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Sample records for closed-loop system identification

  1. Closed Loop System Identification with Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    High performance control design for a flexible space structure is challenging since high fidelity plant models are di.cult to obtain a priori. Uncertainty in the control design models typically require a very robust, low performance control design which must be tuned on-orbit to achieve the required performance. Closed loop system identi.cation is often required to obtain a multivariable open loop plant model based on closed-loop response data. In order to provide an accurate initial plant model to guarantee convergence for standard local optimization methods, this paper presents a global parameter optimization method using genetic algorithms. A minimal representation of the state space dynamics is employed to mitigate the non-uniqueness and over-parameterization of general state space realizations. This control-relevant system identi.cation procedure stresses the joint nature of the system identi.cation and control design problem by seeking to obtain a model that minimizes the di.erence between the predicted and actual closed-loop performance.

  2. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control: effects of posture and autonomic blockade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, T. J.; Appel, M. L.; Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    We applied system identification to the analysis of fluctuations in heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize quantitatively the physiological mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these variables. We characterized two autonomically mediated coupling mechanisms [the heart rate baroreflex (HR baroreflex) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (ILV-HR)] and two mechanically mediated coupling mechanisms [the blood pressure wavelet generated with each cardiac contraction (circulatory mechanics) and the direct mechanical effects of respiration on blood pressure (ILV-->ABP)]. We evaluated the method in humans studied in the supine and standing postures under control conditions and under conditions of beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic pharmacological blockades. Combined beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade abolished the autonomically mediated couplings while preserving the mechanically mediated coupling. Selective autonomic blockade and postural changes also altered the couplings in a manner consistent with known physiological mechanisms. System identification is an "inverse-modeling" technique that provides a means for creating a closed-loop model of cardiovascular regulation for an individual subject without altering the underlying physiological control mechanisms.

  3. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control mechanisms: diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Mullen, T. J.; Cohen, R. J.; Freeman, R.

    1999-01-01

    We applied cardiovascular system identification (CSI) to characterize closed-loop cardiovascular regulation in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The CSI method quantitatively analyzes beat-to-beat fluctuations in noninvasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize four physiological coupling mechanisms, two of which are autonomically mediated (the heart rate baroreflex and the coupling of respiration, measured in terms of ILV, to heart rate) and two of which are mechanically mediated (the coupling of ventricular contraction to the generation of the ABP wavelet and the coupling of respiration to ABP). We studied 37 control and 60 diabetic subjects who were classified as having minimal, moderate, or severe DAN on the basis of standard autonomic tests. The autonomically mediated couplings progressively decreased with increasing severity of DAN, whereas the mechanically mediated couplings were essentially unchanged. CSI identified differences between the minimal DAN and control groups, which were indistinguishable based on the standard autonomic tests. CSI may provide a powerful tool for assessing DAN.

  4. System identification of dynamic closed-loop control of total peripheral resistance by arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolai Aljuri, A.; Bursac, Nenad; Marini, Robert; Cohen, Richard J.

    2001-08-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity in space flight missions (days) impairs the mechanisms responsible for defense of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cardiac output (CO) against orthostatic stress in the post-flight period. The mechanisms responsible for the observed orthostatic intolerance are not yet completely understood. Additionally, effective counter measures to attenuate this pathophysiological response are not available. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of our proposed system identification method to predict closed-loop dynamic changes in TPR induced by changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and right atrial pressure (RAP). For this purpose we designed and employed a novel experimental animal model for the examination of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors in the dynamic closed-loop control of total peripheral resistance (TPR), and applied system identification to the analysis of beat-to-beat fluctuations in the measured signals.

  5. System identification of dynamic closed-loop control of total peripheral resistance by arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aljuri, A. N.; Bursac, N.; Marini, R.; Cohen, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity in space flight missions (days) impairs the mechanisms responsible for defense of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cardiac output (CO) against orthostatic stress in the post-flight period. The mechanisms responsible for the observed orthostatic intolerance are not yet completely understood. Additionally, effective counter measures to attenuate this pathophysiological response are not available. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of our proposed system identification method to predict closed-loop dynamic changes in TPR induced by changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and right atrial pressure (RAP). For this purpose we designed and employed a novel experimental animal model for the examination of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors in the dynamic closed-loop control of total peripheral resistance (TPR), and applied system identification to the analysis of beat-to-beat fluctuations in the measured signals. Grant numbers: NAG5-4989. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Similarity Metrics for Closed Loop Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Yang, Lee C.; Bedrossian, Naz; Hall, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways can two closed-loop dynamic systems be said to be "similar?" This question arises in a wide range of dynamic systems modeling and control system design applications. For example, bounds on error models are fundamental to the controller optimization with modern control design methods. Metrics such as the structured singular value are direct measures of the degree to which properties such as stability or performance are maintained in the presence of specified uncertainties or variations in the plant model. Similarly, controls-related areas such as system identification, model reduction, and experimental model validation employ measures of similarity between multiple realizations of a dynamic system. Each area has its tools and approaches, with each tool more or less suited for one application or the other. Similarity in the context of closed-loop model validation via flight test is subtly different from error measures in the typical controls oriented application. Whereas similarity in a robust control context relates to plant variation and the attendant affect on stability and performance, in this context similarity metrics are sought that assess the relevance of a dynamic system test for the purpose of validating the stability and performance of a "similar" dynamic system. Similarity in the context of system identification is much more relevant than are robust control analogies in that errors between one dynamic system (the test article) and another (the nominal "design" model) are sought for the purpose of bounding the validity of a model for control design and analysis. Yet system identification typically involves open-loop plant models which are independent of the control system (with the exception of limited developments in closed-loop system identification which is nonetheless focused on obtaining open-loop plant models from closed-loop data). Moreover the objectives of system identification are not the same as a flight test and

  7. Closed-Loop Evaluation of an Integrated Failure Identification and Fault Tolerant Control System for a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Belcastro, Christine; Khong, thuan

    2006-01-01

    Formal robustness analysis of aircraft control upset prevention and recovery systems could play an important role in their validation and ultimate certification. Such systems developed for failure detection, identification, and reconfiguration, as well as upset recovery, need to be evaluated over broad regions of the flight envelope or under extreme flight conditions, and should include various sources of uncertainty. To apply formal robustness analysis, formulation of linear fractional transformation (LFT) models of complex parameter-dependent systems is required, which represent system uncertainty due to parameter uncertainty and actuator faults. This paper describes a detailed LFT model formulation procedure from the nonlinear model of a transport aircraft by using a preliminary LFT modeling software tool developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, which utilizes a matrix-based computational approach. The closed-loop system is evaluated over the entire flight envelope based on the generated LFT model which can cover nonlinear dynamics. The robustness analysis results of the closed-loop fault tolerant control system of a transport aircraft are presented. A reliable flight envelope (safe flight regime) is also calculated from the robust performance analysis results, over which the closed-loop system can achieve the desired performance of command tracking and failure detection.

  8. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA-High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high order characteristics of the system. In this paper, only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles at attack : 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  9. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high-order characteristics of the system. In this paper only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles of attack: 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of the identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the estimated closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  10. External Tank CIL Closed Loop Verification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Eugene A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Lockheed Martin was requested to develop a closed loop CIL system following the Challenger accident. The system that was developed has proven to be very robust with minimal problems since implementation, having zero escapes in the last 7 years (27 External Tanks). We are currently investigating expansion of the CIL Closed Loop system to include "MI" CILs.

  11. System identification and closed-loop control of end-tidal CO2 in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Jin-Oh; Dumont, Guy A; Anersmino, J Mark

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to system identification and closed-loop control of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2) in mechanically ventilated patients. An empirical model consisting of a linear dynamic system followed by an affine transform is proposed to derive a low-order and high-fidelity representation that can reproduce the positive and inversely proportional dynamic input-output relationship between PETCO2 and minute ventilation (MV) in mechanically ventilated patients. The predictive capability of the empirical model was evaluated using experimental respiratory data collected from eighteen mechanically ventilated human subjects. The model predicted PETCO2 response accurately with a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.22+/-0.16 mmHg and a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.81+/-0.18 (mean+/-SD) when a second-order rational transfer function was used as its linear dynamic component. Using the proposed model, a closedloop control method for PETCO2 based on a proportionalintegral (PI) compensator was proposed by systematic analysis of the system root locus. For the eighteen mechanically ventilated patient models identified, the PI compensator exhibited acceptable closed-loop response with a settling time of 1.27+/- 0.20 min and a negligible overshoot (0.51+/-1.17%), in addition to zero steady-state PETCO2 set point tracking. The physiologic implication of the proposed empirical model was analyzed by comparing it with the traditional multi-compartmental model widely used in pharmacological modeling.

  12. Simulation of open-loop plasma vertical movement response in the Damavand tokamak using closed-loop subspace system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darestani Farahani, N.; Abbasi Davani, F.

    2016-02-01

    The formulation of a multi-input single-output closed-loop subspace method for system identification has been employed for the purpose of obtaining control-relevant model of the open loop response for plasma vertical movement in the Damavand tokamak. Such a model is particularly well suited for the robust controller design. The method described in this paper is a kind of worst-case identification technique, aiming to minimize the error between the identified model and the true plant. The accuracy of the estimation of the plant dynamics has been tested by different experiments. The fitness of the identified model around the defined operating point has been more than 90%, and compared to the physical-based model, it has better root mean squared error (RMSE) measure of the goodness of fitting.

  13. Iterative LQG Controller Design Through Closed-Loop Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsiao, Min-Hung; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Cox, David E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller design approach for a linear stochastic system with an uncertain open-loop model and unknown noise statistics. This approach consists of closed-loop identification and controller redesign cycles. In each cycle, the closed-loop identification method is used to identify an open-loop model and a steady-state Kalman filter gain from closed-loop input/output test data obtained by using a feedback LQG controller designed from the previous cycle. Then the identified open-loop model is used to redesign the state feedback. The state feedback and the identified Kalman filter gain are used to form an updated LQC controller for the next cycle. This iterative process continues until the updated controller converges. The proposed controller design is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments on a highly unstable large-gap magnetic suspension system.

  14. Closed loop electrostatic levitation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W. K.; Saffren, M. M.; Elleman, D. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An electrostatic levitation system is described, which can closely control the position of objects of appreciable size. A plurality of electrodes surround the desired position of an electrostatically charged object, the position of the objects is monitored, and the voltages applied to the electrodes are varied to hold the object at a desired position. In one system, the object is suspended above a plate-like electrode which has a concave upper face to urge the object toward the vertical axis of the curved plate. An upper electrode that is also curved can be positioned above the object, to assure curvature of the field at any height above the lower plate. In another system, four spherical electrodes are positioned at the points of a tetrahedron, and the voltages applied to the electrodes are varied in accordance with the object position as detected by two sensors.

  15. Closed loop identification using a modified Hansen scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekunda, A.; Niemann, H.; Kjølstad Poulsen, N.; Santos, I.

    2015-11-01

    It is often not feasible or even impossible to identify a plant in open loop. This might be because the plant contains unstable poles, or it is simply too expensive to remove the plant from its intended operation, among other possibilities. There are several methods for identifying a plant in closed loop [4], and one such method is the Hansen scheme [1]. Standard identification using Hansen scheme demands generating the identification signals indirectly. In this paper it is instead proposed to use the relationship between the Youla factorization of a plant and its stabilizing controller to directly measure the signals used for identification. A simulation example and identification of a gas bearing is given to show the method in action. Rotors supported by controllable gas bearings are open loop stable systems. However as the rotational speed is increased feedback control is necessary in order to keep the system stable. Furthermore because the dynamics of such a system depends on the rotational speed it is needed to conduct an identification while the system is part of a closed loop scheme. The authors believe the paper able to contribute towards a simpler and more direct way of identifying closed loop plants using Hansen scheme.

  16. Closed-loop spontaneous baroreflex transfer function is inappropriate for system identification of neural arc but partly accurate for peripheral arc: predictability analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Atsunori; Kawada, Toru; Shimizu, Shuji; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2011-04-01

    Although the dynamic characteristics of the baroreflex system have been described by baroreflex transfer functions obtained from open-loop analysis, the predictability of time-series output dynamics from input signals, which should confirm the accuracy of system identification, remains to be elucidated. Moreover, despite theoretical concerns over closed-loop system identification, the accuracy and the predictability of the closed-loop spontaneous baroreflex transfer function have not been evaluated compared with the open-loop transfer function. Using urethane and α-chloralose anaesthetized, vagotomized and aortic-denervated rabbits (n = 10), we identified open-loop baroreflex transfer functions by recording renal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) while varying the vascularly isolated intracarotid sinus pressure (CSP) according to a binary random (white-noise) sequence (operating pressure ± 20 mmHg), and using a simplified equation to calculate closed-loop-spontaneous baroreflex transfer function while matching CSP with systemic arterial pressure (AP). Our results showed that the open-loop baroreflex transfer functions for the neural and peripheral arcs predicted the time-series SNA and AP outputs from measured CSP and SNA inputs, with r2 of 0.8 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1, respectively. In contrast, the closed-loop-spontaneous baroreflex transfer function for the neural arc was markedly different from the open-loop transfer function (enhanced gain increase and a phase lead), and did not predict the time-series SNA dynamics (r2; 0.1 ± 0.1). However, the closed-loop-spontaneous baroreflex transfer function of the peripheral arc partially matched the open-loop transfer function in gain and phase functions, and had limited but reasonable predictability of the time-series AP dynamics (r2, 0.7 ± 0.1). A numerical simulation suggested that a noise predominantly in the neural arc under resting conditions might be a possible mechanism responsible for our findings. Furthermore

  17. Closed-loop active optical system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    A control system, based on a real-time lateral shear interferometer has been developed for use in control during thermal tests and static error compensation experiments. The minicomputer which controls the interferometer and provides its service functions also controls the active system, thereby giving flexibility to the algorithm. The minicomputer system contains 288 K bytes of memory and 15 M bytes of disk storage. The interferometer system employed is composed of the measuring head and its support electronics, a video display on which wavefront contour maps are generated, and a DECwriter operator console. The versatility provided by the use of a general purpose interferometer system allows for interactive control of the closed-loop process. Various arithmetic capabilities such as the addition of wavefronts, division by a constant, and fitting of wavefront data with Zernike polynomials, allow for measurements to be averaged and for removal of alignment errors before correction is performed.

  18. Monitoring Digital Closed-Loop Feedback Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A technique of monitoring digital closed-loop feedback systems has been conceived. The basic idea is to obtain information on the performances of closed-loop feedback circuits in such systems to aid in the determination of the functionality and integrity of the circuits and of performance margins. The need for this technique arises as follows: Some modern digital systems include feedback circuits that enable other circuits to perform with precision and are tolerant of changes in environment and the device s parameters. For example, in a precision timing circuit, it is desirable to make the circuit insensitive to variability as a result of the manufacture of circuit components and to the effects of temperature, voltage, radiation, and aging. However, such a design can also result in masking the indications of damaged and/or deteriorating components. The present technique incorporates test circuitry and associated engineering-telemetry circuitry into an embedded system to monitor the closed-loop feedback circuits, using spare gates that are often available in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This technique enables a test engineer to determine the amount of performance margin in the system, detect out of family circuit performance, and determine one or more trend(s) in the performance of the system. In one system to which the technique has been applied, an ultra-stable oscillator is used as a reference for internal adjustment of 12 time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The feedback circuit produces a pulse-width-modulated signal that is fed as a control input into an amplifier, which controls the circuit s operating voltage. If the circuit s gates are determined to be operating too slowly or rapidly when their timing is compared with that of the reference signal, then the pulse width increases or decreases, respectively, thereby commanding the amplifier to increase or reduce, respectively, its output level, and "adjust" the speed of the circuits. The nominal

  19. DC servomechanism parameter identification: a Closed Loop Input Error approach.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Ruben; Miranda, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a Closed Loop Input Error (CLIE) approach for on-line parametric estimation of a continuous-time model of a DC servomechanism functioning in closed loop. A standard Proportional Derivative (PD) position controller stabilizes the loop without requiring knowledge on the servomechanism parameters. The analysis of the identification algorithm takes into account the control law employed for closing the loop. The model contains four parameters that depend on the servo inertia, viscous, and Coulomb friction as well as on a constant disturbance. Lyapunov stability theory permits assessing boundedness of the signals associated to the identification algorithm. Experiments on a laboratory prototype allows evaluating the performance of the approach.

  20. Passive Identification is Non Stationary Objects With Closed Loop Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyadik, Valeriy F.; Nadezhdin, Igor S.; Goryunov, Alexey G.; Manenti, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    Typically chemical processes have significant nonlinear dynamics, but despite this, industry is conventionally still using PID-based regulatory control systems. Moreover, process units are interconnected, in terms of inlet and outlet material/energy flows, to other neighbouring units, thus their dynamic behaviour is strongly influenced by these connections and, as a consequence, conventional control systems performance often proves to be poor. However, there a hybrid fuzzy PID control logic, whose tuning parameters are provided in real time. The fuzzy controller tuning is made on the basis of Mamdani controller, also exploiting the results coming from an identification procedure that is carried on when an unmeasured step disturbance of any shape affects the process behaviour. This paper presents procedure for identifying technological object control in a closed loop, i. e. that operates the automated control system. The variation in the controlled variable, caused by the change of the nonmeasurable disturbance, is considered the initial signal for the identification procedure. The parameters of the control object are found by optimization method Levenberg-Marquardt.

  1. Spacecraft Closed Loop Three-Axis Momentum Unloading System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    reaction wheel speed information, wheel speed threshold and geomagnetic latitude information and controls magnetic dipoles that will create a spacecraft torque and desaturate reaction wheels in a closed loop system. (Author)

  2. Development of closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.; Ramohalli, G.; Way, P.

    1982-01-01

    This research was undertaken with the goal of demonstrating closed loop control of the roll degree of freedom on the NASA prototype magnetic suspension and balance system at the MIT Aerophysics Laboratory, thus, showing feasibility for a roll control system for any large magnetic balance system which might be built in the future. During the research under this grant, study was directed toward the several areas of torque generation, position sensing, model construction and control system design. These effects were then integrated to produce successful closed loop operation of the analogue roll control system. This experience indicated the desirability of microprocessor control for the angular degrees of freedom.

  3. Closed-Loop Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Advanced life support requirements document-high level: (a) high level requirements and standards, (b) advanced life support requirements documents-air, food, water. 2. Example technologies that satisfy requrements: air system-carbon dioxide removal. 3. Air-sabatter. 4. International Space Station water treatment subsystem.5. Direct osmotic concentrator. 6. Mass, volume and power estimates.

  4. Closed-loop autonomous docking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous docking system is provided which produces commands for the steering and propulsion system of a chase vehicle used in the docking of that chase vehicle with a target vehicle. The docking system comprises a passive optical target affixed to the target vehicle and comprising three reflective areas including a central area mounted on a short post, and tracking sensor and process controller apparatus carried by the chase vehicle. The latter apparatus comprises a laser diode array for illuminating the target so as to cause light to be reflected from the reflective areas of the target; a sensor for detecting the light reflected from the target and for producing an electrical output signal in accordance with an image of the reflected light; a signal processor for processing the electrical output signal in accordance with an image of the reflected light; a signal processor for processing the electrical output signal and for producing, based thereon, output signals relating to the relative range, roll, pitch, yaw, azimuth, and elevation of the chase and target vehicles; and a docking process controller, responsive to the output signals produced by the signal processor, for producing command signals for controlling the steering and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  5. Dynamics of closed-loop systems containing flexible bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadikonda, Sivakumar S. K.; Singh, Ramendra P.

    1991-01-01

    An important characteristic of flexible multibody systems containing closed-loop topologies is that the component modes used to describe individual bodies will no longer be independent because of loop closure constraints. Thus, the issue of component modal selection becomes even more complicated. In addition, the foreshortening effect that has been studied extensively in the literature in the context of open-loop topologies will also be present in these constraint equations. Simulation results presented demonstrate the effects of modal selection and foreshortening on the dynamic response of closed-loop flexible systems.

  6. Closed-Loop System Removes Contaminants From Inert Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.

    1995-01-01

    Concentration of oxygen in this closed-loop system kept low by use of heated catalytic sorbent bed in cartridge. Proposed to keep concentration of water vapor low by use of predried zeolite sorbent bed in another cartridge, and to remove particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer by use of porous metal filters. In specific application, chamber is one in which semiconducting materials processed. By virtue of closed-loop operation, limited supply of inert gas adequate to provide atmosphere for industrial processing of semiconductors.

  7. Closed-Loop and Robust Control of Quantum Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    For most practical quantum control systems, it is important and difficult to attain robustness and reliability due to unavoidable uncertainties in the system dynamics or models. Three kinds of typical approaches (e.g., closed-loop learning control, feedback control, and robust control) have been proved to be effective to solve these problems. This work presents a self-contained survey on the closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems, as well as a brief introduction to a selection of basic theories and methods in this research area, to provide interested readers with a general idea for further studies. In the area of closed-loop learning control of quantum systems, we survey and introduce such learning control methods as gradient-based methods, genetic algorithms (GA), and reinforcement learning (RL) methods from a unified point of view of exploring the quantum control landscapes. For the feedback control approach, the paper surveys three control strategies including Lyapunov control, measurement-based control, and coherent-feedback control. Then such topics in the field of quantum robust control as H∞ control, sliding mode control, quantum risk-sensitive control, and quantum ensemble control are reviewed. The paper concludes with a perspective of future research directions that are likely to attract more attention. PMID:23997680

  8. Design validation and performance of closed loop gas recirculation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmani, S. D.; Joshi, A. V.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N. K.; Shinde, R. R.

    2016-11-01

    A pilot experimental set up of the India Based Neutrino Observatory's ICAL detector has been operational for the last 4 years at TIFR, Mumbai. Twelve glass RPC detectors of size 2 × 2 m2, with a gas gap of 2 mm are under test in a closed loop gas recirculation system. These RPCs are continuously purged individually, with a gas mixture of R134a (C2H2F4), isobutane (iC4H10) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) at a steady rate of 360 ml/h to maintain about one volume change a day. To economize gas mixture consumption and to reduce the effluents from being released into the atmosphere, a closed loop system has been designed, fabricated and installed at TIFR. The pressure and flow rate in the loop is controlled by mass flow controllers and pressure transmitters. The performance and integrity of RPCs in the pilot experimental set up is being monitored to assess the effect of periodic fluctuation and transients in atmospheric pressure and temperature, room pressure variation, flow pulsations, uniformity of gas distribution and power failures. The capability of closed loop gas recirculation system to respond to these changes is also studied. The conclusions from the above experiment are presented. The validations of the first design considerations and subsequent modifications have provided improved guidelines for the future design of the engineering module gas system.

  9. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  10. Closed Loop Identification Based on the Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning Applied to a Virtual Two-Degree-of-Freedom Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Osamu; Beak, Yong Kawn; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki

    A new identification method with respect to the parameter tuning of a controller is presented. Here, we introduce a virtual two-degree-of-freedom control structure with a feedforward controller described by using a mathematical model of a plant with a tunable parameter. After performing a one-shot experiment, we apply the virtual reference feedback tuning (VRFT), which is a rational and effective tuning method for the parameter of a controller with only one-shot experiment data, to a virtual feedforward controller by using the experimental data obtained in the actual closed loop. We give a condition for a prefilter which is applied to the data to guarantee that the obtained parameter using the VRFT of a controller is close to the desired one. We also show that the prefilter for the identification in the proposed method has a simpler form than that obtained in the normal VRFT for two-degree-of-freedom control scheme. Finally, in order to show the validity of the proposed method, we give an experimental result on the identification of the dynamics of the opening-closing speed of an elevator door.

  11. Integrated Evaluation of Closed Loop Air Revitalization System Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdock, K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s vision and mission statements include an emphasis on human exploration of space, which requires environmental control and life support technologies. This Contractor Report (CR) describes the development and evaluation of an Air Revitalization System, modeling and simulation of the components, and integrated hardware testing with the goal of better understanding the inherent capabilities and limitations of this closed loop system. Major components integrated and tested included a 4-Bed Modular Sieve, Mechanical Compressor Engineering Development Unit, Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor, and a Sabatier Engineering and Development Unit. The requisite methodolgy and technical results are contained in this CR.

  12. Closed-Loop Control for Sonic Fatigue Testing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Bossaert, Guido

    2001-01-01

    This article documents recent improvements to the acoustic control system of the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA), a progressive wave tube test facility at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. A brief summary of past acoustic performance is first given to serve as a basis of comparison with the new performance data using a multiple-input, closed-loop, narrow-band controller. Performance data in the form of test section acoustic power spectral densities and coherence are presented for a variety of input spectra including uniform, band-limited random and an expendable launch vehicle payload bay environment.

  13. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  14. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  15. Optical Closed-Loop Propulsion Control System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of this program was to design and fabricate the components required for optical closed-loop control of a F404-400 turbofan engine, by building on the experience of the NASA Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program. Evaluating the performance of fiber optic technology at the component and system levels will result in helping to validate its use on aircraft engines. This report includes descriptions of three test plans. The EOI Acceptance Test is designed to demonstrate satisfactory functionality of the EOI, primarily fail-safe throughput of the F404 sensor signals in the normal mode, and validation, switching, and output of the five analog sensor signals as generated from validated optical sensor inputs, in the optical mode. The EOI System Test is designed to demonstrate acceptable F404 ECU functionality as interfaced with the EOI, making use of a production ECU test stand. The Optical Control Engine Test Request describes planned hardware installation, optical signal calibrations, data system coordination, test procedures, and data signal comparisons for an engine test demonstration of the optical closed-loop control.

  16. Lunar base extension program and closed loop life support systems.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K; Ohya, H

    1991-01-01

    Much of papers describing the Lunar Base Construction have been already published. Lunar Base has been considered to be one of the very useful facilities to conduct the excellent scientific program in near future and also to develop the lunar resources such as 3He and oxygen in order to expand the human activities in space. The scale of lunar base and the construction methods to be adopted should be determined based upon the utilization program to be conducted after the initiation of outpost habitation. In order to construct lunar base, it needs to transport lunar base elements such as habitat modules, experiment modules and so on having 20-30 tons weight and to install, connect and activate on lunar surface. The development of transportation system such as OTV enabling to transport over 30 ton payload weight from earth to moon seems to be very difficult in near future, and it seems reasonable to transport three elements per year as described in many papers already published. Therefore, the initial habitat outpost would not have enough volume to produce foods and has to have ECLS system similar to that of space station already going to be developed. After 2-3 years from the initiation of habitation, the addition of food production facilities could be started to expand the habitability of lunar base and finally the complete closed loop life support system could be installed after spending 6-7 years. This paper describes ECLS technologies to be used in the initial habitat outpost and design philosophy of the closed loop technologies to be utilized in the final stage.

  17. Lunar base extension program and closed loop life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Keiji; Ohya, Haruhiko

    Much of papers describing the Lunar Base Construction have been already published. Lunar Base has been considered to be one of the very useful facilities to conduct the excellent scientific program in near future and also to develop the lunar resources such as 3He and oxygen in order to expand the human activities in space. The scale of lunar base and the construction methods to be adopted should be determined based upon the utilization program to be conducted after the initiation of outpost habitation. In order to construct lunar base, it needs to transport lunar base elements such as habitat modules, experiment modules and so on having 20-30 tons weight and to install, connect and activate on lunar surface. The development of transportation system such as OTV enabling to transport over 30 ton payload weight from earth to moon seems to be very difficult in near future, and it seems reasonable to transport three elements per year as described in many papers already published. /1/. Therefore, the initial habitat outpost would not have enough volume to produce foods and has to have ECLS system similar to that of space station already going to be developed. After 2-3 years from the initiation of habitation, the addition of food production facilities could be started to expand the habitability of lunar base and finally the complete closed loop life support system could be installed after spending 6-7 years. This paper describes ECLS technologies to be used in the initial habitat outpost and design philosophy of the closed loop technologies to be utilized in the final stage.

  18. Simple PID parameter tuning method based on outputs of the closed loop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianda; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Ziya; He, Yuqing

    2016-05-01

    Most of the existing PID parameters tuning methods are only effective with pre-known accurate system models, which often require some strict identification experiments and thus infeasible for many complicated systems. Actually, in most practical engineering applications, it is desirable for the PID tuning scheme to be directly based on the input-output response of the closed-loop system. Thus, a new parameter tuning scheme for PID controllers without explicit mathematical model is developed in this paper. The paper begins with a new frequency domain properties analysis of the PID controller. After that, the definition of characteristic frequency for the PID controller is given in order to study the mathematical relationship between the PID parameters and the open-loop frequency properties of the controlled system. Then, the concepts of M-field and θ-field are introduced, which are then used to explain how the PID control parameters influence the closed-loop frequency-magnitude property and its time responses. Subsequently, the new PID parameter tuning scheme, i.e., a group of tuning rules, is proposed based on the preceding analysis. Finally, both simulations and experiments are conducted, and the results verify the feasibility and validity of the proposed methods. This research proposes a PID parameter tuning method based on outputs of the closed loop system.

  19. Closed-loop identification and control application for dissolved oxygen concentration in a full-scale coke wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yoo, C K; Cho, J H; Kwak, H J; Choi, S K; Chun, H D; Lee, I

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply a closed-loop identification to actual dissolved oxygen control system in the coke wastewater treatment plant. It approximates the dissolved oxygen dynamics to a high order model using the integral transform method and reduces it to the first-order plus time delay (FOPTD) or second-order plus time delay (SOPTD) for the PID controller tuning. To experiment the process identification on the real plant, a simple set-point change of the speed of surface aerator under the closed-loop control without any mode change was used as an activation signal of the identification. The full-scale experimental results show a good identification performance and a good tracking ability for set-point change. As a result of improved control performance, the fluctuation of dissolved oxygen concentration variation has been decreased and the electric power saving has been accomplished.

  20. A closed loop wireless power transmission system using a commercial RFID transceiver for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current.

  1. Predictor-based multivariable closed-loop system identification of the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch external plasma response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, K. Erik J.; Brunsell, Per R.; Rojas, Cristian R.; Drake, James R.; Hjalmarsson, Håkan

    2011-08-01

    The usage of computationally feasible overparametrized and nonregularized system identification signal processing methods is assessed for automated determination of the full reversed-field pinch external plasma response spectrum for the experiment EXTRAP T2R. No assumptions on the geometry of eigenmodes are imposed. The attempted approach consists of high-order autoregressive exogenous estimation followed by Markov block coefficient construction and Hankel matrix singular value decomposition. It is seen that the obtained 'black-box' state-space models indeed can be compared with the commonplace ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) resistive thin-shell model in cylindrical geometry. It is possible to directly map the most unstable autodetected empirical system pole to the corresponding theoretical resistive shell MHD eigenmode.

  2. Numerical Analysis of Combined Well and Open-Closed Loops Geothermal (CWG) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yu-Chul

    2016-04-01

    Open-loop geothermal heat pump (GHP) system and closed-loop heat pump systems have been used in Korea to reduce emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). The GHP systems have the pros and cons, for example, the open-loop GHP system is good energy-efficient and the closed-loop GHP system requires minimum maintenance costs. The open-loop GHP system can be used practically only with large amount of groundwater supply. The closed-loop GHP system can be used with high costs of initial installation. The performance and efficiency of the GHP system depend on the characteristics of the GHP system itself in addition to the geologic conditions. To overcome the cons of open-loop or closed-loop GHP system, the combined well and open-closed loops geothermal (CWG) system was designed. The open-loop GHP system is surrounded with closed-loop GHP systems in the CWG system. The geothermal energy in closed-loop GHP systems is supplied by the groundwater pumped by the open-loop GHP system. In this study, 2 different types of the CWG systems (small aperture hybrid CWG system and large aperture CWG system) are estimated using numerical simulation models in the aspect of energy efficiency. This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea. (No.20153030111120).

  3. Research developing closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Computer inputs were interfaced to the magnetic balance outputs to provide computer position control and data acquisition. The use of parameter identification of a means of determining dynamic characteristics was investigated. The thyraton and motor generator power supplies for the pitch and yaw degrees of freedom were repaired. Topics covered include: choice of a method for handling dynamic system data; applications to the magnetic balance; the computer interface; and wind tunnel tests, results, and error analysis.

  4. Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils' relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW.

  5. Maximized Gust Loads of a Closed-Loop, Nonlinear Aeroelastic System Using Nonlinear Systems Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of computing the maximized gust load for a nonlinear, closed-loop aeroelastic aircraft is discusses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems is applied in order to define a linearized system that provides a bounds on the response of the nonlinear system of interest. The method is applied to a simplified model of an Airbus A310.

  6. Parameter Identification Flight Test Maneuvers for Closed Loop Modeling of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, James G. (Technical Monitor); Morelli, E. A.

    1996-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for closed loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for longitudinal and lateral linear model parameter estimation at 5,20,30,45, and 60 degrees angle of attack, using the Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) control law in Thrust Vectoring (TV) mode. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific pilot station controls using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time / amplitude points defining each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  7. Bidirectional neural interface: Closed-loop feedback control for hybrid neural systems.

    PubMed

    Chou, Zane; Lim, Jeffrey; Brown, Sophie; Keller, Melissa; Bugbee, Joseph; Broccard, Frédéric D; Khraiche, Massoud L; Silva, Gabriel A; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Closed-loop neural prostheses enable bidirectional communication between the biological and artificial components of a hybrid system. However, a major challenge in this field is the limited understanding of how these components, the two separate neural networks, interact with each other. In this paper, we propose an in vitro model of a closed-loop system that allows for easy experimental testing and modification of both biological and artificial network parameters. The interface closes the system loop in real time by stimulating each network based on recorded activity of the other network, within preset parameters. As a proof of concept we demonstrate that the bidirectional interface is able to establish and control network properties, such as synchrony, in a hybrid system of two neural networks more significantly more effectively than the same system without the interface or with unidirectional alternatives. This success holds promise for the application of closed-loop systems in neural prostheses, brain-machine interfaces, and drug testing.

  8. Disturbance rejection performance analyses of closed loop control systems by reference to disturbance ratio.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Deniz, Furkan Nur; Keles, Cemal; Tan, Nusret

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems by means of reference to disturbance ratio (RDR). The RDR analysis calculates the ratio of reference signal energy to disturbance signal energy at the system output and provides a quantitative evaluation of disturbance rejection performance of control systems on the bases of communication channel limitations. Essentially, RDR provides a straightforward analytical method for the comparison and improvement of implicit disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems. Theoretical analyses demonstrate us that RDR of the negative feedback closed loop control systems are determined by energy spectral density of controller transfer function. In this manner, authors derived design criteria for specifications of disturbance rejection performances of PID and fractional order PID (FOPID) controller structures. RDR spectra are calculated for investigation of frequency dependence of disturbance rejection capacity and spectral RDR analyses are carried out for PID and FOPID controllers. For the validation of theoretical results, simulation examples are presented.

  9. In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOEpatents

    Sandberg, Chester Ledlie; Fowler, Thomas David; Vinegar, Harold J.; Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri

    2009-08-18

    An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

  10. Closed-Loop System Analysis Using Lyapunov Stability Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Sarachik, P.E., "Stability of Circuits with Randomly Time-Varying Parameters", IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory, pp. 260-270, May 1959. 19. Bhatia...Rinehart, and Winston, 1970. 33. Chen, C., and Desoer , C., "Simplified Conditions for Controllability and Observability of Linear Time- Invari-ant...Dynamical Systems", Circuits Systems and Signal Processing, pp. 171-202, 1982. v 100. Mitchell, R.R., "Sample Stability of Second-Order S Stochastic

  11. A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

  12. Closed Loop Software Control of the MIDEX Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen; Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Wismer, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. The design and analysis of the MAP attitude control system (ACS) have been refined since work previously reported. The full spacecraft and instrument flexible model was developed in NASTRAN, and the resulting flexible modes were plotted and reduced with the Modal Significance Analysis Package (MSAP). The reduced-order model was used to perform the linear stability analysis for each control mode, the results of which are presented in this paper. Although MAP is going to a relatively disturbance-free Lissajous orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point, a detailed disturbance-torque analysis is required because there are only a small number of opportunities for momentum unloading each year. Environmental torques, including solar pressure at L2, and aerodynamic and gravity gradient during phasing-loop orbits, were calculated and simulated. A simple model of fuel slosh was derived to model its effect on the motion of the spacecraft. In addition, a thruster mode linear impulse controller was developed to meet the accuracy requirements of the phasing loop burns. A dynamic attitude error limiter was added to improve the performance of the ACS during large attitude slews. The result of this analysis is a stable ACS subsystem that meets all of the mission's requirements.

  13. Identification of multivariable high performance turbofan engine dynamics from closed loop data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W.

    1983-01-01

    The multivariable instrumental variable/approximate maximum likelihood (IV/AML) method of recursive time-series analysis is used to identify the multivariable (four inputs-three outputs) dynamics of the Pratt and Whitney F100 engine. A detailed nonlinear engine simulation is used to determine linear engine model structures and parameters at an operating point using open loop data. Also, the IV/AML method is used in a direct identification made to identify models from actual closed loop engine test data. Models identified from simulated and test data are compared to determine a final model structure and parameterization that can predict engine response for a wide class of inputs. The ability of the IV/AML algorithm to identify useful dynamic models from engine test data is assessed. Previously announced in STAR as N82-20339

  14. Identification of multivariable high performance turbofan engine dynamics from closed loop data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    The multivariable instrumental variable/approximate maximum likelihood (IV/AML) method or recursive time-series analysis is used to identify the multivariable (four inputs-three outputs) dynamics of the Pratt and Whitney F100 engine. A detailed nonlinear engine simulation is used to determine linear engine model structures and parameters at an operating point using open loop data. Also, the IV/AML method is used in a direct identification mode to identify models from actual closed loop engine test data. Models identified from simulated and test data are compared to determine a final model structure and parameterization that can predict engine response for a wide class of inputs. The ability of the IV/AML algorithm to identify useful dynamic models from engine test data is assessed.

  15. A digital wireless system for closed-loop inhibition of nociceptive signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Chao; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Yang; Hagains, Christopher E.; Li, Ai-Ling; Peng, Yuan B.; Chiao, J.-C.

    2012-10-01

    Neurostimulation of the spinal cord or brain has been used to inhibit nociceptive signals in pain management applications. Nevertheless, most of the current neurostimulation models are based on open-loop system designs. There is a lack of closed-loop systems for neurostimulation in research with small freely-moving animals and in future clinical applications. Based on our previously developed analog wireless system for closed-loop neurostimulation, a digital wireless system with real-time feedback between recorder and stimulator modules has been developed to achieve multi-channel communication. The wireless system includes a wearable recording module, a wearable stimulation module and a transceiver connected to a computer for real-time and off-line data processing, display and storage. To validate our system, wide dynamic range neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn have been recorded from anesthetized rats in response to graded mechanical stimuli (brush, pressure and pinch) applied in the hind paw. The identified nociceptive signals were used to automatically trigger electrical stimulation at the periaqueductal gray in real time to inhibit their own activities by the closed-loop design. Our digital wireless closed-loop system has provided a simplified and efficient method for further study of pain processing in freely-moving animals and potential clinical application in patients. Groups 1, 2 and 3 contributed equally to this project.

  16. Design of biomass management systems and components for closed loop life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the EGM 4000/1 Design class was to investigate a Biomass Management System (BMS) and design, fabricate, and test components for biomass management in a closed-loop life support system (CLLSS). The designs explored were to contribute to the development of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) at Kennedy Space Center. Designs included a sectored plant growth unit, a container and transfer mechanism, and an air curtain system for fugitive particle control. The work performed by the class members is summarized.

  17. A Review of Control Strategies in Closed-Loop Neuroprosthetic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James; Macefield, Vaughan G.; van Schaik, André; Tapson, Jonathan C.

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that closed-loop neuroprosthetic systems achieve more favorable outcomes for users then equivalent open-loop devices. Improved performance of tasks, better usability, and greater embodiment have all been reported in systems utilizing some form of feedback. However, the interdisciplinary work on neuroprosthetic systems can lead to miscommunication due to similarities in well-established nomenclature in different fields. Here we present a review of control strategies in existing experimental, investigational and clinical neuroprosthetic systems in order to establish a baseline and promote a common understanding of different feedback modes and closed-loop controllers. The first section provides a brief discussion of feedback control and control theory. The second section reviews the control strategies of recent Brain Machine Interfaces, neuromodulatory implants, neuroprosthetic systems, and assistive neurorobotic devices. The final section examines the different approaches to feedback in current neuroprosthetic and neurorobotic systems. PMID:27462202

  18. Model-Driven Safety Analysis of Closed-Loop Medical Systems.

    PubMed

    Pajic, Miroslav; Mangharam, Rahul; Sokolsky, Oleg; Arney, David; Goldman, Julian; Lee, Insup

    2012-10-26

    In modern hospitals, patients are treated using a wide array of medical devices that are increasingly interacting with each other over the network, thus offering a perfect example of a cyber-physical system. We study the safety of a medical device system for the physiologic closed-loop control of drug infusion. The main contribution of the paper is the verification approach for the safety properties of closed-loop medical device systems. We demonstrate, using a case study, that the approach can be applied to a system of clinical importance. Our method combines simulation-based analysis of a detailed model of the system that contains continuous patient dynamics with model checking of a more abstract timed automata model. We show that the relationship between the two models preserves the crucial aspect of the timing behavior that ensures the conservativeness of the safety analysis. We also describe system design that can provide open-loop safety under network failure.

  19. Androgynous, Reconfigurable Closed Loop Feedback Controlled Low Impact Docking System With Load Sensing Electromagnetic Capture Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a fully androgynous, reconfigurable closed loop feedback controlled low impact docking system with load sensing electromagnetic capture ring. The docking system of the present invention preferably comprises two Docking- assemblies, each docking assembly comprising a load sensing ring having an outer face, one of more electromagnets, one or more load cells coupled to said load sensing ring. The docking assembly further comprises a plurality of actuator arms coupled to said load sensing ring and capable of dynamically adjusting the orientation of said load sensing ring and a reconfigurable closed loop control system capable of analyzing signals originating from said plurality of load cells and of outputting real time control for each of the actuators. The docking assembly of the present invention incorporates an active load sensing system to automatically dynamically adjust the load sensing ring during capture instead of requiring significant force to push and realign the ring.

  20. Low-temperature plasma technology as part of a closed-loop resource management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetland, Melanie D.; Rindt, John R.; Jones, Frank A.; Sauer, Randal S.

    1990-01-01

    The results of this testing indicate that the agitated low-temperature plasma reactor system successfully converted carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen into gaseous products at residence times that were about ten times shorter than those achieved by stationary processing. The inorganic matrix present was virtually unchanged by the processing technique. It was concluded that this processing technique is feasible for use as part of a close-looped processing resource management system.

  1. An error criterion for determining sampling rates in closed-loop control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brecher, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    The determination of an error criterion which will give a sampling rate for adequate performance of linear, time-invariant closed-loop, discrete-data control systems was studied. The proper modelling of the closed-loop control system for characterization of the error behavior, and the determination of an absolute error definition for performance of the two commonly used holding devices are discussed. The definition of an adequate relative error criterion as a function of the sampling rate and the parameters characterizing the system is established along with the determination of sampling rates. The validity of the expressions for the sampling interval was confirmed by computer simulations. Their application solves the problem of making a first choice in the selection of sampling rates.

  2. Artificial Pancreas Device Systems for the Closed-Loop Control of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Trevitt, Sara; Simpson, Sue; Wood, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Closed-loop artificial pancreas device (APD) systems are externally worn medical devices that are being developed to enable people with type 1 diabetes to regulate their blood glucose levels in a more automated way. The innovative concept of this emerging technology is that hands-free, continuous, glycemic control can be achieved by using digital communication technology and advanced computer algorithms. Methods: A horizon scanning review of this field was conducted using online sources of intelligence to identify systems in development. The systems were classified into subtypes according to their level of automation, the hormonal and glycemic control approaches used, and their research setting. Results: Eighteen closed-loop APD systems were identified. All were being tested in clinical trials prior to potential commercialization. Six were being studied in the home setting, 5 in outpatient settings, and 7 in inpatient settings. It is estimated that 2 systems may become commercially available in the EU by the end of 2016, 1 during 2017, and 2 more in 2018. Conclusions: There are around 18 closed-loop APD systems progressing through early stages of clinical development. Only a few of these are currently in phase 3 trials and in settings that replicate real life. PMID:26589628

  3. Behavioral analysis of differential Hebbian learning in closed-loop systems.

    PubMed

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Tamosiunaite, Minija; Porr, Bernd; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2010-10-01

    Understanding closed loop behavioral systems is a non-trivial problem, especially when they change during learning. Descriptions of closed loop systems in terms of information theory date back to the 1950s, however, there have been only a few attempts which take into account learning, mostly measuring information of inputs. In this study we analyze a specific type of closed loop system by looking at the input as well as the output space. For this, we investigate simulated agents that perform differential Hebbian learning (STDP). In the first part we show that analytical solutions can be found for the temporal development of such systems for relatively simple cases. In the second part of this study we try to answer the following question: How can we predict which system from a given class would be the best for a particular scenario? This question is addressed using energy, input/output ratio and entropy measures and investigating their development during learning. This way we can show that within well-specified scenarios there are indeed agents which are optimal with respect to their structure and adaptive properties.

  4. Shifting the closed-loop spectrum in the optimal linear quadratic regulator problem for hereditary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Rosen, I. G.

    1987-01-01

    In the optimal linear quadratic regulator problem for finite dimensional systems, the method known as an alpha-shift can be used to produce a closed-loop system whose spectrum lies to the left of some specified vertical line; that is, a closed-loop system with a prescribed degree of stability. This paper treats the extension of the alpha-shift to hereditary systems. As infinite dimensions, the shift can be accomplished by adding alpha times the identity to the open-loop semigroup generator and then solving an optimal regulator problem. However, this approach does not work with a new approximation scheme for hereditary control problems recently developed by Kappel and Salamon. Since this scheme is among the best to date for the numerical solution of the linear regulator problem for hereditary systems, an alternative method for shifting the closed-loop spectrum is needed. An alpha-shift technique that can be used with the Kappel-Salamon approximation scheme is developed. Both the continuous-time and discrete-time problems are considered. A numerical example which demonstrates the feasibility of the method is included.

  5. Shifting the closed-loop spectrum in the optimal linear quadratic regulator problem for hereditary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Rosen, I. G.

    1985-01-01

    In the optimal linear quadratic regulator problem for finite dimensional systems, the method known as an alpha-shift can be used to produce a closed-loop system whose spectrum lies to the left of some specified vertical line; that is, a closed-loop system with a prescribed degree of stability. This paper treats the extension of the alpha-shift to hereditary systems. As infinite dimensions, the shift can be accomplished by adding alpha times the identity to the open-loop semigroup generator and then solving an optimal regulator problem. However, this approach does not work with a new approximation scheme for hereditary control problems recently developed by Kappel and Salamon. Since this scheme is among the best to date for the numerical solution of the linear regulator problem for hereditary systems, an alternative method for shifting the closed-loop spectrum is needed. An alpha-shift technique that can be used with the Kappel-Salamon approximation scheme is developed. Both the continuous-time and discrete-time problems are considered. A numerical example which demonstrates the feasibility of the method is included.

  6. Closed-Loop Control System for Friction Stir Welding Retractable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Romine, Peter L.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA invention disclosure, NASA Case No. MFS-31413, entitled "System for Controlling the Stirring Pin of a Friction Stir Welding Apparatus", (Patent Pending) authored by Jeff Ding, Dr Peter Romine and Pete Oelgoetz, addresses the precision control of the friction stir welding process. The closed-loop control system automatically adjusts the spinning welding pin, real-time, to maintain a precise penetration ligament (i.e., distance between pin-tip and weld panel backside surface). A specific pin length can be maintained while welding constant thickness or tapered material thickness weld panels. The closed-loop control system provides operator data and information relative to the exact position of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This paper presents the closed-loop RPT control system that operates using the auto-feedback of force signals sensed by the tip and shoulder of the welding pin. Significance: The FSW process can be successfully used in a production environment only if there is a method or technique that informs the FSW operator the precise location of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This is essential for applications in aerospace, automotive, pressure vessel, commercial aircraft and other industries.

  7. System dynamics research of remanufacturing closed-loop supply chain dominated by the third party.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shidi; Wang, Tengfei; Chen, Deyun

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the electronic information industry in recent years, electronic products are being updated faster and faster, and e-waste recycling has become a common problem around the world. Firstly, this article contrasts recycling at home and abroad using the predicament of Midea Corp. Based on a closed-loop supply chain with the system dynamics method, a model is constructed and simulated. In this model, the collection point coverage rate is introduced to adjust the e-waste recycling rate dynamically. Aiming at a recycling mode dominated by the third party of the closed-loop supply chain, the article mainly discusses the impact on the sales rate and market share of the recycling model by third-party enterprises and compares the total revenue of all supply chains. Simulation results show that the model is more effective and optimal than the traditional recycling model.

  8. Osmotic Ballasts Enhance Faradaic Efficiency in Closed-Loop, Membrane-Based Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, Ryan S; Coronell, Orlando

    2017-02-07

    Aqueous processes for energy storage and conversion based on reverse electrodialysis (RED) require a significant concentration difference across ion exchange membranes, creating both an electrochemical potential and an osmotic pressure difference. In closed-loop RED, which we recently demonstrated as a new means of energy storage, the transport of water by osmosis has a very significant negative impact on the faradaic efficiency of the system. In this work, we use neutral, nonpermeating solutes as "osmotic ballasts" in a closed-loop concentration battery based on RED. We present experimental results comparing two proof-of-concept ballast molecules, and show that the ballasts reduce, eliminate, or reverse the net transport of water through the membranes when cycling the battery. By mitigating osmosis, faradaic and round-trip energy efficiency are more than doubled, from 18% to 50%, and 7% to 15%, respectively in this nonoptimized system. However, the presence of the ballasts has a slightly negative impact on the open circuit voltage. Our results suggest that balancing osmotic pressure using noncharged solutes is a promising approach for significantly reducing faradaic energy losses in closed-loop RED systems.

  9. Simulation Environment to Evaluate Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery Systems in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Chassin, Ludovic J.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Allen, Janet M.; Dunger, David B.; Hovorka, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Background Closed-loop insulin delivery systems linking subcutaneous insulin infusion to real-time continuous glucose monitoring need to be evaluated in humans, but progress can be accelerated with the use of in silico testing. We present a simulation environment designed to support the development and testing of closed-loop insulin delivery systems in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods The principal components of the simulation environment include a mathematical model of glucose regulation representing a virtual population with T1DM, the glucose measurement model, and the insulin delivery model. The simulation environment is highly flexible. The user can specify an experimental protocol, define a population of virtual subjects, choose glucose measurement and insulin delivery models, and specify outcome measures. The environment provides graphical as well as numerical outputs to enable a comprehensive analysis of in silico study results. The simulation environment is validated by comparing its predictions against a clinical study evaluating overnight closed-loop insulin delivery in young people with T1DM using a model predictive controller. Results The simulation model of glucose regulation is described, and population values of 18 synthetic subjects are provided. The validation study demonstrated that the simulation environment was able to reproduce the population results of the clinical study conducted in young people with T1DM. Conclusions Closed-loop trials in humans should be preceded and concurrently guided by highly efficient and resource-saving computer-based simulations. We demonstrate validity of population-based predictions obtained with our simulation environment. PMID:20167177

  10. Evaluating the Performance of a Novel Embedded Closed-loop System

    PubMed Central

    Leelarathna, Lalantha; Thabit, Hood; Allen, Janet M.; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Powell, Kevin; Lane, Stephen; Evans, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the reliability of a novel automated closed-loop glucose control system developed within the AP@home consortium in adults with type 1 diabetes. Eight adults with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy (3 men; ages 40.5 ± 14.3 years; HbA1c 8.2 ± 0.8%) participated in an open-label, single-center, single-arm, 12-hour overnight study performed at the clinical research facility. A standardized evening meal (80 g CHO) accompanied by prandial insulin boluses were given at 19:00 followed by an optional snack of 15 g at 22:00 without insulin bolus. Automated closed-loop glucose control was started at 19:00 and continued until 07:00 the next day. Basal insulin delivery (Accu-Chek Spirit, Roche) was automatically adjusted by Cambridge model predictive control algorithm, running on a purpose-built embedded device, based on real-time continuous glucose monitor readings (Dexcom G4 Platinum). Closed-loop system was operational as intended over 99% of the time. Overnight plasma glucose levels (22:00 to 07:00) were within the target range (3.9 to 8.0 mmol/l) for 75.4% (37.5, 92.9) of the time without any time spent in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/l). Mean overnight glucose was 7.8 ± 1.3 mmol/l. For the entire 12-hour closed-loop period (19:00 until 07:00) plasma glucose levels were within the target range (3.9 to 10.0 mmol/l) for 84.4% (63.3, 100) of time. There were no adverse events noted during the trial. We observed a high degree of reliability of the automated closed-loop system. The time spent in target glucose level overnight was comparable to results of previously published studies. Further developments to miniaturize the system for home studies are warranted. PMID:24876577

  11. Design of biomass management systems and components for closed loop life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a biomass management system (BMS) for use in a closed loop support system is presented by University of Florida students as the culmination of two design courses. The report is divided into two appendixes, each presenting the results of one of the design courses. The first appendix discusses the preliminary design of the biomass management system and is subdivided into five subsystems: (1) planting and harvesting, (2) food management, (3) resource recovery, (4) refurbishing, and (5) transport. Each subsystem is investigated for possible solutions to problems, and recommendations and conclusions for an integrated BMS are discussed. The second appendix discusses the specific design of components for the BMS and is divided into three sections: (1) a sectored plant growth unit with support systems, (2) a container and receiving mechanism, and (3) an air curtain system for fugitive particle control. In this section components are designed, fabricated, and tested.

  12. Modified function projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems through Open-Plus-Closed-Loop coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, K. Sebastian; Sabir, M.

    2010-04-01

    Recently introduced modified function projective synchronization (MFPS) in which chaotic systems synchronize up to a scaling function matrix has important applications in secure communications. We design coupling function for unidirectional coupling in identical and mismatched hyperchaotic oscillators to realize MFPS through Open-Plus-Closed-Loop (OPCL) coupling method. The arbitrary scaling function matrix elements are properly chosen such that we can produce function projective synchronization, synchronization, anti-synchronization and amplitude death on desired states of the response system simultaneously. Numerical simulations on identical hyperchaotic Rossler and mismatched hyperchaotic Lu system are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. A secure communication scheme based on MFPS is also presented.

  13. Effect of ambient pressure variation on closed loop gas system for India based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, B.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N. K.; Kalmani, S. D.; Shinde, R. R.; Joshi, A.

    2014-10-01

    Pilot unit of a closed loop gas mixing and distribution system for the INO project was designed and is being operated with 1.8meters × 1.9meters RPCs for about two years. A number of studies on controlling the flow and optimisation of the gas mixture through the RPC stack were carried out during this period. The gas system essentially measures and attempts to maintain absolute pressure inside the RPC gas volume. During typical Mumbai monsoon seasons, the barometric pressure changes rather rapidly, due to which the gas system fails to maintain the set differential pressure between the ambience and the RPC gas volume. As the safety bubblers on the RPC gas input lines are set to work on fixed pressure differentials, the ambient pressure changes lead to either venting out and thus wasting gas through safety bubblers or over pressuring the RPCs gas volume and thus degrading its performance. The above problem also leads to gas mixture contamination through minute leaks in gas gap. The problem stated above was solved by including the ambient barometric pressure as an input parameter in the closed loop. Using this, it is now possible to maintain any set differential pressure between the ambience and RPC gas volumes between 0 to 20mm of water column, thus always ensuring a positive pressure inside the RPC gas volume with respect to the ambience. This has resulted in improved performance of the gas system by maintaining the constant gas flow and reducing the gas toping up frequency. In this paper, we will highlight the design features and improvements of the closed loop gas system. We will present some of the performance studies and considerations for scaling up the system to be used with the engineering module and then followed by Iron Calorimeter detector (ICAL), which is designed to deploy about 30,000 RPCs of 1.8meters × 1.9 meters in area.

  14. A component-level failure detection and identification algorithm based on open-loop and closed-loop state estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Seung-Han; Cho, Young Man; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a component-level failure detection and identification (FDI) algorithm for a cascade mechanical system subsuming a plant driven by an actuator unit. The novelty of the FDI algorithm presented in this study is that it is able to discriminate failure occurring in the actuator unit, the sensor measuring the output of the actuator unit, and the plant driven by the actuator unit. The proposed FDI algorithm exploits the measurement of the actuator unit output together with its estimates generated by open-loop (OL) and closed-loop (CL) estimators to enable FDI at the component's level. In this study, the OL estimator is designed based on the system identification of the actuator unit. The CL estimator, which is guaranteed to be stable against variations in the plant, is synthesized based on the dynamics of the entire cascade system. The viability of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS), which shows that it can detect and identify target failures reliably in the presence of plant uncertainties.

  15. Fuzzy PID controller combines with closed-loop optimal fuzzy reasoning for pitch control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yezi; Xiao, Cheng; Sun, Jinhao

    2013-03-01

    PID and fuzzy PID controller are applied into the pitch control system. PID control has simple principle and its parameters setting are rather easy. Fuzzy control need not to establish the mathematical of the control system and has strong robustness. The advantages of fuzzy PID control are simple, easy in setting parameters and strong robustness. Fuzzy PID controller combines with closed-loop optimal fuzzy reasoning (COFR), which can effectively improve the robustness, when the robustness is special requirement. MATLAB software is used for simulations, results display that fuzzy PID controller which combines with COFR has better performances than PID controller when errors exist.

  16. Nonlinear analysis of a closed-loop tractor-semitrailer vehicle system with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoheng; Hu, Kun; Chung, Kwok-wai

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear analysis is performed on a closed-loop system of articulated heavy vehicles with driver steering control. The nonlinearity arises from the nonlinear cubic tire force model. An integration method is employed to derive an analytical periodic solution of the system in the neighbourhood of the critical speed. The results show that excellent accuracy can be achieved for the calculation of periodic solutions arising from Hopf bifurcation of the vehicle motion. A criterion is obtained for detecting the Bautin bifurcation which separates branches of supercritical and subcritical Hopf bifurcations. The integration method is compared to the incremental harmonic balance method in both supercritical and subcritical scenarios.

  17. A Closed-Loop Anesthetic Delivery System for Real-Time Control of Burst Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Max Y.; Ching, ShiNung; Chemali, Jessica; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective There is growing interest in using closed-loop anesthetic delivery (CLAD) systems to automate control of brain states (sedation, unconsciousness and antinociception) in patients receiving anesthesia care. The accuracy and reliability of these systems can be improved by using as control signals electroencephalogram (EEG) markers for which the neurophysiological links to the anesthetic-induced brain states are well established. Burst suppression, in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with periods of quiescence or suppression, is a well-known, readily discernible EEG marker of profound brain inactivation and unconsciousness. This pattern is commonly maintained when anesthetics are administered to produce a medically-induced coma for cerebral protection in patients suffering from brain injuries or to arrest brain activity in patients having uncontrollable seizures. Although the coma may be required for several hours or days, drug infusion rates are managed inefficiently by manual adjustment. Our objective is to design a CLAD system for burst suppression control to automate management of medically-induced coma. Approach We establish a CLAD system to control burst suppression consisting of: a two-dimensional linear system model relating the anesthetic brain level to the EEG dynamics; a new control signal, the burst suppression probability (BSP) defining the instantaneous probability of suppression; the BSP filter, a state-space algorithm to estimate the BSP from EEG recordings; a proportional-integral controller; and a system identification procedure to estimate the model and controller parameters. Main Results We demonstrate reliable performance of our system in simulation studies of burst suppression control using both propofol and etomidate in rodent experiments based on Vijn and Sneyd, and in human experiments based on the Schnider pharmacokinetic model for propofol. Using propofol, we further demonstrate that our control system reliably tracks

  18. A closed-loop anesthetic delivery system for real-time control of burst suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, Max Y.; Ching, ShiNung; Chemali, Jessica; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. There is growing interest in using closed-loop anesthetic delivery (CLAD) systems to automate control of brain states (sedation, unconsciousness and antinociception) in patients receiving anesthesia care. The accuracy and reliability of these systems can be improved by using as control signals electroencephalogram (EEG) markers for which the neurophysiological links to the anesthetic-induced brain states are well established. Burst suppression, in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with periods of quiescence or suppression, is a well-known, readily discernible EEG marker of profound brain inactivation and unconsciousness. This pattern is commonly maintained when anesthetics are administered to produce a medically-induced coma for cerebral protection in patients suffering from brain injuries or to arrest brain activity in patients having uncontrollable seizures. Although the coma may be required for several hours or days, drug infusion rates are managed inefficiently by manual adjustment. Our objective is to design a CLAD system for burst suppression control to automate management of medically-induced coma. Approach. We establish a CLAD system to control burst suppression consisting of: a two-dimensional linear system model relating the anesthetic brain level to the EEG dynamics; a new control signal, the burst suppression probability (BSP) defining the instantaneous probability of suppression; the BSP filter, a state-space algorithm to estimate the BSP from EEG recordings; a proportional-integral controller; and a system identification procedure to estimate the model and controller parameters. Main results. We demonstrate reliable performance of our system in simulation studies of burst suppression control using both propofol and etomidate in rodent experiments based on Vijn and Sneyd, and in human experiments based on the Schnider pharmacokinetic model for propofol. Using propofol, we further demonstrate that our control system reliably

  19. Gas powered, closed loop power system and process for using same

    SciTech Connect

    Cardone, J.T.; Dill, J.M.; Shatz, K.J.

    1982-06-08

    This invention relates to a gas powered, closed loop power generating system which generates power substantially as a result of the flow of gas through its power generating means. Gas flows through the power generating means because of a pressure drop caused by dissolving the gas in a solvent medium on the exit side of the power generating means. The solution is then separated into the solvent medium, and the gas. The gas pressure is raised and it is then fed back into the power generating means while the separated solvent medium is recycled to redissolve more exiting gas. A process for generating power is also disclosed.

  20. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    PubMed

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Shevtsova, Natalia A; Park, Choongseok; Ben-Tal, Alona; Smith, Jeffrey C; Rubin, Jonathan E; Rybak, Ilya A

    2014-01-01

    Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2) exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient ventilation. The model

  1. Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Maxwell M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary function of any life support system is to keep the crew alive by providing breathable air, potable water, edible food, and for disposal of waste. In a well-balanced or regenerative life support system, the various components are each using what is available and producing what is needed by other components so that there will always be enough chemicals in the form in which they are needed. Humans are not just users, but also one of the participating parts of the system. If a system could continuously recycle the original chemicals, this would make it virtually a Closed-loop Habitation (CH). Some difficulties in trying to create a miniature version of a CH are briefly discussed. In a miniature CH, a minimal structure must be provided and the difference must be made up by artificial parts such as physicochemical systems that perform the conversions that the Earth can achieve naturally. To study the interactions of these parts, a computer model was designed that simulates a miniature CH with emphasis on the air revitalization part. It is called the Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model (CHARM).

  2. A servo-control system for open- and closed-loop blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Nafz, B; Persson, P B; Ehmke, H; Kirchheim, H R

    1992-02-01

    An electropneumatic servo-control system is described that can reduce and control arterial blood pressure in experimental animals. The device has been proved useful in the analysis of pressure-dependent physiological processes and allows the following two modes of operation: 1) a conventional open-loop setting that will reduce arterial pressure to a preselected set point and 2) a closed-loop mode that enables an adjustment to a dynamic pressure set point (i.e., the controlled pressure is reduced to a constant value below a reference pressure). A pneumatic servo-control mechanism was chosen to provide minimal control latency. The accuracy of the system under physiological conditions is well within +/- 1 mmHg. The device can be useful in a number of studies demanding a precise regulation of local arterial pressure, such as experiments on blood flow autoregulation, arterial baroreceptor reflexes, and all experiments involving the study of pressure-dependent excretory and incretory functions of the kidney. The closed-loop setting is useful for studying physiological feedback systems.

  3. A dimensionally-heterogeneous closed-loop model for the cardiovascular system and its applications.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P J; Feijóo, R A

    2013-05-01

    In the present work a computational model of the entire cardiovascular system is developed using heterogeneous mathematical representations. This model integrates different levels of detail for the blood circulation. The arterial tree is described by a one dimensional model in order to simulate the wave propagation phenomena that take place at the larger arterial vessels. The inflow and outflow locations of this 1D model are coupled with lumped parameter descriptions of the remainder part of the circulatory system, closing the loop. The four cardiac valves are considered using a valve model which allows for stenoses and regurgitation phenomena. In addition, full 3D geometrical models of arterial districts are embedded in this closed-loop circuit to model the local blood flow in specific vessels. This kind of detailed closed-loop network for the cardiovascular system allows hemodynamics analyses of patient-specific arterial district, delivering naturally the appropriate boundary conditions for different cardiovascular scenarios. An example of application involving the effect of aortic insufficiency on the local hemodynamics of a cerebral aneurism is provided as a motivation to reproduce, through numerical simulation, the hemodynamic environment in patients suffering from infective endocarditis and mycotic aneurisms. The need for incorporating homeostatic control mechanisms is also discussed in view of the large sensitivity observed in the results, noting that this kind of integrative modeling allows such incorporation.

  4. Decision support for hemodynamic management: from graphical displays to closed loop systems.

    PubMed

    Michard, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    The way hemodynamic therapies are delivered today in anesthesia and critical care is suboptimal. Hemodynamic variables are not always understood correctly and used properly. The adoption of hemodynamic goal-directed strategies, known to be clinically useful, is poor. Ensuring therapies are delivered effectively is the goal of decision support tools and closed loop systems. Graphical displays (metaphor screens) may help clinicians to better capture and integrate the multivariable hemodynamic information. This may result in faster and more accurate diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. Graphical displays (target screens) have the potential to increase adherence to goal-directed strategies and ultimately improve patients' outcomes, but this remains to be confirmed by prospective studies. Closed loop systems are the ultimate solution to ensure therapies are delivered. However, most therapeutic decisions cannot be based on a limited number of output variables. Therefore, one should focus on the development of systems designed to relieve clinicians from very simple and repetitive tasks. Whether intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy may be one of these tasks remains to be evaluated.

  5. Precision Closed-Loop Orbital Maneuvering System Design and Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Dean J.; Queen, Steven Z.; Placanica, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission successfully launched on March 13,2015 (UTC) consists of four identically instrumented spin-stabilized observatories that function as a constellation to study magnetic reconnection in space. The need to maintain sufficiently accurate spatial and temporal formation resolution of the observatories must be balanced against the logistical constraints of executing overly-frequent maneuvers on a small fleet of spacecraft. These two considerations make for an extremely challenging maneuver design problem. This paper focuses on the design elements of a 6-DOF spacecraft attitude control and maneuvering system capable of delivering the high-precision adjustments required by the constellation designers specifically, the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the closed-loop formation-class maneuvers that include initialization, maintenance, and re-sizing. The maneuvering control system flown on MMS utilizes a micro-gravity resolution accelerometer sampled at a high rate in order to achieve closed-loop velocity tracking of an inertial target with arc-minute directional and millimeter-per second magnitude accuracy. This paper summarizes the techniques used for correcting bias drift, sensor-head offsets, and centripetal aliasing in the acceleration measurements. It also discusses the on-board pre-maneuver calibration and compensation algorithms as well as the implementation of the post-maneuver attitude adjustments.

  6. Design and implementation of sensor systems for control of a closed-loop life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alnwick, Leslie; Clark, Amy; Debs, Patricia; Franczek, Chris; Good, Tom; Rodrigues, Pedro

    1989-01-01

    The sensing and controlling needs for a Closed-Loop Life Support System (CLLSS) were investigated. The sensing needs were identified in five particular areas and the requirements were defined for workable sensors. The specific areas of interest were atmosphere and temperature, nutrient delivery, plant health, plant propagation and support, and solids processing. The investigation of atmosphere and temperature control focused on the temperature distribution within the growth chamber as well as the possibility for sensing other parameters such as gas concentration, pressure, and humidity. The sensing needs were studied for monitoring the solution level in a porous membrane material along with the requirements for measuring the mass flow rate in the delivery system. The causes and symptoms of plant disease were examined and the various techniques for sensing these health indicators were explored. The study of sensing needs for plant propagation and support focused on monitoring seed viability and measuring seed moisture content as well as defining the requirements for drying and storing the seeds. The areas of harvesting, food processing, and resource recycling, were covered with a main focus on the sensing possibilities for regulating the recycling process.

  7. Safe and Ecological Refluxing with a Closed-Loop Air Cooling System.

    PubMed

    Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Eilenberger, Gottfried; Zweckmair, Thomas; Sumerskii, Ivan; Potthast, Antje; Rosenau, Thomas

    2017-01-20

    Off-the-shelf computer cooling hardware was used to construct a closed-loop air cooling system (CLACS) that is distinguished by scalability, low energy, and no tap water consumption. Constructed to be generally used with laboratory condensers, the system was tested with several common low and high boiling solvents and showed a condensation performance equivalent to conventional tap water cooling. Reaction yields were therefore unaffected. Also, long-lasting Soxhlet extractions showed no performance loss relative to conventional cooling. Optionally, the device can be assembled from low-voltage components and be powered from a battery, rendering it independent of the main power. Both investment and running costs are minimal, allowing a lab-wide adoption and elimination of the two major drawbacks of commonly employed tap water cooling: waste of drinking water and the risk of flooding.

  8. Closed Loop, DM Diversity-based, Wavefront Correction Algorithm for High Contrast Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Give'on, Amir; Belikov, Ruslan; Shaklan, Stuart; Kasdin, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    High contrast imaging from space relies on coronagraphs to limit diffraction and a wavefront control systems to compensate for imperfections in both the telescope optics and the coronagraph. The extreme contrast required (up to 10(exp -10) for terrestrial planets) puts severe requirements on the wavefront control system, as the achievable contrast is limited by the quality of the wavefront. This paper presents a general closed loop correction algorithm for high contrast imaging coronagraphs by minimizing the energy in a predefined region in the image where terrestrial planets could be found. The estimation part of the algorithm reconstructs the complex field in the image plane using phase diversity caused by the deformable mirror. This method has been shown to achieve faster and better correction than classical speckle nulling.

  9. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients.

  10. Closed loop regeneration system for generating mechanical energy and the method therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J.; Gupta, A.K.

    1989-01-17

    A closed loop regeneration system is described for generating mechanical and thermal energy comprising: means for combining molecular chlorine and hydrogen to form hydrogen chloride at high temperatures and pressure; means receiving the hydrogen chloride from the combining means for generating mechanical power; means for extracting thermal energy from the hydrogen chloride; means for converting the hydrogen chloride to molecular hydrogen and chlorine; the converting means comprising a first reactor containing copper and cuprous chloride; means for passing the hydrogen chloride over the copper and cuprous chloride at a temperature of at least about 100/sup 0/C to thereby generate cuprous chloride, cupric chloride and molecular hydrogen; a second reactor containing cuprous chloride and cupric chloride; means for conveying the thermal energy from the extracting means to the second reactor to thereby generate copper, cuprous chloride and molecular chlorine; and means for conveying the generated molecular chlorine and hydrogen to the combining means.

  11. Investigation of creep by use of closed loop servo-hydraulic test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H. C.; Yao, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Creep tests were conducted by means of a closed loop servo-controlled materials test system. These tests are different from the conventional creep tests in that the strain history prior to creep may be carefully monitored. Tests were performed for aluminum alloy 6061-0 at 150 C and monitored by a PDP 11/04 minicomputer at a preset constant plastic-strain rate prehistory. The results show that the plastic-strain rate prior to creep plays a significant role in creep behavior. The endochronic theory of viscoplasticity was applied to describe the observed creep curves. The concepts of intrinsic time and strain rate sensitivity function are employed and modified according to the present observation.

  12. Piloted Parameter Identification Flight Test Maneuvers for Closed Loop Modeling of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1996-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for closed loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for longitudinal and lateral linear model parameter estimation at 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees angle of attack, using the NASA 1A control law. Each maneuver is to be realized by the pilot applying square wave inputs to specific pilot station controls. Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points defining each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  13. Conceptualization and validation of an open-source closed-loop deep brain stimulation system in rat

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hemmings; Ghekiere, Hartwin; Beeckmans, Dorien; Tambuyzer, Tim; van Kuyck, Kris; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) applies constant electrical stimulation to specific brain regions to treat neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS with real-time feedback is gaining attention in recent years, after proved more effective than conventional DBS in terms of pathological symptom control clinically. Here we demonstrate the conceptualization and validation of a closed-loop DBS system using open-source hardware. We used hippocampal theta oscillations as system input, and electrical stimulation in the mesencephalic reticular formation (mRt) as controller output. It is well documented that hippocampal theta oscillations are highly related to locomotion, while electrical stimulation in the mRt induces freezing. We used an Arduino open-source microcontroller between input and output sources. This allowed us to use hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) to steer electrical stimulation in the mRt. Our results showed that closed-loop DBS significantly suppressed locomotion compared to no stimulation, and required on average only 56% of the stimulation used in open-loop DBS to reach similar effects. The main advantages of open-source hardware include wide selection and availability, high customizability, and affordability. Our open-source closed-loop DBS system is effective, and warrants further research using open-source hardware for closed-loop neuromodulation. PMID:25897892

  14. Conceptualization and validation of an open-source closed-loop deep brain stimulation system in rat.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hemmings; Ghekiere, Hartwin; Beeckmans, Dorien; Tambuyzer, Tim; van Kuyck, Kris; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2015-04-21

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) applies constant electrical stimulation to specific brain regions to treat neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS with real-time feedback is gaining attention in recent years, after proved more effective than conventional DBS in terms of pathological symptom control clinically. Here we demonstrate the conceptualization and validation of a closed-loop DBS system using open-source hardware. We used hippocampal theta oscillations as system input, and electrical stimulation in the mesencephalic reticular formation (mRt) as controller output. It is well documented that hippocampal theta oscillations are highly related to locomotion, while electrical stimulation in the mRt induces freezing. We used an Arduino open-source microcontroller between input and output sources. This allowed us to use hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) to steer electrical stimulation in the mRt. Our results showed that closed-loop DBS significantly suppressed locomotion compared to no stimulation, and required on average only 56% of the stimulation used in open-loop DBS to reach similar effects. The main advantages of open-source hardware include wide selection and availability, high customizability, and affordability. Our open-source closed-loop DBS system is effective, and warrants further research using open-source hardware for closed-loop neuromodulation.

  15. Efficient Computation of Closed-loop Frequency Response for Large Order Flexible Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient and robust computational scheme is given for the calculation of the frequency response function of a large order, flexible system implemented with a linear, time invariant control system. Advantage is taken of the highly structured sparsity of the system matrix of the plant based on a model of the structure using normal mode coordinates. The computational time per frequency point of the new computational scheme is a linear function of system size, a significant improvement over traditional, full-matrix techniques whose computational times per frequency point range from quadratic to cubic functions of system size. This permits the practical frequency domain analysis of systems of much larger order than by traditional, full-matrix techniques. Formulations are given for both open and closed loop loop systems. Numerical examples are presented showing the advantages of the present formulation over traditional approaches, both in speed and in accuracy. Using a model with 703 structural modes, a speed-up of almost two orders of magnitude was observed while accuracy improved by up to 5 decimal places.

  16. The Effects of Closed-Loop Medical Devices on the Autonomy and Accountability of Persons and Systems.

    PubMed

    Kellmeyer, Philipp; Cochrane, Thomas; Müller, Oliver; Mitchell, Christine; Ball, Tonio; Fins, Joseph J; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2016-10-01

    Closed-loop medical devices such as brain-computer interfaces are an emerging and rapidly advancing neurotechnology. The target patients for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often severely paralyzed, and thus particularly vulnerable in terms of personal autonomy, decisionmaking capacity, and agency. Here we analyze the effects of closed-loop medical devices on the autonomy and accountability of both persons (as patients or research participants) and neurotechnological closed-loop medical systems. We show that although BCIs can strengthen patient autonomy by preserving or restoring communicative abilities and/or motor control, closed-loop devices may also create challenges for moral and legal accountability. We advocate the development of a comprehensive ethical and legal framework to address the challenges of emerging closed-loop neurotechnologies like BCIs and stress the centrality of informed consent and refusal as a means to foster accountability. We propose the creation of an international neuroethics task force with members from medical neuroscience, neuroengineering, computer science, medical law, and medical ethics, as well as representatives of patient advocacy groups and the public.

  17. Development of spin coater with close loop control system using ATMega8535 microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, Iqbal; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Maulana, Dwindra W.; Panatarani, C.; Joni, I. Made

    2016-02-01

    Spin coater usually applied in preparation of a thin layer in industrial coatings and advanced material functionalization in various applications. This paper reports the development of spin coater with a closed loop control system using ATMega8535 microcontroller. The thickness of the thin film layer depend on the rotation of spin coater in which usually controlled by open-loop type. In long-term utilization of the spin coater, the performance of the motor usually degraded and caused the speed of the rotation is no longer accurate. Therefore to resolve the drawback, a close-loop system is applied in currently developed spin coater. The speed range of the spin coater was designed in between 450-6000 rpm, equipped with user interface through push button and LCD display. The rotary encoder transducer was applied to sense the speed of the dc motor. The pulse width modulation (PWM) method is applied to control the speed of the dc motor. The performance of the control system were evaluated based on the applied voltage to the PWM driver (L298) versus speed of the motor and also the rise time, overshoot, and settling time of the control system. The result shows that in the setting of low speed (450 rpm), the settling time is very fast about 12 seconds and very high overshoot about 225 rpm, contrary for the high speed (5550 rpm) the setting time is 71 seconds and very low overshot about 30 rpm. In addition, to evaluate the stability of the mechanical system, the spin coater was tested to prepare a ZnO thin film in various speed of rotations and at various concentrations of the solution, i.e. 10 wt.% and 15 wt.%. It is concluded that the spin coater can be utilized for thin film coating after pass the maximum of the settling time (71 seconds). The currently developed spin coater produce a film with common characteristics of the spin coater where thicker film was obtained when higher concentration was used and thinner the film was obtained when higher speed of the rotation

  18. Linear motor drive system for continuous-path closed-loop position control of an object

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E.

    1980-01-01

    A precision numerical controlled servo-positioning system is provided for continuous closed-loop position control of a machine slide or platform driven by a linear-induction motor. The system utilizes filtered velocity feedback to provide system stability required to operate with a system gain of 100 inches/minute/0.001 inch of following error. The filtered velocity feedback signal is derived from the position output signals of a laser interferometer utilized to monitor the movement of the slide. Air-bearing slides mounted to a stable support are utilized to minimize friction and small irregularities in the slideway which would tend to introduce positioning errors. A microprocessor is programmed to read command and feedback information and converts this information into the system following error signal. This error signal is summed with the negative filtered velocity feedback signal at the input of a servo amplifier whose output serves as the drive power signal to the linear motor position control coil.

  19. Enhanced Performance Controller Design for Stochastic Systems by Adding Extra State Estimation onto the Existing Closed Loop Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyang; Zhang, Qichun; Wang, Hong

    2016-08-30

    To enhance the performance of the tracking property , this paper presents a novel control algorithm for a class of linear dynamic stochastic systems with unmeasurable states, where the performance enhancement loop is established based on Kalman filter. Without changing the existing closed loop with the PI controller, the compensative controller is designed to minimize the variances of the tracking errors using the estimated states and the propagation of state variances. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop systems has been analyzed in the mean-square sense. A simulated example is included to show the effectiveness of the presented control algorithm, where encouraging results have been obtained.

  20. Dynamic response analysis of closed-loop control system for random intelligent truss structure under random forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Jianjun; Zhou, Yabin; Cui, Mingtao

    2004-07-01

    Considering the randomness of structural damping, physical parameters of structural materials, geometric dimensions of active bars and passive bars, applied loads and control forces simultaneously, the problems of dynamic response analysis of closed-loop control system based on probability for the random intelligent truss structures are studied in this paper. The computational expressions of numerical characteristics of structural dynamic response of closed-loop control system are derived by means of the mode superposition method. Through the engineering examples, the influences of the randomness of them on structural dynamic response are inspected and some significant conclusions are obtained.

  1. Potential and benefits of closed loop ECLS systems on the ISS.

    PubMed

    Raatschen, W; Preiss, H

    2001-01-01

    To close open loops for long manned missions in space is a big challenge for aeronautic engineers throughout the world. The paper's focus is on the oxygen reclamation from carbon dioxide within a space habitat. A brief description of the function principle of a fixed alkaline electrolyzer, a solid amine carbon dioxide concentrator and a Sabatier reactor is given. By combining these devices to an air revitalization system the technical and economical benefits are explained. Astrium's Air Revitalization System (ARES) as a potential future part of the International Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System would close the oxygen loop. The amount of oxygen, needed for an ISS crew of seven astronauts could be provided by ARES. The upload of almost 1500 kg of water annually for oxygen generation through the onboard electrolyzer would be reduced by more than 1000 kg, resulting in savings of more than 30M$ per year. Additionally, the payload capacity of supply flights would be increased by this amount of mass. Further possibilities are addressed to combine ECLS mass flows with those of the power, propulsion and attitude control systems. Such closed loop approaches will contribute to ease long time missions (e. g. Mars, Moon) from a cost and logistic point of view. The hardware realization of Astrium's space-sized operating ARES is shown and test results of continuous and intermittent closed chamber tests are presented.

  2. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-20

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy.

  3. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  4. Albumin dialysis in artificial liver support systems: open-loop or closed-loop dialysis mode?

    PubMed

    Pei, Yingying; Sun, Yize; Sun, Sijie; Gao, Dayong; Ding, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In artificial liver support systems, the open-loop albumin dialysis mode (OLM) is usually used to remove protein-bound toxins from the blood of patients with liver failure. However, there is still interest in the closed-loop albumin dialysis mode (CLM) because this mode may enable not only the regeneration and reuse of albumin but also the miniaturization of artificial liver systems. In this article, we compared the two modes under a fixed amount of albumin in dialysate experimentally and theoretically. The results show that according to the detoxification efficiency in the 3 hour dialysis for removing albumin-bound bilirubin, CLM is better than OLM. The usage efficiency of albumin in CLM is also higher. Moreover, the advantage of CLM is more significant when the concentration of bilirubin in blood is lower. Under a given amount of albumin in dialysate, if the concentration of bilirubin in blood is high, one may further increase the performance of CLM by means of increasing the flow rate of the albumin dialysate or using the highly concentrated albumin dialysate.

  5. Carbon dioxide removal system for closed loop atmosphere revitalization, candidate sorbents screening and test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, E. M.; Knox, J. C.; Bardot, D. M.

    2013-05-01

    Due to the difficulty and expense it costs to resupply manned-spacecraft habitats, a goal is to create a closed loop atmosphere revitalization system, in which precious commodities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water are continuously recycled. Our aim is to test other sorbents for their capacity for future spacecraft missions, such as on the Orion spacecraft, or possibly lunar or Mars mission habitats to see if they would be better than the zeolite sorbents on the 4-bed molecular sieve. Some of the materials being tested are currently used for other industry applications. Studying these sorbents for their specific spacecraft application is different from that for applications on earth because in space, there are certain power, mass, and volume limitations that are not as critical on Earth. In manned-spaceflight missions, the sorbents are exposed to a much lower volume fraction of CO2 (0.6% volume CO2) than on Earth. LiLSX was tested for its CO2 capacity in an atmosphere like that of the ISS. Breakthrough tests were run to establish the capacities of these materials at a partial pressure of CO2 that is seen on the ISS. This paper discusses experimental results from benchmark materials, such as results previously obtained from tests on Grade 522, and the forementioned candidate materials for the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) system.

  6. Advanced Hybrid Spacesuit Concept Featuring Integrated Open Loop and Closed Loop Ventilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, Brian A.; Fitzpatrick, Garret R.; Gohmert, Dustin M.; Ybarra, Rick M.; Dub, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent on vehicle-provided consumables must remain physically connected to and integrated with the vehicle to operate properly. This innovation is the design and prototype of a hybrid spacesuit approach that configures the spacesuit to seamlessly interface and integrate with either type of vehicular systems, while still maintaining the ability to function completely independent of the vehicle. An existing Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) was utilized as the platform from which to develop the innovation. The ACES was retrofitted with selected components and one-off items to achieve the objective. The ventilation system concept was developed and prototyped/retrofitted to an existing ACES. Components were selected to provide suit connectors, hoses/umbilicals, internal breathing system ducting/ conduits, etc. The concept utilizes a lowpressure- drop, high-flow ventilation system that serves as a conduit from the vehicle supply into the suit, up through a neck seal, into the breathing helmet cavity, back down through the neck seal, out of the suit, and returned to the vehicle. The concept also utilizes a modified demand-based breathing system configured to function seamlessly with the low-pressure-drop closed-loop ventilation system.

  7. Digital compensation techniques for the effects of time lag in closed-loop simulation using the 6 DOF motion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R.

    1982-01-01

    Efforts are continued to develop digital filter compensation schemes for the correction of momentum gains observed in the closed loop simulation of the docking of two satellites using the 6 DOF motion system. Several filters that work well for small delays ( .100ms) and a non-preloaded probe are discussed.

  8. A Fuzzy Inference System for Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Camara, Carmen; Warwick, Kevin; Bruña, Ricardo; Aziz, Tipu; del Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Parkinsons disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder for which patients present many symptoms, tremor being the main one. In advanced stages of the disease, Deep Brain Stimulation is a generalized therapy which can significantly improve the motor symptoms. However despite its beneficial effects on treating the symptomatology, the technique can be improved. One of its main limitations is that the parameters are fixed, and the stimulation is provided uninterruptedly, not taking into account any fluctuation in the patients state. A closed-loop system which provides stimulation by demand would adjust the stimulation to the variations in the state of the patient, stimulating only when it is necessary. It would not only perform a more intelligent stimulation, capable of adapting to the changes in real time, but also extending the devices battery life, thereby avoiding surgical interventions. In this work we design a tool that learns to recognize the principal symptom of Parkinsons disease and particularly the tremor. The goal of the designed system is to detect the moments the patient is suffering from a tremor episode and consequently to decide whether stimulation is needed or not. For that, local field potentials were recorded in the subthalamic nucleus of ten Parkinsonian patients, who were diagnosed with tremor-dominant Parkinsons disease and who underwent surgery for the implantation of a neurostimulator. Electromyographic activity in the forearm was simultaneously recorded, and the relation between both signals was evaluated using two different synchronization measures. The results of evaluating the synchronization indexes on each moment represent the inputs to the designed system. Finally, a fuzzy inference system was applied with the goal of identifying tremor episodes. Results are favourable, reaching accuracies of higher 98.7% in 70% of the patients.

  9. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15–20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments. PMID:25352773

  10. Closed-loop optical stimulation and recording system with GPU-based real-time spike sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Nguyen, Thoa; Cabral, Henrique; Gysbrechts, Barbara; Battaglia, Francesco; Bartic, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Closed-loop brain computer interfaces are rapidly progressing due to their applications in fundamental neuroscience and prosthetics. For optogenetic experiments, the integration of optical stimulation and electrophysiological recordings is emerging as an imperative engineering research topic. Optical stimulation does not only bring the advantage of cell-type selectivity, but also provides an alternative solution to the electrical stimulation-induced artifacts, a challenge in closedloop architectures. A closed-loop system must identify the neuronal signals in real-time such that a strategy is selected immediately (within a few milliseconds) for delivering stimulation patterns. Real-time spike sorting poses important challenges especially when a large number of recording channels are involved. Here we present a prototype allowing simultaneous optical stimulation and electro-physiological recordings in a closed-loop manner. The prototype was implemented with online spike detection and classification capabilities for selective cell stimulation. Real-time spike sorting was achieved by computations with a high speed, low cost graphic processing unit (GPU). We have successfully demonstrated the closed-loop operation, i.e. optical stimulation in vivo based on spike detection from 8 tetrodes (32 channels). The performance of GPU computation in spike sorting for different channel numbers and signal lengths was also investigated.

  11. Fault detection and safety in closed-loop artificial pancreas systems.

    PubMed

    Bequette, B Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps and continuous glucose monitors enable individuals with type 1 diabetes to achieve tighter blood glucose control and are critical components in a closed-loop artificial pancreas. Insulin infusion sets can fail and continuous glucose monitor sensor signals can suffer from a variety of anomalies, including signal dropout and pressure-induced sensor attenuations. In addition to hardware-based failures, software and human-induced errors can cause safety-related problems. Techniques for fault detection, safety analyses, and remote monitoring techniques that have been applied in other industries and applications, such as chemical process plants and commercial aircraft, are discussed and placed in the context of a closed-loop artificial pancreas.

  12. Fault Detection and Safety in Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps and continuous glucose monitors enable individuals with type 1 diabetes to achieve tighter blood glucose control and are critical components in a closed-loop artificial pancreas. Insulin infusion sets can fail and continuous glucose monitor sensor signals can suffer from a variety of anomalies, including signal dropout and pressure-induced sensor attenuations. In addition to hardware-based failures, software and human-induced errors can cause safety-related problems. Techniques for fault detection, safety analyses, and remote monitoring techniques that have been applied in other industries and applications, such as chemical process plants and commercial aircraft, are discussed and placed in the context of a closed-loop artificial pancreas. PMID:25049365

  13. Experimental study of cryogenic liquid turbine expander with closed-loop liquefied nitrogen system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Sun, Jinju; Song, Peng

    2015-04-01

    A cryogenic liquid turbine expander is developed as a replacement for traditional Joule-Thomson valves used in the cryogenic systems for the purpose of energy saving. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the turbine expander and is the subject of this paper. The test rig comprises a closed-loop liquefied nitrogen system, cryogenic liquid turbine expander unit, and its auxiliary and measuring systems. The test operating parameters of the turbine expander are determined on the basis of flow similarity rules. Pre-cooling of the liquid nitrogen system is first performed, and then the tests are conducted at different flow rates and speed ratios. The turbine expander flow rate, inlet and outlet pressure and temperature, rotational speed and shaft torque were measured. Experimental results and their uncertainties were analyzed and discussed. The following are demonstrated: (1) For both test cases, turbine expander peak isentropic efficiency is respectively 78.8% and 68.4% obtained at 89.6% and 92% of the design flow rate. The large uncertainties in isentropic efficiency are caused by the large enthalpy variations subjected to small measurement uncertainties in temperature and pressure. (2) Total efficiency and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine expander are obtained. They are essentially the same, since both include flow-related effects and also bearing losses. Comparisons of total efficiency and hydraulic efficiency were used to justify measurement uncertainties of different quantities, since the former involves the measured mass flow rate and enthalpy drop (being dependant on inlet and outlet temperature and pressure), while the latter involves the actual shaft power, volume flow rate, and inlet and outlet pressure. (3) Losses in flow passages and the shaft-bearing system have been inferred based on the measured turbine expander total efficiency, isentropic efficiency, and mechanical efficiency, which are respectively 57.6-74.8%, 62

  14. A closed-loop biorefining system to convert organic residues into fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui

    This project delivers an energy positive and water neutral, closed-loop biorefining system that converts organic wastes into renewable energy and reduces the overall impacts on the environment. The research consisted of three major stages: The first stage of this project was conducted in an anaerobic co-digestion system. Effects of the ratio of dairy manure-to-food waste as well as operating temperature were tested on the performance of the co-digestion system. Results illustrated an increase in biogas productivity with the increase of supplemental food waste; fiber analysis revealed similar chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of final solid digestate regardless their different initial feedstock blends and digestion conditions. The molecular genetic analyses demonstrated that anaerobic methanogenic microorganisms were able to adjust their community assemblage to maximize biogas production and produce homogenized solid digestate. The second stage utilized electrocoagulation (EC) pretreated liquid digestate from previous stage to culture freshwater algae. Kinetics study showed a similar maximum growth rate (0.201-0.207 g TS day-1) in both 2x and 5x dilutions of EC solution; however, the algal growth was inhibited in original EC solution (1x), possibly due to the high ammonia-to-phosphate ratio. Algal community assemblage changed drastically in different dilutions of EC solution after a 9-day culture. The following semi-continuous culture in 2x and 5x EC media established steady biomass productivities and nitrogen removal rates; in addition, both conditions illustrated a phenomenon of phosphorus luxury uptake. Biomass composition analyses showed that algae cultured in medium containing higher nitrogen (2x EC medium) accumulated more protein but less carbohydrate and lipid than the 5x EC medium. The last stage involved hydrolyzing the algal biomass cultured in anaerobic digestion effluent and analyzing the effects of the neutralized algal

  15. Real-Time Monitoring and Prediction of the Pilot Vehicle System (PVS) Closed-Loop Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Tanmay Kumar

    Understanding human control behavior is an important step for improving the safety of future aircraft. Considerable resources are invested during the design phase of an aircraft to ensure that the aircraft has desirable handling qualities. However, human pilots exhibit a wide range of control behaviors that are a function of external stimulus, aircraft dynamics, and human psychological properties (such as workload, stress factor, confidence, and sense of urgency factor). This variability is difficult to address comprehensively during the design phase and may lead to undesirable pilot-aircraft interaction, such as pilot-induced oscillations (PIO). This creates the need to keep track of human pilot performance in real-time to monitor the pilot vehicle system (PVS) stability. This work focused on studying human pilot behavior for the longitudinal axis of a remotely controlled research aircraft and using human-in-the-loop (HuIL) simulations to obtain information about the human controlled system (HCS) stability. The work in this dissertation is divided into two main parts: PIO analysis and human control model parameters estimation. To replicate different flight conditions, this study included time delay and elevator rate limiting phenomena, typical of actuator dynamics during the experiments. To study human control behavior, this study employed the McRuer model for single-input single-output manual compensatory tasks. McRuer model is a lead-lag controller with time delay which has been shown to adequately model manual compensatory tasks. This dissertation presents a novel technique to estimate McRuer model parameters in real-time and associated validation using HuIL simulations to correctly predict HCS stability. The McRuer model parameters were estimated in real-time using a Kalman filter approach. The estimated parameters were then used to analyze the stability of the closed-loop HCS and verify them against the experimental data. Therefore, the main contribution of

  16. Automatic Identification of Closed-Loop Wind Turbine Dynamics via Genetic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    La Cava, William; Danai, Kourosh; Lackner, Matthew; Spector, Lee; Fleming, Paul; Wright, Alan

    2015-10-03

    Wind turbines are nonlinear systems that operate in turbulent environments. As such, their behavior is difficult to characterize accurately across a wide range of operating conditions by physically meaningful models. Customarily, data-based models of wind turbines are defined in 'black box' format, lacking in both conciseness and physical intelligibility. To address this deficiency, we identify models of a modern horizontal-axis wind turbine in symbolic form using a recently developed symbolic regression method. The method used relies on evolutionary multi-objective optimization to produce succinct dynamic models from operational data without 'a priori' knowledge of the system. We compare the produced models with models derived by other methods for their estimation capacity and evaluate the tradeoff between model intelligibility and accuracy. Several succinct models are found that predict wind turbine behavior as well as or better than more complex alternatives derived by other methods.

  17. Design of a Closed-Loop, Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface System With Energy Efficient Neural Feature Extraction and PID Control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xilin; Zhang, Milin; Richardson, Andrew G; Lucas, Timothy H; Van der Spiegel, Jan

    2016-12-16

    This paper presents a bidirectional brain machine interface (BMI) microsystem designed for closed-loop neuroscience research, especially experiments in freely behaving animals. The system-on-chip (SoC) consists of 16-channel neural recording front-ends, neural feature extraction units, 16-channel programmable neural stimulator back-ends, in-channel programmable closed-loop controllers, global analog-digital converters (ADC), and peripheral circuits. The proposed neural feature extraction units includes 1) an ultra low-power neural energy extraction unit enabling a 64-step natural logarithmic domain frequency tuning, and 2) a current-mode action potential (AP) detection unit with time-amplitude window discriminator. A programmable proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller has been integrated in each channel enabling a various of closed-loop operations. The implemented ADCs include a 10-bit voltage-mode successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for the digitization of the neural feature outputs and/or local field potential (LFP) outputs, and an 8-bit current-mode SAR ADC for the digitization of the action potential outputs. The multi-mode stimulator can be programmed to perform monopolar or bipolar, symmetrical or asymmetrical charge balanced stimulation with a maximum current of 4 mA in an arbitrary channel configuration. The chip has been fabricated in 0.18 μ m CMOS technology, occupying a silicon area of 3.7 mm (2). The chip dissipates 56 μW/ch on average. General purpose low-power microcontroller with Bluetooth module are integrated in the system to provide wireless link and SoC configuration. Methods, circuit techniques and system topology proposed in this work can be used in a wide range of relevant neurophysiology research, especially closed-loop BMI experiments.

  18. Guaranteed robust stability of the closed-loop systems for digital controller implementations via orthogonal hermitian transform.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hsien-Ju; Yu, Wen-Shyong

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, an approach for robust stability analysis of a digital closed-loop system for digital controller implementations subject to finite word length (FWL) effects is proposed. Uncertainties caused by the roundoff and computational errors subject to FWL effects are expressed in function of mantissa bit number when the mode of floating-point arithmetic is used in the process. Then, based on the Small Gain Theorem and the Bellman-Grownwall Lemma, a sufficient stability criterion for the digital closed-loop system is derived. The eigenvalue sensitivity of the closed-loop system is developed in terms of mixed matrix-2/Frobenius norms. Then, by minimizing this eigenvalue sensitivity and using orthogonal Hermitian transform as well, an optimal similarity transformation can be obtained. By substituting this optimal transformation into the stability criterion, a minimum mantissa bit number used for implementing the stabilizing digital controllers can be determined. The main contributions are that this approach provides an analytical closed-form solution for obtaining the optimal transformation and, in addition to the stability criterion, leads to the implementation of the stabilizing controllers with a lower mantissa bit number when using this optimal one. Finally, detailed numerical design processes and simulation results are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  19. Closed-loop glucose control in critically ill patients using continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in real time.

    PubMed

    Chee, Frederick; Fernando, Tyrone; van Heerden, P Vernon

    2003-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine if continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (from MiniMed CGMS) could be used in real-time to control blood sugar level (BSL) in patients with critical illness. A closed-loop control system was constructed to use CGMS in a real-time manner, coupled with a proportional integral (PI) control algorithm based on a sliding scale approach, for automatic intravenous infusion of insulin to patients. A total of five subjects with high BSL (> 10 mmol/L) participated in formal studies of the closed-loop control system. Subjects were recruited from critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) after informed consent was obtained. Error grid analysis showed that 64.6% of the BSL readings as determined in real time using CGMS sensor, when compared to conventional BSL measurements on blood drawn from an arterial line, was clinically accurate (i.e., < 20% deviation from glucometer value). In the five patients who underwent closed-loop control, the controller managed to control only one patient's glycaemia without any manual intervention. Manual intervention was required due to the real-time sensor reading deviating more than 20% from the glucometer value, and also as a safety mechanism. Test on equality of mean and variance for BSL attained prior to, during, and post trial showed that the controller's performance was comparable to manual control. We conclude that the automatic sliding scale approach of closed-loop BSL control is feasible in patients in intensive care. More work is needed in the refinement of the algorithm and the improvement of real-time sensor accuracy.

  20. A LabVIEW model incorporating an open-loop arterial impedance and a closed-loop circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Cole, R T; Lucas, C L; Cascio, W E; Johnson, T A

    2005-11-01

    While numerous computer models exist for the circulatory system, many are limited in scope, contain unwanted features or incorporate complex components specific to unique experimental situations. Our purpose was to develop a basic, yet multifaceted, computer model of the left heart and systemic circulation in LabVIEW having universal appeal without sacrificing crucial physiologic features. The program we developed employs Windkessel-type impedance models in several open-loop configurations and a closed-loop model coupling a lumped impedance and ventricular pressure source. The open-loop impedance models demonstrate afterload effects on arbitrary aortic pressure/flow inputs. The closed-loop model catalogs the major circulatory waveforms with changes in afterload, preload, and left heart properties. Our model provides an avenue for expanding the use of the ventricular equations through closed-loop coupling that includes a basic coronary circuit. Tested values used for the afterload components and the effects of afterload parameter changes on various waveforms are consistent with published data. We conclude that this model offers the ability to alter several circulatory factors and digitally catalog the most salient features of the pressure/flow waveforms employing a user-friendly platform. These features make the model a useful instructional tool for students as well as a simple experimental tool for cardiovascular research.

  1. Environmentally conscious closed-loop aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning systems for defluxing and degreasing

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.D.; Christoff, G.W.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an environmentally conscious closed-loop cleaning process which would meet the cleaning needs of ATC, reduce worker exposure to hazardous chemicals, and eliminate or reduce their hazardous waste. In order to accomplish this, new cleaning materials needed to be tested for cleaning efficacy as compared to trichloroethylene. The project work plan was broken down into five phases including establishing a baseline cleaning level, evaluating alternative cleaners, specifying and purchasing closed-loop cleaning equipment, installing and evaluating the new equipment, and publicizing the results. In general, it was the responsibility of the KCP to perform cleaning efficacy measurements on sample panels and actual parts that were processed by ATC. The cleaners chosen were evaluated for their abilities to remove the potential contaminants using an ultrasonic cleaning process at the KCP. The cleaning abilities of 20 different cleaners were compared to that of trichloroethylene, the baseline cleaning material. At least nine alternative cleaners produced cleaning results which exceeded trichloroethylene for this application. After evaluating the alternative cleaners and as new cleaning equipment was being tested, ATC terminated the Cooperative Agreement. Further equipment evaluations were suspended.

  2. Development of Closed-Loop Simulation Methods for a Next-Generation Terminal Area Automation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John E., III; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2002-01-01

    A next-generation air traffic decision support tool, known as the Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (aFAST), will generate heading, speed and altitude commands to achieve more precise separation of aircraft in the terminal area. The techniques used to analyze the performance of earlier generation decision support tools are not adequate to analyze the performance of aFAST. This paper summarizes the development of a new and innovative fully closed-loop testing method for aFAST. This method, called trajectory feedback testing, closes each aircraft's control loop inside of the aFAST scheduling algorithm. Validation of trajectory feedback testing by examination of the variation of aircraft time-of-arrival predictions between schedule updates and the variation of aircraft excess separation distances between simulation runs is presented.

  3. Downlink Training Techniques for FDD Massive MIMO Systems: Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Training With Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Junil; Love, David J.; Bidigare, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The concept of deploying a large number of antennas at the base station, often called massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), has drawn considerable interest because of its potential ability to revolutionize current wireless communication systems. Most literature on massive MIMO systems assumes time division duplexing (TDD), although frequency division duplexing (FDD) dominates current cellular systems. Due to the large number of transmit antennas at the base station, currently standardized approaches would require a large percentage of the precious downlink and uplink resources in FDD massive MIMO be used for training signal transmissions and channel state information (CSI) feedback. To reduce the overhead of the downlink training phase, we propose practical open-loop and closed-loop training frameworks in this paper. We assume the base station and the user share a common set of training signals in advance. In open-loop training, the base station transmits training signals in a round-robin manner, and the user successively estimates the current channel using long-term channel statistics such as temporal and spatial correlations and previous channel estimates. In closed-loop training, the user feeds back the best training signal to be sent in the future based on channel prediction and the previously received training signals. With a small amount of feedback from the user to the base station, closed-loop training offers better performance in the data communication phase, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is low, the number of transmit antennas is large, or prior channel estimates are not accurate at the beginning of the communication setup, all of which would be mostly beneficial for massive MIMO systems.

  4. Neural signal processing and closed-loop control algorithm design for an implanted neural recording and stimulation system.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Lei; McConley, Marc; Angermueller, Kai; Goldberg, David; Corba, Massimiliano; Kim, Louis; Moran, James; Parks, Philip D; Sang Chin; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N

    2015-08-01

    A fully autonomous intracranial device is built to continually record neural activities in different parts of the brain, process these sampled signals, decode features that correlate to behaviors and neuropsychiatric states, and use these features to deliver brain stimulation in a closed-loop fashion. In this paper, we describe the sampling and stimulation aspects of such a device. We first describe the signal processing algorithms of two unsupervised spike sorting methods. Next, we describe the LFP time-frequency analysis and feature derivation from the two spike sorting methods. Spike sorting includes a novel approach to constructing a dictionary learning algorithm in a Compressed Sensing (CS) framework. We present a joint prediction scheme to determine the class of neural spikes in the dictionary learning framework; and, the second approach is a modified OSort algorithm which is implemented in a distributed system optimized for power efficiency. Furthermore, sorted spikes and time-frequency analysis of LFP signals can be used to generate derived features (including cross-frequency coupling, spike-field coupling). We then show how these derived features can be used in the design and development of novel decode and closed-loop control algorithms that are optimized to apply deep brain stimulation based on a patient's neuropsychiatric state. For the control algorithm, we define the state vector as representative of a patient's impulsivity, avoidance, inhibition, etc. Controller parameters are optimized to apply stimulation based on the state vector's current state as well as its historical values. The overall algorithm and software design for our implantable neural recording and stimulation system uses an innovative, adaptable, and reprogrammable architecture that enables advancement of the state-of-the-art in closed-loop neural control while also meeting the challenges of system power constraints and concurrent development with ongoing scientific research designed

  5. Strategies for regeneration of nicotinamide coenzymes emphasizing self-sufficient closed-loop recycling systems.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Werner; Gröger, Harald

    2014-12-10

    Biocatalytic reduction reactions depending on nicotinamide coenzymes require an additional reaction to regenerate the consumed cofactor. For preparative application the preferred method is the simultaneous coupling of an in situ regeneration reaction. There are different strategically advantageous routes to achieve this goal. The standard method uses a second enzyme and a second co-substrate, for example formate and formate dehydrogenase or glucose and glucose dehydrogenase. Alternatively, a second substrate is employed which is converted by the same enzyme used for the primary reaction. For example, alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzed reactions are often coupled with excess 2-propanol which is oxidized to acetone during the regeneration of NAD(P)H. A third method utilizes a reaction-internal sequence by the direct coupling of an oxidizing and a reducing enzyme reaction. Neither an additional substrate nor a further regenerating enzyme are required for the recycling reaction. This kind of "closed-loop" or "self-sufficient" redox process for cofactor regeneration has been used rarely so far. Its most intriguing advantage is that even redox reactions with unstable precursors can be realized provided that this compound is produced in situ by an opposite redox reaction. This elegant method is applicable in special cases only but increasing numbers of examples have been published during the last years.

  6. Conceptual design of a closed loop nutrient solution delivery system for CELSS implementation in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Oleson, Mel W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.

    1990-01-01

    Described here are the results of a study to develop a conceptual design for an experimental closed loop fluid handling system capable of monitoring, controlling, and supplying nutrient solution to higher plants. The Plant Feeder Experiment (PFE) is designed to be flight tested in a microgravity environment. When flown, the PFX will provide information on both the generic problems of microgravity fluid handling and the specific problems associated with the delivery of the nutrient solution in a microgravity environment. The experimental hardware is designed to fit into two middeck lockers on the Space Shuttle, and incorporates several components that have previously been flight tested.

  7. Application of the Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) for Dynamic Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey Thomas; Zinnecker, Alicia Mae

    2014-01-01

    Systems analysis involves steady-state simulations of combined components to evaluate the steady-state performance, weight, and cost of a system; dynamic considerations are not included until later in the design process. The Dynamic Systems Analysis task, under NASAs Fixed Wing project, is developing the capability for assessing dynamic issues at earlier stages during systems analysis. To provide this capability the Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) has been developed to design a single flight condition controller (defined as altitude and Mach number) and, ultimately, provide an estimate of the closed-loop performance of the engine model. This tool has been integrated with the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS 40k) engine model to demonstrate the additional information TTECTrA makes available for dynamic systems analysis. This dynamic data can be used to evaluate the trade-off between performance and safety, which could not be done with steady-state systems analysis data. TTECTrA has been designed to integrate with any turbine engine model that is compatible with the MATLAB Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment.

  8. Application of the Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) for Dynamic Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey; Zinnecker, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Systems analysis involves steady-state simulations of combined components to evaluate the steady-state performance, weight, and cost of a system; dynamic considerations are not included until later in the design process. The Dynamic Systems Analysis task, under NASAs Fixed Wing project, is developing the capability for assessing dynamic issues at earlier stages during systems analysis. To provide this capability the Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) has been developed to design a single flight condition controller (defined as altitude and Mach number) and, ultimately, provide an estimate of the closed-loop performance of the engine model. This tool has been integrated with the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000(CMAPSS40k) engine model to demonstrate the additional information TTECTrA makes available for dynamic systems analysis. This dynamic data can be used to evaluate the trade-off between performance and safety, which could not be done with steady-state systems analysis data. TTECTrA has been designed to integrate with any turbine engine model that is compatible with the MATLABSimulink (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment.

  9. Application of the Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-Loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) for Dynamic Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Zinnecker, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft engine design process seeks to achieve the best overall system-level performance, weight, and cost for a given engine design. This is achieved by a complex process known as systems analysis, where steady-state simulations are used to identify trade-offs that should be balanced to optimize the system. The steady-state simulations and data on which systems analysis relies may not adequately capture the true performance trade-offs that exist during transient operation. Dynamic Systems Analysis provides the capability for assessing these trade-offs at an earlier stage of the engine design process. The concept of dynamic systems analysis and the type of information available from this analysis are presented in this paper. To provide this capability, the Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) was developed. This tool aids a user in the design of a power management controller to regulate thrust, and a transient limiter to protect the engine model from surge at a single flight condition (defined by an altitude and Mach number). Results from simulation of the closed-loop system may be used to estimate the dynamic performance of the model. This enables evaluation of the trade-off between performance and operability, or safety, in the engine, which could not be done with steady-state data alone. A design study is presented to compare the dynamic performance of two different engine models integrated with the TTECTrA software.

  10. Efficient decentralized iterative learning tracker for unknown sampled-data interconnected large-scale state-delay system with closed-loop decoupling property.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jason Sheng-Hong; Chen, Fu-Ming; Yu, Tze-Yu; Guo, Shu-Mei; Shieh, Leang-San

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient decentralized iterative learning tracker is proposed to improve the dynamic performance of the unknown controllable and observable sampled-data interconnected large-scale state-delay system, which consists of N multi-input multi-output (MIMO) subsystems, with the closed-loop decoupling property. The off-line observer/Kalman filter identification (OKID) method is used to obtain the decentralized linear models for subsystems in the interconnected large-scale system. In order to get over the effect of modeling error on the identified linear model of each subsystem, an improved observer with the high-gain property based on the digital redesign approach is developed to replace the observer identified by OKID. Then, the iterative learning control (ILC) scheme is integrated with the high-gain tracker design for the decentralized models. To significantly reduce the iterative learning epochs, a digital-redesign linear quadratic digital tracker with the high-gain property is proposed as the initial control input of ILC. The high-gain property controllers can suppress uncertain errors such as modeling errors, nonlinear perturbations, and external disturbances (Guo et al., 2000) [18]. Thus, the system output can quickly and accurately track the desired reference in one short time interval after all drastically-changing points of the specified reference input with the closed-loop decoupling property.

  11. Precision Closed-Loop Orbital Maneuvering System Design and Performance for the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission (MMS) Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Dean; Queen, Steve; Placanica, Sam

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission successfully launched on March 13, 2015 (UTC) consists of four identically instrumented spin-stabilized observatories that function as a constellation to study magnetic reconnection in space. The need to maintain sufficiently accurate spatial and temporal formation resolution of the observatories must be balanced against the logistical constraints of executing overly-frequent maneuvers on a small fleet of spacecraft. These two considerations make for an extremely challenging maneuver design problem. This paper focuses on the design elements of a 6-DOF spacecraft attitude control and maneuvering system capable of delivering the high-precision adjustments required by the constellation designers---specifically, the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the closed-loop formation-class maneuvers that include initialization, maintenance, and re-sizing. The maneuvering control system flown on MMS utilizes a micro-gravity resolution accelerometer sampled at a high rate in order to achieve closed-loop velocity tracking of an inertial target with arc-minute directional and millimeter-per-second magnitude accuracy. This paper summarizes the techniques used for correcting bias drift, sensor-head offsets, and centripetal aliasing in the acceleration measurements. It also discusses the on-board pre-maneuver calibration and compensation algorithms as well as the implementation of the post-maneuver attitude adjustments.

  12. Algorithmic design of a noise-resistant and efficient closed-loop deep brain stimulation system: A computational approach.

    PubMed

    Karamintziou, Sofia D; Custódio, Ana Luísa; Piallat, Brigitte; Polosan, Mircea; Chabardès, Stéphan; Stathis, Pantelis G; Tagaris, George A; Sakas, Damianos E; Polychronaki, Georgia E; Tsirogiannis, George L; David, Olivier; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2017-01-01

    Advances in the field of closed-loop neuromodulation call for analysis and modeling approaches capable of confronting challenges related to the complex neuronal response to stimulation and the presence of strong internal and measurement noise in neural recordings. Here we elaborate on the algorithmic aspects of a noise-resistant closed-loop subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation system for advanced Parkinson's disease and treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, ensuring remarkable performance in terms of both efficiency and selectivity of stimulation, as well as in terms of computational speed. First, we propose an efficient method drawn from dynamical systems theory, for the reliable assessment of significant nonlinear coupling between beta and high-frequency subthalamic neuronal activity, as a biomarker for feedback control. Further, we present a model-based strategy through which optimal parameters of stimulation for minimum energy desynchronizing control of neuronal activity are being identified. The strategy integrates stochastic modeling and derivative-free optimization of neural dynamics based on quadratic modeling. On the basis of numerical simulations, we demonstrate the potential of the presented modeling approach to identify, at a relatively low computational cost, stimulation settings potentially associated with a significantly higher degree of efficiency and selectivity compared with stimulation settings determined post-operatively. Our data reinforce the hypothesis that model-based control strategies are crucial for the design of novel stimulation protocols at the backstage of clinical applications.

  13. Algorithmic design of a noise-resistant and efficient closed-loop deep brain stimulation system: A computational approach

    PubMed Central

    Karamintziou, Sofia D.; Custódio, Ana Luísa; Piallat, Brigitte; Polosan, Mircea; Chabardès, Stéphan; Stathis, Pantelis G.; Tagaris, George A.; Sakas, Damianos E.; Polychronaki, Georgia E.; Tsirogiannis, George L.; David, Olivier; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in the field of closed-loop neuromodulation call for analysis and modeling approaches capable of confronting challenges related to the complex neuronal response to stimulation and the presence of strong internal and measurement noise in neural recordings. Here we elaborate on the algorithmic aspects of a noise-resistant closed-loop subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation system for advanced Parkinson’s disease and treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, ensuring remarkable performance in terms of both efficiency and selectivity of stimulation, as well as in terms of computational speed. First, we propose an efficient method drawn from dynamical systems theory, for the reliable assessment of significant nonlinear coupling between beta and high-frequency subthalamic neuronal activity, as a biomarker for feedback control. Further, we present a model-based strategy through which optimal parameters of stimulation for minimum energy desynchronizing control of neuronal activity are being identified. The strategy integrates stochastic modeling and derivative-free optimization of neural dynamics based on quadratic modeling. On the basis of numerical simulations, we demonstrate the potential of the presented modeling approach to identify, at a relatively low computational cost, stimulation settings potentially associated with a significantly higher degree of efficiency and selectivity compared with stimulation settings determined post-operatively. Our data reinforce the hypothesis that model-based control strategies are crucial for the design of novel stimulation protocols at the backstage of clinical applications. PMID:28222198

  14. A closed-loop automatic control system for high-intensity acoustic test systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of an automatic control system for high-intensity acoustic tests in reverberation chambers. Working in 14 one-third-octave bands from 50 to 1000 Hz, the desired sound pressure levels are set into the memory in the control system before the test. The control system then increases the sound pressure level in the reverberation chamber gradually in each of the one-third-octave bands until the level set in the memory is reached. This level is then maintained for the duration of the test. Additional features of the system are overtest protection, the capability of 'holding' the spectrum at any time, and the presence of a total test timer.

  15. A closed-loop automatic control system for high-intensity acoustic test systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Sound at sound pressure levels in the range from 130 to 160 dB is used in the investigation. Random noise is passed through a series of parallel filters, generally 1/3-octave wide. A basic automatic system is investigated because of preadjustment inaccuracies and high costs found in a study of a typical manually controlled acoustic testing system. The unit described has been successfully used in automatic acoustic tests in connection with the spacecraft tests for the Mariner 1971 program.

  16. Real-time closed-loop simulation and upset evaluation of control systems in harsh electromagnetic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1989-01-01

    Digital control systems for applications such as aircraft avionics and multibody systems must maintain adequate control integrity in adverse as well as nominal operating conditions. For example, control systems for advanced aircraft, and especially those with relaxed static stability, will be critical to flight and will, therefore, have very high reliability specifications which must be met regardless of operating conditions. In addition, multibody systems such as robotic manipulators performing critical functions must have control systems capable of robust performance in any operating environment in order to complete the assigned task reliably. Severe operating conditions for electronic control systems can result from electromagnetic disturbances caused by lightning, high energy radio frequency (HERF) transmitters, and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). For this reason, techniques must be developed to evaluate the integrity of the control system in adverse operating environments. The most difficult and illusive perturbations to computer-based control systems that can be caused by an electromagnetic environment (EME) are functional error modes that involve no component damage. These error modes are collectively known as upset, can occur simultaneously in all of the channels of a redundant control system, and are software dependent. Upset studies performed to date have not addressed the assessment of fault tolerant systems and do not involve the evaluation of a control system operating in a closed-loop with the plant. A methodology for performing a real-time simulation of the closed-loop dynamics of a fault tolerant control system with a simulated plant operating in an electromagnetically harsh environment is presented. In particular, considerations for performing upset tests on the controller are discussed. Some of these considerations are the generation and coupling of analog signals representative of electromagnetic disturbances to a control system under test

  17. Closed-Loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Terrence C.; DeWolf, Travis; Kleinhans, Ashley; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness and performance of neuromorphic hardware is difficult. It is even more difficult when the task of interest is a closed-loop task; that is, a task where the output from the neuromorphic hardware affects some environment, which then in turn affects the hardware's future input. However, closed-loop situations are one of the primary potential uses of neuromorphic hardware. To address this, we present a methodology for generating closed-loop benchmarks that makes use of a hybrid of real physical embodiment and a type of “minimal” simulation. Minimal simulation has been shown to lead to robust real-world performance, while still maintaining the practical advantages of simulation, such as making it easy for the same benchmark to be used by many researchers. This method is flexible enough to allow researchers to explicitly modify the benchmarks to identify specific task domains where particular hardware excels. To demonstrate the method, we present a set of novel benchmarks that focus on motor control for an arbitrary system with unknown external forces. Using these benchmarks, we show that an error-driven learning rule can consistently improve motor control performance across a randomly generated family of closed-loop simulations, even when there are up to 15 interacting joints to be controlled. PMID:26696820

  18. An adaptive and generalizable closed-loop system for control of medically induced coma and other states of anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuxiao; Shanechi, Maryam M.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Design of closed-loop anesthetic delivery (CLAD) systems is an important topic, particularly for medically induced coma, which needs to be maintained for long periods. Current CLADs for medically induced coma require a separate offline experiment for model parameter estimation, which causes interruption in treatment and is difficult to perform. Also, CLADs may exhibit bias due to inherent time-variation and non-stationarity, and may have large infusion rate variations at steady state. Finally, current CLADs lack theoretical performance guarantees. We develop the first adaptive CLAD for medically induced coma, which addresses these limitations. Further, we extend our adaptive system to be generalizable to other states of anesthesia. Approach. We designed general parametric pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and neural observation models with associated guidelines, and derived a novel adaptive controller. We further penalized large steady-state drug infusion rate variations in the controller. We derived theoretical guarantees that the adaptive system has zero steady-state bias. Using simulations that resembled real time-varying and noisy environments, we tested the closed-loop system for control of two different anesthetic states, burst suppression in medically induced coma and unconsciousness in general anesthesia. Main results. In 1200 simulations, the adaptive system achieved precise control of both anesthetic states despite non-stationarity, time-variation, noise, and no initial parameter knowledge. In both cases, the adaptive system performed close to a baseline system that knew the parameters exactly. In contrast, a non-adaptive system resulted in large steady-state bias and error. The adaptive system also resulted in significantly smaller steady-state infusion rate variations compared to prior systems. Significance. These results have significant implications for clinically viable CLAD design for a wide range of anesthetic states, with potential cost

  19. Current topics in glycemic control by wearable artificial pancreas or bedside artificial pancreas with closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Eri; Shiga, Mai; Maeda, Hiromichi; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing at an unprecedented pace and has become a serious health concern worldwide during the last two decades. Despite this, adequate glycemic control using an artificial pancreas has not been established, although the 21st century has seen rapid developments in this area. Herein, we review current topics in glycemic control for both the wearable artificial pancreas for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and the bedside artificial pancreas for surgical diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with insulin therapy remains a serious problem that could be addressed by the recent development of a wearable artificial pancreas. This smart phone-like device, comprising a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system and insulin pump system, could potentially significantly reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with conventional glycemic control. Of particular interest in this space are the recent inventions of a low-glucose suspend feature in the portable systems that automatically stops insulin delivery 2 h following a glucose sensor value <70 mg/dL and a bio-hormonal pump system consisting of insulin and glucagon pumps. Perioperative tight glycemic control using a bedside artificial pancreas with the closed-loop system has also proved safe and effective for not only avoiding hypoglycemia, but also for reducing blood glucose level variability resulting in good surgical outcomes. We hope that a more sophisticated artificial pancreas with closed-loop system will now be taken up for routine use worldwide, providing enormous relief for patients suffering from uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and/or variability in blood glucose concentrations.

  20. The Stomatogastric Nervous System as a Model for Studying Sensorimotor Interactions in Real-Time Closed-Loop Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Daur, Nelly; Diehl, Florian; Mader, Wolfgang; Stein, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The perception of proprioceptive signals that report the internal state of the body is one of the essential tasks of the nervous system and helps to continuously adapt body movements to changing circumstances. Despite the impact of proprioceptive feedback on motor activity it has rarely been studied in conditions in which motor output and sensory activity interact as they do in behaving animals, i.e., in closed-loop conditions. The interaction of motor and sensory activities, however, can create emergent properties that may govern the functional characteristics of the system. We here demonstrate a method to use a well-characterized model system for central pattern generation, the stomatogastric nervous system, for studying these properties in vitro. We created a real-time computer model of a single-cell muscle tendon organ in the gastric mill of the crab foregut that uses intracellular current injections to control the activity of the biological proprioceptor. The resulting motor output of a gastric mill motor neuron is then recorded intracellularly and fed into a simple muscle model consisting of a series of low-pass filters. The muscle output is used to activate a one-dimensional Hodgkin–Huxley type model of the muscle tendon organ in real-time, allowing closed-loop conditions. Model properties were either hand tuned to achieve the best match with data from semi-intact muscle preparations, or an exhaustive search was performed to determine the best set of parameters. We report the real-time capabilities of our models, its performance and its interaction with the biological motor system. PMID:22435059

  1. Closed-loop control of a 2-D mems micromirror with sidewall electrodes for a laser scanning microscope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Chen, Albert; Jie Sun, Wei; Sun, Zhen Dong; Yeow, John TW

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the development and implementation of a robust nonlinear control scheme for a 2-D micromirror-based laser scanning microscope system. The presented control scheme, built around sliding mode control approach and augmented an adaptive algorithm, is proposed to improve the tracking accuracy in presence of cross-axis effect. The closed-loop controlled imaging system is developed through integrating a 2-D micromirror with sidewall electrodes (SW), a laser source, NI field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware, the optics, position sensing detector (PSD) and photo detector (PD). The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed scheme is able to achieve accurate tracking of a reference triangular signal. Compared with open-loop control, the scanning performance is significantly improved, and a better 2-D image is obtained using the micromirror with the proposed scheme.

  2. Clinical evaluation of a simultaneous closed-loop anaesthesia control system for depth of anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade*.

    PubMed

    Janda, M; Simanski, O; Bajorat, J; Pohl, B; Noeldge-Schomburg, G F E; Hofmockel, R

    2011-12-01

    We developed a closed-loop system to control the depth of anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade using the bispectral index and the electromyogram simultaneously and evaluated the clinical performance of this combined system for general anaesthesia. Twenty-two adult patients were included in this study. Anaesthesia was induced by a continuous infusion of remifentanil at 0.4 μg.kg(-1) .min(-1) (induction dose) and then 0.25 μg.kg(-1) .min(-1) (maintenance dose) and propofol at 2 mg.kg(-1) 3 min later. The combined automatic control was started 2 min after tracheal intubation. The depth of anaesthesia was recorded using bispectral index monitoring using a target value of 40. The target value of neuromuscular blockade, using mivacurium, was a T1/T1(0) twitch height of 10%. The precision of the system was calculated using internationally defined performance parameters. Twenty patients were included in the data analysis. The mean (SD) duration of simultaneous control was 129 (69) min. No human intervention was necessary during the computer-controlled administration of propofol and mivacurium. All patients assessed the quality of anaesthesia as 'good' to 'very good'; there were no episodes of awareness. The mean (SD) median performance error, median absolute performance error and wobble for the control of depth of anaesthesia and for neuromuscular blockade were -0.31 (1.78), 6.76 (3.45), 6.32 (2.93) and -0.38 (1.68), 3.75 (4.83), 3.63 (4.69), respectively. The simultaneous closed-loop system using propofol and mivacurium was able to maintain the target values with a high level of precision in a clinical setting.

  3. Sabatier Reactor System Integration with Microwave Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Post-Processor for Closed-Loop Hydrogen Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Williams, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) designed and developed for the International Space Station (ISS) represents the state-of-the-art in carbon dioxide reduction (CDRe) technology. The CRA produces water and methane by reducing carbon dioxide with hydrogen via the Sabatier reaction. The water is recycled to the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) and the methane is vented overboard resulting in a net loss of hydrogen. The proximity to earth and the relative ease of logistics resupply from earth allow for a semi-closed system on ISS. However, long-term manned space flight beyond low earth orbit (LEO) dictates a more thoroughly closed-loop system involving significantly higher recovery of hydrogen, and subsequent recovery of oxygen, to minimize costs associated with logistics resupply beyond LEO. The open-loop ISS system for CDRe can be made closed-loop for follow-on missions by further processing methane to recover hydrogen. For this purpose, a process technology has been developed that employs a microwave-generated plasma to reduce methane to hydrogen and acetylene resulting in 75% theoretical recovery of hydrogen. In 2009, a 1-man equivalent Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was delivered to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for technical evaluation. The PPA has been integrated with a Sabatier Development Unit (SDU). The integrated process configuration incorporates a sorbent bed to eliminate residual carbon dioxide and water vapor in the Sabatier methane product stream before it enters the PPA. This paper provides detailed information on the stand-alone and integrated performance of both the PPA and SDU. Additionally, the integrated test stand design and anticipated future work are discussed.

  4. Effect of control surface mass unbalance on the stability of a closed-loop active control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects on stability of inertial forces arising from closed-loop activation of mass-unbalanced control surfaces are studied analytically using inertial energy approach, similar to the aerodynamic energy approach used for flutter suppression. The limitations of a single control surface like a leading-edge (LE) control or a trailing-edge (TE) control are demonstrated and compared to the superior combined LE-TE mass unbalanced system. It is shown that a spanwise section for sensor location can be determined which ensures minimum sensitivity to the mode shapes of the aircraft. It is shown that an LE control exhibits compatibility between inertial stabilization and aerodynamic stabilization, and that a TE control lacks such compatibility. The results of the present work should prove valuable, both for the purpose of flutter suppression using mass unbalanced control surfaces, or for the stabilization of structural modes of large space structures by means of inertial forces.

  5. Conceptual design of a closed loop nutrient solution delivery system for CELSS implementation in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Oleson, Mel W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to develop a conceptual design for an experimental, closed-loop fluid handling system capable of monitoring, controlling, and supplying nutrient solution to higher plants. The Plant Feeder Experiment (PFX) is designed to be flight tested in a micro-gravity (micro-g) environment and was developed under NASA's In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP). When flown, PFX will provide information on both the generic problems of micro-g fluid handling and the specific problems associated with the delivery of nutrient solution in a micro-g environment. The experimental hardware is designed to fit into two middeck lockers on the Space Shuttle, and incorporates several components that have previously been flight tested.

  6. Effect of Repeated Glucagon Doses on Hepatic Glycogen in Type 1 Diabetes: Implications for a Bihormonal Closed-Loop System

    PubMed Central

    El Youssef, Joseph; Bakhtiani, Parkash A.; Cai, Yu; Stobbe, Jade M.; Branigan, Deborah; Ramsey, Katrina; Jacobs, Peter; Reddy, Ravi; Woods, Mark; Ward, W. Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate subjects with type 1 diabetes for hepatic glycogen depletion after repeated doses of glucagon, simulating delivery in a bihormonal closed-loop system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eleven adult subjects with type 1 diabetes participated. Subjects underwent estimation of hepatic glycogen using 13C MRS. MRS was performed at the following four time points: fasting and after a meal at baseline, and fasting and after a meal after eight doses of subcutaneously administered glucagon at a dose of 2 µg/kg, for a total mean dose of 1,126 µg over 16 h. The primary and secondary end points were, respectively, estimated hepatic glycogen by MRS and incremental area under the glucose curve for a 90-min interval after glucagon administration. RESULTS In the eight subjects with complete data sets, estimated glycogen stores were similar at baseline and after repeated glucagon doses. In the fasting state, glycogen averaged 21 ± 3 g/L before glucagon administration and 25 ± 4 g/L after glucagon administration (mean ± SEM) (P = NS). In the fed state, glycogen averaged 40 ± 2 g/L before glucagon administration and 34 ± 4 g/L after glucagon administration (P = NS). With the use of an insulin action model, the rise in glucose after the last dose of glucagon was comparable to the rise after the first dose, as measured by the 90-min incremental area under the glucose curve. CONCLUSIONS In adult subjects with well-controlled type 1 diabetes (mean A1C 7.2%), glycogen stores and the hyperglycemic response to glucagon administration are maintained even after receiving multiple doses of glucagon. This finding supports the safety of repeated glucagon delivery in the setting of a bihormonal closed-loop system. PMID:26341131

  7. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  8. Detailed Modeling of Distillation Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA?s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents efforts to develop chemical process simulations for three technologies: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system and the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and modeling results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and recent test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  9. Investigation of the closed-loop control of a pneumatic conveying system using tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloughry, Richard; Pickup, Elaine

    2001-02-01

    The subject of pneumatic conveying of solids is a complex one. The flow regime present in a conveying system is dependent upon: the size and shape of the particles to be conveyed, the geometry and orientation of the conveying pipe, the relative densities of the solid and the conveying air. The variable parameters present are the velocity of the conveying air and the solids mass flow rate. The variation of these two factors dictates the presence of either dilute or dense phase flow. At Manchester Metropolitan University a pneumatic conveying system transporting polyethylene nibs, was used to investigate the implementation of a Proportional and Integral control system using a tomographic imaging system in the feedback loop. The aim of the investigative work was to achieve control of the air velocity and solids loading factor for the conveying system to maintain dilute phase flow at a prescribed level. The solids material conveyed was sensed using a PC based electrical tomographic imaging system and this was used to control the air velocity in the conveying system.

  10. Closed loop control of a pneumatic conveying system using tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloughry, Richard; Pickup, Elaine; Ponnapalli, Prasad

    2001-07-01

    The subject of pneumatic conveying of solids is a complex one. The flow regime present in a conveying system is dependent upon: the size and shape of the particles to be conveyed, the geometry and orientation of the conveying pipe, the relative densities of the solid and the conveying air. The variable parameters present are the velocity of the conveying air and the solids mass flow rate. The variation of these two factors dictates the presence of either dilute or dense phase flow. At Manchester Metropolitan University a pneumatic conveying system, transporting polyethylene nibs, was used to investigate the implementation of a proportional and integral control system using a tomographic imaging system in the feedback loop. The aim of the investigative work was to achieve control of the air velocity and solids loading factor for the conveying system to maintain dilute phase flow at a prescribed dune level. The solids material conveyed was sensed using a PC based electrical tomographic imaging system and this was used to control the air velocity in the conveying system.

  11. A programmable closed-loop recording and stimulating wireless system for behaving small laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Angotzi, Gian Nicola; Boi, Fabio; Zordan, Stefano; Bonfanti, Andrea; Vato, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    A portable 16-channels microcontroller-based wireless system for a bi-directional interaction with the central nervous system is presented in this work. The device is designed to be used with freely behaving small laboratory animals and allows recording of spontaneous and evoked neural activity wirelessly transmitted and stored on a personal computer. Biphasic current stimuli with programmable duration, frequency and amplitude may be triggered in real-time on the basis of the recorded neural activity as well as by the animal behavior within a specifically designed experimental setup. An intuitive graphical user interface was developed to configure and to monitor the whole system. The system was successfully tested through bench tests and in vivo measurements on behaving rats chronically implanted with multi-channels microwire arrays. PMID:25096831

  12. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA) that were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  13. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA). These dynamic models were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler (Registered TradeMark) and Aspen Plus(Registered TradeMark) process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  14. Novel laboratory approaches to multi-purpose aquatic bioregenerative closed-loop food production systems.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Andriske, M; Kreuzberg, K; Paassen, U; Schreibman, M P; Voeste, D

    1998-01-01

    Based on the construction principle of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) two novel combined animal-plant production systems were developed in laboratory scale the first of which is dedicated to mid-term operation in closed state up to two years. In principle both consist of the "classic" C.E.B.A.S. subcomponents: animal tank (Zoological Component), plant cultivators (Botanical Component), ammonia converting bacteria filter (Microbial Component) and data acquisition/control unit (Electronical Component). The innovative approach in the first system is the utilization of minimally three aquatic plant cultivators for different species. In this one the animal tank has a volume of about 160 liters and is constructed as an "endless-way system" surrounding a central unit containing the heat exchanger and the bacteria filter with volumes of about 1.5 liters each. A suspension plant cultivator (1 liter) for the edible duckweed Wolffia arrhiza is externally connected. The second plant cultivator is a meandric microalgal bioreactor for filamentous green algae. The third plant growth facility is a chamber with about 2.5 liters volume for cultivation of the "traditional" C.E.B.A.S. plant species, the rootless buoyant Ceratophyllum demersum. Both latter units are illuminated with 9 W fluorescent lamps. In the current experiment the animal tank contains the live-bearing teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri and the small pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata because their physiological adaptation to the closed system conditions is well known from many previous C.E.B.A.S. experiments. The water temperature is maintained at 25 degrees C and the oxygen level is regulated between 4 and 7 mg/l by switching on and off the plant cultivator illuminations according to a suitable pattern thus utilizing solely the oxygen produced by photosynthesis. The animals and the microorganisms of filter and biofilm provide the plants with a sufficient amount of carbon

  15. Novel laboratory approaches to multi-purpose aquatic bioregenerative closed-loop food production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Paassen, U.; Schreibman, M. P.; Voeste, D.

    Based on the construction principle of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) two novel combined animal-plant production systems were developed in laboratory scale the first of which is dedicated to mid-term operation in closed state up to two years. In principle both consist of the "classic" C.E.B.A.S. subcomponents: animal tank (Zoological Component), plant cultivators (Botanical Component), ammonia converting bacteria filter (Microbial Component) and data acquisition/control unit (Electronical Component). The innovative approach in the first system is the utilization of minimally three aquatic plant cultivators for different species. In this one the animal tank has a volume of about 160 liters and is constructed as an "endless-way system" surronding a central unit containing the heat exchanger and the bacteria filter with volumes of about 1.5 liters each. A suspension plant cultivator (1 liter) for the edible duckweed Wolffia arrhiza is externally connected. The second plant cultivator is a meandric microalgal bioreactor for filamentous green algae. The third plant growth facilitiy is a chamber with about 2.5 liters volume for cultivation of the "traditional" C.E.B.A.S. plant species, the rootless buoyant Ceratophyllum demersum. Both latter units are illuminated with 9 W fluorescent lamps. In the current experiment the animal tank contains the live-bearing teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri and the small pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata because their physiological adaptation to the closed system conditions is well known from many previous C.E.B.A.S. experiments. The water temperature is maintained at 25 °C and the oxygen level is regulated between 4 and 7 mg/1 by switching on and off the plant cultivator illuminations according to a suitable pattern thus utilizing solely the oxygen produced by photosynthesis. The animals and the micoorganisms of filter and bioflim provide the plants with a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide

  16. Development of a Closed-Loop Strap Down Attitude System for an Ultrahigh Altitude Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Fife, Mike; Brashear, Logan

    1997-01-01

    A low-cost attitude system has been developed for an ultrahigh altitude flight experiment. The experiment uses a remotely piloted sailplane, with the wings modified for flight at altitudes greater than 100,000 ft. Mission requirements deem it necessary to measure the aircraft pitch and bank angles with accuracy better than 1.0 deg and heading with accuracy better than 5.0 deg. Vehicle cost restrictions and gross weight limits make installing a commercial inertial navigation system unfeasible. Instead, a low-cost attitude system was developed using strap down components. Monte Carlo analyses verified that two vector measurements, magnetic field and velocity, are required to completely stabilize the error equations. In the estimating algorithm, body-axis observations of the airspeed vector and the magnetic field are compared against the inertial velocity vector and a magnetic-field reference model. Residuals are fed back to stabilize integration of rate gyros. The effectiveness of the estimating algorithm was demonstrated using data from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) flight tests. The algorithm was applied with good results to a maximum 10' pitch and bank angles. Effects of wind shears were evaluated and, for most cases, can be safely ignored.

  17. Informational Closed-Loop Coding-Decoding Control Concept as the Base of the Living or Organized Systems Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirvelis, Dobilas; Beitas, Kastytis

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this work is to show that the essence of life and living systems is their organization as bioinformational technology on the base of informational anticipatory control. Principal paradigmatic and structural schemes of functional organization of life (organisms and their systems) are constructed on the basis of systemic analysis and synthesis of main phenomenological features of living world. Life is based on functional elements that implement engineering procedures of closed-loop coding-decoding control (CL-CDC). Phenomenon of natural bioinformational control appeared and developed on the Earth 3-4 bln years ago, when the life originated as a result of chemical and later biological evolution. Informatics paradigm considers the physical and chemical transformations of energy and matter in organized systems as flows that are controlled and the signals as means for purposive informational control programs. The social and technical technological systems as informational control systems are a latter phenomenon engineered by man. The information emerges in organized systems as a necessary component of control technology. Generalized schemes of functional organization on levels of cell, organism and brain neocortex, as the highest biosystem with CL-CDC, are presented. CL-CDC concept expands the understanding of bioinformatics.

  18. Multivariable closed loop control analysis and synthesis for complex flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    A flight control system analysis and synthesis method is presented that is intended to be especially suitable for application to vehicles exhibiting complex dynamic characteristics. For such vehicles quantitative handling qualities specifications are not usually available. Howver, handling qualities objectives are specifically introduced in this method via the hypothesis of correlation between pilot ratings and the objective function of an optimal control model of the human pilot. Further, since augmentation and pilot operate in parallel, simultaneous determination of the augmentation and pilot model gains is required. Desirable augmented dynamics are obtained for a variety of complex systems and the method is experimentally verified in the case of simple pilot damper gain selection for optimum pitch tracking performance.

  19. Consensus-based distributed cooperative learning from closed-loop neural control systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weisheng; Hua, Shaoyong; Zhang, Huaguang

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the neural tracking problem is addressed for a group of uncertain nonlinear systems where the system structures are identical but the reference signals are different. This paper focuses on studying the learning capability of neural networks (NNs) during the control process. First, we propose a novel control scheme called distributed cooperative learning (DCL) control scheme, by establishing the communication topology among adaptive laws of NN weights to share their learned knowledge online. It is further proved that if the communication topology is undirected and connected, all estimated weights of NNs can converge to small neighborhoods around their optimal values over a domain consisting of the union of all state orbits. Second, as a corollary it is shown that the conclusion on the deterministic learning still holds in the decentralized adaptive neural control scheme where, however, the estimated weights of NNs just converge to small neighborhoods of the optimal values along their own state orbits. Thus, the learned controllers obtained by DCL scheme have the better generalization capability than ones obtained by decentralized learning method. A simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness and advantages of the control schemes proposed in this paper.

  20. A closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles with active trailer steering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjurul Islam, Md.; Ding, Xuejun; He, Yuping

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs) with active trailer steering (ATS) systems. AHVs have poor manoeuvrability at low speeds and exhibit low lateral stability at high speeds. From the design point of view, there exists a trade-off relationship between AHVs' manoeuvrability and stability. For example, fewer articulation points and longer wheelbases will improve high-speed lateral stability, but they will degrade low-speed manoeuvrability. To tackle this conflicting design problem, a systematic method is proposed for the design of AHVs with ATS systems. In order to evaluate vehicle performance measures under a well-defined testing manoeuvre, a driver model is introduced and it 'drivers' the vehicle model to follow a prescribed route at a given speed. Considering the interactions between the mechanical trailer and the ATS system, the proposed design method simultaneously optimises the active design variables of the controllers and passive design variables of the trailer in a single design loop (SDL). Through the design optimisation of an ATS system for an AHV with a truck and a drawbar trailer combination, this SDL method is compared against a published two design loop method. The benchmark investigation shows that the former can determine better trade-off design solutions than those derived by the latter. This SDL method provides an effective approach to automatically implement the design synthesis of AHVs with ATS systems.

  1. Freeze-tolerant condenser for a closed-loop heat-transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J. (Inventor); Elkouh, Nabil A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A freeze tolerant condenser (106) for a two-phase heat transfer system is disclosed. The condenser includes an enclosure (110) and a porous artery (112) located within and extending along the length of the enclosure. A vapor space (116) is defined between the enclosure and the artery, and a liquid space (114) is defined by a central passageway within the artery. The artery includes a plurality of laser-micromachined capillaries (130) extending from the outer surface of the artery to its inner surface such that the vapor space is in fluid communication with the liquid space. In one embodiment of the invention, the capillaries (130) are cylindrical holes having a diameter of no greater than 50 microns. In another embodiment, the capillaries (130') are slots having widths of no greater than 50 microns. A method of making an artery in accordance with the present invention is also disclosed. The method includes providing a solid-walled tube and laser-micromachining a plurality of capillaries into the tube along a longitudinal axis, wherein each capillary has at least one cross-sectional dimension transverse to the longitudinal axis of less than 50 microns.

  2. Clinical Decision Support and Closed-Loop Control for Cardiopulmonary Management and Intensive Care Unit Sedation Using Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Behnood; Bailey, James M.; Haddad, Wassim M.; Tannenbaum, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who require mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure also frequently require the administration of sedative agents. The need for sedation arises both from patient anxiety due to the loss of personal control and the unfamiliar and intrusive environment of the ICU, and also due to pain or other variants of noxious stimuli. While physicians select the agent(s) used for sedation and cardiovascular function, the actual administration of these agents is the responsibility of the nursing staff. If clinical decision support systems and closed-loop control systems could be developed for critical care monitoring and lifesaving interventions as well as the administration of sedation and cardiopulmonary management, the ICU nurse could be released from the intense monitoring of sedation, allowing her/him to focus on other critical tasks. One particularly attractive strategy is to utilize the knowledge and experience of skilled clinicians, capturing explicitly the rules expert clinicians use to decide on how to titrate drug doses depending on the level of sedation. In this paper, we extend the deterministic rule-based expert system for cardiopulmonary management and ICU sedation framework presented in [1] to a stochastic setting by using probability theory to quantify uncertainty and hence deal with more realistic clinical situations. PMID:23620646

  3. Design and Implementation of an On-Chip Patient-Specific Closed-Loop Seizure Onset and Termination Detection System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Bin Altaf, Muhammad Awais; Yoo, Jerald

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the design of an area- and energy-efficient closed-loop machine learning-based patient-specific seizure onset and termination detection algorithm, and its on-chip hardware implementation. Application- and scenario-based tradeoffs are compared and reviewed for seizure detection and suppression algorithm and system which comprises electroencephalography (EEG) data acquisition, feature extraction, classification, and stimulation. Support vector machine achieves a good tradeoff among power, area, patient specificity, latency, and classification accuracy for long-term monitoring of patients with limited training seizure patterns. Design challenges of EEG data acquisition on a multichannel wearable environment for a patch-type sensor are also discussed in detail. Dual-detector architecture incorporates two area-efficient linear support vector machine classifiers along with a weight-and-average algorithm to target high sensitivity and good specificity at once. On-chip implementation issues for a patient-specific transcranial electrical stimulation are also discussed. The system design is verified using CHB-MIT EEG database [1] with a comprehensive measurement criteria which achieves high sensitivity and specificity of 95.1% and 96.2%, respectively, with a small latency of 1 s. It also achieves seizure onset and termination detection delay of 2.98 and 3.82 s, respectively, with seizure length estimation error of 4.07 s.

  4. Thermal performance of horizontal closed-loop ground-coupled heat pump systems using flowable-fill

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.V. Jr.; Beard, J.T.; Ribando, R.J.; Wilhelm, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    This research evaluates the use of flowable-fill containing fly-ash in place of conventional dirt back-fill in horizontal closed-loop heat exchangers used in ground-source heat pump systems. A computer model was developed to simulate the transient heat transfer response in the fill material and native soil surrounding the heat exchangers. The model consists of a two-dimensional transient conduction model based on the finite-volume method. It simulates the energy extraction from the soil during the heating season and energy addition during the cooling season. A daily system load curve was used to approximate the daily heating and cooling load for a nominal two ton residential application in central Virginia. The computer model determined the thermal performance of various configurations when subjected to seasonal weather conditions. The variation in overall system performance was influenced by earth and fill thermal properties as well as geometric design parameters, such as trench length and depth. Ground-coupled heat pump systems with straight pipe and horizontal Slinky{trademark} configurations were installed at several residential demonstration-sites in Virginia. Temperature measurements were recorded at selected locations surrounding the ground heat exchanger, allowing evaluation of heat exchanger performance. Electrical measurements including heat pump compressor, air handler, and auxiliary electrical resistance energy were used to characterize overall system performance. Experimental measurements and model simulation studies have shown that encasing the ground-loop heat exchangers in flowable-fill rather than in earth backfill improves the overall thermal performance of ground source heat pump systems. Improved performance has been indicated by less extreme fill and soil temperatures and by lower annual electrical energy costs.

  5. Simulation of the MELiSSA closed loop system as a tool to define its integration strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poughon, L.; Farges, B.; Dussap, C. G.; Godia, F.; Lasseur, C.

    2009-12-01

    Inspired by a terrestrial ecosystem, Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is a project focused on a closed-loop life support system intended for future long-term manned missions (Moon and Mars bases). Started by the ESA in 1989, this 5-compartment concept has evolved through a mechanistic engineering approach designed to acquire both theoretical and technical knowledge. In its current state of development, the project can now start to demonstrate the MELiSSA loop concept at pilot scale. Thus, an integration strategy for a MELiSSA Pilot Plant (MPP) has been defined, describing the different test phases and connections between compartments. The integration steps are due to be started in 2008 and completed with a complete operational loop in 2015. The ultimate objective is to achieve a closed liquid and gas loop fulfiling 100% of oxygen requirements and at least 20% of food requirements for one-man. Although the integration logic could start with the most advanced processes in terms of knowledge and hardware development, this logic needs to be expanded to encompass a high-level simulation policy. This simulation exercise will make it possible to run effective demonstrations of each independent process, followed by progressive coupling with other processes in operational conditions mirroring as far as possible the final configuration. The theoretical approach described in this paper is based on mass balance models of each MELiSSA compartment which are used to simulate each integration step and the complete MPP loop itself. These simulations will help identify criticalities in each integration step and check consistency between objectives, flows, recycling efficiencies and sizing of the pilot reactors. An MPP scenario compatible with current knowledge on the operation of the pilot reactors was investigated, and the theoretical performances of the system were compared against the objectives assigned to the MPP. This scenario makes it possible to

  6. The critical path from pump to pancreas: the impact of FDA regulation on the development of a closed-loop diabetes management system.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Breakthrough medical tools and technologies are rapidly becoming available in countries across the world, but cannot be purchased in the United States, where these innovative products still await FDA approval. The artificial pancreas is a prime example of such medical technologies, as one of these device systems has been available in over 40 countries outside of the United States for more than 3 years. The term "artificial pancreas" refers to any one of a group of closed-loop device systems designed to protect type 1 diabetics against dangerous diabetes episodes, while also reducing the risk of diabetes-related complications by enabling tighter glycemic control. The following paper will provide an overview of diabetes, a brief history of diabetes management, the technological challenges of creating a fully functional closed-loop diabetes management system, and the role of FDA in the development of the artificial pancreas.

  7. Feasibility of a Portable Bihormonal Closed-Loop System to Control Glucose Excursions at Home Under Free-Living Conditions for 48 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Luijf, Yoeri M.; Koebrugge, Rob; Koops, Robin; Hoekstra, Joost B.L.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study assessed the feasibility of a portable bihormonal closed-loop system at home. Subjects and Methods: Sixteen pump-treated patients with type 1 diabetes received 48 h of closed-loop therapy with a telemonitored insulin- and glucagon-delivering closed-loop system and 48 h of patient-managed open-loop therapy. Results: Owing to technical problems in five cases, only 11 patients could be analyzed. Whereas median (interquartile range) glucose levels were not significantly different during Day 1 of open-loop control (OL1) from closed-loop control (CL1) (8.27 [0.83] mmol/L vs. 8.84 [1.47] mmol/L; P=0.206), they were significantly lower during Day 2 of closed-loop control (CL2) versus open-loop control (OL2) (7.70 [2.29] mmol/L vs. 8.84 [0.87] mmol/L; P=0.027). Time spent in euglycemia (3.9–10 mmol/L) was comparable with 67.2% (38.5%) in OL1 versus 79.2% (16.9%) in CL1 (P=0.189) and 66.0% (29.8%) in OL2 versus 76.5% (23.9%) in CL2 (P=0.162). Time spent in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/L) was comparable on Day 1 of control (OL1, 0.68% [8.68%]; CL1, 2.08% [7.61%]; P=0.593) but significantly higher during Day 2 of control (OL2, 0.00% [11.07%]; CL2, 2.8% [9.8%]; P=0.0172) (P=0.017). Conclusions: Bihormonal closed-loop control is feasible at home, with comparable time in euglycemia to open-loop control and significantly lower median glucose levels on Day 2 of control at the expense of more time in hypoglycemia, albeit still at a very low percentage of time. PMID:24224750

  8. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  9. Closed-loop neurostimulation: the clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Sun, Felice T; Morrell, Martha J

    2014-07-01

    Neurostimulation is now an established therapy for the treatment of movement disorders, pain, and epilepsy. While most neurostimulation systems available today provide stimulation in an open-loop manner (i.e., therapy is delivered according to preprogrammed settings and is unaffected by changes in the patient's clinical symptoms or in the underlying disease), closed-loop neurostimulation systems, which modulate or adapt therapy in response to physiological changes, may provide more effective and efficient therapy. At present, few such systems exist owing to the complexities of designing and implementing implantable closed-loop systems. This review focuses on the clinical experience of four implantable closed-loop neurostimulation systems: positional-adaptive spinal cord stimulation for treatment of pain, responsive cortical stimulation for treatment of epilepsy, closed-loop vagus nerve stimulation for treatment of epilepsy, and concurrent sensing and stimulation for treatment of Parkinson disease. The history that led to the development of the closed-loop systems, the sensing, detection, and stimulation technology that closes the loop, and the clinical experiences are presented.

  10. Tool for the Integrated Dynamic Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS)/Turbine Engine Closed-Loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jeffrey C.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    The Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-Loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA ver2) is a control design tool thatenables preliminary estimation of transient performance for models without requiring a full nonlinear controller to bedesigned. The program is compatible with subsonic engine models implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink (TheMathworks, Inc.) environment and Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) framework. At a specified flightcondition, TTECTrA will design a closed-loop controller meeting user-defined requirements in a semi or fully automatedfashion. Multiple specifications may be provided, in which case TTECTrA will design one controller for each, producing acollection of controllers in a single run. Each resulting controller contains a setpoint map, a schedule of setpointcontroller gains, and limiters; all contributing to transient characteristics. The goal of the program is to providesteady-state engine designers with more immediate feedback on the transient engine performance earlier in the design cycle.

  11. Closed loop spray cooling apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D. L.; Schwab, W. B.; Furman, E. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A closed loop apparatus for jet spraying coolant against the back of a radiation target is described. The coolant is circulated through a closed loop with a bubble of inert gas being maintained around the spray. Mesh material is disposed between the bubble and the surface of the liquid coolant which is below the bubble at a predetermined level. In a second arrangement no inert gas is used, the bubble consists of vapor produced when the coolant is sprayed against the target.

  12. Application of a ground based minicomputer system for real time, closed loop control of remotely piloted aircraft models used in stall/spin research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J.; Jai, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a minicomputer-based, real-time closed loop remote control system at NASA Langley outdoor facility which is used to determine the stall/departure/spin characteristics of high-performance aircraft. The experiments are conducted with 15% dynamically scaled, unpowered models that are dropped from 3000 m and ground controlled. The effects of time delays and sampling rates on the stability of the control system and the selection of digital algorithms to meet frequency response and real time constraints are examined. Also described is the implementation of the modular software for the flexible programming of multi-axis control laws.

  13. Design and Test of a Closed-Loop FES System for Supporting Function of the Hemiparetic Hand Based on Automatic Detection using the Microsoft Kinect sensor.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Daniel; Spaich, Erika G; Hansen, John; Andersen, Ole K

    2016-10-26

    This paper describes the design of a FES system automatically controlled in a closed loop using a Microsoft Kinect sensor, for assisting both cylindrical grasping and hand opening. The feasibility of the system was evaluated in real-time in stroke patients with hand function deficits. A hand function exercise was designed in which the subjects performed an arm and hand exercise in sitting position. The subject had to grasp one of two differently sized cylindrical objects and move it forward or backwards in the sagittal plane. This exercise was performed with each cylinder with and without FES support. Results showed that the stroke patients were able to perform up to 29% more successful grasps when they were assisted by FES. Moreover, the hand grasp-and-hold and hold-and-release durations were shorter for the smaller of the two cylinders. FES was appropriately timed in more than 95% of all trials indicating successful closed loop FES control. Future studies should incorporate options for assisting forward reaching in order to target a larger group of stroke patients.

  14. Systems analysis of a closed loop ECLSS using the ASPEN simulation tool. Thermodynamic efficiency analysis of ECLSS components. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Sharmista

    1993-01-01

    Our first goal in this project was to perform a systems analysis of a closed loop Environmental Control Life Support System (ECLSS). This pertains to the development of a model of an existing real system from which to assess the state or performance of the existing system. Systems analysis is applied to conceptual models obtained from a system design effort. For our modelling purposes we used a simulator tool called ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering). Our second goal was to evaluate the thermodynamic efficiency of the different components comprising an ECLSS. Use is made of the second law of thermodynamics to determine the amount of irreversibility of energy loss of each component. This will aid design scientists in selecting the components generating the least entropy, as our penultimate goal is to keep the entropy generation of the whole system at a minimum.

  15. Multiday Fully Closed Loop Insulin Delivery in Monitored Outpatient Conditions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-29

    To Demonstrate That the Closed Loop System Can be Used Safely Over a Few Consecutive Days.; To Assess Effectiveness in Maintaining Patients' Glucose Levels in the Target Range of 70 to 180 mg/dl, Measured by Blood Glucose Sensor.; To Evaluate the User Experience With a Closed Loop System

  16. Online Learning ARMA Controllers With Guaranteed Closed-Loop Stability.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Savas; Guzelis, Cuneyt

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a novel online block adaptive learning algorithm for autoregressive moving average (ARMA) controller design based on the real data measured from the plant. The method employs ARMA input-output models both for the plant and the resulting closed-loop system. In a sliding window, the plant model parameters are identified first offline using a supervised learning algorithm minimizing an ε -insensitive and regularized identification error, which is the window average of the distances between the measured plant output and the model output for the input provided by the controller. The optimal controller parameters are then determined again offline for another sliding window as the solution to a constrained optimization problem, where the cost is the ε -insensitive and regularized output tracking error and the constraints that are linear inequalities of the controller parameters are imposed for ensuring the closed-loop system to be Schur stable. Not only the identification phase but also the controller design phase uses the input-output samples measured from the plant during online learning. In the developed online controller design method, the controller parameters can always be kept in a parameter region providing Schur stability for the closed-loop system. The ε -insensitiveness provides robustness against disturbances, so does the regularization better generalization performance in the identification and the control. The method is tested on benchmark plants, including the inverted pendulum and dc motor models. The method is also tested on an emulated and also a real dc motor by online block adaptive learning ARMA controllers, in particular, Proportional-Integral-Derivative controllers.

  17. Microgyroscope with closed loop output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Cargille, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A micro-gyroscope (10) having closed loop operation by a control voltage (V.sub.TY), that is demodulated by an output signal of the sense electrodes (S1, S2), providing Coriolis torque rebalance to prevent displacement of the micro-gyroscope (10) on the output axis (y-axis). The present invention provides wide-band, closed-loop operation for a micro-gyroscope (10) and allows the drive frequency to be closely tuned to a high Q sense axis resonance. A differential sense signal (S1-S2) is compensated and fed back by differentially changing the voltage on the drive electrodes to rebalance Coriolis torque. The feedback signal is demodulated in phase with the drive axis signal (K.sub..omega..crclbar..sub.x) to produce a measure of the Coriolis force.

  18. Development of a Next-Generation Membrane-Integrated Adsorption Processor for CO2 Removal and Compression for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila; LeVan, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    The current CO2 removal technology of NASA is very energy intensive and contains many non-optimized subsystems. This paper discusses the concept of a next-generation, membrane integrated, adsorption processor for CO2 removal nd compression in closed-loop air revitalization systems. This processor will use many times less power than NASA's current CO2 removal technology and will be capable of maintaining a lower CO2 concentration in the cabin than that can be achieved by the existing CO2 removal systems. The compact, consolidated, configuration of gas dryer, CO2 separator, and CO2 compressor will allow continuous recycling of humid air in the cabin and supply of compressed CO2 to the reduction unit for oxygen recovery. The device has potential application to the International Space Station and future, long duration, transit, and planetary missions.

  19. Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

  20. Note: A dual temperature closed loop batch reactor for determining the partitioning of trace gases within CO2-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warr, Oliver; Rochelle, Christopher A.; Masters, Andrew J.; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental approach is presented which can be used to determine partitioning of trace gases within CO2-water systems. The key advantages of this system are (1) The system can be isolated with no external exchange, making it ideal for experiments with conservative tracers. (2) Both phases can be sampled concurrently to give an accurate composition at each phase at any given time. (3) Use of a lower temperature flow loop outside of the reactor removes contamination and facilitates sampling. (4) Rapid equilibration at given pressure/temperature conditions is significantly aided by stirring and circulating the water phase using a magnetic stirrer and high-pressure liquid chromatography pump, respectively.

  1. Closed loop orbit trim using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, B. W.; Axelrad, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an onboard closed-loop navigation and control system capable of executing extremely precise orbit maneuvers. It uses information from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and an onboard controller to perform orbit adjustments. As a result, the system circumvents the need for extensive ground support. The particular application considered is an orbit injection system for NASA's Gravity Probe B (GP-B) spacecraft. Eccentricity adjustments of 0.0004 to 0.005, and inclination and node changes of 0.001 to 0.01 deg are demonstrated. The same technique can be adapted to other satellite missions.

  2. Dynamic Modeling and Control of Nuclear Reactors Coupled to Closed-Loop Brayton Cycle Systems using SIMULINK{sup TM}

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.; Sanchez, Travis

    2005-02-06

    The operation of space reactors for both in-space and planetary operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy and control. Development of these autonomous control systems will require dynamic system models, effective control methodologies, and autonomous control logic. This paper briefly describes the results of reactor, power-conversion, and control models that are implemented in SIMULINK{sup TM} (Simulink, 2004). SIMULINK{sup TM} is a development environment packaged with MatLab{sup TM} (MatLab, 2004) that allows the creation of dynamic state flow models. Simulation modules for liquid metal, gas cooled reactors, and electrically heated systems have been developed, as have modules for dynamic power-conversion components such as, ducting, heat exchangers, turbines, compressors, permanent magnet alternators, and load resistors. Various control modules for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed have also been developed and simulated. The modules are compiled into libraries and can be easily connected in different ways to explore the operational space of a number of potential reactor, power-conversion system configurations, and control approaches. The modularity and variability of these SIMULINK{sup TM} models provides a way to simulate a variety of complete power generation systems. To date, both Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR), Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR), and electric heaters that are coupled to gas-dynamics systems and thermoelectric systems have been simulated and are used to understand the behavior of these systems. Current efforts are focused on improving the fidelity of the existing SIMULINK{sup TM} modules, extending them to include isotopic heaters, heat pipes, Stirling engines, and on developing state flow logic to provide intelligent autonomy. The simulation code is called RPC-SIM (Reactor Power and Control-Simulator)

  3. Dynamic Modeling and Control of Nuclear Reactors Coupled to Closed-Loop Brayton Cycle Systems using SIMULINK™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Sanchez, Travis

    2005-02-01

    The operation of space reactors for both in-space and planetary operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy and control. Development of these autonomous control systems will require dynamic system models, effective control methodologies, and autonomous control logic. This paper briefly describes the results of reactor, power-conversion, and control models that are implemented in SIMULINK™ (Simulink, 2004). SIMULINK™ is a development environment packaged with MatLab™ (MatLab, 2004) that allows the creation of dynamic state flow models. Simulation modules for liquid metal, gas cooled reactors, and electrically heated systems have been developed, as have modules for dynamic power-conversion components such as, ducting, heat exchangers, turbines, compressors, permanent magnet alternators, and load resistors. Various control modules for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed have also been developed and simulated. The modules are compiled into libraries and can be easily connected in different ways to explore the operational space of a number of potential reactor, power-conversion system configurations, and control approaches. The modularity and variability of these SIMULINK™ models provides a way to simulate a variety of complete power generation systems. To date, both Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR), Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR), and electric heaters that are coupled to gas-dynamics systems and thermoelectric systems have been simulated and are used to understand the behavior of these systems. Current efforts are focused on improving the fidelity of the existing SIMULINK™ modules, extending them to include isotopic heaters, heat pipes, Stirling engines, and on developing state flow logic to provide intelligent autonomy. The simulation code is called RPC-SIM (Reactor Power and Control-Simulator).

  4. An Internet Protocol-Based Software System for Real-Time, Closed-Loop, Multi-Spacecraft Mission Simulation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Richard D.; Davis, George; Cary, Everett; Higinbotham, John; Hogie, Keith

    2003-01-01

    A mission simulation prototype for Distributed Space Systems has been constructed using existing developmental hardware and software testbeds at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center. A locally distributed ensemble of testbeds, connected through the local area network, operates in real time and demonstrates the potential to assess the impact of subsystem level modifications on system level performance and, ultimately, on the quality and quantity of the end product science data.

  5. An Internet Protocol-Based Software System for Real-Time, Closed-Loop, Multi-Spacecraft Mission Simulation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, George; Cary, Everett; Higinbotham, John; Burns, Richard; Hogie, Keith; Hallahan, Francis

    2003-01-01

    The paper will provide an overview of the web-based distributed simulation software system developed for end-to-end, multi-spacecraft mission design, analysis, and test at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This software system was developed for an internal research and development (IR&D) activity at GSFC called the Distributed Space Systems (DSS) Distributed Synthesis Environment (DSE). The long-term goal of the DSS-DSE is to integrate existing GSFC stand-alone test beds, models, and simulation systems to create a "hands on", end-to-end simulation environment for mission design, trade studies and simulations. The short-term goal of the DSE was therefore to develop the system architecture, and then to prototype the core software simulation capability based on a distributed computing approach, with demonstrations of some key capabilities by the end of Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). To achieve the DSS-DSE IR&D objective, the team adopted a reference model and mission upon which FY02 capabilities were developed. The software was prototyped according to the reference model, and demonstrations were conducted for the reference mission to validate interfaces, concepts, etc. The reference model, illustrated in Fig. 1, included both space and ground elements, with functional capabilities such as spacecraft dynamics and control, science data collection, space-to-space and space-to-ground communications, mission operations, science operations, and data processing, archival and distribution addressed.

  6. Application of hierarchical dissociated neural network in closed-loop hybrid system integrating biological and mechanical intelligence.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongcheng; Sun, Rong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    Neural networks are considered the origin of intelligence in organisms. In this paper, a new design of an intelligent system merging biological intelligence with artificial intelligence was created. It was based on a neural controller bidirectionally connected to an actual mobile robot to implement a novel vehicle. Two types of experimental preparations were utilized as the neural controller including 'random' and '4Q' (cultured neurons artificially divided into four interconnected parts) neural network. Compared to the random cultures, the '4Q' cultures presented absolutely different activities, and the robot controlled by the '4Q' network presented better capabilities in search tasks. Our results showed that neural cultures could be successfully employed to control an artificial agent; the robot performed better and better with the stimulus because of the short-term plasticity. A new framework is provided to investigate the bidirectional biological-artificial interface and develop new strategies for a future intelligent system using these simplified model systems.

  7. An IP-Based Software System for Real-time, Closed Loop, Multi-Spacecraft Mission Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, Everett; Davis, George; Higinbotham, John; Burns, Richard; Hogie, Keith; Hallahan, Francis

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the architecture of a computerized testbest for simulating Distributed Space Systems (DSS) for controlling spacecraft flying in formation. The presentation also discusses and diagrams the Distributed Synthesis Environment (DSE) for simulating and planning DSS missions.

  8. Dynamics of the coupled human-climate system resulting from closed-loop control of solar geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Keith, David W.; Jarvis, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    If solar radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response. Feedback might also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. However, in addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a box-diffusion dynamic model of the climate system to understand how changing the properties of the feedback control affect the emergent dynamics of this coupled human-climate system, and evaluate these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain). This is a challenge for policy as a delayed response is needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification of natural variability, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to changes in the observed state of the climate system.

  9. Comparison of hydrogen production and electrical power generation for energy capture in closed-loop ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis systems.

    PubMed

    Hatzell, Marta C; Ivanov, Ivan; Cusick, Roland D; Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-01-28

    Currently, there is an enormous amount of energy available from salinity gradients, which could be used for clean hydrogen production. Through the use of a favorable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cathode, the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis (RED) system approached 78 W h m(-3). However, if RED is operated with the less favorable (higher overpotential) hydrogen evolution electrode and hydrogen gas is harvested, the energy recovered increases by as much ~1.5× to 118 W h m(-3). Indirect hydrogen production through coupling an RED stack with an external electrolysis system was only projected to achieve 35 W h m(-3) or ~1/3 of that produced through direct hydrogen generation.

  10. The Space Operations Simulation Center (SOSC) and Closed-Loop Hardware Testing for Orion Rendezvous System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milenkovic, Zoran; DSouza, Christopher; Huish, David; Bendle, John; Kibler, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The exploration goals of Orion / MPCV Project will require a mature Rendezvous, Proximity Operations and Docking (RPOD) capability. Ground testing autonomous docking with a next-generation sensor such as the Vision Navigation Sensor (VNS) is a critical step along the path of ensuring successful execution of autonomous RPOD for Orion. This paper will discuss the testing rationale, the test configuration, the test limitations and the results obtained from tests that have been performed at the Lockheed Martin Space Operations Simulation Center (SOSC) to evaluate and mature the Orion RPOD system. We will show that these tests have greatly increased the confidence in the maturity of the Orion RPOD design, reduced some of the latent risks and in doing so validated the design philosophy of the Orion RPOD system. This paper is organized as follows: first, the objectives of the test are given. Descriptions of the SOSC facility, and the Orion RPOD system and associated components follow. The details of the test configuration of the components in question are presented prior to discussing preliminary results of the tests. The paper concludes with closing comments.

  11. Dynamics of the Coupled Human-climate System Resulting from Closed-loop Control of Solar Geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    MacMartin, Douglas; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Keith, David; Jarvis, Andrew

    2014-07-08

    If solar radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM, in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response; this would also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. This feedback creates an emergent coupled human-climate system, with entirely new dynamics. In addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a simple box-diffusion dynamic model to understand how changing feedback-control parameters and time delay affect the behavior of this coupled natural-human system, and verify these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain), but a delayed response needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to uncertain changes.

  12. A Novel Robot System Integrating Biological and Mechanical Intelligence Based on Dissociated Neural Network-Controlled Closed-Loop Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuechao; Li, Hongyi; Zheng, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    We propose the architecture of a novel robot system merging biological and artificial intelligence based on a neural controller connected to an external agent. We initially built a framework that connected the dissociated neural network to a mobile robot system to implement a realistic vehicle. The mobile robot system characterized by a camera and two-wheeled robot was designed to execute the target-searching task. We modified a software architecture and developed a home-made stimulation generator to build a bi-directional connection between the biological and the artificial components via simple binomial coding/decoding schemes. In this paper, we utilized a specific hierarchical dissociated neural network for the first time as the neural controller. Based on our work, neural cultures were successfully employed to control an artificial agent resulting in high performance. Surprisingly, under the tetanus stimulus training, the robot performed better and better with the increasement of training cycle because of the short-term plasticity of neural network (a kind of reinforced learning). Comparing to the work previously reported, we adopted an effective experimental proposal (i.e. increasing the training cycle) to make sure of the occurrence of the short-term plasticity, and preliminarily demonstrated that the improvement of the robot’s performance could be caused independently by the plasticity development of dissociated neural network. This new framework may provide some possible solutions for the learning abilities of intelligent robots by the engineering application of the plasticity processing of neural networks, also for the development of theoretical inspiration for the next generation neuro-prostheses on the basis of the bi-directional exchange of information within the hierarchical neural networks. PMID:27806074

  13. Simulation of the MELiSSA closed loop system as a tool to define its integration strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poughon, Laurent; Farges, Berangere; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Godia, Francesc; Lasseur, Christophe

    Inspired from a terrestrial ecosystem, MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a project of closed life support system future long-term manned missions (Moon and Mars bases). Started on ESA in 1989, this 5 compartments concept has evolved following a mechanistic engineering approach for acquiring both theoretical and technical knowledge. In its current state of development the project can now start to demonstrate the MELiSSA loop concept at a pilot scale. Thus an integration strategy for a MELiSSA Pilot Plant (MPP) was defined, describing the different phases for tests and connections between compartments. The integration steps should be started in 2008 and be completed with a complete operational loop in 2015, which final objective is to achieve a closed liquid and gas loop with 100 Although the integration logic could start with the most advanced processes in terms of knowledge and hardware development, this logic needs to be completed by high politic of simulation. Thanks to this simulation exercise, the effective demonstrations of each independent process and its progressive coupling with others will be performed in operational conditions as close as possible to the final configuration. The theoretical approach described in this paper is based on mass balance models of each of the MELiSSA biological compartments which are used to simulate each integration step and the complete MPP loop itself. These simulations will help to identify criticalities of each integration steps and to check the consistencies between objectives, flows, recycling efficiencies and sizing of the pilot reactors. A MPP scenario compatible with the current knowledge of the operation of the pilot reactors was investigated and the theoretical performances of the system compared to the objectives of the MPP. From this scenario the most important milestone steps in the integration are highlighted and their behaviour can be simulated.

  14. A Novel Robot System Integrating Biological and Mechanical Intelligence Based on Dissociated Neural Network-Controlled Closed-Loop Environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongcheng; Sun, Rong; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Hongyi; Zheng, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    We propose the architecture of a novel robot system merging biological and artificial intelligence based on a neural controller connected to an external agent. We initially built a framework that connected the dissociated neural network to a mobile robot system to implement a realistic vehicle. The mobile robot system characterized by a camera and two-wheeled robot was designed to execute the target-searching task. We modified a software architecture and developed a home-made stimulation generator to build a bi-directional connection between the biological and the artificial components via simple binomial coding/decoding schemes. In this paper, we utilized a specific hierarchical dissociated neural network for the first time as the neural controller. Based on our work, neural cultures were successfully employed to control an artificial agent resulting in high performance. Surprisingly, under the tetanus stimulus training, the robot performed better and better with the increasement of training cycle because of the short-term plasticity of neural network (a kind of reinforced learning). Comparing to the work previously reported, we adopted an effective experimental proposal (i.e. increasing the training cycle) to make sure of the occurrence of the short-term plasticity, and preliminarily demonstrated that the improvement of the robot's performance could be caused independently by the plasticity development of dissociated neural network. This new framework may provide some possible solutions for the learning abilities of intelligent robots by the engineering application of the plasticity processing of neural networks, also for the development of theoretical inspiration for the next generation neuro-prostheses on the basis of the bi-directional exchange of information within the hierarchical neural networks.

  15. Air-Cooled Design of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.; Rosen, Micha; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Celio L.

    2004-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts. This paper discusses the mechanical design and the results of thermal model validation tests of a TSAC that uses air as the cooling medium.

  16. Comparison between a novel and conventional artificial pancreas for perioperative glycemic control using a closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Maeda, Hiromichi; Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Hirano, Kenichi; Asano, Takuji; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-01

    This clinical study aimed to compare a novel and conventional artificial pancreas (AP) used in surgical patients for perioperative glycemic control, with respect to usability, blood glucose measurements, and glycemic control characteristics. From July in 2010 to March in 2015, 177 patients underwent perioperative glycemic control using a novel AP. Among them, 166 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Intensive insulin therapy (IIT) targeting a blood glucose range of 80-110 mg/dL was implemented in 82 patients (49 %), and the remaining 84 patients (51 %) received a less-intensive regime of insulin therapy. Data were collected prospectively and were reviewed or analyzed retrospectively. A comparison study of 324 patients undergoing IIT for glycemic control using a novel (n = 82) or conventional AP (n = 242) was conducted retrospectively. All patients had no hypoglycemia. The comparison study revealed no significant differences in perioperative mean blood glucose level, achievement rates for target blood glucose range, and variability in blood glucose level achieved with IIT between the novel AP and conventional AP groups. The usability, performance with respect to blood glucose measurement, and glycemic control characteristics of IIT were comparable between novel and conventional AP systems. However, the novel AP was easier to manipulate than the conventional AP due to its smaller size, lower weight, and shorter time for preparation. In the near future, this novel AP system might be accepted worldwide as a safe and useful device for use in perioperative glycemic control.

  17. Development and Testing of a Temperature-swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide in Closed-loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Rosen, Micha; Affleck, David; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby dosing the air-loop. We have developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts for performing these tasks. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low- pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. This paper discusses the design and testing of a TSAC for carbon dioxide that has application in the ISS and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop.

  18. Closed Loop Fluid Delivery System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-28

    Conference Presentations: • Kinsky M, Salter M, Mileski W, Whitehead W, Enkhbaatar P, Kramer G, “Automated Critical Care Fluids”. Smart Monitoring; 2013...received salary support from this ONR award: Christopher Meador, Arcos Dave Inlow, Optimation Elvis Zapalac, Optimation Michael Kinsky, UTMB Sheryl Henkel, UTMB Michael Salter , UTMB

  19. A low-cost multielectrode system for data acquisition enabling real-time closed-loop processing with rapid recovery from stimulation artifacts.

    PubMed

    Rolston, John D; Gross, Robert E; Potter, Steve M

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (<1 ms post-stimulus) to be detected, facilitating closed-loop applications and exposing neural activity that would otherwise remain hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. System noise levels are similar to existing platforms, and extracellular action potentials and local field potentials can be recorded simultaneously. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system's open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of

  20. A Low-Cost Multielectrode System for Data Acquisition Enabling Real-Time Closed-Loop Processing with Rapid Recovery from Stimulation Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, John D.; Gross, Robert E.; Potter, Steve M.

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (<1 ms post-stimulus) to be detected, facilitating closed-loop applications and exposing neural activity that would otherwise remain hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. System noise levels are similar to existing platforms, and extracellular action potentials and local field potentials can be recorded simultaneously. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system's open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of

  1. A multi-layer, closed-loop system for continuous measurement of soil CO2 concentrations and its isotopic signature applied in a beech and a pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochheim, Hubert; Wirth, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    We present a setup of measurement devices that allows the application of the soil CO2 gradient approach for CO2 efflux calculation in combination with the analysis of isotopic signature (δ13C). Vertical profiles of CO2 concentrations in air-filled pores of soil were measured using miniature NDIR sensors within a 16-channel closed-loop system where equilibrium with soil air can be achieved using hydrophobic, gas-permeable porous polypropylene tubes circulating gas using peristaltic pumps. A 16-position multiplexer allows the connection to an isotopic CO2 analyser. This setup was applied at two ICP Forest intensive monitoring sites, a beech and a pine forest on sandy soils located in Brandenburg, Germany. CO2 concentrations in air-filled pores of soils were measured on top of soil surface, below the humus layer, and in 10cm, 20cm, 30cm and 100 cm depths every 30 min. At both sites, soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously in the respective soil depths in identical time intervals. Isotopic signatures of soil CO2 was detected by measurement campaigns. After three years of measurements, our results provided evidence for distinct seasonal dynamics and vertical gradients of soil CO2 concentration and δ13C values. Varying impacts of soil temperature and moisture on CO2 concentration were revealed, highlighting its impact on soil physical and soil biological controls. Higher levels of CO2 concentration and a more distinct seasonal dynamics were detected at the beech site compared to the pine site. The collected data provide a suitable database for calculation of CO2 efflux and modelling of soil respiration.

  2. Closed-loop control of flow-induced cavity oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qi

    Flow-induced cavity oscillations are a coupled flow-acoustic problem in which the inherent closed-loop system dynamics can lead to large unsteady pressure levels in and around the cavity, resulting in both broadband noise and discrete tones. This problem exists in many practical environments, such as landing gear bays and weapon delivery systems on aircraft, and automobile sunroofs and windows. Researchers in both fluid dynamics and controls have been working on this problem for more than fifty years. This is because not only is the physical nature of this problem rich and complex, but also it has become a standard test bed for controller deign and implementation in flow control. The ultimate goal of this research is to minimize the cavity acoustic tones and the broadband noise level over a range of freestream Mach numbers. Although open-loop and closed-loop control methodologies have been explored extensively in recent years, there are still some issues that need to be studied further. For example, a low-order theoretical model suitable for controller design does not exist. Most recent flow-induced cavity models are based either on Rossiter's semi-expirical formula or a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) based models. These models cannot be implemented in adaptive controller design directly. In addition, closed-loop control of high subsonic and supersonic flows remains an unexplored area. In order to achieve these objectives, an analytical system model is first developed in this research. This analytical model is a transfer function based model and it can be used as a potential model for controller design. Then, a MIMO system identification algorithm is derived and combined with the generalized prediction control (GPC) algorithm. The resultant integration of adaptive system ID and GPC algorithms can potentially track nonstationary cavity dynamics and reduce the flow-induced oscillations. A novel piezoelectric-driven synthetic jet actuator array is designed for

  3. Closed-loop approach to thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goupil, C.; Ouerdane, H.; Herbert, E.; Benenti, G.; D'Angelo, Y.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2016-09-01

    We present the closed-loop approach to linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics considering a generic heat engine dissipatively connected to two temperature baths. The system is usually quite generally characterized by two parameters: the output power P and the conversion efficiency η , to which we add a third one, the working frequency ω . We establish that a detailed understanding of the effects of the dissipative coupling on the energy conversion process requires only knowing two quantities: the system's feedback factor β and its open-loop gain A0, which product A0β characterizes the interplay between the efficiency, the output power, and the operating rate of the system. By raising the abstract hermodynamic analysis to a higher level, the feedback loop approach provides a versatile and economical, hence fairly efficient, tool for the study of any conversion engine operation for which a feedback factor can be defined.

  4. Closed Loop Requirements and Analysis Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamoreaux, Michael; Verhoef, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Effective systems engineering involves the use of analysis in the derivation of requirements and verification of designs against those requirements. The initial development of requirements often depends on analysis for the technical definition of specific aspects of a product. Following the allocation of system-level requirements to a product's components, the closure of those requirements often involves analytical approaches to verify that the requirement criteria have been satisfied. Meanwhile, changes that occur in between these two processes need to be managed in order to achieve a closed-loop requirement derivation/verification process. Herein are presented concepts for employing emerging Team center capabilities to jointly manage requirements and analysis data such that analytical techniques are utilized to effectively derive and allocate requirements, analyses are consulted and updated during the change evaluation processes, and analyses are leveraged during the design verification process. Recommendations on concept validation case studies are also discussed.

  5. Neuroelectronics and Biooptics: Closed-Loop Technologies in Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Gelinas, Jennifer N; Soltesz, Ivan; Buzsáki, György

    2015-07-01

    Brain-implanted devices are no longer a futuristic idea. Traditionally, therapies for most neurological disorders are adjusted based on changes in clinical symptoms and diagnostic measures observed over time. These therapies are commonly pharmacological or surgical, requiring continuous or irreversible treatment regimens that cannot respond rapidly to fluctuations of symptoms or isolated episodes of dysfunction. In contrast, closed-loop systems provide intervention only when needed by detecting abnormal neurological signals and modulating them with instantaneous feedback. Closed-loop systems have been applied to several neurological conditions (most notably epilepsy and movement disorders), but widespread use is limited by conceptual and technical challenges. Herein, we discuss how advances in experimental closed-loop systems hold promise for improved clinical benefit in patients with neurological disorders.

  6. Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Feeney, Orla

    2000-07-01

    We consider the performance of the wavefront reconstruction process when a Pyramid wavefront Sensor is used in a closed loop Adaptive Optics System. The Pyramid Sensor sensitivity in closed loop operations has been the subject of a first heuristic analysis showing that the sensor sensitivity is higher than that of a Shack-Hartmann sensor, at least when low order modes are considered. In this paper we evaluate the sensor accuracy by determining the closed loop reconstruction matrix. This is done using a diffractive analysis of the sensor behavior. Furthermore, knowledge of this matrix enables us to quantify the effect of error sources like sensor non linearity and photon noise on the reconstructed wavefront accuracy. Finally, a comparison of the performance of the Shack-Hartmann and Pyramid wavefront sensors is given.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of a New Semi-Closed-Loop Insulin Therapy System Over the Prandial Period in Adult Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Quemerais, Marie Aude; Doron, Maeva; Dutrech, Florent; Melki, Vincent; Franc, Sylvia; Antonakios, Michel; Charpentier, Guillaume; Hanaire, Helene; Charpentier, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    There is room for improvement in the algorithms used in closed-loop insulin therapy during the prandial period. This pilot study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the Diabeloop algorithm (model predictive control type) during the postprandial period. This 2-center clinical trial compared interstitial glucose levels over two 5-hour periods (with/without the algorithm) following a calibrated lunch. On the control day, the amount of insulin delivered by the pump was determined according to the patient’s usual parameters. On the test day, 50% or 75% of the theoretical bolus required was delivered, while the algorithm, informed of carbohydrate intake, proposed changes to insulin delivery every 15 minutes using modeling to forecast glucose levels. The primary endpoint was percentage of time spent at near normoglycemia (70-180 mg/dl). Twelve patients with type 1 diabetes (9 men, age 35.6 ± 12.7 years, HbA1c 7.3 ± 0.8%) were included. The percentage of time spent in the target range was 84.5 ± 20.8 (test day) versus 69.2 ± 33.9% (control day, P = .11). The percentage of time spent in hypoglycemia < 70 mg/dl was 0.2 ± 0.8 (test) versus 4.4 ± 8.2% (control, P = .18). Interstitial glucose at the end of the test (5 hours) was 127.5 ± 40.1 (test) versus 146 ± 53.5 mg/dl (control, P = .25). The insulin doses did not differ, and no differences were observed between the 50% and 75% boluses. In a semi-closed-loop configuration with manual priming boluses (25% or 50% reduction), the Diabeloop v1 algorithm was as successful as the manual method in determining the prandial bolus, without any exposure to excessive hypoglycemic risk. PMID:25097057

  8. Closed-loop control for power tower heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convery, Mark R.

    2011-10-01

    In a Power Tower solar thermal power plant, alignment and control of the heliostats constitutes one of the largest costs of both time and money. This is especially the case in systems where individual heliostats are small (~1m2). I describe a closed-loop control system that generates the required feedback by inducing small mechanical vibrations in the heliostat reflector surface using piezoelectric actuators. These vibrations induce time-dependent changes in the reflected wavefront that can be detected by photosensors surrounding the thermal receiver target. Time and frequency encoding of the vibrations allows identification of a misaligned heliostat from among the thousands in the system. Corrections can then be applied to bring the reflected beam onto the receiver target. This technique can, in principle, control thousands of heliostats simultaneously.Outdoor testing of a small-scale model of this system has confirmed that such a system is effective and can achieve milliradian tracking accuracy. If such a system were implemented in a commercial plant, it could relax the accuracy specification required of the heliostats as well as provide an automated alignment and calibration system. This could significantly reduce the installed cost of the heliostat field.

  9. Exploration and Identification of Cortico-Cerebellar-Brainstem Closed Loop During a Motivational-Motor Task: an fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Belkhiria, Chama; Driss, Tarak; Habas, Christophe; Jaafar, Hamdi; Guillevin, Remy; de Marco, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The cerebellum is involved not only in motor coordination, training, and memory, but also in cognition and emotion. Lobule VI in particular belongs to sensorimotor, salience, and executive cerebellar networks. This study aims to determine whether lobule VI would constitute an integrative interface between motor and cognitive/emotional circuits during a motor task with verbal encouragement, likely in conjunction with the basal ganglia (reward and motivational system). We used fMRI to identify specific recruitment of cerebellar and striatal systems during physical performance using two motor tasks with and without encouragement. We found that: (i) Force results were higher during verbal encouragement than during basal condition in all participants. (ii) The anterior part of the right lobule VI was activated by motor execution in both tasks, while its posterior part was specifically activated by verbal encouragement. (iii) The closed-connectivity loop maintained motivation induced by verbal encouragement between cerebral and cerebellar through the red nucleus and striatal network. Therefore, right lobule VI is a hub-controlling sensorimotor and motivates aspects of motor performance in relation with the red nucleus and the ventral striatum. These results could have important implications for extrapyramidal and multisystem degenerative diseases.

  10. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium. Paper No. 12: Application of Modular Software to Establish a "Closed Loop" System for Shipyard Production Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Master Scheduling . Shop Floor Control . CAD/CAM . Product Costing . Performance Accounting SCHEDULE 2 Page 2 of 4 Closed Loop Element BUSINESS PLANNING - Objectives...Plan Materials Requirements Planning . What . How much.When Feedback Bottom line Market Success Business Planning .Evaluate and adjust the plan...Overall Business Planning 278 SCHEDULE 3 Page 2 of 5 CLOSED LOOP ELEMENTS TO SOFTWARE MODULES CLOSED LOOP GENERALLY ELEMENT APPLICABLE MODULE MASTER

  11. Mathematical Analysis of High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of CO2 and O2 Production in a Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization System

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. McKellar; Manohar S. Sohal; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna; Morgan B. Abney

    2010-03-01

    NASA has been evaluating two closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures based on Sabatier and Bosch carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. A number of process models have been developed and analyzed to determine the theoretical power required to recover oxygen, O2, in each case. These models include the current Sabatier and Bosch technologies and combinations of those processes with high-temperature co-electrolysis. The cases of constant CO2 supply and constant O2 production were evaluated. In addition, a process model of the hydrogenation process with co-electrolysis was developed and compared. Sabatier processes require the least amount of energy input per kg of oxygen produced. If co-electrolysis replaces solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolysis within the Sabatier architecture, the power requirement is reduced by over 10%, but only if heat recuperation is used. Sabatier processes, however, require external water to achieve the lower power results. Under conditions of constant incoming carbon dioxide flow, the Sabatier architectures require more power than the other architectures. The Bosch, Boudouard with co-electrolysis, and the hydrogenation with co-electrolysis processes require little or no external water. The Bosch and hydrogenation processes produce water within their reactors, which aids in reducing the power requirement for electrolysis. The Boudouard with co-electrolysis process has a higher electrolysis power requirement because carbon

  12. Closed-Loop Endoatmospheric Ascent Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping; Sun, Hongsheng; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper will present a complete formulation of the optimal control problem for atmospheric ascent of rocket powered launch vehicles subject to usual load constraints and final condition constraints. We shall demonstrate that the classical finite difference method for two-point-boundary-value-problems (TPBVP) is suited for solving the ascent trajectory optimization problem in real time, therefore closed-loop optimal endoatmospheric ascent guidance becomes feasible. Numerical simulations with a the vehicle data of a reusable launch vehicle will be provided.

  13. Feasibility of Outpatient Fully Integrated Closed-Loop Control

    PubMed Central

    Kovatchev, Boris P.; Renard, Eric; Cobelli, Claudio; Zisser, Howard C.; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Anderson, Stacey M.; Brown, Sue A.; Chernavvsky, Daniel R.; Breton, Marc D.; Farret, Anne; Pelletier, Marie-Josée; Place, Jérôme; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Del Favero, Simone; Visentin, Roberto; Filippi, Alessio; Scotton, Rachele; Avogaro, Angelo; Doyle, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of a wearable artificial pancreas system, the Diabetes Assistant (DiAs), which uses a smart phone as a closed-loop control platform. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled at the Universities of Padova, Montpellier, and Virginia and at Sansum Diabetes Research Institute. Each trial continued for 42 h. The United States studies were conducted entirely in outpatient setting (e.g., hotel or guest house); studies in Italy and France were hybrid hospital–hotel admissions. A continuous glucose monitoring/pump system (Dexcom Seven Plus/Omnipod) was placed on the subject and was connected to DiAs. The patient operated the system via the DiAs user interface in open-loop mode (first 14 h of study), switching to closed-loop for the remaining 28 h. Study personnel monitored remotely via 3G or WiFi connection to DiAs and were available on site for assistance. RESULTS The total duration of proper system communication functioning was 807.5 h (274 h in open-loop and 533.5 h in closed-loop), which represented 97.7% of the total possible time from admission to discharge. This exceeded the predetermined primary end point of 80% system functionality. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that a contemporary smart phone is capable of running outpatient closed-loop control and introduced a prototype system (DiAs) for further investigation. Following this proof of concept, future steps should include equipping insulin pumps and sensors with wireless capabilities, as well as studies focusing on control efficacy and patient-oriented clinical outcomes. PMID:23801798

  14. Study of the open loop and closed loop oscillator techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Benjamin; Riley, Tony; Langbehn, Adam; Imel, George R.; Benzerga, M. Lamine; Aryal, Harishchandra

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents some aspects of a five year study undertaken at Idaho State University of the measurement of very small worth reactivity samples comparing open and closed loop oscillator techniques. The study conclusively demonstrated the equivalency of the two techniques with regard to uncertainties in reactivity values, i.e., limited by reactor noise. As those results are thoroughly documented in recent publications, in this paper we will concentrate on the support work that was necessary. For example, we describe in some detail the construction and calibration of a pilot rod for the closed loop system. We discuss the campaign to measure the required reactor parameters necessary for inverse-kinetics. Finally, we briefly discuss the transfer of the open loop technique to other reactor systems. (authors)

  15. Study of the Open Loop and Closed Loop Oscillator Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Imel, George R.; Baker, Benjamin; Riley, Tony; Langbehn, Adam; Aryal, Harishchandra; Benzerga, M. Lamine

    2015-04-11

    This report presents the progress and completion of a five-year study undertaken at Idaho State University of the measurement of very small worth reactivity samples comparing open and closed loop oscillator techniques.The study conclusively demonstrated the equivalency of the two techniques with regard to uncertainties in reactivity values, i.e., limited by reactor noise. As those results are thoroughly documented in recent publications, in this report we will concentrate on the support work that was necessary. For example, we describe in some detail the construction and calibration of a pilot rod for the closed loop system. We discuss the campaign to measure the required reactor parameters necessary for inverse-kinetics. Finally, we briefly discuss the transfer of the open loop technique to other reactor systems.

  16. Joint angle sensors for closed-loop control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Wen H.; Miao, Chih-Lei

    In order to substitute braces that have built-in goniometers and to provide feedback signals for closed loop control of lower extremity Functional Neuromuscular System in paraplegics, a stretchable capacitive sensor was developed to accurately detect angular movement in joints. Promising clinical evaluations on the knee joints of a paraplegic and a volunteer were done. The evaluations show great promise for the possibility of implantation applications.

  17. Integrated closed-loop cavity of a tunable laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Cai, H.; Gu, Y. D.; Chin, L. K.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Ser, W.; Sun, H. D.; Liang, Q. X.; Kwong, D.-L.; Liu, A. Q.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a closed-loop cavity of a tunable laser integrated onto a silicon chip is demonstrated. The closed-loop cavity consists of a semiconductor optical amplifier chip, two separated micro-ring resonators, and a U-shaped waveguide sub-loop, enabling dominating lasing in the counterclockwise direction. The lasing wavelength is tuned by varying the effective refractive index of the thermal ring-resonators. It has achieved wide tuning range (55.4 nm), high spectral purity (50-dB side mode suppression ratio), ˜1-mW output power, and 36-dB counter-propagation power suppression ratio. The integrated tunable laser has high potential in applications such as optical network, optical sensing, and integrated optoelectronic systems.

  18. Closed-loop snowplow applicator control using road condition measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Gurkan; Alexander, Lee; Rajamani, Rajesh

    2011-04-01

    Closed-loop control of a snowplow applicator, based on direct measurement of the road surface condition, is a valuable technology for the optimisation of winter road maintenance costs and for the protection of the environment from the negative impacts of excessive usage of de-icing chemicals. To this end, a novel friction measurement wheel is designed to provide a continuous measurement of road friction coefficient, which is, in turn, utilised to control the applicator automatically on a snowplow. It is desired that the automated snowplow applicator deploy de-icing materials right from the beginning of any slippery surface detected by the friction wheel, meaning that no portion of the slippery road surface should be left untreated behind, as the snowplow travels over it at a reasonably high speed. This paper describes the developed wheel-based measurement system, the friction estimation algorithm and the expected performance of the closed-loop applicator system. Conventional and zero velocity applicators are introduced and their hardware time delays are measured in addition to the time delay of the friction estimation algorithm. The overall performance of the closed-loop applicator control system is shown to be reliable at typical snowplowing speeds if the zero velocity applicator is used.

  19. Integrated otpical monitoring of MEMS for closed-loop control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Jeremy M.; Wang, Limin; McCormick, W. B.; Rittenhouse, S. A.; Famouri, Parviz F.; Hornak, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    Robust control and failure assessment of MEMS employed in physically demanding, mission critical applications will allow for higher degrees of quality assurance in MEMS operation. Device fault detection and closed-loop control require detailed knowledge of the operational states of MEMS over the lifetime of the device, obtained by a means decoupled from the system. Preliminary through-wafer optical monitoring research efforts have shown that through-wafer optical probing is suitable for characterizing and monitoring the behavior of MEMS, and can be implemented in an integrated optical monitoring package for continuous in-situ device monitoring. This presentation will discuss research undertaken to establish integrated optical device metrology for closed-loop control of a MUMPS fabricated lateral harmonic oscillator. Successful linear closed-loop control results using a through-wafer optical microprobe position feedback signal will be presented. A theoretical optical output field intensity study of grating structures, fabricated on the shuttle of the resonator, was performed to improve the position resolution of the optical microprobe position signal. Through-wafer microprobe signals providing a positional resolution of 2 μm using grating structures will be shown, along with initial binary Fresnel diffractive optical microelement design layout, process development, and testing results. Progress in the design, fabrication, and test of integrated optical elements for multiple microprobe signal delivery and recovery will be discussed, as well as simulation of device system model parameter changes for failure assessment.

  20. Assisted closed-loop optimization of SSVEP-BCI efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Vargas, Jacobo; Pfaff, Hanns U.; Rodríguez, Francisco B.; Varona, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    We designed a novel assisted closed-loop optimization protocol to improve the efficiency of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) based on steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP). In traditional paradigms, the control over the BCI-performance completely depends on the subjects' ability to learn from the given feedback cues. By contrast, in the proposed protocol both the subject and the machine share information and control over the BCI goal. Generally, the innovative assistance consists in the delivery of online information together with the online adaptation of BCI stimuli properties. In our case, this adaptive optimization process is realized by (1) a closed-loop search for the best set of SSVEP flicker frequencies and (2) feedback of actual SSVEP magnitudes to both the subject and the machine. These closed-loop interactions between subject and machine are evaluated in real-time by continuous measurement of their efficiencies, which are used as online criteria to adapt the BCI control parameters. The proposed protocol aims to compensate for variability in possibly unknown subjects' state and trait dimensions. In a study with N = 18 subjects, we found significant evidence that our protocol outperformed classic SSVEP-BCI control paradigms. Evidence is presented that it takes indeed into account interindividual variabilities: e.g., under the new protocol, baseline resting state EEG measures predict subjects' BCI performances. This paper illustrates the promising potential of assisted closed-loop protocols in BCI systems. Probably their applicability might be expanded to innovative uses, e.g., as possible new diagnostic/therapeutic tools for clinical contexts and as new paradigms for basic research. PMID:23443214

  1. Closed-Loop Resuscitation of Hemorrhagic Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-21

    thank ONR for the last 9 years of basic and applied research on titrated fluid therapy of hypovolemic shock . This grant was instrumental in not only the...Phone: 409-772-3969 Fax: 409-772-8895 Project Title: Closed-Loop Resuscitation of Hemorrhagic Shock ONR Award No: N000140610300 Organization...Resuscitation Of Hemorrhagic Shock 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  2. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  3. Effect of thermal-hydrogeological and borehole heat exchanger properties on performance and impact of vertical closed-loop geothermal heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkordi, S. Emad; Schincariol, Robert A.

    2013-10-01

    Ground-source geothermal systems are drawing increasing attention and popularity due to their efficiency, sustainability and being implementable worldwide. Consequently, design software and regulatory guidelines have been developed. Interaction with the subsurface significantly affects the thermal performance, sustainability, and impacts of such systems. Reviewing the related guidelines and the design software, room for improvement is evident, especially in regards to interaction with groundwater movement. In order to accurately evaluate the thermal effect of system and hydrogeological properties on a borehole heat exchanger, a fully discretized finite-element model is used. Sensitivity of the loop outlet temperatures and heat exchange rates to hydrogeological, system and meteorological factors (i.e. groundwater flux, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of solids, porosity, thermal dispersivity, grout thermal conductivity, background and inlet temperatures) are analyzed over 6-month and 25-year operation periods. Furthermore, thermal recovery during 25 years after system decommissioning has been modeled. The thermal plume development, transport and dissipation are also assessed. This study shows the importance of subsurface thermal conductivity, groundwater flow (flux > 10-7 m/s), and background and inlet temperature on system performance and impact. It also shows the importance of groundwater flow (flux > 10-8 m/s) on thermal recovery of the ground over other factors.

  4. Note: A dual temperature closed loop batch reactor for determining the partitioning of trace gases within CO{sub 2}-water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warr, Oliver Ballentine, Christopher J.; Rochelle, Christopher A.; Masters, Andrew J.

    2016-01-15

    An experimental approach is presented which can be used to determine partitioning of trace gases within CO{sub 2}-water systems. The key advantages of this system are (1) The system can be isolated with no external exchange, making it ideal for experiments with conservative tracers. (2) Both phases can be sampled concurrently to give an accurate composition at each phase at any given time. (3) Use of a lower temperature flow loop outside of the reactor removes contamination and facilitates sampling. (4) Rapid equilibration at given pressure/temperature conditions is significantly aided by stirring and circulating the water phase using a magnetic stirrer and high-pressure liquid chromatography pump, respectively.

  5. Development of a Low-Power CO2 Removal and Compression System for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization in Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Rosen, Micha; Affleck, David; LeVan, M. Douglas; Moate, Joe R.

    2005-01-01

    The current CO2 removal technology of NASA is very energy intensive and contains many non-optimized subsystems. This paper discusses the design and prototype development of a two-stage CO2 removal and compression system that will utilize much less power than NASA s current CO2 removal technology. This integrated system contains a Nafion membrane followed by a residual water adsorber that performs the function of the desiccant beds in the four-bed molecular sieve (4BMS) system of the International Space Station (ISS). The membrane and the water adsorber are followed by a two-stage CO2 removal and compression subsystem that satisfies the operations of the CO2 adsorbent beds of the 4BMS aid the interface compressor for the Sabatier reactor connection. The two-stage compressor will utilize the principles of temperature-swing adsorption (TSA) compression technology for CO2 removal and compression. The similarities in operation and cycle times of the CO2 removal (first stage) and compression (second stage) operations will allow thermal coupling of the processes to maximize the efficiency of the system. In addition to the low-power advantage, this processor will maintain a lower CO2 concentration in the cabin than that can be achieved by the existing CO2 removal systems. The compact, consolidated, configuration of membrane gas dryer and CO2 separator and compressor will allow continuous recycling of humid air in the cabin and supply of compressed CO2 to the reduction unit for oxygen recovery. The device has potential application to the International Space Station and future, long duration, transit, and planetary missions.

  6. Development of a Test for Evaluation of the Hydrothermal Stability of Sorbents Used in Closed-Loop CO2 Removal Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Gauto, Hernando; Miller, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly uses zeolite 5A molecular sieve material packed into beds for the capture of cabin CO2. The beds are cyclically heated to drive off the CO2 and restore the removal capacity. Over time, the sorbent material has been found to break down resulting in dust that restricts flow through the beds. Humidity adsorbed in the 5A zeolite when it is heated is a suspected cause of this sorbent degradation. To evaluate the impact of adsorbed water during thermal cycling, the Hydrothermal Stability Test was developed. The test configuration provides comparative side-by-side flow restriction data for two sorbent materials at specifically controlled humidity levels. While the initial focus of the testing is on 5A zeolite materials currently used on the ISS, the system will also be used to evaluate future candidate materials. This paper describes the approach, the test system, current results, and future testing.

  7. Temperature and energy deficit in the ground during operation and recovery phases of closed-loop ground source heat pump system: Effect of the groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Selcuk; Francois, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    The advection/dispersion mechanism of the groundwater flow in the ground has a significant effect on a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) to enhance its thermal performance. However, the amount of energy extracted from the ground never disappears and only shifts with the magnitude of the effective thermal velocity in the infinite domain. In this work, we focus on the temperature and the energy balance of the ground in an advection/dispersion dominated heat transfer system during the operation period of a BHE and the subsequent recovery phase when the system is idle. The problem is treated with single BHE and multi-BHEs systems, for different representative geology and different groundwater flow velocity. In order to assess the thermal energy deficit due to heat extraction from the ground, we used the finite line source analytical model, developed recently (Erol et al., 2015) that provides the temperature distributions around the boreholes for discontinuous heat extraction. The model is developed based on the Green's function, which is the solution of heat conduction/advection/dispersion equation in porous media, for discontinuous heat extraction by analytically convoluting rectangular function or pulses in time domain. The results demonstrate the significant positive impact of the groundwater flow for the recovery in terms of temperature deficit at the location of the borehole. However, the total thermal energy deficit is not affected by the groundwater movement. The energy balance of the ground is the same no matter the prevailing heat transfer system, which can be only conduction or advection/dispersion. In addition, the energy balance of the ground is not based on either the duration of the production period operation or of the recovery phase, but depends on the total amount of heat that is extracted and on the bulk volumetric heat capacity of the ground.

  8. System dynamics applied to closed loop supply chains of desktops and laptops in Brazil: A perspective for social inclusion of waste pickers.

    PubMed

    Ghisolfi, Verônica; Diniz Chaves, Gisele de Lorena; Ribeiro Siman, Renato; Xavier, Lúcia Helena

    2017-02-01

    The structure of reverse logistics for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is essential to minimize the impacts of their improper disposal. In this context, the Brazilian Solid Waste Policy (BSWP) was a regulatory milestone in Brazil, submitting WEEE to the mandatory implementation of reverse logistics systems, involving the integration of waste pickers on the shared responsibility for the life cycle of products. This article aims to measure the impact of such legal incentives and the bargaining power obtained by the volume of collected waste on the effective formalization of waste pickers. The proposed model evaluates the sustainability of supply chains in terms of the use of raw materials due to disposal fees, collection, recycling and return of some materials from desktops and laptops using system dynamics methodology. The results show that even in the absence of bargaining power, the formalization of waste pickers occurs due to legal incentives. It is important to ensure the waste pickers cooperatives access to a minimum amount, which requires a level of protection against unfair competition with companies. Regarding the optimal level of environmental policies, even though the formalization time is long, it is still not enough to guarantee the formalization of waste picker cooperatives, which is dependent on their bargaining power. Steel is the material with the largest decrease in acquisition rate of raw material.

  9. Long-Duration Testing of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Micha; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of long-duration testing of a temperature-swing adsorption compressor that has application in the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop. The air revitalization system of the ISS operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from Earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low-pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. The TSAC was developed and its operation was successfully verified in integration tests with the flight-like Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) at Marshall Space Flight Center prior to the long-duration tests. Long-duration tests reveal the impacts of repeated thermal cycling on the compressor components and the adsorbent material.

  10. Design and Evaluation in a Real Use-case of Closed-loop Scheduling Algorithms for the gLite Workload Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreetto, P.; Bauce, M.; Bertocco, S.; Capannini, F.; Cecchi, M.; Compostella, G.; Dorigo, A.; Frizziero, E.; Giacomini, F.; Gianelle, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Monforte, S.; Prelz, F.; Molinari, E.; Rebatto, D.; Sgaravatto, M.; Zangrando, L.

    2011-12-01

    The High Throughput Computing paradigm typically involves a scenario whereby a given, estimated processing power is made available and sustained by the computing environment over a medium/long period of time. As a consequence, the performance goals are in general targeted at maximizing resource utilization to obtain the expected throughput, rather than minimizing run time for individual jobs. This does not mean that optimal resource selection through adequate workload management is not desired nor effective, nonetheless, relatively small and pre-assessed percentages of suboptimal choices or unexpected events can be tolerated. However, there are use-cases, among the HEP community, for which the described model does not immediately fit. This paper deals with the workload needs primarily driven by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experimental collaboration. In particular, the CDF analysis facility (CAF) typically operates by splitting its computations into so-called sections, which can be seen as sets of uniform and independent jobs. Processing a section cannot be considered completed until all _its jobs have been successfully executed, thus requiring a Minimum Completion Time (MCT) dynamic scheduling policy where not even a single job should lay in non-terminal Grid states. A significant part of the CDF analysis is processed on the European Grid infrastructure through the gLite Workload Management System (WMS) [2]. This paper describes the design enhancements and ranking algorithms the WMS has been provided with to implement an adaptive scheduling policy to minimise MCT. Case study, outlined approach and first results are presented.

  11. Closed-loop control of magnetic fluid deformable mirrors.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Azhar; Wu, Zhizheng; Ben Amara, Foued

    2009-10-12

    This paper presents the first-ever experimental evaluation of a closed-loop adaptive optics system based on a magnetic fluid deformable mirror (MFDM). MFDMs are a new type of wavefront correctors used in adaptive optics systems to compensate for complex optical aberrations. They have been found particularly suitable for ophthalmic imaging systems where they can be used to compensate for the aberrations in the eye that lead to blurry retinal images. However, their practical implementation in clinical devices requires effective methods to control the shape of their deformable surface. This paper presents one such control method which is based on an innovative technique used to linearize the response of the MFDM surface shape. The design of the controller is based on a DC-decoupled model of the multi-input multi-output system and on considering a decentralized PI controller. Experimental results showing the performance of the closed-loop system comprising the developed controller and a 19-channel prototype MFDM are presented.

  12. A monolithic 3D-0D coupled closed-loop model of the heart and the vascular system: Experiment-based parameter estimation for patient-specific cardiac mechanics.

    PubMed

    Hirschvogel, Marc; Bassilious, Marina; Jagschies, Lasse; Wildhirt, Stephen M; Gee, Michael W

    2016-10-15

    A model for patient-specific cardiac mechanics simulation is introduced, incorporating a 3-dimensional finite element model of the ventricular part of the heart, which is coupled to a reduced-order 0-dimensional closed-loop vascular system, heart valve, and atrial chamber model. The ventricles are modeled by a nonlinear orthotropic passive material law. The electrical activation is mimicked by a prescribed parameterized active stress acting along a generic muscle fiber orientation. Our activation function is constructed such that the start of ventricular contraction and relaxation as well as the active stress curve's slope are parameterized. The imaging-based patient-specific ventricular model is prestressed to low end-diastolic pressure to account for the imaged, stressed configuration. Visco-elastic Robin boundary conditions are applied to the heart base and the epicardium to account for the embedding surrounding. We treat the 3D solid-0D fluid interaction as a strongly coupled monolithic problem, which is consistently linearized with respect to 3D solid and 0D fluid model variables to allow for a Newton-type solution procedure. The resulting coupled linear system of equations is solved iteratively in every Newton step using 2  ×  2 physics-based block preconditioning. Furthermore, we present novel efficient strategies for calibrating active contractile and vascular resistance parameters to experimental left ventricular pressure and stroke volume data gained in porcine experiments. Two exemplary states of cardiovascular condition are considered, namely, after application of vasodilatory beta blockers (BETA) and after injection of vasoconstrictive phenylephrine (PHEN). The parameter calibration to the specific individual and cardiovascular state at hand is performed using a 2-stage nonlinear multilevel method that uses a low-fidelity heart model to compute a parameter correction for the high-fidelity model optimization problem. We discuss 2 different low

  13. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Synthetic musk compounds are used as inexpensive fragrance materials for the production of perfumes and as additives to soap, detergent, and shampoo. They have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. The ubiquity of this class of compounds in the environment is attributable to high use and release into the environment. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-up procedures. To obtain fat-free extracts, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), column chromatography using alumina, and silica gel, and thin layer chromatography (TLC clean-up procedures are frequently employed. Despite the considerable effort and resources devoted to these processes, a fraction of the lipids and lipid-like compounds frequently remains in the extracts. These low-level lipids foul injection liners, contaminate columns, and yield elevated baselines during gas chromatographic analysis of synthetic musk compounds. In this study, a simple method for the determination of synthetic musk compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge- and-trap vessel, is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar an

  14. Closed-loop quantum control utilizing time domain maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biteen, Julie S.; Geremia, J. M.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2003-05-01

    Closed-loop laser control of quantum dynamics phenomena may be accomplished through frequency domain manipulations in the laboratory guided by a learning algorithm. This paper presents an alternative method based on the use of nonlinear input→output maps generated in the time domain, although the actual experiments and control optimization are carried out in the frequency domain. The procedure first involves the construction of input→output maps relating the field structure to the observed control performance. These maps are utilized as a substitute for actual experiments in the subsequent optimization stage in order to find the field that drives the system to a specified target. This closed-loop learning process is repeated with a sufficient number of maps until a control field is found that yields the target observable as best as possible. The overall algorithm is simulated with two model quantum systems. It is shown that excellent quality control can be achieved through this sequential learning procedure, even with individual maps that have only modest global accuracy.

  15. Closed-Loop Rehabilitation of Age-Related Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in older adults, as a result of both the natural aging process and neurodegenerative disease. Although medical advancements have successfully prolonged the human lifespan, the challenge of remediating cognitive aging remains. The authors discuss the current state of cognitive therapeutic interventions and then present the need for development and validation of more powerful neurocognitive therapeutics. They propose that the next generation of interventions be implemented as closed-loop systems that target specific neural processing deficits, incorporate quantitative feedback to the individual and clinician, and are personalized to the individual’s neurocognitive capacities using real-time performance-adaptive algorithms. This approach should be multimodal and seamlessly integrate other treatment approaches, including neurofeedback and transcranial electrical stimulation. This novel approach will involve the generation of software that engages the individual in an immersive and enjoyable game-based interface, integrated with advanced biosensing hardware, to maximally harness plasticity and assure adherence. Introducing such next-generation closed-loop neurocognitive therapeutics into the mainstream of our mental health care system will require the combined efforts of clinicians, neuroscientists, bioengineers, software game developers, and industry and policy makers working together to meet the challenges and opportunities of translational neuroscience in the 21st century. PMID:25520029

  16. A Design Method of a Full Closed Loop Sampled Servo Control for Hard Disk Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Atsumi, Takenori

    This paper presents a design methodology for fast and precise positioning using a full closed loop sampled servo control system. A servo control of hard disk drive (HDD) achieves 3-4 ms fast access and nanoscale positioning accuracy. To achieve the nanoscale precise positioning, a full closed loop feedback control is a key structure. From control theory viewpoint, the full closed loop is an ideal method, but it is difficult to take this method in industries due to sensor allocation. In HDD, this full closed loop feedback control has been applied for last 20 years. The full closed loop sometimes brings drawbacks to the servo control design. In HDD case, that is a limited sampling rate selection. In this paper, based on these two features which are the full closed loop and a sampled servo, uniquely developed servo design methods for HDD are presented, which include two-degrees-of-freedom (TDOF) controller with multi-rate sampling, reference trajectory design not to excite higher order mechanical resonances, settling servo to compensate for tracking error near the target, phase stabilized design of feedback control to have better sensitivity, and multi-rate filter design to suppress disturbances above the Nyquist frequency.

  17. Closed-loop suppression of chaos in nonlinear driven oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, L. A.; Billings, S. A.

    1995-05-01

    This paper discusses the suppression of chaos in nonlinear driven oscillators via the addition of a periodic perturbation. Given a system originally undergoing chaotic motions, it is desired that such a system be driven to some periodic orbit. This can be achieved by the addition of a weak periodic signal to the oscillator input. This is usually accomplished in open loop, but this procedure presents some difficulties which are discussed in the paper. To ensure that this is attained despite uncertainties and possible disturbances on the system, a procedure is suggested to perform control in closed loop. In addition, it is illustrated how a model, estimated from input/output data, can be used in the design. Numerical examples which use the Duffing-Ueda and modified van der Pol oscillators are included to illustrate some of the properties of the new approach.

  18. Safety-preserving closed-loop control of anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Mahdi; van Heusden, Klaske; Dumont, Guy A; Ansermino, J Mark

    2015-08-01

    In safety-critical control systems, such as closed-loop control of anesthesia, it is of utmost importance to guarantee the ability of a control approach to maintain states of the systems within a safe region. In this paper, we address the problem by applying a safety-preserving control technique to anesthesia control. The approach relies on a conservative approximation of the viability set. The set specifies initial states for which there exists an input that keeps the trajectory emanating from those states within the safe region. This approach can be applied to any type of controller which satisfies the performance criteria. Furthermore, it prevents the performance controller from taking the states out of the safe region.

  19. A multi-layer, closed-loop system for continuous measurement of CO2 concentrations and its isotopic signature in forest soils as a basis for CO2 efflux calculation and for revealing its controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochheim, Hubert; Wirth, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    We present a setup of measurement devices that allows the application of the soil CO2 gradient approach for CO2 efflux calculation in combination with the analysis of isotopic signature (δ13C). Vertical profiles of CO2 concentrations in air-filled pores of soil were measured using miniature NDIR sensors within a 16-channel closed-loop system where equilibrium with soil air can be achieved using hydrophobic, gas-permeable porous polypropylene tubes circulating gas using peristaltic pumps. A 16-position multiplexer allows the connection to an isotopic CO2 analyser. This setup was applied at two ICP Forest intensive monitoring sites, a beech and a pine forest on sandy soils located in Brandenburg, Germany. CO2 concentrations in air-filled pores of soils were measured on top of soil surface, below the humus layer, and in 10cm, 20cm, 30cm and 100 cm depths every 30 min. At both sites, soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously in the respective soil depths in identical time intervals. Isotopic signatures of soil CO2 was detected by measurement campaigns. After two years of measurements, our results provided evidence for distinct seasonal dynamics and vertical gradients of soil CO2 concentration and δ13C values. Varying impacts of soil temperature and moisture on CO2 concentration were revealed, highlighting its impact on soil physical and soil biological controls. Higher levels of CO2 concentration and a more distinct seasonal dynamics were detected at the beech site compared to the pine site. The collected data provide a suitable database for calculation of CO2 efflux and modelling of soil respiration.

  20. Indirect Identification of Linear Stochastic Systems with Known Feedback Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Hsiao, Min-Hung; Cox, David E.

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for identifying a state-space model of linear stochastic systems operating under known feedback controller. In this algorithm, only the reference input and output of closed-loop data are required. No feedback signal needs to be recorded. The overall closed-loop system dynamics is first identified. Then a recursive formulation is derived to compute the open-loop plant dynamics from the identified closed-loop system dynamics and known feedback controller dynamics. The controller can be a dynamic or constant-gain full-state feedback controller. Numerical simulations and test data of a highly unstable large-gap magnetic suspension system are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this indirect identification method.

  1. A monolithic MEMS position sensor for closed-loop high-speed atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, N.; Nievergelt, A. P.; Adams, J. D.; Stavrov, V. T.; Fantner, G. E.

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy and repeatability of atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging significantly depend on the accuracy of the piezoactuator. However, nonlinear properties of piezoactuators can distort the image, necessitating sensor-based closed-loop actuators to achieve high accuracy AFM imaging. The advent of high-speed AFM has made the requirements on the position sensors in such a system even more stringent, requiring higher bandwidths and lower sensor mass than traditional sensors can provide. In this paper, we demonstrate a way for high-speed, high-precision closed-loop AFM nanopositioning using a novel, miniaturized micro-electro-mechanical system position sensor in conjunction with a simple PID controller. The sensor was developed to respond to the need for small, lightweight, high-bandwidth, long-range and sub-nm-resolution position measurements in high-speed AFM applications. We demonstrate the use of this sensor for closed-loop operation of conventional as well as high-speed AFM operation to provide distortion-free images. The presented implementation of this closed-loop approach allows for positioning precision down to 2.1 Å, reduces the integral nonlinearity to below 0.2%, and allows for accurate closed loop imaging at line rates up to 300 Hz.

  2. An experimental study of heat transfer around turbine airfoils with closed-loop cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Chih-Hung (Erik)

    Closed-Loop cooling has been identified as one of the promising cooling schemes for the next generation gas turbine systems. The closed-loop cooling design collects the spent coolants and directs them to be recovered to do useful work in engine cycle. Due to the requirement of the closed-loop cooling and adoption of innovative cooling methods, the geometric configuration of a closed-loop cooling design is usually complicated. The complexity induces the heat transfer and flow uncertainties and necessitates the detailed heat transfer study for the cooling design. The present research was designed to examine heat transfer of innovative closed-loop cooling designs of an advanced gas turbine system. A heat transfer measurement system employing the Thermochromic Liquid Crystal (TLC) has been developed in order to study detailed heat transfer of the complicated cooling designs. A hybrid technique has been proposed to combine two models: lumped heat capacity model and one-dimension model. The technique has been successfully demonstrated to be a reliable means by studying heat transfer phenomenon on pin fin arrays. Pin fin arrays, sometimes termed pedestals, are widely used in modern gas turbines to provide heat transfer enhancement. In addition, the study on pin fins array revealed effects of heat transfer by two increasingly important, yet not much being explored geometric parameters: shape of pin fin element and gap atop pin fin array. Heat transfer study using the measurement system has revealed detailed heat transfer distribution and eliminated heat transfer uncertainties for five scaled Perplex models of the most crucial designs in the closed-loop cooling system. This study has also demonstrated the improvement in design practice with assistance of the developed system. For a design that relies on the unverified data sets and correlation, the system provides a means to eliminate the uncertainties and provide prompt feedback to designers for modification of the design.

  3. Closed-Loop HIRF Experiments Performed on a Fault Tolerant Flight Control Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT Closed-loop HIRF experiments were performed on a fault tolerant flight control computer (FCC) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The FCC used in the experiments was a quad-redundant flight control computer executing B737 Autoland control laws. The FCC was placed in one of the mode-stirred reverberation chambers in the HIRF Laboratory and interfaced to a computer simulation of the B737 flight dynamics, engines, sensors, actuators, and atmosphere in the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory. Disturbances to the aircraft associated with wind gusts and turbulence were simulated during tests. Electrical isolation between the FCC under test and the simulation computer was achieved via a fiber optic interface for the analog and discrete signals. Closed-loop operation of the FCC enabled flight dynamics and atmospheric disturbances affecting the aircraft to be represented during tests. Upset was induced in the FCC as a result of exposure to HIRF, and the effect of upset on the simulated flight of the aircraft was observed and recorded. This paper presents a description of these closed- loop HIRF experiments, upset data obtained from the FCC during these experiments, and closed-loop effects on the simulated flight of the aircraft.

  4. Open- and Closed-Loop Dynamics of the High-Efficiency Antenna Subreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczenski, M. B.; Gawronski, W.

    2000-07-01

    The subreflector of the high-efficiency (HEF) antenna moves in three axes, while the subreflector controller supervises these movements. The precision of subreflector response to the controller commands is essential to maintaining the antenna-pointing precision. This article presents the development of the control system model of the HEF antenna subreflector. It includes the dynamics of the open-loop (or rate-loop) system, the development of the controller, and the simulations of the closed-loop performance. The analysis shows that the closed-loop dynamics, such as settling time, overshoot, and bandwidth, are comparable to the antenna closed-loop dynamics; thus, they are able to meet the pointing requirements.

  5. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Minkov, Vladimir; Petrick, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature heat exchanger with a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  6. Closed loop spray cooling apparatus. [for particle accelerator targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D. L.; Schwab, W. B.; Furman, E. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A closed loop apparatus for spraying coolant against the back of a radiation target is described. The coolant was circulated through a closed loop with a bubble of inert gas being maintained around the spray. Mesh material was disposed between the bubble and the surface of the liquid coolant which was below the bubble at a predetermined level. In a second embodiment, no inert gas was used, the bubble consisting of a vapor produced when the coolant was sprayed against the target.

  7. Lidar-based wake tracking for closed-loop wind farm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Cheng, Po Wen

    2016-09-01

    This work presents two advancements towards closed-loop wake redirecting of a wind turbine. First, a model-based estimation approach is presented which uses a nacelle-based lidar system facing downwind to obtain information about the wake. A reduced order wake model is described which is then used in the estimation to track the wake. The tracking is demonstrated with lidar measurement data from an offshore campaign and with simulated lidar data from a SOWFA simulation. Second, a controller for closed-loop wake steering is presented. It uses the wake tracking information to set the yaw actuator of the wind turbine to redirect the wake to a desired position. Altogether, this paper aims to present the concept of closed-loop wake redirecting and gives a possible solution to it.

  8. Evaluation of closed-loop site-specific irrigation with wireless sensor network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated site-specific sprinkler irrigation system can save water and maximize productivity, but implementing automated irrigation is challenging in system integration and decision making. A controllable irrigation system was integrated into a closed-loop control with a distributed wireless in-fiel...

  9. Closed loop operation eliminates need for auxiliary gas in high pressure pumping station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landy, D. G.

    1966-01-01

    Closed loop system for a liquid nitrogen high pressure pump feeds back gaseous nitrogen generated by heat leak into the reservoir to maintain the pressure in the storage tank. This safer, more efficient system eliminates the need for auxiliary gas to maintain the tank pressure and can be used on relatively high cryogenic pumping systems.

  10. Viscoelastic phenomenology based structure assignment for closed-loop vibration control of a beam with sensors and actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadiraja, G. K.; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we incorporate a novel approach to synthesize a class of closed-loop feedback control, based on the variational structure assignment. Properties of a viscoelastic system are used to design an active feedback controller for an undamped structural system with distributed sensor, actuator and controller. Wave dispersion properties of onedimensional beam system have been studied. Efficiency of the chosen viscoelastic model in enhancing damping and stability properties of one-dimensional viscoelastic bar have been analyzed. The variational structure is projected on a solution space of a closed-loop system involving a weakly damped structure with distributed sensor and actuator with controller. These assign the phenomenology based internal strain rate damping parameter of a viscoelastic system to the usual elastic structure but with active control. In the formulation a model of cantilever beam with non-collocated actuator and sensor has been considered. The formulation leads to the matrix identification problem of two dynamic stiffness matrices. The method has been simplified to obtain control system gains for the free vibration control of a cantilever beam system with collocated actuator-sensor, using quadratic optimal control and pole-placement methods.

  11. System/observer/controller identification toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Horta, Lucas G.; Phan, Minh

    1992-01-01

    System Identification is the process of constructing a mathematical model from input and output data for a system under testing, and characterizing the system uncertainties and measurement noises. The mathematical model structure can take various forms depending upon the intended use. The SYSTEM/OBSERVER/CONTROLLER IDENTIFICATION TOOLBOX (SOCIT) is a collection of functions, written in MATLAB language and expressed in M-files, that implements a variety of modern system identification techniques. For an open loop system, the central features of the SOCIT are functions for identification of a system model and its corresponding forward and backward observers directly from input and output data. The system and observers are represented by a discrete model. The identified model and observers may be used for controller design of linear systems as well as identification of modal parameters such as dampings, frequencies, and mode shapes. For a closed-loop system, an observer and its corresponding controller gain directly from input and output data.

  12. Designing optimized industrial process analysers for closed loop control

    PubMed Central

    Grevesmuehl, Bernard; Kradjel, Cynthia; Kellner, Hanno

    1991-01-01

    Manufacturers are now looking closely at ways of optimizing ‘quality’ and increasing process efficiency while reducing manufacturing costs. Near infra-red (NIR) technology is a popular solution to this challenge: it provides manufacturers with rapid and reliable in-process analysis and thousands of systems have already been installed in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical and agricultural markets. For over 10 years, NIR has been successfully applied to at-line process analysis. Rugged and easy-to-operate filter analysers are traditionally located in the control room–process operators can then ‘grab samples’ and obtain results in less than a minute. There are many practical advantages to using at-line filter systems. Products from many lines can be run on one system, and, since there is no direct process interface, installation, operation and maintenance are quite simple. Many manufacturers, however, are now striving to achieve on-line closed loop control, in these cases the benefit of obtaining continuous measurement is well worth the effort required to automate the analysis. PMID:18924898

  13. Open-loop versus closed-loop control of MEMS devices: choices and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovic, B.; Liu, A. Q.; Popa, D.; Cai, H.; Lewis, F. L.

    2005-10-01

    From a controls point of view, micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) can be driven in an open-loop and closed-loop fashion. Commonly, these devices are driven open-loop by applying simple input signals. If these input signals become more complex by being derived from the system dynamics, we call such control techniques pre-shaped open-loop driving. The ultimate step for improving precision and speed of response is the introduction of feedback, e.g. closed-loop control. Unlike macro mechanical systems, where the implementation of the feedback is relatively simple, in the MEMS case the feedback design is quite problematic, due to the limited availability of sensor data, the presence of sensor dynamics and noise, and the typically fast actuator dynamics. Furthermore, a performance comparison between open-loop and closed-loop control strategies has not been properly explored for MEMS devices. The purpose of this paper is to present experimental results obtained using both open- and closed-loop strategies and to address the comparative issues of driving and control for MEMS devices. An optical MEMS switching device is used for this study. Based on these experimental results, as well as computer simulations, we point out advantages and disadvantages of the different control strategies, address the problems that distinguish MEMS driving systems from their macro counterparts, and discuss criteria to choose a suitable control driving strategy.

  14. The hydrodynamic model testing for closed loop DP assisted mooring

    SciTech Connect

    Aalbers, A.B.; Merchant, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    Far East Levingston Shipbuilding (FELS) is presently completing the construction of the Smedvig Production Unit SPU 380, which will be operated as FPSO for Esso Balder Field Offshore Norway. In good cooperation with FELS and ND and A Inc. of Houston an extensive model test program was carried out for approval and optimization of the DP assisted mooring system. The main aspects were: investigate the performance of the mooring in two water depths, i.e. 250 m and 70 m; optimization of DP control for the three azimuthing thrusters; measurement of motions and wave induced loads at e.g., the bilge keels, keel and deckhouse front; and determination of limit sea state for turning the vessel around against the weather. The tests were carried out in the Wave and Current Basin of MARIN, using a closed loop DP control system to steer the thrusters. The paper presents the findings with respect to the effect of DP control strategy on mooring loads and presents selected results of wave induced loads on bilge keels and deck house.

  15. Closed Loop Control of a Tethered Magnetic Capsule Endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Taddese, Addisu Z.; Slawinski, Piotr R.; Obstein, Keith L.; Valdastri, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic field gradients have repeatedly been shown to be the most feasible mechanism for gastrointestinal capsule endoscope actuation. An inverse quartic magnetic force variation with distance results in large force gradients induced by small movements of a driving magnet; this necessitates robotic actuation of magnets to implement stable control of the device. A typical system consists of a serial robot with a permanent magnet at its end effector that actuates a capsule with an embedded permanent magnet. We present a tethered capsule system where a capsule with an embedded magnet is closed loop controlled in 2 degree-of-freedom in position and 2 degree-of-freedom in orientation. Capitalizing on the magnetic field of the external driving permanent magnet, the capsule is localized in 6-D allowing for both position and orientation feedback to be used in a control scheme. We developed a relationship between the serial robot's joint parameters and the magnetic force and torque that is exerted onto the capsule. Our methodology was validated both in a dynamic simulation environment where a custom plug-in for magnetic interaction was written, as well as on an experimental platform. The tethered capsule was demonstrated to follow desired trajectories in both position and orientation with accuracy that is acceptable for colonoscopy. PMID:28286886

  16. Closed Loop Vibrational Control: Theory and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    63 4.13 b Horizontal acceleration of helicopter in flight with wind gust ............. 63 4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The goal of this thesis is the...In this thesis , we treat the above problem by considering a linear time-invariant SISO system of the form S= Ax(t) + Biu(t) + B 2w(t) , (0.5) y(t...this choice does not affect the qualitative results of this thesis . Using this model, this thesis gives a phenomenological explanation of the

  17. A closed-loop controller for mechanical ventilation of patients with ARDS.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; East, Thomas D

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical ventilators are routinely used to care for patients who cannot adequately breath on their own. Management of mechanical ventilation often involves a careful watch of the patient's arterial blood-oxygen tension and requires frequent adjustment of ventilation parameters to optimize the therapy. This situation lends itself as a candidate for closed-loop control. This report describes a closed-loop control system based on well-established protocols to systematically maintain appropriate levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and inspired oxygen (FiO2) in patients with Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The closed-loop control system consists of an in-dwelling arterial oxygenation (PaO2) sensor (Pfizer Continucath), coupled to a Macintosh computer that continuously controls FiO2 and PEEP settings on a Hamilton Amadeus ventilator. The implemented protocols provide continuous closed-loop control of oxygenation and a balance between patient need and minimal therapy. The controller is based on a traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) approach. The idea is to control, or maintain, the patient's PaO2 level at a target value determined, or set, by the patient's physician. The controller also features non-linear and adaptive characteristics that allow the system to respond more aggressively to "threatening" levels of PaO2. Another benefit of the control system is the ability to display, monitor, record and store all system parameters, settings, and control variables for future analysis and study. The system was extensively tested in the laboratory and in animal trials prior to use on human subjects. The results of a small clinical trial indicated that the system maintained control of the patient's therapy nearly 84% of the time. During the remainder of this time, the controller was interrupted primarily for suctioning, PaO2 sensor calibration or replacement. The response of the closed-loop controller was found to be appropriate

  18. Closed-loop Separation Control Using Oscillatory Flow Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Raney, David L.; Seifert, Avi; Pack, latunia G.; Brown, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    Design and implementation of a digital feedback controller for a flow control experiment was performed. The experiment was conducted in a cryogenic pressurized wind tunnel on a generic separated configuration at a chord Reynolds number of 16 million and a Mach number of 0.25. The model simulates the upper surface of a 20% thick airfoil at zero angle-of-attack. A moderate favorable pressure gradient, up to 55% of the chord, is followed by a severe adverse pressure gradient which is relaxed towards the trailing edge. The turbulent separation bubble, behind the adverse pressure gradient, is then reduced by introducing oscillatory flow excitation just upstream of the point of flow separation. The degree of reduction in the separation region can be controlled by the amplitude of the oscillatory excitation. A feedback controller was designed to track a given trajectory for the desired degree of flow reattachment and to improve the transient behavior of the flow system. Closed-loop experiments demonstrated that the feedback controller was able to track step input commands and improve the transient behavior of the open-loop response.

  19. Real-Time Closed Loop Modulated Turbine Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Culley, Dennis E.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Jones, Scott; Woike, Mark; Cuy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been noted by industry that in addition to dramatic variations of temperature over a given blade surface, blade-to-blade variations also exist despite identical design. These variations result from manufacturing variations, uneven wear and deposition over the life of the part as well as limitations in the uniformity of coolant distribution in the baseline cooling design. It is proposed to combine recent advances in optical sensing, actuation, and film cooling concepts to develop a workable active, closed-loop modulated turbine cooling system to improve by 10 to 20 the turbine thermal state over the flight mission, to improve engine life and to dramatically reduce turbine cooling air usage and aircraft fuel burn. A reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) can also be achieved by using the excess coolant to improve mixing in the combustor especially for rotorcraft engines. Recent patents filed by industry and universities relate to modulating endwall cooling using valves. These schemes are complex, add weight and are limited to the endwalls. The novelty of the proposed approach is twofold 1) Fluidic diverters that have no moving parts are used to modulate cooling and can operate under a wide range of conditions and environments. 2) Real-time optical sensing to map the thermal state of the turbine has never been attempted in realistic engine conditions.

  20. Challenges and Recent Progress in the Development of a Closed-loop Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Bequette, B. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Pursuit of a closed-loop artificial pancreas that automatically controls the blood glucose of individuals with type 1 diabetes has intensified during the past six years. Here we discuss the recent progress and challenges in the major steps towards a closed-loop system. Continuous insulin infusion pumps have been widely available for over two decades, but “smart pump” technology has made the devices easier to use and more powerful. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology has improved and the devices are more widely available. A number of approaches are currently under study for fully closed-loop systems; most manipulate only insulin, while others manipulate insulin and glucagon. Algorithms include on-off (for prevention of overnight hypoglycemia), proportional-integral-derivative (PID), model predictive control (MPC) and fuzzy logic based learning control. Meals cause a major “disturbance” to blood glucose, and we discuss techniques that our group has developed to predict when a meal is likely to be consumed and its effect. We further examine both physiology and device-related challenges, including insulin infusion set failure and sensor signal attenuation. Finally, we discuss the next steps required to make a closed-loop artificial pancreas a commercial reality. PMID:23175620

  1. Parametric uncertain identification of a robotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, L.; Viola, J.; Hernández, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the parametric uncertainties identification of a robotic system of one degree of freedom. A MSC-ADAMS / MATLAB co-simulation model was built to simulate the uncertainties that affect the robotic system. For a desired trajectory, a set of dynamic models of the system was identified in presence of variations in the mass, length and friction of the system employing least squares method. Using the input-output linearization technique a linearized model plant was defined. Finally, the maximum multiplicative uncertainty of the system was modelled giving the controller desired design conditions to achieve a robust stability and performance of the closed loop system.

  2. Sensory feedback in prosthetics: a standardized test bench for closed-loop control.

    PubMed

    Dosen, Strahinja; Markovic, Marko; Hartmann, Cornelia; Farina, Dario

    2015-03-01

    Closing the control loop by providing sensory feedback to the user of a prosthesis is an important challenge, with major impact on the future of prosthetics. Developing and comparing closed-loop systems is a difficult task, since there are many different methods and technologies that can be used to implement each component of the system. Here, we present a test bench developed in Matlab Simulink for configuring and testing the closed-loop human control system in standardized settings. The framework comprises a set of connected generic blocks with normalized inputs and outputs, which can be customized by selecting specific implementations from a library of predefined components. The framework is modular and extensible and it can be used to configure, compare and test different closed-loop system prototypes, thereby guiding the development towards an optimal system configuration. The use of the test bench was demonstrated by investigating two important aspects of closed-loop control: performance of different electrotactile feedback interfaces (spatial versus intensity coding) during a pendulum stabilization task and feedforward methods (joystick versus myocontrol) for force control. The first experiment demonstrated that in the case of trained subjects the intensity coding might be superior to spatial coding. In the second experiment, the control of force was rather poor even with a stable and precise control interface (joystick), demonstrating that inherent characteristics of the prosthesis can be an important limiting factor when considering the overall effectiveness of the closed-loop control. The presented test bench is an important instrument for investigating different aspects of human manual control with sensory feedback.

  3. Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A high temperature heat exchanger is disclosed which has a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

  4. A Closed-loop Brain Computer Interface to a Virtual Reality Avatar: Gait Adaptation to Visual Kinematic Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Trieu Phat; He, Yongtian; Brown, Samuel; Nakagome, Sho; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    The control of human bipedal locomotion is of great interest to the field of lower-body brain computer interfaces (BCIs) for rehabilitation of gait. While the feasibility of a closed-loop BCI system for the control of a lower body exoskeleton has been recently shown, multi-day closed-loop neural decoding of human gait in a virtual reality (BCI-VR) environment has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we propose a real-time closed-loop BCI that decodes lower limb joint angles from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) during treadmill walking to control the walking movements of a virtual avatar. Moreover, virtual kinematic perturbations resulting in asymmetric walking gait patterns of the avatar were also introduced to investigate gait adaptation using the closed-loop BCI-VR system over a period of eight days. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using a closed-loop BCI to learn to control a walking avatar under normal and altered visuomotor perturbations, which involved cortical adaptations. These findings have implications for the development of BCI-VR systems for gait rehabilitation after stroke and for understanding cortical plasticity induced by a closed-loop BCI system. PMID:27713915

  5. A new closed loop control method for HVDC transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Karlecik-Maier, F.

    1996-10-01

    The paper presents a new closed loop control method which uses information locally available at each converter station and combines and coordinates control possibilities with the objective of improving the dynamic behavior during fault recoveries and disturbances around the operating points.

  6. Hippocampal Closed-Loop Modeling and Implications for Seizure Stimulation Design

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Roman A.; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Traditional hippocampal modeling has focused on the series of feedforward synapses known as the trisynaptic pathway. However, feedback connections from CA1 back to the hippocampus through the Entorhinal Cortex (EC) actually make the hippocampus a closed-loop system. By constructing a functional closed-loop model of the hippocampus, one may learn how both physiological and epileptic oscillations emerge and design efficient neurostimulation patterns to abate such oscillations. Approach Point process input-output models where estimated from recorded rodent hippocampal data to describe the nonlinear dynamical transformation from CA3→CA1, via the Schaffer-Collateral synapse, and CA1→CA3 via the EC. Each Volterra-like subsystem was composed of linear dynamics (Principal Dynamic Modes) followed by static nonlinearities. The two subsystems were then wired together to produce the full closed-loop model of the hippocampus. Main Results Closed-loop connectivity was found to be necessary for the emergence of theta resonances as seen in recorded data, thus validating the model. The model was then used to identify frequency parameters for the design of neurostimulation patterns to abate seizures. Significance DBS is a new and promising therapy for intractable seizures. Currently, there is no efficient way to determine optimal frequency parameters for DBS, or even whether periodic or broadband stimuli are optimal. Data-based computational models have the potential to be used as a testbed for designing optimal DBS patterns for individual patients. However, in order for these models to be successful they must incorporate the complex closed-loop structure of the seizure focus. This study serves as a proof-of-concept of using such models to design efficient personalized DBS patterns for epilepsy. PMID:26355815

  7. Hippocampal closed-loop modeling and implications for seizure stimulation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandler, Roman A.; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Traditional hippocampal modeling has focused on the series of feedforward synapses known as the trisynaptic pathway. However, feedback connections from CA1 back to the hippocampus through the entorhinal cortex (EC) actually make the hippocampus a closed-loop system. By constructing a functional closed-loop model of the hippocampus, one may learn how both physiological and epileptic oscillations emerge and design efficient neurostimulation patterns to abate such oscillations. Approach. Point process input-output models where estimated from recorded rodent hippocampal data to describe the nonlinear dynamical transformation from CA3 → CA1, via the schaffer-collateral synapse, and CA1 → CA3 via the EC. Each Volterra-like subsystem was composed of linear dynamics (principal dynamic modes) followed by static nonlinearities. The two subsystems were then wired together to produce the full closed-loop model of the hippocampus. Main results. Closed-loop connectivity was found to be necessary for the emergence of theta resonances as seen in recorded data, thus validating the model. The model was then used to identify frequency parameters for the design of neurostimulation patterns to abate seizures. Significance. Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) is a new and promising therapy for intractable seizures. Currently, there is no efficient way to determine optimal frequency parameters for DBS, or even whether periodic or broadband stimuli are optimal. Data-based computational models have the potential to be used as a testbed for designing optimal DBS patterns for individual patients. However, in order for these models to be successful they must incorporate the complex closed-loop structure of the seizure focus. This study serves as a proof-of-concept of using such models to design efficient personalized DBS patterns for epilepsy.

  8. The Future of Open and Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery for Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Terry G.; Edgar, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Several aspects of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are analyzed, including the glucose metabolic system, diabetes complications, and previous and ongoing research aimed at controlling glucose in diabetic patients. An expert review of various models and control algorithms developed for the glucose homeostasis system is presented, along with an analysis of research towards the development of a polymeric insulin infusion system. Recommendations for future directions in creating a true closed-loop glucose control system are presented, including the development of multivariable models and control systems to more accurately describe and control the multi-metabolite, multi-hormonal system, as well as in vivo assessments of implicit closed-loop control systems. PMID:18088499

  9. An ultrasonic horn atomizer with closed loop driving circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yuan-Fang; Chen, Kai-Jhong; Hsu, Jui-Mei; Chou, Pei-En

    2016-04-01

    A novel ultrasonic horn atomizer is developed for the purpose of obtaining small size droplets at a large flow rate. The ultrasonic horn has a non-monotonically decreasing cross sectional area to provide a large atomizing surface. Consisting of two horns and one actuator section, the 301 kHz atomizer nozzle is made of {100} silicon wafer with its axis aligned in the <100> direction to minimize the length. Two PZT plates are adhered to each side of the actuator section to provide driving power. This device atomizes the liquid film on its nozzle tip to generate droplets. It is capable of atomizing more than 350 μl/min water into droplet. The mean diameter of droplet is 9.61 μm and the size distribution is quite narrow. The atomizing mechanism is based on the capillary wave on liquid surface. Once the wave amplitude exceeds the critical value, the motion of surface liquid becomes unstable and releases droplets. Therefore, driving at resonant frequency is the most effective way for atomizing. Dimension deviation combined with different kind of liquid to be atomized causes resonant frequencies of nozzles changed from time to time. Due to the high Q nature of nozzles, atomizing performance will drop drastically once the driving frequency is different from its resonant frequency by very little amount. Therefore, a feedback circuit is designed to tracking resonant frequency automatically instead of adjusting driving frequency manually. Comparing the atomizing performance between the open loop system and the closed loop system, significant improvement is obtained.

  10. Production implementation of fully automated, closed loop cure control for advanced composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sean A.; Roberts, Nancy K.

    Economic of advanced composite part production requires development and use of the most aggressive cure cycles possible without sacrificing quality. As cure cycles are shortened and heating rates increase, tolerance windows for process parameters become increasingly narrow. These factors are intensified by condensation curing systems which generate large amounts of volatiles. Management of the situation requires fully automated, closed loop process control and a fundamental understanding of the material system used for the application. No turnkey system for this application is currently available. General Dynamics Pomona Division (GD/PD) has developed an integrated closed loop control system which is now being proofed in production. Realization of this system will enable cure time reductions of nearly 50 percent, while increasing yield and maintaining quality.

  11. Bifurcations of limit cycles in open and closed loop reverse flow reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Lucia; Crescitelli, Silvestro; Brasiello, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    The present work analyses the bifurcations of limit cycles in open and loop reverse flow reactors. The open loop system consists of a reactor where the flow direction is periodically forced whereas in the closed loop system, the flow inversion is dictated by a control law which activates when the temperature at the edge of catalytic bed falls below the set-point value. We performed the bifurcation analysis of the open loop system as the switch time is varied and we constructed the solution diagram through the application of continuation technique. Many Naimark-Sacker bifurcations leading to quasi-periodic regimes have been found on the limit cycles branches. Finally, we compared these limit cycles with those of the closed loop system where the flow inversion is dictated by a control system which acts if the temperature measured at the edge of reactor falls below a set-point value.

  12. Radiant Cooling for Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-20

    and require cooling water . Currently, this water is simply pumped from the harbor, through the ship’s systems, and discharged. The effluent cooling...Radiant Cooling For Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks by Trevor R. Murphy, Mechanical...system that moves 26 million gallons per day (≈ 18000 ). Although this analysis has not accounted for redundancy, pumps , and other one-time

  13. A closed-loop control scheme for steering steady states of glycolysis and glycogenolysis pathway.

    PubMed

    Panja, Surajit; Patra, Sourav; Mukherjee, Anirban; Basu, Madhumita; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Dutta, Pranab K

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical networks normally operate in the neighborhood of one of its multiple steady states. It may reach from one steady state to other within a finite time span. In this paper, a closed-loop control scheme is proposed to steer states of the glycolysis and glycogenolysis (GG) pathway from one of its steady states to other. The GG pathway is modeled in the synergism and saturation system formalism, known as S-system. This S-system model is linearized into the controllable Brunovsky canonical form using a feedback linearization technique. For closed-loop control, the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) and the linear-quadratic gaussian (LQG) regulator are invoked to design a controller for tracking prespecified steady states. In the feedback linearization technique, a global diffeomorphism function is proposed that facilitates in achieving the regulation requirement. The robustness of the regulated GG pathway is studied considering input perturbation and with measurement noise.

  14. Closed-Loop and Activity-Guided Optogenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Logan; Marshel, James H.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Advances in optical manipulation and observation of neural activity have set the stage for widespread implementation of closed-loop and activity-guided optical control of neural circuit dynamics. Closing the loop optogenetically (i.e., basing optogenetic stimulation on simultaneously observed dynamics in a principled way) is a powerful strategy for causal investigation of neural circuitry. In particular, observing and feeding back the effects of circuit interventions on physiologically relevant timescales is valuable for directly testing whether inferred models of dynamics, connectivity, and causation are accurate in vivo. Here we highlight technical and theoretical foundations as well as recent advances and opportunities in this area, and we review in detail the known caveats and limitations of optogenetic experimentation in the context of addressing these challenges with closed-loop optogenetic control in behaving animals. PMID:25856490

  15. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlensinger, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios use error-correction techniques that approach Shannon s theoretical limit of performance. The authors describe the benefit of closed-loop measurements for a receiver when paired with a counterpart transmitter and representative channel conditions. We also describe a real-time Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in real-time during the development of software defined radios.

  16. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlesinger, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  17. Multi-Nozzle Spray Cooling in a Closed Loop (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    facing upward, (b) vertical, and (c) horizontal facing downward. The thermal performance of the horizontal facing downward surface was the best. A...transfer, closed loop, CHF 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 12 19a. NAME OF...the spray target surface, namely (a) horizontal facing upward, (b) vertical, and (c) horizontal facing downward. The thermal performance of the

  18. High resolution interface circuit for closed-loop accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yin; Xiaowei, Liu; Weiping, Chen; Zhiping, Zhou

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports a low noise switched-capacitor CMOS interface circuit for the closed-loop operation of a capacitive accelerometer. The time division multiplexing of the same electrode is adopted to avoid the strong feedthrough between capacitance sensing and electrostatic force feedback. A PID controller is designed to ensure the stability and dynamic response of a high Q closed-loop accelerometer with a vacuum package. The architecture only requires single ended operational amplifiers, transmission gates and capacitors. Test results show that a full scale acceleration of ±3 g, non-linearity of 0.05% and signal bandwidth of 1000 Hz are achieved. The complete module operates from a ±5 V supply and has a measured sensitivity of 1.2 V/g with a noise of floor of in closed-loop. The chip is fabricated in the 2 μm two-metal and two-poly n-well CMOS process with an area of 15.2 mm2. These results prove that this circuit is suitable for high performance micro-accelerometer applications like seismic detection and oil exploration.

  19. Perception as a closed-loop convergence process

    PubMed Central

    Ahissar, Ehud; Assa, Eldad

    2016-01-01

    Perception of external objects involves sensory acquisition via the relevant sensory organs. A widely-accepted assumption is that the sensory organ is the first station in a serial chain of processing circuits leading to an internal circuit in which a percept emerges. This open-loop scheme, in which the interaction between the sensory organ and the environment is not affected by its concurrent downstream neuronal processing, is strongly challenged by behavioral and anatomical data. We present here a hypothesis in which the perception of external objects is a closed-loop dynamical process encompassing loops that integrate the organism and its environment and converging towards organism-environment steady-states. We discuss the consistency of closed-loop perception (CLP) with empirical data and show that it can be synthesized in a robotic setup. Testable predictions are proposed for empirical distinction between open and closed loop schemes of perception. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12830.001 PMID:27159238

  20. Flight test maneuvers for closed loop lateral-directional modeling of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) using forebody strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, E. A.

    1996-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for closed loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for lateral linear model parameter estimation at 30, 45, and 60 degrees angle of attack, using the Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) control law in Strake (S) model and Strake/Thrust Vectoring (STV) mode. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific pilot station controls using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specification of the time/amplitude points defining each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  1. A Survey on Security and Privacy in Emerging Sensor Networks: From Viewpoint of Close-Loop.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifu; Zhang, Heng

    2016-03-26

    Nowadays, as the next generation sensor networks, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) refer to the complex networked systems that have both physical subsystems and cyber components, and the information flow between different subsystems and components is across a communication network, which forms a closed-loop. New generation sensor networks are found in a growing number of applications and have received increasing attention from many inter-disciplines. Opportunities and challenges in the design, analysis, verification and validation of sensor networks co-exists, among which security and privacy are two important ingredients. This paper presents a survey on some recent results in the security and privacy aspects of emerging sensor networks from the viewpoint of the closed-loop. This paper also discusses several future research directions under these two umbrellas.

  2. A Survey on Security and Privacy in Emerging Sensor Networks: From Viewpoint of Close-Loop

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifu; Zhang, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, as the next generation sensor networks, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) refer to the complex networked systems that have both physical subsystems and cyber components, and the information flow between different subsystems and components is across a communication network, which forms a closed-loop. New generation sensor networks are found in a growing number of applications and have received increasing attention from many inter-disciplines. Opportunities and challenges in the design, analysis, verification and validation of sensor networks co-exists, among which security and privacy are two important ingredients. This paper presents a survey on some recent results in the security and privacy aspects of emerging sensor networks from the viewpoint of the closed-loop. This paper also discusses several future research directions under these two umbrellas. PMID:27023559

  3. Closed Loop Control of Penetration Depth during CO2 Laser Lap Welding Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sibillano, Teresa; Rizzi, Domenico; Mezzapesa, Francesco P.; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Konuk, Ali Riza; Aarts, Ronald; Veld, Bert Huis in 't; Ancona, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel spectroscopic closed loop control system capable of stabilizing the penetration depth during laser welding processes by controlling the laser power. Our novel approach is to analyze the optical emission from the laser generated plasma plume above the keyhole, to calculate its electron temperature as a process-monitoring signal. Laser power has been controlled by using a quantitative relationship between the penetration depth and the plasma electron temperature. The sensor is able to correlate in real time the difference between the measured electron temperature and its reference value for the requested penetration depth. Accordingly the closed loop system adjusts the power, thus maintaining the penetration depth. PMID:23112646

  4. Closed-loop analysis and control of a non-inverting buck-boost converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zengshi; Hu, Jiangang; Gao, Wenzhong

    2010-11-01

    In this article, a cascade controller is designed and analysed for a non-inverting buck-boost converter. The fast inner current loop uses sliding mode control. The slow outer voltage loop uses the proportional-integral (PI) control. Stability analysis and selection of PI gains are based on the nonlinear closed-loop error dynamics incorporating both the inner and outer loop controllers. The closed-loop system is proven to have a nonminimum phase structure. The voltage transient due to step changes of input voltage or resistance is predictable. The operating range of the reference voltage is discussed. The controller is validated by a simulation circuit. The simulation results show that the reference output voltage is well-tracked under system uncertainties or disturbances, confirming the validity of the proposed controller.

  5. Improvements To Progressive Wave Tube Performance Through Closed-Loop Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents recent improvements to the acoustic and thermal control systems of the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA), a progressive wave tube test facility at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. A brief summary of past acoustic performance is given first to serve as a basis for comparison with the new performance data using a multiple-input, closed-loop, narrow-band controller. Performance data in the form of test section acoustic power spectral densities and coherence are presented in three of six facility configurations for a variety of input spectra. Tested spectra include uniform, two cases of pink noise, three cases of narrow-band random, a simulated launch payload bay environment for an expendable launch vehicle, and a simulated external acoustic load for the aft section of a reusable launch vehicle. In addition, a new closed-loop temperature controller and thermocouple data acquisition system are described.

  6. Real-time, closed-loop dual-wavelength optical polarimetry for glucose monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Bilal H.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a real-time, dual-wavelength optical polarimetric system to ultimately probe the aqueous humor glucose concentrations as a means of noninvasive diabetic glucose monitoring is the long-term goal of this research. The key impact of the work is the development of an approach for the reduction of the time-variant corneal birefringence due to motion artifact, which is still a limiting factor preventing the realization of such a device. Our dual-wavelength approach utilizes real-time, closed-loop feedback that employs a classical three-term feedback controller and efficiently reduces the effect of motion artifact that appears as a common noise source for both wavelengths. In vitro results are shown for the open-loop system, and although the dual-wavelength system helps to reduce the noise, it is shown that closed-loop control is necessary to bring the noise down to a sufficient level for physiological monitoring. Specifically, in vitro measurement results with the closed-loop dual-wavelength approach demonstrate a sensitivity of 12.8 mg∕dl across the physiologic glucose range in the presence of time-variant test cell birefringence. Overall, it is shown that this polarimetric system has the potential to be used as a noninvasive measure of glucose for diabetes. PMID:20210476

  7. IMC-PID design based on model matching approach and closed-loop shaping.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qi B; Liu, Q

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by the limitations of the conventional internal model control (IMC), this communication addresses the design of IMC-based PID in terms of the robust performance of the control system. The IMC controller form is obtained by solving an H-infinity problem based on the model matching approach, and the parameters are determined by closed-loop shaping. The shaping of the closed-loop transfer function is considered both for the set-point tracking and for the load disturbance rejection. The design procedure is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem which is solved by a specific optimization algorithm. A nice feature of this design method is that it permits a clear tradeoff between robustness and performance. Simulation examples show that the proposed method is effective and has a wide applicability.

  8. Closed loop control of dielectric elastomer actuators based on self-sensing displacement feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzello, G.; Naso, D.; York, A.; Seelecke, S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a sensorless control algorithm for a positioning system based on a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). The voltage applied to the membrane and the resulting current can be measured during the actuation and used to estimate its displacement, i.e., to perform self-sensing. The estimated displacement can be then used as a feedback signal for a position control algorithm, which results in a compact device capable of operating in closed loop control without the need for additional electromechanical or optical transducers. In this work, a circular DEA preloaded with a bi-stable spring is used as a case of study to validate the proposed control architecture. A comparison of the closed loop performance achieved using an accurate laser displacement sensor for feedback is also provided to better assess the performance limitations of the overall sensorless scheme.

  9. Closed-loop control of fluid therapy for treatment of hypovolemia.

    PubMed

    Kramer, George C; Kinsky, Michael P; Prough, Donald S; Salinas, Jose; Sondeen, Jill L; Hazel-Scerbo, Michelle L; Mitchell, Charles E

    2008-04-01

    Closed-loop algorithms and resuscitation systems are being developed to control IV infusion rate during early resuscitation of hypovolemia. Although several different physiologic variables have been suggested as an endpoint to guide fluid therapy, blood pressure remains the most used variable for the initial assessment of hemorrhagic shock and the treatment response to volume loading. Closed-loop algorithms use a controller function to alter infusion rate inversely to blood pressure. Studies in hemorrhaged conscious sheep suggest that: (1) a small reduction in target blood pressure can result in a significant reduction in volume requirement; (2) nonlinear algorithms may reduce the risk of increased internal bleeding during resuscitation; (3) algorithm control functions based on proportional-integral, fuzzy logic, or nonlinear decision tables were found to restore and maintain blood pressure equally well. Proportional-integral and fuzzy logic algorithms reduced mean fluid volume requirements compared with the nonlinear decision table; and (4) several algorithms have been constructed to the specific mechanism of injury and the volume expansion properties of different fluids. Closed-loop systems are undergoing translation from animal to patient studies. Future smart resuscitation systems will benefit from new noninvasive technologies for monitoring blood pressure and the development of computer controlled high flow intravenous pumps.

  10. A Method for Precision Closed-Loop Irrigation Using a Modified PID Control Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, Martin; Kühn, Karl; Jenkins, Malcolm; Burek, Kazimierz; Dutton, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The benefits of closed-loop irrigation control have been demonstrated in grower trials which show the potential for improved crop yields and resource usage. Managing water use by controlling irrigation in response to soil moisture changes to meet crop water demands is a popular approach but requires knowledge of closed-loop control practice. In theory, to obtain precise closed-loop control of a system it is necessary to characterise every component in the control loop to derive the appropriate controller parameters, i.e. proportional, integral & derivative (PID) parameters in a classic PID controller. In practice this is often difficult to achieve. Empirical methods are employed to estimate the PID parameters by observing how the system performs under open-loop conditions. In this paper we present a modified PID controller, with a constrained integral function, that delivers excellent regulation of soil moisture by supplying the appropriate amount of water to meet the needs of the plant during the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, the modified PID controller responds quickly to changes in environmental conditions, including rainfall events which can result in: controller windup, under-watering and plant stress conditions. The experimental work successfully demonstrates the functionality of a constrained integral PID controller that delivers robust and precise irrigation control. Coir substrate strawberry growing trial data is also presented illustrating soil moisture control and the ability to match water deliver to solar radiation.

  11. Real-time closed-loop control for micro mirrors with quasistatic comb drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroedter, Richard; Sandner, Thilo; Janschek, Klaus; Roth, Matthias; Hruschka, Clemens

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the application of a real-time closed-loop control for the quasistatic axis of electrostatic micro scanning mirrors. In comparison to resonantly driven mirrors, the quasistatic comb drive allows arbitrary motion profiles with frequencies up to its eigenfrequency. A current mirror setup at Fraunhofer IPMS is manufactured with a staggered vertical comb (SVC) drive and equipped with an integrated piezo-resistive deflection sensor, which can potentially be used as position feedback sensor. The control design is accomplished based on a nonlinear mechatronic system model and the preliminary parameter characterization. In previous papers [1, 2] we have shown that jerk-limited trajectories, calculated offline, provide a suitable method for parametric trajectory design, taking into account physical limitations given by the electrostatic comb and thus decreasing the dynamic requirements. The open-loop control shows in general unfavorable residual eigenfrequency oscillations leading to considerable tracking errors for desired triangle trajectories [3]. With real-time closed-loop control, implemented on a dSPACE system using an optical feedback, we can significantly reduce these errors and stabilize the mirror motion against external disturbances. In this paper we compare linear and different nonlinear closed-loop control strategies as well as two observer variants for state estimation. Finally, we evaluate the simulation and experimental results in terms of steady state accuracy and the concept feasibility for a low-cost realization.

  12. Closed-loop brain-machine-body interfaces for noninvasive rehabilitation of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Broccard, Frédéric D; Mullen, Tim; Chi, Yu Mike; Peterson, David; Iversen, John R; Arnold, Mike; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Makeig, Scott; Poizner, Howard; Sejnowski, Terrence; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2014-08-01

    Traditional approaches for neurological rehabilitation of patients affected with movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and essential tremor (ET) consist mainly of oral medication, physical therapy, and botulinum toxin injections. Recently, the more invasive method of deep brain stimulation (DBS) showed significant improvement of the physical symptoms associated with these disorders. In the past several years, the adoption of feedback control theory helped DBS protocols to take into account the progressive and dynamic nature of these neurological movement disorders that had largely been ignored so far. As a result, a more efficient and effective management of PD cardinal symptoms has emerged. In this paper, we review closed-loop systems for rehabilitation of movement disorders, focusing on PD, for which several invasive and noninvasive methods have been developed during the last decade, reducing the complications and side effects associated with traditional rehabilitation approaches and paving the way for tailored individual therapeutics. We then present a novel, transformative, noninvasive closed-loop framework based on force neurofeedback and discuss several future developments of closed-loop systems that might bring us closer to individualized solutions for neurological rehabilitation of movement disorders.

  13. Closed-loop Brain-Machine-Body Interfaces for Noninvasive Rehabilitation of Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Broccard, Frédéric D.; Mullen, Tim; Chi, Yu Mike; Peterson, David; Iversen, John R.; Arnold, Mike; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Makeig, Scott; Poizner, Howard; Sejnowski, Terrence; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches for neurological rehabilitation of patients affected with movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and essential tremor (ET) consist mainly of oral medication, physical therapy, and botulinum toxin injections. Recently, the more invasive method of deep brain stimulation (DBS) showed significant improvement of the physical symptoms associated with these disorders. In the past several years, the adoption of feedback control theory helped DBS protocols to take into account the progressive and dynamic nature of these neurological movement disorders that had largely been ignored so far. As a result, a more efficient and effective management of PD cardinal symptoms has emerged. In this paper, we review closed-loop systems for rehabilitation of movement disorders, focusing on PD, for which several invasive and noninvasive methods have been developed during the last decade, reducing the complications and side effects associated with traditional rehabilitation approaches and paving the way for tailored individual therapeutics. We then present a novel, transformative, noninvasive closed-loop framework based on force neurofeedback and discuss several future developments of closed-loop systems that might bring us closer to individualized solutions for neurological rehabilitation of movement disorders. PMID:24833254

  14. Double closed-loop cascade control for lower limb exoskeleton with elastic actuation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanhe; Zheng, Tianjiao; Jin, Hongzhe; Yang, Jixing; Zhao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Unlike traditional rigid actuators, the significant features of Series Elastic Actuator (SEA) are stable torque control, lower output impedance, impact resistance and energy storage. Recently, SEA has been applied in many exoskeletons. In such applications, a key issue is how to realize the human-exoskeleton movement coordination. In this paper, double closed-loop cascade control for lower limb exoskeleton with SEA is proposed. This control method consists of inner SEA torque loop and outer contact force loop. Utilizing the SEA torque control with a motor velocity loop, actuation performances of SEA are analyzed. An integrated exoskeleton control system is designed, in which joint angles are calculated by internal encoders and resolvers and contact forces are gathered by external pressure sensors. The double closed-loop cascade control model is established based on the feedback signals of internal and external sensor. Movement experiments are accomplished in our prototype of lower limb exoskeleton. Preliminary results indicate the exoskeleton movements with pilot can be realized stably by utilizing this double closed-loop cascade control method. Feasibility of the SEA in our exoskeleton robot and effectiveness of the control method are verified.

  15. Closed-Loop, Multichannel Experimentation Using the Open-Source NeuroRighter Electrophysiology Platform

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Jonathan P.; Zeller-Townson, Riley; Fong, Ming-Fai; Arcot Desai, Sharanya; Gross, Robert E.; Potter, Steve M.

    2013-01-01

    Single neuron feedback control techniques, such as voltage clamp and dynamic clamp, have enabled numerous advances in our understanding of ion channels, electrochemical signaling, and neural dynamics. Although commercially available multichannel recording and stimulation systems are commonly used for studying neural processing at the network level, they provide little native support for real-time feedback. We developed the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology hardware and software platform for closed-loop multichannel control with a focus on accessibility and low cost. NeuroRighter allows 64 channels of stimulation and recording for around US $10,000, along with the ability to integrate with other software and hardware. Here, we present substantial enhancements to the NeuroRighter platform, including a redesigned desktop application, a new stimulation subsystem allowing arbitrary stimulation patterns, low-latency data servers for accessing data streams, and a new application programming interface (API) for creating closed-loop protocols that can be inserted into NeuroRighter as plugin programs. This greatly simplifies the design of sophisticated real-time experiments without sacrificing the power and speed of a compiled programming language. Here we present a detailed description of NeuroRighter as a stand-alone application, its plugin API, and an extensive set of case studies that highlight the system’s abilities for conducting closed-loop, multichannel interfacing experiments. PMID:23346047

  16. Angles-only relative navigation and closed-loop guidance for spacecraft proximity operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jianjun; Gong, Baichun; Yuan, Jianping; Zhang, Zhaofei

    2016-11-01

    This research investigates angles-only relative navigation and closed-loop guidance algorithm for spacecraft mid-range orbital proximity operations when the orbital maneuver allows for range observability. Emphasis and contribution are on developing angles-only relative navigation and guidance coupling algorithm in the context of Clohessy-Wiltshire and Tschauner-Hempel dynamics. Observability analysis of the relative state is done and the general mathematical expression of the observable condition is obtained. Coupling relationship between the angles-only relative navigation and the multi-pulse sliding guidance is discussed and its analytic expression is derived. A novel closed-loop guidance scheme is designed based on the coupling relationship and unscented kalman filter. Two-body Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to evaluate the validity and test the performance of the closed-loop system. The sensitivities of the navigation and guidance accuracy to the line-of-sight angles accuracy, initial separation and initial state uncertainties, number of pulses, and dynamics are presented and discussed.

  17. Close-loop simulation of the medial olivocochlear anti-masking effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Wen; Yu, Lu-Ming; Wu, Po-Jui

    2015-12-01

    The medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) is known to affect cochlear signal processing via the electromechanical changes it induces in outer hair cells (OHCs). Experiments showed that electrically stimulating the MOC efferents (i.e., open-loop stimulation) suppresses cochlear responses to acoustic noise while enhancing the response to tone bursts if the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high [5]. However, such experiments did not reveal precisely how MOCR affects cochlear signal processing in a close loop. Presently we have built an integrated computer model for the MOCR pathway; the constituting sub-models include a model for cochlear mechanics with electromotile OHCs [11], a neurotransmitter release model for the synapse between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion cells [16], an electrical model for the T-multipolar (TM) cells in the cochlear nucleus [6], a relay from TM cells to the MOC interneurons, and a convolution kernel describing the change of OHC potassium conductance triggered by the MOC inhibitory post synaptic potentials. Thus, close-loop responses of the entire system can be simulated for arbitrary acoustic stimuli. Both open-loop and close-loop simulations demonstrate a decrease in the auditory nerve fiber (ANF) response to noise but an increase in the response to high-level tone bursts. The present integrated computer model can potentially be used for testing hypotheses regarding the physiological mechanisms for MOC anti-masking effects.

  18. Synchronization of fractional-order colored dynamical networks via open-plus-closed-loop control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lixin; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of a fractional-order colored complex dynamical network model is studied for the first time. In this network model, color edges imply that both the outer coupling topology and the inner interactions between any pair of nodes may be different, and color nodes mean that local dynamics may be different. Based on the stability theory of fractional-order systems, the scheme of synchronization for fractional-order colored complex dynamical networks is presented. To achieve the synchronization of a complex fractional-order edge-colored network, the open-plus-closed-loop (OPCL) strategy is adopted and effective controllers for synchronization are designed. The open-plus-closed-loop (OPCL) strategy avoids the need for computation of eigenvalues of a very large matrix. Then, a synchronization method for a class of fractional-order colored complex network, containing both colored edges and colored nodes, is developed and some effective synchronization conditions via close-loop control are presented. Two examples of numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.

  19. Pre-frontal control of closed-loop limbic neurostimulation by rodents using a brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widge, Alik S.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. There is great interest in closed-loop neurostimulators that sense and respond to a patient's brain state. Such systems may have value for neurological and psychiatric illnesses where symptoms have high intraday variability. Animal models of closed-loop stimulators would aid preclinical testing. We therefore sought to demonstrate that rodents can directly control a closed-loop limbic neurostimulator via a brain-computer interface (BCI). Approach. We trained rats to use an auditory BCI controlled by single units in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BCI controlled electrical stimulation in the medial forebrain bundle, a limbic structure involved in reward-seeking. Rigorous offline analyses were performed to confirm volitional control of the neurostimulator. Main results. All animals successfully learned to use the BCI and neurostimulator, with closed-loop control of this challenging task demonstrated at 80% of PFC recording locations. Analysis across sessions and animals confirmed statistically robust BCI control and specific, rapid modulation of PFC activity. Significance. Our results provide a preliminary demonstration of a method for emotion-regulating closed-loop neurostimulation. They further suggest that activity in PFC can be used to control a BCI without pre-training on a predicate task. This offers the potential for BCI-based treatments in refractory neurological and mental illness.

  20. Comparison of Five System Identification Algorithms for Rotorcraft Higher Harmonic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an analysis and performance comparison of five system identification algorithms. The methods are presented in the context of identifying a frequency-domain transfer matrix for the higher harmonic control (HHC) of helicopter vibration. The five system identification algorithms include three previously proposed methods: (1) the weighted-least- squares-error approach (in moving-block format), (2) the Kalman filter method, and (3) the least-mean-squares (LMS) filter method. In addition there are two new ones: (4) a generalized Kalman filter method and (5) a generalized LMS filter method. The generalized Kalman filter method and the generalized LMS filter method were derived as extensions of the classic methods to permit identification by using more than one measurement per identification cycle. Simulation results are presented for conditions ranging from the ideal case of a stationary transfer matrix and no measurement noise to the more complex cases involving both measurement noise and transfer-matrix variation. Both open-loop identification and closed- loop identification were simulated. Closed-loop mode identification was more challenging than open-loop identification because of the decreasing signal-to-noise ratio as the vibration became reduced. The closed-loop simulation considered both local-model identification, with measured vibration feedback and global-model identification with feedback of the identified uncontrolled vibration. The algorithms were evaluated in terms of their accuracy, stability, convergence properties, computation speeds, and relative ease of implementation.

  1. Systems approach to identification of feedback enhanced optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Hullas; Aggarwal, Tanuj; Salapaka, Murti V.

    2008-08-01

    Feedback enhanced optical tweezers, based on Proportional and Integral (PI) control, are routinely used for increasing the stiffness of optical traps. Digital implementation of PI controller, using DSP or FPGA, enables easy maneuverability of feedback gains. In this paper, we report occurrence of a peak in the thermal noise power spectrum of the trapped bead as the proportional gain is cranked up, which imposes a limit on how stiff a trap can be made using position feedback. We explain the reasons for the deviant behavior in the power spectrum and present a mathematical formula to account for the anomaly, which is in very good agreement with the experimental observations. Further, we present a new method to do the closed loop system identification of feedback enhanced optical tweezers by applying a frequency chirp. The system model thus obtained greatly predicts the closed loop behavior of our feedback based optical tweezers system.

  2. Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TN-0779 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and... Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  3. Closed-Loop Performance Measures for Flight Controllers Subject to Neutron-Induced Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. Steven; Zhang, Hong; Gonzalex, Oscar R.

    2003-01-01

    It has been observed that atmospheric neutrons can produce single event upsets in digital flight control hardware. The phenomenon has been studied extensively at the chip level, and now system level experiments are underway. In this paper analytical closed-loop performance measures for the tracking error are developed for a plant that is stabilized by a recoverable computer system subject to neutron induced upsets. The underlying model is a Markov jump-linear system with process noise. The steady-state tracking error is expressed in terms of a generalized observability Gramian.

  4. Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus for Investigating Closed-Loop Control of Ankle Joint Muscle Contractions during Functional Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, John F; Masani, Kei; Vette, Albert H; Zariffa, José; Robinson, Mark; Lynch, Cheryl; Popovic, Milos R

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of arm-free standing in individuals with paraplegia can be facilitated via functional electrical stimulation (FES). In developing adequate control strategies for FES systems, it remains challenging to test the performance of a particular control scheme on human subjects. In this study, we propose a testing platform for developing effective control strategies for a closed-loop FES system for standing. The Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus (IPSA) is a mechanical inverted pendulum, whose angular position is determined by the subject's ankle joint angle as controlled by the FES system while having the subject's body fixed in a standing frame. This approach provides a setup that is safe, prevents falling, and enables a research and design team to rigorously test various closed-loop controlled FES systems applied to the ankle joints. To demonstrate the feasibility of using the IPSA, we conducted a case series that employed the device for studying FES closed-loop controllers for regulating ankle joint kinematics during standing. The utilized FES system stimulated, in able-bodied volunteers, the plantarflexors as they prevent toppling during standing. Four different conditions were compared, and we were able to show unique performance of each condition using the IPSA. We concluded that the IPSA is a useful tool for developing and testing closed-loop controlled FES systems for regulating ankle joint position during standing.

  5. Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications. PMID:27378844

  6. Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications.

  7. Closed loop computer control for an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determined from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

  8. A Hardware Platform for Tuning of MEMS Devices Using Closed-Loop Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Michael I.; MacDonald, Eric; Foor, David

    2005-01-01

    We report on the development of a hardware platform for integrated tuning and closed-loop operation of MEMS gyroscopes. The platform was developed and tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-Resonator MEMS gyroscope. The control of this device is implemented through a digital design on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A software interface allows the user to configure, calibrate, and tune the bias voltages on the micro-gyro. The interface easily transitions to an embedded solution that allows for the miniaturization of the system to a single chip.

  9. Closed-loop, pilot/vehicle analysis of the approach and landing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.; Anderson, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Optimal-control-theoretic modeling and frequency-domain analysis is the methodology proposed to evaluate analytically the handling qualities of higher-order manually controlled dynamic systems. Fundamental to the methodology is evaluating the interplay between pilot workload and closed-loop pilot/vehicle performance and stability robustness. The model-based metric for pilot workload is the required pilot phase compensation. Pilot/vehicle performance and loop stability is then evaluated using frequency-domain techniques. When these techniques were applied to the flight-test data for thirty-two highly-augmented fighter configurations, strong correlation was obtained between the analytical and experimental results.

  10. Closed-loop response properties of a visual interneuron involved in fly optomotor control.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Naveed; Krapp, Holger G; Tanaka, Reiko J

    2013-01-01

    Due to methodological limitations neural function is mostly studied under open-loop conditions. Normally, however, nervous systems operate in closed-loop where sensory input is processed to generate behavioral outputs, which again change the sensory input. Here, we investigate the closed-loop responses of an identified visual interneuron, the blowfly H1-cell, that is part of a neural circuit involved in optomotor flight and gaze control. Those behaviors may be triggered by attitude changes during flight in turbulent air. The fly analyses the resulting retinal image shifts and performs compensatory body and head rotations to regain its default attitude. We developed a fly robot interface to study H1-cell responses in a 1 degree-of-freedom image stabilization task. Image shifts, induced by externally forced rotations, modulate the cell's spike rate that controls counter rotations of a mobile robot to minimize relative motion between the robot and its visual surroundings. A feedback controller closed the loop between neural activity and the rotation of the robot. Under these conditions we found the following H1-cell response properties: (i) the peak spike rate decreases when the mean image velocity is increased, (ii) the relationship between spike rate and image velocity depends on the standard deviation of the image velocities suggesting adaptive scaling of the cell's signaling range, and (iii) the cell's gain decreases linearly with increasing image accelerations. Our results reveal a remarkable qualitative similarity between the response dynamics of the H1-cell under closed-loop conditions with those obtained in previous open-loop experiments. Finally, we show that the adaptive scaling of the H1-cell's responses, while maximizing information on image velocity, decreases the cell's sensitivity to image accelerations. Understanding such trade-offs in biological vision systems may advance the design of smart vision sensors for autonomous robots.

  11. Closed-loop adaptive optics using a spatial light modulator for sensing and compensating of optical aberrations in ophthalmic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akondi, Vyas; Jewel, Md. Atikur Rahman; Vohnsen, Brian

    2014-09-01

    Sensing and compensating of optical aberrations in closed-loop mode using a single spatial light modulator (SLM) for ophthalmic applications is demonstrated. Notwithstanding the disadvantages of the SLM, in certain cases, this multitasking capability of the device makes it advantageous over existing deformable mirrors (DMs), which are expensive and in general used for aberration compensation alone. A closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) system based on a single SLM was built. Beam resizing optics were used to utilize the large active area of the device and hence make it feasible to generate 137 active subapertures for wavefront sensing. While correcting Zernike aberrations up to fourth order introduced with the help of a DM (for testing purposes), diffraction-limited resolution was achieved. It is shown that matched filter and intensity-weighted centroiding techniques stand out among others. Closed-loop wavefront correction of aberrations in backscattered light from the eyes of three healthy human subjects was demonstrated after satisfactory results were obtained using an artificial eye, which was simulated with a short focal length lens and a sheet of white paper as diffuser. It is shown that the closed-loop AO system based on a single SLM is capable of diffraction-limited correction for ophthalmic applications.

  12. Closed-loop control of zebrafish response using a bioinspired robotic-fish in a preference test.

    PubMed

    Kopman, Vladislav; Laut, Jeffrey; Polverino, Giovanni; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-06

    In this paper, we study the response of zebrafish to a robotic-fish whose morphology and colour pattern are inspired by zebrafish. Experiments are conducted in a three-chambered instrumented water tank where a robotic-fish is juxtaposed with an empty compartment, and the preference of live subjects is scored as the mean time spent in the vicinity of the tank's two lateral sides. The tail-beating of the robotic-fish is controlled in real-time based on feedback from fish motion to explore a spectrum of closed-loop systems, including proportional and integral controllers. Closed-loop control systems are complemented by open-loop strategies, wherein the tail-beat of the robotic-fish is independent of the fish motion. The preference space and the locomotory patterns of fish for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of real-time closed-loop control on zebrafish response. The results of this study show that zebrafish respond differently to the pattern of tail-beating motion executed by the robotic-fish. Specifically, the preference and behaviour of zebrafish depend on whether the robotic-fish tail-beating frequency is controlled as a function of fish motion and how such closed-loop control is implemented.

  13. Identification of the Unstable Human Postural Control System.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sungjae; Agada, Peter; Kiemel, Tim; Jeka, John J

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining upright bipedal posture requires a control system that continually adapts to changing environmental conditions, such as different support surfaces. Behavioral changes associated with different support surfaces, such as the predominance of an ankle or hip strategy, is considered to reflect a change in the control strategy. However, tracing such behavioral changes to a specific component in a closed loop control system is challenging. Here we used the joint input-output (JIO) method of closed-loop system identification to identify the musculoskeletal and neural feedback components of the human postural control loop. The goal was to establish changes in the control loop corresponding to behavioral changes observed on different support surfaces. Subjects were simultaneously perturbed by two independent mechanical and two independent sensory perturbations while standing on a normal or short support surface. The results show a dramatic phase reversal between visual input and body kinematics due to the change in surface condition from trunk leads legs to legs lead trunk with increasing frequency of the visual perturbation. Through decomposition of the control loop, we found that behavioral change is not necessarily due to a change in control strategy, but in the case of different support surfaces, is linked to changes in properties of the plant. The JIO method is an important tool to identify the contribution of specific components within a closed loop control system to overall postural behavior and may be useful to devise better treatment of balance disorders.

  14. Closed-loop bluff-body wake stabilization via fluidic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalnov, O.; Fono, I.; Seifert, A.

    2011-06-01

    This article describes an experimental study aimed at stabilizing the wake of a shedding bluff-body by means of closed-loop active flow control at low Reynolds numbers. A D-shaped (6.5 mm thick) cylinder was used to allow a direct wake interaction rather than mixed wake-boundary-layer separation control. The fluidic actuators, installed inside the thin body, were ideally located at the separation locations, i.e., the trailing edges' upper and lower corners. The wake unsteadiness was monitored by a pair of hot wires (HWs), while a single surface-mounted hot-film (HF) sensor was used as a frequency and phase reference for closed-loop control. The HF signal was contaminated by noise. Hence, a technique for real-time tracking of a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) signal was necessary. This was achieved by means of a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), common in communications systems. The closed-loop scheme was based on real-time measurement of the wake-state, using the surface-mounted HF sensor, and control authority imposed by the fluidic actuators. By using opposition control at frequencies close to the natural vortex shedding frequency (VSF), it was possible to significantly reduce the wake unsteadiness. Applying the same approach, but sensing the wake HW signal, rather than the surface-mounted HF signal, as the controller input did not result in wake stabilization. On the contrary, the unsteadiness increased at all the tested conditions. It is expected that a similar approach would work at much higher Reynolds numbers as well, as long as a clearly identifiable and nominally 2D vortex shedding occurs, even when the background flow is fully turbulent.

  15. Rendered and Characterized Closed-Loop Accuracy of Impedance-Type Haptic Displays.

    PubMed

    Colonnese, Nick; Siu, Alexa F; Abbott, Caroline M; Okamura, Allison M

    2015-01-01

    Impedance-type kinesthetic haptic displays aim to render arbitrary desired dynamics to a human operator using force feedback. To render realistic virtual environments, the difference between desired and rendered dynamics must be small. In this paper, we analyze the closed-loop dynamics of haptic displays for three common virtual environments: a spring, a damper, and a spring-damper, including the effects of time delay and low-pass filtering. Using a linear model, we identify important parameters for the rendered dynamics in terms of effective impedances, a conceptual tool that decomposes the displays closed-loop impedance into components with physical analogs. Our results establish bandwidth limits for rendering effective stiffness and damping. The effective stiffness bandwidth is limited by the virtual stiffness and device mass, and the effective damping bandwidth is limited by the cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter which filters the device velocity estimate. We show that a general system impedance can be characterized by a mass, damper, and spring optimally by the solution to a convex optimization problem, and we present a quantitative metric, the Average Distortion Error (ADE), to describe the fidelity of this model. Time delay has no significant effect on characterized stiffness, and reduces characterized damping by the product of virtual stiffness and total time delay. Reducing the low-pass filter cut-off frequency reduces the characterized damping. Experimental data gathered with a Phantom Premium 1.5 validates the theoretical analysis. We also conducted human user experiments to investigate the effects of time delay and low-pass filtering on perceived stiffness and damping. Similar to the characterized dynamics results, we observed no significant effect of time delay on perceived stiffness, and increasing time delay resulted in reduced perceived damping. Lower filter cut-off frequencies resulted in lower perceived damping. This work informs haptic

  16. Stereovision and augmented reality for closed-loop control of grasping in hand prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Cipriani, Christian; Popovic, Dejan; Farina, Dario

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Technologically advanced assistive devices are nowadays available to restore grasping, but effective and effortless control integrating both feed-forward (commands) and feedback (sensory information) is still missing. The goal of this work was to develop a user friendly interface for the semi-automatic and closed-loop control of grasping and to test its feasibility. Approach. We developed a controller based on stereovision to automatically select grasp type and size and augmented reality (AR) to provide artificial proprioceptive feedback. The system was experimentally tested in healthy subjects using a dexterous hand prosthesis to grasp a set of daily objects. The subjects wore AR glasses with an integrated stereo-camera pair, and triggered the system via a simple myoelectric interface. Main results. The results demonstrated that the subjects got easily acquainted with the semi-autonomous control. The stereovision grasp decoder successfully estimated the grasp type and size in realistic, cluttered environments. When allowed (forced) to correct the automatic system decisions, the subjects successfully utilized the AR feedback and achieved close to ideal system performance. Significance. The new method implements a high level, low effort control of complex functions in addition to the low level closed-loop control. The latter is achieved by providing rich visual feedback, which is integrated into the real life environment. The proposed system is an effective interface applicable with small alterations for many advanced prosthetic and orthotic/therapeutic rehabilitation devices.

  17. Closed-loop thrust and pressure profile throttling of a nitrous oxide/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Zachary W.

    Hybrid motors that employ non-toxic, non-explosive components with a liquid oxidizer and a solid hydrocarbon fuel grain have inherently safe operating characteristics. The inherent safety of hybrid rocket motors offers the potential to greatly reduce overall operating costs. Another key advantage of hybrid rocket motors is the potential for in-flight shutdown, restart, and throttle by controlling the pressure drop between the oxidizer tank and the injector. This research designed, developed, and ground tested a closed-loop throttle controller for a hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene as propellants. The research simultaneously developed closed-loop throttle algorithms and lab scale motor hardware to evaluate the fidelity of the throttle simulations and algorithms. Initial open-loop motor tests were performed to better classify system parameters and to validate motor performance values. Deep-throttle open-loop tests evaluated limits of stable thrust that can be achieved on the test hardware. Open-loop tests demonstrated the ability to throttle the motor to less than 10% of maximum thrust with little reduction in effective specific impulse and acoustical stability. Following the open-loop development, closed-loop, hardware-in-the-loop tests were performed. The closed-loop controller successfully tracked prescribed step and ramp command profiles with a high degree of fidelity. Steady-state accuracy was greatly improved over uncontrolled thrust.

  18. The Martian and extraterrestrial UV radiation environment--1. Biological and closed-loop ecosystem considerations.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Andrady, A L

    1999-01-01

    The Martian surface is exposed to both UVC radiation (<280 nm) and higher doses of UVB (280-315 nm) compared to the surface of the Earth. Terrestrial organisms have not evolved to cope with such high levels of UVC and UVB and thus any attempts to introduce organisms to Mars, particularly in closed-loop life support systems that use ambient sunlight, must address this problem. Here we examine the UV radiation environment of Mars with respect to biological systems. Action spectra and UV surface fluxes are used to estimate the UV stress that both DNA and chloroplasts would experience. From this vantage point it is possible to consider appropriate measures to address the problem of the Martian UV environment for future long term human exploration and settlement strategies. Some prospects for improving the UV tolerance of organisms are also discussed. Existing artificial ecosystems such as Biosphere 2 can provide some insights into design strategies pertinent to high UV environments. Some prospects for improving the UV tolerance of organisms are also discussed. The data also have implications for the establishment of closed-loop ecosystems using natural sunlight on the lunar surface and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  19. Closed Loop Interactions between Spiking Neural Network and Robotic Simulators Based on MUSIC and ROS

    PubMed Central

    Weidel, Philipp; Djurfeldt, Mikael; Duarte, Renato C.; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    In order to properly assess the function and computational properties of simulated neural systems, it is necessary to account for the nature of the stimuli that drive the system. However, providing stimuli that are rich and yet both reproducible and amenable to experimental manipulations is technically challenging, and even more so if a closed-loop scenario is required. In this work, we present a novel approach to solve this problem, connecting robotics and neural network simulators. We implement a middleware solution that bridges the Robotic Operating System (ROS) to the Multi-Simulator Coordinator (MUSIC). This enables any robotic and neural simulators that implement the corresponding interfaces to be efficiently coupled, allowing real-time performance for a wide range of configurations. This work extends the toolset available for researchers in both neurorobotics and computational neuroscience, and creates the opportunity to perform closed-loop experiments of arbitrary complexity to address questions in multiple areas, including embodiment, agency, and reinforcement learning. PMID:27536234

  20. Inventory decision in a closed-loop supply chain with inspection, sorting, and waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwicahyani, A. R.; Jauhari, W. A.; Kurdhi, N. A.

    2016-02-01

    The study of returned item inventory management in a closed-loop supply chain system has become an important issue in recent years. So far, investigations about inventory decision making in a closed-loop supply chain system have been confined to traditional forward and reverse oriented material flow supply chain. In this study, we propose an integrated inventory model consisting a supplier, a manufacturer, and a retailer where the manufacturer inspects all of the returned items collected from the customers and classifies them as recoverable or waste. Returned items that recovered through the remanufacturing process and the newly manufactured products are then used to meet the demand of the retailer. However, some recovered items which are not comparable to the ones in quality, classified as refurbished items, are sold to a secondary market at a reduced price. This study also suggests that the flow of returned items is controlled by a decision variable, namely an acceptance quality level of recoverable item in the system. We apply multiple remanufacturing cycle and multiple production cycle policy to the proposed model and give the corresponding iterative procedure to determine the optimal solutions. Further, numerical examples are presented for illustrative purpose.

  1. Closed loop supply chain network design with fuzzy tactical decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherafati, Mahtab; Bashiri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    One of the most strategic and the most significant decisions in supply chain management is reconfiguration of the structure and design of the supply chain network. In this paper, a closed loop supply chain network design model is presented to select the best tactical and strategic decision levels simultaneously considering the appropriate transportation mode in activated links. The strategic decisions are made for a long term; thus, it is more satisfactory and more appropriate when the decision variables are considered uncertain and fuzzy, because it is more flexible and near to the real world. This paper is the first research which considers fuzzy decision variables in the supply chain network design model. Moreover, in this study a new fuzzy optimization approach is proposed to solve a supply chain network design problem with fuzzy tactical decision variables. Finally, the proposed approach and model are verified using several numerical examples. The comparison of the results with other existing approaches confirms efficiency of the proposed approach. Moreover the results confirms that by considering the vagueness of tactical decisions some properties of the supply chain network will be improved.

  2. Wireless technologies for closed-loop retinal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ng, David C; Bai, Shun; Yang, Jiawei; Tran, Nhan; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss various technologies needed to develop retinal prostheses with wireless power and data telemetry operation. In addition to the need to communicate with the implanted device, supply of power to the retinal prosthesis is especially difficult. This is because, in the implanted state, the device is not fixed in position due to constant motion of the eye. Furthermore, a retinal prosthesis incorporating a high density electrode array of more than 1000 electrodes is expected to consume approximately 45 mW of power and require 300 kbps of image and stimulation data. The front end of the wireless power and data transmission, the antenna, needs to be small compared to the size of the eye. Also, the wireless module is expected to operate in the reactive near-field region due to small separation between the transmit and receive antennas compared to their size and corresponding operating wavelength. An inductive link is studied as a means to transfer power and for data telemetry between the implant and external unit. In this work, the use of integrated circuit and microfabrication technologies for implementing inductive links is discussed. A closed-loop approach is taken to improve performance and reach optimum operation condition. Design and simulation data are presented as the basis for development of viable wireless module prototypes.

  3. Implementation of a Comprehensive On-Line Closed-Loop Diagnostic System for Roll-to-Roll Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Production: Final Subcontract Report, 23 April 2003 - 30 September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, T.

    2007-05-01

    This report summarizes Energy Conversion Devices' diagnostic systems that were developed in this program, as well as ECD's other major accomplishments. This report concentrates on work carried out in the final (third) phase of this program, beginning in the fall of 2004 and ending in the fall of 2006. ECD has developed a comprehensive in-situ diagnostic system that: Reduces the time between deposition in the a-Si machine and device characterization from about 200 h to about 1 h; The Photovoltaic Capacitive Diagnostic systems measure the open-circuit voltage and charging rate (a measure of the short-circuit current) and intra-cell series resistance for each cell in the triple-junction device prior to deposition of the top conductive-oxide coating in a subsequent deposition machine. These systems operate with an rms precision of about 0.03% and have operated for almost 4 years with no need for servicing of the electronics or for calibration; Spectrometers are used to measure the ZnO thickness of the backreflector, a Si thickness, and top conductive-oxide, coatings.

  4. Closed-loop motor control using high-speed fiber optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Reginald (Inventor); Rodriquiz, Dagobert (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A closed-loop control system for controlling the operation of one or more servo motors or other controllable devices is described. The system employs a fiber optics link immune to electromagnetic interference, for transmission of control signals from a controller or controllers at a remote station to the power electronics located in proximity to the motors or other devices at the local station. At the remote station the electrical control signals are time-multiplexed, converted to a formatted serial bit stream, and converted to light signals for transmission over a single fiber of the fiber optics link. At the local station, the received optical signals are reconstructed as electrical control signals for the controlled motors or other devices. At the local station, an encoder sensor linked to the driven device generates encoded feedback signals which provide information as to a condition of the controlled device. The encoded signals are placed in a formatted serial bit stream, multiplexed, and transmitted as optical signals over a second fiber of the fiber optic link which closes the control loop of the closed-loop motor controller. The encoded optical signals received at the remote station are demultiplexed, reconstructed and coupled to the controller(s) as electrical feedback signals.

  5. Closed-Loop Control of Humidification for Artifact Reduction in Capacitive ECG Measurements.

    PubMed

    Leicht, Lennart; Eilebrecht, Benjamin; Weyer, Soren; Leonhardt, Steffen; Teichmann, Daniel

    2017-01-25

    Recording biosignals without the need for direct skin contact offers new opportunities for ubiquitous health monitoring. Electrodes with capacitive coupling have been shown to be suitable for the monitoring of electrical potentials on the body surface, in particular ECG. However, due to triboelectric charge generation and motion artifacts, signal and thus diagnostic quality is inferior to galvanic coupling. Active closed-loop humidification of capacitive electrodes is proposed in this work as a new concept to improve signal quality. A capacitive ECG recording system integrated into a common car seat is presented. It can regulate the micro climate at the interface of electrode and patient by actively dispensing water vapour and monitoring humidity in a closed-loop approach. As a regenerative water reservoir, silica gel is used. The system was evaluated with respect to subjective and objective ECG signal quality. Active humidification was found to have a significant positive effect in case of previously poor quality. Also, it had no diminishing effect in case of already good signal quality.

  6. Closed-loop control concept for kinematic 3D-profile bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staupendahl, Daniel; Chatti, Sami; Tekkaya, A. Erman

    2016-10-01

    Kinematic tube and profile bending processes produce bending contours by the relative movement of single process axes. Tools only need to be adapted to fit the cross-section of the tubular material. While offering a great flexibility in production, kinematic bending processes cause a high part springback and as a result, compensatory methods are needed to achieve target contours. These compensatory methods are generally embedded in bending tables or analytical calculations that in turn are embedded into the process control software. This procedure can cope with known material behavior, as for instance gained through a tensile test of the material batch prior to the bending process. Material variations inside a batch cannot be detected however and cause contour deviations. To counter this error, a closed-loop control system can be used, which can quickly adapt axes' movements to produce target shapes and thus reduce scrap. In this paper, two methods to apply closed-loop control to 3D profile bending will be presented. An indirect approach, using the bending force and torque, and a direct approach, by measuring the profile contour after bending.

  7. A wirelessly-powered homecage with animal behavior analysis and closed-loop power control.

    PubMed

    Yaoyao Jia; Zheyuan Wang; Canales, Daniel; Tinkler, Morgan; Chia-Chun Hsu; Madsen, Teresa E; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Rainnie, Donald; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new EnerCage-homecage system, EnerCage-HC2, for longitudinal electrophysiology data acquisition experiments on small freely moving animal subjects, such as rodents. EnerCage-HC2 is equipped with multi-coil wireless power transmission (WPT), closed-loop power control, bidirectional data communication via Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Microsoft Kinect® based animal behavior tracking and analysis. The EnerCage-HC2 achieves a homogeneous power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 14% on average, with ~42 mW power delivered to the load (PDL) at a nominal height of 7 cm by the closed-loop power control mechanism. The Microsoft Kinect® behavioral analysis algorithm can not only track the animal position in real-time but also classify 5 different types of rodent behaviors: standstill, walking, grooming, rearing, and rotating. A proof-of-concept in vivo experiment was conducted on two awake freely behaving rats while successfully operating a one-channel stimulator and generating an ethogram.

  8. Reverse engineering of free-form surface based on the closed-loop theory.

    PubMed

    He, Xue Ming; He, Jun Fei; Wu, Mei Ping; Zhang, Rong; Ji, Xiao Gang

    2015-01-01

    To seek better methods of measurement and more accurate model of reconstruction in the field of reverse engineering has been the focus of researchers. Based on this, a new method of adaptive measurement, real-time reconstruction, and online evaluation of free-form surface was presented in this paper. The coordinates and vectors of the prediction points are calculated according to a Bézier curve which is fitted by measured points. Final measured point cloud distribution is in agreement with the geometric characteristics of the free-form surfaces. Fitting the point cloud to a surface model by the nonuniform B-spline method, extracting some check points from the surface models based on grids and a feature on the surface, review the location of these check points on the surface with CMM and evaluate the model, and then update the surface model to meet the accuracy. Integrated measurement, reconstruction, and evaluation, with the closed-loop reverse process, established an accurate model. The results of example show that the measuring points are distributed over the surface according to curvature, and the reconstruction model can be completely expressed with micron level. Meanwhile, measurement, reconstruction and evaluation are integrated in forms of closed-loop reverse system.

  9. Closed-loop control of spinal cord stimulation to restore hand function after paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Jonas B.; Jackson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    As yet, no cure exists for upper-limb paralysis resulting from the damage to motor pathways after spinal cord injury or stroke. Recently, neural activity from the motor cortex of paralyzed individuals has been used to control the movements of a robot arm but restoring function to patients' actual limbs remains a considerable challenge. Previously we have shown that electrical stimulation of the cervical spinal cord in anesthetized monkeys can elicit functional upper-limb movements like reaching and grasping. Here we show that stimulation can be controlled using cortical activity in awake animals to bypass disruption of the corticospinal system, restoring their ability to perform a simple upper-limb task. Monkeys were trained to grasp and pull a spring-loaded handle. After temporary paralysis of the hand was induced by reversible inactivation of primary motor cortex using muscimol, grasp-related single-unit activity from the ventral premotor cortex was converted into stimulation patterns delivered in real-time to the cervical spinal gray matter. During periods of closed-loop stimulation, task-modulated electromyogram, movement amplitude, and task success rate were improved relative to interleaved control periods without stimulation. In some sessions, single motor unit activity from weakly active muscles was also used successfully to control stimulation. These results are the first use of a neural prosthesis to improve the hand function of primates after motor cortex disruption, and demonstrate the potential for closed-loop cortical control of spinal cord stimulation to reanimate paralyzed limbs. PMID:24904251

  10. Closed-loop supply chain models with considering the environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Mohajeri, Amir; Fallah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated.

  11. A study of closed-loop application for logic patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Hidemichi; Yoshikawa, Shingo; Takamizawa, Hideyoshi; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Pelletier, Alice; Sundermann, Frank; Buttgereit, Ute; Trautzsch, Thomas; Thaler, Thomas; Graitzer, Erez

    2012-06-01

    Optical lithography stays at 193nm with a numerical aperture of 1.35 for several more years before moving to EUV lithography. Utilization of 193nm lithography for 45nm and beyond forces the mask shop to produce complex mask designs and tighter lithography specifications which in turn make process control more important than ever. High yield with regards to chip production requires accurate process control. Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) is one of the key parameters necessary to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit. There are different contributors which impact the total wafer CDU, mask CD uniformity, resist process, scanner and lens fingerprint, wafer topography, etc. In this paper, the wafer level CD metrology tool WLCD of Carl Zeiss SMS is utilized for CDU measurements in conjunction with the CDC tool from Carl Zeiss SMS which provides CD uniformity correction. The WLCD measures CD based on proven aerial imaging technology. The CDC utilizes an ultrafast femto-second laser to write intra-volume shading elements (Shade-In ElementsTM) inside the bulk material of the mask. By adjusting the density of the shading elements, the light transmission through the mask is locally changed in a manner that improves wafer CDU when the corrected mask is printed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of these two tools in a closed loop process to optimize CDU of the mask before leaving the mask shop and to ensure improved intra-field CDU at wafer level. Mainly we present the method of operation and results for logic pattering by using these two tools.

  12. Closed-Loop Strategies for Patient Care Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (R.P.), Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland; Im- pact Instrumentation ...ogy to general anesthesia, it is important to understand that different medications target different components of the anes- thetic such as hypnosis ...sedation, respectively, and values less than 40 suggesting deep to excessive hypnosis .37 BIS is sensitive to multiple artifacts including muscle movement

  13. Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Systems: Engineering the Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Huyett, Lauren M.; Lee, Joon Bok; Zisser, Howard C.; Dassau, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    In this two-part Bench to Clinic narrative, recent advances in both the preclinical and clinical aspects of artificial pancreas (AP) development are described. In the preceding Bench narrative, Kudva and colleagues provide an in-depth understanding of the modified glucoregulatory physiology of type 1 diabetes that will help refine future AP algorithms. In the Clinic narrative presented here, we compare and evaluate AP technology to gain further momentum toward outpatient trials and eventual approval for widespread use. We enumerate the design objectives, variables, and challenges involved in AP development, concluding with a discussion of recent clinical advancements. Thanks to the effective integration of engineering and medicine, the dream of automated glucose regulation is nearing reality. Consistent and methodical presentation of results will accelerate this success, allowing head-to-head comparisons that will facilitate adoption of the AP as a standard therapy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:24757226

  14. Nutritional criteria for closed-loop space food systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    The nutritional requirements for Skylab crews are summarized as a data base for long duration spaceflight nutrient requirements. Statistically significant increases in energy consumption were detected after three months, along with CO2/O2 exhalation during exercise and thyroxine level increases. Linoleic acid amounting to 3-4 g/day was found to fulfill all fat requirements, and carbohydrate and protein (amino acid) necessities are discussed, noting that vigorous exercise programs avoid deconditioning which enhances nitrogen loss. Urinary calcium losses continued at a rate 100% above a baseline figure, a condition which ingestion of vitamin D2 did not correct. Projections are given that spaceflights lasting more than eight years will necessitate recycling of human waste for nutrient growth, which can be processed into highly efficient space food with a variety of tastes.

  15. Lead-oxygen closed-loop battery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britz, W. J.; Boshers, W. A.; Kaufmann, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations show that battery can deliver up to 35 watt-hours per pound, conventional lead-acid batteries deliver 10 to 15 watt-hours per pound. Weight reduction is due to replacement of solid lead-peroxide electrodes with metal current-collector screen, catalyst, and Teflon membrane.

  16. Closed-loop power and focus control of laser welding for full-penetration monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bardin, Fabrice; Cobo, Adolfo; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M; Collin, Olivier; Aubry, Pascal; Dubois, Thierry; Högström, Mats; Nylen, Per; Jonsson, Peter; Jones, Julian D C; Hand, Duncan P

    2005-01-01

    We describe a closed-loop control system ensuring full penetration in welding by controlling the focus position and power of a 4-kW Nd:YAG laser. A focus position monitoring system was developed based on the chromatic aberration of the focusing optics. With the laser power control system we can determine the degree of penetration by analyzing the keyhole image intensity profile. We demonstrate performance in bead-on-plate welding of Inconel 718 and titanium. The focus control system maintained a focal position on tilted and nonflat workpieces, and the penetration monitoring technique successfully controlled the laser power to maintain the full-penetration regime in the presence of linear and step changes of thickness. Finally we discuss the performances and the limits of the systems when applied to a realistic complex aerospace component.

  17. A statistical learning strategy for closed-loop control of fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéniat, Florimond; Mathelin, Lionel; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    2016-12-01

    This work discusses a closed-loop control strategy for complex systems utilizing scarce and streaming data. A discrete embedding space is first built using hash functions applied to the sensor measurements from which a Markov process model is derived, approximating the complex system's dynamics. A control strategy is then learned using reinforcement learning once rewards relevant with respect to the control objective are identified. This method is designed for experimental configurations, requiring no computations nor prior knowledge of the system, and enjoys intrinsic robustness. It is illustrated on two systems: the control of the transitions of a Lorenz'63 dynamical system, and the control of the drag of a cylinder flow. The method is shown to perform well.

  18. A neuro-inspired model-based closed-loop neuroprosthesis for the substitution of a cerebellar learning function in anesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Hogri, Roni; Bamford, Simeon A.; Taub, Aryeh H.; Magal, Ari; Giudice, Paolo Del; Mintz, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Neuroprostheses could potentially recover functions lost due to neural damage. Typical neuroprostheses connect an intact brain with the external environment, thus replacing damaged sensory or motor pathways. Recently, closed-loop neuroprostheses, bidirectionally interfaced with the brain, have begun to emerge, offering an opportunity to substitute malfunctioning brain structures. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate a neuro-inspired model-based approach to neuroprostheses. A VLSI chip was designed to implement essential cerebellar synaptic plasticity rules, and was interfaced with cerebellar input and output nuclei in real time, thus reproducing cerebellum-dependent learning in anesthetized rats. Such a model-based approach does not require prior system identification, allowing for de novo experience-based learning in the brain-chip hybrid, with potential clinical advantages and limitations when compared to existing parametric “black box” models. PMID:25677559

  19. Sub-millisecond closed-loop feedback stimulation between arbitrary sets of individual neurons

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jan; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We present a system to artificially correlate the spike timing between sets of arbitrary neurons that were interfaced to a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) high-density microelectrode array (MEA). The system features a novel reprogrammable and flexible event engine unit to detect arbitrary spatio-temporal patterns of recorded action potentials and is capable of delivering sub-millisecond closed-loop feedback of electrical stimulation upon trigger events in real-time. The relative timing between action potentials of individual neurons as well as the temporal pattern among multiple neurons, or neuronal assemblies, is considered an important factor governing memory and learning in the brain. Artificially changing timings between arbitrary sets of spiking neurons with our system could provide a “knob” to tune information processing in the network. PMID:23335887

  20. The Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The various elements of the Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project (P/C CLLS) are described including both those currently funded and those planned for implementation at ARC and other participating NASA field centers. The plan addresses the entire range of regenerative life support for Space Exploration Initiative mission needs, and focuses initially on achieving technology readiness for the Initial Lunar Outpost by 1995-97. Project elements include water reclamation, air revitalization, solid waste management, thermal and systems control, and systems integration. Current analysis estimates that each occupant of a space habitat will require a total of 32 kg/day of supplies to live and operate comfortably, while an ideal P/C CLLS system capable of 100 percent reclamation of air and water, but excluding recycling of solid wastes or foods, will reduce this requirement to 3.4 kg/day.

  1. Open and closed loop manipulation of charged microchiplets in an electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, J. P. Thompson, J. D.; Whiting, G. L.; Biegelsen, D. K.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Lujan, R.; Veres, J.; Lavery, L. L.; Völkel, A. R.; Chow, E. M.

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate the ability to orient, position, and transport microchips (“chiplets”) with electric fields. In an open-loop approach, modified four phase traveling wave potential patterns manipulate chiplets in a dielectric solution using dynamic template agitation techniques. Repeatable parallel assembly of chiplets is demonstrated to a positional accuracy of 6.5 μm using electrodes of 200 μm pitch. Chiplets with dipole surface charge patterns are used to show that orientation can be controlled by adding unique charge patterns on the chiplets. Chip path routing is also demonstrated. With a closed-loop control system approach using video feedback, dielectric, and electrophoretic forces are used to achieve positioning accuracy of better than 1 μm with 1 mm pitch driving electrodes. These chip assembly techniques have the potential to enable future printer systems where inputs are electronic chiplets and the output is a functional electronic system.

  2. Closed-loop control of renal perfusion pressure in physiological experiments.

    PubMed

    Campos-Delgado, D U; Bonilla, I; Rodríguez-Martínez, M; Sánchez-Briones, M E; Ruiz-Hernández, E

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the design, experimental modeling, and control of a pump-driven renal perfusion pressure (RPP)-regulatory system to implement precise and relatively fast RPP regulation in rats. The mechatronic system is a simple, low-cost, and reliable device to automate the RPP regulation process based on flow-mediated occlusion. Hence, the regulated signal is the RPP measured in the left femoral artery of the rat, and the manipulated variable is the voltage applied to a dc motor that controls the occlusion of the aorta. The control system is implemented in a PC through the LabView software, and a data acquisition board NI USB-6210. A simple first-order linear system is proposed to approximate the dynamics in the experiment. The parameters of the model are chosen to minimize the error between the predicted and experimental output averaged from eight input/output datasets at different RPP operating conditions. A closed-loop servocontrol system based on a pole-placement PD controller plus dead-zone compensation was proposed for this purpose. First, the feedback structure was validated in simulation by considering parameter uncertainty, and constant and time-varying references. Several experimental tests were also conducted to validate in real time the closed-loop performance for stepwise and fast switching references, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed automatic system to regulate the RPP in the rat, in a precise, accurate (mean error less than 2 mmHg) and relatively fast mode (10-15 s of response time).

  3. Input-output identification of controlled discrete manufacturing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Vargas, Ana Paula; López-Mellado, Ernesto; Lesage, Jean-Jacques

    2014-03-01

    The automated construction of discrete event models from observations of external system's behaviour is addressed. This problem, often referred to as system identification, allows obtaining models of ill-known (or even unknown) systems. In this article, an identification method for discrete event systems (DESs) controlled by a programmable logic controller is presented. The method allows processing a large quantity of observed long sequences of input/output signals generated by the controller and yields an interpreted Petri net model describing the closed-loop behaviour of the automated DESs. The proposed technique allows the identification of actual complex systems because it is sufficiently efficient and well adapted to cope with both the technological characteristics of industrial controllers and data collection requirements. Based on polynomial-time algorithms, the method is implemented as an efficient software tool which constructs and draws the model automatically; an overview of this tool is given through a case study dealing with an automated manufacturing system.

  4. Recovery of Dynamics and Function in Spiking Neural Networks with Closed-Loop Control

    PubMed Central

    Vlachos, Ioannis; Deniz, Taşkin; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in developing novel brain stimulation methods to control disease-related aberrant neural activity and to address basic neuroscience questions. Conventional methods for manipulating brain activity rely on open-loop approaches that usually lead to excessive stimulation and, crucially, do not restore the original computations performed by the network. Thus, they are often accompanied by undesired side-effects. Here, we introduce delayed feedback control (DFC), a conceptually simple but effective method, to control pathological oscillations in spiking neural networks (SNNs). Using mathematical analysis and numerical simulations we show that DFC can restore a wide range of aberrant network dynamics either by suppressing or enhancing synchronous irregular activity. Importantly, DFC, besides steering the system back to a healthy state, also recovers the computations performed by the underlying network. Finally, using our theory we identify the role of single neuron and synapse properties in determining the stability of the closed-loop system. PMID:26829673

  5. Experiments of Closed-Loop Flow Control for Laminar Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) instability is important for the transition process of boundary layer flows. The cancellation of its unstable modes will help delay the occurrence of transition and then turbulence. In this article the T-S instability was attempted to attenuate through an active closed-loop control strategy. The frequency responses of unstable travelling T-S waves were obtained for the implementation of control strategy. Information such as velocity disturbances of both incoming unstable waves and cancelling waves were then fed into the control system. A controller was deliberately designed and tested for the active cancellation of instabilities which were excited by velocity disturbances normal to the wall. The cancellation performance of the control system was validated by experiments in a low turbulence wind tunnel, which proved the functionality of above control strategy upon the active cancellation of boundary layer instabilities.

  6. Recovery of Dynamics and Function in Spiking Neural Networks with Closed-Loop Control.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Ioannis; Deniz, Taşkin; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing interest in developing novel brain stimulation methods to control disease-related aberrant neural activity and to address basic neuroscience questions. Conventional methods for manipulating brain activity rely on open-loop approaches that usually lead to excessive stimulation and, crucially, do not restore the original computations performed by the network. Thus, they are often accompanied by undesired side-effects. Here, we introduce delayed feedback control (DFC), a conceptually simple but effective method, to control pathological oscillations in spiking neural networks (SNNs). Using mathematical analysis and numerical simulations we show that DFC can restore a wide range of aberrant network dynamics either by suppressing or enhancing synchronous irregular activity. Importantly, DFC, besides steering the system back to a healthy state, also recovers the computations performed by the underlying network. Finally, using our theory we identify the role of single neuron and synapse properties in determining the stability of the closed-loop system.

  7. Process step response based fractional PIλDμ controller parameters tuning for desired closed loop response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergani, Nadir; Charef, Abdelfatah

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a tuning method of the fractional PIλDμ controllers for classical feedback control systems is proposed. The PIλDμ controller design strategy is drawn up such that the closed loop system is equivalent to a desired fractional order model whose transfer function is Bode's ideal function ?, a widely used function in the fractional order control domain because of its iso-damping property which is an important robustness feature. In this tuning technique, the values of the five parameters of the fractional PIλDμ controller are derived analytically using only the step response of a stable process without requirement of its model. The derived formulations of the tuning technique are presented. Illustrative examples are given to test the effectiveness and the usefulness of the proposed PIλDμ controller tuning approach.

  8. Hybrid Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Type 1 Diabetes During Supervised Outpatient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Grosman, Benyamin; Ilany, Jacob; Roy, Anirban; Kurtz, Natalie; Wu, Di; Parikh, Neha; Voskanyan, Gayane; Konvalina, Noa; Mylonas, Chrystaleni; Gottlieb, Rebecca; Kaufman, Francine; Cohen, Ohad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Efficacy and safety of the Medtronic Hybrid Closed-Loop (HCL) system were tested in subjects with type 1 diabetes in a supervised outpatient setting. Methods: The HCL system is a prototype research platform that includes a sensor-augmented insulin pump in communication with a control algorithm housed on an Android-based cellular device. Nine subjects with type 1 diabetes (5 female, mean age 53.3 years, mean A1C 7.2%) underwent 9 studies totaling 571 hours of closed-loop control using either default or personalized parameters. The system required meal announcements with estimates of carbohydrate (CHO) intake that were based on metabolic kitchen quantification (MK), dietician estimates (D), or subject estimates (Control). Postprandial glycemia was compared for MK, D, and Control meals. Results: The overall sensor glucose mean was 145 ± 43, the overall percentage time in the range 70-180 mg/dL was 80%, the overall percentage time <70 mg/dL was 0.79%. Compared to intervals of default parameter use (225 hours), intervals of personalized parameter use (346 hours), sensor glucose mean was 158 ± 49 and 137 ± 37 mg/dL (P < .001), respectively, and included more time in range (87% vs 68%) and less time below range (0.54% vs 1.18%). Most subjects underestimated the CHO content of meals, but postprandial glycemia was not significantly different between MK and matched Control meals (P = .16) or between D and matched Control meals (P = .76). There were no episodes of severe hypoglycemia. Conclusions: The HCL system was efficacious and safe during this study. Personally adapted HCL parameters were associated with more time in range and less time below range than default parameters. Accurate estimates of meal CHO did not contribute to improved postprandial glycemia. PMID:26880389

  9. A closed-loop causal model of workload based on a comparison of fuzzy and crisp measurements techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moray, Neville; King, Barbara; Turksen, Burhan; Waterton, Keith

    1987-01-01

    Fuzzy and crisp measurements of workload are compared for a tracking task that varied in bandwidth and order of control. Fuzzy measures are as powerful as crisp measures, and can under certain conditions give extra insights into workload causality. Both methods suggest that workload arises in a system in which effort, performance, difficulty, and task variables are linked in a closed loop. Marked individual differences were found. Future work on the fuzzy measurement of workload is justified.

  10. A Closed-Loop Hardware Simulation of Decentralized Satellite Formation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebimuma, Takuji; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Baur, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant interest in the use of formation flying spacecraft for a variety of earth and space science missions. Formation flying may provide smaller and cheaper satellites that, working together, have more capability than larger and more expensive satellites. Several decentralized architectures have been proposed for autonomous establishment and maintenance of satellite formations. In such architectures, each satellite cooperatively maintains the shape of the formation without a central supervisor, and processing only local measurement information. The Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors are ideally suited to provide such local position and velocity measurements to the individual satellites. An investigation of the feasibility of a decentralized approach to satellite formation flying was originally presented by Carpenter. He extended a decentralized linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) framework proposed by Speyer in a fashion similar to an extended Kalman filter (EKE) which processed GPS position fix solutions. The new decentralized LQG architecture was demonstrated in a numerical simulation for a realistic scenario that is similar to missions that have been proposed by NASA and the U.S. Air Force. Another decentralized architecture was proposed by Park et al. using carrier differential-phase GPS (CDGPS). Recently, Busse et al demonstrated the decentralized CDGPS architecture in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation on the Formation Flying TestBed (FFTB) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which features two Spirent Cox 16 channel GPS signal generator. Although representing a step forward by utilizing GPS signal simulators for a spacecraft formation flying simulation, only an open-loop performance, in which no maneuvers were executed based on the real-time state estimates, was considered. In this research, hardware experimentation has been extended to include closed-loop integrated guidance and navigation of multiple spacecraft

  11. Closed Loop Active Flow Separation Detection and Control in a Multistage Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2005-01-01

    Active closed loop flow control was successfully demonstrated on a full annulus of stator vanes in a low speed axial compressor. Two independent methods of detecting separated flow conditions on the vane suction surface were developed. The first technique detects changes in static pressure along the vane suction surface, while the second method monitors variation in the potential field of the downstream rotor. Both methods may feasibly be used in future engines employing embedded flow control technology. In response to the detection of separated conditions, injection along the suction surface of each vane was used. Injected mass flow on the suction surface of stator vanes is known to reduce separation and the resulting limitation on static pressure rise due to lowered diffusion in the vane passage. A control algorithm was developed which provided a proportional response of the injected mass flow to the degree of separation, thereby minimizing the performance penalty on the compressor system.

  12. Capacitive sensing circuit for closed-loop control of wide tuning range microspectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susli, Mohamad; Silva, K. K. M. B. Dilusha; Boussaid, Farid; Faraone, Lorenzo; Dell, John M.

    2010-04-01

    We examine the problem of simultaneous drive and capacitance sensing, on a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device, where the drive is a bipolar AC waveform. The attention of this paper is particularly focused on wavelength calibration of the microspectrometer, a MEMS micromachined Fabry Perot filter monolithically integrated with a photodetector. However, this work is also very pertinent to other bipolar AC driven MEMS devices, which presently use separate measurement MEMS structures. To avoid charging effects, the microspectrometer must be driven by an AC waveform and, the only option for capacitance measurement is to do so simultaneously, on the same terminals, as the drive waveform is applied. We propose a novel differential capacitive sensing circuit to determine the centre wavelength of the MEMS-based micro-spectrometer, allowing closed-loop control of the microspectrometer's centre wavelength. Automatic calibration can be realized with the addition of a known light source.

  13. Closed loop control of the induction heating process using miniature magnetic sensors

    DOEpatents

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-05-20

    A method and system for providing real-time, closed-loop control of the induction hardening process. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  14. Optimal reconstruction for closed-loop ground-layer adaptive optics with elongated spots.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Clémentine; Tallon, Michel; Tallon-Bosc, Isabelle; Thiébaut, Éric; Le Louarn, Miska; Clare, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    The design of the laser-guide-star-based adaptive optics (AO) systems for the Extremely Large Telescopes requires careful study of the issue of elongated spots produced on Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. The importance of a correct modeling of the nonuniformity and correlations of the noise induced by this elongation has already been demonstrated for wavefront reconstruction. We report here on the first (to our knowledge) end-to-end simulations of closed-loop ground-layer AO with laser guide stars with such an improved noise model. The results are compared with the level of performance predicted by a classical noise model for the reconstruction. The performance is studied in terms of ensquared energy and confirms that, thanks to the improved noise model, central or side launching of the lasers does not affect the performance with respect to the laser guide stars' flux. These two launching schemes also perform similarly whatever the atmospheric turbulence strength.

  15. A closed-loop pump-driven wire-guided flow jet for ultrafast spectroscopy of liquid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picchiotti, Alessandra; Prokhorenko, Valentyn I.; Miller, R. J. Dwayne

    2015-09-01

    We describe the design and provide the results of the full characterization of a closed-loop pump-driven wire-guided flow jet system. The jet has excellent optical quality with a wide range of liquids spanning from alcohol to water based solutions, including phosphate buffers used for biological samples. The thickness of the jet film varies depending on the flow rate between 90 μm and 370 μm. The liquid film is very stable, and its thickness varies only by 0.76% under optimal conditions. Measured transmitted signal reveals a long term optical stability (hours) with a RMS of 0.8%, less than the overall noise of the spectroscopy setup used in our experiments. The closed loop nature of the overall jet design has been optimized for the study of precious biological samples, in limited volumes, to remove window contributions from spectroscopic observables. This feature is particularly important for femtosecond studies in the UV range.

  16. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Peter J; Mallory, Grant W; Khurram, Obaid U; Berry, B Michael; Hachmann, Jan T; Bieber, Allan J; Bennet, Kevin E; Min, Hoon-Ki; Chang, Su-Youne; Lee, Kendall H; Lujan, J L

    2014-01-01

    Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS. Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a "smart" neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric disorders.

  17. Synthesis of high-complexity rhythmic signals for closed-loop electrical neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Zalay, Osbert C; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2013-06-01

    We propose an approach to synthesizing high-complexity rhythmic signals for closed-loop electrical neuromodulation using cognitive rhythm generator (CRG) networks, wherein the CRG is a hybrid oscillator comprised of (1) a bank of neuronal modes, (2) a ring device (clock), and (3) a static output nonlinearity (mapper). Networks of coupled CRGs have been previously implemented to simulate the electrical activity of biological neural networks, including in silico models of epilepsy, producing outputs of similar waveform and complexity to the biological system. This has enabled CRG network models to be used as platforms for testing seizure control strategies. Presently, we take the application one step further, envisioning therapeutic CRG networks as rhythmic signal generators creating neuromimetic signals for stimulation purposes, motivated by recent research indicating that stimulus complexity and waveform characteristics influence neuromodulation efficacy. To demonstrate this concept, an epileptiform CRG network generating spontaneous seizure-like events (SLEs) was coupled to a therapeutic CRG network, forming a closed-loop neuromodulation system. SLEs are associated with low-complexity dynamics and high phase coherence in the network. The tuned therapeutic network generated a high-complexity, multi-banded rhythmic stimulation signal with prominent theta and gamma-frequency power that suppressed SLEs and increased dynamic complexity in the epileptiform network, as measured by a relative increase in the maximum Lyapunov exponent and decrease in phase coherence. CRG-based neuromodulation outperformed both low and high-frequency periodic pulse stimulation, suggesting that neuromodulation using complex, biomimetic signals may provide an improvement over conventional electrical stimulation techniques for treating neurological disorders such as epilepsy.

  18. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies

    PubMed Central

    Grahn, Peter J.; Mallory, Grant W.; Khurram, Obaid U.; Berry, B. Michael; Hachmann, Jan T.; Bieber, Allan J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Chang, Su-Youne; Lee, Kendall H.; Lujan, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS. Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a “smart” neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric disorders

  19. Decoupling Identification for Serial Two-Link Two-Inertia System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaki, Junji; Adachi, Shuichi

    The purpose of our study is to develop a precise model by applying the technique of system identification for the model-based control of a nonlinear robot arm, under taking joint-elasticity into consideration. We previously proposed a systematic identification method, called “decoupling identification,” for a “SCARA-type” planar two-link robot arm with elastic joints caused by the Harmonic-drive® reduction gears. The proposed method serves as an extension of the conventional rigid-joint-model-based identification. The robot arm is treated as a serial two-link two-inertia system with nonlinearity. The decoupling identification method using link-accelerometer signals enables the serial two-link two-inertia system to be divided into two linear one-link two-inertia systems. The MATLAB®'s commands for state-space model estimation are utilized in the proposed method. Physical parameters such as motor inertias, link inertias, joint-friction coefficients, and joint-spring coefficients are estimated through the identified one-link two-inertia systems using a gray-box approach. This paper describes accuracy evaluations using the two-link arm for the decoupling identification method under introducing closed-loop-controlled elements and varying amplitude-setup of identification-input. Experimental results show that the identification method also works with closed-loop-controlled elements. Therefore, the identification method is applicable to a “PUMA-type” vertical robot arm under gravity.

  20. System identification of the Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang

    1994-01-01

    The Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF), a laboratory-scale research project to demonstrate the magnetic suspension of objects over wide ranges of attitudes, has been developed. This system represents a scaled model of a planned Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS). The LAMSTF consists of a small cylindrical permanent magnet suspended element which is levitated above a planar array of five electromagnets mounted in a circular configuration. The cylinder is a rigid body and can be controlled to move in five independent degrees of freedom. Six position variables are sensed indirectly by using infrared light-emitting diodes and light-receiving phototransistors. The motion of the suspended cylinder is in general nonlinear and hence only the linear, time-invariant perturbed motion about an equilibrium state is considered. One of the main challenges in this project is the control of the suspended element over a wide range of orientations. An accurate dynamic model plays an essential role in controller design. The analytical model is first derived and open-loop characteristics discussed. The system is shown to be highly unstable and requires feedback control for system identification. Projection filters are first proposed to identify the state space model from closed-loop input/output test data in the time domain. This method is then extended to identify linear systems from the frequency test data. A canonical transformation matrix is also derived to transform the identified state space model into the physical coordinate. The LAMSTF system is stabilized by using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) feedback controller for closed-loop identification. The rate information is obtained by calculating the back difference of the sensed position signals. Only the closed-loop random input/output data are recorded. Preliminary results from numerical simulations demonstrate that the identified system model is fairly accurate from either time domain or

  1. On-board closed-loop congestion control for satellite based packet switching networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Ivancic, William D.; Kim, Heechul

    1993-01-01

    NASA LeRC is currently investigating a satellite architecture that incorporates on-board packet switching capability. Because of the statistical nature of packet switching, arrival traffic may fluctuate and thus it is necessary to integrate congestion control mechanism as part of the on-board processing unit. This study focuses on the closed-loop reactive control. We investigate the impact of the long propagation delay on the performance and propose a scheme to overcome the problem. The scheme uses a global feedback signal to regulate the packet arrival rate of ground stations. In this scheme, the satellite continuously broadcasts the status of its output buffer and the ground stations respond by selectively discarding packets or by tagging the excessive packets as low-priority. The two schemes are evaluated by theoretical queuing analysis and simulation. The former is used to analyze the simplified model and to determine the basic trends and bounds, and the later is used to assess the performance of a more realistic system and to evaluate the effectiveness of more sophisticated control schemes. The results show that the long propagation delay makes the closed-loop congestion control less responsive. The broadcasted information can only be used to extract statistical information. The discarding scheme needs carefully-chosen status information and reduction function, and normally requires a significant amount of ground discarding to reduce the on-board packet loss probability. The tagging scheme is more effective since it tolerates more uncertainties and allows a larger margin of error in status information. It can protect the high-priority packets from excessive loss and fully utilize the downlink bandwidth at the same time.

  2. Theoretical study of closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography and experimental verification of the theory.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A

    2016-09-02

    The non-ideal recycling equilibrium-cell model including the effects of extra-column dispersion is used to simulate and analyze closed-loop recycling counter-current chromatography (CLR CCC). Previously, the operating scheme with the detector located before the column was considered. In this study, analysis of the process is carried out for a more realistic and practical scheme with the detector located immediately after the column. Peak equation for individual cycles and equations describing the transport of single peaks and complex chromatograms inside the recycling closed-loop, as well as equations for the resolution between single solute peaks of the neighboring cycles, for the resolution of peaks in the recycling chromatogram and for the resolution between the chromatograms of the neighboring cycles are presented. It is shown that, unlike conventional chromatography, increasing of the extra-column volume (the recycling line length) may allow a better separation of the components in CLR chromatography. For the experimental verification of the theory, aspirin, caffeine, coumarin and the solvent system hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (1:1:1:1) were used. Comparison of experimental and simulated processes of recycling and distribution of the solutes in the closed-loop demonstrated a good agreement between theory and experiment.

  3. Identification of system misregistrations during AO-corrected observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béchet, C.; Thiébaut, É.; .; Tallon, M.; Kolb, J.; Madec, P.-Y.

    2011-09-01

    The E-ELT will be equipped with a deformable mirror inside the telescope. The performance of reconstruction and control depends on the calibration of the interaction matrix- or a model of the interaction matrix- , which characterizes the system and the relationship between the commands sent to the deformable mirrors (DM) and the wavefront sensors (WFS) slopes. Such a calibration will be more complex than for the current systems at the VLT since it will have to be at least partly measured on sky and for a much larger number of degrees of freedom (more than 5000). In addition, gravity or temperature variations for instance are likely to introduce slow evolution of the matching between the M4 Deformable mirror and the WFS geometry. This can occur during observations and therefore degrade the adaptive optics (AO) correction. To relax the need of frequent painful calibrations and to prevent a loss of performance due to misregistrations, we investigate how to track the evolution of the interaction matrix errors in closed-loop without introducing any degradation in the observations. This is done thanks to identification methods and optimization theory. First, we formally describe the problem and the difficulties of such an identification in closed-loop configuration. Then, we present 2 solutions, based on the optimization of the error of estimates of the WFS slopes, at the output of the closed-loop AO. The performance of the methods and their limitations are discussed formally and thanks to numerical simulations of a high order AO system. We finally explore to which extent these methods currently studied for the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the VLT can be applied to the E-ELT.

  4. Identification of Low Order Equivalent System Models From Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2000-01-01

    Identification of low order equivalent system dynamic models from flight test data was studied. Inputs were pilot control deflections, and outputs were aircraft responses, so the models characterized the total aircraft response including bare airframe and flight control system. Theoretical investigations were conducted and related to results found in the literature. Low order equivalent system modeling techniques using output error and equation error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were developed and validated on simulation data. It was found that some common difficulties encountered in identifying closed loop low order equivalent system models from flight test data could be overcome using the developed techniques. Implications for data requirements and experiment design were discussed. The developed methods were demonstrated using realistic simulation cases, then applied to closed loop flight test data from the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle.

  5. Closed-loop carrier phase synchronization techniques motivated by likelihood functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, H.; Hinedi, S.; Simon, M.

    1994-01-01

    This article reexamines the notion of closed-loop carrier phase synchronization motivated by the theory of maximum a posteriori phase estimation with emphasis on the development of new structures based on both maximum-likelihood and average-likelihood functions. The criterion of performance used for comparison of all the closed-loop structures discussed is the mean-squared phase error for a fixed-loop bandwidth.

  6. Minimum variance system identification with application to digital adaptive flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotob, S.; Kaufman, H.

    1975-01-01

    A new on-line minimum variance filter for the identification of systems with additive and multiplicative noise is described which embodies both accuracy and computational efficiency. The resulting filter is shown to use both the covariance of the parameter vector itself and the covariance of the error in identification. A bias reduction scheme can be used to yield asymptotically unbiased estimates. Experimental results for simulated linearized lateral aircraft motion in a digital closed loop mode are presented, showing the utility of the identification schemes.

  7. Solar thermoelectric cooling using closed loop heat exchangers with macro channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta, Raghied M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, analysis and experimental study of an advanced coolant air conditioning system which cools or warms airflow using thermoelectric (TE) devices powered by solar cells. Both faces of the TE devices are directly connected to closed-loop highly efficient channels plates with macro scale channels and liquid-to-air heat exchangers. The hot side of the system consists of a pump that moves a coolant through the hot face of the TE modules, a radiator that drives heat away into the air, and a fan that transfer the heat over the radiator by forced convection. The cold side of the system consists also of a pump that moves coolant through the cold face of the TE modules, a radiator that drives cold away into the air, and a fan that blows cold air off the radiator. The system was integrated with solar panels, tested and its thermal performance was assessed. The experimental results verify the possibility of heating or cooling air using TE modules with a relatively high coefficient of performance (COP). The system was able to cool a closed space of 30 m3 by 14 °C below ambient within 90 min. The maximum COP of the whole system was 0.72 when the TE modules were running at 11.2 Å and 12 V. This improvement in the system COP over the air cooled heat sink is due to the improvement of the system heat exchange by means of channels plates.

  8. Closed loop control of a cylindrical tube type Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Benjamin T.

    used for this purpose are tested and discussed. After determining a suitable type a mathematical electro-mechanical model is developed. Using this model several closed loop control systems are proposed. Once a final decision is reached the closed loop control system is implemented in the experimental setup. Several tests are designed to test the effectiveness of the closed loop system and mathematical models. Finally several improvements are made to enhance the users experience using IPMCs as well as incorporating them into conventional devices. To provide a better user interface the experimental control system is extended to allow the user to input controls via a standard computer mouse. This will allow a shorter operator training time and hopefully a wider array of real world uses for IPMCs. Attempts are also made to establish permanent connections to the IPMC. A tube type IPMC is meant to be used as part of a total system. To this end soldered connections to the IPMC are made. One of the main expected applications of tube type IPMCs are as active catheters. In this application the IPMC would be placed in-line with the plastic catheter line. As a proof of concept the IPMC is installed onto the tip of a conventional catheter line.

  9. A Concentric Tube Continuum Robot with Piezoelectric Actuation for MRI-Guided Closed-Loop Targeting.

    PubMed

    Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Rucker, D Caleb; Webster Iii, Robert J; Fischer, Gregory S

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental evaluation of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible concentric tube continuum robotic system. This system enables MRI-guided deployment of a precurved and steerable concentric tube continuum mechanism, and is suitable for clinical applications where a curved trajectory is needed. This compact 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic system is piezoelectrically-actuated, and allows simultaneous robot motion and imaging with no visually observable image artifact. The targeting accuracy is evaluated with optical tracking system and gelatin phantom under live MRI-guidance with Root Mean Square (RMS) errors of 1.94 and 2.17 mm respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the robot has kinematic redundancy to reach the same target through different paths. This was evaluated in both free space and MRI-guided gelatin phantom trails, with RMS errors of 0.48 and 0.59 mm respectively. As the first of its kind, MRI-guided targeted concentric tube needle placements with ex vivo porcine liver are demonstrated with 4.64 mm RMS error through closed-loop control of the piezoelectrically-actuated robot.

  10. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  11. Extending the Capabilities of Closed-loop Distributed Engine Control Simulations Using LAN Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Zinnecker, Alicia Mae; Culley, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Engine Control (DEC) is an enabling technology that has the potential to advance the state-of-the-art in gas turbine engine control. To analyze the capabilities that DEC offers, a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) test bed is being developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. This test bed will support a systems-level analysis of control capabilities in closed-loop engine simulations. The structure of the HIL emulates a virtual test cell by implementing the operator functions, control system, and engine on three separate computers. This implementation increases the flexibility and extensibility of the HIL. Here, a method is discussed for implementing these interfaces by connecting the three platforms over a dedicated Local Area Network (LAN). This approach is verified using the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k), which is typically implemented on one computer. There are marginal differences between the results from simulation of the typical and the three-computer implementation. Additional analysis of the LAN network, including characterization of network load, packet drop, and latency, is presented. The three-computer setup supports the incorporation of complex control models and proprietary engine models into the HIL framework.

  12. First Results from a Hardware-in-the-Loop Demonstration of Closed-Loop Autonomous Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, E.; Naasz, Bo; Ebinuma, T.

    2003-01-01

    A closed-loop system for the demonstration of autonomous satellite formation flying technologies using hardware-in-the-loop has been developed. Making use of a GPS signal simulator with a dual radio frequency outlet, the system includes two GPS space receivers as well as a powerful onboard navigation processor dedicated to the GPS-based guidance, navigation, and control of a satellite formation in real-time. The closed-loop system allows realistic simulations of autonomous formation flying scenarios, enabling research in the fields of tracking and orbit control strategies for a wide range of applications. The autonomous closed-loop formation acquisition and keeping strategy is based on Lyapunov's direct control method as applied to the standard set of Keplerian elements. This approach not only assures global and asymptotic stability of the control but also maintains valuable physical insight into the applied control vectors. Furthermore, the approach can account for system uncertainties and effectively avoids a computationally expensive solution of the two point boundary problem, which renders the concept particularly attractive for implementation in onboard processors. A guidance law has been developed which strictly separates the relative from the absolute motion, thus avoiding the numerical integration of a target trajectory in the onboard processor. Moreover, upon using precise kinematic relative GPS solutions, a dynamical modeling or filtering is avoided which provides for an efficient implementation of the process on an onboard processor. A sample formation flying scenario has been created aiming at the autonomous transition of a Low Earth Orbit satellite formation from an initial along-track separation of 800 m to a target distance of 100 m. Assuming a low-thrust actuator which may be accommodated on a small satellite, a typical control accuracy of less than 5 m has been achieved which proves the applicability of autonomous formation flying techniques to

  13. High-precision system identification method for a deformable mirror in wavefront control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Ma, Xingkun; Bian, Qi; Li, Tenghao; Zhou, Chenlu; Gong, Mali

    2015-05-10

    Based on a mathematic model, the relation between the accuracy of the influence matrix and the performance of the wavefront correction is established. Based on the least squares method, a two-step system identification is proposed to improve the accuracy of the influence matrix, where the measurement noise can be suppressed and the nonlinearity of the deformable mirror can be compensated. The validity of the two-step system identification method is tested in the experiment, where improvements in wavefront correction precision as well as closed-loop control efficiency were observed.

  14. Irradiation Testing Vehicles for Fast Reactors from Open Test Assemblies to Closed Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, James J.; Grandy, Christopher

    2016-12-15

    A review of irradiation testing vehicle approaches and designs that have been incorporated into past Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) or envisioned for incorporation has been carried out. The objective is to understand the essential features of the approaches and designs so that they can inform test vehicle designs for a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Fast test reactor designs examined include EBR-II, FFTF, JOYO, BOR-60, PHÉNIX, JHR, and MBIR. Previous designers exhibited great ingenuity in overcoming design and operational challenges especially when the original reactor plant’s mission changed to an irradiation testing mission as in the EBRII reactor plant. The various irradiation testing vehicles can be categorized as: Uninstrumented open assemblies that fit into core locations; Instrumented open test assemblies that fit into special core locations; Self-contained closed loops; and External closed loops. A special emphasis is devoted to closed loops as they are regarded as a very desirable feature of a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Closed loops are an important technology for irradiation of fuels and materials in separate controlled environments. The impact of closed loops on the design of fast reactors is also discussed in this report.

  15. Closed-loop control of anesthesia: a primer for anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Guy A; Ansermino, J Mark

    2013-11-01

    Feedback control is ubiquitous in nature and engineering and has revolutionized safety in fields from space travel to the automobile. In anesthesia, automated feedback control holds the promise of limiting the effects on performance of individual patient variability, optimizing the workload of the anesthesiologist, increasing the time spent in a more desirable clinical state, and ultimately improving the safety and quality of anesthesia care. The benefits of control systems will not be realized without widespread support from the health care team in close collaboration with industrial partners. In this review, we provide an introduction to the established field of control systems research for the everyday anesthesiologist. We introduce important concepts such as feedback and modeling specific to control problems and provide insight into design requirements for guaranteeing the safety and performance of feedback control systems. We focus our discussion on the optimization of anesthetic drug administration.

  16. Sensitivity analysis on the performances of a closed-loop Ground Source Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) permit to achieve a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the margins for economic saving of this technology are strongly correlated to the long-term sustainability of the exploitation of the heat stored in the soil. The operation of a GSHP over its lifetime should be therefore modelled considering realistic conditions, and a thorough characterization of the physical properties of the soil is essential to avoid large errors of prediction. In this work, a BHE modelling procedure with the finite-element code FEFLOW is presented. Starting from the governing equations of the heat transport in the soil around a GSHP and inside the BHE, the most important parameters are individuated and the adopted program settings are explained. A sensitivity analysis is then carried on both the design parameters of the heat exchanger, in order to understand the margins of improvement of a careful design and installation, and the physical properties of the soil, with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty induced by their variability. The relative importance of each parameter is therefore assessed by comparing the statistical distributions of the fluid temperatures and estimating the energy consumption of the heat pump, and practical conclusions are from these results about the site characterization, the design and the installation of a BHE. References Casasso A., Sethi R., 2014 Efficiency of closed loop geothermal heat pumps: A sensitivity analysis, Renewable Energy 62 (2014), pp. 737-746 Chiasson A.C., Rees S.J., Spitler J.D., 2000, A preliminary assessment of the effects of groundwater flow on closed-loop ground-source heat pump systems, ASHRAE Transactions 106 (2000), pp. 380-393 Delaleux F., Py X., Olives R., Dominguez A., 2012, Enhancement of geothermal borehole heat exchangers performances by improvement of bentonite grouts conductivity, Applied Thermal Engineering 33-34, pp. 92-99 Diao N., Li Q., Fang Z., 2004, Heat transfer in

  17. Closed-Loop Control of a Neuroprosthetic Hand by Magnetoencephalographic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Fukuma, Ryohei; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Yorifuji, Shiro; Kato, Ryu; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masayuki; Saitoh, Youichi; Kishima, Haruhiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Objective A neuroprosthesis using a brain–machine interface (BMI) is a promising therapeutic option for severely paralyzed patients, but the ability to control it may vary among individual patients and needs to be evaluated before any invasive procedure is undertaken. We have developed a neuroprosthetic hand that can be controlled by magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals to noninvasively evaluate subjects’ ability to control a neuroprosthesis. Method Six nonparalyzed subjects performed grasping or opening movements of their right hand while the slow components of the MEG signals (SMFs) were recorded in an open-loop condition. The SMFs were used to train two decoders to infer the timing and types of movement by support vector machine and Gaussian process regression. The SMFs were also used to calculate estimated slow cortical potentials (eSCPs) to identify the origin of motor information. Finally, using the trained decoders, the subjects controlled a neuroprosthetic hand in a closed-loop condition. Results The SMFs in the open-loop condition revealed movement-related cortical field characteristics and successfully inferred the movement type with an accuracy of 75.0 ± 12.9% (mean ± SD). In particular, the eSCPs in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the moved hand varied significantly enough among the movement types to be decoded with an accuracy of 76.5 ± 10.6%, which was significantly higher than the accuracy associated with eSCPs in the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex (58.1 ± 13.7%; p = 0.0072, paired two-tailed Student’s t-test). Moreover, another decoder using SMFs successfully inferred when the accuracy was the greatest. Combining these two decoders allowed the neuroprosthetic hand to be controlled in a closed-loop condition. Conclusions Use of real-time MEG signals was shown to successfully control the neuroprosthetic hand. The developed system may be useful for evaluating movement-related slow cortical potentials of severely paralyzed patients

  18. Open and closed-loop experiments to identify the separated flow dynamics of a thick turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqarin, T.; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.; Stanislas, M.

    2013-02-01

    Open and closed-loop flow control experiments were performed on the transient attachment and separation mechanisms of a thick turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Without actuation, the TBL is subjected to an adverse pressure gradient and separates downstream of a sharp variation in the wall geometry. Departing from a given geometry and steady operations of vortex generator actuators, the control objective was to attach the flow in the separated region with a minimum of injected fluid using adaptation of the closed-loop control. The large scale of the facility (i.e., δ = 20 cm upstream of separation) induces large time scales and large Reynolds numbers of the flow to be controlled. It is found to consequently induce large time scales of the separation/attachment mechanisms, making the dynamic closed-loop implementation easier. Open-loop tests were first performed to extract the adequate input/output variables for closed-loop implementations. The chosen input variable was the Duty Cycle, DC, which enables sending of a control action at least 10 times faster than the time scales of the attachment/separation process. The chosen output variable was the voltage signal from a hot-film probe located on the flap which characterizes the degree of separation. In open loop, both the large scale (i.e., large time scales) of the present facility (Carlier and Stanislas in J Fluid Mech 535(36):143-188, 2005) and the well-defined excitation (Braud and Dyment in Phys Fluids 24:047102, 2012) help to extract the different time scales involved and to identify the whole system (actuators, baseline flow and sensor). Three Reynolds numbers based on the momentum thickness of the boundary layer near the actuators and upstream of separation were investigated ( Re θ = 7,500, 10,500 and 12,600) through variation of the free-stream velocity ( U ∞ = 5, 8, 10 m/s). These three systems were found to behave like first-order linear systems, with coefficients that need to be adapted depending on the

  19. Closed-Loop Brain Model of Neocortical Information-Based Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Kozloski, James

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe an “information-based exchange” model of brain function that ascribes to neocortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus distinct network functions. The model allows us to analyze whole brain system set point measures, such as the rate and heterogeneity of transitions in striatum and neocortex, in the context of neuromodulation and other perturbations. Our closed-loop model is grounded in neuroanatomical observations, proposing a novel “Grand Loop” through neocortex, and invokes different forms of plasticity at specific tissue interfaces and their principle cell synapses to achieve these transitions. By implementing a system for maximum information-based exchange of action potentials between modeled neocortical areas, we observe changes to these measures in simulation. We hypothesize that similar dynamic set points and modulations exist in the brain's resting state activity, and that different modifications to information-based exchange may shift the risk profile of different component tissues, resulting in different neurodegenerative diseases. This model is targeted for further development using IBM's Neural Tissue Simulator, which allows scalable elaboration of networks, tissues, and their neural and synaptic components toward ever greater complexity and biological realism. PMID:26834573

  20. Closed-loop focal plane wavefront control with the SCExAO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Aims: This article describes the implementation of a focal plane based wavefront control loop on the high-contrast imaging instrument SCExAO (Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics). The sensor relies on the Fourier analysis of conventional focal-plane images acquired after an asymmetric mask is introduced in the pupil of the instrument. Methods: This absolute sensor is used here in a closed-loop to compensate for the non-common path errors that normally affects any imaging system relying on an upstream adaptive optics system.This specific implementation was used to control low-order modes corresponding to eight zernike modes (from focus to spherical). Results: This loop was successfully run on-sky at the Subaru Telescope and is used to offset the SCExAO deformable mirror shape used as a zero-point by the high-order wavefront sensor. The paper details the range of errors this wavefront-sensing approach can operate within and explores the impact of saturation of the data and how it can be bypassed, at a cost in performance. Conclusions: Beyond this application, because of its low hardware impact, the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) can easily be ported in a wide variety of wavefront sensing contexts, for ground- as well space-borne telescopes, and for telescope pupils that can be continuous, segmented or even sparse. The technique is powerful because it measures the wavefront where it really matters, at the level of the science detector.

  1. Closed-loop, estimator-based model of human posture following reduced gravity exposure.

    PubMed

    Newman, D J; Schultz, K U; Rochlis, J L

    1996-01-01

    A computational and experimental method is employed to provide an understanding of a critical human space flight problem, posture control following reduced gravity exposure. In the case of an emergency egress, astronauts' postural stability could be life saving. It is hypothesized that muscular gains are lowered during reduced gravity exposure, causing a feeling of heavy legs, or a perceived feeling of muscular weakness, upon return to Earth's 1 g environment. We developed an estimator-based model that is verified by replicating spatial and temporal characteristics of human posture and incorporates an inverted pendulum plant in series with a Hill-type muscle model, two feedback pathways, a central nervous system estimator, and variable gains. Results obtained by lowering the variable muscle gain in the model support the hypothesis. Experimentally, subjects were exposed to partial gravity (3/8 g) simulation on a suspension apparatus, then performed exercises postulated to expedite recovery and alleviate the heavy legs phenomenon. Results show that the rms position of the center of pressure increases significantly after reduced gravity exposure. Closed-loop system behavior is revealed, and posture is divided into a short-term period that exhibits higher stochastic activity and persistent trends and a long-term period that shows relatively low stochastic activity and antipersistent trends.

  2. Closed-Loop Noninvasive Ultrasound Glucose Sensing and Insulin Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    used in a drug delivery application, such as the low frequency flextensional resonators (Stansfield 1990), tonpilz transducers (Wilson 1988), or...34cymbal" transducer , a potentially portable ultrasound array of will be designed. Moreover the feasibility of a "smart" diabetes management system...constructed transducers . These large industrial devices are impractical for a compact and transportable diabetes management device. The goal of this

  3. Physical/chemical closed-loop water-recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Cal C.; Wydeven, Theodore

    1991-01-01

    Water needs, water sources, and means for recycling water are examined in terms appropriate to the water quality requirements of a small crew and spacecraft intended for long duration exploration missions. Inorganic, organic, and biological hazards are estimated for waste water sources. Sensitivities to these hazards for human uses are estimated. The water recycling processes considered are humidity condensation, carbon dioxide reduction, waste oxidation, distillation, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, carbon sorption, and electrochemical oxidation. Limitations and applications of these processes are evaluated in terms of water quality objectives. Computerized simulation of some of these chemical processes is examined. Recommendations are made for development of new water recycling technology and improvement of existing technology for near term application to life support systems for humans in space. The technological developments are equally applicable to water needs on Earth, in regions where extensive water recycling is needed or where advanced water treatment is essential to meet EPA health standards.

  4. Closed-Loop Neuroscience and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: A Tale of Two Loops

    PubMed Central

    Zrenner, Christoph; Belardinelli, Paolo; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Ziemann, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop neuroscience is receiving increasing attention with recent technological advances that enable complex feedback loops to be implemented with millisecond resolution on commodity hardware. We summarize emerging conceptual and methodological frameworks that are available to experimenters investigating a “brain in the loop” using non-invasive brain stimulation and briefly review the experimental and therapeutic implications. We take the view that closed-loop neuroscience in fact deals with two conceptually quite different loops: a “brain-state dynamics” loop, used to couple with and modulate the trajectory of neuronal activity patterns, and a “task dynamics” loop, that is the bidirectional motor-sensory interaction between brain and (simulated) environment, and which enables goal-directed behavioral tasks to be incorporated. Both loops need to be considered and combined to realize the full experimental and therapeutic potential of closed-loop neuroscience. PMID:27092055

  5. Linear state feedback, quadratic weights, and closed loop eigenstructures. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Results are given on the relationships between closed loop eigenstructures, state feedback gain matrices of the linear state feedback problem, and quadratic weights of the linear quadratic regulator. Equations are derived for the angles of general multivariable root loci and linear quadratic optimal root loci, including angles of departure and approach. The generalized eigenvalue problem is used for the first time to compute angles of approach. Equations are also derived to find the sensitivity of closed loop eigenvalues and the directional derivatives of closed loop eigenvectors (with respect to a scalar multiplying the feedback gain matrix or the quadratic control weight). An equivalence class of quadratic weights that produce the same asymptotic eigenstructure is defined, sufficient conditions to be in it are given, a canonical element is defined, and an algorithm to find it is given. The behavior of the optimal root locus in the nonasymptotic region is shown to be different for quadratic weights with the same asymptotic properties.

  6. A Methodology to Assess the Capability of Engine Designs to Meet Closed-loop Performance and Operability Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a closed-loop controller for an engine requires balancing trade-offs between performance and operability of the system. One such trade-off is the relationship between the 95% response time and minimum high-pressure compressor (HPC) surge margin (SM) attained during acceleration from idle to takeoff power. Assuming a controller has been designed to meet some specification on response time and minimum HPC SM for a mid-life (nominal) engine, there is no guarantee that these limits will not be violated as the engine ages, particularly as it reaches the end of its life. A characterization for the uncertainty in this closed-loop system due to aging is proposed that defines elliptical boundaries to estimate worst-case performance levels for a given control design point. The results of this characterization can be used to identify limiting design points that bound the possible con- troller designs yielding transient results that do not exceed specified limits in response time or minimum HPC SM. This characterization involves performing Monte Carlo simulation of the closed-loop system with controller constructed for a set of trial design points and developing curve fits to describe the size and orientation of each ellipse; a binary search procedure is then employed that uses these fits to identify the limiting design point. The method is demonstrated through application to a generic turbofan engine model in closed- loop with a simplified controller; it is found that the limit for which each controller was designed was exceeded by less than 4.76%. Extension of the characterization to another trade-off, that between the maximum high-pressure turbine (HPT) entrance temperature and minimum HPC SM, showed even better results: the maximum HPT temperature was estimated within 0.76%. Because of the accuracy in this estimation, this suggests another limit that may be taken into consideration during design and analysis. It also demonstrates the extension of the

  7. A Methodology to Assess the Capability of Engine Designs to Meet Closed-Loop Performance and Operability Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Csank, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Designing a closed-loop controller for an engine requires balancing trade-offs between performance and operability of the system. One such trade-off is the relationship between the 95 percent response time and minimum high-pressure compressor (HPC) surge margin (SM) attained during acceleration from idle to takeoff power. Assuming a controller has been designed to meet some specification on response time and minimum HPC SM for a mid-life (nominal) engine, there is no guarantee that these limits will not be violated as the engine ages, particularly as it reaches the end of its life. A characterization for the uncertainty in this closed-loop system due to aging is proposed that defines elliptical boundaries to estimate worst-case performance levels for a given control design point. The results of this characterization can be used to identify limiting design points that bound the possible controller designs yielding transient results that do not exceed specified limits in response time or minimum HPC SM. This characterization involves performing Monte Carlo simulation of the closed-loop system with controller constructed for a set of trial design points and developing curve fits to describe the size and orientation of each ellipse; a binary search procedure is then employed that uses these fits to identify the limiting design point. The method is demonstrated through application to a generic turbofan engine model in closed-loop with a simplified controller; it is found that the limit for which each controller was designed was exceeded by less than 4.76 percent. Extension of the characterization to another trade-off, that between the maximum high-pressure turbine (HPT) entrance temperature and minimum HPC SM, showed even better results: the maximum HPT temperature was estimated within 0.76 percent. Because of the accuracy in this estimation, this suggests another limit that may be taken into consideration during design and analysis. It also demonstrates the extension

  8. Closed Loop Terminal Guidance Navigation for a Kinetic Impactor Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam; Kennedy, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A kinetic impactor spacecraft is a viable method to deflect an asteroid which poses a threat to the Earth. The technology to perform such a deflection has been demonstrated by the Deep Impact (DI) mission, which successfully collided with comet Tempel 1 in July 2005 using an onboard autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav, for the terminal phase of the mission. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of AutoNav to impact a wide range of scenarios that an deflection mission could encounter, varying parameters such as the approach velocity, phase angle, size of the asteroid, and the determination of spacecraft attitude. Using realistic Monte Carlo simulations, we tabulated the probability of success of the deflection as a function of these parameters, and the highest sensitivity to be due the spacecraft attitude determination mode. In addition, we also specifically analyzed the impact probability for a proposed mission which would send an impactor to the asteroid 1999RQ36. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  9. Investigation of drying kinetics of tomato slices dried by using a closed loop heat pump dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkun, Salih; Doymaz, İbrahim; Tunçkal, Cüneyt; Erdoğan, Seçil

    2016-11-01

    In this study, tomato slices were dried at three different drying air temperatures (35, 40 and 45 °C) and at 1 m/s air velocities by using a closed loop heat pump dryer (HPD). To explain the drying characteristics of tomato slices, ten thin-layer drying models were applied. The drying of tomato slices at each temperature occurred in falling-rate period; no constant-rate period of drying was observed. The drying rate was significantly influenced by drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity varied between 8.28 × 10-11 and 1.41 × 10-10 m2/s, the activation energy was found to be 43.12 kJ/mol. Besides, at the end of drying process, the highest mean specific moisture extraction ratio and coefficient of performance of HPD system were obtained as 0.324 kg/kWh and 2.71, respectively, at the highest drying air temperature (45 °C).

  10. Electromagnetic Steering of a Magnetic Cylindrical Microrobot Using Optical Feedback Closed-Loop Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Ali; Chang, Pyung H.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Choi, Hongsoo

    2014-04-01

    Control of small magnetic machines in viscous fluids may enable new medical applications of microrobots. Small-scale viscous environments lead to low Reynolds numbers, and although the flow is linear and steady, the magnetic actuation introduces a dynamic response that is nonlinear. We account for these nonlinearities, and the uncertainties in the dynamic and magnetic properties of the microrobot, by using time-delay estimation. The microrobot consists of a cylindrical magnet, 1 mm long and 500 µm in diameter, and is tracked using a visual feedback system. The microrobot was placed in silicone oil with a dynamic viscosity of 1 Pa.s, and followed step inputs with rise times of 0.45 s, 0.51 s, and 1.77 s, and overshoots of 37.5%, 33.3%, and 34.4% in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. In silicone oil with a viscosity of 3 Pa.s, the rise times were 1.04 s, 0.72 s, and 2.19 s, and the overshoots were 47.8%, 48.5%, and 86.8%. This demonstrates that closed-loop control of the magnetic microrobot was better in the less viscous fluid.

  11. A new paradigm for the closed-loop intraoperative administration of analgesics in humans.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, Andrea; Schaniel, Christoph; Morari, Manfred; Bieniok, Christian; Wymann, Rolf; Schnider, Thomas

    2002-04-01

    We present a new paradigm for the closed-loop administration of analgesics during general anesthesia. The manipulated variable in the control system is the infusion rate of the opiate alfentanil, administered intravenously through a computer-controlled infusion pump (CCIP). The outputs to be controlled are the patient's mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the drug concentration in the plasma. Maintaining MAP within appropriate ranges provides optimal treatment of the patient's reactions to surgical stimuli. Maintaining plasma drug concentrations close to a reference value specified by the anesthesiologist allows to titrate analgesic administration to qualitative clinical end-points of insufficient analgesia. MAP is acquired invasively through a catheter cannula. Since plasma drug concentrations cannot be measured on-line, they are estimated via a pharmacokinetic model. We describe an explicit model-predictive controller which achieves the above-mentioned objectives. An upper constraint on drug concentrations is maintained to avoid overdosing. Constraints on the MAP are introduced to trigger a prompt controller reaction during hypertensive and hypotensive periods. Measurement artifacts in the MAP signal are rejected to prevent harmful misbehavior of the controller. We discuss the results of the clinical validation of the controller on humans.

  12. Closed-loop magnetic separation of nanoparticles on a packed bed of spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnet, Cécilia; Akouala, Mesferdon; Kuzhir, Pavel; Bossis, Georges; Zubarev, Andrey; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we consider magnetic separation of iron oxide nanoparticles when a nanoparticle suspension (diluted ferrofluid) passes through a closed-loop filter composed of a packed bed of micro-beads magnetized by an externally applied magnetic field. We show that the capture of nanoparticles of a size as small as 60 nm is easily achieved at low-to-moderate magnetic fields (16-32 kA/m) thanks to relatively strong magnetic interactions between them. The key parameter governing the capture process is the Mason number—the ratio of hydrodynamic-to-magnetic forces exerted to nanoparticles. The filter efficiency, Λ, defined through the ratio of the inlet-to-outlet concentration shows a power-law dependency on Mason number, Λ∝M a-0.83 , in the range of 102systems based on chemical adsorption of micro-pollutants on magnetic nanoparticles, followed by magnetic separation of the nanoparticles.

  13. Gait adaptation to visual kinematic perturbations using a real-time closed-loop brain-computer interface to a virtual reality avatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phat Luu, Trieu; He, Yongtian; Brown, Samuel; Nakagame, Sho; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The control of human bipedal locomotion is of great interest to the field of lower-body brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for gait rehabilitation. While the feasibility of closed-loop BCI systems for the control of a lower body exoskeleton has been recently shown, multi-day closed-loop neural decoding of human gait in a BCI virtual reality (BCI-VR) environment has yet to be demonstrated. BCI-VR systems provide valuable alternatives for movement rehabilitation when wearable robots are not desirable due to medical conditions, cost, accessibility, usability, or patient preferences. Approach. In this study, we propose a real-time closed-loop BCI that decodes lower limb joint angles from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) during treadmill walking to control a walking avatar in a virtual environment. Fluctuations in the amplitude of slow cortical potentials of EEG in the delta band (0.1-3 Hz) were used for prediction; thus, the EEG features correspond to time-domain amplitude modulated potentials in the delta band. Virtual kinematic perturbations resulting in asymmetric walking gait patterns of the avatar were also introduced to investigate gait adaptation using the closed-loop BCI-VR system over a period of eight days. Main results. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using a closed-loop BCI to learn to control a walking avatar under normal and altered visuomotor perturbations, which involved cortical adaptations. The average decoding accuracies (Pearson’s r values) in real-time BCI across all subjects increased from (Hip: 0.18 ± 0.31 Knee: 0.23 ± 0.33 Ankle: 0.14 ± 0.22) on Day 1 to (Hip: 0.40 ± 0.24 Knee: 0.55 ± 0.20 Ankle: 0.29 ± 0.22) on Day 8. Significance. These findings have implications for the development of a real-time closed-loop EEG-based BCI-VR system for gait rehabilitation after stroke and for understanding cortical plasticity induced by a closed-loop BCI-VR system.

  14. CFD and experimental data of closed-loop wind tunnel flow

    PubMed Central

    Calautit, John Kaiser; Hughes, Ben Richard

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled ‘A validated design methodology for a closed loop subsonic wind tunnel’ (Calautit et al., 2014) [1], which presented a systematic investigation into the design, simulation and analysis of flow parameters in a wind tunnel using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The authors evaluated the accuracy of replicating the flow characteristics for which the wind tunnel was designed using numerical simulation. Here, we detail the numerical and experimental set-up for the analysis of the closed-loop subsonic wind tunnel with an empty test section. PMID:26958641

  15. CFD and experimental data of closed-loop wind tunnel flow.

    PubMed

    Calautit, John Kaiser; Hughes, Ben Richard

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled 'A validated design methodology for a closed loop subsonic wind tunnel' (Calautit et al., 2014) [1], which presented a systematic investigation into the design, simulation and analysis of flow parameters in a wind tunnel using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The authors evaluated the accuracy of replicating the flow characteristics for which the wind tunnel was designed using numerical simulation. Here, we detail the numerical and experimental set-up for the analysis of the closed-loop subsonic wind tunnel with an empty test section.

  16. Closed loop models for analyzing the effects of simulator characteristics. [digital simulation of human operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, S.; Muralidharan, R.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The optimal control model of the human operator is used to develop closed loop models for analyzing the effects of (digital) simulator characteristics on predicted performance and/or workload. Two approaches are considered: the first utilizes a continuous approximation to the discrete simulation in conjunction with the standard optimal control model; the second involves a more exact discrete description of the simulator in a closed loop multirate simulation in which the optimal control model simulates the pilot. Both models predict that simulator characteristics can have significant effects on performance and workload.

  17. Deployable space manipulator closed-loop control, ideas and possibilities of using GPS as a sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, I.; Vignjevic, R.

    2002-07-01

    In the area of study of the dynamics and control of large flexible spacecraft one of the most challenging areas is that of large space-based robotic manipulators. The Deployable Space Manipulator is a large manipulator concept for Low Earth Orbit operation with one rotational joint and one prismatic joint. In this paper the dynamics of the manipulator undergoing large rotational motion while carrying a payload and extending its length are developed and the need for closed loop control is discussed. An output feedback closed loop control approach is presented and a concept for using GPS antennas mounted on the structure as feedback sensor for the control law is presented and discussed.

  18. A novel Cs-(129)Xe atomic spin gyroscope with closed-loop Faraday modulation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wan, Shuangai; Qin, Jie; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Dong, Haifeng

    2013-08-01

    We report a novel Cs-(129)Xe atomic spin gyroscope (ASG) with closed-loop Faraday modulation method. This ASG requires approximately 30 min to start-up and 110 °C to operate. A closed-loop Faraday modulation method for measurement of the optical rotation was used in this ASG. This method uses an additional Faraday modulator to suppress the laser intensity fluctuation and Faraday modulator thermal induced fluctuation. We theoretically and experimentally validate this method in the Cs-(129)Xe ASG and achieved a bias stability of approximately 3.25 °∕h.

  19. Adaptive identification and control of structural dynamics systems using recursive lattice filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundararajan, N.; Montgomery, R. C.; Williams, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach for adaptive identification and control of structural dynamic systems by using least squares lattice filters thar are widely used in the signal processing area is presented. Testing procedures for interfacing the lattice filter identification methods and modal control method for stable closed loop adaptive control are presented. The methods are illustrated for a free-free beam and for a complex flexible grid, with the basic control objective being vibration suppression. The approach is validated by using both simulations and experimental facilities available at the Langley Research Center.

  20. Multivariable Adaptive Closed-Loop Control of an Artificial Pancreas Without Meal and Activity Announcement

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Bayrak, Elif Seyma; Quinn, Lauretta; Littlejohn, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate closed-loop control is essential for developing artificial pancreas (AP) systems that adjust insulin infusion rates from insulin pumps. Glucose concentration information from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems is the most important information for the control system. Additional physiological measurements can provide valuable information that can enhance the accuracy of the control system. Proportional-integral-derivative control and model predictive control have been popular in AP development. Their implementations to date rely on meal announcements (e.g., bolus insulin dose based on insulin:carbohydrate ratios) by the user. Adaptive control techniques provide a powerful alternative that do not necessitate any meal or activity announcements. Materials and Methods Adaptive control systems based on the generalized predictive control framework are developed by extending the recursive modeling techniques. Physiological signals such as energy expenditure and galvanic skin response are used along with glucose measurements to generate a multiple-input–single-output model for predicting future glucose concentrations used by the controller. Insulin-on-board (IOB) is also estimated and used in control decisions. The controllers were tested with clinical studies that include seven cases with three different patients with type 1 diabetes for 32 or 60 h without any meal or activity announcements. Results The adaptive control system kept glucose concentration in the normal preprandial and postprandial range (70–180 mg/dL) without any meal or activity announcements during the test period. After IOB estimation was added to the control system, mild hypoglycemic episodes were observed only in one of the four experiments. This was reflected in a plasma glucose value of 56 mg/dL (YSI 2300 STAT; Yellow Springs Instrument, Yellow Springs, OH) and a CGM value of 63 mg/dL). Conclusions Regulation of blood glucose concentration with an AP

  1. Enhanced open-loop but not closed-loop cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during orthostatic stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Toshinari; Sugawara, Jun; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Terada, Nobuyuki; Fadel, Paul J; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2011-11-01

    The neural interaction between the cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflex may be critical for the regulation of blood pressure during orthostatic stress. However, studies have reported conflicting results: some indicate increases and others decreases in cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (i.e., gain) with cardiopulmonary unloading. Thus the effect of orthostatic stress-induced central hypovolemia on regulation of heart rate via the arterial baroreflex remains unclear. We sought to comprehensively assess baroreflex function during orthostatic stress by identifying and comparing open- and closed-loop dynamic cardiac baroreflex gains at supine rest and during 60° head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 healthy men. Closed-loop dynamic "spontaneous" cardiac baroreflex sensitivities were calculated by the sequence technique and transfer function and compared with two open-loop carotid-cardiac baroreflex measures using the neck chamber system: 1) a binary white-noise method and 2) a rapid-pulse neck pressure-neck suction technique. The gain from the sequence technique was decreased from -1.19 ± 0.14 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) at rest to -0.78 ± 0.10 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) during HUT (P = 0.005). Similarly, closed-loop low-frequency baroreflex transfer function gain was reduced during HUT (P = 0.033). In contrast, open-loop low-frequency transfer function gain between estimated carotid sinus pressure and heart rate during white-noise stimulation was augmented during HUT (P = 0.01). This result was consistent with the maximal gain of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex stimulus-response curve (from 0.47 ± 0.15 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) at rest to 0.60 ± 0.20 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) at HUT, P = 0.037). These findings suggest that open-loop cardiac baroreflex gain was enhanced during HUT. Moreover, under closed-loop conditions, spontaneous baroreflex analyses without external stimulation may not represent open-loop cardiac baroreflex characteristics during orthostatic stress.

  2. Package architecture and component design for an implanted neural stimulator with closed loop control.

    PubMed

    Bjune, Caroline K; Marinis, Thomas F; Brady, Jeanne M; Moran, James; Wheeler, Jesse; Sriram, Tirunelveli S; Parks, Philip D; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N

    2015-08-01

    An implanted neural stimulator with closed loop control requires electrodes for stimulation pulses and recording neuron activity. Our system features arrays of 64 electrodes. Each electrode can be addressed through a cross bar switch, to enable it to be used for stimulation or recording. This electrode switch, a bank of low noise amplifiers with an integrated analog to digital converter, power conditioning electronics, and a communications and control gate array are co-located with the electrode array in a 14 millimeter diameter satellite package that is designed to be flush mounted in a skull burr hole. Our system features five satellite packages connected to a central hub processor-controller via ten conductor cables that terminate in a custom designed, miniaturized connector. The connector incorporates features of high reliability, military grade devices and utilizes three distinct seals to isolate the contacts from fluid permeation. The hub system is comprised of a connector header, hermetic electronics package, and rechargeable battery pack, which are mounted on and electrically interconnected by a flexible circuit board. The assembly is over molded with a compliant silicone rubber. The electronics package contains two antennas, a large coil, used for recharging the battery and a high bandwidth antenna that is used to download data and update software. The package is assembled from two machined alumina pieces, a flat base with brazed in, electrical feed through pins and a rectangular cover with rounded corners. Titanium seal rings are brazed onto these two pieces so that they can be sealed by laser welding. A third system antenna is incorporated in the flexible circuit board. It is used to communicate with an externally worn control package, which monitors the health of the system and allows both the user and clinician to control or modify various system function parameters.

  3. Closed-loop controlled noninvasive ultrasonic glucose sensing and insulin delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun-Joo; Werner, Jacob; Jaiswal, Devina; Smith, Nadine Barrie

    2010-03-01

    To prevent complications in diabetes, the proper management of blood glucose levels is essential. Previously, ultrasonic transdermal methods using a light-weight cymbal transducer array has been studied for noninvasive methods of insulin delivery for Type-1 diabetes and glucose level monitoring. In this study, the ultrasound systems of insulin delivery and glucose sensing have been combined by a feedback controller. This study was designed to show the feasibility of the feedback controlled ultrasound system for the noninvasive glucose control. For perspective human application, in vivo experiments were performed on large animals that have a similar size to humans. Four in vivo experiments were performed using about 200 lbs pigs. The cymbal array of 3×3 pattern has been used for insulin delivery at 30 kHz with the spatial-peak temporal-peak intensity (Isptp) of 100 mW/cm2. For glucose sensing, a 2×2 array was operated at 20 kHz with Isptp = 100 mW/cm2. Based on the glucose level determined by biosensors after the ultrasound exposure, the ultrasound system for the insulin delivery was automatically operated. The glucose level of 115 mg/dl was set as a reference value for operating the insulin delivery system. For comparison, the glucose levels of blood samples collected from the ear vein were measured by a commercial glucose meter. Using the ultrasound system operated by the close-loop, feed-back controller, the glucose levels of four pigs were determined every 20 minutes and continuously controlled for 120 minutes. In comparison to the commercial glucose meter, the glucose levels determined by the biosensor were slightly higher. The results of in vivo experiments indicate the feasibility of the feedback controlled ultrasound system using the cymbal array for noninvasive glucose sensing and insulin delivery. Further studies on the extension of the glucose control will be continued for the effective method of glucose control.

  4. Closed-loop fiber optic current sensor using ferromagnetic collector and Bi4Ge3O12 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Binghao; Zhang, Jinwei; Xiao, Ying

    2008-12-01

    Bi4Ge3O12 magneto-optic crystal was chosen as sensitive materials, and a current sensor based on Faraday rotation of materials was designed. A ferromagnetic collector with an air gap and feedback windings were utilized in the sensor to construct a closed-loop current sensor. The magneto-optic crystal showed stronger magneto-optic effect and smaller temperature coefficient when it was exposed to the light, which was produced by a semiconductor laser with a working wavelength of 655nm. The ferromagnetic collector was used to collect the magnetic field generated by the measured current. The collector could greatly reduce the influence of the position variation of the conductor on the output. The measurement system was a closed-loop system due to introducing the negative feedback coil to the measuring system, so the linear range, linearity, temperature stability and dynamic characteristic index of the sensor were improved greatly. The principle of this sensor was introduced in detail. The structure of this sensitive component, as well as the signal conditioning circuit, was given. Some experimental data and the interpretation of these data were presented.

  5. Microfluidic device incorporating closed loop feedback control for uniform and tunable production of micro-droplets.

    PubMed

    Miller, Erik; Rotea, Mario; Rothstein, Jonathan P

    2010-05-21

    Both micro- and nanofluidics are finding increasing use in the growing toolbox of nanotechnology; for the production of nanoparticles, and as micro-reactors for carefully controlled chemical reactions. These laboratories-on-a-chip hold vast potential for industrial application, however, only the most simple are truly starting to emerge as commercially viable, particularly in the area of droplet formation and emulsion creation. In order to automate droplet production with a desired size and dispersity, we have designed a microfluidic-based technology utilizing elementary microchannel geometries in combination with a closed loop feedback system to control the continuous- and dispersed-phase flow rates. Both the device geometry and control system have been optimized to allow for the production of a tunable emulsion. By utilizing discrete linear control theory, the device is able to produce the desired results with little to no prior knowledge of the fluid material properties to be used in either phase. We present our results from initial development using flow-focusing microfluidic geometry for droplet formation, computer-tethered syringe pumps to individually control the continuous and dispersed phase flow rates, a high-speed camera, and a controller and driver system for the optical measurements and pumps, respectively. We will show the efficacy of this technique for Newtonian and viscoelastic liquids, with and without the presence of surfactants. It can be envisioned that through careful control optimization, such a system can be developed to a point that will allow the production of "designer" emulsions with droplets eventually reaching the nanoscale.

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of Closed-Loop-Shaped Cardiomyocyte Network by Using Ring-Shaped Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Fumimasa; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Hamada, Tomoyo; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    Re-entry of excitation in the heart is one of the abnormal phenomena that causes lethal arrhythmia and is thought to be induced by the looped structure of the excitation conduction pathway. To evaluate the geometrical pattern dependence of electrophysiological results, we fabricated three models of cardiomyocyte networks and compared their beating frequencies (BFs), amplitudes of a depolarization peak, and field potential durations (FPDs). The set of different closed-loop-shaped network models from 3 to 8 mm in length showed the same BFs, amplitudes, and FPDs independent of their loop lengths, whereas the BFs and FPDs of 60 µm small clusters, and the FPDs of the 2 mm open-line-shaped network model were different from those of a closed-loop-shaped network model. These results indicate that the mm order larger size of clusters might create lower BFs, and the closed-loop-shaped model may generate longer FPDs. They also suggest the importance of spatial arrangement control of the cardoimyocyte community for reproducible measurement of electrophysiological properties of cardiomyocytes, especially control of the closed-loop formation, which might change the waveforms of FPDs depending on the difference in the geometry and conduction pathway of the cell network.

  7. A method for closed-loop presentation of sensory stimuli conditional on the internal brain-state of awake animals.

    PubMed

    Rutishauser, Ueli; Kotowicz, Andreas; Laurent, Gilles

    2013-04-30

    Brain activity often consists of interactions between internal-or on-going-and external-or sensory-activity streams, resulting in complex, distributed patterns of neural activity. Investigation of such interactions could benefit from closed-loop experimental protocols in which one stream can be controlled depending on the state of the other. We describe here methods to present rapid and precisely timed visual stimuli to awake animals, conditional on features of the animal's on-going brain state; those features are the presence, power and phase of oscillations in local field potentials (LFP). The system can process up to 64 channels in real time. We quantified its performance using simulations, synthetic data and animal experiments (chronic recordings in the dorsal cortex of awake turtles). The delay from detection of an oscillation to the onset of a visual stimulus on an LCD screen was 47.5ms and visual-stimulus onset could be locked to the phase of ongoing oscillations at any frequency ≤40Hz. Our software's architecture is flexible, allowing on-the-fly modifications by experimenters and the addition of new closed-loop control and analysis components through plugins. The source code of our system "StimOMatic" is available freely as open-source.

  8. Analysis and design of a 3rd order velocity-controlled closed-loop for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

    2013-09-18

    The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term.

  9. Dynamics and adaptive control of a dual-arm space robot with closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ying-Hong; Hu, Quan; Xu, Shi-Jie

    2014-02-01

    A dynamics-based adaptive control approach is proposed for a planar dual-arm space robot in the presence of closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters of the payload. The controller is capable of controlling the position and attitude of both the satellite base and the payload grasped by the manipulator end effectors. The equations of motion in reduced-order form for the constrained system are derived by incorporating the constraint equations in terms of accelerations into Kane's equations of the unconstrained system. Model analysis shows that the resulting equations perfectly meet the requirement of adaptive controller design. Consequently, by using an indirect approach, an adaptive control scheme is proposed to accomplish position/attitude trajectory tracking control with the uncertain parameters being estimated on-line. The actuator redundancy due to the closed-loop constraints is utilized to minimize a weighted norm of the joint torques. Global asymptotic stability is proven by using Lyapunov's method, and simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Disturbance-rejection-based tuning of proportional-integral-derivative controllers by exploiting closed-loop plant data.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Jyh-Cheng; Ge, Guo-Ping

    2016-05-01

    A systematic data-based design method for tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers for disturbance attenuation is proposed. In this method, a set of closed-loop plant data are directly exploited without using a process model. PID controller parameters for a control system that behaves as closely as possible to the reference model for disturbance rejection are derived. Two algorithms are developed to calculate the PID parameters. One algorithm determines the optimal time delay in the reference model by solving an optimization problem, whereas the other algorithm avoids the nonlinear optimization by using a simple approximation for the time delay term, enabling derivation of analytical PID tuning formulas. Because plant data integrals are used in the regression equations for calculating PID parameters, the two proposed algorithms are robust against measurement noises. Moreover, the controller tuning involves an adjustable design parameter that enables the user to achieve a trade-off between performance and robustness. Because of its closed-loop tuning capability, the proposed method can be applied online to improve (retune) existing underperforming controllers for stable, integrating, and unstable plants. Simulation examples covering a wide variety of process dynamics, including two examples related to reactor systems, are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tuning method.

  11. Simple equations to simulate closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography: Ideal and non-ideal recycling models.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E

    2015-12-04

    The ideal (the column outlet is directly connected to the column inlet) and non-ideal (includes the effects of extra-column dispersion) recycling equilibrium-cell models are used to simulate closed-loop recycling counter-current chromatography (CLR CCC). Simple chromatogram equations for the individual cycles and equations describing the transport and broadening of single peaks and complex chromatograms inside the recycling closed-loop column for ideal and non-ideal recycling models are presented. The extra-column dispersion is included in the theoretical analysis, by replacing the recycling system (connecting lines, pump and valving) by a cascade of Nec perfectly mixed cells. To evaluate extra-column contribution to band broadening, two limiting regimes of recycling are analyzed: plug-flow, Nec→∞, and maximum extra-column dispersion, Nec=1. Comparative analysis of ideal and non-ideal models has shown that when the volume of the recycling system is less than one percent of the column volume, the influence of the extra-column processes on the CLR CCC separation may be neglected.

  12. Effect of Insulin Feedback on Closed-Loop Glucose Control: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jessica L.; Sherr, Jennifer L.; Cengiz, Eda; Carria, Lori; Roy, Anirban; Voskanyan, Gayane; Tamborlane, William V.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Closed-loop (CL) insulin delivery systems utilizing proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers have demonstrated susceptibility to late postprandial hypoglycemia because of delays between insulin delivery and blood glucose (BG) response. An insulin feedback (IFB) modification to the PID algorithm has been introduced to mitigate this risk. We examined the effect of IFB on CL BG control. Methods Using the Medtronic ePID CL system, four subjects were studied for 24 h on PID control and 24 h during a separate admission with the IFB modification (PID + IFB). Target glucose was 120 mg/dl; meals were served at 8:00 AM, 1:00 PM, and 6:00 PM and were identical for both admissions. No premeal manual boluses were given. Reference BG excursions, defined as incremental glucose rise from premeal to peak, and postprandial BG area under the curve (AUC; 0–5 h) were compared. Results are reported as mean ± standard deviation. Results The PID + IFB control resulted in higher mean BG levels compared with PID alone (153 ± 54 versus 133 ± 56 mg/dl; p < .0001). Postmeal BG excursions (114 ± 28 versus 114 ± 47 mg/dl) and AUCs (285 ± 102 versus 255 ± 129 mg/dl/h) were similar under both conditions. Total insulin delivery averaged 57 ± 20 U with PID versus 45 ± 13 U with PID + IFB (p = .18). Notably, eight hypoglycemic events (BG < 60 mg/dl) occurred during PID control versus none during PID + IFB. Conclusions Addition of IFB to the PID controller markedly reduced the occurrence of hypoglycemia without increasing meal-related glucose excursions. Higher average BG levels may be attributable to differences in the determination of system gain (Kp) in this study. The prevention of postprandial hypoglycemia suggests that the PID + IFB algorithm may allow for lower target glucose selection and improved overall glycemic control. PMID:23063039

  13. Gravitational effects on global hemodynamics in different postures: A closed-loop multiscale mathematical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiancheng; Noda, Shigeho; Himeno, Ryutaro; Liu, Hao

    2017-02-01

    We present a novel methodology and strategy to predict pressures and flow rates in the global cardiovascular network in different postures varying from supine to upright. A closed-loop, multiscale mathematical model of the entire cardiovascular system (CVS) is developed through an integration of one-dimensional (1D) modeling of the large systemic arteries and veins, and zero-dimensional (0D) lumped-parameter modeling of the heart, the cardiac-pulmonary circulation, the cardiac and venous valves, as well as the microcirculation. A versatile junction model is proposed and incorporated into the 1D model to cope with splitting and/or merging flows across a multibranched junction, which is validated to be capable of estimating both subcritical and supercritical flows while ensuring the mass conservation and total pressure continuity. To model gravitational effects on global hemodynamics during postural change, a robust venous valve model is further established for the 1D venous flows and distributed throughout the entire venous network with consideration of its anatomically realistic numbers and locations. The present integrated model is proven to enable reasonable prediction of pressure and flow rate waveforms associated with cardiopulmonary circulation, systemic circulation in arteries and veins, as well as microcirculation within normal physiological ranges, particularly in mean venous pressures, which well match the in vivo measurements. Applications of the cardiovascular model at different postures demonstrate that gravity exerts remarkable influence on arterial and venous pressures, venous returns and cardiac outputs whereas venous pressures below the heart level show a specific correlation between central venous and hydrostatic pressures in right atrium and veins.

  14. Safe glycemic management during closed-loop treatment of type 1 diabetes: the role of glucagon, use of multiple sensors, and compensation for stress hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Ward, W Kenneth; Castle, Jessica R; El Youssef, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) must make frequent decisions and lifestyle adjustments in order to manage their disorder. Automated treatment would reduce the need for these self-management decisions and reduce the risk for long-term complications. Investigators in the field of closed-loop glycemic control systems are now moving from inpatient to outpatient testing of such systems. As outpatient systems are developed, the element of safety increases in importance. One such concern is the risk for hypoglycemia, due in part to the delayed onset and prolonged action duration of currently available subcutaneous insulin preparations. We found that, as compared to an insulin-only closed-loop system, a system that also delivers glucagon when needed led to substantially less hypoglycemia. Though the capability of glucagon delivery would mandate the need for a second hormone chamber, glucagon in small doses is tolerated very well. People with T1DM often develop hyperglycemia from emotional stress or medical stress. Automated closed-loop systems should be able to detect such changes in insulin sensitivity and adapt insulin delivery accordingly. We recently verified the adaptability of a model-based closed-loop system in which the gain factors that govern a proportional-integral-derivative-like system are adjusted according to frequently measured insulin sensitivity. Automated systems can be tested by physical exercise to increase glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity or by administering corticosteroids to reduce insulin sensitivity. Another source of risk in closed-loop systems is suboptimal performance of amperometric glucose sensors. Inaccuracy can result from calibration error, biofouling, and current drift. We found that concurrent use of more than one sensor typically leads to better sensor accuracy than use of a single sensor. For example, using the average of two sensors substantially reduces the proportion of large sensor errors. The use of more than

  15. Safety of Outpatient Closed-Loop Control: First Randomized Crossover Trials of a Wearable Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Eric; Cobelli, Claudio; Zisser, Howard C.; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Anderson, Stacey M.; Brown, Sue A.; Chernavvsky, Daniel R.; Breton, Marc D.; Mize, Lloyd B.; Farret, Anne; Place, Jérôme; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Del Favero, Simone; Boscari, Federico; Galasso, Silvia; Avogaro, Angelo; Magni, Lalo; Di Palma, Federico; Toffanin, Chiara; Messori, Mirko; Dassau, Eyal; Doyle, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We estimate the effect size of hypoglycemia risk reduction on closed-loop control (CLC) versus open-loop (OL) sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy in supervised outpatient setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty patients with type 1 diabetes initiated the study at the Universities of Virginia, Padova, and Montpellier and Sansum Diabetes Research Institute; 18 completed the entire protocol. Each patient participated in two 40-h outpatient sessions, CLC versus OL, in randomized order. Sensor (Dexcom G4) and insulin pump (Tandem t:slim) were connected to Diabetes Assistant (DiAs)—a smartphone artificial pancreas platform. The patient operated the system through the DiAs user interface during both CLC and OL; study personnel supervised on site and monitored DiAs remotely. There were no dietary restrictions; 45-min walks in town and restaurant dinners were included in both CLC and OL; alcohol was permitted. RESULTS The primary outcome—reduction in risk for hypoglycemia as measured by the low blood glucose (BG) index (LGBI)—resulted in an effect size of 0.64, P = 0.003, with a twofold reduction of hypoglycemia requiring carbohydrate treatment: 1.2 vs. 2.4 episodes/session on CLC versus OL (P = 0.02). This was accompanied by a slight decrease in percentage of time in the target range of 3.9–10 mmol/L (66.1 vs. 70.7%) and increase in mean BG (8.9 vs. 8.4 mmol/L; P = 0.04) on CLC versus OL. CONCLUSIONS CLC running on a smartphone (DiAs) in outpatient conditions reduced hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia treatments when compared with sensor-augmented pump therapy. This was accompanied by marginal increase in average glycemia resulting from a possible overemphasis on hypoglycemia safety. PMID:24929429

  16. Identification of space shuttle main engine dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duyar, Ahmet; Guo, Ten-Huei; Merrill, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    System identification techniques are used to represent the dynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The transfer function matrices of the linearized models of both the closed loop and the open loop system are obtained by using the recursive maximum likelihood method.

  17. Closed-loop controller for chest compressions based on coronary perfusion pressure: a computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunfei; Zhang, Guang; Wu, Taihu; Zhan, Ningbo; Wang, Yaling

    2016-03-01

    High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation contributes to cardiac arrest survival. The traditional chest compression (CC) standard, which neglects individual differences, uses unified standards for compression depth and compression rate in practice. In this study, an effective and personalized CC method for automatic mechanical compression devices is provided. We rebuild Charles F. Babbs' human circulation model with a coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) simulation module and propose a closed-loop controller based on a fuzzy control algorithm for CCs, which adjusts the CC depth according to the CPP. Compared with a traditional proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) controller, the performance of the fuzzy controller is evaluated in computer simulation studies. The simulation results demonstrate that the fuzzy closed-loop controller results in shorter regulation time, fewer oscillations and smaller overshoot than traditional PID controllers and outperforms the traditional PID controller for CPP regulation and maintenance.

  18. Optimization and closed loop guidance of drag modulated aeroassisted orbital transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kechichian, J. A.; Cruz, M. I.; Rinderle, E. A.; Vinh, N. X.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of optimal and near optimal atmospheric flight trajectories for drag modulated aeroassisted orbital transfer is presented. An explicit and adaptive closed loop guidance approach for this mode of orbit transfer is also presented with performance near the optimal nominal trajectories. The orbital transfer of interest is for return from high earth orbit to low earth orbit. Most of what is discussed in this paper concerns the aeroassisted or atmospheric segment which lowers the apogee of the high earth orbit to the apogee of the low earth orbit. Minimization of the total impulsive delta-V at this low earth orbit apogee is the optimization criterion. Control about this impulse due to a number of potential error sources in atmospheric braking is the requirement imposed on closed loop guidance.

  19. Closed-loop flow test Miravalles Geothermal Field well log results

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.; Eden, G.; Lawton, R.

    1992-10-01

    The Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) conducted a closed-loop flow test in the Miravalles Geothermal Field. The closed-loop test was started in May and ran through August of 1990. The effluent from the production well PG-11 was carried by a pipeline through a monitor station to the injection well PG-2. Before starting the long-term flow test in May, cold-water injection experiments were performed in each well to determine the pressure and temperature response. A series of downhole measurements were made in each well to obtain background information. The downhole measurements were repeated in August just before terminating the flow test to evaluate the results.

  20. Closed-loop flow test Miravalles Geothermal Field well log results

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.; Eden, G.; Lawton, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) conducted a closed-loop flow test in the Miravalles Geothermal Field. The closed-loop test was started in May and ran through August of 1990. The effluent from the production well PG-11 was carried by a pipeline through a monitor station to the injection well PG-2. Before starting the long-term flow test in May, cold-water injection experiments were performed in each well to determine the pressure and temperature response. A series of downhole measurements were made in each well to obtain background information. The downhole measurements were repeated in August just before terminating the flow test to evaluate the results.

  1. Delay-Dependent Response in Weakly Electric Fish under Closed-Loop Pulse Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Forlim, Caroline Garcia; Pinto, Reynaldo Daniel; Varona, Pablo; Rodríguez, Francisco B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a real time activity-dependent protocol to study how freely swimming weakly electric fish produce and process the timing of their own electric signals. Specifically, we address this study in the elephant fish, Gnathonemus petersii, an animal that uses weak discharges to locate obstacles or food while navigating, as well as for electro-communication with conspecifics. To investigate how the inter pulse intervals vary in response to external stimuli, we compare the response to a simple closed-loop stimulation protocol and the signals generated without electrical stimulation. The activity-dependent stimulation protocol explores different stimulus delivery delays relative to the fish's own electric discharges. We show that there is a critical time delay in this closed-loop interaction, as the largest changes in inter pulse intervals occur when the stimulation delay is below 100 ms. We also discuss the implications of these findings in the context of information processing in weakly electric fish.

  2. Sub-mm functional decoupling of electrocortical signals through closed-loop BMI learning.

    PubMed

    Ledochowitsch, P; Koralek, A C; Moses, D; Carmena, J M; Maharbiz, M M

    2013-01-01

    Volitional control of neural activity lies at the heart of the Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) paradigm. In this work we investigated if subdural field potentials recorded by electrodes < 1mm apart can be decoupled through closed-loop BMI learning. To this end, we fabricated custom, flexible microelectrode arrays with 200 µm electrode pitch and increased the effective electrode area by electrodeposition of platinum black to reduce thermal noise. We have chronically implanted these arrays subdurally over primary motor cortex (M1) of 5 male Long-Evans Rats and monitored the electrochemical electrode impedance in vivo to assess the stability of these neural interfaces. We successfully trained the rodents to perform a one-dimensional center-out task using closed-loop brain control to adjust the pitch of an auditory cursor by differentially modulating high gamma (70-110 Hz) power on pairs of surface microelectrodes that were separated by less than 1 mm.

  3. Closed-loop experiment of resonator integrated optic gyro with triangular wave phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yichuang; Liu, Huilan; Zhi, Yinzhou; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Junjie

    2014-10-01

    A closed-loop resonator integrated optic gyro (RIOG) scheme based on triangular wave phase modulation is proposed. Only one integrated optic modulator (IOM) is employed. Triangular wave is applied on the IOM to modulate the passing light wave, and the feedback serrodyne wave is superimposed upon the triangular wave to compensate the resonant frequency-difference. The experimental setup is established and the related measurements are performed. The results show that the proposed scheme can realize the closed-loop RIOG employing an IOM, which has the advantage of miniature size. A bias stability of 0.39 deg/s (10 s integration time) over 1 hour is achieved. Moreover, good linearity and large dynamic range are also experimental demonstrated.

  4. A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Yadav, Amol P.; Moreira, Derek; Guggenmos, David; Santos, Amílcar; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:27605389

  5. Direct observation of closed-loop ferrohydrodynamic pumping under traveling magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Leidong; Elborai, Shihab; He, Xiaowei; Zahn, Markus; Koser, Hur

    2011-09-01

    Ferrofluid-based liquid manipulation schemes typically actuate an immiscible liquid via a ferrofluid plug, using high magnetic flux (˜1 T) densities and strong field gradients created with bulky permanent magnets. They rely on surface tension effects to maintain the cohesion of the ferrofluid plug, necessitating miniature channels and slow (˜1 μl/min) flow speeds. Here, we demonstrate direct ferrohydrodynamic pumping using traveling magnetic fields at controllable speeds in a simple, closed-loop geometry without any mechanically actuated components. The pumping approach is compact, scalable, and practical. Using moderate field amplitudes (˜10 mT), we obtained a maximum volumetric flow rate of 0.69 ml/s using a readily available commercial ferrofluid. Our closed-loop pumping approach could lead to integrated and efficient liquid manipulation and cooling schemes based on ferrofluids.

  6. Modeling and Identification of a Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, David E. (Editor); Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Hsiao, Min-Hung; Huang, Jen-Kuang

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of modeling and system identification efforts on the NASA Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF). The LAMSTF consists of a cylindrical permanent magnet which is levitated above a planar array of five electromagnets mounted in a circular configuration. The analytical model is first developed and open-loop characteristics are described. The system is shown to be highly unstable and requires feedback control in order to apply system identification. Limitations on modeling accuracy due to the effect of eddy-currents on the system are discussed. An algorithm is derived to identify a state-space model for the system from input/output data acquired during closed-loop operation. The algorithm is tested on both the baseline system and a perturbed system which has an increased presence of eddy currents. It is found that for the baseline system the analytic model adequately captures the dynamics, although the identified model improves the simulation accuracy. For the system perturbed by additional unmodeled eddy-currents the analytic model is no longer adequate and a higher-order model, determined through system identification, is required to accurately predict the system's time response.

  7. Automated Droplet Manipulation Using Closed-Loop Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyle; Yang, Jinlong; Zuo, Yi Y

    2016-05-17

    Droplet manipulation plays an important role in a wide range of scientific and industrial applications, such as synthesis of thin-film materials, control of interfacial reactions, and operation of digital microfluidics. Compared to micron-sized droplets, which are commonly considered as spherical beads, millimeter-sized droplets are generally deformable by gravity, thus introducing nonlinearity into control of droplet properties. Such a nonlinear drop shape effect is especially crucial for droplet manipulation, even for small droplets, at the presence of surfactants. In this paper, we have developed a novel closed-loop axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA), integrated into a constrained drop surfactometer (CDS), for manipulating millimeter-sized droplets. The closed-loop ADSA generalizes applications of the traditional drop shape analysis from a surface tension measurement methodology to a sophisticated tool for manipulating droplets in real time. We have demonstrated the feasibility and advantages of the closed-loop ADSA in three applications, including control of drop volume by automatically compensating natural evaporation, precise control of surface area variations for high-fidelity biophysical simulations of natural pulmonary surfactant, and steady control of surface pressure for in situ Langmuir-Blodgett transfer from droplets. All these applications have demonstrated the accuracy, versatility, applicability, and automation of this new ADSA-based droplet manipulation technique. Combining with CDS, the closed-loop ADSA holds great promise for advancing droplet manipulation in a variety of material and surface science applications, such as thin-film fabrication, self-assembly, and biophysical study of pulmonary surfactant.

  8. Closed-loop fiber-optic gyroscope with a sawtooth phase-modulated feedback.

    PubMed

    Ebberg, A; Schiffner, G

    1985-06-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of a closed-loop fiber-optic gyroscope are reported. Phase nulling is accomplished by applying a sawtooth modulation to an integrated-optic phase modulator located at one side of the sensing loop. The frequency of the phase modulation is proportional to the rotation rate, thus permitting a digital readout. The influence of a finite flyback period on the scale factor is investigated.

  9. Closed-Loop Double Endobutton Technique for Repair of Unstable Distal Clavicle Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Struhl, Steven; Wolfson, Theodore S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Displaced fractures of the distal clavicle are inherently unstable and lead to nonunion in a high percentage of cases. The optimal surgical management remains controversial. Hypothesis: Indirect osteosynthesis with a closed-loop double endobutton construct would result in reliable fracture union and obviate the need for additional surgery. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Eight patients with an acute unstable Neer type IIB distal clavicle fracture were treated with a closed-loop double endobutton implant. Mean follow-up averaged 3.4 years (range, 1-9 years). Two patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 6 patients underwent a detailed functional and radiologic evaluation. Results: Definitive fracture healing was achieved in all patients. There were no complications, and no patients required additional surgery related to the index procedure. The mean Constant score was 97 at final follow-up. Conclusion: The closed-loop double endobutton technique was reliable and effective in achieving fracture union in all patients with unstable Neer type IIB fractures of the distal clavicle. This technique obviates the need for late hardware removal that is often necessary when direct osteosynthesis is used and avoids potential complications associated with coracoclavicular cerclage constructs that require knot fixation. PMID:27504466

  10. Closed-Loop Process Control for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Deposition Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor); Martin, Richard E. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A closed-loop control method for an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) process includes detecting a feature of interest during the process using a sensor(s), continuously evaluating the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein, and automatically modifying control parameters to control the EBF(sup 3) process. An apparatus provides closed-loop control method of the process, and includes an electron gun for generating an electron beam, a wire feeder for feeding a wire toward a substrate, wherein the wire is melted and progressively deposited in layers onto the substrate, a sensor(s), and a host machine. The sensor(s) measure the feature of interest during the process, and the host machine continuously evaluates the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein. The host machine automatically modifies control parameters to the EBF(sup 3) apparatus to control the EBF(sup 3) process in a closed-loop manner.

  11. Pulsatile desynchronizing delayed feedback for closed-loop deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lysyansky, Borys; Rosenblum, Michael; Pikovsky, Arkady; Tass, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    High-frequency (HF) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the gold standard for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders like Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, with a significant potential for application to other neurological diseases. The standard setup of HF DBS utilizes an open-loop stimulation protocol, where a permanent HF electrical pulse train is administered to the brain target areas irrespectively of the ongoing neuronal dynamics. Recent experimental and clinical studies demonstrate that a closed-loop, adaptive DBS might be superior to the open-loop setup. We here combine the notion of the adaptive high-frequency stimulation approach, that aims at delivering stimulation adapted to the extent of appropriately detected biomarkers, with specifically desynchronizing stimulation protocols. To this end, we extend the delayed feedback stimulation methods, which are intrinsically closed-loop techniques and specifically designed to desynchronize abnormal neuronal synchronization, to pulsatile electrical brain stimulation. We show that permanent pulsatile high-frequency stimulation subjected to an amplitude modulation by linear or nonlinear delayed feedback methods can effectively and robustly desynchronize a STN-GPe network of model neurons and suggest this approach for desynchronizing closed-loop DBS. PMID:28273176

  12. Control Oriented System Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    The research goals for this grant were to obtain algorithms for control oriented system identification is to construct dynamical models of systems...and measured information. Algorithms for this type of nonlinear system identification have been given that produce models suitable for gain scheduled

  13. Experimental on-line identification of an electromechanical system.

    PubMed

    Eker, Ilyas

    2004-01-01

    Identification of electromechanical systems operating in open-loop or closed-loop conditions has long been of prime interest in industrial applications. This paper presents experimental on-line identification of an electromechanical system represented by a digital input/output model. The paper also bridges the theory and practice gap for applied researchers. Studies are carried out by formulating the mathematical model using differential equations and experimental discrete-time identification using on-line plant input-output data. A recursive least-squares method is used to estimate the unknown parameters of the system. Discrete-time data for the parameter identification are obtained experimentally from a setup constructed in the laboratory. A root-mean-square error criterion is used for model validation. Results are presented which show variations in parameters of the electromechanical system. It is demonstrated that identified model output and actual system output match. All tests are performed with no previous results from finite element simulations.

  14. The effects of spaceflight on open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms: human neurovestibular studies on SLS-2.

    PubMed

    Collins, J J; De Luca, C J; Pavlik, A E; Roy, S H; Emley, M S

    1995-01-01

    Stabilogram-diffusion analysis was used to examine how prolonged periods in microgravity affect the open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms. It was hypothesized that following spaceflight: (1) the effective stochastic activity of the open-loop postural control schemes in astronauts is increased; (2) the effective stochastic activity and uncorrelated behavior, respectively, of the closed-loop postural control mechanisms in astronauts are increased; and (3) astronauts utilized open-loop postural controls schemes for shorter time intervals and smaller displacements. Four crew members and two alternates from the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Mission were included in the study. Each subject was tested under eyes-open, quiet-standing conditions on multiple preflight and postflight days. The subjects' center-of-pressure trajectories were measured with a force platform and analyzed according to stabilogram-diffusion analysis. It was found that the effective stochastic activity of the open-loop postural control schemes in three of the four crew members was increased following spaceflight. This result is interpreted as an indication that there may be in-flight adaptations to higher-level descending postural control pathways, e.g., a postflight increase in the tonic activation of postural muscles. This change may also be the consequence of a compensatory (e.g., "stiffening") postural control strategy that is adopted by astronauts to account for general feeling of postflight unsteadiness. The crew members, as a group, did not exhibit any consistent preflight/postflight differences in the steady-state behavior of their closed-loop postural control mechanisms or in the functional interaction of their open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms. These results are interpreted as indications that although there may be in-flight adaptations to the vestibular system and/or proprioceptive system, input from the visual system can compensate for such changes

  15. The effects of spaceflight on open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms: human neurovestibular studies on SLS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. J.; De Luca, C. J.; Pavlik, A. E.; Roy, S. H.; Emley, M. S.; Young, L. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Stabilogram-diffusion analysis was used to examine how prolonged periods in microgravity affect the open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms. It was hypothesized that following spaceflight: (1) the effective stochastic activity of the open-loop postural control schemes in astronauts is increased; (2) the effective stochastic activity and uncorrelated behavior, respectively, of the closed-loop postural control mechanisms in astronauts are increased; and (3) astronauts utilized open-loop postural controls schemes for shorter time intervals and smaller displacements. Four crew members and two alternates from the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Mission were included in the study. Each subject was tested under eyes-open, quiet-standing conditions on multiple preflight and postflight days. The subjects' center-of-pressure trajectories were measured with a force platform and analyzed according to stabilogram-diffusion analysis. It was found that the effective stochastic activity of the open-loop postural control schemes in three of the four crew members was increased following spaceflight. This result is interpreted as an indication that there may be in-flight adaptations to higher-level descending postural control pathways, e.g., a postflight increase in the tonic activation of postural muscles. This change may also be the consequence of a compensatory (e.g., "stiffening") postural control strategy that is adopted by astronauts to account for general feeling of postflight unsteadiness. The crew members, as a group, did not exhibit any consistent preflight/postflight differences in the steady-state behavior of their closed-loop postural control mechanisms or in the functional interaction of their open-loop and closed-loop postural control mechanisms. These results are interpreted as indications that although there may be in-flight adaptations to the vestibular system and/or proprioceptive system, input from the visual system can compensate for such changes

  16. Hardware platforms for MEMS gyroscope tuning based on evolutionary computation using open-loop and closed -loop frequency response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Ferguson, Michael I.; Fink, Wolfgang; Oks, Boris; Peay, Chris; Terrile, Richard; Cheng, Yen; Kim, Dennis; MacDonald, Eric; Foor, David

    2005-01-01

    We propose a tuning method for MEMS gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation to efficiently increase the sensitivity of MEMS gyroscopes through tuning. The tuning method was tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-resonator MEMS gyroscope using the measurement of the frequency response of the MEMS device in open-loop operation. We also report on the development of a hardware platform for integrated tuning and closed loop operation of MEMS gyroscopes. The control of this device is implemented through a digital design on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The hardware platform easily transitions to an embedded solution that allows for the miniaturization of the system to a single chip.

  17. Defining a Closed-Loop U.S. Aluminum Can Supply Chain Through Technical Design and Supply Chain Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, Jack; Peterson, Ray

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a supply chain material flow analysis (MFA) for the U.S. aluminum can market, consistent with studies conducted for the overall worldwide aluminum industry. A technical definition of the use of alloys 5182 and 3104 is conducted by metallurgists for use in the "aluminum can" MFA. Four propositions are created: technical, economic, and supply chain factors are as important to secondary aluminum recycling in an aluminum can as higher recycling rates (P1); the development of a unialloy aluminum can will increase reuse rates, but recycling rates must increase for this to happen (P2); a closed-loop aluminum can supply chain is not able to be fully realized in today's environment but is very useful for understanding improvement through both supply and demand (P3); and UBC supply can improve through a "voluntary deposit-refund system" approach (P4).

  18. The early history of the closed loop fiber optic gyro and derivative sensors at McDonnell Douglas, Blue Road Research and Columbia Gorge Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric

    2016-05-01

    On September 29, 1977 the first written disclosure of a closed loop fiber optic gyro was witnessed and signed off by four people at McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company in Huntington Beach, California. Over the next ten years a breadboard demonstration unit, and several prototypes were built. In 1987 the fundamental patent for closed loop operation began a McDonnell Douglas worldwide licensing process. Internal fiber optic efforts were redirected to derivative sensors and inventions. This included development of acoustic, strain and distributed sensors as well as a Sagnac interferometer based secure fiber optic communication system and the new field of fiber optic smart structures. This paper provides an overview of these activities and transitions.

  19. Adjustment of Open-Loop Settings to Improve Closed-Loop Results in Type 1 Diabetes: A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dassau, Eyal; Brown, Sue A.; Basu, Ananda; Pinsker, Jordan E.; Kudva, Yogish C.; Gondhalekar, Ravi; Patek, Steve; Lv, Dayu; Schiavon, Michele; Lee, Joon Bok; Dalla Man, Chiara; Hinshaw, Ling; Castorino, Kristin; Mallad, Ashwini; Dadlani, Vikash; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K.; McElwee-Malloy, Molly; Wakeman, Christian A.; Bevier, Wendy C.; Bradley, Paige K.; Kovatchev, Boris; Cobelli, Claudio; Zisser, Howard C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Closed-loop control (CLC) relies on an individual's open-loop insulin pump settings to initialize the system. Optimizing open-loop settings before using CLC usually requires significant time and effort. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effects of a one-time algorithmic adjustment of basal rate and insulin to carbohydrate ratio open-loop settings on the performance of CLC. Design: This study reports a multicenter, outpatient, randomized, crossover clinical trial. Patients: Thirty-seven adults with type 1 diabetes were enrolled at three clinical sites. Interventions: Each subject's insulin pump settings were subject to a one-time algorithmic adjustment based on 1 week of open-loop (i.e., home care) data collection. Subjects then underwent two 27-hour periods of CLC in random order with either unchanged (control) or algorithmic adjusted basal rate and carbohydrate ratio settings (adjusted) used to initialize the zone-model predictive control artificial pancreas controller. Subject's followed their usual meal-plan and had an unannounced exercise session. Main Outcomes and Measures: Time in the glucose range was 80–140 mg/dL, compared between both arms. Results: Thirty-two subjects completed the protocol. Median time in CLC was 25.3 hours. The median time in the 80–140 mg/dl range was similar in both groups (39.7% control, 44.2% adjusted). Subjects in both arms of CLC showed minimal time spent less than 70 mg/dl (median 1.34% and 1.37%, respectively). There were no significant differences more than 140 mg/dL. Conclusions: A one-time algorithmic adjustment of open-loop settings did not alter glucose control in a relatively short duration outpatient closed-loop study. The CLC system proved very robust and adaptable, with minimal (<2%) time spent in the hypoglycemic range in either arm. PMID:26204135

  20. Closed-loop high-speed 3D thermal probe nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, A. W.; Zientek, M.; Cheong, L. L.; Rawlings, C.; Paul, P.; Holzner, F.; Hedrick, J. L.; Coady, D. J.; Allen, R.; Dürig, U.

    2014-03-01

    Thermal Scanning Probe Lithography (tSPL) is an AFM based patterning technique, which uses heated tips to locally evaporate organic resists such as molecular glasses [1] or thermally sensitive polymers.[2][3] Organic resists offer the versatility of the lithography process known from the CMOS environment and simultaneously ensure a highly stable and low wear tip-sample contact due to the soft nature of the resists. Patterning quality is excellent up to a resolution of sub 15 nm,[1] at linear speeds of up to 20 mm/s and pixel rates of up to 500 kHz.[4] The patterning depth is proportional to the applied force which allows for the creation of 3-D profiles in a single patterning run.[2] In addition, non-destructive imaging can be done at pixel rates of more than 500 kHz.[4] If the thermal stimulus for writing the pattern is switched off the same tip can be used to record the written topography with Angstrom depth resolution. We utilize this unique feature of SPL to implement an efficient control system for reliable patterning at high speed and high resolution. We combine the writing and imaging process in a single raster scan of the surface. In this closed loop lithography (CLL) approach, we use the acquired data to optimize the writing parameters on the fly. Excellent control is in particular important for an accurate reproduction of complex 3D patterns. These novel patterning capabilities are equally important for a high quality transfer of two-dimensional patterns into the underlying substrate. We utilize an only 3-4 nm thick SiOx hardmask to amplify the 8±0.5 nm deep patterns created by tSPL into a 50 nm thick transfer polymer. The structures in the transfer polymer can be used to create metallic lines by a lift-off process or to further process the pattern into the substrate. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of 27 nm wide lines and trenches 60 nm deep into the Silicon substrate.[5] In addition, the combined read and write approach ensures that the lateral

  1. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results.

    PubMed

    Héquet, Valérie; Batault, Frédéric; Raillard, Cécile; Thévenet, Frédéric; Le Coq, Laurence; Dumont, Éric

    2017-03-06

    The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m³ and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10(-3) m³. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm²) and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i) light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm(-2); (ii) air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s(-1); and (iii) initial toluene concentration C₀ (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv). The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I) were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m³·h(-1), were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I), the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  2. The Use of Open- and Closed-Loop Control During Goal-Directed Force Responses by Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Roger W.; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Thomas, Jennifer D.; Riley, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many daily functional activities involve goal-directed responses based on open-loop and closed-loop motor control, yet little is known about how children with heavy prenatal alcohol-exposure organize and regulate these two types of control systems when completing a goal-directed force response. Methods Children with (n = 19) or without (n = 23) heavy prenatal alcohol exposure were required to match a target force (25% and 50% of maximum voluntary force) in a specified target time (200 ms, 800 ms, and 2000 ms). Target force and produced force were visually displayed on a computer monitor. The analog force-time record was parsed into two segments: the period beginning from force initiation to the first reversal in force was designated the open-loop phase, and the remainder of the response was the closed-loop phase. Results Compared to controls, alcohol-exposed children produced a significantly shorter duration of open-loop control, a higher open-loop phase rate of force development, a shorter time to reach maximum force during the closed-loop phase and greater absolute target force error. Increasing target force magnitude did not differentially alter the performance of the clinical group. Conclusions The results indicate that alcohol-exposed children experience deficits in completing goal-directed force responses that likely stem from an alcohol related insult to the CNS. Therapeutic exercises should be designed to re-calibrate internal timing systems and improve visuomotor integration. PMID:26248225

  3. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part I: Theoretical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Éric; Héquet, Valérie

    2017-03-06

    This study demonstrated that a laboratory-scale recirculation closed-loop reactor can be an efficient technique for the determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) air purification devices. The recirculation closed-loop reactor was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: one is a perfectly mixed reservoir and the other is a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device itself. Based on the assumption that the ratio between the residence time in the PCO device and the residence time in the reservoir τP/τR tends to 0, the model highlights that a lab closed-loop reactor can be a suitable technique for the determination of the efficiency of PCO devices. Moreover, if the single-pass removal efficiency is lower than 5% of the treated flow rate, the decrease in the pollutant concentration over time can be characterized by a first-order decay model in which the time constant is proportional to the CADR. The limits of the model are examined and reported in terms of operating conditions (experiment duration, ratio of residence times, and flow rate ranges).

  4. Novel closed-loop approaches for precise relative navigation of widely separated GPS receivers in LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, U.; Renga, A.; Grassi, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the relative navigation of a formation of two spacecrafts separated by hundreds of kilometers based on processing dual-frequency differential carrier-phase GPS measurements. Specific requirements of the considered application are high relative positioning accuracy and real-time on board implementation. These can be conflicting requirements. Indeed, if on one hand high accuracy can be achieved by exploiting the integer nature of double-difference carrier-phase ambiguities, on the other hand the presence of large ephemeris errors and differential ionospheric delays makes the integer ambiguities determination challenging. Closed-loop schemes, which update the relative position estimates of a dynamic filter with feedback from integer ambiguities fixing algorithms, are customarily employed in these cases. This paper further elaborates such approaches, proposing novel closed loop techniques aimed at overcoming some of the limitations of traditional algorithms. They extend techniques developed for spaceborne long baseline relative positioning by making use of an on-the-fly ambiguity resolution technique especially developed for the applications of interest. Such techniques blend together ionospheric delay compensation techniques, nonlinear models of relative spacecraft dynamics, and partial integer validation techniques. The approaches are validated using flight data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Performance is compared to that of the traditional closed-loop scheme analyzing the capability of each scheme to maximize the percentage of correctly fixed integer ambiguities as well as the relative positioning accuracy. Results show that the proposed approach substantially improves performance of the traditional approaches. More specifically, centimeter-level root-mean square relative positioning is feasible for spacecraft separations of more than 260 km, and an integer ambiguity fixing performance as high as 98% is

  5. Author Identification Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Many efforts are currently underway to disambiguate author names and assign unique identification numbers so that publications by a given scholar can be reliably grouped together. This paper reviews a number of operational and in-development services. Some systems like ResearcherId.Com depend on self-registration and self-identification of a…

  6. A proof-of-principle simulation for closed-loop control based on preexisting experimental thalamic DBS-enhanced instrumental learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Fu; Yang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Chen, Po-Chuan; Lo, Yu-Chun; Pan, Han-Chi; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Hui-Ching; Chen, Hsu-Yan; Huang, Wei-Chen; Huang, Wun-Jhu; Chen, You-Yin

    2017-02-24

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied as an effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Several open-loop DBS control strategies have been developed for clinical experiments, but they are limited by short battery life and inefficient therapy. Therefore, many closed-loop DBS control systems have been designed to tackle these problems by automatically adjusting the stimulation parameters via feedback from neural signals, which has been reported to reduce the power consumption. However, when the association between the biomarkers of the model and stimulation is unclear, it is difficult to develop an optimal control scheme for other DBS applications, i.e., DBS-enhanced instrumental learning. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of closed-loop DBS control for cognition function, such as instrumental skill learning, and have been implemented in simulation environments. In this paper, we proposed a proof-of-principle design for a closed-loop DBS system, cognitive-enhancing DBS (ceDBS), which enhanced skill learning based on in vivo experimental data. The ceDBS acquired local field potential (LFP) signal from the thalamic central lateral (CL) nuclei of animals through a neural signal processing system. A strong coupling of the theta oscillation (4-7 Hz) and the learning period was found in the water reward-related lever-pressing learning task. Therefore, the theta-band power ratio, which was the averaged theta band to averaged total band (1-55 Hz) power ratio, could be used as a physiological marker for enhancement of instrumental skill learning. The on-line extraction of the theta-band power ratio was implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). An autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX)-based predictor was designed to construct a CL-thalamic DBS model and forecast the future physiological marker according to the past physiological marker and applied DBS. The prediction could further assist the design of

  7. Time Difference Amplifier with Robust Gain Using Closed-Loop Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakura, Toru; Mandai, Shingo; Ikeda, Makoto; Asada, Kunihiro

    This paper presents a Time Difference Amplifier (TDA) that amplifies the input time difference into the output time difference. Cross coupled chains of variable delay cells with the same number of stages are applicable for TDA, and the gain is adjusted via the closed-loop control. The TDA was fabricated using 65nm CMOS and the measurement results show that the time difference gain is 4.78 at a nominal power supply while the designed gain is 4.0. The gain is stable enough to be less than 1.4% gain shift under ±10% power supply voltage fluctuation.

  8. Wind tunnel testing of a closed-loop wake deflection controller for wind farm power maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnolo, Filippo; Petrović, Vlaho; Schreiber, Johannes; Nanos, Emmanouil M.; Croce, Alessandro; Bottasso, Carlo L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents results from wind tunnel tests aimed at evaluating a closed- loop wind farm controller for wind farm power maximization by wake deflection. Experiments are conducted in a large boundary layer wind tunnel, using three servo-actuated and sensorized wind turbine scaled models. First, we characterize the impact on steady-state power output of wake deflection, achieved by yawing the upstream wind turbines. Next, we illustrate the capability of the proposed wind farm controller to dynamically driving the upstream wind turbines to the optimal yaw misalignment setting.

  9. Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-Loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Zinnecker, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    The tool for turbine engine closed-loop transient analysis (TTECTrA) is a semi-automated control design tool for subsonic aircraft engine simulations. At a specific flight condition, TTECTrA produces a basic controller designed to meet user-defined goals and containing only the fundamental limiters that affect the transient performance of the engine. The purpose of this tool is to provide the user a preliminary estimate of the transient performance of an engine model without the need to design a full nonlinear controller.

  10. Performance comparison of five frequency domain system identification techniques for helicopter higher harmonic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a computer simulation comparing the performance of five system identification techniques currently proposed for use with helicopter, frequency domain, higher harmonic vibration control algorithms. The system identification techniques studied were: (1) the weighted least squares method in moving block format, (2) the classical Kalman filter, (3) a generalized Kalman filter, (4) the classical least mean square (LMS) filter, and (5) a generalized LMS filter. The generalized Kalman and LMS filters were derived by allowing for multistep operation, rather than the single-step update approach used by their classical versions. Both open-loop and closed-loop (vibration control mode) identification results are presented in the paper. The algorithms are evaluated in terms of their accuracy, stability, convergence properties, computation speeds, and the relative ease with which these techniques may be directly applied to the helicopter vibration control problem.

  11. [Application of automatic identification technology to monitor the entire process of medical management].

    PubMed

    Chen, Minya; Men, Yi

    2010-05-01

    With the development of the hospital information technology management, to improve the clinic service quality and reduce medical errors, automatic identification technology has been widely used in health care areas. This technology has been used in our hospital for patient identification, sample identification, drug identification and equipment identification. Combined with wireless networks, mobile terminals and middleware etc., making the whole process of clinic service closed-loop system. This application improves efficiency, reduces mistakes and puts whole clinical service management process under control.

  12. A Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Using a Proportional Integral Derivative with Double Phase Lead Controller Based on a New Nonlinear Model of Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Ilham Ben; Richard, Pierre-Yves; Lefebvre, Marie-Anne; Guilhem, Isabelle; Poirier, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Background Most closed-loop insulin delivery systems rely on model-based controllers to control the blood glucose (BG) level. Simple models of glucose metabolism, which allow easy design of the control law, are limited in their parametric identification from raw data. New control models and controllers issued from them are needed. Methods A proportional integral derivative with double phase lead controller was proposed. Its design was based on a linearization of a new nonlinear control model of the glucose–insulin system in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients validated with the University of Virginia/Padova T1DM metabolic simulator. A 36 h scenario, including six unannounced meals, was tested in nine virtual adults. A previous trial database has been used to compare the performance of our controller with their previous results. The scenario was repeated 25 times for each adult in order to take continuous glucose monitoring noise into account. The primary outcome was the time BG levels were in target (70–180 mg/dl). Results Blood glucose values were in the target range for 77% of the time and below 50 mg/dl and above 250 mg/dl for 0.8% and 0.3% of the time, respectively. The low blood glucose index and high blood glucose index were 1.65 and 3.33, respectively. Conclusion The linear controller presented, based on the linearization of a new easily identifiable nonlinear model, achieves good glucose control with low exposure to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. PMID:23759403

  13. Analysis of dead zone sources in a closed-loop fiber optic gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kyoung-Ho; Choi, Woo-Seok; Chong, Kil-To

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the dead zone is among the intensive studies in a closed-loop fiber optic gyroscope. In a dead zone, a gyroscope cannot detect any rotation and produces a zero bias. In this study, an analysis of dead zone sources is performed in simulation and experiments. In general, the problem is mainly due to electrical cross coupling and phase modulation drift. Electrical cross coupling is caused by interference between modulation voltage and the photodetector. The cross-coupled signal produces spurious gyro bias and leads to a dead zone if it is larger than the input rate. Phase modulation drift as another dead zone source is due to the electrode contamination, the piezoelectric effect of the LiNbO3 substrate, or to organic fouling. This modulation drift lasts for a short or long period of time like a lead-lag filter response and produces gyro bias error, noise spikes, or dead zone. For a more detailed analysis, the cross-coupling effect and modulation phase drift are modeled as a filter and are simulated in both the open-loop and closed-loop modes. The sources of dead zone are more clearly analyzed in the simulation and experimental results.

  14. Delay-Dependent Response in Weakly Electric Fish under Closed-Loop Pulse Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Forlim, Caroline Garcia; Pinto, Reynaldo Daniel; Varona, Pablo; Rodríguez, Francisco B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a real time activity-dependent protocol to study how freely swimming weakly electric fish produce and process the timing of their own electric signals. Specifically, we address this study in the elephant fish, Gnathonemus petersii, an animal that uses weak discharges to locate obstacles or food while navigating, as well as for electro-communication with conspecifics. To investigate how the inter pulse intervals vary in response to external stimuli, we compare the response to a simple closed-loop stimulation protocol and the signals generated without electrical stimulation. The activity-dependent stimulation protocol explores different stimulus delivery delays relative to the fish’s own electric discharges. We show that there is a critical time delay in this closed-loop interaction, as the largest changes in inter pulse intervals occur when the stimulation delay is below 100 ms. We also discuss the implications of these findings in the context of information processing in weakly electric fish. PMID:26473597

  15. A reconfigurable visual-programming library for real-time closed-loop cellular electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Biró, István; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Most of the software platforms for cellular electrophysiology are limited in terms of flexibility, hardware support, ease of use, or re-configuration and adaptation for non-expert users. Moreover, advanced experimental protocols requiring real-time closed-loop operation to investigate excitability, plasticity, dynamics, are largely inaccessible to users without moderate to substantial computer proficiency. Here we present an approach based on MATLAB/Simulink, exploiting the benefits of LEGO-like visual programming and configuration, combined to a small, but easily extendible library of functional software components. We provide and validate several examples, implementing conventional and more sophisticated experimental protocols such as dynamic-clamp or the combined use of intracellular and extracellular methods, involving closed-loop real-time control. The functionality of each of these examples is demonstrated with relevant experiments. These can be used as a starting point to create and support a larger variety of electrophysiological tools and methods, hopefully extending the range of default techniques and protocols currently employed in experimental labs across the world.

  16. Statistical mechanical model for a closed loop plectoneme with weak helix specific forces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dominic J O'

    2017-04-12

    We develop a statistical mechanical framework, based on a variational approximation, to describe closed loop plectonemes. This framework incorporates weak helix structure dependent forces into the determination of the free energy and average structure of a plectoneme. Notably, due to their chiral nature, helix structure dependent forces break the symmetry between left and right handed supercoiling. The theoretical approach, presented here, also provides a systematic way of enforcing the topological constraint of closed loop supercoiling in the variational approximation. At large plectoneme lengths, by considering correlation functions in an expansion in terms of the spatial mean twist density about its thermally averaged value, it can be argued that topological constraint may be approximated by replacing twist and writhe by their thermal averages. A Lagrange multiplier, containing the sum of average twist and writhe, can be added to the free energy to conveniently inforce this result. The average writhe can be calculated through the thermal average of the Gauss' integral in the variational approximation. Furthermore, this approach allows for a possible way to calculate finite size corrections due to the topological constraint. Using interaction energy terms from the mean-field Kornyshev-Leikin theory, for parameter values that correspond to weak helix dependent forces, we calculate the free energy, fluctuation magnitudes and mean geometric parameters for the plectoneme. We see a slight asymmetry, where interestingly, left handed supercoils have a looser structure than right handed ones, although with a lower free energy, unlike what the previous ground state calculations would suggest.

  17. Assessing the effect of dynamics on the closed-loop protein-folding hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Chintapalli, Sree V.; Illingworth, Christopher J. R.; Upton, Graham J. G.; Sacquin-Mora, Sophie; Reeves, Philip J.; Mohammedali, Hani S.; Reynolds, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The closed-loop (loop-n-lock) hypothesis of protein folding suggests that loops of about 25 residues, closed through interactions between the loop ends (locks), play an important role in protein structure. Coarse-grain elastic network simulations, and examination of loop lengths in a diverse set of proteins, each supports a bias towards loops of close to 25 residues in length between residues of high stability. Previous studies have established a correlation between total contact distance (TCD), a metric of sequence distances between contacting residues (cf. contact order), and the log-folding rate of a protein. In a set of 43 proteins, we identify an improved correlation (r2 = 0.76), when the metric is restricted to residues contacting the locks, compared to the equivalent result when all residues are considered (r2 = 0.65). This provides qualified support for the hypothesis, albeit with an increased emphasis upon the importance of a much larger set of residues surrounding the locks. Evidence of a similar-sized protein core/extended nucleus (with significant overlap) was obtained from TCD calculations in which residues were successively eliminated according to their hydrophobicity and connectivity, and from molecular dynamics simulations. Our results suggest that while folding is determined by a subset of residues that can be predicted by application of the closed-loop hypothesis, the original hypothesis is too simplistic; efficient protein folding is dependent on a considerably larger subset of residues than those involved in lock formation. PMID:24258160

  18. A reconfigurable visual-programming library for real-time closed-loop cellular electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Biró, István; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Most of the software platforms for cellular electrophysiology are limited in terms of flexibility, hardware support, ease of use, or re-configuration and adaptation for non-expert users. Moreover, advanced experimental protocols requiring real-time closed-loop operation to investigate excitability, plasticity, dynamics, are largely inaccessible to users without moderate to substantial computer proficiency. Here we present an approach based on MATLAB/Simulink, exploiting the benefits of LEGO-like visual programming and configuration, combined to a small, but easily extendible library of functional software components. We provide and validate several examples, implementing conventional and more sophisticated experimental protocols such as dynamic-clamp or the combined use of intracellular and extracellular methods, involving closed-loop real-time control. The functionality of each of these examples is demonstrated with relevant experiments. These can be used as a starting point to create and support a larger variety of electrophysiological tools and methods, hopefully extending the range of default techniques and protocols currently employed in experimental labs across the world. PMID:26157385

  19. Distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feitian; Lagor, Francis D; Yeo, Derrick; Washington, Patrick; Paley, Derek A

    2015-10-23

    Flexibility plays an important role in fish behavior by enabling high maneuverability for predator avoidance and swimming in turbulent flow. This paper presents a novel flexible fish robot equipped with distributed pressure sensors for flow sensing. The body of the robot is molded from soft, hyperelastic material, which provides flexibility. Its Joukowski-foil shape is conducive to modeling the fluid analytically. A quasi-steady potential-flow model is adopted for real-time flow estimation, whereas a discrete-time vortex-shedding flow model is used for higher-fidelity simulation. The dynamics for the flexible fish robot yield a reduced model for one-dimensional swimming. A recursive Bayesian filter assimilates pressure measurements to estimate flow speed, angle of attack, and foil camber. The closed-loop speed-control strategy combines an inverse-mapping feedforward controller based on an average model derived for periodic actuation of angle-of-attack and a proportional-integral feedback controller utilizing the estimated flow information. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the estimation and control strategy. The paper provides a systematic approach to distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot by regulating the flapping amplitude.

  20. Closed-loop enhancement of jet mixing with extremum-seeking and physics-based strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Zhou, Y.; Cao, H. L.; Li, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The closed-loop control of a turbulent round air jet is experimentally investigated based on two unsteady minijets, with a view to enhancing jet mixing. The two minijets are placed at diametrically opposite locations upstream of the nozzle exit. The open-loop control experiments are first performed. Given the mass flow rate ratio C m of the minijets to that of the main jet, the decay rate overline{K} of jet centerline mean velocity exhibits a maximum at the frequency ratio f e/ f 0 ≈ 1.0, where f e and f 0 are the excitation frequency of minijets and the preferred mode frequency of the natural main jet, respectively. An extremum-seeking feedback control has been developed to achieve autonomously the optimal control performance. It has been found that, given C m, this closed-loop control technique may obtain automatically and rapidly the optimal value of f e and the desired or maximum overline{K}, as achieved in the open-loop control. This control technique is robust and adaptable when the Reynolds number and initial excitation frequency are changed separately. A flow-physics-based feedback control strategy has also been investigated, which could achieve the optimal control performance automatically with a shorter convergence time than the extremum-seeking control, not robust though.

  1. Beating of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a closed-loop interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Sanghyun; Chang, Dong-In; Lee, Hu-Jong; Khym, Gyong Luck; Kang, Kicheon; Chung, Yunchul; Mahalu, Diana; Umansky, Vladimir

    2007-07-15

    One of the points at issue with closed-loop-type interferometers is beating in the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations. Recent observations suggest the possibility that the beating results from the Berry-phase pickup by the conducting electrons in materials with the strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI). In this study, we also observed beats in the AB oscillations in a gate-defined closed-loop interferometer fabricated on a GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As two-dimensional electron-gas heterostructure. Since this heterostructure has very small SOI, the picture of the Berry-phase pickup is ruled out. The observation of beats in this study, with the controllability of forming a single transverse subband mode in both arms of our gate-defined interferometer, also rules out the often-claimed multiple transverse subband effect. It is observed that nodes of the beats with an h/2e period exhibit a parabolic distribution for varying the side gate. These results are shown to be well interpreted, without resorting to the SOI effect, by the existence of two-dimensional multiple longitudinal modes in a single transverse subband. The Fourier spectrum of measured conductance, despite showing multiple h/e peaks with the magnetic-field dependence that are very similar to that from strong-SOI materials, can also be interpreted as the two-dimensional multiple-longitudinal-modes effect.

  2. Statistical mechanical model for a closed loop plectoneme with weak helix specific forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (O’ Lee, Dominic J.

    2017-04-01

    We develop a statistical mechanical framework, based on a variational approximation, to describe closed loop plectonemes. This framework incorporates weak helix structure dependent forces into the determination of the free energy and average structure of a plectoneme. Notably, due to their chiral nature, helix structure dependent forces break the symmetry between left and right handed supercoiling. The theoretical approach, presented here, also provides a systematic way of enforcing the topological constraint of closed loop supercoiling in the variational approximation. At large plectoneme lengths, by considering correlation functions in an expansion in terms of the spatial mean twist density about its thermally averaged value, it can be argued that topological constraint may be approximated by replacing twist and writhe by their thermal averages. A Lagrange multiplier, containing the sum of average twist and writhe, can be added to the free energy to conveniently inforce this result. The average writhe can be calculated through the thermal average of the Gauss’ integral in the variational approximation. Furthermore, this approach allows for a possible way to calculate finite size corrections due to the topological constraint. Using interaction energy terms from the mean-field Kornyshev–Leikin theory, for parameter values that correspond to weak helix dependent forces, we calculate the free energy, fluctuation magnitudes and mean geometric parameters for the plectoneme. We see a slight asymmetry, where interestingly, left handed supercoils have a looser structure than right handed ones, although with a lower free energy, unlike what the previous ground state calculations would suggest.

  3. A hybrid solution approach for a multi-objective closed-loop logistics network under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Tu, Nan; Miao, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    The design of closed-loop logistics (forward and reverse logistics) has attracted growing attention with the stringent pressures of customer expectations, environmental concerns and economic factors. This paper considers a multi-product, multi-period and multi-objective closed-loop logistics network model with regard to facility expansion as a facility location-allocation problem, which more closely approximates real-world conditions. A multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming formulation is linearized by defining new variables and adding new constraints to the model. By considering the aforementioned model under uncertainty, this paper develops a hybrid solution approach by combining an interactive fuzzy goal programming approach and robust counterpart optimization based on three well-known robust counterpart optimization formulations. Finally, this paper compares the results of the three formulations using different test scenarios and parameter-sensitive analysis in terms of the quality of the final solution, CPU time, the level of conservatism, the degree of closeness to the ideal solution, the degree of balance involved in developing a compromise solution, and satisfaction degree.

  4. Algorithms for a Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas: The Case for Model Predictive Control

    PubMed Central

    Bequette, B. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    The relative merits of model predictive control (MPC) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control are discussed, with the end goal of a closed-loop artificial pancreas (AP). It is stressed that neither MPC nor PID are single algorithms, but rather are approaches or strategies that may be implemented very differently by different engineers. The primary advantages to MPC are that (i) constraints on the insulin delivery rate (and/or insulin on board) can be explicitly included in the control calculation; (ii) it is a general framework that makes it relatively easy to include the effect of meals, exercise, and other events that are a function of the time of day; and (iii) it is flexible enough to include many different objectives, from set-point tracking (target) to zone (control to range). In the end, however, it is recognized that the control algorithm, while important, represents only a portion of the effort required to develop a closed-loop AP. Thus, any number of algorithms/approaches can be successful—the engineers involved in the design must have experience with the particular technique, including the important experience of implementing the algorithm in human studies and not simply through simulation studies. PMID:24351190

  5. Linear state feedback, quadratic weights, and closed loop eigenstructures. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Equations are derived for the angles of general multivariable root loci and linear quadratic optimal root loci, including angles of departure and approach. The generalized eigenvalue problem is used to compute angles of approach. Equations are also derived to find the sensitivity of closed loop eigenvalue and the directional derivatives of closed loop eigenvectors. An equivalence class of quadratic weights that produce the same asymptotic eigenstructure is defined, a canonical element is defined, and an algorithm to find it is given. The behavior of the optimal root locus in the nonasymptotic region is shown to be different for quadratic weights with the same asymptotic properties. An algorithm is presented that can be used to select a feedback gain matrix for the linear state feedback problem which produces a specified asymptotic eigenstructure. Another algorithm is given to compute the asymptotic eigenstructure properties inherent in a given set of quadratic weights. Finally, it is shown that optimal root loci for nongeneric problems can be approximated by generic ones in the nonasymptotic region.

  6. Closed-loop step response for tuning PID-fractional-order-filter controllers.

    PubMed

    Amoura, Karima; Mansouri, Rachid; Bettayeb, Maâmar; Al-Saggaf, Ubaid M

    2016-09-01

    Analytical methods are usually applied for tuning fractional controllers. The present paper proposes an empirical method for tuning a new type of fractional controller known as PID-Fractional-Order-Filter (FOF-PID). Indeed, the setpoint overshoot method, initially introduced by Shamsuzzoha and Skogestad, has been adapted for tuning FOF-PID controller. Based on simulations for a range of first order with time delay processes, correlations have been derived to obtain PID-FOF controller parameters similar to those obtained by the Internal Model Control (IMC) tuning rule. The setpoint overshoot method requires only one closed-loop step response experiment using a proportional controller (P-controller). To highlight the potential of this method, simulation results have been compared with those obtained with the IMC method as well as other pertinent techniques. Various case studies have also been considered. The comparison has revealed that the proposed tuning method performs as good as the IMC. Moreover, it might offer a number of advantages over the IMC tuning rule. For instance, the parameters of the fractional controller are directly obtained from the setpoint closed-loop response data without the need of any model of the plant to be controlled.

  7. Behavioural system identification of visual flight speed control in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rohrseitz, Nicola; Fry, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural control in many animals involves complex mechanisms with intricate sensory-motor feedback loops. Modelling allows functional aspects to be captured without relying on a description of the underlying complex, and often unknown, mechanisms. A wide range of engineering techniques are available for modelling, but their ability to describe time-continuous processes is rarely exploited to describe sensory-motor control mechanisms in biological systems. We performed a system identification of visual flight speed control in the fruitfly Drosophila, based on an extensive dataset of open-loop responses previously measured under free flight conditions. We identified a second-order under-damped control model with just six free parameters that well describes both the transient and steady-state characteristics of the open-loop data. We then used the identified control model to predict flight speed responses after a visual perturbation under closed-loop conditions and validated the model with behavioural measurements performed in free-flying flies under the same closed-loop conditions. Our system identification of the fruitfly's flight speed response uncovers the high-level control strategy of a fundamental flight control reflex without depending on assumptions about the underlying physiological mechanisms. The results are relevant for future investigations of the underlying neuromotor processing mechanisms, as well as for the design of biomimetic robots, such as micro-air vehicles. PMID:20525744

  8. Behavioural system identification of visual flight speed control in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rohrseitz, Nicola; Fry, Steven N

    2011-02-06

    Behavioural control in many animals involves complex mechanisms with intricate sensory-motor feedback loops. Modelling allows functional aspects to be captured without relying on a description of the underlying complex, and often unknown, mechanisms. A wide range of engineering techniques are available for modelling, but their ability to describe time-continuous processes is rarely exploited to describe sensory-motor control mechanisms in biological systems. We performed a system identification of visual flight speed control in the fruitfly Drosophila, based on an extensive dataset of open-loop responses previously measured under free flight conditions. We identified a second-order under-damped control model with just six free parameters that well describes both the transient and steady-state characteristics of the open-loop data. We then used the identified control model to predict flight speed responses after a visual perturbation under closed-loop conditions and validated the model with behavioural measurements performed in free-flying flies under the same closed-loop conditions. Our system identification of the fruitfly's flight speed response uncovers the high-level control strategy of a fundamental flight control reflex without depending on assumptions about the underlying physiological mechanisms. The results are relevant for future investigations of the underlying neuromotor processing mechanisms, as well as for the design of biomimetic robots, such as micro-air vehicles.

  9. Quantum system identification.

    PubMed

    Burgarth, Daniel; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2012-02-24

    The aim of quantum system identification is to estimate the ingredients inside a black box, in which some quantum-mechanical unitary process takes place, by just looking at its input-output behavior. Here we establish a basic and general framework for quantum system identification, that allows us to classify how much knowledge about the quantum system is attainable, in principle, from a given experimental setup. We show that controllable closed quantum systems can be estimated up to unitary conjugation. Prior knowledge on some elements of the black box helps the system identification. We present an example in which a Bell measurement is more efficient to identify the system. When the topology of the system is known, the framework enables us to establish a general criterion for the estimability of the coupling constants in its Hamiltonian.

  10. Modified superposition: A simple time series approach to closed-loop manual controller identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biezad, D. J.; Schmidt, D. K.; Leban, F.; Mashiko, S.

    1986-01-01

    Single-channel pilot manual control output in closed-tracking tasks is modeled in terms of linear discrete transfer functions which are parsimonious and guaranteed stable. The transfer functions are found by applying a modified super-position time series generation technique. A Levinson-Durbin algorithm is used to determine the filter which prewhitens the input and a projective (least squares) fit of pulse response estimates is used to guarantee identified model stability. Results from two case studies are compared to previous findings, where the source of data are relatively short data records, approximately 25 seconds long. Time delay effects and pilot seasonalities are discussed and analyzed. It is concluded that single-channel time series controller modeling is feasible on short records, and that it is important for the analyst to determine a criterion for best time domain fit which allows association of model parameter values, such as pure time delay, with actual physical and physiological constraints. The purpose of the modeling is thus paramount.

  11. Optimized System Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Longman, Richard W.

    1999-01-01

    In system identification, one usually cares most about finding a model whose outputs are as close as possible to the true system outputs when the same input is applied to both. However, most system identification algorithms do not minimize this output error. Often they minimize model equation error instead, as in typical least-squares fits using a finite-difference model, and it is seen here that this distinction is significant. Here, we develop a set of system identification algorithms that minimize output error for multi-input/multi-output and multi-input/single-output systems. This is done with sequential quadratic programming iterations on the nonlinear least-squares problems, with an eigendecomposition to handle indefinite second partials. This optimization minimizes a nonlinear function of many variables, and hence can converge to local minima. To handle this problem, we start the iterations from the OKID (Observer/Kalman Identification) algorithm result. Not only has OKID proved very effective in practice, it minimizes an output error of an observer which has the property that as the data set gets large, it converges to minimizing the criterion of interest here. Hence, it is a particularly good starting point for the nonlinear iterations here. Examples show that the methods developed here eliminate the bias that is often observed using any system identification methods of either over-estimating or under-estimating the damping of vibration modes in lightly damped structures.

  12. First laboratory demonstration of closed-loop Kalman based optimal control for vibration filtering and simplified MCAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, C.; Conan, J.-M.; Kulcsár, C.; Raynaud, H.-F.; Fusco, T.; Montri, J.; Rabaud, D.

    2006-06-01

    Classic Adaptive Optics (AO) is now successfully implemented on a growing number of ground-based imaging systems. Nevertheless some limitations are still to cope with. First, the AO standard control laws are unable to easily handle vibrations. In the particular case of eXtreme AO (XAO), which requires a highly efficient AO, these vibrations can thus be much penalizing. We have previously shown that a Kalman based control law can provide both an efficient correction of the turbulence and a strong vibration filtering. Second, anisoplanatism effects lead to a small corrected field of view. Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) is a promising concept that should increase significantly this field of view. We have shown numerically that MCAO correction can be highly improved by optimal control based on a Kalman filter. This article presents the first laboratory demonstration of these two concepts. We use a classic AO bench available at Onera with a deformable mirror (DM) in the pupil and a Shack-Hartmann Wave Front Sensor (WFS) pointing at an on-axis guide-star. The turbulence is produced by a rotating phase screen in altitude. First, this AO configuration is used to validate the ability of our control approach to filter out system vibrations and improve the overall performance of the AO closed-loop, compared to classic controllers. The consequences on the RTC design of an XAO system is discussed. Then, we optimize the correction for an off-axis star although the WFS still points at the on-axis star. This Off-Axis AO (OAAO) can be seen as a first step towards MCAO or Multi-Object AO in a simplified configuration. It proves the ability of our control law to estimate the turbulence in altitude and correct in the direction of interest. We describe the off-axis correction tests performed in a dynamic mode (closed-loop) using our Kalman based control. We present the evolution of the off-axis correction according to the angular separation between the stars. A highly significant

  13. Development of closed-loop supply chain network in terms of corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pedram, Ali; Pedram, Payam; Yusoff, Nukman Bin; Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rise in awareness of environmental issues and the depletion of virgin resources, many firms have attempted to increase the sustainability of their activities. One efficient way to elevate sustainability is the consideration of corporate social responsibility (CSR) by designing a closed loop supply chain (CLSC). This paper has developed a mathematical model to increase corporate social responsibility in terms of job creation. Moreover the model, in addition to increasing total CLSC profit, provides a range of strategic decision solutions for decision makers to select a best action plan for a CLSC. A proposed multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model was solved with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). Fuzzy set theory was employed to select the best compromise solution from the Pareto-optimal solutions. A numerical example was used to validate the potential application of the proposed model. The results highlight the effect of CSR in the design of CLSC.

  14. Proportional Insulin Infusion in Closed-Loop Control of Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Grasman, Johan

    2017-01-01

    A differential equation model is formulated that describes the dynamics of glucose concentration in blood circulation. The model accounts for the intake of food, expenditure of calories and the control of glucose levels by insulin and glucagon. These and other hormones affect the blood glucose level in various ways. In this study only main effects are taken into consideration. Moreover, by making a quasi-steady state approximation the model is reduced to a single nonlinear differential equation of which parameters are fit to data from healthy subjects. Feedback provided by insulin plays a key role in the control of the blood glucose level. Reduced β-cell function and insulin resistance may hamper this process. With the present model it is shown how by closed-loop control these defects, in an organic way, can be compensated with continuous infusion of exogenous insulin. PMID:28060898

  15. Measurement error robustness of a closed-loop minimal sampling method for HIV therapy switching.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, E Fabian; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We test the robustness of a closed-loop treatment scheduling method to realistic HIV viral load measurement error. The purpose of the algorithm is to allow the accurate detection of an induced viral load minimum with a reduced number of samples. Therapy must be switched at or near the viral-load minimum to achieve optimal therapeutic benefit; therapeutic benefit decreases logarithmically with increased viral load at the switching time. The performance of the algorithm is characterized using a number of metrics. These include the number of samples saved vs. fixed-rate sampling, the risk-reduction achieved vs. the risk-reduction possible with frequent sampling, and the difference between the switching time vs. the theoretical optimal switching time. The algorithm is applied to simulated patient data generated from a family of data-driven patient models and corrupted by experimentally confirmed levels of log-normal noise.

  16. Closed Loop Guidance with Multiple Constraints for Low Orbit Vehicle Trajectory Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rufei; Zhao, Shifan

    Low orbit has features of strong invisibility and penetration, but needs more shutdown energy comparable to high orbit under the same range, which strongly requires studying the problem of delivery capacity optimization for multi-stage launch vehicles. Based on remnant apparent velocity and constraints models, multi-constraint closed-loop guidance with constraints of trajectory maximum height and azimuth was proposed, which adopted elliptical orbit theory and Newton iteration algorithm to optimize trajectory and thrust direction, reached to take full advantage of multi-stage launch vehicle propellant, and guided low orbit vehicle to enter maximum range trajectory. Theory deduction and numerical example demonstrate that the proposed guidance method could extend range and achieve precise control for orbit maximum height and azimuth.

  17. Cycle-averaged dynamics of a periodically driven, closed-loop circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldt, T.; Chang, J. L.; Chen, J. J. S.; Verghese, G. C.; Mark, R. G.

    2005-01-01

    Time-varying elastance models have been used extensively in the past to simulate the pulsatile nature of cardiovascular waveforms. Frequently, however, one is interested in dynamics that occur over longer time scales, in which case a detailed simulation of each cardiac contraction becomes computationally burdensome. In this paper, we apply circuit-averaging techniques to a periodically driven, closed-loop, three-compartment recirculation model. The resultant cycle-averaged model is linear and time invariant, and greatly reduces the computational burden. It is also amenable to systematic order reduction methods that lead to further efficiencies. Despite its simplicity, the averaged model captures the dynamics relevant to the representation of a range of cardiovascular reflex mechanisms. c2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A closed-loop life cycle assessment of recycled aggregate concrete utilization in China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Xiao, Jianzhuang; Tam, Vivian W Y

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the potential environmental impact of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) for concrete production in China. According to the cradle-to-cradle theory, a closed-loop life cycle assessment (LCA) on recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) utilization in China with entire local life cycle inventory (LCI) is performed, regarding the environmental influence of cement content, aggregate production, transportation and waste landfilling. Special attention is paid on the primary resource and energy conservation, as well as climate protection induced by RAC applications. Environmental impact between natural aggregate concrete (NAC) and RAC are also compared. It is shown that cement proportion and transportation are the top two contributors for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and energy consumption for both NAC and RAC. Sensitivity analysis also proves that long delivery distances for natural coarse aggregate (NCA) leave a possible opportunity for lowering environmental impact of RAC in China.

  19. A micro flow-meter for closed-loop management of biological samples.

    PubMed

    Accoto, Dino; Damiani, Francesco; Campisi, Michele; Castrataro, Piero; Campolo, Domenico; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Dario, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The closed-loop management of biological samples in μTAS requires proper flow-sensors to be inserted in the hydraulic path. The optimal choice between hybrid mounting and monolithic fabrication depends on several design variables, one of which is the technological compatibility between the sensor and the pumping mechanism. Monolithic integration appears to be the eligible solution if both pumps and sensors can be fabricated with the same technological process. In this paper we show that it is actually possible to fabricate a flow-sensor, based on streaming potential detection, with the same soft-lithographic process used for the fabrication of electroosmotic pumps. The device has been fabricated in PDMS and experimentally tested, showing a good linearity. Finally, its time-varying response, related to the aging of the PDMS surface, is discussed.

  20. Novel sensors to enable closed-loop active clearance control in gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisheimer, Jonathan; Holst, Tom

    2014-06-01

    Active clearance control within the turbine section of gas turbine engines presents and opportunity within aerospace and industrial applications to improve operating efficiencies and the life of downstream components. Open loop clearance control is currently employed during the development of all new large core aerospace engines; however, the ability to measure the gap between the blades and the case and close down the clearance further presents as opportunity to gain even greater efficiencies. The turbine area is one of the harshest environments for long term placement of a sensor in addition to the extreme accuracy requirements required to enable closed loop clearance control. This paper gives an overview of the challenges of clearance measurements within the turbine as well as discusses the latest developments of a microwave sensor designed for this application.

  1. Autonomous Closed-Loop Tasking, Acquisition, Processing, and Evaluation for Situational Awareness Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Dan; Cappelaere, Pat

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the closed loop satellite autonomy methods used to connect users and the assets on Earth Orbiter- 1 (EO-1) and similar satellites. The base layer is a distributed architecture based on Goddard Mission Services Evolution Concept (GMSEC) thus each asset still under independent control. Situational awareness is provided by a middleware layer through common Application Programmer Interface (API) to GMSEC components developed at GSFC. Users setup their own tasking requests, receive views into immediate past acquisitions in their area of interest, and into future feasibilities for acquisition across all assets. Automated notifications via pubsub feeds are returned to users containing published links to image footprints, algorithm results, and full data sets. Theme-based algorithms are available on-demand for processing.

  2. Closed-loop training of attention with real-time brain imaging.

    PubMed

    deBettencourt, Megan T; Cohen, Jonathan D; Lee, Ray F; Norman, Kenneth A; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2015-03-01

    Lapses of attention can have negative consequences, including accidents and lost productivity. Here we used closed-loop neurofeedback to improve sustained attention abilities and reduce the frequency of lapses. During a sustained attention task, the focus of attention was monitored in real time with multivariate pattern analysis of whole-brain neuroimaging data. When indicators of an attentional lapse were detected in the brain, we gave human participants feedback by making the task more difficult. Behavioral performance improved after one training session, relative to control participants who received feedback from other participants' brains. This improvement was largest when feedback carried information from a frontoparietal attention network. A neural consequence of training was that the basal ganglia and ventral temporal cortex came to represent attentional states more distinctively. These findings suggest that attentional failures do not reflect an upper limit on cognitive potential and that attention can be trained with appropriate feedback about neural signals.

  3. Optimal Inputs for System Identification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    The derivation of the power spectral density of the optimal input for system identification is addressed in this research. Optimality is defined in...identification potential of general System Identification algorithms, a new and efficient System Identification algorithm that employs Iterated Weighted Least

  4. Driving sleep slow oscillations by auditory closed-loop stimulation-a self-limiting process.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hong-Viet V; Miedema, Arjan; Faude, Isabel; Martinetz, Thomas; Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2015-04-29

    The <1 Hz EEG slow oscillation (SO) is a hallmark of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and is critically involved in sleep-associated memory formation. Previous studies showed that SOs and associated memory function can be effectively enhanced by closed-loop auditory stimulation, when clicks are presented in synchrony with upcoming SO up states. However, increasing SOs and synchronized excitability also bear the risk of emerging seizure activity, suggesting the presence of mechanisms in the healthy brain that counter developing hypersynchronicity during SOs. Here, we aimed to test the limits of driving SOs through closed-loop auditory stimulation in healthy humans. Study I tested a "Driving stimulation" protocol (vs "Sham") in which trains of clicks were presented in synchrony with SO up states basically as long as an ongoing SO train was identified on-line. Study II compared Driving stimulation with a "2-Click" protocol where the maximum of stimuli delivered in a train was limited to two clicks. Stimulation was applied during SWS in the first 210 min of nocturnal sleep. Before and after sleep declarative word-pair memories were tested. Compared with the Sham control, Driving stimulation prolonged SO trains and enhanced SO amplitudes, phase-locked spindle activity, and overnight retention of word pairs (all ps < 0.05). Importantly, effects of Driving stimulation did not exceed those of 2-Click stimulation (p > 0.180), indicating the presence of a mechanism preventing the development of hypersynchronicity during SO activity. Assessment of temporal dynamics revealed a rapidly fading phase-locked spindle activity during repetitive click stimulation, suggesting that spindle refractoriness contributes to this protective mechanism.

  5. Evolving refractory major depressive disorder diagnostic and treatment paradigms: toward closed-loop therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ward, Matthew P; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2010-01-01

    Current antidepressant therapies do not effectively control or cure depressive symptoms. Pharmaceutical therapies altogether fail to address an estimated 4 million Americans who suffer from a recurrent and severe treatment-resistant form of depression known as refractory major depressive disorder. Subjective diagnostic schemes, differing manifestations of the disorder, and antidepressant treatments with limited theoretical bases each contribute to the general lack of therapeutic efficacy and differing levels of treatment resistance in the refractory population. Stimulation-based therapies, such as vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and deep brain stimulation, are promising treatment alternatives for this treatment-resistant subset of patients, but are plagued with inconsistent reports of efficacy and variable side effects. Many of these problems stem from the unknown mechanisms of depressive disorder pathogenesis, which prevents the development of treatments that target the specific underlying causes of the disorder. Other problems likely arise due to the non-specific stimulation of various limbic and paralimbic structures in an open-loop configuration. This review critically assesses current literature on depressive disorder diagnostic methodologies, treatment schemes, and pathogenesis in order to emphasize the need for more stringent depressive disorder classifications, quantifiable biological markers that are suitable for objective diagnoses, and alternative closed-loop treatment options tailored to well-defined forms of the disorder. A closed-loop neurostimulation device design framework is proposed, utilizing symptom-linked biomarker abnormalities as control points for initiating and terminating a corrective electrical stimulus which is autonomously optimized for correcting the magnitude and direction of observed biomarker abnormality.

  6. Evolving Refractory Major Depressive Disorder Diagnostic and Treatment Paradigms: Toward Closed-Loop Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Matthew P.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.

    2010-01-01

    Current antidepressant therapies do not effectively control or cure depressive symptoms. Pharmaceutical therapies altogether fail to address an estimated 4 million Americans who suffer from a recurrent and severe treatment-resistant form of depression known as refractory major depressive disorder. Subjective diagnostic schemes, differing manifestations of the disorder, and antidepressant treatments with limited theoretical bases each contribute to the general lack of therapeutic efficacy and differing levels of treatment resistance in the refractory population. Stimulation-based therapies, such as vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and deep brain stimulation, are promising treatment alternatives for this treatment-resistant subset of patients, but are plagued with inconsistent reports of efficacy and variable side effects. Many of these problems stem from the unknown mechanisms of depressive disorder pathogenesis, which prevents the development of treatments that target the specific underlying causes of the disorder. Other problems likely arise due to the non-specific stimulation of various limbic and paralimbic structures in an open-loop configuration. This review critically assesses current literature on depressive disorder diagnostic methodologies, treatment schemes, and pathogenesis in order to emphasize the need for more stringent depressive disorder classifications, quantifiable biological markers that are suitable for objective diagnoses, and alternative closed-loop treatment options tailored to well-defined forms of the disorder. A closed-loop neurostimulation device design framework is proposed, utilizing symptom-linked biomarker abnormalities as control points for initiating and terminating a corrective electrical stimulus which is autonomously optimized for correcting the magnitude and direction of observed biomarker abnormality. PMID:20631824

  7. Detecting a Cortical Fingerprint of Parkinson's Disease for Closed-Loop Neuromodulation

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Kevin; Naros, Georgios; Braun, Christoph; Weiss, Daniel; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson's disease (PD) mediates its clinical effects by modulating cortical oscillatory activity, presumably via a direct cortico-subthalamic connection. This observation might pave the way for novel closed-loop approaches comprising a cortical sensor. Enhanced beta oscillations (13-35 Hz) have been linked to the pathophysiology of PD and may serve as such a candidate marker to localize a cortical area reliably modulated by DBS. However, beta-oscillations are widely distributed over the cortical surface, necessitating an additional signal source for spotting the cortical area linked to the pathologically synchronized cortico-subcortical motor network. In this context, both cortico-subthalamic coherence and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) have been studied in PD patients. Whereas, the former requires invasive recordings, the latter allows for non-invasive detection, but displays a rather distributed cortical synchronization pattern in motor tasks. This distributed cortical representation may conflict with the goal of detecting a cortical localization with robust biomarker properties which is detectable on a single subject basis. We propose that this limitation could be overcome when recording CMC at rest. We hypothesized that—unlike healthy subjects—PD would show CMC at rest owing to the enhanced beta oscillations observed in PD. By performing source space analysis of beta CMC recorded during resting-state magnetoencephalography, we provide preliminary evidence in one patient for a cortical hot spot that is modulated most strongly by subthalamic DBS. Such a spot would provide a prominent target region either for direct neuromodulation or for placing a potential sensor in closed-loop DBS approaches, a proposal that requires investigation in a larger cohort of PD patients. PMID:27065781

  8. Partial hepatectomy hemodynamics changes: Experimental data explained by closed-loop lumped modeling.

    PubMed

    Audebert, Chloe; Bekheit, Mohamed; Bucur, Petru; Vibert, Eric; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2017-01-04

    The liver function may be degraded after partial liver ablation surgery. Adverse liver hemodynamics have been shown to be associated to liver failure. The link between these hemodynamics changes and ablation size is however poorly understood. This article proposes to explain with a closed-loop lumped model the hemodynamics changes observed during twelve surgeries in pigs. The portal venous tree is modeled with a pressure-dependent variable resistor. The variables measured, before liver ablation, are used to tune the model parameters. Then, the liver partial ablation is simulated with the model and the simulated pressures and flows are compared with post-operative measurements. Fluid infusion and blood losses occur during the surgery. The closed-loop model presented accounts for these blood volume changes. Moreover, the impact of blood volume changes and the liver lobe mass estimations on the simulated variables is studied. The typical increase of portal pressure, increase of liver pressure loss, slight decrease of portal flow and major decrease in arterial flow are quantitatively captured by the model for a 75% hepatectomy. It appears that the 75% decrease in hepatic arterial flow can be explained by the resistance increase induced by the surgery, and that no hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR) mechanism is needed to account for this change. The different post-operative states, observed in experiments, are reproduced with the proposed model. Thus, an explanation for inter-subjects post-operative variability is proposed. The presented framework can easily be adapted to other species circulations and to different pathologies for clinical hepatic applications.

  9. Closed-loop dialog model of face-to-face communication with a photo-real virtual human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Bernadette; Benedek, Balázs; Szijárto, Gábor; Takács, Barnabás

    2004-01-01

    We describe an advanced Human Computer Interaction (HCI) model that employs photo-realistic virtual humans to provide digital media users with information, learning services and entertainment in a highly personalized and adaptive manner. The system can be used as a computer interface or as a tool to deliver content to end-users. We model the interaction process between the user and the system as part of a closed loop dialog taking place between the participants. This dialog, exploits the most important characteristics of a face-to-face communication process, including the use of non-verbal gestures and meta communication signals to control the flow of information. Our solution is based on a Virtual Human Interface (VHI) technology that was specifically designed to be able to create emotional engagement between the virtual agent and the user, thus increasing the efficiency of learning and/or absorbing any information broadcasted through this device. The paper reviews the basic building blocks and technologies needed to create such a system and discusses its advantages over other existing methods.

  10. NeuroControl of movement: system identification approach for clinical benefit.

    PubMed

    Meskers, Carel G M; de Groot, Jurriaan H; de Vlugt, Erwin; Schouten, Alfred C

    2015-01-01

    Progress in diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders after neurological diseases like stroke, cerebral palsy (CP), dystonia and at old age requires understanding of the altered capacity to adequately respond to physical obstacles in the environment. With posture and movement disorders, the control of muscles is hampered, resulting in aberrant force generation and improper impedance regulation. Understanding of this improper regulation not only requires the understanding of the role of the neural controller, but also attention for: (1) the interaction between the neural controller and the "plant", comprising the biomechanical properties of the musculaskeletal system including the viscoelastic properties of the contractile (muscle) and non-contractile (connective) tissues: neuromechanics; and (2) the closed loop nature of neural controller and biomechanical system in which cause and effect interact and are hence difficult to separate. Properties of the neural controller and the biomechanical system need to be addressed synchronously by the combination of haptic robotics, (closed loop) system identification (SI), and neuro-mechanical modeling. In this paper, we argue that assessment of neuromechanics in response to well defined environmental conditions and tasks may provide for key parameters to understand posture and movement disorders in neurological diseases and for biomarkers to increase accuracy of prediction models for functional outcome and effects of intervention.

  11. NeuroControl of movement: system identification approach for clinical benefit

    PubMed Central

    Meskers, Carel G. M.; de Groot, Jurriaan H.; de Vlugt, Erwin; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2015-01-01

    Progress in diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders after neurological diseases like stroke, cerebral palsy (CP), dystonia and at old age requires understanding of the altered capacity to adequately respond to physical obstacles in the environment. With posture and movement disorders, the control of muscles is hampered, resulting in aberrant force generation and improper impedance regulation. Understanding of this improper regulation not only requires the understanding of the role of the neural controller, but also attention for: (1) the interaction between the neural controller and the “plant”, comprising the biomechanical properties of the musculaskeletal system including the viscoelastic properties of the contractile (muscle) and non-contractile (connective) tissues: neuromechanics; and (2) the closed loop nature of neural controller and biomechanical system in which cause and effect interact and are hence difficult to separate. Properties of the neural controller and the biomechanical system need to be addressed synchronously by the combination of haptic robotics, (closed loop) system identification (SI), and neuro-mechanical modeling. In this paper, we argue that assessment of neuromechanics in response to well defined environmental conditions and tasks may provide for key parameters to understand posture and movement disorders in neurological diseases and for biomarkers to increase accuracy of prediction models for functional outcome and effects of intervention. PMID:26441563

  12. MIMO model of an interacting series process for Robust MPC via System Identification.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Tri Chandra S; Saad, Nordin

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses the empirical modeling using system identification technique with a focus on an interacting series process. The study is carried out experimentally using a gaseous pilot plant as the process, in which the dynamic of such a plant exhibits the typical dynamic of an interacting series process. Three practical approaches are investigated and their performances are evaluated. The models developed are also examined in real-time implementation of a linear model predictive control. The selected model is able to reproduce the main dynamic characteristics of the plant in open-loop and produces zero steady-state errors in closed-loop control system. Several issues concerning the identification process and the construction of a MIMO state space model for a series interacting process are deliberated.

  13. Fully integrated artificial pancreas in type 1 diabetes: modular closed-loop glucose control maintains near normoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Breton, Marc; Farret, Anne; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Anderson, Stacey; Magni, Lalo; Patek, Stephen; Dalla Man, Chiara; Place, Jerome; Demartini, Susan; Del Favero, Simone; Toffanin, Chiara; Hughes-Karvetski, Colleen; Dassau, Eyal; Zisser, Howard; Doyle, Francis J; De Nicolao, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio; Renard, Eric; Kovatchev, Boris

    2012-09-01

    Integrated closed-loop control (CLC), combining continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) with insulin pump (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]), known as artificial pancreas, can help optimize glycemic control in diabetes. We present a fundamental modular concept for CLC design, illustrated by clinical studies involving 11 adolescents and 27 adults at the Universities of Virginia, Padova, and Montpellier. We tested two modular CLC constructs: standard control to range (sCTR), designed to augment pump plus CGM by preventing extreme glucose excursions; and enhanced control to range (eCTR), designed to truly optimize control within near normoglycemia of 3.9-10 mmol/L. The CLC system was fully integrated using automated data transfer CGM→algorithm→CSII. All studies used randomized crossover design comparing CSII versus CLC during identical 22-h hospitalizations including meals, overnight rest, and 30-min exercise. sCTR increased significantly the time in near normoglycemia from 61 to 74%, simultan