propulsive control effectors. Comparisons of the trim drags obtained using LOTS, a direct constrained optimization method, and several ad hoc methods are presented for vortex-lattice representations of a three-surface airplane and two-surface airplane with thrust vectoring. These comparisons show that LOTS accurately predicts the results obtained from the nonlinear optimization and that the optimum methods result in trim drag reductions of up to 80 percent compared to the ad hoc methods.

  15. Closed-form solution of the convolution integral in the magnetic resonance dispersion model for quantitative assessment of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Turco, S; Janssen, A J E M; Lavini, C; de la Rosette, J J; Wijkstra, H; Mischi, M

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and treatment is still limited due to the lack of reliable imaging methods for cancer localization. Based on the fundamental role played by angiogenesis in cancer growth and development, several dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging methods have been developed to probe tumor angiogenic vasculature. In DCE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pharmacokinetic modeling allows estimating quantitative parameters related to the physiology underlying tumor angiogenesis. In particular, novel magnetic resonance dispersion imaging (MRDI) enables quantitative assessment of the microvascular architecture and leakage, by describing the intravascular dispersion kinetics of an extravascular contrast agent with a dispersion model. According to this model, the tissue contrast concentration at each voxel is given by the convolution between the intravascular concentration, described as a Brownian motion process according to the convective-dispersion equation, with the interstitium impulse response, represented by a mono-exponential decay, and describing the contrast leakage in the extravascular space. In this work, an improved formulation of the MRDI method is obtained by providing an analytical solution for the convolution integral present in the dispersion model. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by means of dedicated simulations in terms of estimation accuracy, precision, and computation time. Moreover, a preliminary clinical validation was carried out in five patients with proven PCa. The proposed method allows for a reduction by about 40% of computation time without any significant change in estimation accuracy and precision, and in the clinical performance.

  16. Closed-form exact solution to H-infinity optimization of dynamic vibration absorber: II. Development of an algebraic approach and its application to a standard problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Osamu; Asami, Toshihiko

    2000-04-01

    The fixed-points method for the dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) is widely accepted and the results are prevalent for practical applications. However, they usually have to fall back to a heuristic approach from the point of view of its optimization criterion. A typical design problem to minimize the maximum amplitude magnification factor of the primary system, for which the fixed-points method was originally developed, is an example of such common cases. In the present paper, a new algebraic formulation is developed to this classic problem and closed-form exact solutions to both the optimum tuning ratio and the optimum damping parameters are derived, on the assumption of undamped primary system. This algebraic approach is based on an observation of trade-off between two resonance amplitude magnification factors. Thus, the problem reduces to a solution of an algebraic equation, which is derived as a discriminant of quartic algebraic equation. In undamped case, it was proven that the optimum parameters, the minimum amplitude magnification factor, the resonance and antiresonance frequencies, and sensitivities of the amplitude magnification factors are totally algebraic. A numerical extension enables efficient solutions for the damped primary system and has more direct applicability.

  17. Closed-Form and Numerically-Stable Solutions to Problems Related to the Optimal Two-Impulse Transfer Between Specified Terminal States of Keplerian Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senent, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents some closed-form solutions to the optimal two-impulse transfer between fixed position and velocity vectors on Keplerian orbits when some constraints are imposed on the magnitude of the initial and final impulses. Additionally, a numerically-stable gradient-free algorithm with guaranteed convergence is presented for the minimum delta-v two-impulse transfer. In the second part of the paper, cooperative bargaining theory is used to solve some two-impulse transfer problems when the initial and final impulses are carried by different vehicles or when the goal is to minimize the delta-v and the time-of-flight at the same time.

  18. Closed solutions for model problems in generalized thermoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychev, S. A.; Klindukhov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Closed solutions for model problems in non-dissipative thermoelasticity are obtained. The solutions are in the form of spectral expansion over biorthogonal system of eigenfunctions corresponded to mutual conjugate pair of operator pencils.

  19. A modulated closed form solution for quantitative susceptibility mapping--a thorough evaluation and comparison to iterative methods based on edge prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khabipova, Diana; Wiaux, Yves; Gruetter, Rolf; Marques, José P

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this study is to perform a thorough comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) techniques and their dependence on the assumptions made. The compared methodologies were: two iterative single orientation methodologies minimizing the l2, l1TV norm of the prior knowledge of the edges of the object, one over-determined multiple orientation method (COSMOS) and a newly proposed modulated closed-form solution (MCF). The performance of these methods was compared using a numerical phantom and in-vivo high resolution (0.65 mm isotropic) brain data acquired at 7 T using a new coil combination method. For all QSM methods, the relevant regularization and prior-knowledge parameters were systematically changed in order to evaluate the optimal reconstruction in the presence and absence of a ground truth. Additionally, the QSM contrast was compared to conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE) magnitude and R2* maps obtained from the same dataset. The QSM reconstruction results of the single orientation methods show comparable performance. The MCF method has the highest correlation (corr MCF=0.95, r(2)MCF=0.97) with the state of the art method (COSMOS) with additional advantage of extreme fast computation time. The L-curve method gave the visually most satisfactory balance between reduction of streaking artifacts and over-regularization with the latter being overemphasized when the using the COSMOS susceptibility maps as ground-truth. R2* and susceptibility maps, when calculated from the same datasets, although based on distinct features of the data, have a comparable ability to distinguish deep gray matter structures.

  20. Contact degeneracies of closed 2-forms

    SciTech Connect

    Zot'ev, Dmitrii B

    2007-04-30

    Consider a closed 2-form that is degenerate at the points of a hypersurface and is non-degenerate outside it. In the neighbourhood of a singularity (which is called contact under certain natural conditions) the limit behaviour of Hamiltonian fields is investigated and a canonical form of the 2-form is found (Darboux's theorem). Connections with regular Lie structures are established. Properties of integrable structures on Liouville tori containing contact degeneracies are studied. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  1. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  2. The fundamental closed-form solution of control-related states of kth order S3PR system with left-side non-sharing resource places of Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Daniel Yuh; Yu, Tsung Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Due to the state explosion problem, it has been unimaginable to enumerate reachable states for Petri nets. Chao broke the barrier earlier by developing the very first closed-form solution of the number of reachable and other states for marked graphs and the kth order system. Instead of using first-met bad marking, we propose 'the moment to launch resource allocation' (MLR) as a partial deadlock avoidance policy for a large, real-time dynamic resource allocation system. Presently, we can use the future deadlock ratio of the current state as the indicator of MLR due to which the ratio can be obtained real-time by a closed-form formula. This paper progresses the application of an MLR concept one step further on Gen-Left kth order systems (one non-sharing resource place in any position of the left-side process), which is also the most fundamental asymmetric net structure, by the construction of the system's closed-form solution of the control-related states (reachable, forbidden, live and deadlock states) with a formula depending on the parameters of k and the location of the non-sharing resource. Here, we kick off a new era of real-time, dynamic resource allocation decisions by constructing a generalisation formula of kth order systems (Gen-Left) with r* on the left side but at arbitrary locations.

  3. Closed form expressions for a consistent stress material nonlinear finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipe, Richard Lee

    Finite element expressions for two dimensional elasto-plasticity problems were implemented in closed form. These closed form expressions are based upon a distribution of the elasto-plastic constitutive relationship that is consistent with the interpolating functions used for the displacement. Closed form expressions for the element tangent stiffness matrix and initial stress nodal load vector were developed for the non hierarchic constant, linear, and quadratic strain triangle. Decreased solution times were obtained when using the closed form expressions instead of expressions based on numerical integration. The quality of the solutions obtained from the closed form expressions was measured against published solutions for two dimensional elasto-plasticity problems.

  4. Thermodynamics of rock forming crystalline solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of phase diagrams and cation distributions within crystalline solutions as means of obtaining thermodynamic data on rock forming crystalline solutions is discussed along with some aspects of partitioning of elements in coexisting phases. Crystalline solutions, components in a silicate mineral, and chemical potentials of these components were defined. Examples were given for calculating thermodynamic mixing functions in the CaW04-SrW04, olivine-chloride solution, and orthopyroxene systems.

  5. Closed-form approach to checking frame design

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, A.

    1995-04-05

    This brief report contains calculations of deflections and stresses of the support frame on the XMM project. The goal is to provide an independent view of structural integrity of the frame utilizing a noncomputer approach to design based on elementary closed form solutions and approximate models of mechanical and structural behavior. It is recognized that full confidence can only be assured when computer generated results pertaining to the critical areas and features of the integrating structure can be enveloped by the bracketing solutions. Although the computer solutions have come from the three independent sources, this report utilizes the numerical values from the LLNL studies represented by the computer runs and analysis of the critical elements of the frame. Since the frame geometry, deformation patterns, and the nature of loading are highly complex, this study is restricted to simplified models of selected areas of the structure which can be handled by the conventional formulas and reasonable approximations. This report contains some comments related to material properties, stress concentration, and elements of fracture mechanics directly applicable to frame analysis and design. Such topics and parameters fall usually outside the finite element modeling, but they can have a crucial influence on the mechanical and structural performance of the systems at hand.

  6. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closing report, Form MA-313. 308.533 Section 308.533 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313....

  7. Parallel solution of closely coupled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, S.; Salama, M.

    1986-01-01

    The odd-even permutation and associated unitary transformations for reordering the matrix coefficient A are employed as means of breaking the strong seriality which is characteristic of closely coupled systems. The nested dissection technique is also reviewed, and the equivalence between reordering A and dissecting its network is established. The effect of transforming A with odd-even permutation on its topology and the topology of its Cholesky factors is discussed. This leads to the construction of directed graphs showing the computational steps required for factoring A, their precedence relationships and their sequential and concurrent assignment to the available processors. Expressions for the speed-up and efficiency of using N processors in parallel relative to the sequential use of a single processor are derived from the directed graph. Similar expressions are also derived when the number of available processors is fewer than required.

  8. Closed Forms for 4-Parameter Families of Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.

    2009-01-01

    We compute closed forms for two multiparameter families of definite integrals, thus obtaining combinatorial formulas. As a consequence, a surprising formula is derived between a definite integral and an improper integral for the same parametric function.

  9. Closed Forms for 4-Parameter Families of Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.

    2009-01-01

    We compute closed forms for two multiparameter families of definite integrals, thus obtaining combinatorial formulas. As a consequence, a surprising formula is derived between a definite integral and an improper integral for the same parametric function.

  10. Closed-form approximations for two-dimensional groundwater age patterns in a fresh water lens.

    PubMed

    Greskowiak, Janek; Röper, Tania; Post, Vincent E A

    2013-01-01

    Simple closed-form approximations are presented for calculating the steady-state groundwater age distribution in two-dimensional vertical cross sections of idealized fresh water lenses overlying salt water, for aquifers that are vertically semi-infinite and of finite thickness. The approximations are developed on the basis of existing one-dimensional analytical solutions for travel-time calculation in fresh water lenses and approximate streamline formulations. The two-dimensional age distributions based on the closed-form solutions match convincingly with numerical simulations. As expected, notable deviations from the numerical solution are encountered at the groundwater flow divide and when submarine groundwater discharge occurs. Ratios of recharge over hydraulic conductivities are varied to explore how the magnitude of the deviations changes, and it is found that the approximate closed-form solutions perform well over a range of conditions found in natural systems.

  11. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313. This form, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD, shall be filed...

  12. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313. This form, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD, shall be filed...

  13. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form MA-313. This form, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD, shall be filed...

  14. Fast multigrid solution of the advection problem with closed characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Yavneh, I.; Venner, C.H.; Brandt, A.

    1996-12-31

    The numerical solution of the advection-diffusion problem in the inviscid limit with closed characteristics is studied as a prelude to an efficient high Reynolds-number flow solver. It is demonstrated by a heuristic analysis and numerical calculations that using upstream discretization with downstream relaxation-ordering and appropriate residual weighting in a simple multigrid V cycle produces an efficient solution process. We also derive upstream finite-difference approximations to the advection operator, whose truncation terms approximate {open_quotes}physical{close_quotes} (Laplacian) viscosity, thus avoiding spurious solutions to the homogeneous problem when the artificial diffusivity dominates the physical viscosity.

  15. Closed-form recursive formula for an optimal tracker with terminal constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J.-N.; Turner, J. D.; Chun, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Feedback control laws are derived for a class of optimal finite time tracking problems with terminal constraints. Analytical solutions are obtained for the feedback gain and the closed-loop response trajectory. Such formulations are expressed in recursive forms so that a real-time computer implementation becomes feasible. Two examples are given to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the formulations.

  16. Closed form and geometric algorithms for real-time control of an avatar

    SciTech Connect

    Semwall, S.K.; Hightower, R.; Stansfield, S.

    1995-12-31

    In a virtual environment with multiple participants, it is necessary that the user`s actions be replicated by synthetic human forms. Whole body digitizers would be the most realistic solution for capturing the individual participant`s human form, however the best of the digitizers available are not interactive and are therefore not suitable for real-time interaction. Usually, a limited number of sensors are used as constraints on the synthetic human form. Inverse kinematics algorithms are applied to satisfy these sensor constraints. These algorithms result in slower interaction because of their iterative nature, especially when there are a large number of participants. To support real-time interaction in a virtual environment, there is a need to generate closed for solutions and fast searching algorithms. In this paper, a new closed form solution for the arms (and legs) is developed using two magnetic sensors. In developing this solution, we use the biomechanical relationship between the lower arm and the upper arm to provide an analytical, non-iterative solution, We have also outlined a solution for the whole human body by using up to ten magnetic sensors to break the human skeleton into smaller kinematic chains. In developing our algorithms, we use the knowledge of natural body postures to generate faster solutions for real-time interaction.

  17. Closed-form mismatched filter synthesis for complementary range response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The combined response of a pair of complementary waveforms has zero range sidelobes and could significantly improve synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image quality by reducing multiplicative noise. However, complementary waveforms may not be practical for SAR imaging for reasons such as Doppler tolerance and unimodular waveform constraints. By using mismatched filters to achieve either a complementary or near-complementary response, two or more practical waveforms could be employed and SAR image quality improved. A closed-form approach was developed that calculates mismatched filters so that the coherent sum of the range responses from each waveform and its corresponding mismatched filter is complementary. A second approach reduced sidelobes while retaining a frequency response close to the waveforms' frequency responses. Images processed using X-band radar data collected under the Air Force Gotcha program exhibited improvements in image quality over those processed using matched filters. The closed-form approach is presented for both complementary and reduced-sidelobe mismatched filters and image quality is quantified. The approach developed in this work offers improved image quality, is suitable for near real-time operation, and is independent of the waveforms.

  18. Self-adaptive closed constrained solution algorithms for nonlinear conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, J.; Tovichakchaikul, S.

    1982-01-01

    Self-adaptive solution algorithms are developed for nonlinear heat conduction problems encountered in analyzing materials for use in high temperature or cryogenic conditions. The nonlinear effects are noted to occur due to convection and radiation effects, as well as temperature-dependent properties of the materials. Incremental successive substitution (ISS) and Newton-Raphson (NR) procedures are treated as extrapolation schemes which have solution projections bounded by a hyperline with an externally applied thermal load vector arising from internal heat generation and boundary conditions. Closed constraints are formulated which improve the efficiency and stability of the procedures by employing closed ellipsoidal surfaces to control the size of successive iterations. Governing equations are defined for nonlinear finite element models, and comparisons are made of results using the the new method and the ISS and NR schemes for epoxy, PVC, and CuGe.

  19. Idealized Closed Form Performance Modeling of a Closed Cycle Joule-Thomson Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytal, B.-Z.

    2004-06-01

    The characteristic parameters of a closed cycle Joule-Thomson cryocooler would be: the charging pressure, discharge and suction volumes of the loop, volumetric displacement of the compressor and the extent of throttling restriction. A series of idealizing assumption are applied. The volumetric behavior of the coolant is assumed to obey the ideal gas equation. The recuperator and compressor's volumetric delivery are completely efficient. There are no pressure losses along the circulating path. On this basis is developed a closed form model of the system, interrelating the relevant parameters. Performance at steady state is expressed in terms of the circulating flow rate, discharge and suction pressures and cooling power. The model predicts the optimal size of equivalent orifice and the maximized cooling power. Also derived is the hydrodynamic time constant of building up the discharge pressure. This analysis is relevant for mixed coolants as well as for pure coolants closed cycles. The former typically employ lower pressure and therefore the idealized assumptions are even more applicable.

  20. Closed-form recursive formula for an optimal tracker with terminal constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J. N.; Turner, J. D.; Chun, H. M.

    1986-01-01

    Feedback control laws are derived for a class of optimal finite time tracking problems with terminal constraints. Analytical solutions are obtained for the feedback gain and the closed-loop response trajectory. Such formulations are expressed in recursive forms so that a real-time computer implementation becomes feasible. An example involving the feedback slewing of a flexible spacecraft is given to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the formulations.

  1. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  2. A closed-form solution for noise contours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Carson, T. M.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical approach for generating noise contours that overcome the difficulties of existing programs is described. This approach is valid for arbitrarily complex paths and reveals the importance of various factors that influence contour shape and size. The calculations are simple enough to be implemented on a small, hand-held programmable calculator, and a program for the HP-67 calculator is illustrated. The method is fast, simple, and gives the area, the contour, and its extremities for arbitrary flight paths for both takeoffs and landings.

  3. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... management investment companies registered on Form N-8A. 239.14 Section 239.14 Commodity and Securities... Registration Statements § 239.14 Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form...

  4. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... management investment companies registered on Form N-8A. 239.14 Section 239.14 Commodity and Securities... Registration Statements § 239.14 Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form...

  5. Form and stability of aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, John David; Roberson, Charles Elmer

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory studies of solutions 4.53 x 10 -4 to 4.5 x 10 -5 molal (12.2-1.2 ppm) in aluminum, in 0.01 molal sodium perchlorate, were conducted to obtain information as to the probable behavior of aluminum in natural water. When the solutions were brought to pH 7.5-9.5 and allowed to stand for 24 hours, a precipitate was obtained which was virtually amorphous as shown by X-rays, and which had a solubility equivalent to that of boehmite. This precipitate had a hydrolysis constant (*Ks4) of 1.93 x 10 -13a. When solutions were allowed to stead at this pH range for 10 days, their precipitates gave the X-ray pattern of bayerite (*Ks4 = 1.11 > (10- 4). These hydrolysis constants were obtained at 25?C. and corrected to zero ionic strength and are in close agreement with other published values. The predominant dissolved form in this pH range is Al(OH) -4. Below neutral pH (7.0) the dissolved aluminum species consist of octahedral units in which each aluminum ion is surrounded by six water molecules or hydroxide ions. Single units such as Al(OH2)6 + 3 and AlOH(OH2)5+2 are most abundant below pH 5.0, and where the molar ratio (r) of combined hydroxide to total dissolved aluminum is low. When r is greater than 1.0, polymerization of the octahedral units occurs. When r is between 2.0 and 3.0, solutions aged for 10 days or more contained colloidal particles between 0.10 and 0.45 ? in diameter. Particles whose diameters were greater than 0.10 ? were identified by X-ray diffraction as gibbsite. Particles smaller than 0.10 ? were also present and were shown by means of the electron microscope to have a hexagonal crystal pattern. Structured material consisting of sheets of coalesced six-membered rings of aluminum ions held together by double OH bridges has a distinctive kinetic behavior. This property was used to determine amounts of polymerized material in solutions having r between 1.0 and 3.0 after aging times ranging from a few hours to more than 4 months. Aging increased the

  6. Fibulin 5 Forms a Compact Dimer in Physiological Solutions*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Richard P. O.; Wang, Ming-Chuan; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Ridley, Caroline; Mellody, Kieran T.; Howard, Marjorie; Wang, Tao; Bishop, Paul N.; Lotery, Andrew J.; Kielty, Cay M.; Baldock, Clair; Trump, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Fibulin 5 is a 52-kDa calcium-binding epidermal growth factor (cbEGF)-rich extracellular matrix protein that is essential for the formation of elastic tissues. Missense mutations in fibulin 5 cause the elastin disorder cutis laxa and have been associated with age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness. We investigated the structure, hydrodynamics, and oligomerization of fibulin 5 using small angle x-ray scattering, EM, light scattering, circular dichroism, and sedimentation. Compact structures for the monomer were determined by small angle x-ray scattering and EM, and are supported by close agreement between the theoretical sedimentation of the structures and the experimental sedimentation of the monomer in solution. EM showed that monomers associate around a central cavity to form a dimer. Light scattering and equilibrium sedimentation demonstrated that the equilibrium between the monomer and the dimer is dependent upon NaCl and Ca2+ concentrations and that the dimer is dominant under physiological conditions. The dimerization of fragments containing just the cbEGF domains suggests that intermolecular interactions between cbEGFs cause dimerization of fibulin 5. It is possible that fibulin 5 functions as a dimer during elastinogenesis or that dimerization may provide a method for limiting interactions with binding partners such as tropoelastin. PMID:19617354

  7. Looking Closely at "Medusa": Star Forming Regions in NGC 4194

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The "Medusa" (NGC 4194, Mrk 201) is a blue compact galaxy, with strong far infrared and radio emission. Ground-based observations exhibit a distorted image with a tidal tail and regions of strong star formation. A population of massive O and early B stars is evident from the IUE spectra HST survey of Seyfert and starburst galaxies notes NCG 4194 is an HII galaxy with lumpy HII regions and knots. The central starburst is apparently produced by a galaxy merger. As part of an investigation of star formation in interacting galaxies, we have obtained ultraviolet and visible images of the central regions of NGC 4194 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. Imaging was obtained in two ultraviolet (FUV-MAMA+F25QTZ, NUV-MAMA+F25CN182) and one visible (CCD+F28X50LP) band. Individual star forming knots (at HST resolution) have been identified. We present sized and luminosities for the individual knots, and the knot luminosity function. We compare our data to current starburst models to constrain stellar ages and populations. Knot characteristics as a function of location in the galaxy will also be discussed.

  8. Looking Closely at "Medusa": Star Forming Regions in NGC 4194

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The "Medusa" (NGC 4194, Mrk 201) is a blue compact galaxy, with strong far infrared and radio emission. Ground-based observations exhibit a distorted image with a tidal tail and regions of strong star formation. A population of massive O and early B stars is evident from the IUE spectra HST survey of Seyfert and starburst galaxies notes NCG 4194 is an HII galaxy with lumpy HII regions and knots. The central starburst is apparently produced by a galaxy merger. As part of an investigation of star formation in interacting galaxies, we have obtained ultraviolet and visible images of the central regions of NGC 4194 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. Imaging was obtained in two ultraviolet (FUV-MAMA+F25QTZ, NUV-MAMA+F25CN182) and one visible (CCD+F28X50LP) band. Individual star forming knots (at HST resolution) have been identified. We present sized and luminosities for the individual knots, and the knot luminosity function. We compare our data to current starburst models to constrain stellar ages and populations. Knot characteristics as a function of location in the galaxy will also be discussed.

  9. Closed form Vaidya-Tikekar type charged fluid spheres with pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijalwan, Naveen; Gupta, Y. K.

    2011-08-01

    Recently, Bijalwan (Astrophys. Space Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10509-011-0691-0 , 2011) discussed all important solutions of charged fluid spheres with pressure and Gupta et al. (Astrophys. Space Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10509-010-0561-1 , 2010) found first closed form solutions of charged Vaidya-Tikekar (V-T) type super-dense star. We extend here the approach evolved by Bijalwan (Astrophys. Space Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10509-011-0691-0 , 2011) to find all possible closed form solutions of V-T type super-dense stars. The existing solutions of Vaidya-Tikekar type charged fluid spheres considering particular form of electric field intensity are being used to model massive stars. Infact at present maximum masses of the star models are found to be 8.223931 M Θ and 8.460857 M Θ subject to ultra-relativistic and non-relativistic conditions respectively. But these stars with such are large masses are not well behaved due to decreasing velocity of sound in the interior of star. We present new results concerning the existence of static, electrically charged perfect fluid spheres that have a regular interior. It is observed that electric intensity used in this article can be used to model superdense stars with ultrahigh surface density of the order 2×1014 gm/cm3 which may have maximum mass 7.26368240 M Θ for ultra-relativistic condition and velocity of sound found to be decreasing towards pressure free interface. We solve the Einstein-Maxwell equations considering a general barotropic equation of state with pressure. For brevity we don't present a detailed analysis of the derived solutions in this paper.

  10. Path integral approach to closed-form option pricing formulas with applications to stochastic volatility and interest rate models.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, D; Wouters, M; Tempere, J; Foulon, S

    2008-07-01

    We present a path integral method to derive closed-form solutions for option prices in a stochastic volatility model. The method is explained in detail for the pricing of a plain vanilla option. The flexibility of our approach is demonstrated by extending the realm of closed-form option price formulas to the case where both the volatility and interest rates are stochastic. This flexibility is promising for the treatment of exotic options. Our analytical formulas are tested with numerical Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Path integral approach to closed-form option pricing formulas with applications to stochastic volatility and interest rate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, D.; Wouters, M.; Tempere, J.; Foulon, S.

    2008-07-01

    We present a path integral method to derive closed-form solutions for option prices in a stochastic volatility model. The method is explained in detail for the pricing of a plain vanilla option. The flexibility of our approach is demonstrated by extending the realm of closed-form option price formulas to the case where both the volatility and interest rates are stochastic. This flexibility is promising for the treatment of exotic options. Our analytical formulas are tested with numerical Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. The "anthracene problem": closed-form conjugated-circuit models of ring currents in linear polyacenes.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick W; Myrvold, Wendy

    2011-11-17

    Conjugated-circuit models for induced π ring currents differ in the types of circuit that they include and the weights attached to them. Choice of circuits for general π systems can be expressed compactly in terms of matchings of the circuit-deleted molecular graph. Variants of the conjugated-circuit model for induced π currents are shown to have simple closed-form solutions for linear polyacenes. Despite differing assumptions about the effect of cycle area, all the models predict the most intense perimeter current in the central rings, in general agreement with ab initio current-density maps. All tend to overestimate the rate of increase with N of the central ring current for the [N]polyacene, in comparison with molecular-orbital treatments using ipsocentric ab initio, pseudo-π, and Hückel-London approaches.

  13. Closed form analysis of a gamma, back-to-back free displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.L.; Kilgour, D.B.; Lazarides, Y.G.; Rallis, C.J.

    1983-08-01

    A back-to-back, free displacer, gamma type Stirling engine has been designed and is currently under manufacture and development at the University of the Witwatersrand. This paper presents a simple idealized analysis for such an engine. It involves the coupling together of the thermodynamic and mechanical equations, and by the use of classical control and vibration theory, closed form solutions are obtained. This work follows up on previous methods of analysis developed by Berchowitz, WyattMair and Goldberg for similar types of engines. A numerical application of the analysis has been carried out for the design in order to evaluate the operating frequency, phase displacements, amplitude of oscillation and basic output power. Performance characteristics are obtained and detailed in the paper. The analysis has provided analytic proof of the viability of the proposed engine configuration, highlighted weak areas and provided a background to higher order analysis. A programme of experimental validation is under way.

  14. Closed-Form Formulas for Estimation of Kinetic Parameters in One- and Two-Compartment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Gengsheng; Kadrmas, Dan; Gullberg, Grant

    2011-05-24

    .Nowadays the most reliable approach to estimate the kinetic parameters is to minimize an objective function which is essentially the distance between the measured data and the model generated pseudo data. Due to the highly non-linear nature of the model, common optimization algorithms usually fail to find the true minimum. A brute-force search method sometimes must be used to find the true minimum. This paper attempts to use the Laplace transform and Z-transform methods to derive closed-form formulas for kinetic parameter estimation problems, which assume one- or two-compartment models. The proposed method is computationally efficient and its solution is unique. When data sampling interval is small, the proposed method is able to accurately estimate the kinetic parameter; when the interval is larger, the proposed method fails to give a meaningful estimate. The one-compartment method is more robust than the two-compartment method.

  15. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 1026 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H Appendix H to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. H Appendix H to Part 1026—Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H-1Credit Sale Model Form (§ 1026.18) H-2Loan Model Form (§ 1026.18) ...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 1026 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H Appendix H to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. H Appendix H to Part 1026—Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H-1Credit Sale Model Form (§ 1026.18) H-2Loan Model Form (§ 1026.18) ...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 1026 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H Appendix H to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. H Appendix H to Part 1026—Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H-1Credit Sale Model Form (§ 1026.18) H-2Loan Model Form (§ 1026.18) ...

  18. Closed solutions to a differential-difference equation and an associated plate solidification problem.

    PubMed

    Layeni, Olawanle P; Akinola, Adegbola P; Johnson, Jesse V

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct and novel formalisms for deriving exact closed solutions of a class of variable-coefficient differential-difference equations arising from a plate solidification problem are introduced. Thereupon, exact closed traveling wave and similarity solutions to the plate solidification problem are obtained for some special cases of time-varying plate surface temperature.

  19. A CAD-compatible closed form approximation for the inversion charge areal density in double-gate MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, Venkatnarayan; Vasi, Juzer; Ramgopal Rao, V.

    2009-02-01

    In developing the drain current model of a symmetrically driven, undoped (or lightly doped) symmetric double-gate MOSFET (SDGFET), one encounters a transcendental equation relating the value of an intermediate variable β (which is related to the inversion charge areal density and also surface-potential) to the gate and drain voltages; as a result, it doesn't have a closed form solution. From a compact modeling perspective, it is desirable to have closed form expressions in order to implement them in a circuit simulator. In this paper, we present an accurate closed form approximation for the inversion charge areal density, based on the Lambert-W function. We benchmark our approximation against other existing approximations and show that our approximation is computationally the most efficient and numerically the most robust, at a reduced but acceptable accuracy. Hence, it is suitable for use in implementing inversion charge based compact models.

  20. Hydrothermal Dehydration of Aqueous Fructose Solutions in a Closed System

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Chunhua; Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Li Q.; Windisch, Charles F.; Samuels, William D.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Risen Jr., William M.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2007-10-25

    The synthesis of materials with targeted size and shape has attracted much attention. Specifically, colloidal spheres with targeted and uniform sizes have opened the door for a variety of applications associated with drug delivery, and manipulation of light (photonic band-gap crystals). Surface modification is a key to realizing many of these applications owing to the inherent inert surface.The remarkable transformation of carbohydrate molecules including sugars to homogeneous carbon spheres is found to readily occur by a dehydration mechanism and subsequent sequestering in aqueous solutions that are heated at 160-180oC in a pressurized vessel. Under such conditions, these molecules actually dehydrate even though they are dissolved in water. Size-tunable metal and metal oxides with uniform shells have also been prepared by using carbon spheres as templates.

  1. String and M-theory cosmological solutions with Ramond forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, André; Ovruta, Burt A.; Waldram, Daniel

    1997-02-01

    A general framework for studying a large class of cosmological solutions of the low-energy limit of type II string theory and of M-theory, with non-trivial Ramond form fields excited, is presented. The framework is applicable to space-times decomposable into a set of flat or, more generally, maximally symmetric spatial subspaces, with multiple non-trivial form fields spanning one or more of the subspaces. It is shown that the corresponding low-energy equations of motion are equivalent to those describing a particle moving in a moduli space consisting of the scale factors of the subspaces together with the dilaton. The choice of which form fields are excited controls the potential term in the particle equations. Two classes of exact solutions are given, those corresponding to exciting only a single form and those with multiple forms excited which correspond to Toda theories. Although typically these solutions begin or end in a curvature singularity, there is a subclass with positive spatial curvature which appears to be singularity free. Elements of this class are directly related to certain black p-brane solutions.

  2. Trapping Open and Closed Forms of FitE-A Group III Periplasmic Binding Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, R.; Proteau, A; Wagner, J; Cui, Q; Purisima, E; Matte, A; Cygler, M

    2009-01-01

    Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) are essential components of bacterial transport systems, necessary for bacterial growth and survival. The two-domain structures of PBPs are topologically classified into three groups based on the number of crossovers or hinges between the globular domains: group I PBPs have three connections, group II have two, and group III have only one. Although a large number of structures for group I or II PBPs are known, fewer group III PBPs have been structurally characterized. Group I and II PBPs exhibit significant domain motions during transition from the unbound to ligand-bound form, however, no large conformational changes have been observed to date in group III PBPs. We have solved the crystal structure of a periplasmic binding protein FitE, part of an iron transport system, fit, recently identified in a clinical E. coli isolate. The structure, determined at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution, shows that FitE is a group III PBP containing a single {alpha}-helix bridging the two domains. Among the individual FitE molecules present in two crystal forms we observed three different conformations (open, closed, intermediate). Our crystallographic and molecular dynamics results strongly support the notion that group III PBPs also adopt the same Venus flytrap mechanism as do groups I and II PBPs. Unlike other group III PBPs, FitE forms dimers both in solution and in the crystals. The putative siderophore binding pocket is lined with arginine residues, suggesting an anionic nature of the iron-containing siderophore.

  3. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H Appendix H to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. H Appendix H to Part 226— Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H-1Credit Sale Model Form (...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H Appendix H to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. H Appendix H to Part 226— Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H-1Credit Sale Model Form (...

  5. Closed form expression for self-sensing microcantilever-based mass sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, Miheer; Jalili, Nader

    2006-03-01

    The dynamics of a self-sensing microcantilever beam for mass sensing applications are presented. The microcantilever is assumed to be uniform and obeying the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory assumptions. The beam possesses an unknown tip mass to be measured and a piezoelectric patch actuator deposited on the cantilever surface. The actuator is operated in a self-sensing mode, in the sense that the same piezoelectric patch is used to simultaneously actuate the beam and sense the voltage induced due to beam vibrations. A balanced impedance bridge is used to supply voltage to the piezoelectric actuator and to read the induced voltage. Mathematical models for this mechatronic system actuated through a pure capacitive and a resistive-capacitive bridge network are derived. Equations of motion are obtained using the Hamilton's principle by considering the microcantilever as a distributed-parameters system. A technique to estimate the unknown tip mass, based on the inverse solution to the characteristic equation problem is presented along with sensitivity analysis of the unknown mass with respect to the characteristic equation parameters. A closed-form solution for the determination of unknown tip mass is obtained which has many advantages over numerical estimation methods in a widespread mass sensing application.

  6. A closed form for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments in submicrometer structures.

    PubMed

    Sanguigno, Luigi; De Santo, Ilaria; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful technique for measuring low concentrations of fluorescent molecules and their diffusion coefficients in an open detection volume. However, in several practical cases, when FCS measurements are carried out in small compartments like microchannels, neglecting boundary effects could lead to erroneous results. Here, a close form solution is proposed to explicitly account for the presence of walls located at a distance comparable with the characteristic detection volume lengths. We derive a one-dimensional diffusion constrained model and then generalize the solution to the two- and the three-dimensional constrained cases. We further indicate within which limits the standard autocorrelation function (ACF) model gives reliable results in microconfinement. Our model relies just on the assumption of elastic hits at the system walls and succeeds in describing the ACF of fluorescent probes confined along one direction. Through the analysis of FCS experimental data, we are able to predict the correct shape of the ACF in channels of micrometric and submicrometric width and measure the extent of lateral confinement. In addition, it permits the investigation of microstructured material features such as cages and cavities having dimensions on the micrometric range. On the basis of the proposed model, we also show in which conditions confinement could generate an apparent time dependent probe mobility, thus allowing a proper interpretation of the transport process taking place in submicrometric compartments.

  7. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... to be attached to the closing report, Form MA-313-A, may be obtained from the American War...

  8. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... to be attached to the closing report, Form MA-313-A, may be obtained from the American War...

  9. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... to be attached to the closing report, Form MA-313-A, may be obtained from the American War...

  10. The spaces of non-contractible closed curves in compact space forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taimanov, I. A.

    2016-10-01

    The rational equivariant cohomology of noncontractible loop spaces is calculated for compact space forms. It is also shown how to use these calculations to establish the existence of closed geodesics. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  11. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H Appendix H to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. H Appendix H to Part 226— Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H-1Credit Sale...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H Appendix H to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. H Appendix H to Part 226— Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses H-1 Credit Sale...

  13. Validation of closed-form compression noise statistics using model observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dunling; Loew, Murray

    2007-03-01

    Model observers have been used successfully to predict human observer performance and to evaluate image quality for detection tasks on various backgrounds in medical applications. This paper will apply the closed-form compression noise statistics in analytic form to model observers and the derived channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) for decompressed images. The performance of CHO on decompressed images is validated using JPEG compression algorithm and lumpy background images. The results show that the derived CHO performance predicts closely its simulated performance.

  14. Generalizing Merton's approach of pricing risky debt: some closed-form results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. F.

    In this work, I generalize Merton's approach of pricing risky debt to the case where the interest rate risk is modeled by the CIR term structure. Closed-form result for pricing the debt is given for the case where the firm value has non-zero correlation with the interest rate. This extends previous closed-form pricing formular of zero-correlation case to the generic one of non-zero correlation between the firm value and the interest rate.

  15. Closed-Form Evaluation of Mutual Coupling in a Planar Array of Circular Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    The integral expression for the mutual admittance between circular apertures in a planar array is evaluated in closed form. Very good accuracy is realized when compared with values that were obtained by numerical integration. Utilization of this closed-form expression, for all element pairs that are separated by more than one element spacing, yields extremely accurate results and significantly reduces the computation time that is required to analyze the performance of a large electronically scanning antenna array.

  16. Closed-Form Approximations of First-Passage Distributions for a Stochastic Decision-Making Model.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Tamara; Wong-Lin, Kong Fatt; Holmes, Philip

    2009-06-01

    In free response choice tasks, decision making is often modeled as a first-passage problem for a stochastic differential equation. In particular, drift-diffusion processes with constant or time-varying drift rates and noise can reproduce behavioral data (accuracy and response-time distributions) and neuronal firing rates. However, no exact solutions are known for the first-passage problem with time-varying data. Recognizing the importance of simple closed-form expressions for modeling and inference, we show that an interrogation or cued-response protocol, appropriately interpreted, can yield approximate first-passage (response time) distributions for a specific class of time-varying processes used to model evidence accumulation. We test these against exact expressions for the constant drift case and compare them with data from a class of sigmoidal functions. We find that both the direct interrogation approximation and an error-minimizing interrogation approximation can capture a variety of distribution shapes and mode numbers but that the direct approximation, in particular, is systematically biased away from the correct free response distribution.

  17. ORBITAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS AND DISTANT PLANETS FORMED BY SCATTERING AND DYNAMICAL TIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the formation of close-in planets (hot Jupiters) by a combination of mutual scattering, Kozai effect, and tidal circularization, through N-body simulations of three gas giant planets, and compared the results with discovered close-in planets. We found that in about 350 cases out of 1200 runs ({approx}30%), the eccentricity of one of the planets is excited highly enough for tidal circularization by mutual close scatterings followed by secular effects due to outer planets, such as the Kozai mechanism, and the planet becomes a close-in planet through the damping of eccentricity and semimajor axis. The formation probability of close-in planets by such scattering is not affected significantly by the effect of the general relativity and inclusion of inertial modes in addition to fundamental modes in the tides. Detailed orbital distributions of the formed close-in planets and their counterpart distant planets in our simulations were compared with observational data. We focused on the possibility for close-in planets to retain non-negligible eccentricities ({approx}> 0.1) on timescales of {approx}10{sup 9} yr and have high inclinations, because close-in planets in eccentric or highly inclined orbits have recently been discovered. In our simulations we found that as many as 29% of the close-in planets have retrograde orbits, and the retrograde planets tend to have small eccentricities. On the other hand, eccentric close-in planets tend to have orbits of small inclinations.

  18. Thermodynamic versus conformational metastability in fibril-forming lysozyme solutions.

    PubMed

    Raccosta, Samuele; Martorana, Vincenzo; Manno, Mauro

    2012-10-11

    The role of intermolecular interaction in fibril-forming protein solutions and its relation with molecular conformation is a crucial aspect for the control and inhibition of amyloid structures. Here, we study the fibril formation and the protein-protein interactions of lysozyme at acidic pH and low ionic strength. The amyloid formation occurs after a long lag time and is preceded by the formation of oligomers, which seems to be off-pathway with respect to fibrillation. By measuring the osmotic isothermal compressibility and the collective diffusion coefficient of lysozyme in solution, we observe that the monomeric solution is kept in a thermodynamically metastable state by strong electrostatic repulsion, even in denaturing conditions. The measured repulsive interaction between monomers is satisfactorily accounted for by classical polyelectrolyte theory. Further, we observe a slow conformational change involving both secondary and tertiary structure, which drives the proteins toward a more hydrophobic conformation. Denatured proteins are driven out of metastability through conformational substates, which are kinetically populated and experience a lower activation energy for fibril formation. Thus, our results highlight the role of electrostatic repulsion, which hinders the aggregation of partially denatured proteins and operates as a gatekeeper favoring the association of those monomers whose conformation is capable of forming amyloid structure.

  19. Breather solutions for inhomogeneous FPU models using Birkhoff normal forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Farías, Francisco; Panayotaros, Panayotis

    2016-11-01

    We present results on spatially localized oscillations in some inhomogeneous nonlinear lattices of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) type derived from phenomenological nonlinear elastic network models proposed to study localized protein vibrations. The main feature of the FPU lattices we consider is that the number of interacting neighbors varies from site to site, and we see numerically that this spatial inhomogeneity leads to spatially localized normal modes in the linearized problem. This property is seen in 1-D models, and in a 3-D model with a geometry obtained from protein data. The spectral analysis of these examples suggests some non-resonance assumptions that we use to show the existence of invariant subspaces of spatially localized solutions in quartic Birkhoff normal forms of the FPU systems. The invariant subspaces have an additional symmetry and this fact allows us to compute periodic orbits of the quartic normal form in a relatively simple way.

  20. A subsequent closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendy, Robert. F.

    2016-05-01

    I recently introduced a closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon [R.F. Melendy, Journal of Applied Physics 118, 244701 (2015)]. Those results demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation, function together in generating an action potential in a unified, closed-form description. At present, I report on a subsequent closed-form model that unifies intracellular conductance and the thermodynamics of magnetization, with the membrane electric field, Em. It's anticipated this work will compel researchers in biophysics, physical biology, and the computational neurosciences, to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling, informed by the computational features of this subsequent model.

  1. A subsequent closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon

    SciTech Connect

    Melendy, Robert F.

    2016-05-15

    I recently introduced a closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon [R.F. Melendy, Journal of Applied Physics 118, 244701 (2015)]. Those results demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation, function together in generating an action potential in a unified, closed-form description. At present, I report on a subsequent closed-form model that unifies intracellular conductance and the thermodynamics of magnetization, with the membrane electric field, E{sub m}. It’s anticipated this work will compel researchers in biophysics, physical biology, and the computational neurosciences, to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling, informed by the computational features of this subsequent model.

  2. A closed-form method for single-point positioning with six satellites in dual-GNSS constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yunlong; Huang, Qi; Ao, Yongcai; Li, Yun

    2016-12-01

    With the impact of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), dual-GNSS constellations are playing an increasingly significant role in positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) applications. Aiming at improving from the existing method, i.e., linearization, of solving the single-point positioning problem under a dual-GNSS, this paper develops a closed-form method for solving PNT problems in the case of six satellites. This method reduces the positioning problem to a simple mathematical problem of finding solutions to a quadratic equation, thereby needing only one receiver clock bias (RCB) as variable. By solving the RCB, the positioning information in three dimensions is obtained by utilizing a linear equation. Compared with the existing method, the closed-form method requires no initial position or iterations. This method thus provides a direct solution to single-point positioning. Further, how to check the uniqueness and the validity of the solutions is also derived. Experimental results verify the validity, applicability and efficiency of the proposed method.

  3. Design of a radio telescope surface segment actuator based on a form-closed eccentric cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R.

    2014-07-01

    As radio telescopes have reached larger diameters and higher frequencies, it is typically not possible to meet their surface accuracy specifications using passive homology-based designs. The most common solution to this problem in the current generation of large, high-frequency radio telescopes is to employ a system of linear actuators to correct the surface shape of the primary reflector. The exact specifications of active surface actuators vary with the telescope. However, they have many common features, some of which drive their design. In general, these actuators must provide precise and repeatable positioning under significant loads during operation and they must withstand even higher loads for survival conditions. For general safety, they typically must hold position in the event of a power failure and must incorporate position limits, whether electrical, mechanical, or both. Because the number of actuators is generally high for large active surfaces (hundreds or even thousands of actuators), they must also be reliable and of reasonable individual cost. Finally, for maximum flexibility in their installation, they must be compact. This paper presents a concept for an active surface actuator based on a form-closed eccentric cam (kinematically, a Scotch Yoke mechanism). Such a design is limited in stroke, but offers potential advantages in terms of manufacture, compactness, measurement, and survival loading. The paper demonstrates that some of the expected advantages cannot be practically realized, due to dimensions that are driven by survival loading conditions. As a result, this concept is likely to offer an advantage over conventional screw-type actuators only for cases where actuator runaway and stall are the driving considerations.

  4. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A. 308.534 Section 308.534 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  5. Aromatic oligomers that form hetero duplexes in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Gregory J; Iverson, Brent L

    2002-12-25

    The electron-deficient 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (Ndi) and electron-rich 1,5-dialkoxynaphthalene (Dan) have been shown to complex strongly with each other in water due to the hydrophobic effect as modulated through the electrostatic complementarity of the stacked dimer. Previously, oligomers of alternating Ndi and Dan units, termed aedamers, were the first foldamers to employ intramolecular aromatic stacking to effect the formation of secondary structure of nonnatural chains in aqueous solution. Described here is the use of this aromatic-aromatic (or pi-pi) interaction, this time in an intermolecular format, to demonstrate the self-assembly of stable hetero duplexes from a set of molecular strands (1a-4a) and (1b-4b) incorporating Ndi and Dan units, respectively. A 1-to-1 binding stoichiometry was determined from NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) investigations, and these experiments indicated that association is enthalpically favored with the tetra-Ndi (4a) and tetra-Dan (4b) strands forming hetero duplexes (4a:4b) with a stability constant of 350 000 M-1 at T = 318 K. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) also illustrated the strong interaction between 4a and 4b and support a 1-to-1 binding mode even when one component is in slight excess. Overall, this system is the first to utilize complementary aromatic units to drive discrete self-assembly in aqueous solution. This new approach for designing assemblies is encouraging for future development of duplex systems with highly programmable modes of binding in solution or on surfaces.

  6. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matone, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp (X) exp (Y)=exp (W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp (X) exp (Y) exp (Z)=exp (W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper.

  7. Glycine phases formed from frozen aqueous solutions: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovtsev, N. V.; Adichtchev, S. V.; Malinovsky, V. K.; Ogienko, A. G.; Drebushchak, V. A.; Manakov, A. Yu.; Ancharov, A. I.; Yunoshev, A. S.; Boldyreva, E. V.

    2012-08-01

    Glycine phases formed when aqueous solutions were frozen and subsequently heated under different conditions were studied by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Crystallization of ice Ih was observed in all the cases. On cooling at the rates of 0.5 K/min and 5 K/min, glassy glycine was formed as an intermediate phase which lived about 1 min or less only, and then transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. Quench cooling of glycine solutions (15% w/w) in liquid nitrogen resulted in the formation of a mixture of crystalline water ice Ih and a glassy glycine, which could be preserved at cryogenic temperatures (80 K) for an indefinitely long time. This mixture remained also quite stable for some time after heating above the cryogenic temperature. Subsequent heating under various conditions resulted in the transformation of the glycine glass into an unknown crystalline phase (glycine "X-phase") at 209-216 K, which at 218-226 K transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. The "X-phase" was characterized by Raman spectroscopy; it could be obtained in noticeable amounts using a special preparation technique and tentatively characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (P2, a = 6.648 Å, b = 25.867 Å, c = 5.610 Å, β = 113.12°); the formation of "X-phase" from the glycine glassy phase and its transformation into β-polymorph were followed by DSC. Raman scattering technique with its power for unambiguous identification of the crystalline and glassy polymorphs without limitation on the crystallite size helped us to follow the phase transformations during quenching, heating, and annealing. The experimental findings are considered in relation to the problem of control of glycine polymorphism on crystallization.

  8. Structure and properties of the precipitates formed from condensed solutions of the revised simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkina, Elena I; Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2003-11-01

    Precipitation experiments with aqueous solutions of the Kokubo's revised simulated body fluid (rSBF) equal to 2, 4, 8, and 12 times the ionic concentration of human blood plasma were performed. Instead of Hepes, solution pH was adjusted to the desired value of 7.40 +/- 0.02 by either bubbling of CO2 or addition of HCl. The experiments were performed in tightly closed plastic vessels kept at 37.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C for 72 h under permanent shaking. Afterward, the suspensions were filtrated, and the precipitates were collected and analyzed. The results revealed that increasing the concentration of rSBF resulted in great changes in both the structure and the chemical composition of the precipitates. Phosphate substitution for carbonate (although the amounts of calcium and magnesium remained unchanged) and crystallinity decreasing were the most important modifications found in the precipitates formed from the highly condensed solutions of rSBF.

  9. A hybrid solution approach for a multi-objective closed-loop logistics network under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Tu, Nan; Miao, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    The design of closed-loop logistics (forward and reverse logistics) has attracted growing attention with the stringent pressures of customer expectations, environmental concerns and economic factors. This paper considers a multi-product, multi-period and multi-objective closed-loop logistics network model with regard to facility expansion as a facility location-allocation problem, which more closely approximates real-world conditions. A multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming formulation is linearized by defining new variables and adding new constraints to the model. By considering the aforementioned model under uncertainty, this paper develops a hybrid solution approach by combining an interactive fuzzy goal programming approach and robust counterpart optimization based on three well-known robust counterpart optimization formulations. Finally, this paper compares the results of the three formulations using different test scenarios and parameter-sensitive analysis in terms of the quality of the final solution, CPU time, the level of conservatism, the degree of closeness to the ideal solution, the degree of balance involved in developing a compromise solution, and satisfaction degree.

  10. Closed circuit recovery of copper, lead and iron from electronic waste with citrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Torres, Robinson; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2017-02-01

    An integral closed circuit hydrometallurgical process is presented for base metal recovery from electronic waste. The leaching medium consists of a sodium citrate solution, from which base metals are retrieved by direct electrowinning, and the barren solution is recycled back to the leaching stage. This leaching-electrowinning cycle was repeated four times. The redox properties of the fresh citrate solution, as well as the leach liquors, were characterized by cyclic voltammetry to determine adequate conditions for metal reduction, as well as to limit citrate degradation. The leaching efficiency of electronic waste, employing the same solution after four complete cycles was 71, 83 and 94% for copper, iron and lead, respectively, compared to the original leach with fresh citrate solution.

  11. Closed-form static analysis with inertia relief and displacement-dependent loads using a MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Widrick, Timothy W.; Ludwiczak, Damian R.

    1995-01-01

    Solving for the displacements of free-free coupled systems acted upon by static loads is commonly performed throughout the aerospace industry. Many times, these problems are solved using static analysis with inertia relief. This solution technique allows for a free-free static analysis by balancing the applied loads with inertia loads generated by the applied loads. For some engineering applications, the displacements of the free-free coupled system induce additional static loads. Hence, the applied loads are equal to the original loads plus displacement-dependent loads. Solving for the final displacements of such systems is commonly performed using iterative solution techniques. Unfortunately, these techniques can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. Since the coupled system equations for free-free systems with displacement-dependent loads can be written in closed-form, it is advantageous to solve for the displacements in this manner. Implementing closed-form equations in static analysis with inertia relief is analogous to implementing transfer functions in dynamic analysis. Using a MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter, displacement-dependent loads have been included in static analysis with inertia relief. Such an Alter has been used successfully to solve efficiently a common aerospace problem typically solved using an iterative technique.

  12. Closed-form Static Analysis with Inertia Relief and Displacement-Dependent Loads Using a MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Widrick, Timothy W.; Ludwiczak, Damian R.

    1995-01-01

    Solving for the displacements of free-free coupled systems acted upon by static loads is commonly performed throughout the aerospace industry. Many times, these problems are solved using static analysis with inertia relief. This solution technique allows for a free-free static analysis by balancing the applied loads with inertia loads generated by the applied loads. For some engineering applications, the displacements of the free-free coupled system induce additional static loads. Hence, the applied loads are equal to the original loads plus displacement-dependent loads. Solving for the final displacements of such systems is commonly performed using iterative solution techniques. Unfortunately, these techniques can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. Since the coupled system equations for free-free systems with displacement-dependent loads can be written in closed-form, it is advantageous to solve for the displacements in this manner. Implementing closed-form equations in static analysis with inertia relief is analogous to implementing transfer functions in dynamic analysis. Using a MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter, displacement-dependent loads have been included in static analysis with inertia relief. Such an Alter has been used successfully to solve efficiently a common aerospace problem typically solved using an iterative technique.

  13. Escaping or connecting? Characteristics of youth who form close online relationships.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David

    2003-02-01

    We used data from a US national sample of Internet users, ages 10-17 (N=1501), to explore the characteristics of youth who had formed close relationships with people they met on the Internet (n=210). Girls who had high levels of conflict with parents or were highly troubled were more likely than other girls to have close online relationships, as were boys who had low levels of communication with parents or were highly troubled, compared to other boys. Age, race and aspects of Internet use were also related. We know little about the nature or quality of the close online relationships, but youth with these sorts of problems may be more vulnerable to online exploitation and to other possible ill effects of online relationships. At the same time, these relationships may have helpful aspects.

  14. Low-Frequency Closed-Form Expressions for Crosstalk Between Twisted Wire Pirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansink Rotgerink, J. H. G. J.; Verpoorte, J.

    2016-05-01

    Crosstalk between two twisted wire pairs of equal and unequal twist rate is analysed and compared. Low-frequency approximations to the Multi- conductor Transmission Line equations are used to derive closed-form expressions for near-end crosstalk. Such analysis on cable configurations with different twist scenarios gives insight into sensitivity on relevant twist parameters as well as dependencies of crosstalk on all other model parameters. Results show that crosstalk between twisted pairs of equal twist rate behaves similar to that between untwisted wire pairs. On the contrary, an ideal combination of twisted pairs, by for instance doubling the twist rate in one of the pairs, causes crosstalk to vanish up to linear order. The performed analysis and derived closed-form expressions agree to measured crosstalk results and can lead to good understanding of upper and lower boundaries for crosstalk in different cable configurations.

  15. A simple, closed-form, mathematical model for gas exchange in microchannel artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Potkay, Joseph A

    2013-06-01

    Microfabrication techniques are attractive for constructing artificial lungs due to the ability to create features similar in size to those in the natural lung. However, a simple and intuitive mathematical model capable of accurately predicting the gas exchange performance of microchannel artificial lungs does not currently exist. Such a model is critical to understanding and optimizing these devices. Here, we describe a simple, closed-form mathematical model for gas exchange in microchannel artificial lungs and qualify it through application to experimental data from several research groups. We utilize lumped parameters and several assumptions to obtain a closed-form set of equations that describe gas exchange. This work is intended to augment computational models by providing a more intuitive, albeit potentially less accurate, understanding of the operation and trade-offs inherent in microchannel artificial lung devices.

  16. Logarithmic interaction under periodic boundary conditions: closed form formulas for energy and forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Sandeep

    A method is given to obtain closed form formulas for the energy and forces for an aggregate of charges interacting via a logarithmic interaction under periodic boundary conditions. The work done here is a generalization of Glasser's results [J. Math. Phys., 15, 188 (1974)] and is obtained with a different and simpler method than that by Stremler [J. Math. Phys., 45, 3584 (2004)]. The simplicity of the formulas derived here makes them extremely convenient in a computer simulation.

  17. Asymptotic solution of the turbulent mixing layer for velocity ratio close to unity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higuera, F. J.; Jimenez, J.; Linan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The equations describing the first two terms of an asymptotic expansion of the solution of the planar turbulent mixing layer for values of the velocity ratio close to one are obtained. The first term of this expansion is the solution of the well-known time-evolving problem and the second, which includes the effects of the increase of the turbulence scales in the stream-wise direction, obeys a linear system of equations. Numerical solutions of these equations for a two-dimensional reacting mixing layer show that the correction to the time-evolving solution may explain the asymmetry of the entrainment and the differences in product generation observed in flip experiments.

  18. A closed-form expression of the positional uncertainty for 3D point clouds.

    PubMed

    Bae, Kwang-Ho; Belton, David; Lichti, Derek D

    2009-04-01

    We present a novel closed-form expression of positional uncertainty measured by a near-monostatic and time-of-flight laser range finder with consideration of its measurement uncertainties. An explicit form of the angular variance of the estimated surface normal vector is also derived. This expression is useful for the precise estimation of the surface normal vector and the outlier detection for finding correspondence in order to register multiple three-dimensional point clouds. Two practical algorithms using these expressions are presented: a method for finding optimal local neighbourhood size which minimizes the variance of the estimated normal vector and a resampling method of point clouds.

  19. Causality arguments behind closed-form description of air dispersion in the mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheltikov, A. M.

    2017-04-01

    We show that a closed-form Sellmeier-equation description of the refractive index of atmospheric air can be extended to the mid- and long-wavelength infrared spectral ranges, where the optical response of air is dominated by molecular rovibrational modes. When written in the form of a Sellmeier-type equation, the formula of air refractivity is shown to be instrumental for the analysis of group-velocity dispersion of atmospheric air, helping identify the regions of broadband anomalous dispersion, where long-distance transmission and soliton pulse compression of high-power mid- and long-wavelength infrared field waveforms are possible.

  20. Closed timelike curves produced by pairs of moving cosmic strings - Exact solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III

    1991-01-01

    Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations are presented for the general case of two moving straight cosmic strings that do not intersect. The solutions for parallel cosmic strings moving in opposite directions show closed timelike curves (CTCs) that circle the two strings as they pass, allowing observers to visit their own past. Similar results occur for nonparallel strings, and for masses in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. For finite string loops the possibility that black-hole formation may prevent the formation of CTCs is discussed.

  1. New Closed-Form of the Largest Eigenvalue PDF for Max-SNR MIMO System Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letessier, Jonathan; Vrigneau, Baptiste; Rostaing, Philippe; Burel, Gilles

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) maximum-SNR (max-SNR) system employs the maximum ratio combiner (MRC) at the receiver side and the maximum ratio transmitter (MRT) at the transmitter side. Its performances highly depend on MIMO channel characteristics, which vary according to both the number of antennas and their distribution between the transmitter and receiver sides. By using the decomposition of the ordered Wishart distribution in the uncorrelated Rayleigh case, we derived a closed-form expression of the largest eigenvalue probability density function (PDF). The final result yields to an expression form of the PDF where polynomials are multiplied by exponentials; it is worth underlining that, though this form had been previously observed for given couples of antennas, to date no formally-written closed-form was available in the literature for an arbitrary couple. Then, this new expression permits one to quickly and easily get the well known largest eigenvalue PDF and use it to determine the binary error probability (BEP) of the max-SNR.

  2. Effects of solute methoxylation on glass-forming ability and stability of vitrification solutions

    PubMed

    Wowk; Darwin; Harris; Russell; Rasch

    1999-11-01

    The effects of replacing hydroxyl groups with methoxyl (OCH(3)) groups in the polyols ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), glycerol, and threitol were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) during cooling of aqueous solutions to -150 degrees C and subsequent rewarming. For 35% (w/w) PG, 40% EG, and 45% glycerol, a single substitution of a terminal hydroxyl group with a methoxyl group reduced the critical cooling rate necessary to avoid ice on cooling (vitrify) from approximately 500 to 50 degrees C/min. This reduction was approximately equivalent to increasing the parent polyol concentration by 5% (w/w). The critical warming rate calculated to avoid formation of ice on rewarming (devitrification) was also reduced by methoxyl substitution, typically by a factor of 10(4) for dilute solutions. Double methoxylation (replacement of both terminal hydroxyls) tended to result in hydrate formation, making these compounds less interesting. An exception was threitol, for which substituting both terminal hydroxyls by methoxyls reduced the critical rewarming rate of a 50% solution by a factor of 10(7) without any hydrate formation. These glass-forming and stability properties of methoxylated compounds, combined with their low viscosity, enhanced permeability, and high glass transition temperatures, make them interesting candidate cryoprotective agents for cryopreservation by vitrification or freezing. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Reverse engineering of free-form surface based on the closed-loop theory.

    PubMed

    He, Xue Ming; He, Jun Fei; Wu, Mei Ping; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Xiao Gang

    2015-01-01

    To seek better methods of measurement and more accurate model of reconstruction in the field of reverse engineering has been the focus of researchers. Based on this, a new method of adaptive measurement, real-time reconstruction, and online evaluation of free-form surface was presented in this paper. The coordinates and vectors of the prediction points are calculated according to a Bézier curve which is fitted by measured points. Final measured point cloud distribution is in agreement with the geometric characteristics of the free-form surfaces. Fitting the point cloud to a surface model by the nonuniform B-spline method, extracting some check points from the surface models based on grids and a feature on the surface, review the location of these check points on the surface with CMM and evaluate the model, and then update the surface model to meet the accuracy. Integrated measurement, reconstruction, and evaluation, with the closed-loop reverse process, established an accurate model. The results of example show that the measuring points are distributed over the surface according to curvature, and the reconstruction model can be completely expressed with micron level. Meanwhile, measurement, reconstruction and evaluation are integrated in forms of closed-loop reverse system.

  4. Resolving the biophysics of axon transmembrane polarization in a single closed-form description

    SciTech Connect

    Melendy, Robert F.

    2015-12-28

    When a depolarizing event occurs across a cell membrane there is a remarkable change in its electrical properties. A complete depolarization event produces a considerably rapid increase in voltage that propagates longitudinally along the axon and is accompanied by changes in axial conductance. A dynamically changing magnetic field is associated with the passage of the action potential down the axon. Over 75 years of research has gone into the quantification of this phenomenon. To date, no unified model exist that resolves transmembrane polarization in a closed-form description. Here, a simple but formative description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon is presented in closed-form. The focus is on using both biophysics and mathematical methods for elucidating the fundamental mechanisms governing transmembrane polarization. The results presented demonstrate how to resolve electromagnetic and thermodynamic factors that govern transmembrane potential. Computational results are supported by well-established quantitative descriptions of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon. The findings demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation function together in generating an action potential in a unified closed-form description. The work presented in this paper provides compelling evidence that three basic factors contribute to the propagated signaling in the membrane of an axon. It is anticipated this work will compel those in biophysics, physical biology, and in the computational neurosciences to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling. It is hoped that subsequent investigations of this sort will be advanced by the computational features of this model without having to resort to numerical methods of analysis.

  5. Resolving the biophysics of axon transmembrane polarization in a single closed-form description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendy, Robert F.

    2015-12-01

    When a depolarizing event occurs across a cell membrane there is a remarkable change in its electrical properties. A complete depolarization event produces a considerably rapid increase in voltage that propagates longitudinally along the axon and is accompanied by changes in axial conductance. A dynamically changing magnetic field is associated with the passage of the action potential down the axon. Over 75 years of research has gone into the quantification of this phenomenon. To date, no unified model exist that resolves transmembrane polarization in a closed-form description. Here, a simple but formative description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon is presented in closed-form. The focus is on using both biophysics and mathematical methods for elucidating the fundamental mechanisms governing transmembrane polarization. The results presented demonstrate how to resolve electromagnetic and thermodynamic factors that govern transmembrane potential. Computational results are supported by well-established quantitative descriptions of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon. The findings demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation function together in generating an action potential in a unified closed-form description. The work presented in this paper provides compelling evidence that three basic factors contribute to the propagated signaling in the membrane of an axon. It is anticipated this work will compel those in biophysics, physical biology, and in the computational neurosciences to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling. It is hoped that subsequent investigations of this sort will be advanced by the computational features of this model without having to resort to numerical methods of analysis.

  6. Structure-forming properties of 3-furylpropenoic acid derivatives in solution and in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, J. T.; Felföldi, K.; Paksi, Z.; Pálinkó, I.

    2003-06-01

    Measurements by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in the solid state as well as in solution and molecular modeling calculations revealed that the major structure forming force (short range ordering) between 2-phenyl-3(2'-furyl)propenoic acid stereoisomers was the CO⋯H-O intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the carboxylic groups. For the E isomer no other secondary intermolecular interaction could be measured nor calculated. Molecular modeling showed that long-range ordering was possible between the hydrogen-bonded dimers of the Z isomer via (phenyl)C-H⋯(furyl)O close contacts. The methyl esters also had short-range ordering through (phenyl)C-H⋯(carbonyl)O interaction, while only the Z isomer offered the possibility of long-range order. Chain-like structures were formed via (phenyl)C-H⋯(furyl)O hydrogen bonds.

  7. Camptothecin and thiocamptothecin: the role of sulfur in shifting the hydrolysis equilibrium towards the closed lactone form.

    PubMed

    Pistolozzi, Marco; Varchi, Greta; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Guerrini, Andrea; Sotgiu, Giovanna; Ballestri, Marco; Ferroni, Claudia; Venturini, Alessandro; Bertucci, Carlo

    2011-09-05

    Adverse effects have limited the clinical potential of 20-(S)-camptothecin (CPT) and led to a growing interest in the development of CPT analogues that exhibit less severe drawbacks, while maintaining their therapeutic activity. Recently, a thiopyridone isostere of CPT, 20-(S)-thiocamptothecin (TCPT), was developed that resulted more potent than the parent compound in H460, HT29 and IGROV-1 cell lines. The improved activity of TCPT over CPT might be due to the greater stability of the lactone ring. Here, reversible hydrolysis to the ring-open carboxylate forms of CPT and TCPT was studied by HPLC, both in the presence and absence of human serum albumin (HSA). The amount of TCPT that exists in the lactone form at equilibrium in buffer solution (24 h) was found to be significantly higher than CPT, and the same trend was observed in the presence of HSA. Specifically, HSA caused a shift in the hydrolysis equilibrium of TCPT towards the carboxylate form, but the proportion of lactone form remained higher than that observed for CPT under the same conditions, and also in the presence of a higher excess of the protein. The role of the sulfur atom in the stability of the open and closed lactone derivatives was investigated by theoretical calculations using stabilization energies and comparison between experimental and calculated absorption spectra. Our results suggest that, in aqueous solution, more ionic species (anionic and enolic forms) are present for TCPT. This study provides further insights into the effects of oxygen/sulfur replacement in the CPT pyridone ring. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Comment on ‘Special-case closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. F.

    2016-05-01

    Recently Van-Brunt and Visser (2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 225207) succeeded in explicitly evaluating the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) expansion series for the noncommuting operators X and Y, provided that the two operators satisfy the commutation relation: [X,Y]={uX}+{vY}+{cI}, and the operator I commutes with both of them. In this comment we show that the closed-form BCH formula of this special case can be straightforwardly derived by the means of the Wei-Norman theorem and no summation of the infinite series is needed.

  9. A Simplified, Closed-Form Method for Screening Spacecraft Orbital Heating Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, S. L.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-form analytical technique has been developed to screen orbital average heating variations as a function of beta angle, altitude, surface area, and surface optical properties. Using planetary view factor equations for surfaces parallel-to and normal-to the local vertical, a cylindrical umbral shadow approximation, and a simplified albedo flux model, heating rate equations are formulated and then integrated to obtain orbital average heating. The results are compared to detailed analytical predictions using Monte Carlo integration and an assessment of error is presented.

  10. Accuracy and effectualness of closed-form, frequency-domain waveforms for nonspinning black hole binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro; Trias, Miquel

    2011-01-15

    The coalescences of binary black hole systems, here taken to be nonspinning, are among the most promising sources for gravitational wave (GW) ground-based detectors, such as LIGO and Virgo. To detect the GW signals emitted by binary black holes and measure the parameters of the source, one needs to have in hand a bank of GW templates that are both effectual (for detection) and accurate (for measurement). We study the effectualness and the accuracy of the two types of parametrized banks of templates that are directly defined in the frequency domain by means of closed-form expressions, namely, 'post-Newtonian' (PN) and 'phenomenological' models. In the absence of knowledge of the (continuous family of) exact waveforms, our study assumes as fiducial, target waveforms the ones generated by the most accurate version of the effective-one-body formalism, calibrated upon a few high-accuracy numerical-relativity (NR) waveforms. We find that, for initial GW detectors the use, at each point of parameter space, of the best closed-form template (among PN and phenomenological models) leads to an effectualness >97% over the entire mass range and >99% in an important fraction of parameter space; however, when considering advanced detectors, both of the closed-form frequency-domain models fail to be effectual enough in significant domains of the two-dimensional [total mass and mass ratio] parameter space. Moreover, we find that, for both initial and advanced detectors, the two closed-form frequency-domain models fail to satisfy the minimal required accuracy standard in a very large domain of the two-dimensional parameter space. In addition, a side result of our study is the determination, as a function of the mass ratio, of the maximum frequency at which a frequency-domain PN waveform can be 'joined' onto a NR-calibrated effective-one-body waveform without undue loss of accuracy. In the case of mass ratios larger than 4 ratio 1 this maximum frequency occurs well before the last

  11. Closed-form expressions for the Dirac-Coulomb radial rt integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessis, N.; Bessis, G.; Roux, D.

    1985-10-01

    A novel procedure is devised in order to obtain closed-form expressions of the Dirac-Coulomb radial rt integrals in terms of the Dirac energy ɛ=\\{1+Z2α2/[v+(k2-Z2 α2)1/2]2\\}-1/2, where v=n-||k||, and of the Dirac quantum number k=(-1)j+l+1/2(j+(1/2)). In this procedure, well adapted for symbolic computation, the fundamental array of the rt radial integrals is obtained from the rt-1 array.

  12. Comments on the Hartree-Fock description of Hooke's atom and suggestion for an accurate closed-form orbital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragot, Sébastien

    2008-04-01

    The ground-state Hartree-Fock (HF) wavefunction of Hooke's atom is not known in closed form, contrary to the exact solution. The single HF orbital involved has thus far been studied using expansion techniques only, leading to slightly disparate energies. Therefore, the present letter aims at proposing alternative definitions of the HF wavefunction. First, the HF limit is ascertained using a simple expansion, which makes it possible to formulate explicit expressions of HF properties. The resulting energy, 2.038 438 871 8 Eh, is found stable at the tenth digit. Second and more instructive, an analysis of the Hartree equation makes it possible to infer a remarkably simple and accurate HF orbital, i.e., φHF(r)=nHFe-αr2√r2+β2, leading to an energy exceeding by 5.76×10-7 Eh only the above HF limit. This orbital makes it possible to obtain (near) Hartree-Fock properties in closed form, which in turn enables handy comparisons with exact quantities.

  13. Non-dimensionalised closed-form parametric analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions using a quarter-car model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Blanchard, Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    This article provides a non-dimensionalised closed-form analysis of semi-active vehicle suspensions, using a quarter-car model. The derivation of the closed-form solutions for three indices that can be used for ride comfort, vehicle handling, and stability are presented based on non-dimensionalised suspension parameters. The behaviour of semi-active vehicle suspensions is evaluated using skyhook, groundhook, and hybrid control policies, and compared with passive suspensions. The relationship between vibration isolation, suspension deflection, and road holding is studied, using three performance indices based on the mean square of the sprung mass acceleration, rattle space, and tyre deflection, respectively. The results of the study indicate that the hybrid control policy yields significantly better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement for typical passenger cars. The results also indicate that for typical passenger cars, the hybrid control policy results in a better compromise between comfort, road holding and suspension travel requirements than both the skyhook and groundhook control methods.

  14. MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter Used for Closed-Form Static Analysis With Inertia Relief and Displacement-Dependent Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Solving for the displacements of free-free coupled systems acted upon by static loads is a common task in the aerospace industry. Often, these problems are solved by static analysis with inertia relief. This technique allows for a free-free static analysis by balancing the applied loads with the inertia loads generated by the applied loads. For some engineering applications, the displacements of the free-free coupled system induce additional static loads. Hence, the applied loads are equal to the original loads plus the displacement-dependent loads. A launch vehicle being acted upon by an aerodynamic loading can have such applied loads. The final displacements of such systems are commonly determined with iterative solution techniques. Unfortunately, these techniques can be time consuming and labor intensive. Because the coupled system equations for free-free systems with displacement-dependent loads can be written in closed form, it is advantageous to solve for the displacements in this manner. Implementing closed-form equations in static analysis with inertia relief is analogous to implementing transfer functions in dynamic analysis. An MSC/NASTRAN (MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation/NASA Structural Analysis) DMAP (Direct Matrix Abstraction Program) Alter was used to include displacement-dependent loads in static analysis with inertia relief. It efficiently solved a common aerospace problem that typically has been solved with an iterative technique.

  15. Effective closed form mathematical approach to determine kinetic constants of NR vulcanized with sulphur and accelerators at different concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Milani, Gabriele E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it; Hanel, Thomas; Donetti, Raffaella; Milani, Federico

    2015-03-10

    The basic reaction scheme due to Han and co-workers for NR vulcanized with sulphur is adopted and modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators, focusing in particular on some experimental data ad hoc obtained at Pirelli’s laboratories, where NR was vulcanized at different temperatures (from 150 to 180 °C) and concentrations of sulphur, using TBBS and DPG in the mixture as co-agents. Typically, the chain reactions are initiated by the formation of macro-compounds that are responsible of the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer. This first reaction depends on the reciprocal concentrations of all components and their chemical nature. In presence of two accelerators, it was considered that the reactions between each single accelerator and the NR raw material occur in parallel, making the reasonable assumption that there are no mutual reactions between the two accelerators. From the kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution was found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. Even kinetic constants are evaluated in closed form, avoiding a numerically demanding least-squares best fitting on rheometer experimental data. Two series of experiments available, relying into rheometer curves at different temperatures and different concentrations of sulphur and accelerator, are utilized to evaluate the fitting capabilities of the mathematical model. Very good agreement between numerical output and experimental data is experienced in all cases analysed.

  16. Blow-up of unsteady two-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions having stagnation-point form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childress, S.; Ierley, G. R.; Spiegel, E. A.; Young, W. R.

    1989-01-01

    The time-dependent form of the classic, two-dimensional stagnation-point solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is considered. If the viscosity is zero, a class of solutions of the initial-value problem can be found in closed form using Lagrangian coordinates. These solutions exhibit singular behavior in finite time, because of the infinite domain and unbounded initial vorticity. Thus, the blow-up found by Stuart in three dimensions using the stagnation-point form, also occurs in two. The singularity vanishes under a discrete, finite-dimensional 'point vortex' approximation, but is recovered as the number of vortices tends to infinity. We find that a small positive viscosity does not arrest the breakdown, but does strongly alter its form. Similar results are summarized for certain Boussinesq stratified flows.

  17. Blow-up of unsteady two-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions having stagnation-point form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childress, S.; Ierley, G. R.; Spiegel, E. A.; Young, W. R.

    1989-01-01

    The time-dependent form of the classic, two-dimensional stagnation-point solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is considered. If the viscosity is zero, a class of solutions of the initial-value problem can be found in closed form using Lagrangian coordinates. These solutions exhibit singular behavior in finite time, because of the infinite domain and unbounded initial vorticity. Thus, the blow-up found by Stuart in three dimensions using the stagnation-point form, also occurs in two. The singularity vanishes under a discrete, finite-dimensional 'point vortex' approximation, but is recovered as the number of vortices tends to infinity. We find that a small positive viscosity does not arrest the breakdown, but does strongly alter its form. Similar results are summarized for certain Boussinesq stratified flows.

  18. Closed Form Formulas for Distributed Circuit Model of Discontinuities in HTS Microstrip Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadzadeh, S. Mohammad Hassan; Mamaghany, Zahra Mardy; Farzaneh, Forouhar; Fardmanesh, Mehdi

    A distributed circuit model for different kinds of discontinuities in high temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip transmission lines (TLs), is proposed. In each case, closed form formula for lumped element model is presented based on the configuration of the discontinuity and the characterizations of HTS microstrip TLs. These discontinuities consist of steps in width, open ends, gaps and 90-degree bends. In the case of normal conductor microstrip TLs there are a lot of numerical and analytical equations that can accurately model them, however those formulas are not efficient for HTS TLs. Thus modified relations are extracted utilizing the superconducting characterizations to obtain much more accurate formulas. Additionally temperature dependence of HTS TLs is considered in the relations. Moreover regarding the kinetic inductance in HTS TLs a closed form formula is proposed for characteristic impedance of HTS TLs. Furthermore correction factors based on fringe fields is used to optimize all formulas. Using these formulations can lead to modeling and analysis of some superconducting microwave devices such as resonators, microwave filters, couplers, etc. In contrast to EM analysis, using the distributed circuit model is much easier for analysis of HTS microwave devices. The accuracy of the proposed model is confirmed in comparison with some electromagnetic full-wave simulations. This full analytical approach shows great accuracy in this test case as well.

  19. Closed-form quality measures for compressed medical images: compression noise statistics of transform coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dunling; Loew, Murray H.

    2004-05-01

    This paper provides a theoretical foundation for the closed-form expression of model observers on compressed images. In medical applications, model observers, especially the channelized Hotelling observer, have been successfully used to predict human observer performance and to evaluate image quality for detection tasks in various backgrounds. To use model observers, however, requires knowledge of noise statistics. This paper first identifies quantization noise as the sole distortion source in transform coding, one of the most commonly used methods for image compression. Then, it represents transform coding as a 1-D block-based matrix expression, it further derives first and second moments, and the probability density function (pdf) of the compression noise at pixel, block and image levels. The compression noise statistics depend on the transform matrix and the quantization matrix in the transform coding algorithm. Compression noise is jointly normally distributed when the dimension of the transform (the block size) is typical and the contents of image sets vary randomly. Moreover, this paper uses JPEG as a test example to verify the derived statistics. The test simulation results show that the closed-form expression of JPEG quantization and compression noise statistics correctly predicts the estimated ones from actual images.

  20. Closed-form expressions for flip angle variation that maximize total signal in T1-weighted rapid gradient echo MRI.

    PubMed

    Drobnitzky, Matthias; Klose, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequences are commonly employed for T1-weighted structural brain imaging. Following a contrast preparation radiofrequency (RF) pulse, the data acquisition proceeds under nonequilibrium conditions of the relaxing longitudinal magnetization. Variation of the flip angle can be used to maximize total available signal. Simulated annealing or greedy algorithms have so far been published to numerically solve this problem, with signal-to-noise ratios optimized for clinical imaging scenarios by adhering to a predefined shape of the signal evolution. We propose an unconstrained optimization of the MPRAGE experiment that employs techniques from resource allocation theory. A new dynamic programming solution is introduced that yields closed-form expressions for optimal flip angle variation. Flip angle series are proposed that maximize total transverse magnetization (Mxy) for a range of physiologic T1 values. A 3D MPRAGE sequence is modified to allow for a controlled variation of the excitation angle. Experiments employing a T1 contrast phantom are performed at 3T. 1D acquisitions without phase encoding permit measurement of the temporal development of Mxy. Image mean signal and standard deviation for reference flip angle trains are compared in 2D measurements. Signal profiles at sharp phantom edges are acquired to access image blurring related to nonuniform Mxy development. A novel closed-form expression for flip angle variation is found that constitutes the optimal policy to reach maximum total signal. It numerically equals previously published results of other authors when evaluated under their simplifying assumptions. Longitudinal magnetization (Mz) is exhaustively used without causing abrupt changes in the measured MR signal, which is a prerequisite for artifact free images. Phantom experiments at 3T verify the expected benefit for total accumulated k-space signal when compared with published flip angle series. Describing

  1. Special-case closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van-Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2015-06-01

    The Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula is a general result for the quantity Z(X,Y)=ln ({{e}X}{{e}Y}), where X and Y are not necessarily commuting. For completely general commutation relations between X and Y, (the free Lie algebra), the general result is somewhat unwieldy. However in specific physics applications the commutator [X,Y], while non-zero, might often be relatively simple, which sometimes leads to explicit closed form results. We consider the special case [X,Y]=uX+vY+cI, and show that in this case the general result reduces to Furthermore we explicitly evaluate the symmetric function f(u,v)=f(v,u), demonstrating that and relate this to previously known results. For instance this result includes, but is considerably more general than, results obtained from either the Heisenberg commutator [P,Q]=-i\\hbar I or the creation-destruction commutator [a,{{a}\\dagger }]=I.

  2. Closed-form Maker fringe formulas for poled polymer thin films in multilayer structures.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Hun; Herman, Warren N

    2012-01-02

    We report new closed-form expressions for Maker fringes of anisotropic and absorbing poled polymer thin films in multilayer structures that include back reflections of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves. The expressions, based on boundary conditions at each interface, can be applied to multilayer structures containing a buffer and a transparent conducting oxide layer, which might enhance multiple reflections of fundamental and second-harmonic waves inside a nonlinear thin film layer. This formulation facilitates Maker fringe analysis for a sample containing additional multilayer structures on either side of a poled polymer thin film. Experimental data and numerical simulations are given to indicate the importance of inclusion of such a reflective layer in analyses for reliable characterization of second-harmonic tensor elements.

  3. Closed-form summations of certain hypergeometric-type series containing the digamma function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvijović, Djurdje

    2008-11-01

    Recently, interesting novel summation formulae for hypergeometric-type series containing a digamma function as a factor have been established by Miller (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 3011-20) mainly by exploiting already known results and using certain transformation and reduction formulae in the theory of the Kampé de Fériet double hypergeometric function. It is shown here that these, and several other series of this type, can be closed-form summed by simpler and more direct arguments based only on a derivative formula for the Pochhammer symbol and the theory of the digamma (or ψ) function and generalized hypergeometric function. In addition, a new reduction formula for the Kampé de Fériet function F^{\\scriptstyle\\, {\\rm{1:2;1}} \\hfill \\atop \\scriptstyle\\, {\\rm{1: 1; 0}} \\hfill}[z,z] is obtained.

  4. Closed-form expressions to fit data obtained with a multipass Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Boukari, H; Palik, E D; Gammon, R W

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the effect of a multipass Fabry-Perot interferometer (FP) on a scattering line. Here we describe a method that we applied to derive a closed-form expression for a line shape obtained with an ideal, multipass FP. The method reduces the convolution problem between the multipass function and the scattering line to the corresponding single-pass problem. We illustrate the method with a Lorentzian and a damped-harmonic-oscillator line passed through a single-, triple-, and quintuple-pass FP. Furthermore we have applied the method to a study of the effect of the collecting pinhole on a sharp line obtained by multipassing. We show how we used these functions to fit the complete spectra obtained with a single- and triple-pass FP.

  5. Closed Form Equations for the Preliminary Design of a Heat-Pipe-Cooled Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    1998-01-01

    A set of closed form equations for the preliminary evaluation and design of a heat-pipe-cooled leading edge is presented. The set of equations can provide a leading-edge designer with a quick evaluation of the feasibility of using heat-pipe cooling. The heat pipes can be embedded in a metallic or composite structure. The maximum heat flux, total integrated heat load, and thermal properties of the structure and heat-pipe container are required input. The heat-pipe operating temperature, maximum surface temperature, heat-pipe length, and heat pipe-spacing can be estimated. Results using the design equations compared well with those from a 3-D finite element analysis for both a large and small radius leading edge.

  6. Physically based closed-form expression for the bimodal unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiyu; Yasufuku, Noriyuki; Liu, Qiang; Hemanta, Hazarika

    2013-01-01

    Simulation of flow and contaminant transport through the vadose zone requires accurate parameterization of the soil hydraulic properties. This requirement is particularly important for soils with a complex structure. In the present study, a physically based closed-form expression for the bimodal unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function is proposed for soils with bimodal pore-size distribution. It combines the bimodal representation of the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) function of Liu with the conductivity representation model of Mualem. The proposed equations are defined by parameters that have physical significance, which can be related to the properties of the materials. Experimental data for the representation of bimodal SWCCs and corresponding hydraulic conductivity curves were used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed functions. The proposed approaches resulted in good agreement with experimental data. These functions can potentially be used as an effective tool for identifying hydraulic porosities in mediums with a complex structure.

  7. Damage detection via closed-form sensitivity matrix of modal kinetic energy change ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjian Shahri, A. H.; Ghorbani-Tanha, A. K.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a new damage detection method based on a damage sensitive feature parameter named Modal Kinetic Energy Change Ratio has been proposed. The sensitivity matrix for the damage identification procedure is calculated by making use of the closed-form sensitivity of eigenvalues of the structure. Numerical simulations and experimental tests were carried out on a beam-like structure in order to examine the reliability and feasibility of the proposed method. System Equivalent Reduction Expansion Technique is employed to omit rotational degrees of freedom of the model. It is demonstrated that this method locates and quantifies structural damage(s) with acceptable accuracy. The best advantage of the proposed method comparing to the ones which are based on modal strain energy is that it is not sensitive to mode shape noise and yields favorable results under moderate noise in natural frequencies.

  8. Closed-form fiducial confidence intervals for some functions of independent binomial parameters with comparisons.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, K; Lee, Meesook; Zhang, Dan

    2017-02-01

    Approximate closed-form confidence intervals (CIs) for estimating the difference, relative risk, odds ratio, and linear combination of proportions are proposed. These CIs are developed using the fiducial approach and the modified normal-based approximation to the percentiles of a linear combination of independent random variables. These confidence intervals are easy to calculate as the computation requires only the percentiles of beta distributions. The proposed confidence intervals are compared with the popular score confidence intervals with respect to coverage probabilities and expected widths. Comparison studies indicate that the proposed confidence intervals are comparable with the corresponding score confidence intervals, and better in some cases, for all the problems considered. The methods are illustrated using several examples.

  9. A mass weighted chemical elastic network model elucidates closed form domain motions in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Hyeok; Seo, Sangjae; Jeong, Jay Il; Kim, Bum Joon; Liu, Wing Kam; Lim, Byeong Soo; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Moon Ki

    2013-01-01

    An elastic network model (ENM), usually Cα coarse-grained one, has been widely used to study protein dynamics as an alternative to classical molecular dynamics simulation. This simple approach dramatically saves the computational cost, but sometimes fails to describe a feasible conformational change due to unrealistically excessive spring connections. To overcome this limitation, we propose a mass-weighted chemical elastic network model (MWCENM) in which the total mass of each residue is assumed to be concentrated on the representative alpha carbon atom and various stiffness values are precisely assigned according to the types of chemical interactions. We test MWCENM on several well-known proteins of which both closed and open conformations are available as well as three α-helix rich proteins. Their normal mode analysis reveals that MWCENM not only generates more plausible conformational changes, especially for closed forms of proteins, but also preserves protein secondary structures thus distinguishing MWCENM from traditional ENMs. In addition, MWCENM also reduces computational burden by using a more sparse stiffness matrix. PMID:23456820

  10. Closed-form expression for the Goos-Hänchen lateral displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Manoel P.; De Leo, Stefano; Maia, Gabriel G.

    2016-02-01

    The Artmann formula provides an accurate determination of the Goos-Hänchen lateral displacement in terms of the light wavelength, refractive index, and incidence angle. In the total reflection region, this formula is widely used in the literature and confirmed by experiments. Nevertheless, for incidence at critical angle, it tends to infinity and numerical calculations are needed to reproduce the experimental data. In this paper, we overcome the divergence problem at critical angle and find, for Gaussian beams, a closed formula in terms of modified Bessel functions of the first kind. The formula is in excellent agreement with numerical calculations and reproduces, for incidence angles greater than critical ones, the Artmann formula. The closed form also allows one to understand how the breaking of symmetry in the angular distribution is responsible for the difference between measurements done by considering the maximum and the mean value of the beam intensity. The results obtained in this study clearly show the Goos-Hänchen lateral displacement dependence on the angular distribution shape of the incoming beam. Finally, we also present a brief comparison with experimental data and other analytical formulas found in the literature.

  11. Kubo-equivalent closed-form graphene conductivity models (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudyshev, Zhaxylyk A.; Prokopeva, Ludmila J.; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2016-09-01

    The optical response of graphene is described by its surface conductivity - a multivariate function of frequency, temperature, chemical potential, and scattering rate. A Kubo formula that accounts for both interband and intraband transitions with two Fermi-Dirac-like integrals is conventionally used to model graphene. The first (intraband) integral can be reduced analytically to a Drude term. The second (intraband) term requires computationally expensive numerical integration over the infinite range of energies, and thus it is usually either neglected or substituted with a simpler approximation (typically valid within a limited range of parameters). Additional challenge is an integral-free time-domain (TD) formulation that would allow efficient coupling of the interband conductivity term to TD electromagnetic solvers. We propose Kubo-equivalent models of graphene surface conductivity that offer closed-form computationally efficient representations in time and frequency domains. We show that in time domain Kubo's formula reduces to a combination of rational, trigonometric, hyperbolic, and exponential functions. In frequency domain the integral term is equivalent to an expression with digamma and incomplete gamma functions. The accuracy and improved performance of our integral-free formulations versus the direct integration of Kubo's formula is critically analyzed. The result provides efficient broadband multivariate coupling of graphene dispersion to time-domain and frequency-domain solvers. To reinforce theory with practical examples, we use obtained closed-form frequency-domain model to retrieve the optical properties of graphene samples from variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) measurements. . We present ellipsometry fitting cases that are built on an in-the-cloud tool freely available online (https://nanohub.org/resources/photonicvasefit).

  12. Passive Films Formed on Stainless Steels in Phosphate Buffer Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Claudia Marcela; Burgos, Rodrigo Elvio; Bruera, Florencia; Ares, Alicia Esther

    The behaviour of passive films formed on directionally solidified stainless steels, 18Cr10N2Mo0.08C, 18Cr14N8Mo0.03C and 18Cr10Ni8Mo0.08C, in different areas that were formed during solidification (columnar, columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) and equiaxed) was studied using electrochemical testing in Na2HPO4 with / without NaCl. The behavior of stainless steel in the presence of phosphate chlorides is the best compared to non-chloride phosphate.

  13. A parallel offline CFD and closed-form approximation strategy for computationally efficient analysis of complex fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allphin, Devin

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution approximations for complex fluid flow problems have become a common and powerful engineering analysis technique. These tools, though qualitatively useful, remain limited in practice by their underlying inverse relationship between simulation accuracy and overall computational expense. While a great volume of research has focused on remedying these issues inherent to CFD, one traditionally overlooked area of resource reduction for engineering analysis concerns the basic definition and determination of functional relationships for the studied fluid flow variables. This artificial relationship-building technique, called meta-modeling or surrogate/offline approximation, uses design of experiments (DOE) theory to efficiently approximate non-physical coupling between the variables of interest in a fluid flow analysis problem. By mathematically approximating these variables, DOE methods can effectively reduce the required quantity of CFD simulations, freeing computational resources for other analytical focuses. An idealized interpretation of a fluid flow problem can also be employed to create suitably accurate approximations of fluid flow variables for the purposes of engineering analysis. When used in parallel with a meta-modeling approximation, a closed-form approximation can provide useful feedback concerning proper construction, suitability, or even necessity of an offline approximation tool. It also provides a short-circuit pathway for further reducing the overall computational demands of a fluid flow analysis, again freeing resources for otherwise unsuitable resource expenditures. To validate these inferences, a design optimization problem was presented requiring the inexpensive estimation of aerodynamic forces applied to a valve operating on a simulated piston-cylinder heat engine. The determination of these forces was to be found using parallel surrogate and exact approximation methods, thus evidencing the comparative

  14. Modeling of closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography: Analytical solutions and model analysis.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E

    2015-08-07

    In closed-loop recycling (CLR) chromatography, the effluent from the outlet of a column is directly returned into the column through the sample feed line and continuously recycled until the required separation is reached. To select optimal operating conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture, an appropriate mathematical description of the process is required. This work is concerned with the analysis of models for the CLR separations. Due to the effect of counteracting mechanisms on separation of solutes, analytical solutions of the models could be helpful to understand and optimize chromatographic processes. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the CLR counter-current (liquid-liquid) chromatography (CCC). The equilibrium dispersion and cell models were used to describe the transport and separation of solutes inside a CLR CCC column. The Laplace transformation is applied to solve the model equations. Several possible CLR chromatography methods for the binary and complex mixture separations are simulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural aspects of glucans formed in solution and on the surface of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kopec, L K; Vacca-Smith, A M; Bowen, W H

    1997-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferases (GtfB, -C, and -D) and their products formed from sucrose, glucans, play an essential role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Enzymatically active Gtf is found in whole human saliva (solution), and incorporated into the salivary pellicle that is formed on teeth in vivo (surface). GtfB glucans are predominantly 1,3-linked; however, surface-formed glucans from GtfB contain greater amounts of 3-linked glucose than glucans formed in solution. In contrast, the major linkage of glucans formed on the surface by GtfB in the presence of sucrose and starch hydrolysates in 4-linked glucose. GtfC-derived glucans in solution have a major linkage of 6-linked glucose, while surface-formed glucans from the same enzyme have 3-linked glucose as the major linkage. GtfD glucans formed either in solution or on the surface are predominantly 1,6-linked; however, surface-formed glucans contain more 6-linked glucose than solution-formed glucans. Digestion with the glucanohydrolases mutanase and dextranase shows differences in susceptibility among glucans formed either in solution or on the surface by each of the Gtf enzymes, and differences are also seen in the soluble end products from these digestions. Our results show that the same Gtf enzyme can form structurally distinct glucans in solution and on a surface. These observations are important in the study of naturally occurring microbial films.

  16. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement of closed end management investment companies. 274.11a-1 Section 274.11a-1 Commodity and... management investment companies. This form shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  17. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statement of closed end management investment companies. 274.11a-1 Section 274.11a-1 Commodity and... management investment companies. This form shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment...

  18. Dynamics and mass transport of solutal convection in a closed porous media system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Baole; Akhbari, Daria; Hesse, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Most of the recent studies of CO2 sequestration are performed in open systems where the constant partial pressure of CO2 in the vapor phase results in a time-invariant saturated concentration of CO2 in the brine (Cs). However, in some closed natural CO2 reservoirs, e.g., Bravo Dome in New Mexico, the continuous dissolution of CO2 leads to a pressure drop in the gas that is accompanied by a reduction of Cs and thereby affects the dynamics and mass transport of convection in the brine. In this talk, I discuss the characteristics of convective CO2 dissolution in a closed system. The gas is assumed to be ideal and its solubility given by Henry's law. An analytical solution shows that the diffusive base state is no longer self-similar and that diffusive mass transfer declines rapidly. Scaling analysis reveals that the volume ratio of brine and gas η determines the behavior of the system. DNS show that no constant flux regime exists for η > 0 nevertheless, the quantity F /Cs2 remains constant, where F is the dissolution flux. The onset time is only affected by η when the Rayleigh number Ra is small. In this case, the drop in Cs during the initial diffusive regime significantly reduces the effective Ra and therefore delays the onset.

  19. The effects of video-taped feedback on form, accuracy, and latency in an open and closed environment.

    PubMed

    Del Rey, P

    1971-12-01

    40 college women performed a modification of the classical fencing lunge against 2 laterally-arranged targets, under closed and open environmental conditions. Form (rating scale), accuracy (proximity to target center), and response latency were taken to measure the effects of video-taped feedback (VT). Administration of VT with specific instructions to direct S's attention to parts of the display resulted in closer approximation of the externally-imposed form, higher accuracy, and shorter response latency. Performing the skill in the closed environmental condition resulted in less deviation from the imposed form, higher accuracy scores, and longer response latency. No significant correlations were found between imposed form and accuracy.

  20. Closed-form modelling and design analysis of V- and Z-shaped electrothermal microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Weize; Wu, Qiyang; Yu, Yueqing; Liu, Xinyu; Zhang, Xuping

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling and design analysis of V- and Z-shaped electrothermal microactuators. First, a comprehensive but concise closed-form multiphysical analytical model is developed to predict the output displacement and force of both V- and Z-shaped electrothermal microactuators operating either in vacuum or in air conditions. The analytical model is verified by finite element analysis and experimental testing. Then, a novel comparison benchmark is proposed for the design and analysis of the V- and Z-shaped microactuators. With the multiphysical model and comparison benchmark, comprehensive performance comparison and analysis of the V- and Z-shaped beams are performed with the aim of providing insight and guidance on selection and design of the two typical types of electrothermal microactuators. Finally, the application of the comparison model into the design analysis is demonstrated using a design example of an electrothermal microactuator, and the detailed investigation is conducted to examine the effects of the material properties and structural parameters on the microactuator outputs.

  1. The Weyl group and asymptotics: All supergravity billiards have a closed form general integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fré, Pietro; Sorin, Alexander S.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we show that all supergravity billiards corresponding to σ-models on any U/H non-compact-symmetric space and obtained by compactifying supergravity to D=3 admit a closed form general integral depending analytically on a complete set of integration constants. The key point in establishing the integration algorithm is provided by an upper triangular embedding of the solvable Lie algebra associated with U/H into sl(N,R) which is guaranteed to exist for all non-compact symmetric spaces and also for homogeneous special geometries non-corresponding to symmetric spaces. In this context we establish a remarkable relation between the end-points of the time-flow and the properties of the Weyl group. The asymptotic states of the developing Universe are in one-to-one correspondence with the elements of the Weyl group which is a property of the Tits-Satake universality classes and not of their single representatives. Furthermore the Weyl group admits a natural ordering in terms of ℓ, the number of reflections with respect to the simple roots. The direction of time flows is always from the minimal accessible value of ℓ to the maximum one or vice versa.

  2. A comparative study of intraocular irrigating solutions: effects on electroretinography readings during closed vitrectomy in humans.

    PubMed

    Nao, N; Maruiwa, F; Nakazaki, S; Sawada, A

    1995-12-01

    The effects of intraocular irrigating solutions on electroretinography have been extensively studied in animal models, but effects on human electroretinography have not been reported. This study examined the effects of two commercially available irrigating solutions, S-MA2 (Opeguard MA) and DE-057 (BBS-Plus) on 30-Hz flicker electroretinography during closed vitrectomy in humans. Eight eyes of 8 patients were examined. All patients underwent a simple vitrectomy without treatment of proliferative membrane. For 30-Hz flicker electroretinography recording, a contact lens with a built-in light-emitting diode was sterilized and used as both a stimulus source and a recording electrode. Replacing S-MA2 with DE-057 decreased the electroretinography amplitude from 55.8 +/- 15.2 to 45.5 +/- 13.2 microV (mean +/- SEM). Changing the irrigation solution from DE-057 back to S-MA2 increased the amplitude from 45.5 +/- 13.2 to 59.9 +/- 17.3 microV. However, these changes were not statistically significant. Replacing S-MA2 with DE-057 significantly increased the peak time from 50.1 +/- 1.5 to 57.6 +/- 1.3 msec (p < 0.001). This change was reversible; after changing from DE-057 back to S-MA2, the peak time of flicker electroretinography significantly decreased from 57.6 +/- 1.3 to 49.0 +/- 2.1 msec (p < 0.01). Thus intraoperative 30-Hz electroretinography showed delayed peak time during irrigation with DE-057, as compared with S-MA2. The lower potassium concentration and higher glucose concentration of S-MA2, as compared with DE-057, may be the cause of such electroretinography changes.

  3. Dynamic equilibrium between closed and partially closed states of the bacterial Enzyme I unveiled by solution NMR and X-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Venditti, Vincenzo; Schwieters, Charles D.; Grishaev, Alexander; Clore, G. Marius

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme I (EI) is the first component in the bacterial phosphotransferase system, a signal transduction pathway in which phosphoryl transfer through a series of bimolecular protein–protein interactions is coupled to sugar transport across the membrane. EI is a multidomain, 128-kDa homodimer that has been shown to exist in two conformational states related to one another by two large (50–90°) rigid body domain reorientations. The open conformation of apo EI allows phosphoryl transfer from His189 located in the N-terminal domain α/β (EINα/β) subdomain to the downstream protein partner bound to the EINα subdomain. The closed conformation, observed in a trapped phosphoryl transfer intermediate, brings the EINα/β subdomain into close proximity to the C-terminal dimerization domain (EIC), thereby permitting in-line phosphoryl transfer from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) bound to EIC to His189. Here, we investigate the solution conformation of a complex of an active site mutant of EI (H189A) with PEP. Simulated annealing refinement driven simultaneously by solution small angle X-ray scattering and NMR residual dipolar coupling data demonstrates unambiguously that the EI(H189A)–PEP complex exists in a dynamic equilibrium between two approximately equally populated conformational states, one corresponding to the closed structure and the other to a partially closed species. The latter likely represents an intermediate in the open-to-closed transition. PMID:26305976

  4. Closed form flow model of a damped slug test in a fractured bedrock borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, David W.; Lukas, William G.; Hinlein, Erich S.

    2015-10-01

    An existing closed form model is modified to describe the damped response of groundwater in a fractured bedrock borehole with variable apertures and dips to a slug test. The existing theory, which requires single sized horizontal fractures, is accurately calibrated by slug test data from three uncased bedrock boreholes in the Dedham Granite and an observation well screened just below the contact surface with a till drumlin. Apertures and dips vary however, so the ability of the modified theory to accommodate different sizes and inclinations improves upon the physical validity of its predecessor when fracture information accompanies slug test data. Geophysical logs identify a large number and dip of fractures in the uncased boreholes in the Dedham Granite in this regard. A lognormally distributed, horizontal aperture calibration of the slug tests in the uncased boreholes retains the accuracy of the single size model, and yields aperture statistics more consistent with literature values. The slug test in the screened observation well is accurately calibrated with the modified horizontal theory for discrete (two) sizes, based upon the average fracture spacing found in the uncased boreholes. All four results yield comparable compressibility estimates, which depend on fracture spacing but not size or dip. The calibrated aperture size and calculated fracture porosity and permeability decrease with length of the borehole into the Dedham Granite. The measured dip and aperture for flowing and nonflowing fractures in one of the boreholes accurately calibrates the modified theory. The inclusion of dip reduces the calibrated permeability because of the increased ellipsoidal area at the interface of the borehole and the inclined fractures.

  5. A closed-form representation of an upper limit error function and its interpretation on measurements with noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geise, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Any measurement of an electrical quantity, e.g. in network or spectrum analysis, is influenced by noise inducing a measurement uncertainty, the statistical quantification of which is rarely discussed in literature. A measurement uncertainty in such a context means a measurement error that is associated with a given probability, e.g. one standard deviation. The measurement uncertainty mainly depends on the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), but additionally can be influenced by the acquisition stage of the measurement setup. The analytical treatment of noise is hardly feasible as the physical nature of a noise vector needs to account for a certain magnitude and phase in a combined probability function. However, in a previous work a closed-form analytical solution for the uncertainties of amplitude and phase measurements depending on the SNR has been derived and validated. The derived formula turned out to be a good representation of the measured reality, though several approximations had to be made for the sake of an analytical expression. This contribution gives a physical interpretation on the approximations made and discusses the results in the context of the acquisition of measurement data.

  6. CLOSED-FORM ASYMPTOTIC SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS UNDER THE COALESCENT WITH RECOMBINATION FOR AN ARBITRARY NUMBER OF LOCI

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Anand; Song, Yun S.

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining a closed-form sampling distribution for the coalescent with recombination is a challenging problem. In the case of two loci, a new framework based on asymptotic series has recently been developed to derive closed-form results when the recombination rate is moderate to large. In this paper, an arbitrary number of loci is considered and combinatorial approaches are employed to find closed-form expressions for the first couple of terms in an asymptotic expansion of the multi-locus sampling distribution. These expressions are universal in the sense that their functional form in terms of the marginal one-locus distributions applies to all finite- and infinite-alleles models of mutation. PMID:22859863

  7. A closed form large deformation solution of plate bending with surface effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianshu; Jagota, Anand; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2017-01-04

    We study the effect of surface stress on the pure bending of a finite thickness plate under large deformation. The surface is assumed to be isotropic and its stress consists of a part that can be interpreted as a residual stress and a part that stiffens as the surface increases its area. Our results show that residual surface stress and surface stiffness can both increase the overall bending stiffness but through different mechanisms. For sufficiently large residual surface tension, we discover a new type of instability - the bending moment reaches a maximum at a critical curvature. Effects of surface stress on different stress components in the bulk of the plate are discussed and the possibility of self-bending due to asymmetry of the surface properties is also explored. The results of our calculations provide insights into surface stress effects in the large deformation regime and can be used as a test for implementation of finite element methods for surface elasticity.

  8. Growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed in malic acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2013-11-01

    The growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed on aluminum by anodizing in malic acid solutions was investigated. High-purity aluminum plates were electropolished in CH3COOH/HClO4 solutions and then anodized in 0.5 M malic acid solutions at 293 K and constant cell voltages of 200-350 V. The anodic porous alumina grew on the aluminum substrate at voltages of 200-250 V, and a black, burned oxide film was formed at higher voltages. The nanopores of the anodic oxide were only formed at grain boundaries of the aluminum substrate during the initial stage of anodizing, and then the growth region extended to the entire aluminum surface as the anodizing time increased. The anodic porous alumina with several defects was formed by anodizing in malic acid solution at 250 V, and oxide cells were approximately 300-800 nm in diameter.

  9. Generalized solutions for a class of non-uniformly elliptic equations in divergence form

    SciTech Connect

    Gregori, G.

    1997-11-01

    We study a general class of quasilinear non-uniformly elliptic pdes in divergence form with linear growth in the gradient. We examine the notions of BV and viscosity solutions and derive for such generalized solutions various a priori pointwise and integral estimates, including a Harnack inequality. In particular we prove that viscosity solutions are unique (on strictly convex domains), are contained in the space BV{sub loc} and are C{sup 1,{alpha}} almost everywhere. 10 refs.

  10. Phosphate closes the solution structure of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Borges, Júlio C; Pereira, José H; Vasconcelos, Igor B; dos Santos, Giovanni C; Olivieri, Johnny R; Ramos, Carlos H I; Palma, Mário S; Basso, Luiz A; Santos, Diógenes S; de Azevedo, Walter F

    2006-08-15

    The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase catalyses the sixth step of the shikimate pathway that is responsible for synthesizing aromatic compounds and is absent in mammals, which makes it a potential target for drugs development against microbial diseases. Here, we report the phosphate binding effects at the structure of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This enzyme is formed by two similar domains that close on each other induced by ligand binding, showing the occurrence of a large conformation change. We have monitored the phosphate binding effects using analytical ultracentrifugation, small angle X-ray scattering and, circular dichroism techniques. The low resolution results showed that the enzyme in the presence of phosphate clearly presented a more compact structure. Thermal-induced unfolding experiments followed by circular dichroism suggested that phosphate rigidified the enzyme. Summarizing, these data suggested that the phosphate itself is able to induce conformational change resulting in the closure movement in the M. tuberculosis 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.

  11. Experiment close out of lysimeter testing of low-level radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Cline, S.R.; Sullivan, T.M.; Reed, P.

    1997-12-31

    The program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms (WFs). These experiments were recently shut down and the contents of the lysimeters have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the examination of waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays after shut down. During this examination, the waste forms were characterized after removal from the lysimeters and the results compared to the findings of the original characterizations. Vertical soil cores were taken from the soil columns and analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides in the soils after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST code predictions of releases using recently developed partition coefficients to actual radionuclide movement through the soil columns as determined from these core analyses. This paper discusses soil and waste form sampling in which vertical cores were removed from the lysimeter soil columns for laboratory characterization. Those samples will be analyzed for radionuclide movement from the waste forms and through the soil columns.

  12. Closed-form inverse kinematics for intra-operative mobile C-arm positioning with six degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lejing; Zou, Rui; Weidert, Simon; Landes, Juergen; Euler, Ekkehard; Burschka, Darius; Navab, Nassir

    2011-03-01

    For trauma and orthopedic surgery, maneuvering a mobile C-arm X-ray device into a desired position in order to acquire the right picture is a routine task. The precision and ease of use of the C-arm positioning becomes even more important for more advanced imaging techniques as parallax-free X-ray image stitching, for example. Standard mobile C-arms have only five degrees of freedom (DOF), which definitely restricts their motions that have six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. We have proposed a method to model the kinematics of the mobile Carm and operating table as an integrated 6DOF C-arm X-ray imaging system.1 This enables mobile C-arms to be positioned relative to the patient's table with six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. Moving mobile C-arms to a desired position and orientation requires finding the necessary joint values, which is an inverse kinematics problem. In this paper, we present closed-form solutions, i.e. analytic expressions, obtained in an algebraic way for the inverse kinematics problem of the 6DOF C-arm model. In addition, we implement a 6DOF C-arm system for interactively radiation-free C-arm positioning based on a continuous guidance from C-arm pose estimation. For this we employ a visual marker pattern attached under the operating table and a mobile C-arm system augmented by a video camera and mirror construction. In our experiment, repositioning C-arm to a pre-defined pose in a phantom study demonstrates the practicality and accuracy of our developed 6DOF C-arm system.

  13. 46 CFR 308.535 - Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B. 308.535 Section 308.535 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  14. Calculation of the shape of a two-dimensional supersonic nozzle in closed form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunsolo, Dante

    1953-01-01

    The idea is advanced of making a supersonic nozzle by producing one, two, or three successive turns of the whole flow; with the result that the wall contour can be calculated exactly by means of the Prandtl-Meyer "Lost Solution."

  15. Determination of Interstellar He Parameters Using Five Years of Data from the IBEX: Beyond Closed Form Approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Möbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Rahmanifard, F.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sokół, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Frisch, P.

    2015-10-01

    makes no assumptions or expansions with respect to the spin-axis pointing or frame of reference. Thus, we are able to move beyond closed-form approximations and utilize observations of interstellar He during the complete five year period from 2009 to 2013 when the primary component of interstellar He is most prominent. Chi-square minimization of simulations compared to observations results in a He ISN flow longitude of 75.°6 ± 1.°4, latitude of -5.°12 ± 0.°27, speed of 25.4 ± 1.1 km s-1, and temperature of 8000 ± 1300 K, where the uncertainties are related and apply along the IBEX parameter tube. This paper also provides documentation for a new release of ISN data and associated model runs.

  16. Crenactin from Pyrobaculum calidifontis is closely related to actin in structure and forms steep helical filaments

    PubMed Central

    Izoré, Thierry; Duman, Ramona; Kureisaite-Ciziene, Danguole; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Polymerising proteins of the actin family are nearly ubiquitous. Crenactins, restricted to Crenarchaea, are more closely related to actin than bacterial MreB. Crenactins occur in gene clusters hinting at an unknown, but conserved function. We solved the crystal structure of crenactin at 3.2 Å resolution. The protein crystallises as a continuous right-handed helix with 8 subunits per complete turn, spanning 419 Å. The structure of crenactin shows several loops that are longer than in actin, but overall, crenactin is closely related to eukaryotic actin, with an RMSD of 1.6 Å. Crenactin filaments imaged by electron microscopy showed polymers with very similar helical parameters. PMID:24486010

  17. Form Four Students' Misconceptions in Electrolysis of Molten Compounds and Aqueous Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Anita Yung Li; Lee, Tien Tien

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the Form Four students' misconceptions in the electrolysis of molten compounds and aqueous solutions. The respondents were 60 Form Four students from two secondary schools in Sibu, Sarawak. The two instruments used in this study were an open-ended electrochemistry assessment and interview protocol. This…

  18. Form Four Students' Misconceptions in Electrolysis of Molten Compounds and Aqueous Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Anita Yung Li; Lee, Tien Tien

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the Form Four students' misconceptions in the electrolysis of molten compounds and aqueous solutions. The respondents were 60 Form Four students from two secondary schools in Sibu, Sarawak. The two instruments used in this study were an open-ended electrochemistry assessment and interview protocol. This…

  19. Experiment close out of lysimeter field testing of low-level radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. These experiments were recently shut down and the contents of the lysimeters have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radio nuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the examination of waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays after shut down. During this examination, the waste forms were characterized after removal from the lysimeters and the results compared to the findings of the original characterizations. Vertical soil cores were taken from the soil columns and analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides in the soils after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST and BLT code predictions of releases and movement, using recently developed partition coefficients and leachate measurements, to actual radio nuclide movement through the soil columns as determined from these core analyses.

  20. A model for closing the inviscid form of the average-passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Mulac, R. A.; Celestina, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed for closing or mathematically completing the system of equations which describes the time average flow field through the blade passages of multistage turbomachinery. These equations referred to as the average passage equation system govern a conceptual model which has proven useful in turbomachinery aerodynamic design and analysis. The closure model is developed so as to insure a consistency between these equations and the axisymmetric through flow equations. The closure model was incorporated into a computer code for use in simulating the flow field about a high speed counter rotating propeller and a high speed fan stage. Results from these simulations are presented.

  1. A model for closing the inviscid form of the average passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Mulac, R. A.; Celestina, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for closing or mathematically completing the system of equations is proposed. The model describes the time average flow field through the blade passages of multistage turbomachinery. These average-passage equation systems govern a conceptual model useful in turbomachinery aerodynamic design and analysis. The closure model was developed to insure a consistency between these equations and the axisymmetric through-flow equations. The closure model was incorporated into a calculation code for use in the simulation of the flow field about a high-speed counter rotating propeller and a high-speed fan stage.

  2. A model for closing the inviscid form of the average-passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Mulac, R. A.; Celestina, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed for closing or mathematically completing the system of equations which describes the time average flow field through the blade passages of multistage turbomachinery. These equations referred to as the average passage equation system govern a conceptual model which has proven useful in turbomachinery aerodynamic design and analysis. The closure model is developed so as to insure a consistency between these equations and the axisymmetric through flow equations. The closure model was incorporated into a computer code for use in simulating the flow field about a high speed counter rotating propeller and a high speed fan stage. Results from these simulations are presented.

  3. A model for closing the inviscid form of the average passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Mulac, R. A.; Celestina, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model for closing or mathematically completing the system of equations is proposed. The model describes the time average flow field through the blade passages of multistage turbomachinery. These average-passage equation systems govern a conceptual model useful in turbomachinery aerodynamic design and analysis. The closure model was developed to insure a consistency between these equations and the axisymmetric through-flow equations. The closure model was incorporated into a calculation code for use in the simulation of the flow field about a high-speed counter rotating propeller and a high-speed fan stage.

  4. A model for closing the inviscid form of the average-passage equation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Mulac, R. A.; Celestina, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed for closing or mathematically completing the system of equations which describes the time average flow field through the blade passages of multistage turbomachinery. These equations referred to as the average passage equation system govern a conceptual model which has proven useful in turbomachinery aerodynamic design and analysis. The closure model is developed so as to insure a consistency between these equations and the axisymmetric through flow equations. The closure model was incorporated into a computer code for use in simulating the flow field about a high speed counter rotating propeller and a high speed fan stage. Results from these simulations are presented.

  5. Characteristics and electrochemical mechanisms of a nanosilver solution formed by anodic dissolution with high DC voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Nguyen Duc; Thuy, Nguyen Minh; Nhi Tru, Nguyen

    2013-08-01

    Nanosilver solution, prepared by anodic dissolution with high DC voltage in doubly distilled water, is free of undesirable chemicals and forms a highly pure product which is suitable for different applications, especially in the medical and pharmaceutical fields. In this study high DC voltage electrolysis was implemented to form nanosilver solutions with varying electrode diameters, anode-cathode distances, and electrolysis duration. The process was monitored while the cell was in operation, and the characteristics of the resulting solution were analysed afterwards. Cell reactions included: colour changes in the solution bulk due to the reduction of silver ions forming nanoparticles, anodic dissolution of silver, intense gas evolution at both electrodes, and chemical reactions in the solution causing nanosilver formation. UV-Vis characteristics, particle size distribution, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, solution concentrations, conductivities, and ζ-potentials were all found to depend on the electrode's distances, temperature, electrolysis duration, and current density. Nanosilver preparation can thus be considered a combination of electrochemical reactions (such as silver dissolution at anode and water decomposition to generate hydrogen and oxygen), and chemical reactions between the electrolytic products from the solution bulk.

  6. Closed-Form 3-D Localization for Single Source in Uniform Circular Array with a Center Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Eun-Hyon; Lee, Kyun-Kyung

    A novel closed-form algorithm is presented for estimating the 3-D location (azimuth angle, elevation angle, and range) of a single source in a uniform circular array (UCA) with a center sensor. Based on the centrosymmetry of the UCA and noncircularity of the source, the proposed algorithm decouples and estimates the 2-D direction of arrival (DOA), i.e. azimuth and elevation angles, and then estimates the range of the source. Notwithstanding a low computational complexity, the proposed algorithm provides an estimation performance close to that of the benchmark estimator 3-D MUSIC.

  7. Potassium Iodide ("KI"): Instructions to Make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form)

    MedlinePlus

    ... make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Preparation and Dosing Instructions for Use During a Nuclear Emergency To Make KI Solution (Liquid Form), using ...

  8. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-05-09

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  9. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  10. Rock Physics Characterization of Porous Media Containing Hydrates Formed Out of Solution: Tetrathydrofuran VS. Dissolved Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicks, J. M.; Rydzy, M. B.; Spangenberg, E.; Batzle, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Methane hydrate formation in sediments from the dissolved gas phase is a tedious and time-consuming task, due to the relatively low solubility of methane in water. A number of studies on physical properties of hydrated sediments have been conducted on sediments containing tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrates instead. The use of THF as a hydrate former is convenient as it forms hydrate at atmospheric pressure and relatively high temperatures of about 277 K. It is completely miscible in water, thus forms hydrate out solution and promises homogeneous synthesis of THF hydrate in sediment. The applicability of THF as a proxy for methane hydrate formed out of solution, however, has often been questioned. To better understand whether THF hydrates represent a legitimate proxy for methane hydrates formed out of solution, ultrasonic velocity and resistivity measurements were performed on hydrated Ottawa Sand F110 sand and glass bead samples in conjunction with imaging techniques, such as micro X-ray computed tomography (MXCT), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thereby the tests were conducted on samples containing hydrates formed both, from methane dissolved in water and with the use of THF. The results show, that in terms of ultrasonic velocities, THF and methane hydrates exhibit the same trend. As the hydrate crystallized in the pore space, no increase in velocity was observed until a critical hydrate saturation of 35-50 percent was exceeded. On the other hand, the bulk electrical resistivity increased with increasing gas hydrate saturation. Comparison with current rock physics models suggested that the gas hydrate formed out of solution in both cases exhibits pore-filling/ load-bearing behavior, i.e. it suggests that the hydrate is formed away from the grains. This was supported through the imaging. This series of measurements provided the first direct comparison of THF and methane hydrates formed out of solution in terms of how their distribution and location in the pore

  11. Piecewise smooth dynamical systems: Persistence of periodic solutions and normal forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Márcio R. A.; Llibre, Jaume; Novaes, Douglas D.; Pessoa, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    We consider an n-dimensional piecewise smooth vector field with two zones separated by a hyperplane Σ which admits an invariant hyperplane Ω transversal to Σ containing a period annulus A fulfilled by crossing periodic solutions. For small discontinuous perturbations of these systems we develop a Melnikov-like function to control the persistence of periodic solutions contained in A. When n = 3 we provide normal forms for the piecewise linear case. Finally we apply the Melnikov-like function to study discontinuous perturbations of the given normal forms.

  12. The effect of intravitreal injection of vehicle solutions on form deprivation myopia in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alexander H; Siegwart, John T; Frost, Michael R; Norton, Thomas T

    2016-04-01

    lntravitreal injection of substances dissolved in a vehicle solution is a common tool used to assess retinal function. We examined the effect of injection procedures (three groups) and vehicle solutions (four groups) on the development of form deprivation myopia (FDM) in juvenile tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates, starting at 24 days of visual experience (about 45 days of age). In seven groups (n = 7 per group), the myopia produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) was measured daily for 12 days during an 11-day treatment period. The FD eye was randomly selected; the contralateral eye served as an untreated control. The refractive state of both eyes was measured daily, starting just before FD began (day 1); axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 and after eleven days of treatment (day 12). Procedure groups: the myopia (treated eye - control eye refraction) in the FD group was the reference. The sham group only underwent brief daily anesthesia and opening of the conjunctiva to expose the sclera. The puncture group, in addition, had a pipette inserted daily into the vitreous. In four vehicle groups, 5 μL of vehicle was injected daily. The NaCl group received 0.85% NaCl. In the NaCl + ascorbic acid group, 1 mg/mL of ascorbic acid was added. The water group received sterile water. The water + ascorbic acid group received water with ascorbic acid (1 mg/mL). We found that the procedures associated with intravitreal injections (anesthesia, opening of the conjunctiva, and puncture of the sclera) did not significantly affect the development of FDM. However, injecting 5 μL of any of the four vehicle solutions slowed the development of FDM. NaCl had a small effect; myopia development in the last 6 days (-0.15 ± 0.08 D/day) was significantly less than in the FD group (-0.55 ± 0.06 D/day). NaCl + Ascorbic acid further slowed the development of FDM on several treatment days. H2O (-0.09 ± 0.05 D/day) and H2O + ascorbic acid

  13. Conceptual design of a closed loop nutrient solution delivery system for CELSS implementation in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Oleson, Mel W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.

    1990-01-01

    Described here are the results of a study to develop a conceptual design for an experimental closed loop fluid handling system capable of monitoring, controlling, and supplying nutrient solution to higher plants. The Plant Feeder Experiment (PFE) is designed to be flight tested in a microgravity environment. When flown, the PFX will provide information on both the generic problems of microgravity fluid handling and the specific problems associated with the delivery of the nutrient solution in a microgravity environment. The experimental hardware is designed to fit into two middeck lockers on the Space Shuttle, and incorporates several components that have previously been flight tested.

  14. A model of the closed form of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor m2 channel pore.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanguk; Chamberlain, Aaron K; Bowie, James U

    2004-08-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel in the postsynaptic membrane. It is composed of five homologous subunits, each of which contributes one transmembrane helix--the M2 helix--to create the channel pore. The M2 helix from the delta subunit is capable of forming a channel by itself. Although a model of the receptor was recently proposed based on a low-resolution, cryo-electron microscopy density map, we found that the model does not explain much of the other available experimental data. Here we propose a new model of the M2 channel derived solely from helix packing and symmetry constraints. This model agrees well with experimental results from solid-state NMR, chemical reactivity, and mutagenesis experiments. The model depicts the channel pore, the channel gate, and the residues responsible for cation specificity.

  15. Reconstructing the phylogeny of Scolytinae and close allies: Major obstacles and prospects for a solution

    Treesearch

    Bjarte H. Jordal

    2007-01-01

    To enable the resolution of deep phylogenetic divergence in Scolytinae and closely related weevils, several new molecular markers were screened for their phylogenetic potential. The nuclear protein encoding genes, CAD and Arginine Kinase, were particularly promising and will be added to future phylogenetic studies in combination with 28S, COI, and Elongation Factor 1...

  16. Cooling and Freezing Behaviors of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solution in a Closed Rectangular Container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narumi, Akira; Kashiwagi, Takao; Nakane, Ichirou

    This paper investigates cooling and freezing behaviors of NaCl aqueous solution in a rectangular container equipped with horizontal partitions of micro porous film in order to determine the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer through cell wall for the purpose of freezing food. For comparison, experiments were performed using partitions of copper plate, no partition, and water. These processes were visualized and measured using real-time laser holographic interferometry. It was found that there was very little difference in the cooling process due to partitions, but that there were significant differences in freezing process when NaCl aqueous solution is used.

  17. Differential transcriptional regulation of orthologous dps genes from two closely related heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Sandh, Gustaf; Nenninger, Anja; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Stensjö, Karin

    2015-03-01

    In cyanobacteria, DNA-binding proteins from starved cells (Dps) play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative and nutritional stresses. In this study, we have characterized the cell-type specificity and the promoter regions of two orthologous dps genes, Npun_R5799 in Nostoc punctiforme and alr3808 in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. A transcriptional start site (TSS), identical in location to the previously identified proximal TSS of alr3808, was identified for Npun_R5799 under both combined nitrogen supplemented and N2-fixing growth conditions. However, only alr3808 was also transcribed from a second distal TSS. Sequence homologies suggest that the promoter region containing the distal TSS is not conserved upstream of orthologous genes among heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. The analysis of promoter GFP-reporter strains showed a different role in governing cell-type specificity between the proximal and distal promoter of alr3808. We here confirmed the heterocyst specificity of the distal promoter of alr3808 and described a very early induction of its expression during proheterocyst differentiation. In contrast, the complete promoters of both genes were active in all cells. Even though Npun_R5799 and alr3808 are orthologs, the regulation of their respective expression differs, indicating distinctions in the function of these cyanobacterial Dps proteins depending on the strain and cell type.

  18. The general form of the coupled Horndeski Lagrangian that allows cosmological scaling solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Adalto R.; Amendola, Luca E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2016-02-01

    We consider the general scalar field Horndeski Lagrangian coupled to dark matter. Within this class of models, we present two results that are independent of the particular form of the model. First, we show that in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric the Horndeski Lagrangian coincides with the pressure of the scalar field. Second, we employ the previous result to identify the most general form of the Lagrangian that allows for cosmological scaling solutions, i.e. solutions where the ratio of dark matter to field density and the equation of state remain constant. Scaling solutions of this kind may help solving the coincidence problem since in this case the presently observed ratio of matter to dark energy does not depend on initial conditions, but rather on the theoretical parameters.

  19. [Chemical form changes of exogenous water solution fluoride and bioavailability in tea garden soil].

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui-Mei; Peng, Chuan-Yi; Chen, Jing; Hou, Ru-Yan; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2013-11-01

    Pot experiments and the sequential extraction method were conducted to study the chemical form changes of exogenous water solution fluoride in tea garden soil and their contribution to fluoride accumulation of tea plant. The results showed that the background concentration of all chemical forms of fluoride had little changes with time treatment, which was in a relatively stable state. The exogenous water solution fluoride adding to the soils was rapidly transformed to other fractions. Under the 10 mg x kg(-1) fluoride treatment, the concentration of water solution fluoride increased firstly and then decreased with time treatment, the concentration of organic matter fluoride and Fe/Mn oxides fluoride decreased, the concentration of exchangeable fluoride was not different before and after the treatment (P > 0.05), and the concentration of residual fluoride was in a relatively stable state; under the 200 mg x kg(-1) fluoride treatment, the concentration of water solution fluoride, Fe/Mn oxides fluoride and organic matter fluoride decreased with time treatment, the concentration of exchangeable fluoride increased firstly and then decreased, showed no difference before and after the treatment (P > 0.05), and the concentration of residual fluoride increased, with some differences compared with 10 mg x kg(-1) fluoride treatment. The concentration of total fluoride in root, stem and leaf had significant differences under 0-10 mg x kg(-1) fluoride treatment (P < 0.05), while showed no difference from 10 to 100 mg x kg(-1) fluoride treatment (P > 0.05). Step regression analysis suggested the contribution of all chemical forms of fluoride to the concentration of water solution fluoride and total fluoride of root, stem and leaf had some differences, there was a remarkable regression relationship among the content of total fluoride in leaf and water solution fluoride, organic matter fluoride, Fe/Mn oxides fluoride and residual fluoride in soil, however, no significant

  20. Exact traveling wave solutions of the van der Waals normal form for fluidized granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abourabia, A. M.; Morad, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Analytical solutions of the van der Waals normal form for fluidized granular media have been done to study the phase separation phenomenon by using two different exact methods. The Painlevé analysis is discussed to illustrate the integrability of the model equation. An auto-Bäcklund transformation is presented via the truncated expansion and symbolic computation. The results show that the exact solutions of the model introduce solitary waves of different types. The solutions of the hydrodynamic model and the van der Waals equation exhibit a behavior similar to the one observed in molecular dynamic simulations such that two pairs of shock and rarefaction waves appear and move away, giving rise to the bubbles. The dispersion properties and the relation between group and phase velocities of the model equation are studied using the plane wave assumption. The diagrams are drawn to illustrate the physical properties of the exact solutions, and indicate their stability and bifurcation.

  1. Detection of various phases in liquids from the hypersound velocity and damping near closed phase-separation regions of solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalenko, K. V.; Krivokhizha, S. V.; Chaban, I. A.; Chaikov, L. L.

    2008-02-01

    Theoretical analysis revealed that experimental results obtained in our studies on hypersound propagation in a guaiacol-glycerol solution in the vicinity of the closed phase-separation region, double critical point, and special point, as well as the origin of these regions, can be explained by the presence of two different phases (I and II) of the solution with phase-transition temperature T 0. Temperature T 0 coincides with the temperature at the center of closed phase-separation regions, as well as with the double critical point and with the special point. In (Frenkel) phase I, molecules are in potential wells whose depth exceeds the thermal energy of a molecule, while thermal energy in (gaslike) phase II is higher than the potential well depth. At the lower critical point, the thermodynamic potential of phase I is equal to the thermodynamic potential of the phase-separated solution. At the upper critical point, the thermodynamic potential of phase II is equal to the thermodynamic potential of the phase-separated solution. The observed broad dome of the hypersound absorption coefficient near T 0 can be explained by the contribution associated with fluctuations of the order parameter corresponding to the transition from phase I to phase II. The difference in the temperature coefficients of hypersound velocity on different sides of T 0 and some other effects are also explained.

  2. Four Closely Related HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant Forms Identified in East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Li, Yuxueyun; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ruan, Yuhua; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming

    2017-07-01

    Five near full-length genomes of novel second-generation HIV-1 recombinant virus (JS150021, JS150029, JS150129, JS150132, and AH150183) were identified from five HIV-positive people in Jiangsu and Anhui province, east China. Phylogenic analyses showed that these five sequences are all composed of two well-established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE, grouped into four new discovered recombinant forms, which show several very similar but not identical recombinant breakpoints. The four recombinant forms are also identified to be a sort of family or related viruses, seems to be the results of different recombination events. The emergence of a serious new closely related CRF07_BC/CRF01_AE recombinant strain indicates the increasing complexity of sexual transmission of the HIV-1 epidemic in China.

  3. A novel form of {open_quotes}Tyrosinase-positive{close_quotes} oculocutaneous albinism

    SciTech Connect

    Fukai, K.; Lee, S.T.; Bundey, S.; Spritz, R.A. |

    1994-09-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. We have shown that typical ty-pos OCA (OCA2) results from mutations of the P gene in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. We have also shown that some patients diagnosed with ty-pos OCA actually have mild forms of type I OCA (OCAI), resulting from mutations at the tyrosinase (TYR) gene at 11q14-q21. However, in about one-third of patients with ty-pos OCA we have failed to identify abnormalities of either the P or TYR genes, suggesting the possible existence of a third ty-pos OCA locus. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a large, complex, inbred Pakistani kindred. Affected individuals exhibit slight skin pigmentation with no tanning, hair that is silver at birth and darkens somewhat over time, brown irides, and reduced visual acuity with nystagmus. SSCP/heteroduplex screening and complete DNA sequence analysis of TYR gene in the proband identified no abnormalities, and analysis of a CA repeat in the TYR gene promoter showed no linkage of ty-pos OCA to this marker in this kindred. SSCP/ heteroduplex screening of the P gene also detected no abnormalities, and the (inbred) proband was heterozygous for numerous intragenic polymorphisms. These data thus exclude TYP and P. We next carried out genetic linkage analyses and homozygisty mapping using various SSLP repeats at the locations of the human homologues of the mouse brown (TYRP, 9p23), slaty (13q32), and silver (12pter-q21) genes, all of which are associated with generalized hypopigmentation in mutant animals. However, we found no evidence of linkage of any of these markers. We are currently carrying out similar analyses using markers near the putative locations of the human homologues of several other mouse hypopigmentation genes in an effort to map this novel human ty-pos OCA locus.

  4. Numerical solutions of 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for closed bluff-bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abolhassani, J. S.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically. These equations are unsteady, compressible, viscous, and three-dimensional without neglecting any terms. The time dependency of the governing equations allows the solution to progress naturally for an arbitrary initial guess to an asymptotic steady state, if one exists. The equations are transformed from physical coordinates to the computational coordinates, allowing the solution of the governing equations in a rectangular parallelepiped domain. The equations are solved by the MacCormack time-split technique which is vectorized and programmed to run on the CDc VPS 32 computer. The codes are written in 32-bit (half word) FORTRAN, which provides an approximate factor of two decreasing in computational time and doubles the memory size compared to the 54-bit word size.

  5. FORMING CLOSE-IN EARTH-LIKE PLANETS VIA A COLLISION-MERGER MECHANISM IN LATE-STAGE PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Jianghui; Jin Sheng; Tinney, C. G. E-mail: qingxiaojin@gmail.com

    2011-01-20

    The large number of exoplanets found to orbit their host stars in very close orbits have significantly advanced our understanding of the planetary formation process. It is now widely accepted that such short-period planets cannot have formed in situ, but rather must have migrated to their current orbits from a formation location much farther from their host star. In the late stages of planetary formation, once the gas in the protoplanetary disk has dissipated and migration has halted, gas giants orbiting in the inner disk regions will excite planetesimals and planetary embryos, resulting in an increased rate of orbital crossings and large impacts. We present the results of dynamical simulations for planetesimal evolution in this later stage of planet formation. We find that a mechanism is revealed by which the collision-merger of planetary embryos can kick terrestrial planets directly into orbits extremely close to their parent stars.

  6. Closed-form estimates of the domain of attraction for nonlinear systems via fuzzy-polynomial models.

    PubMed

    Pitarch, José Luis; Sala, Antonio; Ariño, Carlos Vicente

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the domain of attraction of the origin of a nonlinear system is estimated in closed form via level sets with polynomial boundaries, iteratively computed. In particular, the domain of attraction is expanded from a previous estimate, such as a classical Lyapunov level set. With the use of fuzzy-polynomial models, the domain of attraction analysis can be carried out via sum of squares optimization and an iterative algorithm. The result is a function that bounds the domain of attraction, free from the usual restriction of being positive and decrescent in all the interior of its level sets.

  7. Bediasite source materials: A solution to an endmember mixing problem exploiting closed data

    SciTech Connect

    Love, K.M.; Woronow, A. )

    1988-08-01

    Previous tektite studies proposed parent materials ranging from single lithologies to various three-endmember mixtures of igneous and sedimentary rocks. In part, this breadth of proposed parent materials resulted from the unavailability of proper statistical methods for analyzing percentage, or closed, data. However, new statistical techniques penetrate these data, and the bediasites, being random samples of endmember mixtures, afford opportunities to establish a paradigm for endmember identification, determine the minimum number of lithologic/geochemical endmembers contributing to the bediasite compositions, and estimate the major-element chemistries of those endmembers. The authors conclude that both the major-element chemistry and the correlations among major-element ratios for bediasites (1) cannot be explained solely as an effect of selective volatilization of a single source material, (2) require a minimum of two contributing endmember materials, and (3) suggest a binary mixture of endmembers chemically similar to a subarkose and a ferro-aluminum residual clay.

  8. The solution in functional rehabilitation after destruction of the larynx: The tracheostoma closed

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.; Rheims, D.; Attya, E. )

    1986-05-01

    A bayonet-shaped airway allowing free respiration and undisturbed deglutition was reconstructed in 2 young women who had undergone tracheotomy and radiotherapy for thyroid carcinoma. The laryngeal vestibule, glottis, and subglottis had been destroyed, and the air passages were closed. An external gutter and an anterior tracheal wall were created in a multistage procedure. In 1 patient, the hypopharynx and upper esophageal segment were reconstructed with bilateral pectoralis major musculocutaneous flaps, which disfigured the breast. The two displaced nipple-areola complexes were properly repositioned using skin expanders and island flap transfer, and the breast was remodeled with prostheses. Our results suggest that this method of laryngotracheal reconstruction may also be applied in laryngectomized patients in whom only part of the epiglottis and the aryepiglottic folds remain. Although the procedure is lengthy and difficult, it is recommended for extensive lesions in fully cooperative patients.

  9. Desiccation kinetics and biothermodynamics of glass forming trehalose solutions in thin films.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Fowler, Alex; Menze, Michael; Hand, Steve; Toner, Mehmet

    2008-08-01

    In this study, the desiccation kinetics of aqueous trehalose solutions were investigated numerically by solving the coupled heat and mass transfer problem with a moving interface using the finite element method. The free volume models for vapor pressure and mutual diffusion coefficient were incorporated into the model to account for the effect of glass transition on the heat and mass transport process that ultimately determines the desiccation kinetics. It was found that the temperature in the film could drop significantly upon the initiation of drying due to the absorption of latent heat associated with water evaporation although the spatial distribution of temperature in the solution is very homogeneous. On the contrary, the spatial distribution of water content in the solution is non-homogeneous, particularly at the solution-vapor interface where an extremely thin layer of skin with extremely low molecular mobility usually forms during drying. The solution film can be dried to approximately 6-10 wt.% residual water within minutes for thin films; but drying times depends strongly on the initial film thickness, initial solution concentration, temperature, and convective coefficient. Desiccation to below 6 wt.% residual water is very slow due to the retarded water mobility in the extremely thin skin where the solution is in the glassy state. Since the water mobility in a trehalose solution or glass with 6-10% residual water is still high enough to allow degradative reactions to occur in a relatively short time at room temperature, it is important that the samples should be kept at a temperature around 0 degrees C or lower for storage after drying. Furthermore, approaches that might enable further quick reduction of the residual water to less than 6-10 wt.% are also proposed so that a sample could be preserved at super-zero or even room temperature. The established models and the reported results will be useful for the development of effective protocols for

  10. A Science-Based Approach to Understanding Waste Form Durability in Open and Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    M.T. Peters; R.C. Ewing

    2006-06-22

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: (a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; (b) formation and properties of U{sup 6+}-secondary phases; (c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and (d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behavior of the source term over long time periods (greater than 10{sup 5} years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modeling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms ''tailored'' to specific geologic settings.

  11. CEMS study of corrosion products formed by NaCl aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, A.

    2012-03-01

    Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to study corrosion products by NaCl aqueous solution. A drop of the solution is put on an iron foil and the foil is left at RT. During the evaporation of the solution, corrosion products are formed. Conversion electron Mössbauer spectra were taken at temperatures between 15 K and room temperature (RT). In the Mössbauer spectra a ferric doublet is observed at RT, but sextets are found at 15 K. These results show that the corrosion product mainly consists of γ - FeOOH and a small amount of β - FeOOH is noticed. As NaCl concentration increases, the corrosion layer becomes thick and β- FeOOH / γ - FeOOH ratio increases slightly. Consequently, it has been concluded that the produced amount of β- FeOOH increases more rapidly than that of γ - FeOOH with increasing NaCl concentration.

  12. Lyotropic mesophases formed by solutions of sodium strearate in glycerol and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingbing; Joshi, Leela; Satyendra Kumar, Satyendra; Yaravoy, Yury; Teanoosh, Moaddel

    2004-03-01

    Solutions of sodium stearate in concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 wt %, in glycerol and glycerol + water exhibit two phases between room temperature and 100 °C for all mixtures. In the high temperature phase, the solutions flow easily while they form a gel phase with unique elastic properties in the low temperature phase. Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering measurements performed on partially deutrated samples reveal structural details of these solutions. The high temperature phase is found to be an isotropic dispersion of micellar aggregates, the lower temperature phase possesses more complex structure. These results augmented with results from differential scanning calorimetry, NMR proton relaxation and other techniques will be presented. Supported by Unilever Research, USA.

  13. Solubilization sites and acid-base forms of dibucaine-hydrochloride in neutral and charged micellar solutions.

    PubMed

    Mertz, C J; Lin, C T

    1991-03-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopic techniques have been employed to characterize the drug species of dibucaine and to identify its location in micellar Triton X-100 (neutral), hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (cationic) and lithium dodecyl sulfate (anionic) solutions at 77 K. Under physiological conditions, the dibucaine is shown to exist in the free base form (D) while solubilized in the hydrocarbon core of neutral micelles. In cationic micellar solution, dibucaine exists as the monocation species (DH+) where the anesthetic is solubilized in the extramicellar aqueous solution and D is solubilized in the hydrophobic region with close proximity to the micellar interface. In the anionic micelles, interfacial solubilization is most consistent with a site in which the tertiary amino group of the monocation dibucaine (DH+) is anchored at the micellar interface with its quinoline analog penetrating the hydrophobic region. The distinct properties observed for the drug species (i.e. D and DH+) and their solubilization sites in micelles are consistent with a balance between hydrophobic forces, surface polarity and the interfacial electrostatic potential present in the micellar solubilization sites. These observations could lend insight into the molecular basis of pharmacological action, in particular the mechanism of local anesthetic drug transport across membranes.

  14. Technology Closes the Distance: Global Solutions Show the Variety, Equity, and Accessibility of Distance Learning Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The number of U.S. teachers participating in some form of distance education is on the rise, yet compared to many nations, distance-based professional learning is fairly new in the U.S. What are common elements of effective global distance education for teachers, and what lessons do they hold for those who design similar programs in the U.S.? Over…

  15. Timelike duality, M'-theory and an exotic form of the Englert solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneaux, Marc; Ranjbar, Arash

    2017-08-01

    Through timelike dualities, one can generate exotic versions of M-theory with different spacetime signatures. These are the M *-theory with signature (9 , 2 , -), the M'-theory, with signature (6 , 5 , +) and the theories with reversed signatures (1 , 10 , -), (2 , 9 , +) and (5 , 6 , -). In ( s, t, ±), s is the number of space directions, t the number of time directions, and ± refers to the sign of the kinetic term of the 3 form. The only irreducible pseudo-riemannian manifolds admitting absolute parallelism are, besides Lie groups, the seven-sphere S 7 ≡ SO(8) /SO(7) and its pseudo-riemannian version S 3,4 ≡ SO(4 , 4) /SO(3 , 4). [There is also the complexification SO(8,\\mathrmC)/SO(7,\\mathrmC) , but it is of dimension too high for our considerations.] The seven-sphere S 7 ≡ S 7,0 has been found to play an important role in 11-dimensional supergravity, both through the Freund-Rubin solution and the Englert solution that uses its remarkable parallelizability to turn on non trivial internal fluxes. The spacetime manifold is in both cases AdS 4 × S 7. We show that S 3,4 enjoys a similar role in M '-theory and construct the exotic form AdS 4 × S 3,4 of the Englert solution, with non zero internal fluxes turned on. There is no analogous solution in M ∗-theory.

  16. Pricing timer options and variance derivatives with closed-form partial transform under the 3/2 model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wendong; Zeng, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the empirical studies on stochastic volatility dynamics favour the 3/2 specification over the square-root (CIR) process in the Heston model. In the context of option pricing, the 3/2 stochastic volatility model (SVM) is reported to be able to capture the volatility skew evolution better than the Heston model. In this article, we make a thorough investigation on the analytic tractability of the 3/2 SVM by proposing a closed-form formula for the partial transform of the triple joint transition density which stand for the log asset price, the quadratic variation (continuous realized variance) and the instantaneous variance, respectively. Two distinct formulations are provided for deriving the main result. The closed-form partial transform enables us to deduce a variety of marginal partial transforms and characteristic functions and plays a crucial role in pricing discretely sampled variance derivatives and exotic options that depend on both the asset price and quadratic variation. Various applications and numerical examples on pricing moment swaps and timer options with discrete monitoring feature are given to demonstrate the versatility of the partial transform under the 3/2 model. PMID:28706460

  17. Pricing timer options and variance derivatives with closed-form partial transform under the 3/2 model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wendong; Zeng, Pingping

    2016-09-02

    Most of the empirical studies on stochastic volatility dynamics favour the 3/2 specification over the square-root (CIR) process in the Heston model. In the context of option pricing, the 3/2 stochastic volatility model (SVM) is reported to be able to capture the volatility skew evolution better than the Heston model. In this article, we make a thorough investigation on the analytic tractability of the 3/2 SVM by proposing a closed-form formula for the partial transform of the triple joint transition density [Formula: see text] which stand for the log asset price, the quadratic variation (continuous realized variance) and the instantaneous variance, respectively. Two distinct formulations are provided for deriving the main result. The closed-form partial transform enables us to deduce a variety of marginal partial transforms and characteristic functions and plays a crucial role in pricing discretely sampled variance derivatives and exotic options that depend on both the asset price and quadratic variation. Various applications and numerical examples on pricing moment swaps and timer options with discrete monitoring feature are given to demonstrate the versatility of the partial transform under the 3/2 model.

  18. An asymptotic expansion of the solution of a matrix difference equation of general form

    SciTech Connect

    Sgibnev, M S

    2014-12-31

    An asymptotic expansion of the solution of an inhomogeneous matrix difference equation of general form is obtained. The case when there is no bound on the differences of the arguments is considered. The effect of the roots of the characteristic equation is taken into account. An integral estimate with a submultiplicative weight is established for the remainder in terms of the submultiplicative moment of the free term of the equation. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  19. Benchmarking a new closed-form thermal analysis technique against a traditional lumped parameter, finite-difference method

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, K. D.; Bauer, T. H.

    2012-08-20

    A benchmarking effort was conducted to determine the accuracy of a new analytic generic geology thermal repository model developed at LLNL relative to a more traditional, numerical, lumped parameter technique. The fast-running analytical thermal transport model assumes uniform thermal properties throughout a homogenous storage medium. Arrays of time-dependent heat sources are included geometrically as arrays of line segments and points. The solver uses a source-based linear superposition of closed form analytical functions from each contributing point or line to arrive at an estimate of the thermal evolution of a generic geologic repository. Temperature rise throughout the storage medium is computed as a linear superposition of temperature rises. It is modeled using the MathCAD mathematical engine and is parameterized to allow myriad gridded repository geometries and geologic characteristics [4]. It was anticipated that the accuracy and utility of the temperature field calculated with the LLNL analytical model would provide an accurate 'birds-eye' view in regions that are many tunnel radii away from actual storage units; i.e., at distances where tunnels and individual storage units could realistically be approximated as physical lines or points. However, geometrically explicit storage units, waste packages, tunnel walls and close-in rock are not included in the MathCAD model. The present benchmarking effort therefore focuses on the ability of the analytical model to accurately represent the close-in temperature field. Specifically, close-in temperatures computed with the LLNL MathCAD model were benchmarked against temperatures computed using geometrically-explicit lumped-parameter, repository thermal modeling technique developed over several years at ANL using the SINDAG thermal modeling code [5]. Application of this numerical modeling technique to underground storage of heat generating nuclear waste streams within the proposed YMR Site has been widely reported [6

  20. Formulation and Development of Metered Dose Inhalations of Salbutamol in Solution Form

    PubMed Central

    Khale, Anubha; Bajaj, Amrita

    2011-01-01

    In the present study attempts were made to prepare metered dose inhalation of salbutamol in solution form and compared it with the marketed metered dose inhalation in suspension form. Solution form of the drug was found better than marketed suspension formulation with respect to homogeneity and content uniformity. Propellant blend P-11 and P-12 in the proportion 30:70 was selected as it gave optimum vapour pressure. Surfactant oleic acid in concentration 10 mg per can was selected as it gave best results with clarity, spray pattern, vapour pressure, content per spray and rate of evaporation. Ethyl alcohol 2 ml per can was used as a cosolvent to give a clear solution, optimum vapour pressure, maximum content per spray and fair rate of evaporation. The selected formulation was subjected to the physico-chemical evaluation tests as per the standard pharmacopoeial procedures and the characteristics of the formulations were further compared with a conventional marketed formulation. In vitro study reveled the net respirable fraction was better than marketed preparation. PMID:22923867

  1. Conceptual design of a closed loop nutrient solution delivery system for CELSS implementation in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Oleson, Mel W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to develop a conceptual design for an experimental, closed-loop fluid handling system capable of monitoring, controlling, and supplying nutrient solution to higher plants. The Plant Feeder Experiment (PFX) is designed to be flight tested in a micro-gravity (micro-g) environment and was developed under NASA's In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP). When flown, PFX will provide information on both the generic problems of micro-g fluid handling and the specific problems associated with the delivery of nutrient solution in a micro-g environment. The experimental hardware is designed to fit into two middeck lockers on the Space Shuttle, and incorporates several components that have previously been flight tested.

  2. Conceptual design of a closed loop nutrient solution delivery system for CELSS implementation in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Oleson, Mel W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to develop a conceptual design for an experimental, closed-loop fluid handling system capable of monitoring, controlling, and supplying nutrient solution to higher plants. The Plant Feeder Experiment (PFX) is designed to be flight tested in a micro-gravity (micro-g) environment and was developed under NASA's In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP). When flown, PFX will provide information on both the generic problems of micro-g fluid handling and the specific problems associated with the delivery of nutrient solution in a micro-g environment. The experimental hardware is designed to fit into two middeck lockers on the Space Shuttle, and incorporates several components that have previously been flight tested.

  3. Perspective: Closing the Dietary Fiber Gap: An Ancient Solution for a 21st Century Problem.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    An important gap exists between the daily amounts of fiber recommended in the human diet (28-42 g/d) and that which is actually consumed (median intake, 12-14 g/d). In fact, <5% of Americans meet the recommended intake for dietary fiber, and the magnitude of the gap is large, approximately a 50-70% shortfall. Because considerable evidence indicates that dietary fiber affects normal physiologic function and the onset of chronic diseases and their progression, the fiber gap represents an opportune target at which dietary interventions can be directed. This perspective considers whether a scientific basis exists for the current lack of emphasis on pulse crops, that is, grain legumes (common bean, chickpea, lentils, and garden pea) as a concentrated, inexpensive, and widely available source of dietary fiber. Attention is directed to this topic because the fiber gap has existed for decades with little improvement despite nutrition labeling, consumer education about the value of whole-grain cereal crop-based products, and the introduction of many fiber-enriched foods. The time is long overdue to identify additional approaches that have the potential to close the dietary fiber gap. To this end, the potential role of pulse crops in remediating this gap is examined. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Perspective: Closing the Dietary Fiber Gap: An Ancient Solution for a 21st Century Problem12

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    An important gap exists between the daily amounts of fiber recommended in the human diet (28–42 g/d) and that which is actually consumed (median intake, 12–14 g/d). In fact, <5% of Americans meet the recommended intake for dietary fiber, and the magnitude of the gap is large, approximately a 50–70% shortfall. Because considerable evidence indicates that dietary fiber affects normal physiologic function and the onset of chronic diseases and their progression, the fiber gap represents an opportune target at which dietary interventions can be directed. This perspective considers whether a scientific basis exists for the current lack of emphasis on pulse crops, that is, grain legumes (common bean, chickpea, lentils, and garden pea) as a concentrated, inexpensive, and widely available source of dietary fiber. Attention is directed to this topic because the fiber gap has existed for decades with little improvement despite nutrition labeling, consumer education about the value of whole-grain cereal crop-based products, and the introduction of many fiber-enriched foods. The time is long overdue to identify additional approaches that have the potential to close the dietary fiber gap. To this end, the potential role of pulse crops in remediating this gap is examined. PMID:27422499

  5. Glass-forming tendency and stability of aqueous solutions of diethylformamide and dimethylformamide

    PubMed

    Baudot; Boutron

    1998-11-01

    The glass-forming tendency on cooling and the stability of the wholly amorphous state on warming of aqueous solutions of diethylformamide and of dimethylformamide have been studied by calorimetry. With diethylformamide, only ice formation is observed except on warming at the lowest rate of 2.5 degreesC/min, where occasionally a hydrate forms also. The hydrate was observed up to 10 degreesC/min with 50% diethylformamide. With dimethylformamide hydrates form even at high warming rates. The last hydrate melts at -47.7 degreesC. The warming thermograms are much more complicated than for diethylformamide. For the glass-forming tendency on cooling, as well as for the stability of the wholly amorphous state on warming, these two compounds, at concentrations of 40, 45, or 50% (w/w) in water, are more efficient than glycerol and ethylene glycol, but less than 1,2-propanediol and levo-2,3-butanediol. On warming, they are comparable to DMSO. Pure diethylformamide could not be crystallized, whereas, conversely, pure dimethylformamide could not be vitrified. Curiously, the glass transition of aqueous solutions of diethylformamide increases and then decreases with the diethylformamide concentration in water, contrary to other cryoprotectants, for which it always increases or decreases. Diethyl- and dimethylformamide could be interesting cryoprotectants if they are not too toxic when added before cryopreservation, and in the case of dimethylformamide, if one can avoid damage due to its hydrates. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  6. Application of porous alumina formed in selenic acid solution for nanostructures investigation via Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarkina, Y. V.; Gavrilov, S. A.; Polohin, A. A.; Gromov, D.; Shaman, Y. P.

    2016-12-01

    Applicability of porous anodic alumina formed in selenic acid based electrolyte as the matrix for formation and Raman characterization of nanomaterials is investigated. For that, Raman spectra of nanostructured CdS layers deposited on top of porous alumina matrices are obtained. These spectra were compared with the ones, registered for the composites prepared using the commonly used matrix formed in oxalic acid solution. It is shown that application of porous alumina matrix formed in selenic acid electrolyte afford to detect the peaks corresponding to the CdS layers even at small amounts of CdS. It happens due to the absence of luminescence background in such matrix, which exists in matrices produced in organic acid electrolytes, for example, in oxalic acid.

  7. Two-Dimensional Ordering of Solute Nanoclusters at a Close-Packed Stacking Fault: Modeling and Experimental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kimizuka, Hajime; Kurokawa, Shu; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakai, Akira; Ogata, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the equilibrium ordered structures at internal interfaces, especially in the case of nanometer-scale chemical heterogeneities, is an ongoing challenge in materials science. In this study, we established an ab-initio coarse-grained modeling technique for describing the phase-like behavior of a close-packed stacking-fault-type interface containing solute nanoclusters, which undergo a two-dimensional disorder-order transition, depending on the temperature and composition. Notably, this approach can predict the two-dimensional medium-range ordering in the nanocluster arrays realized in Mg-based alloys, in a manner consistent with scanning tunneling microscopy-based measurements. We predicted that the repulsively interacting solute-cluster system undergoes a continuous evolution into a highly ordered densely packed morphology while maintaining a high degree of six-fold orientational order, which is attributable mainly to an entropic effect. The uncovered interaction-dependent ordering properties may be useful for the design of nanostructured materials utilizing the self-organization of two-dimensional nanocluster arrays in the close-packed interfaces. PMID:25471232

  8. Two-Dimensional Ordering of Solute Nanoclusters at a Close-Packed Stacking Fault: Modeling and Experimental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimizuka, Hajime; Kurokawa, Shu; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakai, Akira; Ogata, Shigenobu

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the equilibrium ordered structures at internal interfaces, especially in the case of nanometer-scale chemical heterogeneities, is an ongoing challenge in materials science. In this study, we established an ab-initio coarse-grained modeling technique for describing the phase-like behavior of a close-packed stacking-fault-type interface containing solute nanoclusters, which undergo a two-dimensional disorder-order transition, depending on the temperature and composition. Notably, this approach can predict the two-dimensional medium-range ordering in the nanocluster arrays realized in Mg-based alloys, in a manner consistent with scanning tunneling microscopy-based measurements. We predicted that the repulsively interacting solute-cluster system undergoes a continuous evolution into a highly ordered densely packed morphology while maintaining a high degree of six-fold orientational order, which is attributable mainly to an entropic effect. The uncovered interaction-dependent ordering properties may be useful for the design of nanostructured materials utilizing the self-organization of two-dimensional nanocluster arrays in the close-packed interfaces.

  9. A Case Study of Form-Based Solutions for Watershed Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Hannah E.; Bendor, Todd K.

    2010-09-01

    Despite an array of policies at the federal and state level aimed at regulating stormwater discharges, engineered solutions enforced by local governments often fall short of meeting water quality standards. Although the implications of land use planning and development regulations are important for stormwater management, they are often overlooked as critical initial steps to improving water quality. This study explores the role of ‘form-based’ regulations as tools for achieving urban planning and water quality objectives. Form-based codes are a new generation of development codes aimed at regulating urban development based on urban form and density, rather than land use. We present an exploratory case study of the feasibility of form-based codes in the Jordan Lake Watershed in North Carolina, a rapidly growing region where fragmented local governments face stringent nutrient reduction standards under new state regulations. Through program analysis and interviews, we explore the viability of form-based codes for reducing development impacts on Jordan Lake’s water quality. We consider the legal feasibility of code enforcement, regional and local barriers and opportunities, and implementation given existing regulatory frameworks. Our findings suggest that high quality information and data modeling are foundational to gaining support for a consensus agreement on the sources and degree of water quality impairment. Furthermore, implementing form-based solutions for water quality is greatly aided by (1) experienced regional planning bodies that have regulatory authority, and (2) local governments whose staff are experienced in implementing complex development ordinances, reviewing architectural renderings, and communicating development requirements with the public and developers.

  10. Exact solution to the problem of N bodies forming a multi-layer rotating structure.

    PubMed

    Smulsky, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Exact solutions to the problem of the Newtonian gravitational interaction of N material points moving around N 2 concentric circular orbits are considered. Each circular orbit contains N 3 axisymmetrically located bodies having identical masses. The structure as a whole rotates around its symmetry axis. Such structures are identical to the homographic-dynamics configurations, or planar central configurations, known from literature. Conceptually, those structures can be considered as structures formed by mutually embedded polygons with point bodies placed at polygon vortices. For structures involving less than 20 bodies, solutions were obtained using Hamiltonian-mechanics methods. In the study, the forces acting on each body in the rotating structure from the side of all other bodies were found. The differential motion equations of the bodies were reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations for the body masses. Solutions in various forms were obtained. For specifying the initial parameters and for calculating all other characteristics of the structures, a computer program RtCrcSt2.for has been developed. Structures comprising up to one million bodies have been calculated. Graphical images of obtained structures are presented, and their properties are described. Stability problems for examined structures are considered, and possible application of obtained results to celestial- and space-mechanics problems is discussed.

  11. Amorphization within the tablet: Using microwave irradiation to form a glass solution in situ.

    PubMed

    Doreth, Maria; Hussein, Murtadha Abdul; Priemel, Petra A; Grohganz, Holger; Holm, René; Lopez de Diego, Heidi; Rades, Thomas; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2017-03-15

    In situ amorphization is a concept that allows to amorphize a given drug in its final dosage form right before administration. Hence, this approach can potentially be used to circumvent recrystallization issues that other amorphous formulation approaches are facing during storage. In this study, the feasibility of microwave irradiation to prepare amorphous solid dispersions (glass solutions) in situ was investigated. Indomethacin (IND) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K12 (PVP) were tableted at a 1:2 (w/w) ratio. In order to study the influence of moisture content and energy input on the degree of amorphization, tablet formulations were stored at different relative humidity (32, 43 and 54% RH) and subsequently microwaved using nine different power-time combinations up to a maximum energy input of 90kJ. XRPD results showed that up to 80% (w/w) of IND could be amorphized within the tablet. mDSC measurements revealed that with increasing microwaving power and time, the fractions of crystalline IND and amorphous PVP reduced, whereas the amount of in situ formed IND-PVP glass solution increased. Intrinsic dissolution showed that the dissolution rate of the microwaved solid dispersion was similar to that of a quench cooled, fully amorphous glass solution even though the microwaved samples contained residual crystalline IND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Closed-form REML estimators and sample size determination for mixed effects models for repeated measures under monotone missingness.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongqiang

    2017-02-22

    We derive the closed-form restricted maximum likelihood estimator and Kenward-Roger's variance estimator for fixed effects in the mixed effects model for repeated measures (MMRM) when the missing data pattern is monotone. As an important application of the analytic result, we present the formula for calculating the power of treatment comparison using the Wald t-test with the Kenward-Roger adjusted variance estimate in MMRM. It allows adjustment for baseline covariates without the need to specify the covariate distribution in randomized trials. A simple two-step procedure is proposed to determine the sample size needed to achieve the targeted power. The proposed method performs well for both normal and moderately non-normal data even in small samples (n=20) in simulations. An antidepressant trial is analyzed for illustrative purposes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Solid state forms of 4-aminoquinaldine - From void structures with and without solvent inclusion to close packing.

    PubMed

    Braun, Doris E; Gelbrich, Thomas; Kahlenberg, Volker; Griesser, Ulrich J

    2015-03-28

    Polymorphs of 4-aminoquinaldine (4-AQ) have been predicted in silico and experimentally identified and characterised. The two metastable forms, AH (anhydrate) II and AH III, crystallise in the trigonal space group [Formula: see text] and are less densely packed than the thermodynamically most stable phase AH I° (P21/c ). AH II can crystallise and exist both, as a solvent inclusion compound and as an unsolvated phase. The third polymorph, AH III, is exclusively obtained by desolvation of a carbon tetrachloride solvate. Theoretical calculations correctly estimated the experimental 0K stability order, confirmed that AH II can exist without solvents, gave access to the AH III structure, and identified that there exists a subtle balance between close packing and number of hydrogen bonding interactions in the solid state of anhydrous 4-AQ. Furthermore, the prevalence of void space and solvent inclusion in [Formula: see text] structures is discussed.

  14. Close-form expression of one-tap normalized LMS carrier phase recovery in optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianhua; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-10-01

    The performance of long-haul high speed coherent optical fiber communication systems is significantly degraded by the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN). In this paper, the analysis of the one-tap normalized least-mean-square (LMS) carrier phase recovery (CPR) is carried out and the close-form expression is investigated for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) coherent optical fiber communication systems, in compensating both laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise. Numerical simulations have also been implemented to verify the theoretical analysis. It is found that the one-tap normalized least-mean-square algorithm gives the same analytical expression for predicting CPR bit-error-rate (BER) floors as the traditional differential carrier phase recovery, when both the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise are taken into account.

  15. Closed-form equations for the lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients of airfoil sections in subsonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Closed-form equations for the lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients of two dimensional airfoil sections in steady subsonic flow were obtained from published theoretical and experimental results. A turbulent boundary layer was assumed to exist on the airfoil surfaces. The effects of section angle of attack, Mach number, Reynolds number, and the specific airfoil type were considered. The equations were applicable through an angle of attack range of -180 deg to +180 deg; however, above about + or - 20 deg, the section characteristics were assumed to be functions only of angle of attack. A computer program is presented which evaluates the equations for a range of Mach numbers and angles of attack. Calculated results for the NACA 23012 airfoil section were compared with experimental data.

  16. The soil water characteristic as new class of closed-form parametric expressions for the flow duration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadegh, M.; Vrugt, J. A.; Gupta, H. V.; Xu, C.

    2016-04-01

    The flow duration curve is a signature catchment characteristic that depicts graphically the relationship between the exceedance probability of streamflow and its magnitude. This curve is relatively easy to create and interpret, and is used widely for hydrologic analysis, water quality management, and the design of hydroelectric power plants (among others). Several mathematical expressions have been proposed to mimic the FDC. Yet, these efforts have not been particularly successful, in large part because available functions are not flexible enough to portray accurately the functional shape of the FDC for a large range of catchments and contrasting hydrologic behaviors. Here, we extend the work of Vrugt and Sadegh (2013) and introduce several commonly used models of the soil water characteristic as new class of closed-form parametric expressions for the flow duration curve. These soil water retention functions are relatively simple to use, contain between two to three parameters, and mimic closely the empirical FDCs of 430 catchments of the MOPEX data set. We then relate the calibrated parameter values of these models to physical and climatological characteristics of the watershed using multivariate linear regression analysis, and evaluate the regionalization potential of our proposed models against those of the literature. If quality of fit is of main importance then the 3-parameter van Genuchten model is preferred, whereas the 2-parameter lognormal, 3-parameter GEV and generalized Pareto models show greater promise for regionalization.

  17. Trace organic solutes in closed-loop forward osmosis applications: influence of membrane fouling and modeling of solute build-up.

    PubMed

    D'Haese, Arnout; Le-Clech, Pierre; Van Nevel, Sam; Verbeken, Kim; Cornelissen, Emile R; Khan, Stuart J; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2013-09-15

    In this study, trace organics transport in closed-loop forward osmosis (FO) systems was assessed. The FO systems considered, consisted of an FO unit and a nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) unit, with the draw solution circulating between both units. The rejection of trace organics by FO, NF and RO was tested. It was found that the rejection rates of FO were generally comparable with NF and lower than RO rejection rates. To assess the influence of fouling in FO on trace organics rejection, FO membranes were fouled with sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin or by biofilm growth, after which trace organics rejection was tested. A negative influence of fouling on FO rejection was found which was limited in most cases, while it was significant for some compounds such as paracetamol and naproxen, indicating specific compound-foulant interactions. The transport mechanism of trace organics in FO was tested, in order to differentiate between diffusive and convective transport. The concentration of trace organics in the final product water and the build-up of trace organics in the draw solution were modeled assuming the draw solution was reconcentrated by NF/RO and taking into account different transport mechanisms for the FO membrane and different rejection rates by NF/RO. Modeling results showed that if the FO rejection rate is lower than the RO rejection rate (as is the case for most compounds tested), the added value of the FO-RO cycle compared to RO only at steady-state was small for diffusively and negative for convectively transported trace organics. Modeling also showed that trace organics accumulate in the draw solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On the Shape of Meissner Solutions to a Limiting Form of Ginzburg-Landau Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Xingfei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we study a semilinear system involving the curl operator, which is a limiting form of the Ginzburg-Landau model for superconductors in R^3 for a large value of the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. We consider the locations of the maximum points of the magnitude of solutions, which are associated with the nucleation of instability of the Meissner state for superconductors when the applied magnetic field is increased in the transition between the Meissner state and the vortex state. For small penetration depth, we prove that the location is not only determined by the tangential component of the applied magnetic field, but also by the normal curvatures of the boundary in some directions. This improves the result obtained by Bates and Pan in Commun. Math. Phys. 276, 571-610 (2007). We also show that the solutions decay exponentially in the normal direction away from the boundary if the penetration depth is small.

  19. Systemic study on fluorescent switching systems composed of naphthopyran and benzimidazole in solution and film forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi; Wang, Guang; Wang, Mingxin

    2016-07-01

    The fluorescent photo-switching systems were prepared based on fluorescent benzimidazole and photochromic naphthopyran. Naphthopyran in this systems displayed excellent photochromic performance in tetrahydrofuran solutions and in PMMA films. The fluorescent emission of benzimidazole was modulated between "on" and "off" via the photoisomerization of naphthopyran in high-contrast due to the photoinduced energy transfer from benzimidazole to the open-form naphthopyran. Both the fluorescent photoswitching and the photochromism of benzimidazole-naphthopyran dyads in solutions and films displayed excellent fatigue resistance. The spaces between benzimidazole and naphthopyran affect the absorbance and fluorescence spectra of benzimidazole-naphthopyran dyads. The non-destructive readout ability of synthesized dyads in doped PMMA film was achieved.

  20. Novel injectable neutral solutions of chitosan form biodegradable gels in situ.

    PubMed

    Chenite, A; Chaput, C; Wang, D; Combes, C; Buschmann, M D; Hoemann, C D; Leroux, J C; Atkinson, B L; Binette, F; Selmani, A

    2000-11-01

    A novel approach to provide, thermally sensitive neutral solutions based on chitosan/polyol salt combinations is described. These formulations possess a physiological pH and can be held liquid below room temperature for encapsulating living cells and therapeutic proteins; they form monolithic gels at body temperature. When injected in vivo the liquid formulations turn into gel implants in situ. This system was used successfully to deliver biologically active growth factors in vivo as well as an encapsulating matrix for living chondrocytes for tissue engineering applications. This study reports for the first time the use of polymer/polyol salt aqueous solutions as gelling systems, suggesting the discovery of a prototype for a new family of thermosetting gels highly compatible with biological compounds.

  1. Adsorption of micelle-forming surfactants from aqueous solutions on disperse titanium boride

    SciTech Connect

    Grodskii, A.S.; Komleva, E.A.; Frolov, Yu.G.

    1988-08-10

    Adsorption studies showed that nonionogenic and cationic surfactants are adsorbed on the surface of disperse titanium boride. Anionic surfactants are virtually not adsorbed due to the negative charge of the particles. It was found that in the region of low concentrations of surfactants in the solution, adsorption of Sintanols takes place in lyophobic regions and the surface of the particles becomes hydrophilic. The Sintamid molecules are adsorbed on the entire interface, including both hydrophobic and hydrophilic sections, with subsequent formation of bimolecular layers by adsorption on hydrophobic sections. Catamine-AB is adsorbed on hydrophilic sections of the surface also with the formation of bimolecular layers. Developed polymolecular layers up to 10-15 nm thick are formed on titanium boride particles from micellar solutions of nonionigenic and cationic surfactants.

  2. Electrostatics promotes molecular crowding and selects the aggregation pathway in fibril-forming protein solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccosta, S.; Blanco, M.; J. Roberts, C.; Martorana, V.; Manno, M.

    2016-05-01

    The role of intermolecular interaction in fibril-forming protein solutions and its relation with molecular conformation are crucial aspects for the control and inhibition of amyloid structures. Here, we study the fibril formation and the protein-protein interactions for two proteins at acidic p H, lysozyme and α -chymotrypsinogen. By using light scattering experiments and the Kirkwood-Buff integral approach, we show how concentration fluctuations are damped even at moderate protein concentrations by the dominant long-ranged electrostatic repulsion, which determines an effective crowded environment. In denaturing conditions, electrostatic repulsion keeps the monomeric solution in a thermodynamically metastable state, which is escaped through kinetically populated conformational sub-states. This explains how electrostatics acts as a gatekeeper in selecting a specific aggregation pathway.

  3. Deproteinized natural rubber film forming polymeric solutions for nicotine transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Pichayakorn, Wiwat; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Boonme, Prapaporn; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Taweepreda, Wirach; Ritthidej, Garnpimol C

    2013-01-01

    Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with dibutylphthalate or glycerine used as plasticizers. These formulations were easily prepared by simple mixing. In a preliminary step, in situ films were prepared by solvent evaporation in a Petri-dish. Their mechanical and physicochemical properties were determined. The in vitro release and skin permeation of nicotine dissolved in these blended polymers were investigated by a modified Franz diffusion cell. The formulations had a white milky appearance, and were homogeneous and smooth in texture. Their pH was suitable for usage in skin contact. The mechanical property of in situ films depended on the ingredients but all compatible films were in an amorphous phase. The DNRL/PVA was shown to be the most suitable mixture to form completed films. The in vitro release and skin permeation studies demonstrated a biphasic release that provided an initial rapid release followed by a constant release rate that fitted the Higuchi's model. Nicotine loaded DNRL/PVA series were selected for the stability test for 3 months. These formulations needed to be kept at 4°C in tight fitting containers. In conclusion, film forming polymeric solutions could be developed for transdermal nicotine delivery systems.

  4. Properties of edible films based on pullulan-chitosan blended film-forming solutions at different pH

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Influences of solution pH on the properties of pullulan-chitosan blended (Pul-Chi) films and the rheological properties of film-forming solutions were investigated. The extended conformation of chitosan in pH 4.0 solution increased intermolecular interactions with pullulan compared to the more compa...

  5. The closed/open model for lipase activation. Addressing intermediate active forms of fungal enzymes by trapping of conformers in water-restricted environments.

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, H; Bañó, M C; Abad, C

    2001-03-13

    The behavior of prototypic fungal lipases in a water-restricted environment has been investigated by exploiting the reported experimental strategy that allows the trapping (freeze-drying) of the enzyme in the conformation present in aqueous solution and to subsequently assay it in nonaqueous media [Mingarro, I., Abad, C., and Braco, L. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 3308-3312]. We now report, using simple esterification as well as acidolysis (triglycerides as substrates) as nonaqueous model reactions, that the presence of a detergent (n-octyl-beta-glucopyranoside) in the freeze-drying buffer, at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration, generates different catalytically active (kinetically trapped) conformational states of the enzyme. These activated forms exquisitely discriminate between short- and long-chain fatty acids, suggesting that they can be correlated with intermediate conformations of the protein sufficiently open to permit the access of relatively small but not large substrates. Additional data obtained from aqueous solution activity measurements in the presence of detergent revealed that the fungal lipase retains an active conformation induced by high detergent concentration (30 mM) for a long period of time, a 'memory effect', which is stabilized in the absence of a well-defined interface by few detergent molecules. Together these results provide support to a model of lipase action involving several equilibrium states (closed, intermediate, and open), which can be modulated by the composition of the microenvironment, i.e., by the detergent concentration.

  6. Composition-insensitive highly viscous wormlike micellar solutions formed in anionic and cationic surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Aramaki, Kenji; Iemoto, Suzuka; Ikeda, Naoaki; Saito, Keitaro

    2010-01-01

    We investigated phase behavior and rheological properties of aqueous micellar phase formed in water/cocoyl glutamate neutralized with triethanol amine (CGT-n)/hexadecyl trimethylammonium salt (CTAB or CTAC) systems, where n is a degree of neutralization. Micellar phase appears in wide composition range with respect to the surfactant mixing fraction in ternary phase diagrams at 25 degrees C. At high mixing fraction of cationic surfactant in the water/CGT-n/CTAB systems, one can observe a highly viscous micellar phase in which worm-like micelles are expected to form. Contrary to conventional systems in which worm-like micelles are formed, the zero-shear viscosity of the micellar solution in the water/CGT-n/CTAB system with n=1.2 increases with the addition of cationic cosurfactant and once decreases after a maximum, then increases again and decreases after the second maximum. At n=1.5 and 2, highly viscous solution is observed in the relatively wide range of surfactant mixing fraction instead of two maxima of the viscosity curve observed at n=1.2. In the case of CTAC instead of CTAB we can observe narrow composition range for the maximum viscosity. Frequency sweep measurements were performed on the highly viscous samples in the water/CGT-1.5/CTAB system. Typical viscoelastic behavior of worm-like micellar solutions is observed; i.e. the curves of storage (G') and loss (G") moduli make a crossover and the data points of G' and G" can be fitted to the Maxwell model. Relaxation time against the mixing fraction of two surfactants behaves similarly to the zero-shear viscosity change, whereas the plateau modulus continuously increases in the plateau region for the zero-shear viscosity curve.

  7. Study on closed recycling regeneration process of FeCl3 waste etching solution and recovery of Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X. F.; Zhou, X. T.; Wang, R. X.; Zhai, D. H.; Ran, H. H.

    2016-08-01

    FeCl3 etching solution is widely used in etching processes due to its strong oxidation and corrosion properties. However, significant amounts of waste etching solution is produced, which pollutes the environment and wastes materials. Aiming to address problems related to the use of recycled FeCl3 waste etching solution containing Cu, the crystallization regeneration process in an enterprise was improved and the copper element was recovered in the form of copper chloride crystal. Based on the original process, a hydrocyclone was added to preseparate the slurry. By investigating the change of the inlet flow rate and separation efficiency of the hydrocyclone with inlet pressure under different concentrations, the optimal inlet pressure was determined to be approximately 0.25Mpa. Experimental results indicated that the workload of the centrifuge was reduced by approximately 80%, the average specific surface area of the copper chloride crystal was decreased by 50%, the production of copper chloride crystal byproducts after washing process was increased by approximately 20% and regeneration of FeCl3 waste etching solution was also realized.

  8. A Systematic Approach for Multidimensional, Closed-Form Analytic Modeling: Effective Intrinsic Carrier Concentrations in Ga 1-x Al x As Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Herbert S; Filliben, James J

    2002-01-01

    A critical issue identified in both the technology roadmap from the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association and the roadmaps from the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Inc. is the need for predictive computer simulations of processes, devices, and circuits. The goal of this paper is to respond to this need by representing the extensive amounts of theoretical data for transport properties in the multi-dimensional space of mole fractions of AlAs in Ga1- x Al x As, dopant densities, and carrier densities in terms of closed form analytic expressions. Representing such data in terms of closed-form analytic expressions is a significant challenge that arises in developing computationally efficient simulations of microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we present a methodology to achieve the above goal for a class of numerical data in the bounded two-dimensional space of mole fraction of AlAs and dopant density. We then apply this methodology to obtain closed-form analytic expressions for the effective intrinsic carrier concentrations at 300 K in n-type and p-type Ga1- x Al x As as functions of the mole fraction x of AlAs between 0.0 and 0.3. In these calculations, the donor density N D for n-type material varies between 10(16) cm(-3) and 10(19) cm(-3) and the acceptor density N A for p-type materials varies between 10(16) cm(-3) and 10(20) cm(-3). We find that p-type Ga1- x Al x As presents much greater challenges for obtaining acceptable analytic fits whenever acceptor densities are sufficiently near the Mott transition because of increased scatter in the numerical computer results for solutions to the theoretical equations. The Mott transition region in p-type Ga1- x Al x As is of technological significance for mobile wireless communications systems. This methodology and its associated principles, strategies, regression analyses, and graphics are expected to be applicable to other problems beyond the specific case of effective

  9. A Systematic Approach for Multidimensional, Closed-Form Analytic Modeling: Effective Intrinsic Carrier Concentrations in Ga1−xAlxAs Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Herbert S.; Filliben, James J.

    2002-01-01

    A critical issue identified in both the technology roadmap from the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association and the roadmaps from the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Inc. is the need for predictive computer simulations of processes, devices, and circuits. The goal of this paper is to respond to this need by representing the extensive amounts of theoretical data for transport properties in the multi-dimensional space of mole fractions of AlAs in Ga1−xAlxAs, dopant densities, and carrier densities in terms of closed form analytic expressions. Representing such data in terms of closed-form analytic expressions is a significant challenge that arises in developing computationally efficient simulations of microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we present a methodology to achieve the above goal for a class of numerical data in the bounded two-dimensional space of mole fraction of AlAs and dopant density. We then apply this methodology to obtain closed-form analytic expressions for the effective intrinsic carrier concentrations at 300 K in n-type and p-type Ga1−xAlxAs as functions of the mole fraction x of AlAs between 0.0 and 0.3. In these calculations, the donor density ND for n-type material varies between 1016 cm−3 and 1019 cm−3 and the acceptor density NA for p-type materials varies between 1016 cm−3 and 1020 cm−3. We find that p-type Ga1−xAlxAs presents much greater challenges for obtaining acceptable analytic fits whenever acceptor densities are sufficiently near the Mott transition because of increased scatter in the numerical computer results for solutions to the theoretical equations. The Mott transition region in p-type Ga1−xAlxAs is of technological significance for mobile wireless communications systems. This methodology and its associated principles, strategies, regression analyses, and graphics are expected to be applicable to other problems beyond the specific case of effective intrinsic carrier

  10. Corrosion resistance, chemistry, and mechanical aspects of Nitinol surfaces formed in hydrogen peroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Shabalovskaya, Svetlana A; Anderegg, James W; Undisz, Andreas; Rettenmayr, Markus; Rondelli, Gianni C

    2012-08-01

    Ti oxides formed naturally on Nitinol surfaces are only a few nanometers thick. To increase their thickness, heat treatments are explored. The resulting surfaces exhibit poor resistance to pitting corrosion. As an alternative approach to accelerate surface oxidation and grow thicker oxides, the exposure of Nitinol to strong oxidizing H(2)O(2) aqueous solutions (3 and 30%) for various periods of time was used. Using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger spectroscopy, it was found that the surface layers with variable Ti (6-15 at %) and Ni (5-13 at %) contents and the thickness up to 100 nm without Ni-enriched interfaces could be formed. The response of the surface oxides to stress in superelastic regime of deformations depended on oxide thickness. In the corrosion studies performed in both strained and strain-free states using potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarizations, the surfaces treated in H(2)O(2) showed no pitting in corrosive solution that was assigned to higher chemical homogeneity of the surfaces free of secondary phases and inclusions that assist better biocompatibility of Nitinol medical devices. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Rapid pain relief using transdermal film forming polymeric solution of ketorolac.

    PubMed

    Ammar, H O; Ghorab, M; Mahmoud, A A; Makram, T S; Ghoneim, A M

    2013-01-01

    Ketorolac is one of the most potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and is an attractive alternative to opioids for pain management. Development and evaluation of transdermal ketorolac film forming polymeric solution. Eudragits(®) RLPO, RSPO and E100 as well as polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 dissolved in ethanol were used as film forming solutions. In vitro experiments were conducted to optimize formulation parameters. Different permeation enhancers were monitored for potentiality of enhancing drug permeation across excised pigskin. The use of 10% oleic acid, Lauroglycol(®) 90 or Azone(®) with 5% Eudragit(®) RSPO, showed the highest enhancement effect on ketorolac skin permeation and showed faster analgesic effect compared to the ketorolac tablet. The formula comprising 5% Eudragit(®) RSPO and 10% Lauroglycol(®) 90 showed the greatest pharmacodynamic effect and thus was subjected to pharmacokinetic studies. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic results didn't run paralleled to each other, as the ketorolac tablets showed higher plasma concentrations compared to the selected ketorolac transdermal formulation. This might be due to the induction of analgesia by the available ethanol in the transdermal preparation. Optimized transdermal ketorolac formulation showed marked ability to ensure fast and augmented analgesic effect that is an essential request in pain management.

  12. Effect of pirenzepine ophthalmic solution on form-deprivation myopia in the guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Le, Qi-hua; Cheng, Neng-neng; Wu, Wei; Chu, Ren-yuan

    2005-04-05

    Nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine, was believed to inhibit myopic progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy, through topical administration, of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine in preventing experimentally induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs. Fifty-three guinea pigs, which underwent monocular deprivation with their eyelids sutured, were divided into 6 groups. Three groups were treated with 1%, 2% or 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solutions; the fourth group with atropine; the fifth with saline and the last group left untreated. Ocular refraction, in vivo biometric measurements and wet eye weight were collected before and after the experiment. All the eyes were finally enucleated for histopathological examination to evaluate the possible toxic effects on ocular structures. Animals untreated or treated with saline produced (-2.31+/-1.47) D and (-2.25+/-0.88) D of axial myopia respectively. Those treated with 1% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution produced relative myopia of (-1.63+/-0.48) D, and those under the treatment of 2% and 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution only developed a relative myopia of (-0.89+/-0.42) D and (-0.70+/-0.41) D (F=9.56, P<0.05). The significant reduction in myopia in 2% and 4% pirenzepine treated animals was caused by significantly less vitreous chamber elongation and axial elongation of the deprived eyes [2% group: (0.009+/-0.052) mm, 4% group: (0.006+/-0.078) mm] when compared with untreated, saline treated or 1% pirenzepine treated guinea pigs (0.057+/-0.056) mm, (0.064+/-0.053) mm and (0.033+/-0.035) mm, respectively]. Histological examinations revealed no obviously toxic effects on the eyes treated with pirenzepine. Topical administration of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, can prevent induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs by inhibiting axial elongation without obvious damage to ocular tissues.

  13. Periocular Tissue Concentrations of Propranolol after Ocular Instillation of a Gel-Forming Solution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Michael B; Liu, Hongzhuo; Li, S Kevin; Hao, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of propranolol in periocular tissues and plasma after ocular instillation of 0.5% propranolol gel-forming solution (GFS) as compared to 0.5% propranolol non-gelforming solution (non-GFS) for potential use in the treatment of periocular capillary hemangiomas. A GFS prepared in 1% sodium alginate or a non-GFS in phosphatebuffered saline was instilled into the eyes of rabbits. At predetermined time intervals after dosing, blood was withdrawn, rabbits were euthanized, and periocular tissues were dissected. Ocular instillation of the GFS resulted in higher concentrations of propranolol in the outer layers of both the upper and lower eyelids (in the range of 9.9-36.9 μg/g) and maintained higher levels of propranolol in these tissues for 24 h after dosing, as compared to the ocular instillation of the non-GFS (in the range of 3.4-15.1 μg/g). While the concentrations of propranolol in the other periocular tissues were generally similar for GFS and non-GFS at 1 h after dosing, the concentrations of propranolol in the extraocular muscles and periocular fat were higher for GFS than those for non-GFS between 4-24 h after dosing. Lower level of propranolol in plasma was observed at 1 h with GFS as compared with non-GFS. The use of the propranolol gel-forming solution can prolong drug retention on the ocular surface and increase its distribution to the outer layers of the eyelids while decreasing systemic exposure to the drug.

  14. Closed form expressions for sheet resistance and mobility from Van-der-Pauw measurement on 90° symmetric devices with four arbitrary contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausserlechner, Udo

    2016-02-01

    Sheet resistance and Hall mobility are commonly measured by Van der Pauw's method. Closed form expressions are known for four point-sized contacts. Recently, for devices with fourfold rotational symmetry a closed form expression for the sheet resistance was given for contacts of arbitrary size. In this paper we discuss its accuracy, link it to the equivalent circuit diagram of the device, and add another expression that determines the Hall mobility with 0.02% accuracy.

  15. Formulation and experimental evaluation of closed-form control laws for the rapid maneuvering of reactor neutronic power

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, J.A. . Nuclear Reactor Lab.)

    1989-09-01

    This report describes both the theoretical development and the experimental evaluation of a novel, robust methodology for the time-optimal adjustment of a reactor's neutronic power under conditions of closed-loop digital control. Central to the approach are the MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws' which determine the rate at which reactivity should be changed in order to cause a reactor's neutronic power to conform to a specified trajectory. Using these laws, reactor power can be safely raised by five to seven orders of magnitude in a few seconds. The MIT-SNL laws were developed to facilitate rapid increases of neutronic power on spacecraft reactors operating in an SDI environment. However, these laws are generic and have other applications including the rapid recovery of research and test reactors subsequent to an unanticipated shutdown, power increases following the achievement of criticality on commercial reactors, power adjustments on commercial reactors so as to minimize thermal stress, and automated startups. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the Sandia National Laboratories. Support was also provided by the US Department of Energy's Division of University and Industry Programs. The work described in this report is significant in that a novel solution to the problem of time-optimal control of neutronic power was identified, in that a rigorous description of a reactor's dynamics was derived in that the rate of change of reactivity was recognized as the proper control signal, and in that extensive experimental trials were conducted of these newly developed concepts on actual nuclear reactors. 43 refs., 118 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Closed-form inverse kinematics for interventional C-arm X-ray imaging with six degrees of freedom: modeling and application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lejing; Fallavollita, Pascal; Zou, Rui; Chen, Xin; Weidert, Simon; Navab, Nassir

    2012-05-01

    For trauma and orthopedic surgery, maneuvering a mobile C-arm fluoroscope into a desired position to acquire an X-ray is a routine surgical task. The precision and ease of use of the C-arm becomes even more important for advanced interventional imaging techniques such as parallax-free X-ray image stitching. Today's standard mobile C-arms have been modeled with only five degrees of freedom (DOF), which definitely restricts their motions in 3-D Cartesian space. In this paper, we present a method to model both the mobile C-arm and patient's table as an integrated kinematic chain having six DOF without constraining table position. The closed-form solutions for the inverse kinematics problem are derived in order to obtain the required values for all C-arm joint and table movements to position the fluoroscope at a desired pose. The modeling method and the closed-form solutions can be applied to general isocentric or nonisocentric mobile C-arms. By achieving this we develop an efficient and intuitive inverse kinematics-based method for parallax-free panoramic X-ray imaging. In addition, we implement a 6-DOF C-arm system from a low-cost mobile fluoroscope to optimally acquire X-ray images based solely on the computation of the required movement for each joint by solving the inverse kinematics on a continuous basis. Through simulation experimentation, we demonstrate that the 6-DOF C-arm model has a larger working space than the 5-DOF model. C-arm repositioning experiments show the practicality and accuracy of our 6-DOF C-arm system. We also evaluate the novel parallax-free X-ray stitching method on phantom and dry bones. Using five trials, results show that parallax-free panoramas generated by our method are of high visual quality and within clinical tolerances for accurate evaluation of long bone geometry (i.e., image and metric measurement errors are less than 1% compared to ground-truth).

  17. A copula-based closed-form binary logit choice model for accommodating spatial correlation across observational units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Chandra R.; Sener, Ipek N.

    2009-09-01

    This study focuses on accommodating spatial dependency in data indexed by geographic location. In particular, the emphasis is on accommodating spatial error correlation across observational units in binary discrete choice models. We propose a copula-based approach to spatial dependence modeling based on a spatial logit structure rather than a spatial probit structure. In this approach, the dependence between the logistic error terms of different observational units is directly accommodated using a multivariate logistic distribution based on the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstein (FGM) copula. The approach represents a simple and powerful technique that results in a closed-form analytic expression for the joint probability of choice across observational units, and is straightforward to apply using a standard and direct maximum likelihood inference procedure. There is no simulation machinery involved, leading to substantial computation gains relative to current methods to address spatial correlation. The approach is applied to teenagers’ physical activity participation levels, a subject of considerable interest in the public health, transportation, sociology, and adolescence development fields. The results indicate that failing to accommodate heteroscedasticity and spatial correlation can lead to inconsistent and inefficient parameter estimates, as well as incorrect conclusions regarding the elasticity effects of exogenous variables.

  18. Closely related form I ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase molecules that possess different CO2/O2 substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Horken, K M; Tabita, F R

    1999-01-15

    The deduced primary sequence (cbbL and cbbS) of form I ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) from Bradyrhizobium japonicum places this enzyme within the Type IC subgroup of red-like rubisco enzymes. In addition, B. japonicum appears to organize most of the structural genes of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) pathway in at least one major operon. Functional expression and characterization of the B. japonicum and Xanthobacter flavus enzymes from this group revealed that these molecules exhibit diverse kinetic properties despite their relatively high degree of sequence relatedness. Of prime importance was the fact that these closely related enzymes exhibited CO2 and O2 substrate specificities that varied from relatively low values [tau = (VcKo)/(VoKc) = 45] to values that approximated those obtained for higher plants (tau = 75). These results, combined with the metabolic and genetic versatility of the organisms from which these enzymes were derived, suggest a potential rich resource for future biological selection and structure-function studies aimed at elucidating structural features that govern key enzymological properties of rubisco.

  19. Exact model reduction with delays: closed-form distributions and extensions to fully bi-directional monomolecular reactions.

    PubMed

    Leier, Andre; Barrio, Manuel; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T

    2014-06-06

    In order to systematically understand the qualitative and quantitative behaviour of chemical reaction networks, scientists must derive and analyse associated mathematical models. However, biochemical systems are often very large, with reactions occurring at multiple time scales, as evidenced by signalling pathways and gene expression kinetics. Owing to the associated computational costs, it is then many times impractical, if not impossible, to solve or simulate these systems with an appropriate level of detail. By consequence, there is a growing interest in developing techniques for the simplification or reduction of complex biochemical systems. Here, we extend our recently presented methodology on exact reduction of linear chains of reactions with delay distributions in two ways. First, we report that it is now possible to deal with fully bi-directional monomolecular systems, including degradations, synthesis and generalized bypass reactions. Second, we provide all derivations of associated delays in analytical, closed form. Both advances have a major impact on further reducing computational costs, while still retaining full accuracy. Thus, we expect our new methodology to respond to current simulation needs in pharmaceutical, chemical and biological research.

  20. Closed-form equation to estimate the dielectric properties of biological tissues as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Beadaa; Bialkowski, Konstanty; Abbosh, Amin; Mills, Paul C; Bradley, Andrew P

    2017-09-01

    Developing microwave systems for biomedical applications requires accurate dielectric properties of biological tissues for reliable modeling before prototyping and subject testing. Dielectric properties of tissues decrease with age due to the change in their water content, but there are no detailed age-dependent data, especially for young tissue-like newborns, in the literature. In this article, an age-dependent formula to predict the dielectric properties of biological tissues was derived. In the proposed method, the variation of water concentration in each type of tissue as a function of age was used to calculate its relative permittivity and conductivity. The derived formula shows that the concentration of water in each tissue type can be modeled as a negative exponential function of age. The dielectric properties of each tissue type can then be calculated as a function of the dielectric properties of water and dielectric properties of the organ forming the tissue and its water concentration. The derived formula was used to generate the dielectric properties of several types of human tissues at different ages using the dielectric properties of a human adult. Moreover, the formula was validated on pig tissues of different ages. A close agreement was achieved between the calculated and measured data with a maximum difference of only 2%. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:474-481, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Method of Forming a Composite Coating with Particle Materials that are Readily Dispersed in a Sprayable Polyimide Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Sang Q. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method for creating a composite form of coating from a sprayable solution of soluble polyimides and particle materials that are uniformly dispersed within the solution is described. The coating is formed by adding a soluble polyimide to a solvent, then stirring particle materials into the solution. The composite solution is sprayed onto a substrate and heated in an oven for a period of time in order to partially remove the solvent. The process may be repeated until the desired thickness or characteristic of the coating is obtained. The polyimide is then heated to at least 495 F, so that it is no longer soluble.

  2. Thrombin-binding DNA aptamer forms a unimolecular quadruplex structure in solution.

    PubMed Central

    Macaya, R F; Schultze, P; Smith, F W; Roe, J A; Feigon, J

    1993-01-01

    We have used two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy to study the conformation of the thrombin-binding aptamer d(GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG) in solution. This is one of a series of thrombin-binding DNA aptamers with a consensus 15-base sequence that was recently isolated and shown to inhibit thrombin-catalyzed fibrin clot formation in vitro [Bock, L. C., Griffin, L. C., Latham, J. A., Vermaas, E. H. & Toole, J. J. (1992) Nature (London) 355, 564-566]. The oligonucleotide forms a unimolecular DNA quadruplex consisting of two G-quartets connected by two TT loops and one TGT loop. A potential T.T bp is formed between the two TT loops across the diagonal of the top G-quartet. Thus, all of the invariant bases in the consensus sequence are base-paired. This aptamer structure was determined by NMR and illustrates that this molecule forms a specific folded structure. Knowledge of this structure may be used in the further development of oligonucleotide-based thrombin inhibitors. Images Fig. 6 PMID:8475124

  3. Self-diffraction at a dynamic photonic crystal formed in a colloidal solution of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. M.; Golinskaya, A. D.; Ezhova, K. V.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Dneprovskii, V. S.

    2016-11-01

    Self-diffraction at a one-dimensional dynamic photonic crystal formed in the colloidal solution of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots has been discovered. This self-diffraction appears simultaneously with self-diffraction at induced transparency channels at the resonant excitation of the main electron-hole (excitonic) transition of quantum dots by two laser beams with a Gaussian intensity distribution over the cross section. It is shown that a nonlinear change in the absorption of colloidal quantum dots results in the formation of a transparency channel and an induced amplitude diffraction grating, and a significant nonlinear change in the refractive index (Δ n ≈ 10-3) in the absorbing medium is responsible for the formation of the dynamic photonic crystal. Self-diffracted laser beams are revealed propagating not only in directions corresponding to self-diffraction at the induced diffraction grating but also in directions satisfying the Laue condition.

  4. Euler solutions for blunt bodies using triangular meshes - Artificial viscosity forms and numerical boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterstein, R.; Hafez, M.

    1993-01-01

    A finite volume method is used to calculate compressible inviscid flows over blunt bodies using, in general, unstructured grids. Artificial viscosity forms are derived based on a simplified least squares procedure. The extra second order terms are consistent with the governing equations, hence a systematic treatment of the numerical boundary conditions can be easily implemented. A special treatment of blunt bodies may be required. The discrete equations are linearized and the resulting system is solved by a relaxation method. Preliminary results indicate that the effect of the numerical dissipation is minimal. For subsonic flows over smooth bodies, the solution is practically vorticity-free and the total pressure loss is of the same order as the truncation error. Finally, some extensions of the present method are briefly discussed.

  5. Euler solutions for blunt bodies using triangular meshes - Artificial viscosity forms and numerical boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterstein, R.; Hafez, M.

    1993-01-01

    A finite volume method is used to calculate compressible inviscid flows over blunt bodies using, in general, unstructured grids. Artificial viscosity forms are derived based on a simplified least squares procedure. The extra second order terms are consistent with the governing equations, hence a systematic treatment of the numerical boundary conditions can be easily implemented. A special treatment of blunt bodies may be required. The discrete equations are linearized and the resulting system is solved by a relaxation method. Preliminary results indicate that the effect of the numerical dissipation is minimal. For subsonic flows over smooth bodies, the solution is practically vorticity-free and the total pressure loss is of the same order as the truncation error. Finally, some extensions of the present method are briefly discussed.

  6. Characterization of carbon nanotube thin films formed using electronic-grade carbon nanotube aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuliang; Janzen, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are of great interests for a wide range of applications because of their unique structural, mechanical, electrical, optical, thermal, and chemical properties. Particularly, CNT thin films can be used as mechanically flexible, electrically conductive, and broadband optically transparent electrodes in various optoelectronic devices. However, one crucial obstacle to implementing CNT-based applications has been the unavailability of pure CNTs suitable for direct industrial use. The as-produced CNTs are very fluffy soot, and thus extremely difficult to be handled in the device fabrication process. Although CNTs can be grown directly on a substrate from the catalyst deposited on the substrate surface, the growing temperature is very high, typically > 900°C, which represents a big challenge to device fabrication and integration. Another issue is that the catalyst on the substrate surface must be removed without affecting the grown CNTs. In the raw CNT soot, there is always a considerable amount of impurities, including metallic particles from the catalyst and carbonaceous impurities from the chemical reaction by-products. Such impurities can greatly degrade the properties of CNT thin films. The production of electronic-grade CNT aqueous solutions, which contain only individually suspended pure CNTs without any kind of surfactant, is a critical milestone for implementing CNT-based applications. By using such solutions, pure CNT thin films of various densities can be formed through common solution-casting processes, such as spin coating, spray coating, micro-dispensing, and ink-jet printing. The properties of these pure CNT thin films will be discussed in this paper.

  7. Flexible magnetic nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide composite membranes formed by self-assembly in solution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guoxing; Liu, Yuanjun; Xu, Zheng; Jiang, Tian; Zhang, Chi; Li, Xun; Qi, Gang

    2010-08-02

    A facile and robust route for the pre-synthesized Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) exclusively assembled on both sides of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets with tunable density forming two-dimensional NPs composite membranes is developed in solution. The assembly is driven by electrostatic attraction, and the nanocomposite sheets display considerable mechanical robustness, such as it can sustain supersonic and solvothermal treatments without NPs falling off, also, can freely float in solution and curl into a tube. The obtained two-dimensional composite grain membranes exhibit superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature but responds astutely to an external magnetic field. In addition, these magnetic composite membranes show an enhanced absorption capability for microwaves. The grain sheets are attractive for biomedical, sensors, environmental applications and electric-magnetic devices benefited from large surfaces, high magnetization moment, and superparamagnetic properties. The effective integration of oxide nanocrystals on RGO sheets provides a new way to design semiconductor-carbon nanocomposites for nanodevices or catalytic applications.

  8. Structure and properties of alizarin complex formed with alkali metal hydroxides in methanol solution.

    PubMed

    Jeliński, Tomasz; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Quantum chemical computations were used for prediction of the structure and color of alizarin complex with alkali metal hydroxides in methanolic solutions. The color prediction relying on the single Gaussian-like band once again proved the usefulness of the PBE0 density functional due to the observed smallest color difference between computed and experimentally derived values. It was found that the alkali metal hydroxide molecules can bind to the two oxygen atoms of both hydroxyl groups of alizarin or to one of these atoms and the oxygen atom from the keto group in a complex with three methanol molecules. This means that two electronic transitions need to be taken into account when considering the spectra of the studied complexes. The resulting bond lengths and angles are correlated with the properties of the alkali metal atoms. The molar mass, the atomic radius, and the Pauling electronegativity of studied metals are quite accurate predictors of the geometric properties of hydroxide complexes with alizarin in methanol solution. Graphical abstract The spectra of the neutral and monoanionic form of alizarin together with color changes resulting from addition of different metal hydroxides and represented in CIE color space.

  9. One-parameter families of supersymmetric isospectral potentials from Riccati solutions in function composition form

    SciTech Connect

    Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Chen, Pisin

    2014-04-15

    In the context of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we define a potential through a particular Riccati solution of the composition form (F∘f)(x)=F(f(x)) and obtain a generalized Mielnik construction of one-parameter isospectral potentials when we use the general Riccati solution. Some examples for special cases of F and f are given to illustrate the method. An interesting result is obtained in the case of a parametric double well potential generated by this method, for which it is shown that the parameter of the potential controls the heights of the localization probability in the two wells, and for certain values of the parameter the height of the localization probability can be higher in the smaller well. -- Highlights: •Function-composition generalization of parametric isospectral potentials is presented. •Mielnik one-parameter family of harmonic potentials is obtained as a particular case. •Graphical discussion of regular and singular regions in the parameter space is given.

  10. An empirical correlation between the enthalpy of solution of aqueous salts and their ability to form hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Pandelov, S.; Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pilles, Bert M.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

    2010-09-30

    The ability of aqueous salt solutions to form hydrates by cooling them at ambient pressure is probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy by examining the structure of the spectra in the hydrogen-bonding region (3,000 - 3,800 cm-1). A collection of 75 organic and inorganic salts in saturated solutions are examined. We have found a correlation between the enthalpy of solution of the salt and its ability to form a hydrate, namely that the salt’s enthalpy of solution is lower than the standard enthalpy of fusion of ice (6 kJ/mol). This observation can serve as an empirical rule that determines whether a salt will form a hydrate upon cooling from its aqueous solution.

  11. Physicochemical properties and anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity of film-forming solutions containing alpha-mangostin-rich extract.

    PubMed

    Asasutjarit, Rathapon; Larpmahawong, Papassara; Fuongfuchat, Asira; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Veeranondha, Sukitaya

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of formulation compositions on physicochemical properties and anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity of film-forming solutions containing alpha-mangostin-rich extract (AM). Film-forming solution bases and film-forming solutions containing AM were prepared by using Eudragit RL PO or Klucel LF or combinations of them as film-forming polymers. Rheological properties, pH values of the solutions, and mechanical properties of the dry films were investigated. An optimized formulation was selected and evaluated for the film surface, in vitro AM release, an anti-P. acnes activity, and potential for being a skin irritant. It was found that mechanical properties of the dry films were affected by total polymer contents, ratios of Klucel LF/Eudragit RL PO, AM, and contents of triethyl citrate. The film-forming solutions containing AM had pH values around 7.0. Their flow curves exhibited Newtonian flow behaviors. The optimized formulation provided films possessing smooth and nonporous surfaces. These films showed greater anti-P. acnes activity than their base films without toxicity to skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, AM released from the film matrix obeyed Higuchi's equation. In conclusion, the film-forming solutions containing AM had potential for treatment of acne vulgaris caused by P. acnes. However, further in vivo study is necessary to determine their efficacy and safety for using in patients suffering from acne vulgaris.

  12. Strategies for Small Volume Resuscitation: Hyperosmotic-Hyperoncotic Solutions, Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carriers and Closed-Loop Resuscitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, George C.; Wade, Charles E.; Dubick, Michael A.; Atkins, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Logistic constraints on combat casualty care preclude traditional resuscitation strategies which can require volumes and weights 3 fold or greater than hemorrhaged volume. We present a review of quantitative analyses of clinical and animal data on small volume strategies using 1) hypertonic-hyperosmotic solutions (HHS); 2) hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and 3) closed-loop infusion regimens.Methods and Results: Literature searches and recent queries to industry and academic researchers have allowed us to evaluate the record of 81 human HHS studies (12 trauma trials), 19 human HBOCs studies (3trauma trials) and two clinical studies of closed-loop resuscitation.There are several hundreds animal studies and at least 82 clinical trials and reports evaluating small volume7.2%-7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) most often combined with colloids, e.g., dextran (HSD) or hetastarch(HSS). HSD and HSS data has been published for 1,108 and 392 patients, respectively. Human studies have documented volume sparing and hemodynamic improvements. Meta-analyses suggest improved survival for hypotensive trauma patients treated with HSD with significant reductions in mortality found for patients with blood pressure < 70 mmHg, head trauma, and penetrating injury requiring surgery. HSD and HSS have received regulatory approval in 14 and 3 countries, respectively, with 81,000+ units sold. The primary reported use was head injury and trauma resuscitation. Complications and reported adverse events are surprisingly rare and not significantly different from other solutions.HBOCs are potent volume expanders in addition to oxygen carriers with volume expansion greater than standard colloids. Several investigators have evaluated small volume hyperoncotic HBOCs or HS-HBOC formulations for hypotensive and normotensive resuscitation in animals. A consistent finding in resuscitation with HBOCs is depressed cardiac output. There is some evidence that HBOCs more efficiently unload

  13. Strategies for Small Volume Resuscitation: Hyperosmotic-Hyperoncotic Solutions, Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carriers and Closed-Loop Resuscitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, George C.; Wade, Charles E.; Dubick, Michael A.; Atkins, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Logistic constraints on combat casualty care preclude traditional resuscitation strategies which can require volumes and weights 3 fold or greater than hemorrhaged volume. We present a review of quantitative analyses of clinical and animal data on small volume strategies using 1) hypertonic-hyperosmotic solutions (HHS); 2) hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and 3) closed-loop infusion regimens.Methods and Results: Literature searches and recent queries to industry and academic researchers have allowed us to evaluate the record of 81 human HHS studies (12 trauma trials), 19 human HBOCs studies (3trauma trials) and two clinical studies of closed-loop resuscitation.There are several hundreds animal studies and at least 82 clinical trials and reports evaluating small volume7.2%-7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) most often combined with colloids, e.g., dextran (HSD) or hetastarch(HSS). HSD and HSS data has been published for 1,108 and 392 patients, respectively. Human studies have documented volume sparing and hemodynamic improvements. Meta-analyses suggest improved survival for hypotensive trauma patients treated with HSD with significant reductions in mortality found for patients with blood pressure < 70 mmHg, head trauma, and penetrating injury requiring surgery. HSD and HSS have received regulatory approval in 14 and 3 countries, respectively, with 81,000+ units sold. The primary reported use was head injury and trauma resuscitation. Complications and reported adverse events are surprisingly rare and not significantly different from other solutions.HBOCs are potent volume expanders in addition to oxygen carriers with volume expansion greater than standard colloids. Several investigators have evaluated small volume hyperoncotic HBOCs or HS-HBOC formulations for hypotensive and normotensive resuscitation in animals. A consistent finding in resuscitation with HBOCs is depressed cardiac output. There is some evidence that HBOCs more efficiently unload

  14. Conformational change path between closed and open forms of C2 domain of coagulation factor V on a two-dimensional free-energy surface.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sangwook; Lee, Chang Jun; Pedersen, Lee G

    2009-04-01

    We test a hypothesis that the closed form of the C2 domain of coagulation factor V is more stable than the open form in an aqueous environment using a two-dimensional free-energy calculation with a simple dielectric solvent model. Our result shows that while the free-energy difference between two forms is small, favoring the closed form, a two-dimensional free-energy surface (FES) reveals that a transition state (1.53 kcal/mol) exists between the two conformations. By mapping the one-dimensional order parameter DeltaQ onto the two-dimensional FES, we search the conformational change path with the highest Boltzmann weighting factor between the closed and open form of the factor V C2 domain. The predicted transition path from the closed to open form is not that of simple side chain movements, but instead concerted movements of several loops. We also present a one-dimensional free-energy profile using a collective order parameter, which in a coarse manner locates the energy barriers found on the two-dimensional FES.

  15. Rheology of Film-Forming Solutions Prepared with Modified Banana Starch and Plasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Gómez, Yaritza; Sánchez-Rivera, Mirna; Romero-Bastida, Claudia; González-Soto, Rosalía; Bello-Pérez, Arturo; Solorza-Feria, Javier

    2008-07-01

    The physical properties of edible films depend to a great extent on those of their components; the biopolymer and the plasticizer, which define its physical changes during heat processing and handling. The aim of this work was to determine the rheological profile of film forming solutions (FFS) composed of native and modified (oxidized) banana starch and the plasticizer glycerol. Samples of FFS, composed by 4%(w/w) of native and oxidized banana starch and glycerol (4%(w/w) were prepared. Two types of rheological tests were undertaken using a strain controlled Rheometer TA Instruments, model AR1000, with a cone and plate system, 60 mm of diameter and angle of 2°: a) isothermal oscillatory (amplitude and frequency) tests at 25 °C, 90 °C and once cooled down, at 25 °C. b) temperature sweeps, run as the samples were heated up from 25 °C to 90 °C and also when cooled down to 25 °C. The isothermal tests showed that all pastes produced, behaved as weak viscoelastic gel-like materials, with the elastic modulus (G')> the viscous modulus (G″) over the entire frequency range. The temperature sweeps also showed that all viscoelastic FFS, behaved as mainly elastic materials over the temperature range. Overall, FFS from native starch yielded gels with higher moduli values than those of the oxidized ones.

  16. Solute diffusion through fibrotic tissue formed around protective cage system for implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Prihandana, Gunawan Setia; Ito, Hikaru; Tanimura, Kohei; Yagi, Hiroshi; Hori, Yuki; Soykan, Orhan; Sudo, Ryo; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-08-01

    This article presents the concept of an implantable cage system that can house and protect implanted biomedical sensing and therapeutic devices in the body. Cylinder-shaped cages made of porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sheets with an 80-µm pore size and/or stainless steel meshes with 0.54-mm openings were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region of rats for 5 weeks. Analysis of the explanted cages showed the formation of fibrosis tissue around the cages. PVA cages had fibrotic tissue growing mostly along the outer surface of cages, while stainless steel cages had fibrotic tissue growing into the inside surface of the cage structure, due to the larger porosity of the stainless steel meshes. As the detection of target molecules with short time lags for biosensors and mass transport with low diffusion resistance into and out of certain therapeutic devices are critical for the success of such devices, we examined whether the fibrous tissue formed around the cages were permeable to molecules of our interest. For that purpose, bath diffusion and microfluidic chamber diffusion experiments using solutions containing the target molecules were performed. Diffusion of sodium, potassium and urea through the fibrosis tissue was confirmed, thus suggesting the potential of these cylindrical cages surrounded by fibrosis tissue to successfully encase implantable sensors and therapeutic apparatus.

  17. Carbon enters silica forming a cristobalite-type CO2-SiO2 solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mario; Gorelli, Federico A.; Bini, Roberto; Salamat, Ashkan; Garbarino, Gaston; Levelut, Claire; Cambon, Olivier; Haines, Julien

    2014-04-01

    Extreme conditions permit unique materials to be synthesized and can significantly update our view of the periodic table. In the case of group IV elements, carbon was always considered to be distinct with respect to its heavier homologues in forming oxides. Here we report the synthesis of a crystalline CO2-SiO2 solid solution by reacting carbon dioxide and silica in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (P=16-22 GPa, T>4,000 K), showing that carbon enters silica. Remarkably, this material is recovered to ambient conditions. X-ray diffraction shows that the crystal adopts a densely packed α-cristobalite structure (P41212) with carbon and silicon in fourfold coordination to oxygen at pressures where silica normally adopts a sixfold coordinated rutile-type stishovite structure. An average formula of C0.6(1)Si0.4(1)O2 is consistent with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results. These findings may modify our view on oxide chemistry, which is of great interest for materials science, as well as Earth and planetary sciences.

  18. Carbon enters silica forming a cristobalite-type CO2-SiO2 solid solution.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Gorelli, Federico A; Bini, Roberto; Salamat, Ashkan; Garbarino, Gaston; Levelut, Claire; Cambon, Olivier; Haines, Julien

    2014-04-30

    Extreme conditions permit unique materials to be synthesized and can significantly update our view of the periodic table. In the case of group IV elements, carbon was always considered to be distinct with respect to its heavier homologues in forming oxides. Here we report the synthesis of a crystalline CO2-SiO2 solid solution by reacting carbon dioxide and silica in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (P = 16-22 GPa, T>4,000 K), showing that carbon enters silica. Remarkably, this material is recovered to ambient conditions. X-ray diffraction shows that the crystal adopts a densely packed α-cristobalite structure (P4(1)2(1)2) with carbon and silicon in fourfold coordination to oxygen at pressures where silica normally adopts a sixfold coordinated rutile-type stishovite structure. An average formula of C0.6(1)Si0.4(1)O2 is consistent with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results. These findings may modify our view on oxide chemistry, which is of great interest for materials science, as well as Earth and planetary sciences.

  19. How Closely Related Are Conformations of Protein Ions Sampled by IM-MS to Native Solution Structures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Hua; Russell, David H.

    2015-09-01

    Here, we critically evaluate the effects of changes in the ion internal energy (Eint) on ion-neutral collision cross sections (CCS) of ions of two structurally diverse proteins, specifically the [M + 6H]6+ ion of ubiquitin (ubq6+), the [M + 5H]5+ ion of the intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) apo-metallothionein-2A (MT), and its partially- and fully-metalated isoform, the [CdiMT]5+ ion. The ion-neutral CCS for ions formed by "native-state" ESI show a strong dependence on Eint. Collisional activation is used to increase Eint prior to the ions entering and within the traveling wave (TW) ion mobility analyzer. Comparisons of experimental CCSs with those generated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for solution-phase ions and solvent-free ions as a function of temperature provide new insights about conformational preferences and retention of solution conformations. The Eint-dependent CCSs, which reveal increased conformational diversity of the ion population, are discussed in terms of folding/unfolding of solvent-free ions. For example, ubiquitin ions that have low internal energies retain native-like conformations, whereas ions that are heated by collisional activation possess higher internal energies and yield a broader range of CCS owing to increased conformational diversity due to losses of secondary and tertiary structures. In contrast, the CCS profile for the IDP apoMT is consistent with kinetic trapping of an ion population composed of a wide range of conformers, and as the Eint is increased, these structurally labile conformers unfold to an elongated conformation.

  20. How Closely Related Are Conformations of Protein Ions Sampled by IM-MS to Native Solution Structures?

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Hua; Russell, David H

    2015-09-01

    Here, we critically evaluate the effects of changes in the ion internal energy (E(int)) on ion-neutral collision cross sections (CCS) of ions of two structurally diverse proteins, specifically the [M + 6H](6+) ion of ubiquitin (ubq(6+)), the [M + 5H](5+) ion of the intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) apo-metallothionein-2A (MT), and its partially- and fully-metalated isoform, the [CdiMT](5+) ion. The ion-neutral CCS for ions formed by "native-state" ESI show a strong dependence on E(int). Collisional activation is used to increase E(int) prior to the ions entering and within the traveling wave (TW) ion mobility analyzer. Comparisons of experimental CCSs with those generated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for solution-phase ions and solvent-free ions as a function of temperature provide new insights about conformational preferences and retention of solution conformations. The E(int)-dependent CCSs, which reveal increased conformational diversity of the ion population, are discussed in terms of folding/unfolding of solvent-free ions. For example, ubiquitin ions that have low internal energies retain native-like conformations, whereas ions that are heated by collisional activation possess higher internal energies and yield a broader range of CCS owing to increased conformational diversity due to losses of secondary and tertiary structures. In contrast, the CCS profile for the IDP apoMT is consistent with kinetic trapping of an ion population composed of a wide range of conformers, and as the E(int) is increased, these structurally labile conformers unfold to an elongated conformation.

  1. Structurally functional changes in the microbiota of nutrient solution with addition of liquid human wastes, used for growing plants in a closed ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Borodina, E. V.; Markov, A. A.

    The investigations have proved the dependence of microbial community of nutrient solution development upon the specific conditions of a closed human life-support ecological system: the time of using permanent solution, introduction of additives into the nutrient medium and system gas exchange closure. For the first time, liquid human wastes were introduced into the nutrient solution to increase the mass exchange closure. Correlation analysis revealed the direct dependence between the time of liquid native human excretions introduction into the nutrient solution and the development of organisms participating in nitrogen transformation and growth of microflora potentially dangerous for humans and plants. With the help of correlation analysis it has been determined that particularly close connection exists between the duration of introduction of liquid human wastes and bacteria Escherichia coli, denitrificators, ammonificators and urobacteria. The correlation coefficient for these microbial groups was: r = 0,78. The investigations showed that by the end of experiment the microbial community of nutrient solution fulfilled the role of native urine destructor successfully. Thus, introduction of human native excretions (at 70% substitution of nitrate nitrogen with urine nitrogen) into the nutrient solution used for growing wheat monoculture in a closed ecosystem is possible.

  2. An Alternate Set of Basis Functions for the Electromagnetic Solution of Arbitrarily-Shaped, Three-Dimensional, Closed, Conducting Bodies Using Method of Moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.; Baginski, Michael E.; Rao, Sadasiva M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present an alternate set of basis functions, each defined over a pair of planar triangular patches, for the method of moments solution of electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems associated with arbitrarily-shaped, closed, conducting surfaces. The present basis functions are point-wise orthogonal to the pulse basis functions previously defined. The prime motivation to develop the present set of basis functions is to utilize them for the electromagnetic solution of dielectric bodies using a surface integral equation formulation which involves both electric and magnetic cur- rents. However, in the present work, only the conducting body solution is presented and compared with other data.

  3. Effects of Lugol's iodine solution and formalin on cell volume of three bloom-forming dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Yongfang

    2016-09-01

    Fixatives are traditionally used in marine ecosystem research. The bias introduced by fixatives on the dimensions of plankton cells may lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the carbon biomass. To determine the impact of traditional fixatives on dinoflagellates during short- and long-term fixation, we analyzed the degree of change in three bloom-forming dinoflagellates (Prorocentrum micans, Scrippsiella trochoidea and Noctiluca scintillans) brought about by Lugol's iodine solution (hereafter Lugol's) and formalin. The fixation effects were species-specific. P. micans cell volume showed no significant change following long-term preservation, and S. trochoidea swelled by approximately 8.06% in Lugol's and by 20.97% in formalin as a percentage of the live cell volume, respectively. N. scintillans shrank significantly in both fixatives. The volume change due to formalin in N. scintillans was not concentration-dependent, whereas the volume shrinkage of N. scintillans cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 2% was nearly six-fold that in cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 0.6%-0.8%. To better estimate the volume of N. scintillans fixed in formalin at a concentration of 5%, we suggest that the conversion relationship was as follows: volume of live cell=volume of intact fixed cell/0.61. Apart from size change, damage induced by fixatives on N. scintillans was obvious. Lugol's is not a suitable fixative for N. scintillans due to high frequency of broken cells. Accurate carbon biomass estimate of N. scintillans should be performed on live samples. These findings help to improve the estimate of phytoplankton cell volume and carbon biomass in marine ecosystem.

  4. Effects of Lugol's iodine solution and formalin on cell volume of three bloom-forming dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Yongfang

    2017-07-01

    Fixatives are traditionally used in marine ecosystem research. The bias introduced by fixatives on the dimensions of plankton cells may lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the carbon biomass. To determine the impact of traditional fixatives on dinoflagellates during short- and long-term fixation, we analyzed the degree of change in three bloom-forming dinoflagellates ( Prorocentrum micans, Scrippsiella trochoidea and Noctiluca scintillans) brought about by Lugol's iodine solution (hereafter Lugol's) and formalin. The fixation effects were species-specific. P. micans cell volume showed no significant change following long-term preservation, and S. trochoidea swelled by approximately 8.06% in Lugol's and by 20.97% in formalin as a percentage of the live cell volume, respectively. N. scintillans shrank significantly in both fixatives. The volume change due to formalin in N. scintillans was not concentration-dependent, whereas the volume shrinkage of N. scintillans cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 2% was nearly six-fold that in cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 0.6%-0.8%. To better estimate the volume of N. scintillans fixed in formalin at a concentration of 5%, we suggest that the conversion relationship was as follows: volume of live cell=volume of intact fixed cell/0.61. Apart from size change, damage induced by fixatives on N. scintillans was obvious. Lugol's is not a suitable fixative for N. scintillans due to high frequency of broken cells. Accurate carbon biomass estimate of N. scintillans should be performed on live samples. These findings help to improve the estimate of phytoplankton cell volume and carbon biomass in marine ecosystem.

  5. Modelling size and structure of nanoparticles formed from drying of submicron solution aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A.; Pawar, Amol A.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Mehra, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Drying of submicron solution aerosols, under controlled conditions, has been explored to prepare nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. A computational model of solution drop evaporation is developed to study the evolution of solute gradients inside the drop and predict the size and shell thickness of precipitating nanoparticles. The model considers evaporation as a two-stage process involving droplet shrinkage and shell growth. It was corroborated that droplet evaporation rate controls the solute distribution within a droplet and the resulting particle structure (solid or shell type). At higher gas temperatures, rapid build-up of solute near drop surface from high evaporation rates results in early attainment of critical supersaturation solubility and a steeper solute gradient, which favours formation of larger, shell-type particles. At lower gas temperatures, formation of smaller, solid nanoparticles is indicated. The computed size and shell thickness are in good agreement with experimentally prepared lipid nanoparticles. This study indicates that solid or shell structure of precipitated nanoparticles is strongly affected by evaporation rate, while initial solute concentration in the precursor solution and atomized droplet size affect shell thickness. For the gas temperatures considered, evaporative cooling leads to droplet temperature below the melting point of the lipid solute. Thus, we conclude that control over nanoparticle size and structure, of thermolabile precursor materials suitable for drug delivery, can be achieved by controlling evaporation rates, through selection of aerosol processing conditions.

  6. A Poisson-like closed-form expression for the steady-state wealth distribution in a kinetic model of gambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Jane Bernadette Denise M.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2017-08-01

    An approximate but closed-form expression for a Poisson-like steady state wealth distribution in a kinetic model of gambling was formulated from a finite number of its moments, which were generated from a βa,b(x) exchange distribution. The obtained steady-state wealth distributions have tails which are qualitatively similar to those observed in actual wealth distributions.

  7. Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP): ultra-fast kernel ELM-based classification with non-iterative closed-form weight calculation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Manuel; Cernadas, Eva; Barro, Senén; Ribeiro, Jorge; Neves, José

    2014-02-01

    The Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP) (Fernández-Delgado et al., 2010) is a very simple and fast kernel-based classifier, related to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and to the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) (Huang, Wang, & Lan, 2011), whose α-coefficients are calculated directly, without any iterative training, using an analytical closed-form expression which involves only the training patterns. The DKP, which is inspired by the Direct Parallel Perceptron, (Auer et al., 2008), uses a Gaussian kernel and a linear classifier (perceptron). The weight vector of this classifier in the feature space minimizes an error measure which combines the training error and the hyperplane margin, without any tunable regularization parameter. This weight vector can be translated, using a variable change, to the α-coefficients, and both are determined without iterative calculations. We calculate solutions using several error functions, achieving the best trade-off between accuracy and efficiency with the linear function. These solutions for the α coefficients can be considered alternatives to the ELM with a new physical meaning in terms of error and margin: in fact, the linear and quadratic DKP are special cases of the two-class ELM when the regularization parameter C takes the values C=0 and C=∞. The linear DKP is extremely efficient and much faster (over a vast collection of 42 benchmark and real-life data sets) than 12 very popular and accurate classifiers including SVM, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Adaboost, Random Forest and Bagging of RPART decision trees, Linear Discriminant Analysis, K-Nearest Neighbors, ELM, Probabilistic Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function neural networks and Generalized ART. Besides, despite its simplicity and extreme efficiency, DKP achieves higher accuracies than 7 out of 12 classifiers, exhibiting small differences with respect to the best ones (SVM, ELM, Adaboost and Random Forest), which are much slower. Thus, the DKP provides an easy and fast way

  8. New solutions of the Zakharov's equation system for quantum plasmas in form of nonlinear bursts lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E.; Kitayev, Ilya N.

    2014-02-15

    New multiplicative solutions of the Zakharov's quantum system of equations using the separation of variables method are found. The found solutions are interpreted as spatial-periodical lattices of non-linear plasma bursts. It is shown that the bursts could be both symmetrical and asymmetrical by an electric field.

  9. Properties of a photonic crystal formed in a solution featuring the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, D. A.; Rytik, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that a solution featuring the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) oscillating chemical reaction can exhibit the properties of a photonic crystal with alternating bandgap width. Thicknesses and dielectric permittivities of structural elements in the BR reaction solution have been determined by measuring the reflection and transmission spectra of microwave radiation in the range of 5-8 GHz.

  10. CLOSING THE GAP IN THE SOLUTIONS OF THE STRONG EXPLOSION PROBLEM: AN EXPANSION OF THE FAMILY OF SECOND-TYPE SELF-SIMILAR SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2010-11-01

    Shock waves driven by the release of energy at the center of a cold ideal gas sphere of initial density {rho} {proportional_to} r {sup -}{omega} approach a self-similar behavior, with velocity R-dot {proportional_to}R{sup {delta}}, as R {yields} {infinity}. For {omega}>3 the solutions are second-type solutions, i.e., {delta} is determined by the requirement that the flow should include a sonic point. No solution satisfying this requirement exists, however, in the 3 {<=} {omega} {<=} {omega}{sub g}({gamma}) 'gap' ({omega}{sub g} = 3.26 for adiabatic index {gamma} = 5/3). We argue that in general second-type solutions should not be required to include a sonic point. Rather, it is sufficient to require the existence of a characteristic line r{sub c} (t), such that the energy in the region r{sub c} (t) < r < R approaches a constant as R {yields} {infinity}, and an asymptotic solution given by the self-similar solution at r{sub c} (t) < r < R and deviating from it at r < r{sub c} may be constructed. The two requirements coincide for {omega}>{omega}{sub g} and the latter identifies {delta} = 0 solutions as the asymptotic solutions for 3 {<=} {omega} {<=} {omega}{sub g} (as suggested by Gruzinov). In these solutions, r{sub c} is a C{sub 0} characteristic. Using numerical solutions of the hydrodynamic equations, it is difficult to check whether the flow indeed approaches a {delta} = 0 self-similar behavior as R {yields} {infinity}, due to the slow convergence to self-similarity for {omega} {approx} 3. We show that in this case the flow may be described by a modified self-similar solution, d ln R-dot/d ln R = {delta} with slowly varying {delta}(R), {eta} {identical_to} d{delta}/dln R << 1, and spatial profiles given by a sum of the self-similar solution corresponding to the instantaneous value of {delta} and a self-similar correction linear in {eta}. The modified self-similar solutions provide an excellent approximation to numerical solutions obtained for {omega} {approx} 3

  11. Bilinear form and soliton solutions for the fifth-order Kaup-Kupershmidt equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, multi-soliton solutions of the fifth-order Kaup-Kupershmidt (KK) equation have been derived via the auxiliary function in conjunction with the bilinear method. These solutions have not been previously obtained. Propagation and interactions of three solitons have been presented analytically. The direction of the soliton is related to the signs of the parameters aj. The distances of the solitons are related to the values of the parameters aj.

  12. Solution exchange corrosion testing with the glass-zeolite ceramic waste form in demineralized water at 90{degree}C.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L. J.

    1998-05-19

    A ceramic waste form of glass-bonded zeolite is being developed for the long-term disposition of fission products and transuranic elements in wastes from the U.S. Department of Energy's spent nuclear fuel conditioning activities. Solution exchange corrosion tests were performed on the ceramic waste form and its potential base constituents of glass, zeolite 5A, and sodalite as part of an effort to qualify the ceramic waste form for acceptance into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. Solution exchange tests were performed at 90 C by replacing 80 to 90% of the leachate with fresh demineralized water after set time intervals. The results from these tests provide information about corrosion mechanisms and the ability of the ceramic waste form and its constituent materials to retain waste components. The results from solution exchange tests indicate that radionuclides will be preferentially retained in the zeolites without the glass matrix and in the ceramic waste form, with respect to cations like Li, K, and Na. Release results have been compared for simulated waste from candidate ceramic waste forms with zeolite 5A and its constituent materials to determine the corrosion behavior of each component.

  13. New Factorization Techniques and Parallel (log N) Algorithms for Forward Dynamics Solution of Single Closed-Chain Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir

    1993-01-01

    In this paper parallel 0(log N) algorithms for dynamic simulation of single closed-chain rigid multibody system as specialized to the case of a robot manipulatoar in contact with the environment are developed.

  14. Forms and lability of phosphorus in algae and aquatic macrophytes characterized by solution 31P NMR coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased information on forms and lability of phosphorus (P) in aquatic macrophytes and algae is crucial for better understanding of P biogeochemical cycling in eutrophic lakes. In this work, solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) was used ...

  15. Multifunctional imidazobenzothiadiazole probe displaying solvatofluorochromism and ability to form ion-pair complexes in solid state and in solution.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, María; Fernández, Israel; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro

    2015-05-15

    Fluorescent solid 5-pyridylimidazobenzothiadiazole displays a remarkable solvatofluorochromism and with Zn(AcO)2 and Cd(AcO)2, either in solution or under solvent-free conditions, forms ion-pair complexes that in the solid state can be discriminated and separated by fluorescence measurements and selective extraction with diethyl ether or chloroform.

  16. The nucleation of inosine: the impact of solution chemistry on the appearance of polymorphic and hydrated crystal forms.

    PubMed

    Chiarella, Renato A; Gillon, Amy L; Burton, Rebecca C; Davey, Roger J; Sadiq, Ghazala; Auffret, Anthony; Cioffi, Marina; Hunter, Christopher A

    2007-01-01

    This contribution concerns the issue of crystal nucleation in the polymorphic and hydrate forming system inosine-water. A combination of computational and experimental tools have been used to explore the relationship between solution phase inosine species and the structural synthons as found in its crystal structures. It is evident that the initial nucleation of a metastable polymorph at temperatures above 10 degrees C is directed by dimeric self-association as revealed through proton NMR. At lower temperatures a dihydrate structure becomes the most stable solid phase and in this region of the phase diagram this is the only form that appears even though the solution species remain unchanged. This can only be rationalised in terms of a combination of water binding to the solution dimers and the thermodynamic stability of the hydrate crystal structure.

  17. Modal element method for potential flow in non-uniform ducts: Combining closed form analysis with CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Baumeister, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical procedure is presented, called the modal element method, that combines numerical grid based algorithms with eigenfunction expansions developed by separation of variables. A modal element method is presented for solving potential flow in a channel with two-dimensional cylindrical like obstacles. The infinite computational region is divided into three subdomains; the bounded finite element domain, which is characterized by the cylindrical obstacle and the surrounding unbounded uniform channel entrance and exit domains. The velocity potential is represented approximately in the grid based domain by a finite element solution and is represented analytically by an eigenfunction expansion in the uniform semi-infinite entrance and exit domains. The calculated flow fields are in excellent agreement with exact analytical solutions. By eliminating the grid surrounding the obstacle, the modal element method reduces the numerical grid size, employs a more precise far field boundary condition, as well as giving theoretical insight to the interaction of the obstacle with the mean flow. Although the analysis focuses on a specific geometry, the formulation is general and can be applied to a variety of problems as seen by a comparison to companion theories in aeroacoustics and electromagnetics.

  18. Aragonite nanorods in calcium carbonate/polymer hybrids formed through self-organization processes from amorphous calcium carbonate solution.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Kato, Takashi

    2014-04-24

    Nanostructured inorganic/polymer hybrid thin films comprising aragonite nanorods derived from aqueous suspensions of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) are prepared. For the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃)/polymer hybrids, spincoated and annealed films of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) that function as polymer matrices are soaked in aqueous colloidal solutions dispersing ACC stabilized by poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). In the initial stage, calcite thin films form on the surface. Subsequently, aragonite crystals start to form inside the PVA matrix that contains PVA crystallites which induce aragonite nucleation. Nanostructured hybrids composed of calcite thin films consisting of nanoparticles and assembled aragonite nanorods are formed in the matrices of PVA.

  19. Solution structure of peptide AG4 used to form silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Dae-Hee; Woo, Yoonkyung; Hur, Ho-Gil; Lim, Yoongho

    2008-11-21

    The preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is of great interest due to their various biological activities, such as observed in their antimicrobial and wound healing actions. Moreover, the formation of AgNPs using silver-binding peptide has certain advantages because they can be made in aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The solution structure of the silver-binding peptide AG4 was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the site of the AG4 interaction with AgNPs was elucidated.

  20. Field induced aggregation in electrorheological suspension: kernel form and self similar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimouni, Zineb; Limage, René

    2009-05-01

    Within the framework of the study of the fibrillation mechanism in an electrorheological (ER) suspension, this work presents a comparison between the self similar solutions when the kernel is K i, j ~ ( i -1 + j -1) and the behaviour of the chains growth. Till now, the field induced chains formation has only been studied by numerical or experimental methods. The work of Fournier and Laurençot (Communications in Mathematical Physics 256 2005) on the Smoluchowski’s equation allows us to present an analytical solution for the field induced pearl chains in a colloidal ER suspension.

  1. FormScanner: Open-Source Solution for Grading Multiple-Choice Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chadwick; Lo, Glenn; Young, Kaisa; Borsetta, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The multiple-choice exam remains a staple for many introductory physics courses. In the past, people have graded these by hand or even flaming needles. Today, one usually grades the exams with a form scanner that utilizes optical mark recognition (OMR). Several companies provide these scanners and particular forms, such as the eponymous…

  2. FormScanner: Open-Source Solution for Grading Multiple-Choice Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chadwick; Lo, Glenn; Young, Kaisa; Borsetta, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The multiple-choice exam remains a staple for many introductory physics courses. In the past, people have graded these by hand or even flaming needles. Today, one usually grades the exams with a form scanner that utilizes optical mark recognition (OMR). Several companies provide these scanners and particular forms, such as the eponymous…

  3. Comparison of phosphorus forms in three extracts of dairy feces by solution 31P NMR analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using solution 31P NMR spectroscopy, we compared three extractants, deionized water, sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) with fresh sodium dithionite (NaAc-SD), and 0.25 M NaOH-0.05 M EDTA (NaOH-EDTA), for the profile of P compounds in two dairy fecal samples. Phosphorus extracted was 35% for water, and...

  4. A Transition to a Compact Form of DNA in Polymer Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, L. S.

    1971-01-01

    In the presence of over-threshold concentrations of simple neutral polymers and salts, DNA undergoes a cooperative change in its solution structure. Sedimentation studies at low DNA concentrations show that phage DNA molecules collapse into particles approaching the compactness of the contents of phage heads. The interaction between DNA and polymers is thought to be nonspecifically replusive. PMID:5288774

  5. Structural and Optical Properties Thin Film Copper Oxides Formed by Chemical Solution Deposition Process Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lockman, Zainovia; Abidin, Noor Rehan Zainal; Hutagalung, Sabar Derita

    2007-05-09

    Cu2O films were prepared by chemical deposition process (CSD) using solutions of copper nitrate, dip-coated onto glass substrates. The precursor solutions were altered in an effort to seek the best solution for successful deposition. Organic additive of ethanolamine (EA) and (poly)ethylene glycol (PEG, H(OCH2CH2)nOH) was added to the solution and had shown positive effect in terms of the wetability and hence homogenous films resulted. Most films characterised by XRD gave (002) Cu2O, cuprite structure. To avoid films cracking and inhomogeneous coverage, multiple coatings were done with drying in between the successive coatings. Five to eight coatings were carried out for better coverage to ensure surface homogeneity. The microstructure of the surface oxides consisted of nanostructured oxides with uniform size distribution of 60-80nm. The optical transmittance of optimized Cu2O film reaches around 80% at wavelength of {approx} 700nm and the calculated direct optical band gaps were {approx} 2eV for the Cu2O films.

  6. Closed form unsupervised registration of multi-temporal structure from motion-multiview stereo data using non-linearly weighted image features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seers, T. D.; Hodgetts, D.

    2013-12-01

    between input image sets, our method has major advantages over conventional iterative least squares minimization based methods (e.g. Iterative Closest Point variants), acting only on rigid areas of target scenes, being capable of reliably estimating the scaling factor and requiring no incipient estimation of the transformation to initialize (i.e. manual rough alignment). Moreover, because the solution is closed form, convergence is considerably more expedient that most iterative methods. It is hoped that the availability of improved co-registration routines, such as the one presented here, will facilitate the routine collection of multi-temporal topographic datasets by a wider range of geoscience practitioners.

  7. Low-molecular-weight adiponectin is more closely associated with disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis than other adiponectin multimeric forms.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Yang, Li; Ma, Cui-Li; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Rui; Bi, Li-qi

    2015-06-01

    Adiponectin is divided into high-molecular-weight (HMW), medium-molecular-weight (MMW), and low-molecular-weight (LMW) forms. These forms differ not only in the number of adiponectin molecules but also in their biological activity. There are conflicting findings regarding the role of adiponectin in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Moreover, few reports have described the relationships between serum adiponectin multimers levels and RA. Therefore, we examined the association of total adiponectin and its multimers with RA. Two study groups were examined: 180 recently diagnosed untreated RA patients with disease duration less than 1 year (RA group) and 160 age- and sex-matched control subjects (control group). RA-related factors, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, complete lipid profile, and adiponectin multimers were measured. The levels of total adiponectin and each multimer of adiponectin were significantly lower in the RA than in the control (P < 0.01). Serum levels of total, HMW, MMW, and LMW were positively correlated with triglycerides levels and negatively correlated with the Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28). Multivariate regression analysis showed that total, HMW, and MMW adiponectin were independently associated with serum triglycerides level. LMW adiponectin was independently correlated with serum triglycerides level and DAS28. The decreased LMW adiponectin levels may be associated with disease activity of RA.

  8. Closed-form formulas for the effective properties of random particulate nanocomposites with complete Gurtin-Murdoch model of material surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, Lidiia; Bargmann, Swantje; Stolarski, Henryk

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present an approach allowing for inclusion of the complete Gurtin-Murdoch material surface equations in methods leading to closed-form formulas defining effective properties of particle-reinforced nanocomposites. Considering that all previous developments of the closed-form formulas for effective properties employ only some parts of the Gurtin-Murdoch model, its complete inclusion constitutes the main focus of this work. To this end, the recently introduced new notion of the energy-equivalent inhomogeneity is generalized to precisely include all terms of the model. The crucial aspect of that generalization is the identification of the energy associated with the last term of the Gurtin-Murdoch equation, i.e., with the surface gradient of displacements. With the help of that definition, the real nanoparticle and its surface possessing its own distinct elastic properties and residual stresses are replaced by an energy-equivalent inhomogeneity with properties incorporating all surface effects. Such equivalent inhomogeneity can then be used in combination with any existing homogenization method. In this work, the method of conditional moments is used to analyze composites with randomly dispersed spherical nanoparticles. Closed-form expressions for effective moduli are derived for both bulk and shear moduli. As numerical examples, nanoporous aluminum is investigated. The normalized bulk and shear moduli of nanoporous aluminum as a function of residual stresses are analyzed and evaluated in the context of other theoretical predictions.

  9. Spectral and electroluminescent properties of coordination compounds of terbium (III) with ibuprofen (in solid form, chloroform solutions, and polyvinylcarbazole films)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonova, L. G.; Kopylova, T. N.; Degtyarenko, K. M.; Ponarin, N. V.; Meshkova, S. B.; Zheltvai, I. I.

    2015-08-01

    Spectral properties of terbium (III) complexes with composition of TbL3DL, where L is an anion of d,l-2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propanoic acid (ibuprofen) and DL is 2,2'-dipyridyl (Dipy), 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen), or triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), have been studied in a solid form, chloroform solutions, and polyvinylcarbazole (PVC) films. It has been demonstrated that, in PVC films, occupation of the emitting level of terbium (III) involves the participation of polymer. The emission decay lifetimes of terbium in the chloroform solutions and PVC films have been measured. The possibility of the appearance of electroluminescence of complexes in PVC films has been studied.

  10. Sixty years from discovery to solution: crystal structure of bovine liver catalase form III.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Leila M; Kang, You Na; Matzger, Adam J

    2011-09-01

    The crystallization and structural characterization of bovine liver catalase (BLC) has been intensively studied for decades. Forms I and II of BLC have previously been fully characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Form III has previously been analyzed by electron microscopy, but owing to the thinness of this crystal form an X-ray crystal structure had not been determined. Here, the crystal structure of form III of BLC is presented in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 68.7, b = 173.7, c = 186.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is composed of the biological tetramer, which is packed in a tetrahedron motif with three other BLC tetramers. This higher resolution structure has allowed an assessment of the previously published electron-microscopy studies.

  11. Sixty years from discovery to solution: crystal structure of bovine liver catalase form III

    SciTech Connect

    Foroughi, Leila M.; Kang, You-Na; Matzger, Adam J.

    2012-03-27

    The crystallization and structural characterization of bovine liver catalase (BLC) has been intensively studied for decades. Forms I and II of BLC have previously been fully characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Form III has previously been analyzed by electron microscopy, but owing to the thinness of this crystal form an X-ray crystal structure had not been determined. Here, the crystal structure of form III of BLC is presented in space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.7, b = 173.7, c = 186.3 {angstrom}. The asymmetric unit is composed of the biological tetramer, which is packed in a tetrahedron motif with three other BLC tetramers. This higher resolution structure has allowed an assessment of the previously published electron-microscopy studies.

  12. A new closed form method for design of variable bandwidth linear phase FIR filter using Bernstein multiwavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suman, S.; Kumar, A.; Singh, G. K.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new method for the design of variable bandwidth linear-phase finite impulse response filters using Bernstein polynomial Multiwavelets is proposed. In this method, approximation has been achieved by linearly combining the fixed coefficient linear phase filters with Bernstein multiwavelets, which are used to tune bandwidth of the filter. Optimisation has been achieved by minimising the mean square error between the desired and actual filter response which leads to a system of linear equations. The matrix elements can be expressed in form of Toeplitz-plus-Hankel matrix, which reduces the computational complexity. The simulation results illustrate significant improvement in errors in passband (ep), and stopband (es) as compared to earlier published work.

  13. Structure and micromorphology of titanium dioxide nanoporous microspheres formed in water solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaia, I. B.; Gavrilova, T. A.; Atuchin, V. V.

    TiO2 nanoporous microspheres of 20 μm diameter with good crystallinity have been obtained by precipitation from aqua solution of ammonium titanate with nitric acid at pH = 1 and T = 100oC. Pure rutile, space group P42/mnm, phase composition has been confirmed by XRD analysis of the precipitate. SEM observation of these microspheres shows developed nanoporous structure with pore diameter of 20-30 nm.

  14. Microbiological stability of solutions containing local anesthetics and opioids in closed infusion systems used for epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, K; Meissner, W; Edel, B; Hartmann, M

    2011-10-01

    Nine solutions containing opiod analgesics and local anesthetics as typically use in epidural catheters were tested for antimicrobial stability. Administration via a pefusor syringe requires several refill processes. It was shown that repetitive refilling of the syringes did not result in any microbiological contamination.

  15. Solution phase parallel synthesis and evaluation of MAPK inhibitory activities of close structural analogues of a Ras pathway modulator.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingchun; Sakamuri, Sukumar; Chen, Quin-Zene; Keng, Yen-Fang; Khazak, Vladimir; Illgen, Katrin; Schabbert, Silke; Weber, Lutz; Menon, Sanjay R

    2004-08-02

    A solution phase parallel synthesis approach was undertaken to rapidly explore the structure-activity relationship of an inhibitor of the Ras/Raf protein interaction identified from a small molecule compound library. Evaluation of the MAPK pathway signaling inhibitory activity of the synthesized analogues as well as their antiproliferative activity and ability to inhibit soft agar growth were performed.

  16. Effect of hot water and heat treatment on the apatite-forming ability of titania films formed on titanium metal via anodic oxidation in acetic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xinyu; Kim, Hyun-Min; Kawashita, Masakazu; Wang, Longbao; Xiong, Tianying; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been widely used for orthopedic implants because of their good biocompatibility. We have previously shown that the crystalline titania layers formed on the surface of titanium metal via anodic oxidation can induce apatite formation in simulated body fluid, whereas amorphous titania layers do not possess apatite-forming ability. In this study, hot water and heat treatments were applied to transform the titania layers from an amorphous structure into a crystalline structure after titanium metal had been anodized in acetic acid solution. The apatite-forming ability of titania layers subjected to the above treatments in simulated body fluid was investigated. The XRD and SEM results indicated hot water and/or heat treatment could greatly transform the crystal structure of titania layers from an amorphous structure into anatase, or a mixture of anatase and rutile. The abundance of Ti-OH groups formed by hot water treatment could contribute to apatite formation on the surface of titanium metals, and subsequent heat treatment would enhance the bond strength between the apatite layers and the titanium substrates. Thus, bioactive titanium metals could be prepared via anodic oxidation and subsequent hot water and heat treatment that would be suitable for applications under load-bearing conditions.

  17. Solution-Derived, Chloride-Containing Minerals as a Waste Form for Alkali Chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Lepry, William C.

    2012-10-01

    Sodalite [Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2] and cancrinite [(Na,K)6Ca2Al6Si6O24Cl4] are environmentally stable, chloride-containing minerals and are a logical waste form option for the mixed alkali chloride salt waste stream that is generated from a proposed electrochemical separations process during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to the volatility of chloride salts at moderate temperatures, the ideal processing route for these salts is a low-temperature approach such as the sol-gel process. The sodalite structure can be easily synthesized by the sol-gel process; however, it is produced in the form of a fine powder with particle sizes on the order of 1–10 µm. Due to the small particle size, these powders require additional treatment to form a monolith. In this study, the sol-gel powders were pressed into pellets and fired to achieve > 90% of theoretical density. The cancrinite structure, identified as the best candidate mineral form in terms of waste loading capacity, was only produced on a limited basis following the sol-gel process and converted to sodalite upon firing. Here we discuss the sol-gel process specifics, chemical durability of select waste forms, and the steps taken to maximize chloride-containing phases, decrease chloride loss during pellet firing, and increase pellet densities.

  18. Nanosecond time-resolved microscopic spectroscopy for diagnostics of an atmospheric-pressure discharge plasma formed in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banno, Motohiro; Kanno, Kenta; Someya, Yuu; Yui, Hiroharu

    2015-06-01

    Glow discharge plasma formed in solution under atmospheric pressure has been expected to provide reaction fields with characteristic physical and chemical properties owing to the frequent collisions and reactions of reactive particles inside and the rapid quenching of the products by the surrounding cold solutions. In particular, when an aqueous solution is utilized as the surrounding solution, the atmospheric-pressure in-solution glow (ASG) plasma contains hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals showing large activities for reduction and oxidation, respectively. In addition, because the ASG plasma is formed under atmospheric pressure, the collision frequencies between the particles contained in the plasma are higher than those in other plasmas ordinarily formed under low pressure. This feature should result in rapid energy redistribution among particles contained in the plasma. In the present study, time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy with nanosecond time resolution was applied for the diagnostics of the ASG plasma with chemical species selectivity. The time-resolved measurements revealed that the temporal evolutions of the temperatures of blackbody, hydrogen radical, and hydroxyl radical contained in the ASG plasma consist of two stages: initial rise within 0.15 µs (rising stage) and fluctuation around certain values for about 1 µs (fluctuating stage). In the time region corresponding to the rising stage, the electron number density is about ten times larger than the value temporally averaged during the plasma emission. The initial rise should result from frequent collisions between charged particles accelerated by the applied voltage and unexcited particles. In the fluctuating stage, the electron number density strongly correlates with the increase in the radical temperatures. It is concluded that the electron number density, rather than the electron temperature, is a key parameter determining the temperatures of reactive species in the ASG plasma.

  19. On the form problem of embryonic heart loops, its geometrical solutions, and a new biophysical concept of cardiac looping.

    PubMed

    Männer, Jörg

    2013-07-01

    Cardiac looping is an essential process in the morphogenesis of embryonic hearts. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about the form and biophysics of embryonic heart loops. Thompson regarded the form of an object as "a 'diagram of forces' … from it we can … deduce the forces that are acting or have acted upon it." Therefore, the present study was conducted to uncover the best geometrical solution of the form problem of embryonic heart loops. This approach may help to identify the biophysics of cardiac looping. Analysis of the tendrils of climbing plants disclosed striking resemblance between the configurations of embryonic heart loops and a form motif named helical perversion. Helical perversion occurs in helically wound objects where they connect two helical segments of opposite handedness (two-handed helix). Helical perversion evolves in living and non-living filamentary objects such as the tendrils of climbing plants and helical telephone cords. Helical perversion may be the best geometrical solution of the form problem of embryonic heart loops. The dynamics and mechanics of the emergence of helical perversions are relatively well known. The behavior of looping embryonic hearts may be interpreted in light of this knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Adlayers of C60-C60 and C60-C70 fullerene dimers formed on au(111) in benzene solutions studied by STM and LEED.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masashi; Inukai, Junji; Tsutsumi, Eishi; Yoshimoto, Soichiro; Itaya, Kingo; Ito, Osamu; Fujiwara, Koichi; Murata, Michihisa; Murata, Yasujiro; Komatsu, Koichi

    2004-02-17

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron diffraction were used to reveal the structures of ordered adlayers of [2+2]-type C60-C60 fullerene dimer (C120) and C60-C70 cross-dimer (C130) formed on Au(111) by immersingit in abenzene solution containing C120 or C130 molecules. High-resolution STM images clearly showed the packing arrangements and the electronic structures of C120 and C130 on the Au(111) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. The (2 square root3 x 4square root3)R30 degrees, (2square root3 x 5square root3)R30 degrees, and (7 x 7) structures were found for the C120 adlayer on the Au(111) surface, whereas C130 molecules were closely packed on the surface. Each C60 or C70 monomer cage was discerned in the STM image of a C130 molecule.

  1. Cracks and blisters formed close to a silicon wafer surface by He-H co-implantation at low energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cherkashin, N. Darras, F.-X.; Claverie, A.; Daghbouj, N.; Fnaiech, M.

    2015-12-28

    We have studied the effect of reducing the implantation energy towards low keV values on the areal density of He and H atoms stored within populations of blister cavities formed by co-implantation of the same fluence of He then H ions into Si(001) wafers and annealing. Using a variety of experimental techniques, we have measured blister heights and depth from the surface, diameter, areal density of the cracks from which they originate as functions of implantation energy and fluence. We show that there is a direct correlation between the diameters of the cracks and the heights of the associated blisters. This correlation only depends on the implantation energy, i.e., only on the depth at which the cracks are located. Using finite element method modeling, we infer the pressure inside the blister cavities from the elastic deformations they generate, i.e., from the height of the blisters. From this, we demonstrate that the gas pressure within a blister only depends on the diameter of the associated crack and not on its depth position and derive an analytical expression relating these parameters. Relating the pressure inside a blister to the respective concentrations of gas molecules it contains, we deduce the areal densities of He and H atoms contained within the populations of blisters. After low-energy implantations (8 keV He{sup +}, 3 keV H{sup +}), all the implanted He and H atoms contribute to the formation of the blisters. There is no measurable exo-diffusion of any of the implanted gases, in contrast to what was assumed at the state of the art to explain the failure of the Smart-Cut technology when using very low energy ion implantation for the fabrication of ultra-thin layers. Alternative explanations must be investigated.

  2. Cracks and blisters formed close to a silicon wafer surface by He-H co-implantation at low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkashin, N.; Daghbouj, N.; Darras, F.-X.; Fnaiech, M.; Claverie, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the effect of reducing the implantation energy towards low keV values on the areal density of He and H atoms stored within populations of blister cavities formed by co-implantation of the same fluence of He then H ions into Si(001) wafers and annealing. Using a variety of experimental techniques, we have measured blister heights and depth from the surface, diameter, areal density of the cracks from which they originate as functions of implantation energy and fluence. We show that there is a direct correlation between the diameters of the cracks and the heights of the associated blisters. This correlation only depends on the implantation energy, i.e., only on the depth at which the cracks are located. Using finite element method modeling, we infer the pressure inside the blister cavities from the elastic deformations they generate, i.e., from the height of the blisters. From this, we demonstrate that the gas pressure within a blister only depends on the diameter of the associated crack and not on its depth position and derive an analytical expression relating these parameters. Relating the pressure inside a blister to the respective concentrations of gas molecules it contains, we deduce the areal densities of He and H atoms contained within the populations of blisters. After low-energy implantations (8 keV He+, 3 keV H+), all the implanted He and H atoms contribute to the formation of the blisters. There is no measurable exo-diffusion of any of the implanted gases, in contrast to what was assumed at the state of the art to explain the failure of the Smart-Cut technology when using very low energy ion implantation for the fabrication of ultra-thin layers. Alternative explanations must be investigated.

  3. Study on the oxidation form of adenine in phosphate buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuan-Zhi; Zhou, Jian-Feng; Zhu, Feng-Xia; Ye, Yong; Xie, Ji-Min

    2010-07-01

    The oxidation of adenine in phosphate buffer solution is investigated using square-wave voltammetry and in situ UV spectroelectrochemistry. The geometry of adenine and the derivatives optimized at DFTB3LYP-6-31G (d, p)-PCM level is in agreement with the crystal structure, and the imitated UV spectra of adenine and the product at electrode are consistent with the in situ UV spectra. The relationship between the electrochemical property and the molecular structure is also discussed. The experimental and theoretical results show that the adenine oxidation origins from the neutral adenine.

  4. Interpretation of leaching data for cementitious waste forms using analytical solutions based on mass transport theory and empiricism

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Godbee, H.W.; Tallent, O.K.; Nestor, C.W. Jr. )

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of leaching data using analytical solutions based on mass transport theory and empiricism is presented. The waste forms leached to generate the data used in this analysis were prepared with a simulated radioactive waste slurry with traces of potassium ion, manganese ions, carbonate ions, phosphate ions, and sulfate ions solidified with several blends of cementitious materials. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the results of ANS - 16.1 tests. Data of fraction leached versus time is presented and discussed.

  5. Structure Determination of Plutonium Oxide Precipitates Formed from Aqueous Plutonium IV and V Solutions and in the Presence of Goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z.; Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Begg, J.; Kersting, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    A series of aqueous Pu(IV) and Pu(V) batch sorption experiments with goethite (α-FeOOH) in a pH 8 ± 0.5 buffer solution (5mM NaCl + 0.7 mM NaHCO3) at room temperature (25 °C) were performed. Intrinsic Pu colloids were synthesized in alkaline solution (pH 8, 25 °C) and acidic solution (0.1 M HNO3, ~80 °C for 10-20 min), respectively, for comparison. Morphology, distribution and crystal structure of Pu oxide precipitates, as well as interaction between the Pu precipitates and goethite, were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Pu oxide precipitates formed from the sorption experiments consist of 3-5 nm primary crystalline particles (nanocrystals) irrespective of the initial form of Pu. The Pu oxide nanocrystals adopt two different crystal structures, either fcc PuO2 or bcc Pu4O7. The relative abundance of one form over the other depends on the initial form of Pu, Pu concentration, and the presence of goethite. For the high Pu concentration sorption cases (>9,000 nmol/m2 goethite), fcc PuO2 is the predominant phase occurring in both aqueous Pu(IV) and Pu(V) samples. In the Pu(IV) samples, the fcc PuO2 nanocrystals form mainly as a product of hydrolysis in solution. In the Pu(V) samples, the fcc PuO2 nanocrystals form by redox reactions dominantly occurring on goethite surface following the sorption of Pu(V). At lower Pu concentrations, the bcc Pu4O7 becomes dominant in the presence of goethite. The bcc Pu4O7 forms directly on the goethite surface as a 3-5 nm isolated nanocrystal in both Pu(IV) and Pu(V) samples and has specific crystallographic orientation relationships to goethite. Nucleation of the bcc Pu4O7 may occur by substitution of Pu(III) at the Fe(III) position on the goethite surface. In the absence of goethite, the intrinsic Pu colloids formed in alkaline solution (pH 8, 25 °C) are also comprised of 3-5 nm fcc PuO2 nanocrystals. As for the intrinsic Pu colloids precipitated from the acidic solution (0.1 M HNO3) at an elevated

  6. Cryochemical method for forming spherical metal oxide particles from metal salt solutions

    DOEpatents

    Tinkle, M.C.

    1973-12-01

    A method is described of preparing small metal oxide spheres cryochemically utilizing metal salts (e.g., nitrates) that cannot readily be dried and calcined without loss of sphericity of the particles. Such metal salts are cryochemically formed into small spheres, partially or completely converted to an insoluble salt, and dried and calcined. (Official Gazette)

  7. Groupwork as a Form of Assessment: Common Problems and Recommended Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the literature on the use of groupwork as a form of assessment in tertiary institutions. It outlines the considerable advantages of groupwork but also its systemic associated problems. In discussing the problems, the paper considers issues such as "free riding" and the "sucker effect", issues associated with ethnic mix…

  8. Solution of a fractional transport equation by using the generalized quadratic form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadem, Abdelouahab; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2011-08-01

    In this manuscript the one dimensional fractional transport equation in which the prescribed source and angular flux are spatially quadratic is investigated within the generalized quadratic form method. It is reported that the angular flux satisfies Fick's law and the corresponding scalar flux satisfies the fractional generalization of the classic diffusion equation.

  9. The importance of functional form in optimal control solutions of problems in population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Optimal control theory is finding increased application in both theoretical and applied ecology, and it is a central element of adaptive resource management. One of the steps in an adaptive management process is to develop alternative models of system dynamics, models that are all reasonable in light of available data, but that differ substantially in their implications for optimal control of the resource. We explored how the form of the recruitment and survival functions in a general population model for ducks affected the patterns in the optimal harvest strategy, using a combination of analytical, numerical, and simulation techniques. We compared three relationships between recruitment and population density (linear, exponential, and hyperbolic) and three relationships between survival during the nonharvest season and population density (constant, logistic, and one related to the compensatory harvest mortality hypothesis). We found that the form of the component functions had a dramatic influence on the optimal harvest strategy and the ultimate equilibrium state of the system. For instance, while it is commonly assumed that a compensatory hypothesis leads to higher optimal harvest rates than an additive hypothesis, we found this to depend on the form of the recruitment function, in part because of differences in the optimal steady-state population density. This work has strong direct consequences for those developing alternative models to describe harvested systems, but it is relevant to a larger class of problems applying optimal control at the population level. Often, different functional forms will not be statistically distinguishable in the range of the data. Nevertheless, differences between the functions outside the range of the data can have an important impact on the optimal harvest strategy. Thus, development of alternative models by identifying a single functional form, then choosing different parameter combinations from extremes on the likelihood

  10. [Correlations between the metastable solutions of calculus-forming salts and crystals from coexistent insoluble urinary components].

    PubMed

    Leskovar, P; Hartung, R

    1978-09-01

    The correlations between the individual stone-forming systems, expecially the induction of heterogeneous crystallization from metastable solutions of one stone-forming system by preformed crystals of the other stone-forming system, were measured semiquantitatively by the Coulter-Counter-Size Distribution Analyzer technique. It has been found out that Ca-oxalate crystals may represent potent triggers and accelerators of the phosphate precipitation from metastable Ca-phosphate solutions. The importance of this phenomenon could be attributed especially to the induction of crystal rich phosphate crystalluria at moderate pH values (6,5--6,8) by the preceding Ca-oxalate crystalluria (,,starter "resp." primer "crystalluria). The favouring, promoting influence of uric acid on the stone formation and growth of Ca-oxalate crystals could be observed with the same experiments under changed conditions. This mechanism could be of some importance in the case when Ca-oxalate precipitates from the urine, saturated by uric acid, at low pH values (5,0--6,0). Uric acid resp. sodium urate crystals showed a moderate by clear favouring effect on the formation of Ca-phosphate crystals from metastable solutions. The influence of Ca-phosphate crystals upon the growth of Ca-oxalate crystals proved to be very limited.

  11. Removal of trace mercury(II) from aqueous solution by in situ formed Mn-Fe (hydr)oxides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xixin; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Jun

    2014-09-15

    The efficiency and mechanism of trace mercury (Hg(II)) removal by in situ formed manganese-ferric (hydr)oxides (in situ Mn-Fe) were investigated by reacting KMnO4 with Fe(II) in simulated solutions and natural water. In the simulated solutions, the impact of coagulant dosage, pH, and temperature on mercury removal was studied. Experimental results showed that in situ Mn-Fe more effectively removed mercury compared with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and iron(III) chloride (FeCl3), and that mercury existed in the form of uncharged species, namely Hg(OH)2, HgClOH(aq), and HgCl2(aq). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that in situ Mn-Fe contained hydroxyl groups as the surface active sites, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed that MnO2 or MnOOH and FeOOH were the dominant species in the precipitates. XPS analysis indicated that an Hg-Mn-Fe mixture was formed in the precipitates, suggesting that mercury was removed from solutions via transfer from the liquid phase to solid phase. These results indicated that the primary mercury removal mechanisms in in situ Mn-Fe were surface complexation and flocculation-precipitation processes. Satisfactory removal efficiency of mercury was also observed following in situ Mn-Fe in natural waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Color-selective photocurrent enhancement in coupled J-aggregate/nanowires formed in solution.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brian J; Dorn, August; Bulović, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2011-07-13

    J-aggregates are ordered clusters of coherently coupled molecular dyes, (1) and they have been used as light sensitizers in film photography due to their intense absorptions. Hybrid structures containing J-aggregates may also have applications in devices that require spectral specificity, such as color imaging or optical signaling. (2) However the use of J-aggregates in optoelectronic devices has posed a long-standing challenge (3, 4) due to the difficulty of controlling aggregate formation and the low charge carrier mobility of many J-aggregates in solid state. In this paper, we demonstrate a modular method to assemble three different cyanine J-aggregates onto CdSe nanowires, resulting in a photodetector that is color-sensitized in three specific, narrow absorption bands. Both the J-aggregate and nanowire device components are fabricated from solution and the sensitizing wavelength is switched from blue to red to green, using only solution-phase exchange of the J-aggregates on the same underlying device.

  13. Current applications of foams formed from mixed surfactant-polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Bureiko, Andrei; Trybala, Anna; Kovalchuk, Nina; Starov, Victor

    2015-08-01

    Foams cannot be generated without the use of special foaming agents, as pure liquids do not foam. The most common foaming agents are surfactants, however often for foam stability one active agent is not enough, it is necessary to add other component to increase foam lifetime. Foams on everyday use are mostly made from mixture of different components. Properly chosen combinations of two active ingredients lead to a faster foam formation and increased foam stability. During the last decade polymers (mainly polyelectrolytes and proteins) have become frequently used additives to foaming solutions. Mixtures of surfactants and polymers often demonstrate different foaming properties in comparison to surfactant only or polymer only solutions. The nature of surfactant-polymer interactions is complicated and prediction of resulting foaming properties of such formulations is not straightforward. Properties and foaming of surfactant-polymer mixtures are discussed as well as current applications of foams and foaming agents as foams are widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceutics, medicine and the food industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A free-form lensing grid solution for A1689 with new multiple images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diego, Jose M.; Broadhurst, T.; Benitez, N.; Umetsu, K.; Coe, D.; Sendra, I.; Sereno, M.; Izzo, L.; Covone, G.

    2015-01-01

    We examine Abell 1689 non-parametrically, combining strongly lensed Hubble Space Telescope images and weak distortions from wider field Subaru imaging. Our model incorporates member galaxies to improve the lens solution. By adding luminosity-scaled member galaxy deflections to our smooth grid, we can derive meaningful solutions with sufficient accuracy to permit the identification of our own strongly lensed images, so our model becomes self-consistent. We identify 11 new multiply lensed system candidates and clarify previously ambiguous cases, in the deepest optical and near-infrared data to date from Hubble and Subaru. Our improved spatial resolution brings up new features not seen when the weak and strong lensing effects are used separately, including clumps and filamentary dark matter around the main halo. Our treatment means we can obtain an objective mass ratio between the cluster and galaxy components. We find a typical mass-to-light ratios of M/LB = 21 ± 14 inside the r < 1 arcmin region. Our model independence means we can objectively evaluate the competitiveness of stacking cluster lenses for defining the geometric lensing-distance-redshift relation in a model-independent way.

  15. Solution of the Boundary Value Problems with Boundary Conditions in the Form of Gravitational Curvatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprlak, M.; Novak, P.; Pitonak, M.; Hamackova, E.

    2015-12-01

    Values of scalar, vectorial and second-order tensorial parameters of the Earth's gravitational field have been collected by various sensors in geodesy and geophysics. Such observables have been widely exploited in different parametrization methods for the gravitational field modelling. Moreover, theoretical aspects of these quantities have extensively been studied and are well understood. On the other hand, new sensors for observing gravitational curvatures, i.e., components of the third-order gravitational tensor, are currently under development. This fact may be documented by the terrestrial experiments Dulkyn and Magia, as well as by the proposal of the gravity-dedicated satellite mission called OPTIMA. As the gravitational curvatures represent new types of observables, their exploitation for modelling of the Earth's gravitational field is a subject of this study. Firstly, we derive integral transforms between the gravitational potential and gravitational curvatures, i.e., we find analytical solutions of the boundary value problems with gravitational curvatures as boundary conditions. Secondly, properties of the corresponding Green kernel functions are studied in the spatial and spectral domains. Thirdly, the correctness of the new analytical solutions is tested in a simulation study. The presented mathematical apparatus reveal important properties of the gravitational curvatures. It also extends the Meissl scheme, i.e., an important theoretical paradigm that relates various parameters of the Earth's gravitational field.

  16. How closely do many-body potentials describe the structure and dynamics of Cu-Zr glass-forming alloy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lad, K. N.; Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.

    2017-03-01

    Molecular dynamics investigations of the structure and dynamics of Cu64.5Zr35.5 metallic glass-forming alloy have been carried out using five different semi-empirical, many-body interaction potentials based on the Finnis-Sinclair model [M. I. Mendelev et al., J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043501 (2007) (MSK); M. I. Mendelev et al., Philos. Mag. 89, 967 (2009) (MKOSYP); L. Ward et al., e-print arXiv:1209.0619 (2012) (WAFW)] and the embedded-atom model [Y. Q. Cheng et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 245501 (2009) (CMS) and N. Jakse et al., Phys. Rev. B 85, 174201 (2012) (JNP)]. Although the total static structure factor of the alloy for all the five interaction potentials is, in general, found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, the investigation of a local structure in terms of icosahedral short-range order reveals that the effect of the interaction potential (especially the cohesive part) on the structure of the alloy is not as trivial as it seems. For MSK and JNP potentials, the self-intermediate scattering function Fs(q, t), q-dependence of the structural relaxation time τα in the low-q region, and the self-diffusion coefficient, Ds, for Cu-atoms in the alloy are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The results for MKOSYP, CMS, and WAFW potentials deviate significantly from the experiment and suggest the dynamics of the alloy to be faster. The difference in the description of the dynamics of the alloy by different potentials is found to be due to the difference in the relevant energy scales corresponding to the temperature scales. τα and Ds exhibit Arrhenius temperature dependence in the high temperature regime above the melting temperature. We also suggest that the attractive forces influence the dynamics of the liquid alloy significantly, which is against the mere perturbative role assigned to the attractive forces in the van der Waals picture of liquids that has been challenged in the recent years. As the five interaction potentials

  17. Closed universes with black holes but no event horizons as a solution to the black hole information problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Frank J.; Graber, Jessica; McGinley, Matthew; Nichols-Barrer, Joshua; Staecker, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    We show that it is possible for the information paradox in black hole evaporation to be resolved classically. Using standard junction conditions, we attach the general closed spherically symmetric dust metric to a space-time satisfying all standard energy conditions but with a single point future c-boundary. The resulting Omega Point space-time, which has NO event horizons, nevertheless has black hole type trapped surfaces and hence black holes. However, since there are no event horizons, information eventually escapes from the black holes. We show that a scalar quintessence field with an appropriate exponential potential near the final singularity would give rise to an Omega Point final singularity.

  18. Janus emulsions formed with a polymerizable monomer, silicone oil, and Tween 80 aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lingling; Lu, Shuhui; Guo, Rong

    2014-06-01

    Janus emulsions of a polymerizable monomer tripropyleneglycol diacrylate (TP) combined with silicone oil (SO) as inner oil phases and Tween 80 aqueous solution as continuous phase are prepared in a one-step high energy mixing process. The dependence of droplet topology on the concentration of surfactant, TP/SO ratio, and the stirring speed during emulsification is investigated. The result shows that the volume ratio of two oils within an individual droplet changes correspondingly to the total composition of emulsion. Increasing the speed of stirring results in a significant reduction in the droplet size, i.e. a five times increase in the stirring speed produces a droplet size reduction from hundreds to a few microns. What is more important, the topology of Janus drops remains similar for the different preparations. These fundamental investigations illustrate the potential for future Janus particle synthesis in batch scale with a controllable particle topology.

  19. Studies of in situ-forming hydrogels by blending PLA-PEG-PLA copolymer with silk fibroin solution.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tianyi; Deng, Chunmin; Gao, Yanfei; Chen, Mei; Zuo, Baoqi

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogels had been prepared by blending PLA-PEG-PLA copolymer with Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF) solution. Copolymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of L-lactide in the presence of dihydroxyl PEG with molar mass of 400 and 1000, and characterized by using (1)H NMR and DSC. Hydrogels formed leaf-like lamellar structures with many nanoglobules which may reserve drugs or growth factors more effectively. Rheological measurements indicated that the adding of copolymer significantly accelerated the hydrogelation of silk fibroin solution which leads to orders-of-magnitude increase in the complex shear modulus to form rigid hydrogel. Hydrogelation kinetics could be controlled easily by changing the concentration ratio, kinds of copolymer and hydrogelation temperature, suggesting the hydrogels could be formed in situ under physiological conditions with suitable mechanical properties. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis were employed to study the structure of hydrogels. The copolymer and SF in blend hydrogels were phase separation. There was an increase of β-sheet content and formation of silk II structure during hydrogelation. These results may indicate that copolymer/SF hydrogels could be a valuable candidate scaffold as in situ-forming hydrogels for drug/growth factor release in tissue engineering.

  20. Characterization of corrosion products formed on different surfaces of steel exposed to simulated groundwater solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiufa; Gao, Kewei; Wang, Yanbin; Pang, Xiaolu

    2015-08-01

    The corrosion behavior of a low alloy steel in simulated groundwater was investigated. The upward surface of the steel underwent more serious corrosion than the downward surface. The corrosion products formed on the upward and downward surfaces were characterized by SEM, EDX, and XRD, and the electrochemical properties of bare and rusted samples were analyzed. The difference in the corrosion rates of the different surfaces of the steel could be attributed to the potential difference between the upward and downward surfaces as well as the higher amount of CaCO3 deposits on the downward surface leading to a compact corrosion product.

  1. Numerical solution of transonic full stream function equations in conservation form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    The stream function equation in conservation form is solved iteratively based on the artificial compressibility method. The density is not a unique function of the mass flux. In order to avoid the ambiguity near the sonic line, the density is updated in terms of the velocity, which is obtained through a simple integration of a first order equation step by step in the flow field. Iteration algorithms and finite difference approximations are discussed and numerical results of both conservative and nonconservative calculations are presented.

  2. Tracking ultrafast excited-state bond-twisting motion in solution close to the Franck-Condon point.

    PubMed

    Dietzek, Benjamin; Pascher, Torbjörn; Yartsev, Arkady

    2007-05-31

    Applying optimal control to photoinduced trans-cis isomerization in condensed phase, the dynamics of bond-twisting motion of 1,1'-diethyl-4,4'-cyanine in methanol and propanol is revealed. The shape of the optimized pulse resulting from minimization of the photoisomer formation can be directly related to the initial excited-state dynamics in close proximity to the Franck-Condon point. The solvent viscosity-dependent ultrafast wavepacket motion is reflected in the prominent down-chirp of the optimized pulses and reveals a detailed picture of the control mechanism: The reduction of the isomer production is achieved by most efficient dumping of excited population back to the trans ground state. In the higher-viscosity solvent, propanol, wavelength-dependent oscillatory features are superimposed to the overall chirp structure pointing to the importance of excited-state vibrational coherences for the dumping process.

  3. A ladder of polariton branches formed by coupling an organic semiconductor exciton to a series of closely spaced cavity-photon modes

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, David M.; Lidzey, David G.

    2014-05-12

    We construct a microcavity in which the extended optical path length of the cavity (5.9 μm) permits a series of closely spaced optical modes to be supported. By placing a J-aggregated cyanine dye into the cavity, we reach the strong-coupling regime and evidence a simultaneous optical hybridization between the organic-exciton and a number of the confined cavity modes, forming an effective ladder of polariton branches. We explore the emission from such cavities and evidence a polariton-population on adjacent polariton branches around k{sub ∥} = 0.

  4. Light scattering study on the size and structure of calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite flocs formed in sugar solutions.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Judy; Rainey, Tom; Doherty, William O S

    2007-02-01

    The formation, flocculation and sedimentation of calcium phosphate particles are among the main physico-chemical reactions that occur during the clarification of cane sugar juice. The mechanisms through which processes occur in juice clarification are still poorly understood. This study (being part of a comprehensive investigation to unravel these mechanisms) reports on the size and structure of calcium phosphate particles and aggregates in water and sugar solutions at 20 degrees C using the small angle laser light scattering technique. The average size of the primary calcium phosphate particles was in the range 10.4+/-1.1 microm to 17.5+/-1.2 microm and the scattering exponents, which describe the structure of the calcium phosphate flocs, varied from 1.97 to 2.76. The flocs formed without flocculant are more compact in water than those formed in sugar solution. The compactness of the flocs was also affected by pH of the solution. This effect has been explained by considering the electrical double layer phenomenon.

  5. Estimating Parametric, Model Form, and Solution Contributions Using Integral Validation Uncertainty Quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R W; Nitta, C K; Chidester, S K

    2006-02-28

    One of the final steps in building a numerical model of a physical, mechanical, thermal, or chemical process, is to assess its accuracy as well as its sensitivity to input parameters and modeling technique. In this work, we demonstrate one simple process to take a top-down or integral view of the model, one which can implicitly reflect any couplings between parameters, to assess the importance of each aspect of modeling technique. We illustrate with an example of a comparison of a finite element model with data for violent reaction of explosives in accident scenarios. We show the relative importance of each of the main parametric inputs, and the contributions of model form and grid convergence. These can be directly related to the importance factors for the system being analyzed as a whole, and help determine which factors need more attention in future analyses and tests.

  6. Darboux Transformation and N-soliton Solution for Extended Form of Modified Kadomtsev—Petviashvili Equation with Variable-Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xing-Yu; Chen, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The extended form of modified Kadomtsev—Petviashvili equation with variable-coefficient is investigated in the framework of Painlevé analysis. The Lax pairs are obtained by analysing two Painlevé branches of this equation. Starting with the Lax pair, the N-times Darboux transformation is constructed and the N-soliton solution formula is given, which contains 2n free parameters and two arbitrary functions. Furthermore, with different combinations of the parameters, several types of soliton solutions are calculated from the first order to the third order. The regularity conditions are discussed in order to avoid the singularity of the solutions. Moreover, we construct the generalized Darboux transformation matrix by considering a special limiting process and find a rational-type solution for this equation. Supported by the Global Change Research Program of China under Grant No. 2015CB953904, National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275072 and 11435005, Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20120076110024, The Network Information Physics Calculation of basic research innovation research group of China under Grant No. 61321064, Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center of Trustworthy Software for Internet of Things under Grant No. ZF1213, Shanghai Minhang District talents of high level scientific research project

  7. Nonlinear (time domain) and linearized (time and frequency domain) solutions to the compressible Euler equations in conservation law form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreenivas, Kidambi; Whitfield, David L.

    1995-01-01

    Two linearized solvers (time and frequency domain) based on a high resolution numerical scheme are presented. The basic approach is to linearize the flux vector by expressing it as a sum of a mean and a perturbation. This allows the governing equations to be maintained in conservation law form. A key difference between the time and frequency domain computations is that the frequency domain computations require only one grid block irrespective of the interblade phase angle for which the flow is being computed. As a result of this and due to the fact that the governing equations for this case are steady, frequency domain computations are substantially faster than the corresponding time domain computations. The linearized equations are used to compute flows in turbomachinery blade rows (cascades) arising due to blade vibrations. Numerical solutions are compared to linear theory (where available) and to numerical solutions of the nonlinear Euler equations.

  8. Effect of substitution of ions in sodium niobate on the Curie temperature of the solid solutions formed

    SciTech Connect

    Lutsevich, A.B.; Isupov, V.A.; Isupova, E.N.; Urban, T.P.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of the substitution of atoms on the Curie temperature of the solid solutions NaNb /SUB 1-x/ V /SUB x/ O/sub 3/ was investigated. An x-ray diffraction study and the determination of the dielectric properties of the polycrystalline samples showed that the solid solutions are formed in a very narrow concentration interval not exceeding 4 mole % NaVO/sub 3/. When Nb/sup 5 +/ ions are replaced with V/sup 5 +/ ions the Curie temperature increases. This is associated with the increase in the total ionic polarizability owing to the high ionic polarizability of the V/sup 5 +/ ion in the oxygen octahedron.

  9. Compositional analysis of passivating surface film formed on carbon electrode in organic electrolytic solution using in-situ spectroelectrochemical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyun, Su-Il

    1999-02-01

    In-situ spectroelectrochemical technique has been applied to investigate passivating surface film on porous carbon electrode and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) carbon film electrode in organic electrolytic solution consisting of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) solvent, and 1 M LiPF6 and LiAsF6. Water impurity with the concentration of 0 M, 0.02 M, 0.05 M, and 0.1 M H20 was added to 1 M LiPF6-EC/DEC solution. In-situ Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra of the surface film on both electrodes with the constituents of ROCO2Li, Li2CO3, and LixPFy suggested that the reduction of EC to ROCO2Li runs via a one-electron transfer pathway as a result of diffusion of water through the surface film, and then Li2CO3 formation proceeds simultaneously by the chemical reaction of ROCO2Li with water. From the measured potential dependence of the amount of the salt reduction products, it is suggested that the surface film formed in 1 M LiPF6EC/DEC solution gives a poorer passivity as compared with that formed in 1 M LiAsF6-EC/DEC solution, which is due to the considerable interference of LiPE6 salt reduction with the compact sedimentation of ROCO2Li on the electrode. In-situ FFIR spectra of the surface film showed that all the peak intensities of the three constituents significantly increase with increasing water content under application of the negative potentials with respect to open circuit potential (OCP). From these experimental results, the dependence of the passivity of the surface film on the carbon electrode on the water concentration of the electrolyte, as well as on the lithium salt type, was discussed in view of the salt and solvent reactivities.

  10. Removal of herbicides from aqueous solutions by modified forms of montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Park, Yuri; Sun, Zhiming; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2014-02-01

    This investigation for the removal of agricultural pollutants, imazaquin and atrazine was conducted using montmorillonite (MMT) exchanged with organic cations through ion exchange. The study found that the adsorption of the herbicides was affected by the degree of organic cation saturations, the size of organic cations and the different natures of the herbicides. The modified clays intercalated with the larger surfactant molecules at the higher concentrations tended to enhance the adsorption of imazaquin and atrazine. In particular, the organoclays were highly efficient for the removal of imazaquin while the adsorption of atrazine was minimal due to the different hydrophobicities. Both imazaquin and atrazine were influenced by the changes of pH. The amphoteric imazaquin exists as an anion at the pH 5-7 and the anionic imazaquin was protonated to a neutral and further a cationic form when the pH is lower. The weak base, atrazine was also protonated at lower pH values. The anionic imazaquin had a strong affinity to the organoclays on the external surface as well as in the interlayer space of the MMT through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. In this study, the electrostatic interaction can be the primary mechanism involved during the adsorption process. This study also investigated a comparative adsorption for the imazaquin and atrazine and the lower adsorption of atrazine was enhanced and this phenomenon was due to the synergetic effect. This work highlights a potential mechanism for the removal of specific persistence herbicides from the environment.

  11. Analysis and self-lubricating treatment of porous anodic alumina film formed in a compound solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Yi, Hongzhan; Wang, Haowei

    2005-12-01

    A porous anodic film on aluminum was prepared in a mixed electrolyte of phosphoric acid and organic acid and cerium salt, and ultrasonic impregnation technology was applied on it to form self-lubricating surface composite. The structure and chemical composition of the film and its lubricity after self-lubricating treatment were investigated in detail. EPMA indicates the cross-section of anodized film has two distinct oxide layers. Al, O and P are found in the film with different distribution in the two layers. XPS analysis on the electron binding energy of the component elements show the chemical composition of film surface are Al 2O 3, Ce(OH) and some phosphates. The structure of anodized film is amorphous with XRD analysis. The tribological tests shows the frictional coefficient of the self-lubricating surface composite coating is 0.25, much lower than anodized aluminum and aluminum substrate, which is about 0.55 and 0.85, respectively, and it is also durable for a long period of time in comparison with the lubricating coating fabricated by hot-dipping method. SEM images show some PTFE particles are added into the nanoholes of anodic oxide film.

  12. Did the Mississippian Lodgepole buildup at Dickinson Field (North Dakota) form as a gas seep ({open_quotes}vent{close_quotes}) community?

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.

    1996-10-01

    The Lower Mississippian Lodgepole carbonate buildup reservoir at Dickinson Field in Stark County, North Dakota, has been widely reported as being a Waulsortian (or Waulsortian-like) mound. The term {open_quotes}Waulsortian mound{close_quotes} is used for a variety of Early Mississippian carbonate buildups that share a number of features including an abundance of carbonate mud, a {open_quotes}framework{close_quotes} of organisms such as fenestrate bryozoans and crinoids that tended to trap or baffle sediment, and a general absence of marine-cemented reef framework. Although the age of the Lodgepole mound at Dickinson Field qualifies it to be a Waulsortian mound, petrographic study of cores reveals that the reservoir rocks are quite unlike those in true Waulsortian mounds. Instead of being dominated by carbonate mud, the Lodgepole mound core is dominated by marine cement. Furthermore, ostracods and microbial limestones are common in the mound core where they occur with crinoid debris and small amounts of bryozoan, coral, and brachiopod debris. The abundant microbial limestones and marine cement indicate that the Dickinson mound formed as a lithified reef on the sea floor rather than as a Waulsortian mud mound. The microbial limestones, marine cement, and common ostracods in the mount core, and the fact that the mound nucleated almost directly o top of the Bakken Shale, suggest that the Dickinson Lodgepole mound formed at the site of a submarine spring and gas seep.

  13. Solution-processed crack-free oxide films formed using SiO2 nanoparticles and organoalkoxysiloxane precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Moonkyong; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2015-07-01

    Crack-free uniform oxide films were deposited by spin-on-glass method using a mixture solution of organoalkoxysiloxane network former and SiO2 nanoparticles. In the range of molar ratio of SiO2 nanoparticles to oragnoalkoxysiloxanes between 0.6:1 and 1:1, stable sols were formed and smooth and uniform oxide films could be obtained. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical properties of the films, and we found that Sisbnd Osbnd Si structures were effectively formed via condensation reactions during curing at 150 °C. The effect of three different organic side groups in the organoalkoxsiloxane on the film properties was investigated. Precursors containing methyl groups effectively formed Sisbnd Osbnd Si network with SiO2 nanoparticles, which was confirmed by the increased intensity of the Sisbnd O asymmetric stretching mode at 1080 cm-1 in the FT-IR spectra. Smooth and continuous films were obtained using precursors containing methyl and phenyl groups, with root-mean-square surface roughness of 1.05 nm (methyl precursor) and 1.16 nm (phenyl precursor). The shrinkage of the oxide film formed with phenyl groups was less than 1%. The dielectric properties of the oxide films were characterized, and we observed leakage currents in the range of 10-9 to 10-8 A/cm2 just prior to the dielectric breakdown with the films formed using precursors containing methyl and phenyl groups

  14. Klebsormidium flaccidum, a charophycean green alga, exhibits cold acclimation that is closely associated with compatible solute accumulation and ultrastructural changes.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Manabu; Matsui, Kenji; Uemura, Matsuo

    2008-06-01

    To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms and subsequent evolutionary aspects of plant cold acclimation, we examined the effect of cold acclimation on freezing tolerance in Klebsormidium flaccidum, a green alga belonging to Charophyceae, a sister group of land plants. Freezing tolerance of K. flaccidum was significantly enhanced by cold treatment: survival increased from 15% at -10 degrees C when grown at 18 degrees C to 55 and 85% after exposure at 2 degrees C for 2 and 7 d, respectively. Accompanying the development of freezing tolerance, soluble sugars (glucose and sucrose), a putative glycoside and amino acids, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), accumulated to high levels in the alga, suggesting that these solutes play a crucial role in the cold acclimation of K. flaccidum. Interestingly, the application of abscisic acid (ABA) did not change the freezing tolerance of the alga. We also observed changes in cell structure, including increased numbers and sizes of starch grains in chloroplasts, chloroplast enlargement, vacuole size reduction and cytoplasmic volume increase. These results suggest that K. flaccidum responds well to cold treatment and develops freezing tolerance in a process comparable to that of land plants.

  15. Characterization of film-forming solutions and films incorporating free and nanoencapsulated tea polyphenol prepared by gelatins with different Bloom values

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gelatin film-forming solutions and their films incorporating tea polyphenol (TP) and chitosan nanoparticles (CSNs) were prepared from gelatins with different Bloom values (100, 150 and 225). Blank gelatin film-forming solutions and films were prepared as controls. Gelatins with higher Bloom values h...

  16. Behavior of Paramecium sp. in solutions containing Sr and Pb: Do Paramecium sp. alter chemical forms of those metals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Koka, Masahi; Satoh, Takahiro; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2011-10-01

    The behavior of Paramecium sp. (Paramecium bursaria) in aqueous solutions containing Sr and Pb was investigated to determine the role of protozoa in the migration of radionuclides in the environment. Precultured living cells of P. bursaria were exposed to aqueous solutions containing 0.01 or 0.05 mM Sr or Pb at pH 7 for 24 h. For comparison, pre-killed cells were treated with the metal solutions in the same way. Two-dimensional elemental mappings of cells were obtained by micro-PIXE. Aquatic species of Sr and Pb were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled online to ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and inductivity coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The amounts of Sr adsorbed or taken up by the cells surviving for 24 h and adsorbed on pre-killed cells were below the detection limit. Cells of P. bursaria adsorbed or took up a fraction of Pb. The Pb adsorbed or taken up by the cells surviving for 24 h in the Pb solution was barely detectable, while the Pb adsorbed on pre-killed cells was clearly mappable. These findings suggest that living cells of P. bursaria have functions that reduce adsorption or uptake of Pb on the cells. Quantitative and SEC-UV-ICP-MS analyses of the Sr and Pb in aqueous phases showed no clear evidences that living cells of P. bursaria alter the chemical form of Sr or Pb remaining in the aqueous phases after the cell-solution contact.

  17. The Fouling of Zirconium(IV) Hydrous Oxide–Polyacrylate Dynamically Formed Membranes during the Nanofiltration of Lactic Acid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Polom, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The results of investigations of flux decline during nanofiltration (NF) of lactic acid solutions using dynamically formed zirconium(IV) hydrous oxide/polyacrylate membranes (Zr(IV)/PAA) under conditions resulting in low and high lactic acid rejection are reported. The experimental permeate flux versus time curves were analyzed in the frame of resistance in a series model with the aim of developing the characteristic of resistances. Analysis of experimental data and results of calculations showed that the reduction of fouling effects in the investigated system could be achieved due to appropriate hydrodynamic process conditions and regular rinsing with deionized water. PMID:24957066

  18. The Fouling of Zirconium(IV) Hydrous Oxide-Polyacrylate Dynamically Formed Membranes during the Nanofiltration of Lactic Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Polom, Ewa

    2013-12-10

    The results of investigations of flux decline during nanofiltration (NF) of lactic acid solutions using dynamically formed zirconium(IV) hydrous oxide/polyacrylate membranes (Zr(IV)/PAA) under conditions resulting in low and high lactic acid rejection are reported. The experimental permeate flux versus time curves were analyzed in the frame of resistance in a series model with the aim of developing the characteristic of resistances. Analysis of experimental data and results of calculations showed that the reduction of fouling effects in the investigated system could be achieved due to appropriate hydrodynamic process conditions and regular rinsing with deionized water.

  19. Accurate and economical solution of the pressure-head form of Richards' equation by the method of lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tocci, Michael D.; Kelley, C. T.; Miller, Cass T.

    The pressure-head form of Richards' equation (RE) is difficult to solve accurately using standard time integration methods. For example, mass balance errors grow as the integration progresses unless very small time steps are taken. Further, RE may be solved for many problems more economically and robustly with variable-size time steps rather than with a constant time-step size, but variable step-size methods applied to date have relied upon empirical approaches to control step size, which do not explicitly control temporal truncation error of the solution. We show how a differential algebrain equation implementation of the method of lines can give solutions to RE that are accurate, have good mass balance properties, explicitly control temporal truncation error, and are more economical than standard approaches for a wide range of solution accuracy. We detail changes to a standard integrator, DASPK, that improves efficiency for the test problems considered, and we advocate the use of this approach for both RE and other problems involving subsurface flow and transport phenomena.

  20. Characterization of the aggregates formed by various bacterial lipopolysaccharides in solution and upon interaction with antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Bello, Gianluca; Eriksson, Jonny; Terry, Ann; Edwards, Katarina; Lawrence, M Jayne; Barlow, David; Harvey, Richard D

    2015-01-20

    The biophysical analysis of the aggregates formed by different chemotypes of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) before and after challenge by two different antiendotoxic antimicrobial peptides (LL37 and bovine lactoferricin) was performed in order to determine their effect on the morphology of LPS aggregates. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM) were used to examine the structures formed by both smooth and rough LPS chemotypes and the effect of the peptides, by visualization of the aggregates and analysis of the scattering data by means of both mathematical approximations and defined models. The data showed that the structure of LPS determines the morphology of the aggregates and influences the binding activity of both peptides. The morphologies of the worm-like micellar aggregates formed by the smooth LPS were relatively unaltered by the presence of the peptides due to their pre-existing high degree of positive curvature being little affected by their association with either peptide. On the other hand, the aggregates formed by the rough LPS chemotypes showed marked morphological changes from lamellar structures to ordered micellar networks, induced by the increase in positive curvature engendered upon association with the peptides. The combined use of cryoTEM and SANS proved to be a very useful tool for studying the aggregation properties of LPS in solution at biologically relevant concentrations.

  1. Carbapenems and SHV-1 β-Lactamase Form Different Acyl-Enzyme Populations in Crystals and Solution

    PubMed Central

    Kalp, Matthew; Carey, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    The reactions between single crystals of the SHV-1 β-lactamase enzyme and the carbapenems, meropenem, imipenem and ertapenem, have been studied by Raman microscopy. Aided by quantum mechanical calculations, major populations of two acyl-enzyme species, a labile Δ2-pyrroline and a more tightly bound Δ1-pyrroline, have been identified for all three compounds. These isomers differ only in the position of the double bond about the carbapenem nucleus. This discovery is consonant with X-ray crystallographic findings that also identified two populations for meropenem bound in SHV-1: one with the acyl C=O group in the oxyanion hole and the second with the acyl group rotated 180 degrees compared to its expected position [Nukaga, M., Bethel, C. R., Thomson, J. M., Hujer, A. M., Distler, A. M., Anderson, V. E., Knox, J. R., and Bonomo, R. A. (2008) Journal of the American Chemical Society]. When crystals of the Δ1 and Δ2 containing acyl-enzymes were exposed to solutions with no carbapenem, rapid deacylation of the Δ2 species was observed by kinetic Raman experiments. However, no change in the Δ1 population was observed over 1 hour, the effective lifetime of the crystal. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the stable Δ1 species is due to the form seen by X-ray with the acyl carbonyl outside the oxyanion hole, while the Δ2 species corresponds to the form with the carbonyl inside the oxyanion hole. Soak-in and soak-out Raman experiments also demonstrated that tautomeric exchange between the Δ1 and Δ2 forms does not occur on the crystalline enzyme. When meropenem or ertapenem were reacted with SHV-1 in solution, the Raman difference spectra demonstrated that only a major population corresponding to the Δ1 acyl-enzyme could be detected. The 1003 cm-1 mode of the phenyl ring positioned on the C3 side chain of ertapenem acts as an effective internal Raman intensity standard and the ratio of its intensity to that of the 1600 cm-1 feature of Δ1 provides an

  2. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at pHs close to or above the pK[sub a] of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Tung, L.A.

    1992-07-21

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH[sub a] into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carboxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia. 8 figs.

  3. Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at PHS close to or above the pK.sub.a of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Tung, Lisa A.

    1992-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH.sub.a into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. the acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carobxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia.

  4. Radiation chemical effects in the near field of a final disposal site -- 1: Radiolytic products formed in concentrated NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kelm, M.; Bohnert, E.

    2000-01-01

    The yields of the different radiolytic products formed by gamma radiolysis from NaCl brines at ambient temperature and dose rates between 0.1 and 1 kGy/h were determined. At a chloride concentration of 5.3 mol/{ell}, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and ClO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were formed proportional to the dose and independent from the dose rate with G values of 0.6, 0.16, and 0.074, respectively. At a concentration of 2 mol/{ell}, the chlorate yield dropped to a value close to zero, and the gas composition became stoichiometric. At pH 12 and in the presence of heavy metal ions, the yield of oxygen increased at the expense of chlorate. The concentrations of hypochlorite and chlorite were usually in the micromole per litre range. In pressurized solutions of 5.3 mol/{ell} Cl{sup {minus}} where all radiolytic gases were kept dissolved, equilibrium concentrations of radiolytic products were almost reached at a dose of {approximately}1 MGy. The partial pressure of radiolytic gases was {approximately}35 bars, and the chlorate concentration was {approximately}170 {micro}mol/{ell}.

  5. Radiation Chemical Effects in the Near Field of a Final Disposal Site - I: Radiolytic Products Formed in Concentrated NaCl Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kelm, M.; Bohnert, E.

    2000-01-15

    The yields of the different radiolytic products formed by gamma radiolysis from NaCl brines at ambient temperature and dose rates between 0.1 and 1 kGy/h were determined. At a chloride concentration of 5.3 mol/l, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and ClO{sub 3}{sup -} were formed proportional to the dose and independent from the dose rate with G values of 0.6, 0.16, and 0.074, respectively. At a concentration of 2 mol/l, the chlorate yield dropped to a value close to zero, and the gas composition became stoichiometric. At pH 12 and in the presence of heavy metal ions, the yield of oxygen increased at the expense of chlorate. The concentrations of hypochlorite and chlorite were usually in the micromole per litre range. In pressurized solutions of 5.3 mol/l Cl{sup -} where all radiolytic gases were kept dissolved, equilibrium concentrations of radiolytic products were almost reached at a dose of {approx}1 MGy. The partial pressure of radiolytic gases was {approx}35 bars, and the chlorate concentration was {approx}170 {mu}mol/l.

  6. Characterisation of passive films formed on low carbon steel in borate buffer solution (pH 9.2) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadou, L.; Kadri, A.; Benbrahim, N.

    2005-12-01

    The comprehension of passivity and its protective character against corrosion is closely connected with the electronic properties of passive films. Passive films formed anodically on carbon steel in borate/boric acid solution, pH 9.2, have been characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Mott-Schottky plots and impedance measurements were made on films formed at different potentials and times. The investigation allowed the determination of the semiconductive properties of the films. The results of the capacitance response indicate that the passive films behave like highly doped n-type semiconductors, showing that the passive film properties are dominated by iron. The value of donors density ( ND) for the passive film is of the order of 10 21 cm -3 and decreases with increasing formation time and potential, indicating that defects decrease with increasing film thickness. Based on the information about the physical phenomena, an equivalent circuit is proposed to fit the experimental data, leading to determination of anodic film capacitance and film resistance.

  7. Structural-acoustic optimum design of shell structures in open/closed space based on a free-form optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Masatoshi; Shimoide, Kensuke; Shi, Jin-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Noise reduction by structural geometry optimization has attracted much attention among designers. In the present work, we propose a free-form optimization method for the structural-acoustic design optimization of shell structures to reduce the noise of a targeted frequency or frequency range in an open or closed space. The objective of the design optimization is to minimize the average structural vibration-induced sound pressure at the evaluation points in the acoustic field under a volume constraint. For the shape design optimization, we carry out structural-acoustic coupling analysis and adjoint analysis to calculate the shape gradient functions. Then, we use the shape gradient functions in velocity analysis to update the shape of shell structures. We repeat this process until convergence is confirmed to obtain the optimum shape of the shell structures in a structural-acoustic coupling system. The numerical results for the considered examples showed that the proposed design optimization process can significantly reduce the noise in both open and closed spaces.

  8. The association of an inability to form and maintain close relationships due to a medical condition with anxiety and depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Simning, Adam; Seplaki, Christopher L; Conwell, Yeates

    2016-03-15

    While low social support is a risk factor for mental illness, anxiety and depression's relationship with social impairment specifically resulting from a medical condition is poorly understood. We hypothesize that when a medical illness makes it difficult for people to form and maintain close relationships with others, they will be at increased risk for anxiety and depression. Two nationally representative surveys, the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication and National Latino and Asian American Study, included 6805 adults with at least one medical illness and information on social impairment attributed to a medical condition. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview evaluated a 12-month history of anxiety and depressive disorders. 8.2% of our sample had at least moderate difficulty in forming and maintaining close relationships due to a medical condition. In bivariate analyses, younger age, Latino ethnicity, less education, worse financial status, more chronic illnesses, physical health and discomfort, and problems with mobility, home management, and self-care were associated with this social impairment. In multivariable analyses accounting for possible confounders, there was a dose-dependent relationship between social impairment and the prevalence of anxiety and depression. Data are cross-sectional and our analyses are therefore unable to determine cause-and-effect relationships. Among adults with one or more medical conditions, social impairment attributed to medical illness was associated with a significantly greater odds of anxiety and depression. Further clarification of this relationship could inform more targeted, personalized interventions to prevent and/or alleviate mental illness in those with chronic medical conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. New analytical solutions for chemical evolution models: characterizing the population of star-forming and passive galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitoni, E.; Vincenzo, F.; Matteucci, F.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Analytical models of chemical evolution, including inflow and outflow of gas, are important tools for studying how the metal content in galaxies evolves as a function of time. Aims: We present new analytical solutions for the evolution of the gas mass, total mass, and metallicity of a galactic system when a decaying exponential infall rate of gas and galactic winds are assumed. We apply our model to characterize a sample of local star-forming and passive galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, with the aim of reproducing their observed mass-metallicity relation. Methods: We derived how the two populations of star-forming and passive galaxies differ in their particular distribution of ages, formation timescales, infall masses, and mass loading factors. Results: We find that the local passive galaxies are, on average, older and assembled on shorter typical timescales than the local star-forming galaxies; on the other hand, the star-forming galaxies with higher masses generally show older ages and longer typical formation timescales compared than star-forming galaxies with lower masses. The local star-forming galaxies experience stronger galactic winds than the passive galaxy population. Exploring the effect of assuming different initial mass functions in our model, we show that to reproduce the observed mass-metallicity relation, stronger winds are requested if the initial mass function is top-heavy. Finally, our analytical models predict the assumed sample of local galaxies to lie on a tight surface in the 3D space defined by stellar metallicity, star formation rate, and stellar mass, in agreement with the well-known fundamental relation from adopting gas-phase metallicity. Conclusions: By using a new analytical model of chemical evolution, we characterize an ensemble of SDSS galaxies in terms of their infall timescales, infall masses, and mass loading factors. Local passive galaxies are, on average, older and assembled on shorter typical

  10. Closed Analytical Solutions of the D-Dimensional Schrödinger Equation with Deformed Woods-Saxon Potential Plus Double Ring-Shaped Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabab, Mohamed; El Batoul, Abdelwahed; Oulne, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    By employing the Pekeris approximation, the D-dimensional Schrödinger equation is solved for the nuclear deformed Woods-Saxon potential plus double ring-shaped potential within the framework of the asymptotic iteration method (AIM). The energy eigenvalues are given in a closed form, and the corresponding normalised eigenfunctions are obtained in terms of hypergeometric functions. Our general results reproduce many predictions obtained in the literature, using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method (NU) and the improved quantisation rule approach, particularly those derived by considering Woods-Saxon potential without deformation and/or without ring shape interaction.

  11. Stable tetrabenzo-Chichibabin's hydrocarbons: tunable ground state and unusual transition between their closed-shell and open-shell resonance forms.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zebing; Sung, Young Mo; Bao, Nina; Tan, Davin; Lee, Richmond; Zafra, José L; Lee, Byung Sun; Ishida, Masatoshi; Ding, Jun; López Navarrete, Juan T; Li, Yuan; Zeng, Wangdong; Kim, Dongho; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Webster, Richard D; Casado, Juan; Wu, Jishan

    2012-09-05

    Stable open-shell polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of fundamental interest due to their unique electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and promising applications in materials sciences. Chichibabin's hydrocarbon as a classical open-shell PAH has been investigated for a long time. However, most of the studies are complicated by their inherent high reactivity. In this work, two new stable benzannulated Chichibabin's hydrocarbons 1-CS and 2-OS were prepared, and their electronic structure and geometry in the ground state were studied by various experiments (steady-state and transient absorption spectra, NMR, electron spin resonance (ESR), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), FT Raman, X-ray crystallographic etc.) and density function theory (DFT) calculations. 1-CS and 2-OS exhibited tunable ground states, with a closed-shell quinoidal structure for 1-CS and an open-shell biradical form for 2-OS. Their corresponding excited-state forms 1-OS and 2-CS were also chemically approached and showed different decay processes. The biradical 1-OS displayed an unusually slow decay to the ground state (1-CS) due to a large energy barrier (95 ± 2.5 kJ/mol) arising from severe steric hindrance during the transition from an orthogonal biradical form to a butterfly-like quinoidal form. The quick transition from the quinoidal 2-CS (excited state) to the orthogonal biradicaloid 2-OS (ground state) happened during the attempted synthesis of 2-CS. Compounds 1-CS and 2-OS can be oxidized into stable dications by FeCl(3) and/or concentrated H(2)SO(4). The open-shell 2-OS also exhibited a large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section (760 GM at 1200 nm).

  12. Can the dodecahedral water cluster naturally form in methane aqueous solutions? A molecular dynamics study on the hydrate nucleation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guang-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Gang; Li, Meng; Wu, Chang-Hua

    2008-05-21

    By performing a large scale of molecular dynamics simulations, we analyze 60 x 10(6) hydration shells of methane to examine whether the dodecahedral water cluster (DWC) can naturally form in methane aqueous solutions--a fundamental question relevant to the nucleation mechanisms of methane hydrate. The analyzing method is based on identifying the incomplete cages (ICs) from the hydration shells and quantifying their cagelike degrees (zetaC=0-1). Here, the zetaC is calculated according to the H-bond topological network of IC and reflects how the IC resembles the complete polyhedral cage. In this study, we obtain the zetaC distributions of ICs in methane solutions and find the occurrence probabilities of ICs reduce with zetaC very rapidly. The ICs with zetaC>or=0.65 are studied, which can be regarded as the acceptable cagelike structures in appearance. Both increasing the methane concentration and lowering the temperature can increase their occurrence probabilities through slowing down the water molecules. Their shapes, cage-maker numbers, and average radii are also discussed. About 13-14 of these ICs are face saturated, meaning that every edges are shared by two faces. The face-saturated ICs have the potential to act as precursors of hydrate nucleus because they can prevent the encaged methane from directly contacting other dissolved methane when an event of methane aggregation occurs. The complete cages, i.e., the ICs with zetaC=1, form only in the solutions with high methane concentration, and their occurrence probabilities are about 10(-6). Most of their shapes are different from the known hydrate cages, but we indeed observe a standard 5(12)6(2) hydrate cage. We do not find the expected DWC, and its occurrence probability is estimated to be far less than 10(-7). Additionally, the IC analysis proposed in this work is also very useful in other studies not only on the formation, dissociation, and structural transition of hydrates but also on the hydrophobic

  13. Physicochemical characterization of in situ drug-polymer nanocomplex formed between zwitterionic drug and ionomeric material in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, Constain H; Castillo, Duvan F; Villada, Juan D; Rivera, Gustavo R

    2017-03-01

    Biocompatible polymeric materials with the potential to form functional structures, in association with different therapeutic molecules, in physiological media, represent a great potential for biological and pharmaceutical applications. Therefore, here the formation of a nano-complex between a synthetic cationic polymer and model drug (ampicillin trihydrate) was studied. The formed complex was characterized by size and zeta potential measurements, using dynamic light scattering and capillary electrophoresis. Moreover, the chemical and thermodynamically stability of these complexes were studied. The ionomeric material, here referred as EuCl, was obtained by equimolar reaction between Eudragit E and HCl. The structural characterization was carried out by potentiometric titration, FTIR spectroscopy, and DSC. The effect of pH, time, polymer concentration and ampicillin/polymer molar ratio over the hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential were established. The results show that EuCl ionomer in aqueous media presents two different populations of nanoparticles; one of this tends to form flocculated aggregates in high pH and concentrations, by acquiring different conformations in solution by changing from a compact to an extended conformation. Moreover, the formation of an in situ interfacial polymer-drug complex was demonstrated, this could slightly reduce the hydrolytic degradation of the drug while affecting its solubility, mainly under acidic conditions.

  14. Fatigue property of a bioabsorbable magnesium alloy with a hydroxyapatite coating formed by a chemical solution deposition.

    PubMed

    Hiromoto, Sachiko; Tomozawa, Masanari; Maruyama, Norio

    2013-09-01

    A hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating was directly formed on an extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy by a single-step chemical solution deposition. The HAp coating consists of an outer porous HAp layer, an inner continuous HAp layer, and a thin intermediate MgO layer, and the inner HAp and MgO layers are composed of nanocrystals. Tensile and fatigue tests were performed on the HAp-coated AZ31 in air. The HAp coating microscopically showed neither crack nor detachment at 5% static elongation (1.5% residual strain). With further elongation under tensile stress, cracks were formed perpendicularly to the tensile direction, and fragments of the coating detached with a fracture inside the inner continuous HAp layer. The fatigue strengths at 10(7) cycles (fatigue limit) of HAp-coated and mechanically polished AZ31 were ca. 80 MPa and ca. 90 MPa, respectively. The slight decrease in the fatigue limit with the HAp coating is attributed to small pits with a depth of ca. 10 μm formed on the substrate during the HAp-coating treatment. The HAp coating remained on the specimen without cracks after 10(7) cycles at the fatigue limit, which provides ca. 3% cyclic elongation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of a 16-Item Short Form of the Czech Version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Revised Questionnaire in a Representative Sample.

    PubMed

    Kaščáková, Natália; Husárová, Daniela; Hašto, Jozef; Kolarčik, Peter; Šolcová, Iva Poláčková; Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Tavel, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to create a shorter Czech version (ECR-R-16) of the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR-R) questionnaire and to assess its psychometric properties. Data from a representative sample of the Czech population from 15 to 90 years old (N = 1000, M age = 46.0 years, SD = 17.3) were collected using a face-to-face structured interview in 2014. The developed short form of the Czech version of the ECR-R showed good internal consistency (alphas varied from .84 to .90), and both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses replicated the two-dimensional model. The results also demonstrated concurrent validity with measures of neuroticism, self-esteem, and positive and negative affect. People living with a partner and people with higher educational levels had significantly lower Avoidance scores than people living alone and people with lower educational levels. It was concluded that the ECR-R-16 questionnaire has good psychometric properties and is a valid assessment method in the Czech cultural context, suitable for research and clinical studies, when the shorter form of a measure is desirable. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Structure and composition of Fe-OM co-precipitates that form in soil-derived solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Wieczorek, Arkadiusz K.; Händel, Matthias; Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai U.

    2015-11-01

    Iron oxides represent a substantial fraction of secondary minerals and particularly affect the reactive properties of natural systems in which they formed, e.g. in soils and sediments. Yet, it is still obscure how transient conditions in the solution will affect the properties of in situ precipitated Fe oxides. Transient compositions, i.e. compositions that change with time, arise due to predominant non-equilibrium states in natural systems, e.g. between liquid and solid phases in soils. In this study, we characterize Fe-OM co-precipitates that formed in pH-neutral exfiltrates from anoxic topsoils under transient conditions. We applied soil column outflow experiments, in which Fe2+ was discharged with the effluent from anoxic soil and subsequently oxidized in the effluent due to contact with air. Our study features three novel aspects being unconsidered so far: (i) the transient composition of soil-derived solutions, (ii) that pedogenic Fe oxides instead of Fe salts serve as major source for Fe2+ in soil solution and (iii) the presence of exclusively soil-derived organic and inorganic compounds during precipitation. The experiments were carried out with two topsoil materials that differed in composition, texture and land use. Derived from Mössbauer spectroscopy, broad distributions in quadrupole splittings (0-2 mm s-1) and magnetic hyperfine fields (35-53 T) indicated the presence of low-crystalline ferrihydrite and even lower crystalline Fe phases in all Fe-OM co-precipitates. There was no unequivocal evidence for other Fe oxides, i.e. lepidocrocite and (nano)goethite. The Fe-OM co-precipitates contained inorganic (P, sulfate, silicate, Al, As) and organic compounds (proteins, polysaccharides), which were concurrently discharged from the soils. Their content in the Fe-OM co-precipitates was controlled by their respective concentration in the soil-derived solution. On a molar basis, OC and Fe were the main components in the Fe-OM co-precipitates (OC/Fe ratio = 0

  17. Bimolecular recombination reactions: K-adiabatic and K-active forms of the bimolecular master equations and analytic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderi, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Expressions for a K-adiabatic master equation for a bimolecular recombination rate constant krec are derived for a bimolecular reaction forming a complex with a single well or complexes with multiple well, where K is the component of the total angular momentum along the axis of least moment of inertia of the recombination product. The K-active master equation is also considered. The exact analytic solutions, i.e., the K-adiabatic and K-active steady-state population distribution function of reactive complexes, g(EJK) and g(EJ), respectively, are derived for the K-adiabatic and K-active master equation cases using properties of inhomogeneous integral equations (Fredholm type). The solutions accommodate arbitrary intermolecular energy transfer models, e.g., the single exponential, double exponential, Gaussian, step-ladder, and near-singularity models. At the high pressure limit, the krec for both the K-adiabatic and K-active master equations reduce, respectively, to the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory (high pressure limit expressions). Ozone and its formation from O + O2 are known to exhibit an adiabatic K. The ratio of the K-adiabatic to the K-active recombination rate constants for ozone formation at the high pressure limit is calculated to be ˜0.9 at 300 K. Results on the temperature and pressure dependence of the recombination rate constants and populations of O3 will be presented elsewhere.

  18. Adsorption equilibria between liposome membrane formed of phosphatidylcholine and aqueous sodium chloride solution as a function of pH.

    PubMed

    Kotyńska, J; Figaszewski, Z A

    2005-12-30

    The effect has been studied of the adsorption of ions (H(+), Na(+), OH(-), Cl(-)) which are present in solution upon the electric charge of the liposome membrane formed of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The surface charge density of the membrane was determined as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration from electrophoretic mobility measurements. The measurements were carried out by the laser-Doppler microelectrophoresis method. A four-equilibria model has been proposed to describe the phenomena occurring on the membrane surface. The equilibria in which the adsorption of other ions on the liposome membrane surface was involved were assumed to exist beside the equilibria in which the H(+) and OH(-) ions were engaged. The idea was confirmed by mathematical calculations. Association constants of the liposome membrane surface with ions of solution (K(AH), K(ANa), K(BOH), K(BCl)) were determined. The proposed model has been proved to be correct by comparing the resulting theoretic charge variation curves of the lecithin membrane with the experimental data.

  19. Bimolecular recombination reactions: K-adiabatic and K-active forms of the bimolecular master equations and analytic solutions.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Nima

    2016-03-28

    Expressions for a K-adiabatic master equation for a bimolecular recombination rate constant krec are derived for a bimolecular reaction forming a complex with a single well or complexes with multiple well, where K is the component of the total angular momentum along the axis of least moment of inertia of the recombination product. The K-active master equation is also considered. The exact analytic solutions, i.e., the K-adiabatic and K-active steady-state population distribution function of reactive complexes, g(EJK) and g(EJ), respectively, are derived for the K-adiabatic and K-active master equation cases using properties of inhomogeneous integral equations (Fredholm type). The solutions accommodate arbitrary intermolecular energy transfer models, e.g., the single exponential, double exponential, Gaussian, step-ladder, and near-singularity models. At the high pressure limit, the krec for both the K-adiabatic and K-active master equations reduce, respectively, to the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory (high pressure limit expressions). Ozone and its formation from O + O2 are known to exhibit an adiabatic K. The ratio of the K-adiabatic to the K-active recombination rate constants for ozone formation at the high pressure limit is calculated to be ∼0.9 at 300 K. Results on the temperature and pressure dependence of the recombination rate constants and populations of O3 will be presented elsewhere.

  20. Solution structure of the complex formed between human complement C3d and full-length complement receptor type 2.

    PubMed

    Li, Keying; Okemefuna, Azubuike I; Gor, Jayesh; Hannan, Jonathan P; Asokan, Rengasamy; Holers, V Michael; Perkins, Stephen J

    2008-12-05

    Complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) is a cell surface protein that links the innate and adaptive immune response during the activation of B-cells through its binding to C3d, a cleavage fragment of the major complement component C3. The extracellular portion of CR2 comprises 15 or 16 short complement regulator (SCR) domains in a partially folded-back but flexible structure. Here, the effect of C3d binding to CR2 was determined by analytical ultracentrifugation and X-ray scattering. The sedimentation coefficient of unbound CR2 is 4.03 S in 50 mM NaCl. Because this agrees well with a value of 3.93 S in 137 mM NaCl, the overall CR2 structure is unaffected by change in ionic strength. Unbound C3d exists in monomer-dimer and monomer-trimer equilibria in 50 mM NaCl, but as a monomer only in 137 mM NaCl. In c(s) size-distribution analyses, an equimolar mixture of the CR2-C3d complex in 50 mM NaCl revealed a single peak shifted to 4.52 S when compared to unbound CR2 at 4.03 S to show that the complex had formed. The CR2-C3d complex in 137 mM NaCl showed two peaks at 2.52 S and 4.07 S to show that this had dissociated. Solution structural models for the CR2 SCR-1/2 complex with C3d and CR2 SCR-1/15 were superimposed. These gave an average sedimentation coefficient of 4.57 S for the complex, in good agreement with the observed value of 4.52 S. It is concluded that CR2 does not detectably change conformation when C3d is bound to it. Consistent with previous analyses, its C3d complex is not formed in physiological salt conditions. The implications of these solution results for its immune role are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first solution structural study of a large multidomain SCR protein CR2 bound to its physiological ligand C3d.

  1. Pluronic F68 enhanced the conformational stability of salmon calcitonin in both aqueous solution and lyophilized solid form.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Huei; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2011-11-01

    The effects of different surfactants on the conformational stability and structural similarity of salmon calcitonin (sCT) in aqueous solution and lyophilized forms were investigated by using microscopic Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with second-derivative spectral analysis. Six surfactants, HCO-60, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Tween 80, PEG 400, Pluronic 68, and F127 were selected. The sCT aqueous solution with or without different surfactants was, respectively, incubated at 40°C for up to 35 h. sCT films were casted on the CaF(2) plates and IR spectra were collected as a function of incubation time. Second derivative analysis showed that the native sCT having a major α-helical structure was gradually changed to the combination of α-helix, random coil, and β-sheet conformations in aqueous solution at 40°C. Similar conformational changes with delayed β-sheet formation were obtained for sCT after co-incubation with all the surfactants except Pluronic F68. When the native sCT was freeze-dried alone, a marked conformational alteration was found as illustrated by a poor spectral correlation coefficient (r) value of 0.823 as compared to that of the unlyophilized native sCT. This r value was significantly deviated from 1, strongly indicating the influence of lyophilization stress on the surfactant-free sCT. The r value for sCT after lyophilizing with HCO-60, Pluronic F127, PEG 400, or Pluronic F68 was >0.9, suggesting the possible stabilization of these surfactants in the lyophilization process. The sCT sample after lyophilizing with Pluronic F68 showed a highest r value (>0.968), indicating the most optimal stabilization effect of Pluronic F68 for sCT sample via lyophilization. Pluronic F68 was found to be the preferential surfactant for preventing the secondary structure changes in aqueous solution at 40°C as well as in lyophilized powder.

  2. The Yersinia enterocolitica phage shock proteins B and C can form homodimers and heterodimers in vivo with the possibility of close association between multiple domains.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, Erwan; Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    The Yersinia enterocolitica phage shock protein (Psp) stress response is essential for virulence and for survival during the mislocalization of outer membrane secretin proteins. The cytoplasmic membrane proteins PspB and PspC are critical components involved in regulating psp gene expression and in facilitating tolerance to secretin-induced stress. Interactions between PspB and PspC monomers might be important for their functions and for PspC stability. However, little is known about these interactions and there are conflicting reports about the ability of PspC to dimerize. To address this, we have used a combination of independent approaches to systematically analyze the ability of PspB and PspC to form dimers in vivo. Formaldehyde cross-linking of the endogenous chromosomally encoded proteins in Y. enterocolitica revealed discrete complexes corresponding in size to PspB-PspB, PspC-PspC, and PspB-PspC. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis corroborated these protein associations, but an important limitation of the two-hybrid approach was uncovered for PspB. A series of PspB and PspC proteins with unique cysteine substitutions at various positions was constructed. In vivo disulfide cross-linking experiments with these proteins further supported close association between PspB and PspC monomers. Detailed cysteine substitution analysis of predicted leucine zipper-like amphipathic helices in both PspB and PspC suggested that their hydrophobic faces could form homodimerization interfaces.

  3. The Yersinia enterocolitica Phage Shock Proteins B and C Can Form Homodimers and Heterodimers In Vivo with the Possibility of Close Association between Multiple Domains▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Erwan; Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The Yersinia enterocolitica phage shock protein (Psp) stress response is essential for virulence and for survival during the mislocalization of outer membrane secretin proteins. The cytoplasmic membrane proteins PspB and PspC are critical components involved in regulating psp gene expression and in facilitating tolerance to secretin-induced stress. Interactions between PspB and PspC monomers might be important for their functions and for PspC stability. However, little is known about these interactions and there are conflicting reports about the ability of PspC to dimerize. To address this, we have used a combination of independent approaches to systematically analyze the ability of PspB and PspC to form dimers in vivo. Formaldehyde cross-linking of the endogenous chromosomally encoded proteins in Y. enterocolitica revealed discrete complexes corresponding in size to PspB-PspB, PspC-PspC, and PspB-PspC. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis corroborated these protein associations, but an important limitation of the two-hybrid approach was uncovered for PspB. A series of PspB and PspC proteins with unique cysteine substitutions at various positions was constructed. In vivo disulfide cross-linking experiments with these proteins further supported close association between PspB and PspC monomers. Detailed cysteine substitution analysis of predicted leucine zipper-like amphipathic helices in both PspB and PspC suggested that their hydrophobic faces could form homodimerization interfaces. PMID:21856846

  4. Gankyrin promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in NSCLC through forming a closed circle with IL-6/ STAT3 and TGF-β/SMAD3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin-bo; Wang, Xue-jiao; Chen, Zhao; Ni, Yun-feng; Wang, Ju-zheng; Han, Yong; Zhang, Zhi-pei; Yan, Xiao-long; Li, Xiao-fei

    2017-01-01

    Our previous research showed that Gankyrin was overexpressed in NSCLC and significantly associated with clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. In this study, we will explore potential effect of Gankyrin on EMT and metastasis in NSCLC. The ectopic higher expression of Gankyrin markedly increased the migration and invasion in NSCLC cells. In contrast, silencing Gankyrin inhibit this aggressive behavior in NSCLC cells. Further study demonstrated that overexpression of Gankyrin could decrease E-cadherin expression and increase expression of Vimentin and Twist1 at mRNA and protein levels. These data indicated that Gankyrin could facilitate occurrence and development of EMT. Also IHC analysis showed that Gankyrin expression was negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression, while positively correlated with Vimentin and Twist1 expression in NSCLC tissues. The mechanism study finally suggested that the Gankyrin-driven EMT was partially due to IL-6/p-STAT3 and TGF-β/p-SMAD3 pathways activation. Taken together, our data provided a novel mechanism of Gankyrin promoting EMT and metastasis in NSCLC through forming a closed circle with IL-6/p-STAT3 and TGF-β/p-SMAD3 signaling pathway. PMID:27992365

  5. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiying; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Fengchang; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P; He, Zhongqi; Song, Lirong; Fan, Mingle

    2016-04-01

    Debris from aquatic macrophytes and algae are important recycling sources of phosphorus (P), which can result in continuing blooms of algae by recycling bioavailable P in the eutrophic lakes. However, knowledge of forms of P in aquatic macrophytes and algae and their contribution to internal loads of P in lakes is limited. Without such knowledge, it is difficult to develop appropriate strategies to remediate and or restore aquatic ecosystems that have become eutrophic. Therefore, in this work, P was extracted from six types of aquatic macrophytes and algae collected from Tai Lake of China and characterized by use of solution (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. When extracted by 0.5 M NaOH-25 mM EDTA, extraction recovery of total P(TP) and organic P(Po) exceeded 90 %. Concentrations of Po in algae and aquatic macrophytes were 5552 mg kg(-1) and 1005 mg kg(-1) and accounted for 56.0 and 47.2 % of TP, respectively. When Po, including condensed P, was characterized by solution (31)P-NMR Po in algae included orthophosphate monoesters (79.8 %), pyrophosphate (18.2 %), and orthophosphate diester (2.0 %), and Po in aquatic macrophytes included orthophosphate monoesters (90.3 %), pyrophosphate (4.2 %), and orthophosphate diester (5.5 %). Additionally, orthophosphate monoesters in algal debris mainly included β-glycerophosphate (44.1 %), α-glycerophosphate (13.5 %), and glucose 6-phosphate (13.5 %). Orthophosphate monoesters in aquatic macrophytes mainly included β-glycerophosphate (27.9 %), α-glycerophosphate (24.6 %), and adenosine 5' monophosphate (8.2 %). Results derived from this study will be useful in better understanding nutrient cycling, relevant eutrophication processes, and pollution control for freshwater lakes.

  6. Complexes Formed in Solution Between Vanadium(IV)/(V) and the Cyclic Dihydroxamic Acid Putrebactin or Linear Suberodihydroxamic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An aerobic solution prepared from V(IV) and the cyclic dihydroxamic acid putrebactin (pbH2) in 1:1 H2O/CH3OH at pH = 2 turned from blue to orange and gave a signal in the positive ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) at m/zobs 437.0 attributed to the monooxoV(V) species [VVO(pb)]+ ([C16H26N4O7V]+, m/zcalc 437.3). A solution prepared as above gave a signal in the 51V NMR spectrum at δV = −443.3 ppm (VOCl3, δV = 0 ppm) and was electron paramagnetic resonance silent, consistent with the presence of [VVO(pb)]+. The formation of [VVO(pb)]+ was invariant of [V(IV)]:[pbH2] and of pH values over pH = 2–7. In contrast, an aerobic solution prepared from V(IV) and the linear dihydroxamic acid suberodihydroxamic acid (sbhaH4) in 1:1 H2O/CH3OH at pH values of 2, 5, or 7 gave multiple signals in the positive and negative ion ESI-MS, which were assigned to monomeric or dimeric V(V)– or V(IV)–sbhaH4 complexes or mixed-valence V(V)/(IV)–sbhaH4 complexes. The complexity of the V-sbhaH4 system has been attributed to dimerization (2[VVO(sbhaH2)]+ ↔ [(VVO)2(sbhaH2)2]2+), deprotonation ([VVO(sbhaH2)]+ – H+ ↔ [VVO(sbhaH)]0), and oxidation ([VIVO(sbhaH2)]0 –e– ↔ [VVO(sbhaH2)]+) phenomena and could be described as the sum of two pH-dependent vectors, the first comprising the deprotonation of hydroxamate (low pH) to hydroximate (high pH) and the second comprising the oxidation of V(IV) (low pH) to V(V) (high pH). Macrocyclic pbH2 was preorganized to form [VVO(pb)]+, which would provide an entropy-based increase in its thermodynamic stability compared to V(V)–sbhaH4 complexes. The half-wave potentials from solutions of [V(IV)]:[pbH2] (1:1) or [V(IV)]:[sbhaH4] (1:2) at pH = 2 were E1/2 −335 or −352 mV, respectively, which differed from the expected trend (E1/2 [VO(pb)]+/0 < VV/IV–sbhaH4). The complex solution speciation of the V(V)/(IV)–sbhaH4 system prevented the determination of half-wave potentials for single species. The characterization

  7. Structures of polynuclear complexes of palladium(II) and platinum(II) formed by slow hydrolysis in acidic aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Torapava, Natallia; Elding, Lars I; Mändar, Hugo; Roosalu, Kaspar; Persson, Ingmar

    2013-06-07

    The aqua ions of palladium(II) and platinum(II) undergo extremely slow hydrolysis in strongly acidic aqueous solution, resulting in polynuclear complexes. The size and structures of these species have been determined by EXAFS and small angle X-ray scattering, SAXS. For palladium(II), the EXAFS data show that the Pd-O and Pd···Pd distances are identical to those of crystalline palladium(II) oxide, but the intensities of the Pd···Pd distances in the Fourier transform at 3.04 and 3.42 Å are significantly lower compared to those of crystalline PdO. Furthermore, no Pd···Pd distances beyond 4 Å are observed. These observations strongly indicate that the polynuclear palladium(II) complexes are oxido- and hydroxido-bridged species with the same core structure as solid palladium(II) oxide. Based on the number of Pd···Pd distances, as derived from the EXAFS data, their size can be estimated to be approximately two unit cells, or ca. 1.0 nm(3). For platinum(II), EXAFS data of the polynuclear species formed in the slow hydrolysis process show Pt-O and Pt···Pt distances identical to those of amorphous platinum(II) oxide, precipitating from the solution studied. The Pt···Pt distances are somewhat different from those reported for crystalline platinum(II) oxide. The polynuclear platinum(II) complexes have a similar structure to the palladium ones, but they are somewhat larger, with an estimated diameter of 1.5-3.0 nm. It has not been possible to precipitate any of these species by ultracentrifugation. They are detectable by SAXS, indicating diameters between 0.7 and 2 nm, in excellent agreement with the EXAFS observations. The number of oxido- relative to hydroxido bridges will increase with increasing size of the complex. The charge of the complexes will remain about the same, +4, at growth, with approximate formulas [Pd10O4(OH)8(H2O)12](4+) and [Pt14O8(OH)8(H2O)12](4+) for complexes with a size of 2 and 3 unit cells of the corresponding solid metal oxide

  8. Kinetic and spectral studies on transient species formed in pulse radiolysis of 2,6-diacetylpyridine in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, D. B.; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Reactions of e -aq, rad OH radicals, H-atoms and reducing (CH 3) 2C rad OH/CO 2rad - radicals with 2,6-diacetylpyridine were studied using pulse radiolysis technique in aqueous solutions. At pH 9.2, e -aq reaction with 2,6-DAP ( k=2.1×1010 dm mol s) was found to generate a transient species having absorption maxima at 320 and 420 nm. Reaction of e -aq with 2,6-DAP was also studied at pH˜13.3. Semi-reduced species formed at pH˜13.3 were found to transfer electron to methyl viologen with 100% efficiency ( k=2.9×109 dm mol s), whereas at pH 9.2 an equilibrium was attained. Making use of this equilibrium, the one-electron reduction potential of 2,6-DAP has been estimated to be -0.513 V vs. NHE at pH 9.2. Following the change in absorption spectra of semi-reduced species at pH 9.2 and ˜13.3, p Ka for the protonation of 2,6-DAP radical anion (2,6-DAP rad - /2,6-DAPH rad ) has been determined to be ˜11.9. Acetone ketyl radicals were found to transfer electron to 2,6-DAP with rate constants of 2×10 9, 6.3×10 7 and 1.2×108 dm mol s at pHs˜13.3, 9.2 and 1, respectively. By making use of the changes in the absorbance of species formed in reaction with acetone ketyl radicals with 2,6-DAP, p Ka for the protonation of 2,6-DAPH rad (2,6-DAPH rad /2,6-DAPH 2rad + ) has been estimated to be ˜1.5. H-atoms were found to react with 2,6-DAP by addition pathway rather than electron transfer. rad OH radical reaction with 2,6-DAP ( k=1.8×109 dm mol s) at pH 9.2 was found to generate transient species having absorption maxima at 310 and 400 nm. At pH 1 also, the spectrum of the species formed in rad OH radical reaction with 2,6-DAP was similar to that formed at pH 9.2 whereas reaction of O rad - radicals with 2,6-DAP ( k=1.8×109 dm mol s) generated a transient species whose absorption spectrum was different.

  9. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM-INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM-PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM-PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM-INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N-H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM-PAM cocrystal, while ACM-CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid-carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM-INA, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM-PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM-PPZ salt and ACM-nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM-PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine salt of acemetacin exhibits superior

  10. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    PubMed Central

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N—H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine

  11. Ordered Regions of Channel Nucleoporins Nup62, Nup54, and Nup58 Form Dynamic Complexes in Solution*

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alok; Solmaz, Sozanne R.; Blobel, Günter; Melčák, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Three out of ∼30 nucleoporins, Nup62, Nup54, and Nup58, line the nuclear pore channel. These “channel” nucleoporins each contain an ordered region of ∼150–200 residues, which is predicted to be segmented into 3–4 α-helical regions of ∼40–80 residues. Notably, these segmentations are evolutionarily conserved between uni- and multicellular eukaryotes. Strikingly, the boundaries of these segments match our previously reported mapping and crystal data, which collectively identified two “cognate” segments of Nup54, each interacting with cognate segments, one in Nup58 and the other one in Nup62. Because Nup54 and Nup58 cognate segments form crystallographic hetero- or homo-oligomers, we proposed that these oligomers associate into inter-convertible “mid-plane” rings: a single large ring (40–50 nm diameter, consisting of eight hetero-dodecamers) or three small rings (10–20 nm diameter, each comprising eight homo-tetramers). Each “ring cycle” would recapitulate “dilation” and “constriction” of the nuclear pore complex's central transport channel. As for the Nup54·Nup62 interactome, it forms a 1:2 triple helix (“finger”), multiples of which project alternately up and down from mid-plane ring(s). Collectively, our previous crystal data suggested a copy number of 128, 64, and 32 for Nup62, Nup54, and Nup58, respectively, that is, a 4:2:1 stoichiometry. Here, we carried out solution analysis utilizing the entire ordered regions of Nup62, Nup54, and Nup58, and demonstrate that they form a dynamic “triple complex” that is heterogeneously formed from our previously characterized Nup54·Nup58 and Nup54·Nup62 interactomes. These data are consistent both with our crystal structure-deduced copy numbers and stoichiometries and also with our ring cycle model for structure and dynamics of the nuclear pore channel. PMID:26025361

  12. Effect of co-solutes and process variables on crystallinity and the crystal form of freeze-dried myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Kusano, Riho; Arai, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ito, Masataka; Shibata, Hiroko; Sugano, Kiyohiko; Goda, Yukihiro; Terada, Katsuhide

    2016-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how co-solutes affect the crystallization of small solute molecules during freeze-drying and subsequent storage. Crystallization profiles of myo-inositol and its mixture with dextran 40k in frozen solutions and dried solids were assessed by thermal analysis (DSC), powder-X-ray diffraction, and simultaneous DSC and PXRD analysis. Higher mass ratios of dextran maintained myo-inositol in the non-crystalline mixture state, in frozen solutions, during freeze-drying process, and exposure of dried solids to higher temperatures. Co-lyophilization with a lower mass ratio of dextran resulted in solids containing a variety of myo-inositol crystal forms and crystallinity depending on the composition and thermal history of the process. Heating of some inositol-rich amorphous solids showed crystallization of myo-inositol in the metastable form and its transition to stable form before melting. Heat-treatment of inositol-rich frozen solutions resulted in high crystallinity stable-form inositol solids, leaving dextran in the amorphous state. Sufficient direct molecular interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding) should explain the stability of dextran-rich amorphous solids. Optimizing solute composition and processes should be a potent way to control crystal form and crystallinity of components in freeze-dried formulations.

  13. Structure and Rheology of Wormlike Micelles Formed by Fluorocarbon-Hydrocarbon-Type Hybrid Gemini Surfactant in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Ken; Sugawara, Seiya; Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-20

    The structure and rheological properties of wormlike micelles formed by a fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon-type hybrid gemini surfactant in an aqueous solution were investigated by means of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and viscoelastic measurements. The cross-sectional structure (the radius of the hydrophobic core and the thickness of the hydrophilic shell) and the aggregation number per unit axial length of wormlike micelles were evaluated by a model fitting analysis of SAXS profiles. Both parameters for the hybrid gemini surfactant were smaller than those of a corresponding hydrocarbon-hydrocarbon-type gemini surfactant. On the other hand, the viscosity of the hybrid gemini surfactant was higher than that of the hydrocarbon-hydrocarbon-type gemini surfactant. From the viscoelastic parameters, the steady state compliance, Je, and the terminal relaxation time, τw, which were independently obtained by dynamic viscoelastic measurement, we revealed that a larger number of entanglements and a longer contour length of the hybrid gemini surfactant led to the higher viscosity. These results obtained by the rheological measurements were consistent with those obtained by SAXS analysis.

  14. Carbon enters silica forming a cristobalite-type CO2–SiO2 solid solution

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Mario; Gorelli, Federico A.; Bini, Roberto; Salamat, Ashkan; Garbarino, Gaston; Levelut, Claire; Cambon, Olivier; Haines, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Extreme conditions permit unique materials to be synthesized and can significantly update our view of the periodic table. In the case of group IV elements, carbon was always considered to be distinct with respect to its heavier homologues in forming oxides. Here we report the synthesis of a crystalline CO2–SiO2 solid solution by reacting carbon dioxide and silica in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (P=16–22 GPa, T>4,000 K), showing that carbon enters silica. Remarkably, this material is recovered to ambient conditions. X-ray diffraction shows that the crystal adopts a densely packed α-cristobalite structure (P41212) with carbon and silicon in fourfold coordination to oxygen at pressures where silica normally adopts a sixfold coordinated rutile-type stishovite structure. An average formula of C0.6(1)Si0.4(1)O2 is consistent with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results. These findings may modify our view on oxide chemistry, which is of great interest for materials science, as well as Earth and planetary sciences. PMID:24781844

  15. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Ghani, N. T.; Rizk, M. S.; Mostafa, M.

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL-1, using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ⩾0.995 (n = 6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ⩽1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  16. Z form of poly d(A-C).poly d(G-T) in solution studied by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ridoux, J P; Liquier, J; Taillandier, E

    1987-01-01

    Poly d(A-C).poly d(G-T) structures have been studied in solution by Raman spectroscopy, in presence of Na+, Mn2+ and Ni2+ counterions. Increase of the Na+ concentration or addition of Mn2+ ions up to 1M MnCl2 does not modify the B geometry of the polynucleotide. On the contrary, in conditions of low water activity (4M NaCl), the presence of small amounts of nickel ions (65 mM) induces a left-handed geometry of the DNA. The shift of the guanine line located at 682 cm-1 in B form to 622 cm-1 reflects unambiguously the C2'-endo/anti-greater than C3'-endo/syn reorientation of the deoxyribose-purine entities. Moreover modifications in the phosphate backbone lines indicate that the polymer is in a Z conformation. New or displaced lines corresponding to adenosine vibrations are correlated with the left-handed structure. An interaction of the Ni2+ ions specifically with the N7 site of purines, combined with a low water activity is necessary to promote the B-greater than Z transition. PMID:3615202

  17. Forms and Lability of Phosphorus in Algae and Aquatic Macrophytes Characterized by Solution 31P NMR Coupled with Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiying; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Fengchang; He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Chen; Giesy, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Solution Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) with commercially available phosphatases was used to characterize phosphorus (P) compounds in extracts of the dominant aquatic macrophytes and algae in a eutrophic lake. Total extractable organic P (Po) concentrations ranged from 504 to 1643 mg kg−1 and 2318 to 8395 mg kg−1 for aquatic macrophytes and algae, respectively. Using 31P NMR spectroscopy, 11 Po species were detected in the mono- and diester region. Additionally, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate and phosphonates were also detected. Using EH, phytate-like P was identified as the prevalent class of enzyme-labile Po, followed by labile monoester- and diester-P. Comparison of the NMR and EH data indicated that the distribution pattern of major P forms in the samples determined by the two methods was similar (r = 0.712, p < 0.05). Additional 31P NMR spectroscopic analysis of extracts following EH showed significant decreases in the monoester and pyrophosphate regions, with a corresponding increase in the orthophosphate signal, as compared to unhydrolyzed extracts. Based on these quantity and hydrolysis data, we proposed that recycling of Po in vegetative biomass residues is an important mechanism for long-term self-regulation of available P for algal blooming in eutrophic lakes. PMID:27849040

  18. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghani, N T; Rizk, M S; Mostafa, M

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL(-1), using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ≥0.995 (n=6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  19. Comparative proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of amantadine complexes formed in aqueous solutions with three major cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Lis-Cieplak, Agnieszka; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

    2014-01-01

    Host-guest complexes of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD, respectively) with amantadine (1-aminoadamantane, AMA; an antiviral agent) were characterized in aqueous solutions using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Host-guest molecular interactions were manifested by changes in the chemical shifts of AMA protons. NMR Job's plots showed that the stoichiometry of all the studied complexes was 1:1. Two-dimensional T-ROESY experiments demonstrated that the complexes were formed by different degrees of incorporation of the adamantyl group of AMA into the CD cavity. The mode of AMA binding was proposed. The AMA molecule came into the α-CD cavity (the smallest size) or β-CD cavity (the intermediate size) through its wide entrance to become shallowly or deeply accommodated, respectively. In the complex of AMA with γ-CD (the largest cavity size), the adamantyl group was also quite deeply inserted into the CD cavity, but it arrived there through the narrow cavity entrance. It was found that the adamantyl group of AMA was best accommodated by the β-CD cavity. The binding constants Kaa of the studied complexes (in M(-1) ), determined from DOSY NMR, were fairly high; their values in an ascending order were: α-CD (183) < γ-CD (306) ≪ β-CD (5150).

  20. Forms and Lability of Phosphorus in Algae and Aquatic Macrophytes Characterized by Solution 31P NMR Coupled with Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weiying; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Fengchang; He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Chen; Giesy, John P.

    2016-11-01

    Solution Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) with commercially available phosphatases was used to characterize phosphorus (P) compounds in extracts of the dominant aquatic macrophytes and algae in a eutrophic lake. Total extractable organic P (Po) concentrations ranged from 504 to 1643 mg kg-1 and 2318 to 8395 mg kg-1 for aquatic macrophytes and algae, respectively. Using 31P NMR spectroscopy, 11 Po species were detected in the mono- and diester region. Additionally, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate and phosphonates were also detected. Using EH, phytate-like P was identified as the prevalent class of enzyme-labile Po, followed by labile monoester- and diester-P. Comparison of the NMR and EH data indicated that the distribution pattern of major P forms in the samples determined by the two methods was similar (r = 0.712, p < 0.05). Additional 31P NMR spectroscopic analysis of extracts following EH showed significant decreases in the monoester and pyrophosphate regions, with a corresponding increase in the orthophosphate signal, as compared to unhydrolyzed extracts. Based on these quantity and hydrolysis data, we proposed that recycling of Po in vegetative biomass residues is an important mechanism for long-term self-regulation of available P for algal blooming in eutrophic lakes.

  1. Characterization of the chemical conversion films that form on Mg-Al alloy in colloidal silica solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Jong; Zhou, Ying; Ichino, Ryoichi; Okido, Masazumi; Tanikawa, Shoji

    2003-04-01

    Chemical conversion treatment of Mg-Al alloy (AZ91) using colloidal silica as an alternative to chromate conversion was investigated as a function of solution pH, temperature, solution conditions, and treatment time. The solution used for the colloidal silica coating consisted of colloidal silica, titanium sulfate, and cobalt ions to maintain good anti-corrosion and adhesion properties. Adding CoSO4 to the colloidal silica solution enhanced the adhesion force between the silica film and magnesium substrate. The optimum conditions for the chemical conversion treatment solution were pH 2, 90-sec treatment, and 25°C.

  2. The IAB Iron-Meteorite Complex: A Group, Five Subgroups, Numerous Grouplets, Closely Related, Mainly Formed by Crystal Segregation in Rapidly Cooling Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    2002-01-01

    We present new data or iron meteorites that are members of group IAB or are closely related to this large group, and we have also reevaluated some of our earlier data for these irons. In the past it was not possible to distinguish IAB and IIICD irons on the basis of their positions on element-Ni diagrams. We now find that plotting, the new and revised data yields six sets of compact fields on element-Au diagrams, each set corresponding to a compositional group. The largest set includes the majority (approximately equal to 70) of irons previously designated IA: We christened this set the IAB main group. The remaining five sets we designate subgroups within the IAB complex. Three of these subgroups have Au contents similar to the main group, and form parallel trends in most element-Ni diagrams. The groups originally designated IIIC and IIID are two of these subgroups: they are now well resolved from each other and from the main group. The other low-Au subgroup has Ni contents just above the main group. Two other IAB subgroups have appreciably higher Au contents than the main group and show weaker compositional links to it. We have named these five subgroups on the basis of their Au and Ni contents. The three subgroups having Au contents similar to the main group are the low-Au (L) subgroups the two others the high-Au (H) subgroups. The Ni contents are designated high (H), medium (M), or low (L). Thus the old group IIID is now the sLH subgroup. the old group IIIC is the sLM subgroup. In addition, eight irons assigned to two grouplets plot between sLL and sLM on most element-Au diagrams. A large number (27) of related irons plot outside these compact fields but nonetheless appear to be sufficiently related to also be included in the IAB complex.

  3. Closed cycle MHD generator with nonuniform gas-plasma flow driving recombinated plasma clots formed by high-energy electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, V.V.; Laptev, S.S.; Slavin, V.S.

    1996-12-31

    A new concept of a closed cycle MHD generator without alkali seed has been suggested. The essence of it is the use of the high-energy electron beams technology for a nonuniform gas-plasma flow in MHD channel creation. At the inlet of MHD channel in supersonic flow of noble gas (He) the plasma clots with a density about 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} are formed by pulsed intense electron beams with energy about 100 keV. Gas flow drives these clots in a cross magnetic field along the MHD channel which has electrodes connected with a load by Faraday`s scheme. Because the nonuniform gas-plasma flow has not the conductivity in the Hall`s EMF direction a Faraday`s current can flow only through the narrow plasma layers. The energy dissipation and Joule`s heating in MHD channel support the nonequilibrium conductivity in these plasma layers. a gas flow pushes current layers and produces electric power at the expense of enthalpy extraction. The key element is a question of plasma layers stability in MHD channel. The most dangerous instability is the overheating instability. it is shown that taking into account the phenomenon of frozen conductivity for recombinated plasma which appears for noble gas at T{sub e} > 4,000 K the regime with {partial_derivative}{sigma}/{partial_derivative}T{sub e} < 0 can be realized. Due to the fulfillment of this condition the overheating instability is effectively suppressed. The numerical simulation has shown that a supersonic gas flow, containing about 4 current layers in MHD channel simultaneously, is braked without shock waves creation. Current layers provide no less than 30% enthalpy extraction and about 80% isentropic efficiency.

  4. Some aspects of the aqueous solution chemistry of the Na+/Ca2+/OH-/Cit3- system: The structure of a new calcium citrate complex forming under hyperalkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gácsi, Attila; Kutus, Bence; Buckó, Ákos; Csendes, Zita; Peintler, Gábor; Pálinkó, István; Sipos, Pál

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we show that in hyperalkaline (pH > 13) aqueous solutions, Ca2+ forms a new, so far unknown complex species with the citrate ion, the structure of which is different from the well-known CaCit-(aq) species present in solutions of close to neutral pH. The solubility of Ca3Cit2(s) was found to increase significantly under hyperalkaline conditions. The decrease in the electric conductivity and the variations observed in the freezing point depression of such solutions also indicate complexation. From 1H NMR measurements, in this complex, the citrate ion is suggested to be in quadruply deprotonated form. From the variation of the 2JHH geminal proton coupling constant, two neighboring carboxylate groups are coordinated to the calcium ion in a monodentate mode (besides the alcoholate). The optimal structure of the complex with the composition of CaCitH-12-(aq) has also been calculated using DFT calculations, applying the Polarizable Continuum Model. Sodium ion-pairing was found to compete efficiently with this calcium complexation process, and in solutions with high Na-ion content, the equilibria are shifted towards the formation of NaCit2-(aq) and Na2Cit-(aq) ion pairs.

  5. Di-maltol-polyamine ligands to form heterotrinuclear metal complexes: solid state, aqueous solution and magnetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Cristiano; Borgogelli, Elisa; Formica, Mauro; Fusi, Vieri; Giorgi, Luca; Macedi, Eleonora; Micheloni, Mauro; Paoli, Paola; Rossi, Patrizia

    2013-04-28

    The binding properties of the two ligands (L) N,N'-bis[(3-hydroxy-4-pyron-2-yl)methyl]-N,N'-dimethylethylendiamine (Malten) and 4,10-bis[(3-hydroxy-4-pyron-2-yl)methyl]-1,7-dimethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Maltonis) towards M(II) transition metal ions (M(II) = Cu(II) for Malten and Co(II) for Maltonis, respectively), were investigated in aqueous solution. Each compound contains two 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone units (Maltol) symmetrically spaced by a different polyamine fragment. The formation of only mononuclear complexes was detected and the main species present in a wide range of pH is the neutral [M(II)(H-2L)] complex. This is able to stabilize one hard M(III) metal ion such as Gd(III) and Y(III), giving rise to the formation of new hetero-trinuclear complexes of M(II)-M(III)-M(II) sequence. The trinuclear species having the formula {M(III)[M(II)(H-2L)]2}(3+) (M(II) = Cu(II) and M(III) = Y(III) or Gd(III) for Malten and M(II) = Co(II) and M(III) = Gd(III) for Maltonis) are also formed in a wide range of pH, including pH = 7 and can be isolated in high yield as a perchlorate salt. The crystal structures of all the studied hetero-trinuclear species highlight that such systems are formed thanks to the synergy between the different stereochemical requirement of the transition metal (Cu(II) or Co(II)) and the different donor atoms set of the ligands which preorganize the maltol units for the binding of the hard M(III) metal, otherwise difficult to bind in water, through L/M(II)/M(III) self-assembling. The magnetic properties of the hetero-trinuclear spin systems were investigated; in the M(II)-Gd(III)-M(II) species, Gd(III) interacts with the two 3d ions of this class of compounds by similar coupling mechanism.

  6. Stability of localized solutions in a subcritically unstable pattern-forming system under a global delayed control.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, B Y; Nepomnyashchy, A A; Golovin, A A

    2007-04-01

    The formation of spatially localized patterns in a system with subcritical instability under feedback control with delay is investigated within the framework of globally controlled Ginzburg-Landau equation. It is shown that feedback control can stabilize spatially localized solutions. With the increase of delay, these solutions undergo oscillatory instability that, for large enough control strength, results in the formation of localized oscillating pulses. With further increase of the delay the solution blows up.

  7. A kinetic model for the formation of hierarchical nanostructures during the evaporation of phase-forming compound solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikhov, I. V.; Alekseeva, O. V.; Rudin, V. N.; Kozlovskaya, E. D.; Noskov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    A kinetic model for the precipitation of a dispersed compound from solutions is formulated, based on a description of the evolution in the function of its particle distribution according to its states during precipitation. A boundary problem about the precipitation of a compound during the evaporation of a solvent from a solution under conditions in which the rate of aggregate formation is high is considered. The solution to this boundary problem can be used to describe the formation of a film of polystyrene during the evaporation of its solution in toluene and o-xylene deposited onto a substrate.

  8. The mechanisms for the growth of the anodic Pb(II) oxides films formed on Pb-Sb and Pb-Sn alloys in sulfuric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hou-Tian; Yang, Chun-Xiao; Liang, Hai-He; Yang, Jiong; Zhou, Wei-Fang

    The anodic Pb(II) films formed on Pb, Pb-Sb and Pb-Sn alloys at 0.9 V (versus Hg/Hg 2SO 4) in 4.5 mol/l H 2SO 4 solution for 1 h were studied using alternating current (ac) impedance, open circuit decay curve and linear sweep voltammetry methods. Our research group has obtained the thickness of the anodic PbO film on Pb from the photocurrent measurement and proved that the resistance of the anodic PbO film is close to that of the interstitial liquid among the PbO particles in the film, from which it was inferred that the anodic PbO film grows via the dissolution-precipitation mechanism. It was concluded from the experimental results that (1) the films on Pb-Sb and Pb-Sn alloys also grow via the dissolution-precipitation mechanism, and the interstitial liquid may serve as the major passage for ion transportation during the film growth, (2) Sn facilitates the mechanism of oxidation of the surface layer of PbO particles to PbO 1+ x (0< x<1), (3) the influence of Sb to facilitate the growth of PbO 1+ x is smaller than that of Sn, but the doping effect of Sb(III) in the PbO crystals is more remarkable, (4) Sn increases the porosity of the anodic PbO film remarkably. All of the above effects decrease the specific resistance of the films.

  9. Semianalytical Solution for the Deformation of an Elastic Layer under an Axisymmetrically Distributed Power-Form Load: Application to Fluid-Jet-Induced Indentation of Biological Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Minhua; Huang, Shuai; Yang, Lei; Mao, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Fluid-jet-based indentation is used as a noncontact excitation technique by systems measuring the mechanical properties of soft tissues. However, the application of these devices has been hindered by the lack of theoretical solutions. This study developed a mathematical model for testing the indentation induced by a fluid jet and determined a semianalytical solution. The soft tissue was modeled as an elastic layer bonded to a rigid base. The pressure of the fluid jet impinging on the soft tissue was assumed to have a power-form function. The semianalytical solution was verified in detail using finite-element modeling, with excellent agreement being achieved. The effects of several parameters on the solution behaviors are reported, and a method for applying the solution to determine the mechanical properties of soft tissues is suggested. PMID:28373991

  10. Semianalytical Solution for the Deformation of an Elastic Layer under an Axisymmetrically Distributed Power-Form Load: Application to Fluid-Jet-Induced Indentation of Biological Soft Tissues.

    PubMed

    Lu, Minhua; Huang, Shuai; Yang, Xianglong; Yang, Lei; Mao, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Fluid-jet-based indentation is used as a noncontact excitation technique by systems measuring the mechanical properties of soft tissues. However, the application of these devices has been hindered by the lack of theoretical solutions. This study developed a mathematical model for testing the indentation induced by a fluid jet and determined a semianalytical solution. The soft tissue was modeled as an elastic layer bonded to a rigid base. The pressure of the fluid jet impinging on the soft tissue was assumed to have a power-form function. The semianalytical solution was verified in detail using finite-element modeling, with excellent agreement being achieved. The effects of several parameters on the solution behaviors are reported, and a method for applying the solution to determine the mechanical properties of soft tissues is suggested.

  11. [Forming the nanosized molecular assemblies (nanoassociates) is a key to understand the properties of highly diluted aqueous solutions].

    PubMed

    Konovalov, A I; Ryzhkina, I S; Murtazina, L I; Kiseleva, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    In the present study it was shown that biological effects of highly diluted aqueous solutions were due to the formation of nano-sized (up to 400 nm) molecular assemblies, called nanoassociates mainly consisting of aqueous molecules (up to 500 million) under the influence of two effectors: solute and external electromagnetic fields.

  12. Approximate solutions of the eigenvalue equation near cutoff for TE0mand TM0m modes for a step index fiber optic: new forms and considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Carmen L.; Schiopu, Paul

    1998-07-01

    In this work the authors intend to present a new approximate technique of solving the characteristic (eigenvalue) equation for a step index fiber optic near cut-off. To illustrate this new method, there are presented (and demonstrated) two particular forms, corresponding to the case v equals 0 (TE0m and TM0m modes). Solutions of these equations are compared with other solutions suggested by Marcuse and--also--it is analyzed the accuracy of our results compared with the general solution of the characteristic equation.

  13. Glass-forming tendency and stability of the amorphous state in the aqueous solutions of linear polyalcohols with four carbons. I. Binary systems water-polyalcohol.

    PubMed

    Boutron, P; Mehl, P; Kaufmann, A; Angibaud, P

    1986-10-01

    All the aqueous solutions of linear saturated polyalcohols with four carbons have been investigated at low temperature. Only ice has been observed in the solutions of 1,3-butanediol and 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-butanetriol. For same solute concentration, the glass-forming tendency on cooling is highest with 2,3-butanediol, where it is comparable to that with 1,2-propanediol, the best solute reported to date. However, the quantity of ice and hydrate crystallized is particularly high on slow cooling or on subsequent rewarming. The highest stability of the amorphous state is observed on rewarming the 1,2-butanediol and 1,3-butanediol solutions. With respect to this property, these compounds come just after 1,2-propanediol and before all the other compounds studied so far. They are followed by dimethylsulfoxide and 1,2,3-butanetriol. The glass-forming tendency of the 1,3-butanediol solutions is also very high; it is third only to that of 1,2-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol. The glass-forming tendency is a little smaller with 1,2-butanediol, but it is cubic instead of ordinary hexagonal ice which crystallizes on cooling rapidly with 35% 1,2-butanediol. Cubic ice is thought to be innocuous. A gigantic glass transition is observed with 45% of this strange solute. 1,4-Butanediol, 45% also favors cubic ice greatly. Therefore, 1,2- and 1,3-butanediol with comparable physical properties are perhaps as interesting as 1,2-propanediol for cryopreservation of cells or organs by complete vitrification. Together with 1,2-propanediol, 1,2- and 1,3-butanetriol, 1,2,3-butanetriol, and perhaps 2,3-butanediol provide an interesting battery of solutions for cryopreservation by vitrification.

  14. Electrolysis products in a system formed by Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution with Al (OH)/sub 3/ hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Epifanov, Y.V.; Kul'skii, L.A.; Matskevich, E.S.

    1985-11-01

    This paper examines the dissolution of aluminum hydroxide gel on the electrolysis of aqueous electrolyte solutions and determine the compositions of the resulting compounds and the current yields. The authors used sodium sulfate to provide equivalent production of acid or alkali in the anode and cathode chambers. There is close correspondence between the anolyte and catholyte potentiometric and conductometric titration curves, which means that the methods can be used to analyze the electrolysis products in electrochemical coagulant regeneration. Data presented for determining the contents of the soluble aluminum compounds in the anolyte and catholyte in relation to the amount of electricity passed. It is shown that electrolysis in the system Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution + Al (OH)/sub 3/ hydrogel in a diaphragmed electrolyzer provides water-soluble aluminum compounds: aluminum sulfate as intermediate and basic salts in the anolyte and an alkaline solution of sodium aluminate in the catholyte.

  15. Low-temperature metal-oxide thin-film transistors formed by directly photopatternable and combustible solution synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rim, You Seung; Lim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the formation of ultraviolet (UV)-assisted directly patternable solution-processed oxide semiconductor films and successfully fabricated thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on these films. An InGaZnO (IGZO) solution that was modified chemically with benzoylacetone (BzAc), whose chelate rings decomposed via a π-π* transition as result of UV irradiation, was used for the direct patterning. A TFT was fabricated using the directly patterned IGZO film, and it had better electrical characteristics than those of conventional photoresist (PR)-patterned TFTs. In addition, the nitric acid (HNO3) and acetylacetone (AcAc) modified In2O3 (NAc-In2O3) solution exhibited both strong UV absorption and high exothermic reaction. This method not only resulted in the formation of a low-energy path because of the combustion of the chemically modified metal-oxide solution but also allowed for photoreaction-induced direct patterning at low temperatures.

  16. The solution structure of a monomeric, reduced form of human copper,zinc superoxide dismutase bearing the same charge as the native protein.

    PubMed

    Banci, L; Bertini, I; Del Conte, R; Fadin, R; Mangani, S; Viezzoli, M S

    1999-12-01

    The solution structure of a mutated (Phe50Glu, Gly51Glu, Val148Lys, Ile151Lys), reduced, monomeric form of human copper,zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD; 153 amino acids) has been determined through 2237 meaningful nuclear Overhauser enhancements, out of 2492, and 43 dihedral angle constraints. A characteristic of this mutant is that of having the same overall charge as the dimeric protein, but an activity of only 20% with respect to wild-type SOD. This protein, at variance with a previously characterized monomeric form (Phe50Glu, Gly51Glu, Glu133Gln), does not contain mutations in the active site. Therefore, its characterization allows us to understand the structural changes independently induced by the monomerization and by the active site mutation. The family of 36 conformers, which have a target function with respect to the experimental constraints lower than 1.5 A2, has RMSD values with respect to the average structure of 0.94 +/- 0.14 A2 and 1.50 +/- 0.14 A2 for the backbone and the heavy atoms, respectively. The overall folding, which includes the classical eight-stranded Greek-key beta-barrel and a short alpha-helix, is very close to that of the previously characterized monomeric mutant E133QM2SOD and to that of wild-type SOD. The region involved in the subunit-subunit interactions in the dimeric protein is confirmed to be disordered in the monomeric species. It is also observed that a sizable rearrangement of the charged groups of the electrostatic loop and of Arg143 takes place in the monomeric species. The width of the active site channel, both at its entrance and at the bottleneck of the active site, is discussed in the light of the influence on the enzymatic activity and the latter with respect to the overall charge. It is also confirmed that the NH proton of His63 shields the Cu(I) from the bulk solvent, thus supporting the suggestion that superoxide may interact with the reduced metal ion in an outer-sphere fashion.

  17. Solute- and temperature-responsive "smart" grafts and supported membranes formed by covalent layer-by-layer assembly.

    PubMed

    Allen, Ainsley L; Tan, Kristine J; Fu, Hui; Batteas, James D; Bergbreiter, David E

    2012-03-20

    Polymers like poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) exhibit lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior. A variety of reports have shown that brush grafts of PNIPAM on surfaces exhibit similar temperature responsiveness. We recently described an alternative synthetic approach to such surfaces that affords surfaces with similar LCST-like behavior. We also noted how such surfaces' wettability can change in response to the identity and concentration of solutes. Here we show that this synthetic procedure can be extended to glass surfaces and to more complex surfaces present in porous glass frits. Functionalized glass surfaces exhibit solute-dependent wetting behavior analogous to that previously reported. We further show that the resulting responsive nanocomposite grafts on such frits exhibit "smart" responsive permeability with a greater than 1000-fold difference in permeability to water versus aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate. This "smart" permeability is ascribed to the solute-dependent wettability behavior of the responsive PNIPAM component of the nanocomposite graft, which is sensitive both to the identity and concentration of the solute anion and to temperature.

  18. Modifying Optical Properties of ZnO Films by Forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O Solid Solutions via Spray Pyrolysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Anne K.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Russell, Cianan B.; Fornes, William L.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Shih, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective experiment for the development and characterization of semiconductors using Uv-vis spectroscopy is described. The study shows that the optical properties of ZnO films can be easily modified by forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O solid solutions via spray pyrolysis.

  19. Modifying Optical Properties of ZnO Films by Forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O Solid Solutions via Spray Pyrolysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Anne K.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Russell, Cianan B.; Fornes, William L.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Shih, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective experiment for the development and characterization of semiconductors using Uv-vis spectroscopy is described. The study shows that the optical properties of ZnO films can be easily modified by forming Zn[subscript 1-x] Co[subscript x]O solid solutions via spray pyrolysis.

  20. Water and solute transport parameterization form a soil of semi-arid region of northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netto, A. M.; Antonino, A. C. D.; Lima, L. J. S.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Montenegro, S. M. G.

    2003-04-01

    Water and solute transfer modeling needs the transport parameters as input data. Classical theory, Fickian advection-dispersion, is not successfully applied to account for solute transport along with preferential flow pathways. This transport may be operating at scales smaller than spatial discretization used in a field scale numerical model. An axisymetric infiltration using a single ring infiltrometer along with a conservative tracer (Cl^-) is an efficient and easy method to use in fields tools. Two experiments were accomplished on a Yellow Oxissol in a 4,0 ha area in Centro de Ciências Agrárias, UFPB, Areia City, Paraíba State, Brazil (6^o 58'S, 35o 41'W and 645 m), in a 50 × 50 m grid (16 points): a) cultivated with beans (Vigna Unguinculata (L.) Walp.), and b) bare soil after harvest. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K and sorptivity S were estimated from short time or long time analysis of cumulative three dimensional infiltration. Single tracer technique was used for the calculation of mobile water fraction f by measuring the solute concentration underneath the ring infiltrometer, at the end of infiltration. A solute transfer numerical model, based on the mobile-immobile water concept, was used for the determination of the solute transport parameters. The mobile water fraction f, the dispersion coefficient D, and the mass transfer coefficient α, were estimated from both the measured infiltration depth and concentration profile underneath the ring infiltrometer. The presence of preferential flow was due to the soil nature (aggregated soil, macropores, flux instabilities and heterogeneity). The lateral solute transfer is not only diffusive but also convective. The parameters deduced from the numerical model associated to the solute profile concentration are representative of this phenomenon.

  1. The membrane localization domains of two distinct bacterial toxins form a 4-helix-bundle in solution.

    PubMed

    Hisao, Grant S; Brothers, Michael C; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A; Rienstra, Chad M

    2017-03-01

    Membrane localization domain (MLD) was first proposed for a 4-helix-bundle motif in the crystal structure of the C1 domain of Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT). This structure motif is also found in the crystal structures of several clostridial glycosylating toxins (TcdA, TcdB, TcsL, and TcnA). The Ras/Rap1-specific endopeptidase (RRSP) module of the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxins (MARTX) toxin produced by Vibrio vulnificus has sequence homology to the C1-C2 domains of PMT, including a putative MLD. We have determined the solution structure for the MLDs in PMT and in RRSP using solution state NMR. We conclude that the MLDs in these two toxins assume a 4-helix-bundle structure in solution. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  2. Development of an analytical technique for the detection of alteration minerals formed in bentonite by reaction with alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, H.; Shibata, M.; Owada, H.; Kaneko, M.; Kuno, Y.; Asano, H.

    A multibarrier system consisting of cement-based backfill, structures and support materials, and a bentonite-based buffer material has been studied for the TRU waste disposal concept being developed in Japan, the aim being to restrict the migration of radionuclides. Concern regarding bentonite-based materials in this disposal environment relates to long-term alteration under hyper-alkaline conditions due to the presence of cementitious materials. In tests simulating the interaction between bentonite and cement, formation of secondary minerals due to alteration reactions under the conditions expected for geological disposal of TRU waste (equilibrated water with cement at low liquid/solid ratio) has not been observed, although alteration was observed under extremely hyper-alkaline conditions with high temperatures. This was considered to be due to the fact that analysis of C-S-H gel formed at the interface as a secondary mineral was difficult using XRD, because of its low crystallinity and low content. This paper describes an analytical technique for the characterization of C-S-H gel using a heavy liquid separation method which separates C-S-H gel from Kunigel V1 bentonite (bentonite produced in Japan) based on the difference in specific gravity between the crystalline minerals constituting Kunigel V1 and the secondary C-S-H gel. For development of C-S-H gel separation methods, simulated alteration samples were prepared by mixing 990 mg of unaltered Kunigel V1 and 10 mg of C-S-H gel synthesized using pure chemicals at a ratio of Ca/Si = 1.2. The simulated alteration samples were dispersed in bromoform-methanol mixtures with specific gravities ranging from 2.00 to 2.57 g/cm 3 and subjected to centrifuge separation to recover the light density fraction. Subsequent XRD analysis to identify the minerals was complemented by dissolution in 0.6 N hydrochloric acid to measure the Ca and Si contents. The primary peak (2 θ = 29.4°, Cu Kα) and secondary peaks (2 θ = 32.1

  3. Exact closed-form solutions for the natural frequencies and stability of elastically connected multiple beam system using Timoshenko and high-order shear deformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanović, Vladimir; Kozić, Predrag; Janevski, Goran

    2013-02-01

    A general procedure for the determination of the natural frequencies and buckling load for a set of beam system under compressive axial loading is investigated using Timoshenko and high-order shear deformation theory. It is assumed that the set beams of the system are simply supported and continuously joined by a Winkler elastic layer. The model of beam includes the effects of axial loading, shear deformation and rotary inertia. In the special case of identical beams, explicit expressions for the natural frequencies and the critical buckling load are determined using a trigonometric method. The influences of the compressive axial loading and the number of beams in the system on the natural frequencies and the critical buckling load are discussed. These results are of considerable practical interest and have wide application in engineering practice of frameworks.

  4. Thermal inkjet application in the preparation of oral dosage forms: dispensing of prednisolone solutions and polymorphic characterization by solid-state spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, Peter A; Kane, Kevin M; Ashvar, Claudine S; Albrecht, Mary; Smith, Pamela A

    2008-07-01

    The utility of thermal inkjet (TIJ) technology for preparing solid dosage forms of drugs was examined. Solutions of prednisolone in a solvent mixture of ethanol, water, and glycerol (80/17/3 by volume) were dispensed onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-coated fiberglass films using TIJ cartridges and a personal printer and using a micropipette for comparison. The post-dried, TIJ-dispensed samples were shown to contain a mixture of prednisolone Forms I and III based on PXRD analyses that were confirmed by Raman analyses. The starting commercial material was determined to be Form I. Samples prepared by dispensing the solution from a micropipette initially showed only Form I; subsequent Raman mapping of these samples revealed the presence of two polymorphs. Raman mapping of the TIJ-dispensed samples also showed both polymorphs. The results indicate that the solvent mixture used in the dispensing solution combined with the thermal treatment of the samples after dispensing were likely the primary reason for the generation of the two polymorphs. The advantages of using a multidisciplinary approach to characterize drug delivery systems are demonstrated using solid state mapping techniques. Both PXRD and Raman spectroscopy were needed to fully characterize the samples. Finally, this report clarifies prednisolone's polymorphic nomenclature existent in the scientific literature.

  5. Solution-based approaches for making high-density sodalite waste forms to immobilize spent electrochemical salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.

    2013-11-01

    Three different solution-based approaches were taken to make sodalite minerals as a host for a mixed salt simulating the waste in the electrochemical separations process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. The methods used an aqueous solution of mixed chlorides (simulated waste) but the other reactants varied: (1) Al(OH)3 + NaOH + CS, (2) NaAlO2 + CS, and (3) Al2Si2O7 + NaOH, (CS = colloidal silica). The products were dried, ground, pressed into pellets, and fired at 650-950 °C. In some cases, either 5 or 10 mass% of a Si-Na-B oxide glass sintering aid was introduced at different stages in the process. Method (2) proved the most successful at producing high sodalite fractions (up to 100%) with minimal sintering aid additions and showed high consolidation potential (up to 91.4% of theoretical density) at reduced firing temperatures.

  6. Electrochemical characterization of surface complexes formed on Cu and Ta in succinic acid based solutions used for chemical mechanical planarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulyma, Christopher M.; Roy, Dipankar

    2010-02-01

    Open-circuit potential measurements, cyclic voltammetry and Fourier transform impedance spectroscopy have been used to study pH dependent surface reactions of Cu and Ta rotating disc electrodes (RDEs) in aqueous solutions of succinic acid (SA, a complexing agent), hydrogen peroxide (an oxidizer), and ammonium dodecyl sulfate (ADS, a corrosion inhibitor for Cu). The surface chemistries of these systems are relevant for the development of a single-slurry approach to chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of Cu lines and Ta barriers in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. It is shown that in non-alkaline solutions of H 2O 2, the SA-promoted surface complexes of Cu and Ta can potentially support chemically enhanced material removal in low-pressure CMP of surface topographies overlying fragile low-k dielectrics. ADS can suppress Cu dissolution without significantly affecting the surface chemistry of Ta. The data analysis steps are discussed in detail to demonstrate how the D.C. and A.C. electrochemical probes can be combined in the framework of the RDE technique to design and test CMP slurry solutions.

  7. Adsorptive removal of Pb2+ form aqueous solution by macrocyclic calix[4]naphthalene: kinetic, thermodynamic, and isotherm analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rais; Kumar, Rajeev; Laskar, Mohammad Asaduddin

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of Pb(2+) ions from aqueous solutions onto calix[4]naphthalene have been investigated. Calix[4]naphthalene was prepared by the condensation of 1-naphthol and formaldehyde (1:2) in presence of hydrochloric acid at 80 °C. The effect of various operation parameters, such as solution pH, initial metal ion concentration, contact time, and temperature, on the adsorption capacity of calix[4]naphthalene for Pb(2+) have been investigated. Experimental results showed that the adsorption of Pb(2+) ions increased with the increase in solution pH and temperature. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models were used to describe the adsorption behavior of Pb(2+) by calix[4]naphthalene. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity of calix[4]naphthalene for Pb(2+) at 30 °C was found to be 29.15 mg g(-1). Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption followed pseudo-second order model and the thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The obtained results demonstrated that calix[4]naphthalene can be used as an effective adsorbent for Pb(2+) ions removal from water.

  8. Bilinear form, bilinear Bäcklund transformation and dynamic features of the soliton solutions for a variable-coefficient (3+1)-dimensional generalized shallow water wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qian-Min; Gao, Yi-Tian

    2017-08-01

    Under investigation in this letter is a variable-coefficient (3+1)-dimensional generalized shallow water wave equation. Bilinear form and Bäcklund transformation are obtained. One-, two- and three-soliton solutions are derived via the Hirota bilinear method. Interaction and propagation of the solitons are discussed graphically. Stability of the solitons is studied numerically. Soliton amplitude is determined by the spectral parameters. Soliton velocity is not only related to the spectral parameters, but also to the variable coefficients. Phase shifts are the only difference between the two-soliton solutions and the superposition of the two relevant one-soliton solutions. Numerical investigation on the stability of the solitons indicates that the solitons could resist the disturbance of small perturbations and propagate steadily.

  9. Electrostatic self-energy of a partially formed spherical shell in salt solution: application to stability of tethered and fluid shells as models for viruses and vesicles.

    PubMed

    Božič, Anže Lošdorfer; Šiber, Antonio; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2011-04-01

    We investigate the electrostatics of a partially formed, charged spherical shell in a salt solution. We solve the problem numerically at the Poisson-Boltzmann level and analytically in the Debye-Hückel regime. From the results on energetics of partially formed shells we examine the stability of tethered (crystalline) and fluid shells toward rupture. We delineate different regimes of stability, where, for fluid shells, we also include the effects of bending elasticity of the shells. Our analysis shows how charging of the shell induces its instability toward rupture but also provides insight regarding growth of charged shells.

  10. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches evaluated for making solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt selected to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (∼92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.

  11. A high Reynolds number numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in stream function-vorticity form. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearden, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Problems encoutered in investigations of high Reynolds number, incompressible flow are reviewed. A numerical solution computer program was modified to solve the stream function-vorticity form of the Navier-Stokes equations. Using a body fitted coordinate system with a U-shaped outer boundary, a simulation of incompressible flow at a Reynolds number of one million and a body angle of attack of zero was achieved.

  12. Study of the Formation and Solution Properties of Worm-Like Micelles Formed Using Both N-Hexadecyl-N-Methylpiperidinium Bromide-Based Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhihu; Dai, Caili; Feng, Haishun; Liu, Yifei; Wang, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of worm-like micelles formed by mixing the cationic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide (C16MDB) with the anionic surfactant sodium laurate (SL) in aqueous solutions were investigated using rheological measurements. The effects of sodium laurate and temperature on the worm-like micelles and the mechanism of the observed shear thinning phenomenon and pseudoplastic behavior were systematically investigated. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further ascertained existence of entangled worm-like micelles. PMID:25296131

  13. Effect of the form and deacetylation degree of chitosan sorbents on sorption effectiveness of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Tomasz; Filipkowska, Urszula; Szymczyk, Paula; Zyśk, Michał

    2017-02-01

    The article presents the impact of a chitosan sorbent form (flakes/hydrogel granules) and the degree of its deacetylation (DD=75%/DD=85%/DD=90%) on the effectiveness of sorption of a popular textile dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). The effect of pH on dye sorption effectiveness was examined as well as RB5 sorption kinetics and RB5 sorption capacity of the chitosan sorbent were tested. The highest sorption capacity (1559.7mg/g) was obtained for the chitosan hydrogel in the form of granules (DD=90%). Due to a loose structure and an easy access to sorption centers, chitosan hydrogel granules may ensure up to 224% higher sorption capacity (QDD75%=1307.5mg/g) than chitosan in the form of flakes (QDD75%=403.4mg/g). The sorption effectiveness of the tested dye was observed to increase in the range of DD=75%form of flakes. The effectiveness of adsorption on the flakes with a deacetylation degree DD=90% was 1049.6mg/g and was by 160% higher than on the flakes with DD=75%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between Mind and Brain: A Proposal of Solution Based on Forms of Intra- and Extra-Individual Negentropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Alberto A.; Zumaeta, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that the problem of the mind-brain relationship can be overcome by a non-classical materialistic model of personality based on the information defined as a special form of negentropy with a structure and activity, which in five intra-individual categories, organizes all and each of the levels of the personality, and, in an…

  15. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquatic macrophytes and algae are important sources of phosphorus (P) in the lake environment that cause blooms of algae under certain biogeochemical conditions. However, the knowledge of forms of P in these plants and algae and their contribution to internal loads of lake P is very limited. Witho...

  16. Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution processed red emitters with evaporated blue common layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul

    2015-10-01

    We prepared highly-efficient solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue common layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2’)tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m2. To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-processed small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device.

  17. Modeling the self-assembly of lipids and nanotubes in solution: forming vesicles and bicelles with transmembrane nanotube channels.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Kuksenok, Olga; Nayhouse, Michael J; Little, Steven R; Balazs, Anna C

    2011-06-28

    Via dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we simulate the self-assembly of end-functionalized, amphiphilic nanotubes and lipids in a hydrophilic solvent. Each nanotube encompasses a hydrophobic stalk and two hydrophilic ends, which are functionalized with end-tethered chains. With a relatively low number of the nanotubes in solution, the components self-assemble into stable lipid-nanotube vesicles. As the number of nanotubes is increased, the system exhibits a vesicle-to-bicelle transition, resulting in stable hybrid bicelle. Moreover, our results reveal that the nanotubes cluster into distinct tripod-like structures within the vesicles and aggregate into a ring-like assembly within the bicelles. For both the vesicles and bicelles, the nanotubes assume trans-membrane orientations, with the tethered hairs extending into the surrounding solution or the encapsulated fluid. Thus, the hairs provide a means of regulating the transport of species through the self-assembled structures. Our findings provide guidelines for creating nanotube clusters with distinctive morphologies that might be difficult to achieve through more conventional means. The results also yield design rules for creating synthetic cell-like objects or microreactors that can exhibit biomimetic functionality.

  18. X-ray diffraction study of copper(I) thiourea complexes formed in sulfate-containing acid solutions

    PubMed

    Piro; Piatti; Bolzan; Salvarezza; Arvia

    2000-12-01

    The formation of three different copper(I) thiourea complexes in sulfate-containing acid solutions was observed. The ratio between Cu(I) and thiourea (tu) in these complexes depends on the amount of thiourea and copper sulfate in the solution. The crystal and molecular structure of a new complex, [Cu(2)(tu)(6)](SO(4)).H(2)O, was determined, and the formation and structures of [Cu(2)(tu)(5)](SO(4)).3H(2)O and [Cu(4)(tu)(7)](SO(4))(2).H(2)O were confirmed. The compound [Cu(2)(tu)(6)](SO(4)).H(2)O crystallizes in the P1; space group, with a = 11.079 (2), b = 11.262 (1), c = 12.195 (2) A, alpha = 64.84 (1), beta = 76.12 (1), gamma = 66.06 (1) degrees, and Z = 2. The Cu-thiourea complex is arranged as a Cu(I) tetranuclear ion, [Cu(4)(tu)(12)](4+), sited on a crystallographic inversion center. All copper ions are in a tetrahedral coordination with thiourea ligands and located at alternate sites on an eight-membered, crown-like ring.

  19. Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of microarc oxidation coating formed on titanium in Al(OH)3 colloidal solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Yao, B.; Long, B. Y.; Tian, H. W.; Wang, B.

    2012-04-01

    A ceramic coating with thickness of 20-70 μm was grown on titanium plate in Al(OH)3 colloidal solution by microarc oxidation (MAO) in constant current mode. It is found that the as-grown coating consists of rutile TiO2 phase together with a thin layer of Ai2TiO5 phase near the surface of the coating. After removing the Ai2TiO5 layer by polishing, a single phase of rutile TiO2 coating is achieved, which is different from results reported previously, where the coating is usually composed of two phases of rutile and anatase TiO2. It is suggested that the formation of the coating with single phase of rutile TiO2 is related to the existence of Al(OH)3 in the solution. The growth rate of the coating increases with increasing current density in the range of 17-23 A/dm2, but it increases little in the range of 23-30 A/dm2. The rutile TiO2 coating looks compactness and solidity in the coating grown in the density range of 17-23 A/dm2 but looseness and insubstantiality in the range of 23-30 A/dm2. The hardness and elastic modulus of the rutile TiO2 decreases with the density increasing. The mechanism of formation of the coating is discussed in the present work.

  20. Enhanced removal of hazardous dye form aqueous solutions and real textile wastewater using bifunctional chitin/lignin biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Wawrzkiewicz, Monika; Bartczak, Przemysław; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-06-01

    A new biomaterial based on chitin and lignin was prepared and applied for the removal of hazardous dye C.I. Direct Blue 71 (DB71) from aqueous solutions and wastewaters. The dye sorption on the chitin/lignin biosorbent (Ch/L) was examined depending on the initial dye concentration (50-200mg/L), phase contact time (1-1440min), kind of auxiliaries (NaCl, Na2SO4, anionic surfactant SDS) and their concentrations (1-20g/L salts, 0.1-0.75g/L SDS), initial solution pH as well as temperature (20-50°C). The equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of C.I. Direct Blue 71 uptake by chitin/lignin followed by the Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second order model rather than the Langmuir, Tempkin models, and pseudo-first order model. C.I. Direct Blue 71 adsorption on chitin/lignin was spontaneous (-2.86 to -8.14kJ/mol) and endothermic (60.1kJ/mol). The possibilities of dye elution and reuse by means of the batch method were investigated and as follows the chemical reaction is an inseparable sorption mechanism. Purification of wastewaters containing direct dyes was made with 91% efficiency after 1h of phase contact time. For comparison, data obtained or obtained results in the DB71-chitin (Ch) system were also presented.

  1. Solution-based approaches for making high-density sodalite waste forms to immobilize spent electrochemical salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.

    2013-08-29

    Three different solution-based approaches were taken to make sodalite minerals as a host for a mixed salt simulating the waste generated during the electrochemical separations process of nuclear fuel reprocessing that contains alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide chlorides plus trace iodine and actinides. All of the approaches included an aqueous solution of mixed chlorides (simulated waste) but the other reactants varied: (1) Al(OH)3 + NaOH + CS, (2) NaAlO2 + CS, and (3) Al2Si2O7 + NaOH, (CS = colloidal silica). The products were dried, ground, pressed into pellets, fired (650–950 °C), and characterized. Both 5 and 10 mass% of a Si-Na-B glass binder were introduced at different stages in the process. Route (2) proved the most successful at producing high sodalite fractions (up to 100%) with minimal glass binder additions and showed high consolidation potential (up to 91.4% of theoretical density). Detailed comparisons are provided of the results.

  2. Multi-grid domain decomposition approach for solution of Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variable form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Hwar-Ching; Ramaswamy, Bala

    1993-01-01

    The new multigrid (or adaptive) pseudospectral element method was carried out for the solution of incompressible flow in terms of primitive variable formulation. The desired features of the proposed method include the following: (1) the ability to treat complex geometry; (2) high resolution adapted in the interesting areas; (3) requires minimal working space; and (4) effective in a multiprocessing environment. The approach for flow problems, complex geometry or not, is to first divide the computational domain into a number of fine-grid and coarse-grid subdomains with the inter-overlapping area. Next, it is necessary to implement the Schwarz alternating procedure (SAP) to exchange the data among subdomains, where the coarse-grid correction is used to remove the high frequency error that occurs when the data interpolation from the fine-grid subdomain to the coarse-grid subdomain is conducted. The strategy behind the coarse-grid correction is to adopt the operator of the divergence of the velocity field, which intrinsically links the pressure equation, into this process. The solution of each subdomain can be efficiently solved by the direct (or iterative) eigenfunction expansion technique with the least storage requirement, i.e. O(N(exp 3)) in 3-D and O(N(exp 2)) in 2-D. Numerical results of both driven cavity and jet flow will be presented in the paper to account for the versatility of the proposed method.

  3. Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution processed red emitters with evaporated blue common layer structure.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul

    2015-10-30

    We prepared highly-efficient solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue common layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2')tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m(2). To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-processed small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device.

  4. Closed form expressions for crack mouth displacements and stress intensity factors for chevron notched short bar and short rod specimens based on experimental compliance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubsey, R. T.; Orange, T. W.; Pierce, W. S.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A set of equations are presented describing certain fracture mechanics parameters for chevron notch bar and rod specimens. They are developed by fitting compliance calibration data reported earlier. The equations present the various parameters in their most useful forms. The data encompass the entire range of the specimen geometries most commonly used. Their use will facilitate the testing and analysis of brittle metals, ceramics, and glasses.

  5. Spontaneous self-assembly of metal-organic cationic nanocages to form monodisperse hollow vesicles in dilute solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Jie; Landskron, Kai; Liu, Tianbo

    2008-04-02

    In this communication we report the unprecedented spontaneous self-assembly of cationic nanoporous metal-organic coordination cages (nanocages) into giant hollow vesicle-like structures in polar solvents. Such highly soluble nanocages (macrocations) have separated hydrophobic regions. However, their assembly is not due to hydrophobic interactions but the counterion-mediated attractions, very similar to the unique self-assembly of polyoxometalate macroanions into single-layer, spherical blackberry structures, as characterized by laser light scattering and TEM studies. This is the first study on the solution behavior of metal-organic nanocages and also the first report on the self-assembly of soluble macrocations. Therefore, the blackberry structure is likely to be a universal type of self-assembly for soluble macroions. In addition, the self-assembled nanocages can provide blackberry structures a wide range of organic functionalities that are impossible to reach with purely inorganic systems, which may open the door to many types of applications.

  6. Hydrogen-bonded clusters of 1, 1'-ferrocenedicarboxylic acid on Au(111) are initially formed in solution.

    PubMed

    Quardokus, Rebecca C; Wasio, Natalie A; Brown, Ryan D; Christie, John A; Henderson, Kenneth W; Forrest, Ryan P; Lent, Craig S; Corcelli, Steven A; Kandel, S Alex

    2015-03-14

    Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy is used to observe self-assembled structures of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH)2) on the Au(111) surface. The surface is prepared by pulse-deposition of Fc(COOH)2 dissolved in methanol, and the solvent is evaporated before imaging. While the rows of hydrogen-bonded dimers that are common for carboxylic acid species are observed, the majority of adsorbed Fc(COOH)2 is instead found in six-molecule clusters with a well-defined and chiral geometry. The coverage and distribution of these clusters are consistent with a random sequential adsorption model, showing that solution-phase species are determinative of adsorbate distribution for this system under these reaction conditions.

  7. Redox-dependent open and closed forms of the active site of the bacterial respiratory nitric-oxide reductase revealed by cyanide binding studies.

    PubMed

    Grönberg, Karin L C; Watmough, Nicholas J; Thomson, Andrew J; Richardson, David J; Field, Sarah J

    2004-04-23

    The bacterial respiratory nitric-oxide reductase (NOR) catalyzes the respiratory detoxification of nitric oxide in bacteria and Archaea. It is a member of the well known super-family of heme-copper oxidases but has a [heme Fe-non-heme Fe] active site rather than the [heme Fe-Cu(B)] active site normally associated with oxygen reduction. Paracoccus denitrificans NOR is spectrally characterized by a ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption band at 595 nm, which arises from the high spin ferric heme iron of a micro-oxo-bridged [heme Fe(III)-O-Fe(III)] active site. On reduction of the nonheme iron, the micro-oxo bridge is broken, and the ferric heme iron is hydroxylated or hydrated, depending on the pH. At present, the catalytic cycle of NOR is a matter of much debate, and it is not known to which redox state(s) of the enzyme nitric oxide can bind. This study has used cyanide to probe the nature of the active site in a number of different redox states. Our observations suggest that the micro-oxo-bridged [heme Fe(III)-O-Fe(III)] active site represents a closed or resting state of NOR that can be opened by reduction of the non-heme iron.

  8. The Truncated Human Telomeric Sequence forms a Hybrid-Type Intramolecular Mixed Parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex Structure in K(+) Solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxia; Cheng, Dengfeng; Ge, Min; Lin, Weizhen

    2016-07-01

    In 80-90% tumor cells, telomerase becomes active and stabilizes the length of telomeres. The formation and stabilization of G-quadruplexes formed from human telomeric sequences have been proved able to inhibit the activity of telomerase, thus human telomeric G-quadruplex structure has become a potential target for the development of cancer therapy. Hence, structure of G-quadruplex formed in K(+) solution has been an attractive hotspot for further studies. However, the exact structure of human telomeric G-quadruplex in K(+) is extremely controversial, this study provides information for the understanding of different G-quadruplexes. Here, we report that 22nt and 24nt human telomeric sequences form unimolecular hybrid-type mixed parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex in K(+) solution elucidated utilizing Circular Dichroism, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and gel electrophoresis. Moreover, individual configuration of these two sequences was speculated in this study. The detailed structure information of the G-quadruplex formed under physiologically relevant condition is necessary for structure-based rational drug design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Reflection on solutions in the form of refutation texts versus problem solving: the case of 8th graders studying simple electric circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safadi, Rafi'; Safadi, Ekhlass; Meidav, Meir

    2017-01-01

    This study compared students’ learning in troubleshooting and problem solving activities. The troubleshooting activities provided students with solutions to conceptual problems in the form of refutation texts; namely, solutions that portray common misconceptions, refute them, and then present the accepted scientific ideas. They required students to individually diagnose these solutions; that is, to identify the erroneous and correct parts of the solutions and explain in what sense they differed, and later share their work in whole class discussions. The problem solving activities required the students to individually solve these same problems, and later share their work in whole class discussions. We compared the impact of the individual work stage in the troubleshooting and problem solving activities on promoting argumentation in the subsequent class discussions, and the effects of these activities on students’ engagement in self-repair processes; namely, in learning processes that allowed the students to self-repair their misconceptions, and by extension on advancing their conceptual knowledge. Two 8th grade classes studying simple electric circuits with the same teacher took part. One class (28 students) carried out four troubleshooting activities and the other (31 students) four problem solving activities. These activities were interwoven into a twelve lesson unit on simple electric circuits that was spread over a period of 2 months. The impact of the troubleshooting activities on students’ conceptual knowledge was significantly higher than that of the problem solving activities. This result is consistent with the finding that the troubleshooting activities engaged students in self-repair processes whereas the problem solving activities did not. The results also indicated that diagnosing solutions to conceptual problems in the form of refutation texts, as opposed to solving these same problems, apparently triggered argumentation in subsequent class

  10. Determination of Abraham model solute descriptors for the monomeric and dimeric forms of trans-cinnamic acid using measured solubilities from the Open Notebook Science Challenge.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jean-Claude; Abraham, Michael H; Acree, William E; Lang, Andrew Sid; Beck, Samantha N; Bulger, David A; Clark, Elizabeth A; Condron, Lacey N; Costa, Stephanie T; Curtin, Evan M; Kurtu, Sozit B; Mangir, Mark I; McBride, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Calculating Abraham descriptors from solubility values requires that the solute have the same form when dissolved in all solvents. However, carboxylic acids can form dimers when dissolved in non-polar solvents. For such compounds Abraham descriptors can be calculated for both the monomeric and dimeric forms by treating the polar and non-polar systems separately. We illustrate the method of how this can be done by calculating the Abraham descriptors for both the monomeric and dimeric forms of trans-cinnamic acid, the first time that descriptors for a carboxylic acid dimer have been obtained. Abraham descriptors were calculated for the monomeric form of trans-cinnamic acid using experimental solubility measurements in polar solvents from the Open Notebook Science Challenge together with a number of water-solvent partition coefficients from the literature. Similarly, experimental solubility measurements in non-polar solvents were used to determine Abraham descriptors for the trans-cinnamic acid dimer. Abraham descriptors were calculated for both the monomeric and dimeric forms of trans-cinnamic acid. This allows for the prediction of further solubilities of trans-cinnamic acid in both polar and non-polar solvents with an error of about 0.10 log units. Graphical abstractMolar concentration of trans-cinnamic acid in various polar and non-polar solvents.

  11. Determination of cetirizine dihydrochloride, related impurities and preservatives in oral solution and tablet dosage forms using HPLC.

    PubMed

    Jaber, A M Y; Al Sherife, H A; Al Omari, M M; Badwan, A A

    2004-10-29

    An HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of cetirizine dihydrochloride (CZ) as well as its related impurities in commercial oral solution and tablet formulations. Furthermore, two preservatives associated with the drug formulations, namely, propyl (PP) and butylparabens (BP) were successfully determined by this method. The chromatographic system used was equipped with a Hypersil BDS C18, 5 microm column (4.6 x 250 mm) and a detector set at 230 nm in conjunction with a mobile phase of 0.05 M dihydrogen phosphate:acetonitrile:methanol:tetrahydrofuran (12:5:2:1, v/v/v/v) at a pH of 5.5 and a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1). The calibration curves were linear within the target concentration ranges studied, namely, 2 x 10(2) - 8 x 10(2) microg ml(-1) and 1-4 microg ml(-1) for CZ, 20-100 microg ml(-1) for preservatives and 1-4 microg ml(-1) for CZ related impurities. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for CZ were, respectively, 0.10 and 0.34 microg ml(-1) and for CZ related impurities were in the ranges of 0.08-0.26 microg ml(-1) and 0.28-0.86 microg ml(-1), respectively. The method proved to be specific, stability indicating, accurate, precise, robust and could be used as an alternative to the European pharmacopoeial method set for CZ and its related impurities.

  12. Coagulation-adsorption of reactive orange from aqueous solution by freshly formed magnesium hydroxide: mixing time and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhai; Shi, Huanhuan; Liu, Meile; Lu, Jingfang; Li, Wenpu

    2017-04-01

    The utilization of magnesium hydroxide was successfully carried out to remove reactive orange by coagulation-adsorption from aqueous solution. The coagulation-adsorption mechanisms and magnesium hydroxide-reactive orange floc property were analyzed through zeta potential, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Flocculation Index was then discussed with controlled experiments using intelligent Particle Dispersion Analyzer (iPDA) and optimum rapid mixing time of 90 s was obtained for pH 12. The results of this study indicate that charge neutralization and adsorption are proposed to be the main coagulation mechanisms. The FT-IR spectra and SEM showed that reactive orange was adsorbed on the magnesium hydroxide surface during coagulation and adsorption. Freshly generated magnesium hydroxide can effectively remove reactive orange and the removal efficiency can reach 96.7% and 46.3% for coagulation and adsorption, respectively. Adsorption process accounts for 48% of the whole coagulation experiment. The removal efficiency decreased significantly with increasing magnesium hydroxide formation time.

  13. Factors affecting size and swelling of poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres formed in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Michael D; Scott, Evan A; Elbert, Donald L

    2009-10-01

    The LCST behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was exploited to fabricate microspheres without the use of other monomers, polymers, surfactants or organic solvents. Reactive PEG derivatives underwent thermally induced phase separation to produce spherical PEG-rich domains that coarsened in size pending gelation, resulting in stable hydrogel microspheres between approximately 1 and 100 microns in size. The time required to reach the gel point during the coarsening process and the extent of crosslinking after gelation both affected the final microsphere size and swelling ratio. The gel point could be varied by pre-reaction of the PEG derivatives below the cloud point, or by controlling pH and temperature above the cloud point. Pre-reaction brought the PEG derivatives closer to the gel point prior to phase separation, while the pH and temperature influenced the rate of reaction. Dynamic light scattering indicated a percolation-to-cluster transition about 3-5 min following phase separation. The mean radius of PEG-rich droplets subsequently increased with time to the 1/4th power until gelation. PEG microspheres produced by these methods with controlled sizes and densities may be useful for the production of modular scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  14. Properties of CO2 clathrate hydrates formed in the presence of MgSO4 solutions with implications for icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi, E.; Thompson, S. P.; Evans, A.; Day, S. J.; Murray, C. A.; Parker, J. E.; Baker, A. R.; Oliveira, J. M.; van Loon, J. Th.

    2017-04-01

    Context. There is evidence to suggest that clathrate hydrates have a significant effect on the surface geology of icy bodies in the solar system. However the aqueous environments believed to be present on these bodies are likely to be saline rather than pure water. Laboratory work to underpin the properties of clathrate hydrates in such environments is generally lacking. Aims: We aim to fill this gap by carrying out a laboratory investigation of the physical properties of CO2 clathrate hydrates produced in weak aqueous solutions of MgSO4. Methods: We use in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction to investigate clathrate hydrates formed at high CO2 pressure in ice that has formed from aqueous solutions of MgSO4 with varying concentrations. We measure the thermal expansion, density and dissociation properties of the clathrates under temperature conditions similar to those on icy solar system bodies. Results: We find that the sulphate solution inhibits the formation of clathrates by lowering their dissociation temperatures. Hysteresis is found in the thermal expansion coefficients as the clathrates are cooled and heated; we attribute this to the presence of the salt in solution. We find the density derived from X-ray powder diffraction measurements is temperature and pressure dependent. When comparing the density of the CO2 clathrates to that of the solution in which they were formed, we conclude that they should sink in the oceans in which they form. We also find that the polymorph of ice present at low temperatures is Ih rather than the expected Ic, which we tentatively attribute to the presence of the MgSO4. Conclusions: We (1) conclude that the density of the clathrates has implications for their behaviour in satellite oceans as their sinking and floating capabilities are temperature and pressure dependent; (2) conclude that the presence of MgSO4 inhibits the formation of clathrates and in some cases may even affect their structure and (3) report the dominance

  15. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; ...

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches attempted to make solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solutionbased synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3- SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2Omore » and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.« less

  16. Effect of shear force and solution pH on flocs breakage and re-growth formed by nano-Al(13) polymer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiying; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan

    2010-03-01

    The breakage and re-growth of flocs formed by polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and the Al(13)O(4) (OH)(24)(7+) (Al(13) for short) polymer were comparatively evaluated for the coagulation of humic acid (HA). A series of jar experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of shear rate and solution pH on flocs breakage and re-aggregation potential. Results indicated that the responses of flocs to the increasing shear force and solution pH depend on the coagulant used. The ability of flocs to resist breakage decreased with the increasing shear rate. For all levels of shear force investigated in this study, the flocs formed by Al(13) polymer were weaker than those of PAC, whereas Al(13) polymer displayed a better recoverability than PAC. The similar results were obtained when pH of solution was changed. The flocs generated in acidic conditions were stronger and more recoverable than those generated in alkaline conditions no matter which coagulant was used.

  17. Efficacy of a Solution-Based Approach for Making Sodalite Waste Forms for an Oxide Reduction Salt Utilized in the Reprocessing of Used Uranium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyas, Josef; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes various approaches for making sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to recover uranium from used oxide fuel. The approaches include sol-gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt.

  18. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches attempted to make solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solutionbased synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3- SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.

  19. Changes in soil toxicity by phosphate-aided soil washing: effect of soil characteristics, chemical forms of arsenic, and cations in washing solutions.

    PubMed

    Jho, Eun Hea; Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-01-01

    This study was set to investigate the changes in the toxicity of arsenic (As)-contaminated soils after washing with phosphate solutions. The soil samples collected from two locations (A: rice paddy and B: forest land) of a former smelter site were contaminated with a similar level of As. Soil washing (0.5 M phosphate solution for 2 h) removed 24.5% As, on average, in soil from both locations. Regardless of soil washing, Location A soil toxicities, determined using Microtox, were greater than that of Location B and this could be largely attributed to different soil particle size distribution. With soils from both locations, the changes in As chemical forms resulted in either similar or greater toxicities after washing. This emphasizes the importance of considering ecotoxicological aspects, which are likely to differ depending on soil particle size distribution and changes in As chemical forms, in addition to the total concentration based remedial goals, in producing ecotoxicologically-sound soils for reuse. In addition, calcium phosphate used as the washing solution seemed to contribute more on the toxic effects of the washed soils than potassium phosphate and ammonium phosphate. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to use potassium or ammonium phosphate than calcium phosphate for phosphate-aided soil washing of the As-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interpretation of leaching data for cementitious waste forms using analytical solutions based on mass transport theory and empiricism

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Godbee, H.W.; Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Nestor, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated importance of diffusion control in leaching, other mechanisms have been observed to play a role and leaching from porous solid bodies is not simple diffusion. Only simple diffusion theory has been developed well enough for extrapolation, as yet. The well developed diffusion theory, used in data analysis by ANSI/ANS-16.1 and the NEWBOX program, can help in trying to extrapolate and predict the performance of solidified waste forms over decades and centuries, but the limitations and increased uncertainty must be understood in so doing. Treating leaching as a semi-infinite medium problem, as done in the Cote model, results in simpler equations, but limits, application to early leaching behavior when less than 20% of a given component has been leached. 18 refs., 2 tabs.