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Sample records for clostridium histolyticum collagenase

  1. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [ ... class of medications called enzymes. In people with Dupuytren's contracture, it works by helping to break down ...

  2. Pain Associated With Treatment of Dupuytren Contracture With Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan-Cerveró, Rafael; Carrera-Hueso, Francisco J; Vazquez-Ferreiro, Pedro; Fikri-Benbrahim, Narjis; Franco-Ferrando, Nuria; Peimer, Clayton A

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the degree of pain associated with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection and to determine whether it is related to other factors in the intervention. A prospective study of 135 patients was performed to evaluate pain at 3 points during treatment: (1) after CCH injection, using a numerical rating scale (NRS), (2) a binary (positive/negative) assessment before manipulation 24 hours after CCH and after removing the bandage, and (3) after joint manipulation performed with wrist block anesthesia. The average NRS for pain during infiltration was 4.7. Pain was present before manipulation in 52.6% of patients. Pain from manipulation showed an average NRS score of 3.6. The amounts of pain at CCH infiltration, pain after 24 hours, and pain from the manipulation were correlated because patients who experienced pain during CCH infiltration were more likely to report experiencing pain during manipulation. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection for treating Dupuytren contracture can be a painful process. There is a clear relationship between a patient's level of pain during injection of CCH and the likelihood that the patient will experience pain during manipulation, even with the use of local anesthesia. Prognostic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intralesional Injection of Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum May Increase the Risk of Late-Onset Penile Fracture.

    PubMed

    Beilan, Jonathan A; Wallen, Jared J; Baumgarten, Adam S; Morgan, Kevin N; Parker, Justin L; Carrion, Rafael E

    2018-04-01

    The use of intralesional injection of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) has become a valid treatment option in the management of Peyronie's disease (PD). Multiple studies have shown the drug's safety and efficacy. However, sparse literature exists on the utility of the injection protocol's 14-day "observation period," in which patients are instructed to abstain from all sexual activity. To summarize the contemporary literature and report on our series of patients treated with CCH in an effort to explore the effectiveness of the postinjection observation period. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical course of men treated with at least one CCH injection at our institution from April 2014 through February 2017. The main outcome measure for our cohort was complication rate (hematoma, fracture). Secondary outcomes included progression to corrective surgery. Of the 102 patients treated, 5 (4.9%) developed a corporal fracture. Four of these occurred outside the 14-day observation period. One fracture was managed conservatively and the rest underwent surgical exploration and repair. Twelve penile hematomas were reported; one of these patients was surgically explored because of suspicious magnetic resonance imaging findings. Seven patients (6.9%) progressed to corrective surgery. Penile hematoma and corporal fracture are serious complications that must be discussed with patients before initiation of intralesional CCH treatment. Little evidence exists to direct physicians on the proper management of post-CCH penile fractures; many caregivers and patients elect to treat these injuries conservatively and avoid surgical exploration. Further studies are warranted to generate discussion and reassessment regarding the safety and effectiveness of this 14-day observation period. Beilan JA, Wallen JJ, Baumgarten AS, Morgan KN, Parker JL, Carrion RE. Intralesional Injection of Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum May Increase the Risk of Late-Onset Penile Fracture. Sex

  4. Skin graft loss resulting from collagenase clostridium histolyticum treatment of Dupuytren contracture: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jordan W; Watt, Andrew J; Vedder, Nicholas B

    2013-03-01

    Treatment of Dupuytren disease with collagenase clostridium histolyticum is increasingly used among hand surgeons. Although it is generally safe and efficacious, complications related to enzymatic fasciotomy occur. Postapproval surveillance and communication among hand surgeons continues to refine the indications, contraindications, and complications recognized in the treatment of Dupuytren disease with enzymatic therapy. Major treatment-related adverse events previously reported include flexor tendon rupture and complex regional pain syndrome. We report a patient who experienced total loss of a well-established volar ring finger skin graft following collagenase injection and propose a potential mechanism of vulnerability. This case may illustrate the susceptibility of type I collagen, which is uniformly present in a healed skin graft bed, to degradation with collagenase. We propose a cautious approach when considering treatment of a Dupuytren cord with collagenase in the presence of an overlying skin graft, regardless of the age of the graft. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Impact of Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum Introduction on Dupuytren Treatment Patterns in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhao, John Z; Hadley, Scott; Floyd, Emerson; Earp, Brandon E; Blazar, Philip E

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) in the United States in February 2010. This study addresses the impact of that approval on the number of Dupuytren contracture (DC) encounters and treatment patterns in the United States. Using the Intercontinental Marketing Services Health Office-Based Medical Claims database, we identified the monthly number of DC encounters and DC procedures between January 2007 and December 2013. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum usage data from March 2010 to December 2013 was derived from the U.S. CCH manufacturer's data warehouse. Using the combined data, the yearly increasing trends in DC encounters and treatment volume were compared before and after the introduction of CCH. Time trends in the relative procedure frequencies were then examined. Finally, the presence of seasonal variation was tested for in each treatment type. Dupuytren contracture encounters increased on average by 19,015 per year between 2007 and 2009, whereas between 2011 and 2013, DC encounters increased on average by 34,940 per year. In terms of absolute procedure counts, the surgery trend line began decreasing in 2010 with the release of CCH. Meanwhile, CCH continuously increased between 2010 and 2013, and needle aponeurotomy (NA) remained relatively stable. By the year 2013, minimally invasive techniques (NA and CCH) comprised 39% of all treatment, compared with only 14% in 2007. Lastly, there was a statistically significant seasonal increase in the number of surgical procedures during the wintertime but no seasonal variation in NA or CCH. After the introduction of CCH, the number of Dupuytren encounters increased at a greater annual rate. The introduction and growth of CCH coincided with a decrease in surgery. The number of NA procedures remained steady throughout the study period. The number of open surgery cases followed a predictable seasonal variation with more procedures during the winter months

  6. Dupuytren Contracture Recurrence Following Treatment With Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CORDLESS [Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren Long-Term Evaluation of Safety Study]): 5-Year Data.

    PubMed

    Peimer, Clayton A; Blazar, Philip; Coleman, Stephen; Kaplan, F Thomas D; Smith, Ted; Lindau, Tommy

    2015-08-01

    Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren Long-Term Evaluation of Safety Study was a 5-year noninterventional follow-up study to determine long-term efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) treatment for Dupuytren contracture. Patients from previous CCH clinical studies were eligible. Enrolled patients were evaluated annually for contracture and safety at 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after their first injection (0.58 mg) of CCH. In successfully treated joints (≤ 5° contracture following CCH treatment), recurrence was defined as 20° or greater worsening (relative to day 30 after the last injection) with a palpable cord or any medical/surgical intervention to correct new/worsening contracture. A post hoc analysis was also conducted using a less stringent threshold (≥ 30° worsening) for comparison with criteria historically used to assess surgical treatment. Of 950 eligible patients, 644 enrolled (1,081 treated joints). At year 5, 47% (291 of 623) of successfully treated joints had recurrence (≥ 20° worsening)-39% (178 of 451) of metacarpophalangeal and 66% (113 of 172) of proximal interphalangeal joints. At year 5, 32% (198 of 623) of successfully treated joints had 30° or greater worsening (metacarpophalangeal 26% [119 of 451] and proximal interphalangeal 46% [79 of 172] joints). Of 105 secondary interventions performed in the successfully treated joints, 47% (49 of 105) received fasciectomy, 30% (32 of 105) received additional CCH, and 23% (24 of 105) received other interventions. One mild adverse event was attributed to CCH treatment (skin atrophy [decreased ring finger circumference from thinning of Dupuytren tissue]). Antibodies to clostridial type I and/or II collagenase were found in 93% of patients, but over the 5 years of follow-up, this did not correspond to any reported clinical adverse events. Five years after successful CCH treatment, the overall recurrence rate of 47% was comparable with published recurrence rates after

  7. Analysis of efficacy and safety of treatment with collagenase Clostridium histolyticum among subgroups of patients with Dupuytren contracture.

    PubMed

    Raven, Raymond B; Kushner, Harvey; Nguyen, Dat; Naam, Nash; Curtin, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection is a nonoperative treatment of hand contractures from Dupuytren disease. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of CCH in several subgroups of patients with increased surgical risk.Data were pooled from 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials. This analysis included 271 patients with metacarpophalangeal (n = 167) or proximal interphalangeal (n = 104) joint contractures greater than or equal to 20 degrees treated with CCH (0.58 mg collagenase per injection). Subgroups included age, sex, and diabetes status. End points included rate of clinical success (reduction in contracture to 0-5 degrees of normal) and percentage of adverse events.There was no significant difference in clinical success by age, diabetes status, or sex with 63% reaching the end point. There was no difference in adverse events among the subgroups, with peripheral edema, contusion, and injection-site hemorrhage being most common.High-risk subgroups do not demonstrate differences in efficacy or safety with CCH treatment of Dupuytren-related contractures.

  8. Efficacy and safety of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection for Dupuytren contracture: report of 40 cases.

    PubMed

    Alberton, F; Corain, M; Garofano, A; Pangallo, L; Valore, A; Zanella, V; Adani, R

    2014-12-01

    Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a fibroproliferative pathology that affects the palmar aponeurosis causing the development of nodules and collagen cords and the progressive flexion of the fingers. The standard procedure is surgical fasciectomy, followed by high recurrence rates. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection represents an innovative noninvasive approach to the treatment of DD. This prospective study was designed to examine the efficacy and safety of CCH injection performed in the outpatient, using local anesthesia. Forty patients [32 metacarpophalangeal (MP), 8 proximal interphalangeal (PIP)] with Dupuytren's contracture of at least 20° for MP joint and any degree for PIP joint were included. The mean age was 66. All joints were treated with a single vial of collagenase injection and manual breaking of the cord 24 h after. All adverse effects (AEs) were monitored. Patients were checked 7, 30, 90, and 180 days after the injection. Primary endpoint was a reduction in digit contracture within 0°-5° of normal extension. Secondary endpoints were the improvement of range of motion, the evaluation of AEs incidence, and cost-effectiveness of collagenase treatment. About 67.5 % of patients obtained a clinical success. At 6 months, a further 7.5% attained the same result. The mean contracture of treated joints was 5.3º for MP and 6.8° for PIP joints. Twenty-three patients had one or more mild-to-moderate side effects. The use of collagenase appears to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture. Therapeutic success was achieved in a significant percentage of patients. The incidence of side effects was higher, but they were local reactions of short duration. The use of a single collagenase vial in patients treated in day surgery appears more cost-effective than surgery.

  9. Efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum in the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joints in dupuytren contracture: combined analysis of 4 phase 3 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Badalamente, Marie A; Hurst, Lawrence C; Benhaim, Prosper; Cohen, Brian M

    2015-05-01

    To examine the results of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures from 4 phase 3 clinical trials of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for Dupuytren contracture. Patients enrolled in Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren I/II and JOINT I/II with one or more PIP joint contractures (20° to 80°) received CCH 0.58 mg/0.20 mL or placebo (Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren I/II only) injected directly into a palpable cord. The percentage of PIP joints achieving clinical success (0° to 5° of full extension), clinical improvement (50% or more reduction in baseline contracture), and range of motion improvement at 30 days after the first and last CCH injections was assessed. The PIP joint contractures were classified into low (40° or less) and high (more than 40°) baseline severity. Adverse events were recorded. A total of 506 adults (mean age, 63 ± 10 y; 80% male) received 1,165 CCH injections in 644 PIP joint cords (mean, 1.6 injections/cord). Most patients (60%) received 1 injection, with 24%, 16%, and 1% receiving 2, 3, and 4 injections, respectively. Clinical success and clinical improvement occurred in 27% and 49% of PIP joints after one injection and in 34% and 58% after the last injection. Patients with lower baseline severity showed greater improvement and response was comparable between fingers, as were improvements in range of motion. Adverse events occurring in more than 10% of patients were peripheral edema (58%), contusion (38%), injection site hemorrhage (23%), injection site pain (21%), injection site swelling (16%), and tenderness (13%). This incidence was consistent with data reported in phase 3 trials. Two tendon ruptures occurred. No further ruptures occurred after a modified injection technique was adopted. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum was effective and well tolerated in the short term in patients with Dupuytren PIP joint contractures. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for

  10. Dupuytren contracture recurrence following treatment with collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CORDLESS study): 3-year data.

    PubMed

    Peimer, Clayton A; Blazar, Philip; Coleman, Stephen; Kaplan, F Thomas D; Smith, Ted; Tursi, James P; Cohen, Brian; Kaufman, Gregory J; Lindau, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) after the third year of a 5-year nontreatment follow-up study, Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren Long-Term Evaluation of Safety Study. This study enrolled Dupuytren contracture patients from 5 previous clinical studies. Beginning 2 years after their first CCH injection, we re-evaluated patients annually for joint contracture and safety. Recurrence in a previously successfully treated joint (success = 0° to 5° contracture after CCH administration) was defined as 20° or greater worsening in contracture in the presence of a palpable cord or medical/surgical intervention to correct new or worsening contracture. We assessed partially corrected joints (joints reduced 20° or more from baseline contracture but not to 0° to 5°) for nondurable response, also defined as 20° or greater worsening of contracture or medical/surgical intervention. Of 1,080 CCH-treated joints (648 metacarpophalangeal [MCP]; 432 proximal interphalangeal [PIP]; n = 643 patients), 623 (451 MCP, 172 PIP) had achieved 0° to 5° contracture in the original study. Of these joints, 35% (217 of 623) recurred (MCP 27%; PIP 56%). Of these recurrences, an intervention was performed in 7%. Of the 1,080 CCH-treated joints, 301 were partially corrected in the original study. Of these, 50% (150 of 301; MCP: 38% [57 of 152]; PIP: 62% [93 of 149]) had nondurable response. We identified no new long-term or serious adverse events attributed to CCH during follow-up. Anti-clostridial type I collagenase and/or anti-clostridial type II collagenase antibodies were reported for 96% or more of patients who received 2 or more CCH injections and 82% who received 1 injection. The recurrence rate, which is comparable to other standard treatments, and the absence of long-term adverse events 3 years after initial treatment indicate that CCH is an effective and safe treatment for Dupuytren contracture. Most successfully

  11. Delayed manipulation after collagenase clostridium histolyticum injection for Dupuytren contracture.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, F Thomas D; Badalamente, Marie A; Hurst, Lawrence C; Merrell, Gregory A; Pahk, Raymond

    2015-09-01

    Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for Dupuytren contracture was approved in the USA in 2010. Current FDA guidelines stipulate that finger manipulation occurs the day following injection. To investigate the safety and efficacy of delaying manipulation to 2 or 4 days following CCH injection, we conducted a prospective, randomized trial at two sites. Patients with Dupuytren contracture involving the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint ≥20° caused by a palpable cord participated. All patients received one dose of CCH (0.58 mg/0.25 ml) and were followed for 90 days. The primary end point was the percent of patients maintaining clinical success (reduction of contracture to 0°-5°) at 90 days post-injection. Adverse events and change in Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ) score were recorded as secondary end points. Thirty-seven patients enrolled; 13 were manipulated on day 1, 11 on day 2, and 13 on day 4. At 30 days after injection, the percentage of patients obtaining reduction of contracture to <0°-5° extension was 92, 82, and 85 % in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with no significant difference. At 90 days follow-up, the percentage of patients maintaining 0°-5° extension was 91, 82, and 83 % in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with no significant difference. Adverse events were comparable to rates in prior studies. There were no serious adverse events. There was no statistical difference in MHQ scores between groups at any time point. Delaying manipulation to day 2 or 4 following CCH injection for MCP joint contractures does not increase adverse events or result in loss of efficacy. Therapeutic, Level II.

  12. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum for the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brazzelli, Miriam; Cruickshank, Moira; Tassie, Emma; McNamee, Paul; Robertson, Clare; Elders, Andrew; Fraser, Cynthia; Hernandez, Rodolfo; Lawrie, David; Ramsay, Craig

    2015-10-01

    Dupuytren's disease is a slowly progressive condition of the hand, characterised by the formation of nodules in the palm that gradually develop into fibrotic cords. Contracture of the cords produces deformities of the fingers. Surgery is recommended for moderate and severe contractures, but complications and/or recurrences are frequent. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) has been developed as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery for some patients. To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of collagenase as an alternative to surgery for adults with Dupuytren's contracture with a palpable cord. We searched all major electronic databases from 1990 to February 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised comparative studies and observational studies involving collagenase and/or surgical interventions were considered. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. A de novo Markov model was developed to assess cost-effectiveness of collagenase, percutaneous needle fasciotomy (PNF) and limited fasciectomy (LF). Results were reported as incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to investigate model and parameter uncertainty. Five RCTs comparing collagenase with placebo (493 participants), three RCTs comparing surgical techniques (334 participants), two non-randomised studies comparing collagenase and surgery (105 participants), five non-randomised comparative studies assessing various surgical procedures (3571 participants) and 15 collagenase case series (3154 participants) were included. Meta-analyses of RCTs assessing CCH versus placebo were performed. Joints randomised to collagenase were more likely to achieve clinical success. Collagenase-treated participants experienced significant reduction in contracture and an increased range of motion compared with placebo-treated participants

  13. Survey of patient and partner satisfaction following collagenase Clostridium histolyticum treatment for Peyronie's disease.

    PubMed

    Anaissie, J; Yafi, F A; Traore, E J; Sikka, S C; Hellstrom, W J G

    2017-03-01

    Intralesional injection of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) is a minimally invasive, Food and Drug Administration-approved, effective treatment for Peyronie's disease (PD). To assess the satisfaction of patients and their female sexual partners (FSP) following CCH therapy for PD, we conducted a retrospective review of the records of all patients treated with CCH for PD between 04/2014 and 03/2016. Collected variables included demographics, pre- and post-treatment sexual function, penile curvature, penile vascular findings, and treatment outcomes. Patients and their FSPs were subsequently contacted by telephone and queried regarding their ability to have intercourse and their satisfaction with treatment. A total of 24 couples responded to our questionnaire and constitute the subjects of this analysis. Patient and FSP satisfaction with treatment were 67% and 71%, respectively. Significant predictors of FSP satisfaction with treatment included recall of penile trauma during prior sexual intercourse, improved ability to have sexual intercourse following treatment, and absence of post-procedural glans hypoesthesia. In conclusion, CCH imparts a significant benefit on a couple's sexual health. Partner satisfaction with treatment is correlated with improved ability to have sexual intercourse and absence of patient glans hypoesthesia. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum injection for Dupuytren contracture: short-term results from 2 open-label studies.

    PubMed

    Witthaut, Jörg; Jones, Graeme; Skrepnik, Nebojsa; Kushner, Harvey; Houston, Anthony; Lindau, Tommy R

    2013-01-01

    The JOINT I (United States) and JOINT II (Australia and Europe) studies evaluated the efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for the treatment of Dupuytren contracture. Both studies used identical open-label protocols. Patients with fixed-flexion contractures of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) (20° to 100°) or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints (20° to 80°) could receive up to three 0.58-mg CCH injections per cord (up to 5 total injections per patient). We performed standardized finger extension procedures to disrupt injected cords the next day, with follow-up 1, 2, 6, and 9 months thereafter. The primary end point (clinical success) was reduction in contracture to within 0° to 5° of full extension 30 days after the last injection. Clinical improvement was defined as 50% or more reduction from baseline contracture. Dupuytren cords affecting 879 joints (531 MCP and 348 PIP) in 587 patients were administered CCH injections at 14 U.S. and 20 Australian/European sites, with similar outcomes in both studies. Clinical success was achieved in 497 (57%) of treated joints using 1.2 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) CCH injections per cord. More MCP than PIP joints achieved clinical success (70% and 37%, respectively) or clinical improvement (89% and 58%, respectively). Less severely contracted joints responded better than those more severely contracted. Mean change in contracture was 55° for MCP joints and 25° for PIP joints. With average contracture reductions of 73% and improvements in range of motion by 30°, most patients (92%) were "very satisfied" (71%) or "quite satisfied" (21%) with treatment. Physicians rated change from baseline as "very much improved" (47%) or "much improved" (35%). The CCH injections were well tolerated, causing no tendon ruptures or systemic reactions. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum was an effective, minimally invasive option for the treatment of Dupuytren contracture of a broad range of severities. Most

  15. The Efficacy and Safety of Concurrent Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injections for 2 Dupuytren Contractures in the Same Hand: A Prospective, Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Gaston, R Glenn; Larsen, Søren Erik; Pess, Gary M; Coleman, Stephen; Dean, Brian; Cohen, Brian M; Kaufman, Gregory J; Tursi, James P; Hurst, Lawrence C

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of concurrent administration of 2 collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injections to treat 2 joints in the same hand with Dupuytren fixed flexion contractures (FFCs). Patients with 2 or more contractures in the same hand caused by palpable cords participated in a 60-day, multicenter, open-label, phase 3b study. Two 0.58 mg CCH doses were injected into 1 or 2 cords in the same hand (1 injection per affected joint) during the same visit. Finger extension was performed approximately 24, 48, or 72 or more hours later. Changes in FFC and range of motion, incidence of clinical success (FFC ≤ 5°), and adverse events (AEs) were summarized. The study enrolled 715 patients (725 treated joint pairs), and 714 patients (724 joint pairs) were analyzed for efficacy. At day 31, mean total FFC (sum of 2 treated joints) decreased 74%, from 98° to 27°. Mean total range of motion increased from 90° to 156°. The incidence of clinical success was 65% in metacarpophalangeal joints and 29% in proximal interphalangeal joints. Most treatment-related AEs were mild to moderate, resolving without intervention; the most common were swelling of treated extremity, contusion, and pain in extremity. The incidence of skin lacerations was 22% (160 of 715). Efficacy and safety were similar regardless of time to finger extension. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum can be used to effectively treat 2 affected joints concurrently without a greater risk of AEs than treatment of a single joint, with the exception of skin laceration. The incidence of clinical success in this study after 1 injection per joint was comparable to phase 3 study results after 3 or more injections per joint. Two concurrent CCH injections may allow more rapid overall treatment of multiple affected joints, and the ability to vary the time between CCH injection and finger extension may allow physicians and patients greater flexibility with scheduling treatment. Copyright © 2015 American

  16. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Fused with Tandem Collagen-Binding Domains from Clostridium histolyticum Collagenase ColG Increases Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsushita, Osamu; Inoue, Gen; Nishi, Nozomu; Masuda, Ryo; Hamamoto, Nana; Koide, Takaki; Shoji, Shintaro; Takaso, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (bFGF) accelerates bone formation during fracture healing. Because the efficacy of bFGF decreases rapidly following its diffusion from fracture sites, however, repeated dosing is required to ensure a sustained therapeutic effect. We previously developed a fusion protein comprising bFGF, a polycystic kidney disease domain (PKD; s2b), and collagen-binding domain (CBD; s3) sourced from the Clostridium histolyticum class II collagenase, ColH, and reported that the combination of this fusion protein with a collagen-like peptide, poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) 10 , induced mesenchymal cell proliferation and callus formation at fracture sites. In addition, C. histolyticum produces class I collagenase (ColG) with tandem CBDs (s3a and s3b) at the C-terminus. We therefore hypothesized that a bFGF fusion protein containing ColG-derived tandem CBDs (s3a and s3b) would show enhanced collagen-binding activity, leading to improved bone formation. Here, we examined the binding affinity of four collagen anchors derived from the two clostridial collagenases to H-Gly-Pro-Arg-Gly-(Pro-Hyp-Gly) 12 -NH 2 , a collagenous peptide, by surface plasmon resonance and found that tandem CBDs (s3a-s3b) have the highest affinity for the collagenous peptide. We also constructed four fusion proteins consisting of bFGF and s3 (bFGF-s3), s2b-s3b (bFGF-s2b-s3), s3b (bFGF-s3b), and s3a-s3b (bFGF-s3a-s3b) and compared their biological activities to those of a previous fusion construct (bFGF-s2b-s3) using a cell proliferation assay in vitro and a mouse femoral fracture model in vivo. Among these CB-bFGFs, bFGF-s3a-s3b showed the highest capacity to induce mesenchymal cell proliferation and callus formation in the mice fracture model. The poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) 10 /bFGF-s3a-s3b construct may therefore have the potential to promote bone formation in clinical settings.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of the Collagenase of the Bacterium Clostridium Histolyticum for the Treatment of Capsular Contracture after Silicone Implants: Ex-Vivo Study on Human Tissue.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sebastian; Hirche, Christoph; Diehm, Yannick; Nuutila, Kristo; Kiefer, Jurij; Gazyakan, Emre; Bueno, Ericka M; Kremer, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    The fibrotic capsule that surrounds silicone implants consists mainly of collagen. The FDA-approved collagenase of the bacterium clostridium histolyticum provides a reasonable treatment option. Safety and efficacy at the female breast site must be evaluated before clinical utilization. We incubated 20 samples of fibrotic capsule as well as 12 full thickness skin grafts harvested from the female breast site for 24 hours with different doses of collagenase. Outcome measures involved histological assessment of thickness and density of the capsule tissue as well as the skin grafts. Furthermore, we performed a collagen assay and immunohistochemistry staining for collagen subtypes. Collagenase treatment was able to degrade human capsule contracture tissue ex-vivo. The remaining collagen subtype after degradation was type 4 only. 0.3 mg/ml of collagenase was most effective in reducing capsule thickness when compared with higher concentrations. Of note, effectiveness was inversely related to capsule density, such that there was less reduction in thickness with higher capsule densities and vice versa. Furthermore, the application of 0.3mg/ml collagenase did not lead to thinning or perforation of full thickness skin grafts. Adjustment of collagenase dose will depend on thickness and density of the contracted capsule. A concentration of 0.3mg/ml seems to be safe and effective in an ex-vivo setting. The remaining collagen subtype 4 is suitable to serve as a neo-capsule/acellular tissue matrix. Collagenase treatment for capsular contracture may soon become a clinical reality.

  18. Anesthesia for collagenase clostridium histolyticum injection in patients with dupuytren disease: A cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan-Cerveró, Rafael; Carrera-Hueso, Francisco J; Vazquez-Ferreiro, Pedro; Peimer, Clayton A

    2018-04-12

    Procedural pain is one of the most common adverse effects reported by patients with Dupuytren disease (DD) treated with collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH). The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of wrist block before CCH injection in reducing procedural pain and to analyze its impact on adverse effects. We performed a prospective, single-center study in which we compared two groups of patients in a consecutive cohort. In the first group (NO-BLOCK), wrist block was only performed before finger extension, whereas in the second group (BLOCK), it was performed before CCH injection and finger extension. Pain was assessed on a 10-item numerical rating scale. Our results show that pain scores were clearlylower in the BLOCK group than in the NO-BLOCK group: 4.72 vs. 0.61 for CCH injection and 3.43 vs. 0.82 for finger extension. Patients who rated CCH injection pain with a score of 4 or higher were 11 times more likely to experience pain during extension. There was a weak correlation between the use of wrist block for CCH injection and the occurrence of skin lacerations (Spearman's rho = -0.222, p < 0.01) and the presence of pruritus (Spearman's rho = 0.183, p < 0.07). In conclusion, wrist block before CCH injection is an effective measure of decreasing perceived pain throughout the different stages of CCH treatment in patients with DD. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of Recurrent Dupuytren Contracture in Joints Previously Effectively Treated With Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum.

    PubMed

    Bear, Brian J; Peimer, Clayton A; Kaplan, F Thomas D; Kaufman, Gregory J; Tursi, James P; Smith, Ted

    2017-05-01

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) is approved for the treatment of adults with Dupuytren contracture with a palpable cord. This open-label, phase 4 study evaluated the safety and efficacy of CCH for the retreatment of recurrent contractures in joints that were previously effectively treated with CCH. Patients participating in a long-term follow-up study who had contracture recurrence (increased ≥ 20° with a palpable cord) after successful treatment in the previous study were eligible. Recurrent joint contractures were treated with up to 3 CCH injections (∼ 1 month apart). Patients were followed for 1 year to evaluate safety. Assessments included change in joint contracture, range of motion, and the percentage of joints that achieved contracture of 5° or less at day 30 after the last injection. The efficacy analysis included 51 patients with 1 treated joint per patient (31 metacarpophalangeal, 20 proximal interphalangeal). A total of 35 joints (69%) received 1 injection, 12 (24%) received 2 injections, and 4 (8%) received 3 injections. Fifty-seven percent of joints achieved contracture of 5° or less (29 of 51). Overall, 86% (43 of 50) patients had a 20° or greater increase in range of motion. The adverse event profile was consistent with previous studies. One ligament injury was reported. At a short-term follow-up of 1 year, recurrent contracture in joints previously successfully treated with CCH may be effectively retreated with up to 3 injections of CCH. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Budget impact analysis in Spanish patients with Dupuytren's contracture: fasciectomy vs. collagenase Clostridium histolyticum.

    PubMed

    De Salas-Cansado, M; Cuadros, M; Del Cerro, M; Arandes, J M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the budget impact of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) vs. fasciectomy (FSC) surgery for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease (DD) in Spain. A cost minimization analysis was adopted (effectiveness was assumed to be equivalent for both techniques). DD related costs were considered. CCH costs (including drug, administration and visits) were obtained from clinical trials and a real-life study. FSC costs (including type of admission, visits, operating room, re-admissions, tests, drugs and rehabilitation costs) were collected through a retrospective, observational, local study. Unit costs were obtained from local database systems (e-SALUD and BOT). Results were presented from the NHS perspective for the next 3 years. We assumed that there were 5100 fasciectomies per year (with a 5% annual increase) and that 20%, 30% and 40% of them will annually utilize CCH. In addition, a 10%, 15% and 20% of untreated diagnosed patients were expected to receive CCH. All the data were validated through an expert panel. A sensitivity analysis was performed with the main variables. The average FSC cost was €2250 (72% inpatients), €1703 for outpatients and €2467 for inpatients. The average CCH cost was €1220 (1.5 vial/injection and four visits) and could drop to €898 (1.1 vial/injections and three visits). The accumulated 3years budget impact analysis (BIA) was 45,971€ (K€-2993(1); 3870). According to this study, the inclusion of the CCH should produce a 3-year cumulative budgetary impact of €45,971 (K€-2993; 3870) for the NHS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful Treatment of Residual Curvature in Peyronie Disease in Men Previously Treated With Intralesional Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Kenneth; Diao, Linley; Nguyen, Hoang Minh Tue; Zurawin, Jonathan; Libby, Russell; Yafi, Faysal; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2017-12-01

    To determine the success and feasibility of surgically correcting residual curvature after intralesional collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) for the treatment of Peyronie disease (PD). We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who had intralesional CCH treatment for PD and who subsequently underwent penile plication (PP), plaque incision and grafting (PIG), or inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) placement. Ten men who underwent PP, PIG, or IPP for the treatment of residual curvature after intralesional CCH were identified. Six patients underwent PP; 1 patient underwent PIG; and 3 patients underwent IPP with ancillary straightening maneuvers. The mean time from the last CCH injection to surgical correction was 150.9 days, or 5 months. The mean pre-CCH curvature was 67 degrees and the mean post-CCH curvature was 51 degrees. Eight of 10 patients had no residual curvature after surgical treatment. The mean postprocedure curvature was 4.5 degrees. The mean operative time was 72.1 minutes. The mean estimated blood loss was 20 mL. Increased fibrosis with increased surgical difficulty was noted in 3 (all <6 months post CCH treatment) of 10 patients. No postoperative complications were noted. The surgical treatment of PD after intralesional CCH is safe and effective. If surgery is considered, this should be performed at least 6 months after the last CCH injection, given the potential for an increased inflammatory reaction in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy and safety of concurrent collagenase clostridium histolyticum injections for multiple Dupuytren contractures.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Stephen; Gilpin, David; Kaplan, F Thomas D; Houston, Anthony; Kaufman, Gregory J; Cohen, Brian M; Jones, Nigel; Tursi, James P

    2014-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of 2 concurrent injections of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) in the same hand to treat multiple Dupuytren flexion contractures. In a multicenter, open-label phase IIIb study, 60 patients received two 0.58-mg CCH doses injected into cords affecting 2 joints in the same hand during 1 visit, followed by finger extension approximately 24 hours later. Efficacy at postinjection day 30 (change in flexion contracture and active range of motion, patient satisfaction, physician-rated improvement, and rates of clinical success [flexion contracture 5° or less]) and adverse events were summarized. The concurrent injections were most commonly administered in cords affecting metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints on the same finger (47%) or 2 MCP joints on different fingers of the same hand (37%). Mean total (sum of the 2 treated joints) flexion contracture decreased 76%, from 87° to 24° (MCP joints: 86%; PIP joints: 66%). Mean total range of motion increased from 100° to 161°. Clinical success was 76% for MCP joints and 33% for PIP joints. Most patients were very satisfied (60%) or quite satisfied (28%) with treatment. Most investigators rated treated joints as very much improved (55%) or much improved (37%). The most common treatment-related adverse events (> 75% of patients) were contusion, pain in extremity, and edema peripheral (local edema). Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. Serious complications included 1 pulley rupture related to study medication and 1 flexor tendon rupture (following conclusion of the study). There were no systemic complications. Results suggest that 2 affected joints can be effectively and safely treated with concurrent CCH injections. There was an increased incidence of some adverse events with concurrent treatment (pruritus, lymphadenopathy, blood blister, and skin laceration) compared with treatment of a single joint. High degrees of patient

  3. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum for dupuytren contracture: patterns of use and effectiveness in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Peimer, Clayton A; Skodny, Paul; Mackowiak, John I

    2013-12-01

    To collect data on the real-world effectiveness of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) during its first year of use following U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval and compare those results with clinical trial efficacy data. This retrospective chart review was conducted at 10 U.S. community and academic practice sites with major experience using CCH. Charts of patients treated with CCH between February and December 2010 were abstracted, and anonymized data were analyzed. Clinical use, including number of injections per cord and effectiveness outcomes (joint contracture and range of motion) were compared with results from 2 registration trials. Data were collected from 501 patients (74% male; 48% employed; mean [SD] age, 65 [10] y); 463 patients had sufficient data for analysis. We found that 1.08 CCH injections were used per treated joint, compared with a mean of 1.7 injections in registration trials. Ninety-three percent of joints received only 1 injection. The mean (SD) number of visits per injection was 2.92 (1.0). Mean (SD) contracture was reduced by 75% from 49° (21) at baseline to 12° (17), similar to the 71% to 79% reduction in clinical trials. Mean (SD) range of motion was improved by 37° from 44° (20) at baseline to 81° (14), similar to the increase of 35° and 37° in the 2 clinical trials; and 67% of first injections resulted in full correction to 0° to 5°, compared with the clinical trial rate of 39%. Despite a lower injection rate, correction of joint contracture and range of motion was similar to findings from clinical trials. Effectiveness reports using this kind of surveillance design could provide patients, physicians, and payers with the information needed to make better treatment and reimbursement decisions. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Comparative Cost Effectiveness of Clostridium Histolyticum Collagenase (Xiapex®) and Partial Fasciectomy for the Treatment of Dupuytren's Contracture in Austria].

    PubMed

    Neuwirth, M; Binter, A; Pipam, W; Rab, M

    2016-08-01

    Since Dupuytren's contracture is a common disorder, the costs for its surgical treatment impose a considerable burden on the healthcare system. For the first time in the German-speaking area, this study aimed to provide a comparative cost-effectiveness analysis for partial fasciectomy vs. treatment with Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (CCH). A retrospective monocentric study of the period from 2012 to 2014 comprised 40 patients with previously untreated Dupuytren's contracture of one finger. 20 outpatients received one CCH treatment (Group 1), while 20 inpatients underwent partial fasciectomy (Group 2). The direct pre-interventional treatment and post-interventional costs were compared. The direct post-interventional and postoperative results were comparable. Group 1 (CCH) showed a mean reduction in contracture of 96.4%; in Group 2 (partial fasciectomy), this was 97.7%. There were fewer complications in Group 1 than in Group 2. Mean treatment costs in Group 1 were € 1 458.60 and in Group 2, € 5 315.20. Treatment with CCH is more cost effective than with partial fasciectomy. This is due to greater costs for personnel, time and surgical material, as well as the treatment of the more frequent complications in Group 2. Despite the limited comparability, our findings are consistent with the present international literature. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Safety Profile of Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Stratified by Degree of Penile Curvature in Patients With Peyronie Disease.

    PubMed

    Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Tan, Ronny B W; Liu, Genzhou

    2017-08-01

    To examine the safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) in adult men with penile curvature deformity <30°. CCH is indicated for treatment of Peyronie disease in adult men with palpable plaque and a penile curvature deformity ≥30° at start of therapy; however, during treatment, patients may receive CCH injections when penile curvature deformity is <30°. Patients who received ≥2 CCH treatment cycles in 2 phase 3 studies (Investigation for Maximal Peyronie's Reduction Efficacy and Safety Studies I and II) were included. All patients had penile curvature ≥30° at the beginning of treatment and could receive up to 4 treatment cycles. The rate and number of treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) with CCH treatment were compared between patients with penile curvature deformity ≥30° and penile curvature <30°. The number of CCH treatment cycles included in the current analysis totaled 1204 and 289 cycles in patients with penile curvature deformity ≥30° and <30°, respectively. The incidence of most TRAEs was similar between groups. Rates of penile swelling (21.1% vs 14.5%, P = .007), penile hemorrhage (12.8% vs 8.9%; P = .046), and skin hyperpigmentation (1.0% vs 0.1%; P = .025) were significantly higher in the <30° group. The occurrence of serious TRAEs was similar between groups. No clinically meaningful differences were observed with TRAE rates when CCH injections were administered at penile curvature deformity ≥30° vs CCH injections at penile curvature deformity <30°. These findings highlight the safety of continued CCH injections for patients who have achieved penile curvature deformity <30° after an initial treatment cycle of CCH. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Collagenase Treatment for Dupuytren Disease of the Thumb and First Web.

    PubMed

    Dreise, Marieke M; Stenekes, Martin W; Werker, Paul M N

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the short-term effectiveness of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum to treat thumb and first web contractures in Dupuytren disease. We prospectively included 14 thumbs in 12 patients with a contracture at the metacarpophalangeal or interphalangeal joint of at least 20° with a palpable cord in the thumb (n = 8) or an adduction contracture of the thumb with palpable cords in the first web (n = 6). They received an injection containing 0.58 mg of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum in the fibrous cord divided over 3 spots. The contracture was released by carefully manipulating the thumb under local anesthesia 1 day later. The extension and abduction deficits were measured before and after the intervention (follow-up at 7 and 30 days and 6 months). Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to analyze the data. In the total sample, postintervention extension deficits were statistically significantly lower than preintervention deficits except in one patient who had a recurrence at 6 months compared with the 30-day posttreatment result. Intermetacarpophalangeal head distance (IMD) also improved significantly. In an analysis of subgroups, we compared the separate contributions of treatment of a pretendinous cord and a first web cord on both extension deficit and IMD. Treatment of pretendinous cords significantly affected both extension deficit and IMD. However, treatment of first web contractures did not significantly improve extension or IMD. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum is a good treatment option for pretendinous cords in thumbs affected with Dupuytren disease because it provides good results, is minimally invasive, and has minor adverse events. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum for Dupuytren disease nodules: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Costas, Bronier; Coleman, Stephen; Kaufman, Greg; James, Robert; Cohen, Brian; Gaston, R Glenn

    2017-08-30

    To determine the safety and efficacy of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for the treatment of palmar Dupuytren disease nodules. In this 8-week, double-blind trial, palpable palmar nodules on one hand of adults with Dupuytren disease were selected for treatment. Patients were randomly assigned using an interactive web response system to receive a dose of 0.25 mg, 0.40 mg, or 0.60 mg (1:1:1 ratio) and then allocated to active treatment (CCH) or placebo (4:1 ratio). All patients and investigators were blinded to treatment. One injection was made in the selected nodule on Day 1. Caliper measurements of nodule length and width were performed at screening and at Weeks 4 and 8. Investigator-reported nodular consistency and hardness were evaluated at baseline and Weeks 1, 4, and 8. Investigator-rated patient improvement (1 [very much improved] to 7 [very much worse]) and patient satisfaction were assessed at study end. In the efficacy population (n = 74), percentage changes in area were significantly greater with CCH 0.40 mg (-80.1%, P = 0.0002) and CCH 0.60 mg (-78.2%, P = 0.0003), but not CCH 0.25 mg (-58.3%, P = 0.079), versus placebo (-42.2%) at post-treatment Week 8. Mean change in nodular consistency and hardness were significantly improved with CCH versus placebo at Weeks 4 and 8 (P ≤ 0.0139 for all). At Week 8, investigator global assessment of improvement was significantly greater with CCH 0.40 mg and 0.60 mg (P ≤ 0.0014) but not statistically significant with CCH 0.25 mg versus placebo (P = 0.13). Most patients were "very satisfied" or "quite satisfied" with CCH 0.40 mg and 0.60 mg. Contusion/bruising (50.0% to 59.1%) was the most common adverse event with CCH treatment. In patients with Dupuytren disease, a single CCH injection significantly improved palmar nodule size and hardness. The safety of CCH was similar to that observed previously in patients with Dupuytren contracture. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  8. The use of Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum in the management of Dupuytren's contracture-outcomes of a pilot study in a District General Hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lynn E; Murphy, Karen M; Kilpatrick, Shauneen M; Thompson, Neville W

    2017-05-01

    Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum (CCH) is a recognised treatment option for adult patients presenting with Dupuytren's contracture (DC). Twenty male patients with established DC were treated using CCH. The average metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint and proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) contractures pre-treatment were 52 0 (range, 0 - 75 0 ) and 35 0 (range, 0 - 84 0 ) respectively. The average DASH score pre-treatment was 24.2 points (range, 0 - 68.2 points). Patients were reviewed at lmonth, 3months and at an average of 23 months (17 to 27 months). MCP joint contractures significantly improved compared to pre-treatment and the improvement was maintained at latest follow up. PIP joint contractures did significantly improve but to a lesser degree and there was no significant improvement compared to pre-treatment beyond 3months. A trend for MCP and PIP joint contracture recurrence was observed at latest follow up but did not reach statistical significance. DASH scores significantly improved from pre-treatment and the improvement was maintained at latest follow up. At 3months, the average patient satisfaction score was 9.5 (range, 6 - 10), which decreased to 8.6 (range, 6 - 10) at latest follow up. We estimated a potential cost saving of approximately £70,000 by treating 20 patients using CCH compared to inpatient operative fasciectomy. CCH is a useful option in the management of DC in appropriately selected patients. Cost-effectiveness in the treatment of DC should be carefully considered.

  9. Predictive Factors of Patients' and Their Partners' Sexual Function Improvement After Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection for Peyronie's Disease: Results From a Multi-Center Single-Arm Study.

    PubMed

    Cocci, Andrea; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Salonia, Andrea; Cito, Gianmartin; Regis, Federica; Polloni, Gaia; Giubilei, Gianluca; Cacciamani, Giovanni; Capece, Marco; Falcone, Marco; Greco, Isabella; Timpano, Massimiliano; Minervini, Andrea; Gacci, Mauro; Cai, Tommaso; Garaffa, Giulio; Giammusso, Bruno; Arcaniolo, Davide; Mirone, Vincenzo; Mondaini, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH; Xiapex) injections represent the only licensed medical treatment for Peyronie's disease (PD). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CCH injections in men with stable PD, using a modified treatment protocol and to assess partners' bother improvement in a large cohort of White-European sexually active heterosexual men treated in a single tertiary-referral center. All the 135 patients enrolled underwent a thorough assessment, which included history taking, physical examination, and pharmacologically induced artificial erection test (intra-cavernous injection) to assess the degree of penile curvature (PC) at baseline and after the completion of the treatment. Patients with calcified plaque and/or ventral curvature were excluded. All patients underwent a modified treatment protocol, which consisted of 3 intra-lesional injections of 0.9 mg of CCH performed at 4-week intervals at the point of maximum curvature. After each injection, patients were instructed to follow a strict routine involving daily penile stretching in the intervals between injections. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15, Global Assessment of PD, PD questionnaires (PDQ), and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire were performed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Overall, 135 patients completed the study protocol. Before treatment, 18 (13.33%) partners showed a degree of sexual dysfunction. Baseline median IIEF-15, FSFI, and PDQ scores were, respectively, 59.0, 35.0, and 23.0. Overall, both IIEF-total and all domains significantly improved after treatment (all P < .01). A PC mean change of 19.07 (P = .00) was measured. At the univariate linear regression analysis, IIEF-15, IIEF-erectile function, IIEF-sexual desire, and IIEF-intercourse satisfaction were positively associated with FSFI (all P ≤ .03); conversely, PDQ-penile pain, PDQ-symptom bother, and post-treament penile curvature (P ≤ .04) were associated with a decreased

  10. Safety and effectiveness of collagenase clostridium histolyticum in the treatment of Peyronie's disease using a new modified shortened protocol.

    PubMed

    Abdel Raheem, Amr; Capece, Marco; Kalejaiye, Odunayo; Abdel-Raheem, Tarek; Falcone, Marco; Johnson, Mark; Ralph, Oliver G; Garaffa, Giulio; Christopher, Andrew N; Ralph, David J

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH; Xiapex ® , Xiaflex ® ) in the treatment of Peyronie's disease (PD) using a new modified treatment protocol that aims at reducing the number of injections needed and reducing patient visits, thus reducing the duration and cost of treatment. A prospective study of 53 patients with PD who had treatment with CCH at a single centre using a new modified protocol. The angle of curvature assessment after an intracavernosal injection of prostaglandin E1, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Peyronie's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ) were completed at baseline and at week 12 (4 weeks after the last injection). The Global Assessment of Peyronie's disease (GAPD) questionnaire was completed at week 12. Under a penile block of 10 mL plain lignocaine 1%, a total of three intralesional injections of CCH (0.9 mg) were given at 4-weekly intervals using a new modified injection technique. In between injections patients used a combination of home modelling, stretching and a vacuum device on a daily basis to mechanically stretch the plaque. Investigator modelling was not performed. The mean (range) penile curvature at baseline was 54 (30-90)°. Of the 53 patients in the study, 51 patients (96.2%) had an improvement in the angel of curvature by a mean (range) of 17.36 (0-40)° or 31.4 (0-57)% from baseline after three CCH injections. The final mean (range) curvature was 36.9 (12-75)° (P < 0.001). There was an improvement in each of the IIEF questionnaire domains, all three PDQ domains and the GAPD. CCH was well tolerated by all patients with only mild and transient local adverse events. The new shortened protocol using CCH treatment is safe, effective, and cost efficient. The results of using only three CCH injections according to this modified protocol are comparable to those of the clinical trials that used eight CCH injections. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU

  11. Outcome of Dupuytren Contractures After Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection: A Single-institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Hwee, Yin Kan; Park, Daniel; Vinas, Marisa; Litts, Christopher; Friedman, David

    2017-08-01

    Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection is an alternative to surgery for patients with Dupuytren disease (DD) of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints. The success of surgical and nonsurgical treatment modalities for DD is reported to vary widely between 25% and 80% (J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67:1439-1443; Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:44e-54e; J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:189-198; J Hand Surg Am. 2011:36:936-942; J Hand Surg Am. 1990;15:755-761; J Hand Surg Br. 1996;21:797-800; J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2000;82:90-94; Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115:802-810; Ann Plast Surg. 2006;57:13-17). This study presents the outcomes of patients with DD contractures treated with CCH injections at a single institution. An institutional review board-approved retrospective study was conducted of patients with DD of the hand treated with CCH injections in a single institution from February 2010 to April 2015. All patients received the recommended dose of 0.58 mg of CCH and returned for joint manipulation the following day. Data for follow-up at 7 and 30 days postoperatively and up to 5 years for patients who returned seeking further therapy for recurrent symptoms were reviewed. One hundred thirteen patients with a total of 146 affected joints (72 MCP; 74 PIP) were treated with CCH injections (95 males; 18 females; age, 40-92 y). Successful CCH therapy occurred in 75% of injected joints (109/146 joints; 59 MCP; 50 PIP), as defined by less than 5 degrees of contracture after treatment. Twenty-three percent of treated joints had partial correction (34/146 joints; 13 MCP; 21 PIP), as defined by between 5 and 30 degrees of residual contracture after treatment. Three patients (2%) had a failure of treatment, as defined by unchanged or worsened contracture from pretreatment baseline measurements. Fifteen patients (13%) returned to the clinic seeking additional therapy for recurrent joint contracture symptoms in 17 joints over a span of 1

  12. Cloning, Purification and Characterization of the Collagenase ColA Expressed by Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    PubMed

    Abfalter, Carmen M; Schönauer, Esther; Ponnuraj, Karthe; Huemer, Markus; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Regl, Christof; Briza, Peter; Ferreira, Fatima; Huber, Christian G; Brandstetter, Hans; Posselt, Gernot; Wessler, Silja

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial collagenases differ considerably in their structure and functions. The collagenases ColH and ColG from Clostridium histolyticum and ColA expressed by Clostridium perfringens are well-characterized collagenases that cleave triple-helical collagen, which were therefore termed as ´true´ collagenases. ColA from Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) has been added to the collection of true collagenases. However, the molecular characteristics of B. cereus ColA are less understood. In this study, we identified ColA as a secreted true collagenase from B. cereus ATCC 14579, which is transcriptionally controlled by the regulon phospholipase C regulator (PlcR). B. cereus ATCC 14579 ColA was cloned to express recombinant wildtype ColA (ColAwt) and mutated to a proteolytically inactive (ColAE501A) version. Recombinant ColAwt was tested for gelatinolytic and collagenolytic activities and ColAE501A was used for the production of a polyclonal anti-ColA antibody. Comparison of ColAwt activity with homologous proteases in additional strains of B. cereus sensu lato (B. cereus s.l.) and related clostridial collagenases revealed that B. cereus ATCC 14579 ColA is a highly active peptidolytic and collagenolytic protease. These findings could lead to a deeper insight into the function and mechanism of bacterial collagenases which are used in medical and biotechnological applications.

  13. Cloning, Purification and Characterization of the Collagenase ColA Expressed by Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    PubMed Central

    Abfalter, Carmen M.; Schönauer, Esther; Ponnuraj, Karthe; Huemer, Markus; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Regl, Christof; Briza, Peter; Ferreira, Fatima; Huber, Christian G.; Brandstetter, Hans; Posselt, Gernot; Wessler, Silja

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial collagenases differ considerably in their structure and functions. The collagenases ColH and ColG from Clostridium histolyticum and ColA expressed by Clostridium perfringens are well-characterized collagenases that cleave triple-helical collagen, which were therefore termed as ´true´ collagenases. ColA from Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) has been added to the collection of true collagenases. However, the molecular characteristics of B. cereus ColA are less understood. In this study, we identified ColA as a secreted true collagenase from B. cereus ATCC 14579, which is transcriptionally controlled by the regulon phospholipase C regulator (PlcR). B. cereus ATCC 14579 ColA was cloned to express recombinant wildtype ColA (ColAwt) and mutated to a proteolytically inactive (ColAE501A) version. Recombinant ColAwt was tested for gelatinolytic and collagenolytic activities and ColAE501A was used for the production of a polyclonal anti-ColA antibody. Comparison of ColAwt activity with homologous proteases in additional strains of B. cereus sensu lato (B. cereus s.l.) and related clostridial collagenases revealed that B. cereus ATCC 14579 ColA is a highly active peptidolytic and collagenolytic protease. These findings could lead to a deeper insight into the function and mechanism of bacterial collagenases which are used in medical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27588686

  14. High-speed atomic force microscopy reveals strongly polarized movement of clostridial collagenase along collagen fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Itami, Masahiro; Kodera, Noriyuki; Ando, Toshio; Konno, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial collagenases involved in donor infection are widely applied in many fields due to their high activity and specificity; however, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which bacterial collagenases degrade insoluble collagen in host tissues. Using high-speed atomic force microscopy, we simultaneously visualized the hierarchical structure of collagen fibrils and the movement of a representative bacterial collagenase, Clostridium histolyticum type I collagenase (ColG), to determine the relationship between collagen structure and collagenase movement. Notably, ColG moved ~14.5 nm toward the collagen N terminus in ~3.8 s in a manner dependent on a catalytic zinc ion. While ColG was engaged, collagen molecules were not only degraded but also occasionally rearranged to thicken neighboring collagen fibrils. Importantly, we found a similarity of relationship between the enzyme-substrate interface structure and enzyme migration in collagen-collagenase and DNA-nuclease systems, which share a helical substrate structure, suggesting a common strategy in enzyme evolution. PMID:27373458

  15. Treatment of dupuytren disease with injectable collagenase in a veteran population: a case series at the department of veterans affairs new jersey health care system.

    PubMed

    Sood, Aditya; Therattil, Paul J; Paik, Angie M; Simpson, Mary F; Lee, Edward S

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials seeking to establish long-term efficacy of injectable collagenase clostridium histolyticum for treatment of Dupuytren disease are ongoing. In this quality improvement study, the efficacy, recurrence rate, and complications of collagenase injection for Dupuytren disease are reviewed in a population of Veteran patients. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients who underwent treatment with injectable collagenase for Dupuytren disease from 2010 to 2013 at our regional Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. Data points of interest included the degree of joint contracture preoperatively, immediately after treatment, and at follow-up, complications, and patient satisfaction. Sixteen patients received 27 injections (18 metacarpophalangeal and 9 proximal interphalangeal injections). The mean time of follow-up was 12.3 months. There was a 50% or greater reduction of the original extension deficit in 74.1% (n = 27) of the joints treated. Metacarpophalangeal joint recurrence was "high" (≥50°) in 0% (n = 18) of joints, and "low" (5°-50°) in 33.3% (n = 18) of joints with a mean follow-up of 12 months. Proximal interphalangeal joint recurrence was "high" (≥40°) in 18.5% (n = 9) of joints and "low" (5°-40°) in 7.4% (n = 9) of joints with a mean follow-up of 12.9 months. Minor complications were experienced in 93.8% (n = 16) of patients who underwent collagenase injection and included ecchymosis, skin laceration, injection-site swelling, injection-site hemorrhage, tenderness, and pruritus. Seventy-five percent (n = 12) of patients in our study reported they would undergo treatment with collagenase again. The case series presented demonstrates that injectable collagenase clostridium histolyticum produced a clinical success rate of 74.1% and is a safe method to treat Dupuytren disease.

  16. Predictors of treatment success after Collagenase clostridium histolyticum injection for Peyronie's disease. Development of a nomogram from a multicentre single-arm, non-placebo controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Cocci, Andrea; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Briganti, Alberto; Salonia, Andrea; Cacciamani, Giovanni; Capece, Marco; Falcone, Marco; Timpano, Massimiliano; Cito, Gianmartin; Verze, Paolo; Giammusso, Bruno; Morgia, Giuseppe; Mirone, Vincenzo; Minervini, Andrea; Gacci, Mauro; Cai, Tommaso; Serni, Sergio; Carini, Marco; Giubilei, Gianluca; Mondaini, Nicola

    2018-05-23

    To build-up a nomogram able to predict treatment success after Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) for Peyronie's disease (PD). From November 2016 to November 2017, we enrolled 135 patients with PD in a multicentre single-arm prospective study. All patients enrolled had a treatment with CCH. Success of therapy was defined as a penile curvature decrease of at least 20 degrees from baseline curvature. Treatment satisfaction was assessed using a scale from 1 to 10 and high satisfaction was arbitral defined as a score ≥8. The calcification level was classified as: absence of calcifications, low spots perilesional calcifications and high calcification. Median age was 56.0 (IQR [interquartile range]: 45.0,65.0) and median penile curvature (PC) was 30 degrees (IQR: 30.0,60.0). After the treatment protocol, we observed a significant median change for PC of -20.0 (p<0.01). The median percentage of penile curvature improvement was 44 (IQR: 28.0-67.0). Overall median satisfaction was 8.0 (IQR: 7.0-9.0). In total, treatment efficacy was reported in 77 patients (57.04%). When analysing factors associated with PC improvement after treatment, we found that baseline PC (OR= 1.14; p<0.01), basal plaque (OR= 64.27; p<0.01), low calcification (OR= 0.06; p<0.01) and high-calcification (OR= 0.03; p<0.01) were significant predictors of penile curvature improvement. The c-index for the model was 0.93. Patients with longer duration of the disease, greater baseline curvature and basal plaque localization were at greater chance of treatment success. These results could be applied into clinical practice before external validation of our nomogram. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Injectable Collagenase Versus Percutaneous Needle Fasciotomy for Dupuytren Contracture in Proximal Interphalangeal Joints: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Skov, Simon Toftgaard; Bisgaard, Therkel; Søndergaard, Per; Lange, Jeppe

    2017-05-01

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection was introduced commercially as a treatment for Dupuytren contracture following initial phase-3 investigations in 2009 with promising results. However, the efficacy of CCH has not been prospectively investigated in a direct comparison to other active treatments of Dupuytren contracture with more than 1-year follow-up, despite a wide and increasing clinical use. In this prospective, independent, open-label, randomized controlled trial, (Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT 01538017), percutaneous needle fasciotomy (PNF) was directly compared with CCH. Fifty patients with primary isolated proximal interphalangeal joint Dupuytren contractures were enrolled and followed for 2 years. The primary outcome was clinical improvement defined as a reduction in contracture by 50% or more relative to baseline. Secondary outcomes included change in contracture, recurrence, adverse events, complications, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score. Clinical improvement at 2 years was maintained in 7% of CCH patients (2 of 29) and 29% of PNF patients (6 of 21). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum led to more, mainly transient, complications, in 93% of patients versus 24% of the patients treated with PNF. No other differences were observed. This study provides evidence that CCH is not superior to PNF in the treatment of isolated proximal interphalangeal joint Dupuytren contracture regarding clinical outcome, and it led to more complications than PNF. Therapeutic I. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Complications Following Collagenase Treatment for Dupuytren Contracture.

    PubMed

    Wozniczka, Jennifer; Canepa, Clifford; Mirarchi, Adam; Solomon, Joel S

    2017-09-01

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection and manipulation is a relatively new method for treating Dupuytren contracture that is growing in popularity. Although side effects such as swelling and ecchymosis are common, they are typically mild and self-limited. Major complications are rare but have included flexor tendon rupture and complex regional pain syndrome. This study describes a case report of 2 patients seen at our institution. Here, we report 2 patients seen at our institution each with different, yet serious complications after CCH injection and manipulation. One patient had extensive skin loss and chose amputation over reconstruction. The other patient had loss of perfusion and required finger amputation. Although it is unclear how directly the administration of CCH is connected to the observed complications, physicians should recognize the potential for serious rare complications in any treatment of Dupuytren contracture.

  19. Structures of three polycystic kidney disease-like domains from Clostridium histolyticum collagenases ColG and ColH

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Ryan; Janowska, Katarzyna; Taylor, Kelly

    Clostridium histolyticumcollagenases ColG and ColH are segmental enzymes that are thought to be activated by Ca 2+-triggered domain reorientation to cause extensive tissue destruction. The collagenases consist of a collagenase module (s1), a variable number of polycystic kidney disease-like (PKD-like) domains (s2a and s2b in ColH and s2 in ColG) and a variable number of collagen-binding domains (s3 in ColH and s3a and s3b in ColG). The X-ray crystal structures of Ca 2+-bound holo s2b (1.4 Å resolution,R= 15.0%,R free= 19.1%) and holo s2a (1.9 Å resolution,R= 16.3%,R free= 20.7%), as well as of Ca 2+-free apo s2a (1.8 Åmore » resolution,R= 20.7%,R free= 27.2%) and two new forms of N-terminally truncated apo s2 (1.4 Å resolution,R= 16.9%,R free= 21.2%; 1.6 Å resolution,R= 16.2%,R free= 19.2%), are reported. The structurally similar PKD-like domains resemble the V-set Ig fold. In addition to a conserved β-bulge, the PKD-like domains feature a second bulge that also changes the allegiance of the subsequent β-strand. This β-bulge and the genesis of a Ca 2+pocket in the archaeal PKD-like domain suggest a close kinship between bacterial and archaeal PKD-like domains. Different surface properties and indications of different dynamics suggest unique roles for the PKD-like domains in ColG and in ColH. Surface aromatic residues found on ColH s2a-s2b, but not on ColG s2, may provide the weak interaction in the biphasic collagen-binding mode previously found in s2b-s3.B-factor analyses suggest that in the presence of Ca 2+the midsection of s2 becomes more flexible but the midsections of s2a and s2b stay rigid. The different surface properties and dynamics of the domains suggest that the PKD-like domains of M9B bacterial collagenase can be grouped into either a ColG subset or a ColH subset. The conserved properties of PKD-like domains in ColG and in ColH include Ca 2+binding. Conserved residues not only interact with Ca 2+, but also position the Ca 2+-interacting water

  20. Structures of three polycystic kidney disease-like domains from Clostridium histolyticum collagenases ColG and ColH

    DOE PAGES

    Bauer, Ryan; Janowska, Katarzyna; Taylor, Kelly; ...

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium histolyticumcollagenases ColG and ColH are segmental enzymes that are thought to be activated by Ca 2+-triggered domain reorientation to cause extensive tissue destruction. The collagenases consist of a collagenase module (s1), a variable number of polycystic kidney disease-like (PKD-like) domains (s2a and s2b in ColH and s2 in ColG) and a variable number of collagen-binding domains (s3 in ColH and s3a and s3b in ColG). The X-ray crystal structures of Ca 2+-bound holo s2b (1.4 Å resolution,R= 15.0%,R free= 19.1%) and holo s2a (1.9 Å resolution,R= 16.3%,R free= 20.7%), as well as of Ca 2+-free apo s2a (1.8 Åmore » resolution,R= 20.7%,R free= 27.2%) and two new forms of N-terminally truncated apo s2 (1.4 Å resolution,R= 16.9%,R free= 21.2%; 1.6 Å resolution,R= 16.2%,R free= 19.2%), are reported. The structurally similar PKD-like domains resemble the V-set Ig fold. In addition to a conserved β-bulge, the PKD-like domains feature a second bulge that also changes the allegiance of the subsequent β-strand. This β-bulge and the genesis of a Ca 2+pocket in the archaeal PKD-like domain suggest a close kinship between bacterial and archaeal PKD-like domains. Different surface properties and indications of different dynamics suggest unique roles for the PKD-like domains in ColG and in ColH. Surface aromatic residues found on ColH s2a-s2b, but not on ColG s2, may provide the weak interaction in the biphasic collagen-binding mode previously found in s2b-s3.B-factor analyses suggest that in the presence of Ca 2+the midsection of s2 becomes more flexible but the midsections of s2a and s2b stay rigid. The different surface properties and dynamics of the domains suggest that the PKD-like domains of M9B bacterial collagenase can be grouped into either a ColG subset or a ColH subset. The conserved properties of PKD-like domains in ColG and in ColH include Ca 2+binding. Conserved residues not only interact with Ca 2+, but also position the Ca 2+-interacting water

  1. Studies on collagen-tannic acid-collagenase ternary system: Inhibition of collagenase against collagenolytic degradation of extracellular matrix component of collagen.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Ganesan; Sehgal, Praveen Kumar; Mandal, Asit Baran; Sadulla, Sayeed

    2012-06-01

    We report the detailed studies on the inhibitory effect of tannic acid (TA) on Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (ChC) activity against degradation of extracellular matrix component of collagen. The TA treated collagen exhibited 64% resistance against collagenolytic hydrolysis by ChC, whereas direct interaction of TA with ChC exhibited 99% inhibition against degradation of collagen and the inhibition was found to be concentration dependant. The kinetic inhibition of ChC has been deduced from the extent of hydrolysis of N-[3-(2-furyl) acryloyl]-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ala (FALGPA). This data provides a selective competitive mode of inhibition on ChC activity seems to be influenced strongly by the nature and structure of TA. TA showed inhibitor activity against the ChC by molecular docking method. This result demonstrated that TA containing digalloyl radical possess the ability to inhibit the ChC. The inhibition of ChC in gaining new insight into the mechanism of stabilization of collagen by TA is discussed.

  2. Intra-articular collagenase injection increases range of motion in a rat knee flexion contracture model

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kayleigh; Trudel, Guy; Laneuville, Odette

    2018-01-01

    Objectives A knee joint contracture, a loss in passive range of motion (ROM), can be caused by prolonged immobility. In a rat knee immobilization flexion contracture model, the posterior capsule was shown to contribute to an irreversible limitation in ROM, and collagen pathways were identified as differentially expressed over the development of a contracture. Collagenases purified from Clostridium histolyticum are currently prescribed to treat Dupuytren’s and Peyronie’s contractures due to their ability to degrade collagen. The potential application of collagenases to target collagen in the posterior capsule was tested in this model. Materials and methods Rats had one hind leg immobilized, developing a knee flexion contracture. After 4 weeks, the immobilization device was removed, and the rats received one 50 µL intra-articular injection of 0.6 mg/mL purified collagenase. Control rats were injected with only the buffer. After 2 weeks of spontaneous remobilization following the injections, ROM was measured with a rat knee arthrometer, and histological sections were immunostained with antibodies against rat collagen types I and III. Results/conclusion Compared with buffer-injected control knees, collagenase-treated knees showed increased ROM in extension by 8.0°±3.8° (p-value <0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an increase in collagen type III staining (p<0.01) in the posterior capsule of collagenase-treated knees indicating an effect on the extracellular matrix due to the collagenase. Collagen I staining was unchanged (p>0.05). The current study provides experimental evidence for the pharmacological treatment of knee flexion contractures with intra-articular collagenase injection, improving the knee ROM. PMID:29317799

  3. Effect of enzymatic debridement with two different collagenases versus mechanical debridement on chronic hard-to-heal wounds.

    PubMed

    Onesti, Maria Giuseppina; Fioramonti, Paolo; Fino, Pasquale; Sorvillo, Valentina; Carella, Sara; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-12-01

    A chronic ulcer is usually defined as an injury that does not spontaneously evolve towards healing and does not progress through normal healing stages such as inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. This study was designed in order to compare two types of collagenases with mechanical debridement alone. It was thus possible to evaluate their differences in terms of pain and debridement efficacy. Patients were divided into three groups: 30 patients were daily dressed using an ointment based on collagenase produced by Vibrio alginolyticus (B group), 30 patients were daily dressed using an ointment based on a collagenase preparation derived from Clostridium histolyticum (N group) and 30 patients underwent classical mechanical debridement (M group). Complete wound healing over a period of 8 weeks occurred in 24 patients (27%) out of 90;10 patients belonging to the B group, 8 patients to the N group and 6 patients to the M group. This study was performed in order to highlight the differences between two commercially available collagenase-based ointments in comparison with mechanical debridement alone. At the final time point of week, the difference in the percentage of debridement was not statistically significant in all groups, but at 4 weeks, the debrided area in the B group was larger with respect to the N and M groups, suggesting a more rapid wound bed cleansing process. On the basis of our experience, collagenase derived from V. alginolyticus with hyaluronic acid showed chemical and physical properties that make it a product of great manageability and ensure the protection of peri-wound skin. Moreover, less pain was experienced by the patients. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. In Vitro Study of Novel Collagenase (XIAFLEX®) on Dupuytren's Disease Fibroblasts Displays Unique Drug Related Properties

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Subir; Kolluru, Venkatesh; Emeigh Hart, Susan G.; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a benign, fibroproliferative disease of the palmar fascia, with excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and over-production of cytokines and growth factors, resulting in digital fixed flexion contractures limiting hand function and patient quality of life. Surgical fasciectomy is the gold standard treatment but is invasive and has associated morbidity without limiting disease recurrence. Injectable Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) - Xiaflex® - is a novel, nonsurgical option with clinically proven in vivo reduction of DD contractures but with limited in vitro data demonstrating its cellular and molecular effects. The aim of this study was to delineate the effects of CCH on primary fibroblasts isolated from DD and non-DD anatomical sites (using RTCA, LDH, WST-1, FACS, qRT-PCR, ELISA and In-Cell Quantitative Western Blotting) to compare the efficacy of varying concentrations of Xiaflex® against a reagent grade Collagenase, Collagenase A. Results demonstrated that DD nodule and cord fibroblasts had greater proliferation than those from fat and skin. Xiaflex® exposure resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cellular spreading, attachment and proliferation, with cellular recovery after enzyme removal. Unlike Collagenase A, Xiaflex® did not cause apoptosis. Collagen expression patterns were significantly (p<0.05) different in DD fibroblasts across anatomical sites - the highest levels of collagen I and III were detected in DD nodule, with DD cord and fat fibroblasts demonstrating a smaller increase in both collagen expression relative to DD skin. Xiaflex® significantly (p<0.05) down-regulated ECM components, cytokines and growth factors in a dose-dependent manner. An in vitro scratch wound assay model demonstrated that, at low concentrations, Xiaflex® enabled a faster fibroblast reparatory migration into the wound, whereas, at high concentrations, this process was significantly (p<0.05) inhibited. This is the

  5. Inhibition of Collagenase by Mycosporine-like Amino Acids from Marine Sources

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Anja; Gostner, Johanna; Fuchs, Julian E.; Chaita, Eliza; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Ganzera, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play an important role in extracellular matrix remodeling. Excessive activity of these enzymes can be induced by UV light and leads to skin damage, a process known as photoaging. In this study we investigated the collagenase inhibition potential of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA), compounds that have been isolated from marine organisms and are known photoprotectants against UV-A and UV-B. For this purpose the commonly used collagenase assay was optimized and for the first time validated in terms of relationships between enzyme-substrate concentrations, temperature, incubation time and enzyme stability. Three compounds were isolated from the marine red algae Porphyra sp. and Palmaria palmata, and evaluated for their inhibitory properties against Chlostridium histolyticum collagenase (Chc). A dose-dependent, but very moderate inhibition was observed for all substances and IC50 values of 104.0 μM for shinorine, 105.9 μM for porphyra and 158.9 μM for palythine were determined. Additionally, computer-aided docking models suggested that the MAA binding to the active site of the enzyme is a competitive inhibition. PMID:26039265

  6. [Effect of dopamine on the activity of matrix metalloproteinases and degradation of dentin collagen].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiangjian; Li, Quanli; Chen, Jialong; Zhang, Weibo; Wu, Xiaoting; Cao, Ying

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the inhibition effect of dopamine on the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and the effect of dopamine on degradation of dentin collagen for its potential use in caries treatment and dentin adhesive. In the experiment of MMP activity test, 2.0 g/L dopamine + 1.0 g/L highly purified collagenase type VIII from Clostridium histolyticum served as the experimental group, and deionized water + 1.0 g/L highly purified collagenase type VIII from Clostridium histolyticum served as the negative control group, and 2% chlorhexidine + 1.0 g/L highly purified collagenase type VIII from Clostridium histolyticum served as the positive control group, and the mixture volume ratio of the two ingredients in every group was 1:9. After 15 minutes, the enzyme activity of each sample was tested by MMP activity colerimetric quantitative detection kits, and the test was repeated 5 times in each group. In the experiment of collagen degradation, the dentin slices were demineralized with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 min. In sequence, 2 dentin slices were used to observe the morphology, and the remaining 30 dentine slices were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) according to random number table: the negative control ones were stored in 100 µl deionized water and 900 µl collagenase (7 days, 37 °C), the positive control ones were stored in 100 µl chlorhexidine and 900 µl collagenase (7 days, 37 °C) and the experimental specimens were stored in 100 µl dopamine and 900 µl collagenase (7 days, 37 °C). The degraded collagen was investigated by assaying hydroxyproline. The framework of collagen was evaluated with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The statistical results of completely random design ANOVA showed that the MMP activity and the amount of degraded collagen of the negative control group [(0.089 ± 0.011) µmol · min⁻¹ · mg⁻¹ and (2 837 ± 201) µg/cm²] were significantly higher than those of the positive control group [(0

  7. The treatment of Dupuytren disease.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shaunak S; Hentz, Vincent R

    2011-05-01

    The treatment of progressive Dupuytren contractures has historically been and continues to be largely surgical. Although a number of surgical interventions do exist, limited palmar fasciectomy continues to be the most common and widely accepted treatment option. Until recently, nonsurgical options were limited and clinically ineffective. However, the commercial availability and recent approval of collagenase clostridium histolyticum now provides practitioners with a nonsurgical approach to this disease. This article presents a comprehensive review of the surgical and nonsurgical treatments of Dupuytren disease, with a focus on collagenase. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DupuytrEn Treatment EffeCtiveness Trial (DETECT): a protocol for prospective, randomised, controlled, outcome assessor-blinded, three-armed parallel 1:1:1, multicentre trial comparing the effectiveness and cost of collagenase clostridium histolyticum, percutaneous needle fasciotomy and limited fasciectomy as short-term and long-term treatment strategies in Dupuytren's contracture.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, Mikko P; Karjalainen, Teemu; Göransson, Harry; Reito, Aleksi; Kautiainen, Hannu; Malmivaara, Antti; Leppänen, Olli V

    2018-03-28

    Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a chronic fibroproliferative disorder of the palmar fascia which leads to flexion contracture in one or more fingers. There is no definitive cure for DC, and treatment aims at relieving symptoms by releasing the contracture using percutaneous or operative techniques. We planned a prospective, randomised, controlled, outcome assessor-blinded, three-armed parallel 1:1:1, multicentre trial comparing the effectiveness and cost of (1) collagenase clostridium histolyticum injection followed by limited fasciectomy in non-responsive cases, (2) percutaneous needle fasciotomy followed by limited fasciectomy in non-responsive cases and (3) primary limited fasciectomy during short-term and long-term follow-up for Tubiana I-III stages DC. We will recruit participants from seven national centres in Finland. Primary outcome is the rate of success in the treatment arm at 5 years after recruitment. Success is a composite outcome comprising (1) at least 50% contracture release from the date of recruitment and (2) participants in a patient-accepted symptom state (PASS). Secondary outcomes are (1) angle of contracture, (2) quick disabilities of the arm, a shoulder and hand outcome measure (QuickDASH), (3) perceived hand function, (4) EQ-5D-3L, (5) rate of major adverse events, (6) patient's trust of the treatment, (7) global rating, (8) rate of PASS, (9) rate of minimal clinically important improvement, (10) expenses, (11) progression of disease, (12) progression-free survival, (13) favoured treatment modality, (14) patients achieving full contracture release and >50% improvement and (15) patient satisfaction with the treatment effect. Predictive factors for achieving the PASS will also be analysed. The protocol was approved by the Tampere University Hospital Institutional Review Board and Finnish Medicine Agency. The study will be performed according to the principles of good clinical practice. The results of the trial will be disseminated as

  9. Use of resources and costs associated with the treatment of Dupuytren’s contracture at an orthopedics and traumatology surgery department in Denia (Spain): collagenase clostridium hystolyticum versus subtotal fasciectomy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our purpose was to analyze and compare the use of direct health resources and costs generated in the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture using two different techniques: subtotal fasciectomy and infiltration with Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum (CCH) in regular clinical practice at the Orthopedic and Traumatology Surgery (OTS) Department at the Hospital de Denia (Spain). Methods Observational, retrospective study based on data from the computerized clinical histories of two groups of patients- those treated surgically using a one or two digit subtotal fasciectomy technique (FSC) and those treated with CCH infiltration, monitored in regular clinical practice from February, 2009 to May, 2012. Demographic (age, sex), clinical (number of digits affected and which ones) and use of resources (hospitalizations, medical visits, tests and drugs) data were collected. Resource use and associated costs, according to the hospital’s accounting department, were compared based on the type of treatment from Spain’s National Health Service. Results 91 patients (48 (52.8%) in the FSC group) were identified. The average age and number of digits affected was 65.9 (9.2) years and 1.33 (0.48) digits affected in the FSC group, and 65.1 (9.7) years and 1.16 (0.4) digits in the CCH group. Overall, the costs of treating Dupuytren's disease with subtotal FSC amount to €1,814 for major ambulatory surgery and €1,961 with hospital stay including admission, surgical intervention (€904), examinations, dressings and physiotherapy. As to collagenase infiltration, costs amount to €952 (including minor surgery admission, vial with product, office examination and dressings). Finally, comparing total costs for treatments, a savings of €388 is estimated in favor of CCH treatment in the best-case scenario (patient under MAS system with no need for physiotherapy) and €1,008 in the worst-case scenario (patient admitted to hospital needing subsequent physiotherapy), implying a

  10. Adverse Effects of Collagenase in the Treatment of Dupuytren Disease: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan-Cerveró, Rafael; Carrera-Hueso, Francisco J; Vazquez-Ferreiro, Pedro; Gomez-Herrero, Diego

    2017-04-01

    Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) has proven to be both safe and effective in the treatment of Dupuytren disease (DD). The medium-term outcomes are similar to those achieved with surgery, and most adverse effects are self-limiting and considered to be mild or moderate. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the adverse effects of CCH in DD since the release of the drug to evaluate the incidence, severity, classification, and definitions of these effects. We analyzed the literature in terms of modifications to the original treatment protocol and grouped adverse effects according to their pathophysiological origin. We included 28 clinical studies and five case reports or case series analyzing 4456 patients with a mean age of 63.6 years. Mean follow-up was 7.07 months (range 3-24); the mean number of patients per study was 148 (range 5-1082). The studies did not classify the adverse effects they reported into groups. The most common effects were peripheral edema (54.4%), bruising (42.9%), and upper limb pain (28.3%). Significant biases were observed for use of terminology, demarcation of sites of involvement, severity criteria, and assessment methods. A simpler and clearer consensus-based classification system would enable better evaluation and comparison of the adverse effects of CCH in the treatment of DD. Consideration of inflammatory phenomena as part of the drug's mechanism of action would significantly reduce overall rates of adverse effects.

  11. The Use of Residual Collagenase for Single Digits With Multiple-Joint Dupuytren Contractures.

    PubMed

    Grandizio, Louis C; Akoon, Anil; Heimbach, Janice; Graham, Jove; Klena, Joel C

    2017-06-01

    Standard 0.58 mg (0.25 mL) collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) preparations result in unused CCH that is often discarded. Our purpose was to assess the results on Dupuytren contractures affecting both the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in the same digit utilizing an injection containing the maximum CCH volume that can be withdrawn from a single vial. A consecutive series of patients with MCP and PIP cords in the same digit received a single treatment with 2 injections totaling 0.30 mL distributed between the MCP and the PIP cords and underwent manipulation approximately 24 hours later. Reduction in contracture, clinical success, and complications were assessed 30 days after manipulation. Thirty-one patients (34 digits) had a mean preinjection flexion contracture of 50° at the MCP joint and 53° at the PIP joint. Clinical success (reduction in joint contracture to 0°-5° of full extension 30-days postmanipulation) was noted in 65% of MCP cords and 38% of PIP joint cords. We had a 24% incidence of skin tears, which correlated with the degree of preinjection contracture. For Dupuytren contractures involving the MCP and PIP joints in the same digit, distributing the maximum amount of CCH that can be withdrawn from a single vial provides efficacy at both joints that is similar to that reported in previously published series, with a comparable complication rate. Utilizing excess CCH typically discarded may provide cost savings. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Needle Aponeurotomy and Collagenase Injection for Dupuytren's Contracture: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Hovius, Steven E R; Pieters, Adriana J; Slijper, Harm P; Feitz, Reinier; Selles, Ruud W

    2017-09-01

    Although the efficacy of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injections has been demonstrated by randomized clinical trials, the relative effectiveness of CCH remains uncertain. Our aim was to compare the outcomes of CCH with those of percutaneous needle aponeurotomy (PNA) in daily clinical practice. We analyzed data from patients undergoing PNA or CCH between 2011 and 2014 at 7 practice sites in the Netherlands. We examined the degree of improvement in contracture and adverse effects at 6-12 weeks after surgery or the last injection. Additionally, we invited patients to complete the Michigan Hand Questionnaire before and at 6-12 months follow-up. To minimize the risk of bias, we used propensity score matching. Among 130 matched patients (93% Tubiana I or II) undergoing PNA (n = 46) and CCH (n = 84), improvement in contracture was similar: 26 degrees (65% improvement from baseline) for PNA versus 31 degrees (71%) for CCH for affected metacarpophalangeal joints ( P = 0.163). This was 16 degrees (50% improvement) versus 17 degrees (42%) for affected proximal interphalangeal joints ( P = 0.395), respectively. No serious adverse effects occurred in either of the 2 treatment groups. Of the mild adverse effects, only skin fissures and sensory disturbances were seen in both groups. Through 1-year follow-up, patients reported similar improvements in the overall Michigan Hand Questionnaire score (PNA 5.3 points versus CCH 4.9 points; P = 0.912). In patients with mild contractures (Tubiana I or II), CCH was as effective as PNA in reducing contractures. Both treatments were safe and improved hand function to a similar extent in daily practice.

  13. Stabilization of Clostridium perfringens collagenase mRNA by VR-RNA-dependent cleavage in 5' leader sequence.

    PubMed

    Obana, Nozomu; Shirahama, Yu; Abe, Kimihiro; Nakamura, Kouji

    2010-09-01

    The small RNA (sRNA), VR-RNA that is directly regulated by the VirR/VirS two-component system, regulates many genes including toxin genes such as collagenase (colA) and phospholipase C (plc) in Clostridium perfringens. Although the VR-RNA 3' region is sufficient to regulate the colA and plc genes, the molecular mechanism of toxin gene regulation by VR-RNA remains unclear. Here, we found that colA mRNA is cleaved at position -79 and -78 from the A of the first codon (ATG) in the presence of VR-RNA. The processed transcripts were stable compared with longer intact transcripts. On the other hand, colA mRNA was labile in a VR-RNA-deficient strain, and processed transcripts were undetectable. The stability and processing of colA mRNA were restored by transformation of the 3' region of VR-RNA-expression vector. The 3' region of VR-RNA and colA mRNA had significant complementation and interacted in vitro. These results show that VR-RNA base pairs with colA mRNA and induces cleavage in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of colA mRNA, which leads to the stabilization of colA mRNA and the activation of colA expression. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Prospective randomized controlled trial comparing 1- versus 7-day manipulation following collagenase injection for dupuytren contracture.

    PubMed

    Mickelson, Dayne T; Noland, Shelley S; Watt, Andrew J; Kollitz, Kathleen M; Vedder, Nicholas B; Huang, Jerry I

    2014-10-01

    To compare the efficacy, tolerance, and safety of manual manipulation at day 7 to day 1 following collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for Dupuytren contracture. Eligible patients were randomized to manipulation at day 1 versus day 7 following CCH injection. Preinjection, premanipulation, postmanipulation, and 30-day follow-up metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures were measured. Pain scores were recorded at each time point. Data were stratified per cohort based on primary joint treated (MCP vs PIP). Means were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Forty-three patients with 46 digits were eligible and were randomized to 1-day (22 digits) and 7-day (24 digits) manipulation. For MCP joints, there were no significant differences in flexion contractures between 1- and 7-day cohorts for initial (47° vs 46°), postmanipulation (0° vs 2°), or 30-day follow-up (1° vs 2°) measurements. Premanipulation, the residual contracture was significantly lower in the 7-day group (23° vs 40°). For PIP joints, there were no significant differences between 1- and 7-day cohorts for initial (63° vs 62°), premanipulation (56° vs 52°), postmanipulation (13° vs 15°), or 30-day (14° vs 16°) measurements. There were no significant differences in pain or skin tears between the 2 groups. No flexor tendon ruptures were observed. The effectiveness of CCH in achieving correction of Dupuytren contractures was preserved when manipulation was performed on day 7, with no differences in correction, pain, or skin tears. These data suggest that manipulation can be scheduled at the convenience of the patient and surgeon within the first 7 days after injection. Therapeutic I. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The 32nd Annual J.P. Morgan Healthcare Conference (January 13-16, 2014 - San Francisco, California, USA): Auxilium Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Watt, J

    2014-03-01

    CEO and President Adrian Adams described Auxilium Pharmaceuticals as "the same as a Big Pharma company, only smaller." This 'specialty biopharmaceutical company' has transformed itself in the last 6 to 9 months to become the "leading men's healthcare franchise with a broad and diverse product portfolio." All of this has led to a very busy 2013, which began with the USD 600 million acquisition (Q2) and integration of Actient Pharmaceuticals, the licensing of avanafil (Stendra™) for erectile dysfunction and ended with the approval of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (Xiaflex®) in Peyronie's disease. From a portfolio of 2 products at the beginning of 2013, Auxilium ended the year with 12. Copyright 2014 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  16. Amplified QCM biosensor for type IV collagenase based on collagenase-cleavage of gold nanoparticles functionalized peptide.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zong-Mu; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2018-05-30

    The present study develops a rapid, simple and efficient method for the determination of type IV collagenase by using a specific peptide-modified quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A small peptide (P1), contains a specific sequence (Pro-Gly) and a terminal cysteine, was synthetized and immobilized to the surface of QCM electrode via the reaction between Au and thiol of the cysteine. The peptide bond between proline and glycine can be specific hydrolyzed cleavage by type IV collagenase, which enabled the modified electrode with a high selectivity toward type IV collagenase. The cleaving process caused a frequency change of QCM to give a signal related to the concentration of type IV collagenase. The morphologies of the modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the specific hydrolyzed cleavage process was monitored by QCM. When P1 was modified with gold nanoparticles (P1-Au NPs), the signal could be amplified to further enhance the sensitivity of the designed sensor due to the high-mass of the modified Au NPs. Compared the direct unamplified assay, the values obtained for the limit of detection for type IV collagenase was 0.96 ng mL -1 , yielding about 6.5 times of magnitude improvement in sensitivity. This signal enhanced peptide based QCM biosensor for type IV collagenase also showed good selectivity and sensitivity in complex matrix. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The regulation and regulatory role of collagenase in bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Walling, H. W.; Bloch, S. R.; Omura, T. H.; Chan, P. T.; Pearman, A. T.; Chou, W. Y.

    1996-01-01

    Interstitial collagenase plays an important role in both the normal and pathological remodeling of collagenous extracellular matrices, including skeletal tissues. The enzyme is a member of the family of matrix metalloproteinases. Only one rodent interstitial collagenase has been found but there are two human enzymes, human collagenase-1 and -3, the latter being the homologue of the rat enzyme. In developing rat and mouse bone, collagenase is expressed by hypertrophic chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, a situation that is replicated in a fracture callus. Cultured osteoblasts derived from neonatal rat calvariae show greater amounts of collagenase transcripts late in differentiation. These levels can be regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH), retinoic acid, and insulin-like growth factors, as well as the degree of matrix mineralization. Much of the work on collagenase in bone has been derived from studies on the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-01. All bone-resorbing agents stimulate these cells to produce collagenase mRNA and protein, with PTH being the most potent stimulator. Determination of secreted levels of collagenase has been difficult because UMR cells, normal rat osteoblasts, and rat fibroblasts possess a scavenger receptor that removes the enzyme from the extracellular space, internalizes and degrades it, thus imposing another level of control. PTH can also regulate the abundance of the receptor as well as the expression and synthesis of the enzyme. Regulation of the collagenase gene by PTH appears to involve the cAMP pathway as well as a primary response gene, possibly Fos, which then contributes to induction of the collagenase gene. The rat collagenase gene contains an activator protein-1 sequence that is necessary for basal expression, but other promoter regions may also participate in PTH regulation. Thus, there are many levels of regulation of collagenase in bone perhaps constraining what would otherwise be a rampant enzyme.

  18. Dupuytren disease: an evolving understanding of an age-old disease.

    PubMed

    Black, Eric M; Blazar, Philip E

    2011-12-01

    Dupuytren disease, a clinical entity originally described more than 400 years ago, is a progressive disease of genetic origin. Excessive myofibroblast proliferation and altered collagen matrix composition lead to thickened and contracted palmar fascia; the resultant digital flexion contractures may severely limit function. The pathophysiology is multifactorial and remains a topic of research and debate. Genetic predisposition, trauma, inflammatory response, ischemia, and environment, as well as variable expression of proteins and growth factors within the local tissue, all play a role in the disease process. Common treatments of severe disease include open fasciectomy or fasciotomy. These procedures may be complicated by the complex anatomic relationships between cords (pathologic contracted fascia) and adjacent neurovascular structures. Recent advances in the management of Dupuytren disease involve less invasive treatments, such as percutaneous needle fasciotomy and injectable collagenase Clostridium histolyticum. Postoperative management focuses on minimizing the cellular response of cord disruption and maximizing range of motion through static or dynamic extension splinting.

  19. Extraction of collagenase from the involuting rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Weeks, J G; Halme, J; Woessner, J F

    1976-08-12

    Collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3) activity can be measured directly in homogenates of the involuting rat uterus. Latent forms of collagenase are activated by a brief exposure to trypsin; trypsin activity is then blocked with soybean trypsin inhibitor. Homogenizing conditions have been developed that permit 90-95% recovery of the total active and latent collagenase activity in a 6000 X g pellet, where it is presumably bound to its collagen substrate. This insoluble activity can then be extracted by heating to 60 degrees C for 4 min in 0.04 M Tris - HCl buffer, pH 7.5, containing 0.1 M CaCl2. Methods are presented for the estimation of the recovery of collagenase in the extracts; this approximates 65-70% of the total. Small amounts of activity can also be extracted from rat liver and kidney. This extraction procedure should be of use in purifying collagenase without culturing the enzyme-producing tissue and in the direct assay of tissue collagenase activity. The activity extracted from rat uterus has been proven to be collagenase by its characteristic pattern of collagen breakdown products on disc electrophoresis and by the split of tropocollagen at interband 41 as shown by electron microscopy of reconstituted fragments. The activity is inhibited by EDTA, and this inhibition is not reversed by calcium or zinc ions.

  20. Collagenases in human synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Edward D.; DiBona, Donald R.; Krane, Stephen M.

    1969-01-01

    An enzyme which degrades native collagen at neutral pH has been isolated from cultures of rheumatoid synovium in vitro, but little or no collagenolytic activity has been found in homogenates of fresh rheumatoid synovium. Similar to most other mammalian collagenases this synovial enzyme is readily inhibited by serum proteins. Proteins of synovial fluid are derived largely from serum and synovial fluid from noninflamed joints was found to inhibit synovial collagenase; the inhibitor was destroyed by trypsin, but not by hyaluronidase. Inhibitory activity was reduced in approximately one-half of the fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In a total of nine synovial fluids, collagenolytic activity was detectable. This activity was not present in constant amounts in synovial fluids aspirated at different times from the same patient and tended to vary inversely with the titer of inhibitory proteins. The collagenolytic activity in the synovial fluids from different patients was variably inhibited by serum proteins. Two distinct collagenases were detected in some rheumatoid synovial fluids and separated by gel filtration. One, labeled “B” enzyme, with an estimated molecular weight 20,000-25,000 resembled the collagenase obtained from synovial cultures. The other, labeled “A” enzyme degraded collagen fibrils as well as collagen in solution. Disc electrophoresis on acrylamide gels and electron microscopy of segment long spacing (SLS) aggregates of reaction products of the enzymes at 27°C demonstrated that both “A” and “B” enzymes cleaved collagen molecules at a point three-quarters from the amino terminal end of the molecule. Thus collagen degradation in rheumatoid arthritis could result from the operation of these two collagenases. Images PMID:4309955

  1. Proteases induce secretion of collagenase and plasminogen activator by fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Werb, Z.; Aggeler, J.

    1978-04-01

    We have observed that treatment of rabbit synovial fibroblasts with proteolytic enzymes can induce secretion of collagenase (EC 3.4.24.7) and plasminogen activator (EC 3.4.21.-). Cells treated for 2 to 24 hr with plasmin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic elastase, papain, bromelain, thermolysin, or ..cap alpha..-protease but not with thrombin or neuraminidase secreted detectable amounts of collagenase within 16 to 48 hr. Treatment of fibroblasts with trypsin also induced secretion of plasminogen activator. Proteases initiated secretion of collagenase (up to 20 units per 10/sup 6/ cells per 24 hr) only when treatment produced decreased cell adhesion. Collagenase production did not depend on continuedmore » presence of proteolytic activity or on subsequent cell adhesion, spreading, or proliferation. Routine subculturing with crude trypsin also induced collagenase secretion by cells. Secretion of collagenase was prevented and normal spreading was obtained if the trypsinized cells were placed into medium containing fetal calf serum. Soybean trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, bovine serum albumin, collagen, and fibronectin did not inhibit collagenase production. Although proteases that induced collagenase secretion also removed surface glycoprotein, the kinetics of induction of cell protease secretion were different from those for removal of fibronectin. Physiological inducers of secretion of collagenase and plasminogen activator by cells have not been identified. These results suggest that extracellular proteases in conjunction with plasma proteins may govern protease secretion by cells.« less

  2. A serum factor promotes collagenase synthesis by an osteoblastic cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccinelli, J. M.; Omura, T. H.; Strege, D. W.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1991-01-01

    Regulation of the synthesis of collagenase was investigated in the osteoblastic cell line, UMR 106-01. The cells were stained by the avidin-biotin-complex technique for the presence of the enzyme. By this method, it was possible to identify cells producing collagenase. Synthesis, but not secretion, was found to be constitutive in these cells with the enzyme located intracellularly in cytoplasmic vesicles and the Golgi apparatus. The amount of collagenase contained within UMR cells and the number of cells synthesizing the enzyme were proportional to the concentration of fetal bovine serum in the incubating medium. When serum was withdrawn from the osteosarcoma cells, the content of collagenase decreased with time and the enzyme became undetectable by 48 h of serum depletion. The decrease in collagenase content could be completely reversed by resupplying serum to the cells. The collagenase promoting activity of serum could not be eliminated by adsorption on activated charcoal but was retained by a dialysis membrane with a 12,000 mol wt cutoff. A range of bone-seeking hormones or agents known to affect collagenase secretion was added to the medium in an attempt to mimic the effect of serum on collagenase accumulation. None of these agonists, including parathyroid hormone, could reproduce the effect of serum on these cells, although parathyroid hormone could act as a collagenase secretagogue in the presence or absence of serum. It is concluded that fetal bovine serum contains a yet unidentified factor or factors greater than 12,000 mol wt responsible for the continued synthesis of collagenase by UMR 106-01 cells.

  3. Structural Requirement in Clostridium perfringens Collagenase mRNA 5′ Leader Sequence for Translational Induction through Small RNA-mRNA Base Pairing

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Kouji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens is pathogenic to humans and animals, and the production of its toxins is strictly regulated during the exponential phase. We recently found that the 5′ leader sequence of the colA transcript encoding collagenase, which is a major toxin of this organism, is processed and stabilized in the presence of the small RNA VR-RNA. The primary colA 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) forms a long stem-loop structure containing an internal bulge and masks its own ribosomal binding site. Here we found that VR-RNA directly regulates colA expression through base pairing with colA mRNA in vivo. However, when the internal bulge structure was closed by point mutations in colA mRNA, translation ceased despite the presence of VR-RNA. In addition, a mutation disrupting the colA stem-loop structure induced mRNA processing and ColA-FLAG translational activation in the absence of VR-RNA, indicating that the stem-loop and internal bulge structure of the colA 5′ leader sequence is important for regulation by VR-RNA. On the other hand, processing was required for maximal ColA expression but was not essential for VR-RNA-dependent colA regulation. Finally, colA processing and translational activation were induced at a high temperature without VR-RNA. These results suggest that inhibition of the colA 5′ leader structure through base pairing is the primary role of VR-RNA in colA regulation and that the colA 5′ leader structure is a possible thermosensor. PMID:23585542

  4. Regulation of expression of collagenase-3 in normal, differentiating rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Bloch, S. R.; Fiacco, G. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the regulation of collagenase-3 expression in normal, differentiating rat osteoblasts. Fetal rat calvarial cell cultures showed an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity reaching maximal levels between 7-14 days post-confluence, then declining with the onset of mineralization. Collagenase-3 mRNA was just detectable after proliferation ceased at day 7, increased up to day 21, and declined at later ages. Postconfluent cells maintained in non-mineralizing medium expressed collagenase-3 but did not show the developmental increase exhibited by cells switched to mineralization medium. Cells maintained in non-mineralizing medium continued to proliferate; cells in mineralization medium ceased proliferation. In addition, collagenase-3 mRNA was not detected in subcultured cells allowed to remineralize. These results suggest that enhanced accumulation of collagenase-3 mRNA is triggered by cessation of proliferation or acquisition of a mineralized extracellular matrix and that other factors may also be required. After initiation of basal expression, parathyroid hormone (PTH) caused a dose-dependent increase in collagenase-3 mRNA. Both the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analogue, 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP), and the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol myristate acetate, increased collagenase-3 expression, while the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, did not, suggesting that PTH was acting through the protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC pathways. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide caused an increase in basal collagenase-3 expression but blocked the effect of PTH, suggesting that an inhibitory factor prevents basal expression while an inductive factor is involved with PTH action. In summary, collagenase-3 is expressed in mineralized osteoblasts and cessation of proliferation and initiation of mineralization are triggers for collagenase-3 expression. PTH also stimulates expression of the enzyme through both PKA and PKC pathways in the

  5. Mycoplasma-induced BALB/c 3T3 collagenase is a mammalian enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Kluve, B; Merrick, W C; Gershman, H

    1983-01-01

    A collagenase previously reported to accumulate in the medium of cultures of BALB/c 3T3 cells on infection with Mycoplasma orale [Kluve, Merrick, Stanbridge & Gershman (1981) Nature (London) 292, 855-857] was partially purified and characterized. With regard to purification properties, activation, sensitivity to inhibitors and relative molecular mass the enzyme was similar to previously reported vertebrate collagenases, but could not be unequivocally distinguished from bacterial collagenases. With regard to substrate-specificity and reaction products, however, the collagenase was typical of vertebrate collagenases and distinct from bacterial collagenases. Specifically, the enzyme displayed a preference for type III collagen and type I collagen, a somewhat decreased ability to degrade type II collagen, and a very limited ability to degrade type IV collagen. The initial products of the action of the collagenase on type I collagen were characterized as fragments one-quarter and three-quarters of the length of the intact collagen molecule. Because the properties of the collagenase produced by cultures of mycoplasma-infected BALB/c 3T3 cells are those of a mammalian-type (vertebrate-type) enzyme, we have concluded that the collagenase is a product of the mouse (BALB/c 3T3) genome, and is not produced by the mycoplasma. Therefore it appears that infection of BALB/c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts with Mycoplasma orale induces the mouse cells to produce and secrete collagenase. PMID:6309150

  6. Collagenase-3 expression in periapical lesions: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, G; Astekar, M S; Ramesh, G; Kaur, P; Sowmya, G V

    2014-08-01

    Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) is a metalloproteinase (MMP) that is associated with bone lesions and exhibits variable expression patterns in odontogenic cysts; it may play a role in regulating focal proliferation and maturation of jaw cyst epithelium. We studied the localization, staining intensity and distribution of collagenase-3 in 13 periapical granulomas with epithelium, 16 periapical granulomas without epithelium and 10 radicular cysts using archived formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues. A monoclonal antibody against human collagenase-3 was used to evaluate its expression. Immunohistochemical staining intensities of collagenase-3 in all periapical lesions were (-), 4 (10%); (+), 1 (3%); (++), 22 (56%) and (+++), 12 (31%); differences were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemical distribution of collagenase-3 in epithelial cells was (-), 17 (44%); (+), 17 (44%); (++), 5 (13%); in fibroblasts it was (-), 8 (20%); (+), 23 (59%); (++), 8 (21%); in plasma cells it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), 22 (56%); (++), 10 (26%); in macrophages it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), and 15 (38%); and (++), 17 (44%). Statistically significant differences were found in epithelial cells (p = 0.00) and fibroblasts (p = 0.02), whereas differences were not statistically significant for plasma cells and macrophages. Collagenase-3 may play a role in the conversion of a periapical granuloma with epithelium to radicular cyst. MMP's influence not only epithelial rest cell migration, but also invasion of various stromal cells into granulomatous tissue.

  7. Multiple collagenase injections are safe for treatment of Dupuytren's contractures.

    PubMed

    Gajendran, Varun K; Hentz, Vincent; Kenney, Deborah; Curtin, Catherine M

    2014-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 65-year-old, right-hand-dominant man who had severe Dupuytren's disease with multiple cords and flexion contractures of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of both hands and underwent repeated collagenase injections for treatment. Collagenase has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of Dupuytren's contractures when administered as a single dose, but the results of multiple injections over a prolonged period are unknown. Antibodies to collagenase develop in all patients after several treatments, raising concerns about safety and efficacy as a result of sensitization from repeated exposures. The antibodies generated as a result of repeated exposure to collagenase could theoretically render it less effective with time and could also lead to immune reactions as severe as anaphylaxis. The authors present the case of a single patient who experienced continued correction of his contractures with only minor and self-limited adverse reactions after administration of 12 collagenase doses through 15 injections during a 4-year period. Over time, the injections continued to be effective at correcting metacarpophalangeal joint contractures, but less effective at correcting proximal interphalangeal joint contractures. The patient did eventually require a fasciectomy, but the safety and modest success of the repeated collagenase injections shows promise for a less invasive treatment with a better risk profile than open fasciectomy. Although further studies are needed, repeated administration of collagenase appears to be safe and modestly effective for severe Dupuytren's contractures, although a fasciectomy may ultimately be required in the most severe cases. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. In vitro biological evaluation of glyburide as potential inhibitor of collagenases.

    PubMed

    Bodiga, Vijaya Lakshmi; Eda, Sasidhar Reddy; Chavali, Saishashank; Revur, Nagasaisreelekha Nagavalli; Zhang, Anita; Thokala, Sandhya; Bodiga, Sreedhar

    2014-09-01

    In tissues with upregulated MMP activity, MMP inhibition remains one of the key strategies. Potential inhibitors of MMPs have been tested for almost 30 years, but none have reached clinical utility due to bioavailability issues and adverse effects. This study utilized the approach of drug repurposing for exploring glyburide as a potential inhibitor against collagenases. In silico molecular docking studies were carried out to probe the interactions of glyburide with the active site Zn. Collagenase enzyme activity measurements and zymography analyses using conditioned medium from lung fibroblasts, rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts, and osteoblasts were carried out to confirm the inhibitory activity. Glyburide binds and interacts with the catalytic Zn residues of the collagenases, as evidenced by in silico molecular docking studies. Fluorescence enzyme activity measurements reveal that glyburide inhibits peptide substrate cleavage by all three collagenases in a dose-dependent manner. Collagen zymography studies validated inhibition of these collagenases by glyburide. These results identify glyburide as a potential inhibitor of collagenases and provide an insight into the mechanism of action of this small molecule. Thus, glyburide may offer additional advantages in diabetics, in controlling MMP activation and collagen degradation and could aid in the treatment of diseases with aberrant MMP activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Collagenase Santyl ointment: a selective agent for wound debridement.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Carson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic debridement is a frequently used technique for removal of necrotic tissue from wounds. Proteases with specificity to break down the collagenous materials in necrotic tissues can achieve selective debridement, digesting denatured collagen in eschar while sparing nonnecrotic tissues. This article provides information about the selectivity of a collagenase-based debriding agent, including evidence of its safe and efficacious uses. Recent research has been conducted, investigating the chemical and biological properties of collagenase ointment, including healing in animal models, digestion power on different collagen types, cell migration activity from collagen degradation products, and compatibility with various wound dressings and metal ions. Evidence presented demonstrates that collagenase ointment is an effective, selective, and safe wound debriding agent.

  10. Rabbit collagenase. Immunological identity of the enzymes released from cells and tissues in normal and pathological conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Z; Reynolds, J J

    1975-01-01

    1. The immunological cross-reactivity between rabbit collagenases from a variety of normal and pathological sources was examined. The specific antibody raised against collagenase secreted from normal rabbit synovial fibroblasts gave reactions of complete identity with collagenases secreted from fibroblasts derived from rabbit skin, and from synovium from experimentally arthritic rabbits. 2. The rabbit fibroblast collagenase was immunologically identical with collagenases obtained from the organ culture medium of normal rabbit skin, synovium, ear fibrocartilage and subchondral bone. 3. Collagenases from the culture media of normal rabbit synovium and from hyperplastic synovium of rabbits made experimentally arthritic were identical. 4. The collagenase secreted from rabbit fibroblasts gave a reaction completely identical with that of a collagenase extracted directly from a rabbit carcinoma. 5. IgG (immunoglobulin G) from a specific antiserum to rabbit fibroblast collagenase was a potent inhibitor of the collagenases obtained from the culture media of the various rabbit cells and tissues. 6. Collagenases from human synovium and from mouse macrophages and bone were neither precipitated nor inhibited by antibodies to rabbit collagenase. 7. No immunoreactive material was found in lysates of rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocyte granules with the specific antisera to rabbit fibroblast collagenase. No evidence for inactive forms of rabbit collagenase in lysates of the rabbit synovial fibroblasts could be found, either by double immunodiffusion against the specific collagenase, or by displacement of active enzyme from inhibition by the IgG. Images PLATE 1 PMID:56176

  11. Assessment of six different collagenase-based methods to isolate feline pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Zini, Eric; Franchini, Marco; Guscetti, Franco; Osto, Melania; Kaufmann, Karin; Ackermann, Mathias; Lutz, Thomas A; Reusch, Claudia E

    2009-12-01

    Isolation of pancreatic islets is necessary to study the molecular mechanisms underlying beta-cell demise in diabetic cats. Six collagenase-based methods of isolation were compared in 10 cat pancreata, including single and double course of collagenase, followed or not by Ficoll centrifugation or accutase, and collagenase plus accutase. Morphometric analysis was performed to measure the relative area of islet and exocrine tissue. Islet specific mRNA transcripts were quantified in isolates by real-time PCR. The single and double course of collagenase digestion was successful in each cat and provided similar islet-to-exocrine tissue ratio. Quantities of insulin mRNA did not differ between the two methods. However, on histological examination either method yielded only approximately 2% of pure islets. The other methods provided disrupted islets or insufficient samples in 1-7 cats. Although pancreas digestion with single and double course of collagenase was superior, further studies are needed to improve islet isolation in cats.

  12. Collagenase enzymatic fasciotomy for Dupuytren contracture in patients on chronic immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Waters, Michael J; Belsky, Mark R; Blazar, Philip E; Leibman, Matthew I; Ruchelsman, David E

    2015-11-01

    Collagenase enzymatic fasciotomy is an accepted nonsurgical treatment for disabling hand contractures caused by Dupuytren disease. We conducted a study to investigate use of collagenase in an immunosuppressed population. We retrospectively reviewed data from 2 academic hand surgical practices. Eight patients on chronic immunosuppressive therapies were treated with collagenase for digital contractures between 2010 and 2011. Thirteen collagenase enzymatic fasciotomies were performed in these 8 patients. Mean preinjection contracture was 53.0°. At mean follow-up of 6.7 months, mean magnitude of contracture improved to 12.9°. Mean metacarpophalangeal joint contracture improved from 42.0° to 4.2°. Mean proximal interphalangeal joint contracture improved from 65.8° to 21.7°. Three of the enzymatic fasciotomies were complicated by skin tears. There were no infections. As more patients seek nonsurgical treatment for Dupuytren disease, its safety and efficacy in select cohorts of patients should continue to be evaluated prospectively.

  13. A comparison of percutaneous needle fasciotomy and collagenase injection for dupuytren disease.

    PubMed

    Nydick, Jason A; Olliff, Bailee W; Garcia, Michael J; Hess, Alfred V; Stone, Jeffrey D

    2013-12-01

    To compare percutaneous needle fasciotomy (PNF) with collagenase injection in the treatment of Dupuytren contracture. A retrospective review was performed for patients with Dupuytren disease treated with PNF or collagenase. Range of motion, patient satisfaction, and complications were recorded. There were 29 patients in the collagenase group with mean baseline contractures of 40° for 22 affected metacarpophalangeal joints and 50° for 12 affected proximal interphalangeal joints. The PNF group was composed of 30 patients with mean baseline contractures of 37° for 32 affected metacarpophalangeal joints and 41° for 18 affected proximal interphalangeal joints. All patients were observed for a minimum of 3 months. Clinical success (reduction of contracture within 0° to 5° of normal) was accomplished in 35 of 50 joints (67%) in the PNF group and in 19 of 34 joints (56%) in the collagenase group. Patient satisfaction was similar between groups. Only minor complications were observed, including skin tears, ecchymosis, edema, pruritus, and lymphadenopathy. In the short term, both PNF and collagenase have similar clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retinoic acid stimulates interstitial collagenase messenger ribonucleic acid in osteosarcoma cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, T. J.; Clohisy, J. C.; Shilt, J. S.; Bergman, K. D.; Partridge, N. C.; Quinn, C. O.

    1994-01-01

    The rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line UMR 106-01 secretes interstitial collagenase in response to retinoic acid (RA). The present study demonstrates by Northern blot analysis that RA causes an increase in collagenase messenger RNA (mRNA) at 6 h, which is maximal at 24 h (20.5 times basal) and declines toward basal level by 72 h. This stimulation is dose dependent, with a maximal response at 5 x 10(-7) M RA. Nuclear run-on assays show a greater than 20-fold increase in the rate of collagenase mRNA transcription between 12-24 h after RA treatment. Cycloheximide blocks RA stimulation of collagenase mRNA, demonstrating the need for de novo protein synthesis. RA not only causes an increase in collagenase secretion, but is known to decrease collagen synthesis in UMR 106-01 cells. In this study, the increase in collagenase mRNA is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the level of alpha 1(I) procollagen mRNA, which is maximal at 24 h (70% decrease), with a return to near-control levels by 72 h. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated that the decrease in alpha 1 (I) procollagen expression does not have a statistically significant transcriptional component. RA did not statistically decrease the stability of alpha 1 (I) procollagen mRNA (calculated t1/2 = 8.06 +/- 0.30 and 9.01 +/- 0.62 h in the presence and absence of RA, respectively). However, transcription and stability together probably contribute to the major decrease in stable alpha 1 (I) procollagen mRNA observed. Cycloheximide treatment inhibits basal level alpha 1 (I) procollagen mRNA accumulation, demonstrating the need for on-going protein synthesis to maintain basal expression of this gene.

  15. Regulation of the collagenase-3 receptor and its role in intracellular ligand processing in rat osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walling, H. W.; Chan, P. T.; Omura, T. H.; Barmina, O. Y.; Fiacco, G. J.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously described a specific, saturable receptor for rat collagenase-3 in the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-01. Binding of rat collagenase-3 to this receptor is coupled to the internalization and eventual degradation of the enzyme and correlates with observed extracellular levels of the enzyme. In this study we have shown that decreased binding, internalization, and degradation of 125I-rat collagenase-3 were observed in cells after 24 h of parathyroid hormone treatment; these activities returned to control values after 48 h and were increased substantially (twice control levels) after 96 h of treatment with the hormone. Subcellular fractionation studies to identify the route of uptake and degradation of collagenase-3 localized intracellular accumulation of 125I-rat collagenase-3 initially in Golgi-associated lysosomes and later in secondary lysosomes. Maximal lysosomal accumulation of the radiolabel and stimulation of general lysosomal activity occurred after 72 h of parathyroid hormone treatment. Preventing fusion of endosomes with lysosomes (by temperature shift, colchicine, or monensin) resulted in no internalized 125I-collagenase-3 in either lysosomal fraction. Treatment of UMR cells with the above agents or ammonium chloride decreased excretion of 125I-labeled degradation products of collagenase-3. These experiments demonstrated that degradation of collagenase-3 required receptor-mediated endocytosis and sequential processing by endosomes and lysosomes. Thus, parathyroid hormone regulates the expression and synthesis of collagenase-3 as well as the abundance and functioning of the collagenase-3 receptor and the intracellular degradation of its ligand. The coordinate changes in the secretion of collagenase-3 and expression of the receptor determine the net abundance of the enzyme in the extracellular space.

  16. Intra-articular injection of collagenase induced experimental osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joint in rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tsu-Te; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Lee, Chian-Her; Yang, Zhi; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wu, Shing-Sheng; Nimni, Marcel E; Han, Bo

    2008-05-01

    We aimed to establish an animal model to investigate primary osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joints after collagenase injection in rats and its effects on chondrocyte apoptosis. We hypothesized that osteoarthritic-like changes would be induced by collagenase injection and that apoptosis of chondrocytes would increase. Collagenase (1, 10, or 50 U) or saline (control) was injected into the lumbar facet joints. The histology and histochemistry of cartilage, synovium, and subchondral bone were examined at 1, 3, and 6 weeks after surgery. Apoptotic cells induced by 1 U of collagenase were quantified using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Degeneration of the cartilage and changes to the synovium and subchondral bone were dependent on both the doses of collagenase and the time after surgery. There were significantly more apoptotic chondrocytes in collagenase-treated joints than in control (P < 0.001 at 1 and 3 weeks and P < 0.05 at 6 weeks). Thus, lumbar facet joints subjected to collagenase developed osteoarthritic-like changes that could be quantified and compared. This model provides a useful tool for further study on the effects of compounds that have the potential to inhibit enzyme-associated damage to cartilage.

  17. Intra-articular injection of collagenase induced experimental osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joint in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Tsu-Te; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Lee, Chian-Her; Yang, Zhi; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Nimni, Marcel E.; Han, Bo

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to establish an animal model to investigate primary osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joints after collagenase injection in rats and its effects on chondrocyte apoptosis. We hypothesized that osteoarthritic-like changes would be induced by collagenase injection and that apoptosis of chondrocytes would increase. Collagenase (1, 10, or 50 U) or saline (control) was injected into the lumbar facet joints. The histology and histochemistry of cartilage, synovium, and subchondral bone were examined at 1, 3, and 6 weeks after surgery. Apoptotic cells induced by 1 U of collagenase were quantified using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Degeneration of the cartilage and changes to the synovium and subchondral bone were dependent on both the doses of collagenase and the time after surgery. There were significantly more apoptotic chondrocytes in collagenase-treated joints than in control (P < 0.001 at 1 and 3 weeks and P < 0.05 at 6 weeks). Thus, lumbar facet joints subjected to collagenase developed osteoarthritic-like changes that could be quantified and compared. This model provides a useful tool for further study on the effects of compounds that have the potential to inhibit enzyme-associated damage to cartilage. PMID:18224353

  18. Digesting a Path Forward: The Utility of Collagenase Tumor Treatment for Improved Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Dolor, Aaron; Szoka, Francis C

    2018-06-04

    Collagen and hyaluronan are the most abundant components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and their overexpression in tumors is linked to increased tumor growth and metastasis. These ECM components contribute to a protective tumor microenvironment by supporting a high interstitial fluid pressure and creating a tortuous setting for the convection and diffusion of chemotherapeutic small molecules, antibodies, and nanoparticles in the tumor interstitial space. This review focuses on the research efforts to deplete extracellular collagen with collagenases to normalize the tumor microenvironment. Although collagen synthesis inhibitors are in clinical development, the use of collagenases is contentious and clinically untested in cancer patients. Pretreatment of murine tumors with collagenases increased drug uptake and diffusion 2-10-fold. This modest improvement resulted in decreased tumor growth, but the benefits of collagenase treatment are confounded by risks of toxicity from collagen breakdown in healthy tissues. In this review, we evaluate the published in vitro and in vivo benefits and limitations of collagenase treatment to improve drug delivery.

  19. Clostridium perfringens strains from bovine enterotoxemia cases are not superior in in vitro production of alpha toxin, perfringolysin O and proteolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine enterotoxemia is a major cause of mortality in veal calves. Predominantly veal calves of beef cattle breeds are affected and losses due to enterotoxemia may account for up to 20% of total mortality. Clostridium perfringens type A is considered to be the causative agent. Recently, alpha toxin and perfringolysin O have been proposed to play an essential role in the development of disease. However, other potential virulence factors also may play a role in the pathogenesis of bovine enterotoxemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether strains originating from bovine enterotoxemia cases were superior in in vitro production of virulence factors (alpha toxin, perfringolysin O, mucinase, collagenase) that are potentially involved in enterotoxemia. To approach this, a collection of strains originating from enterotoxemia cases was compared to bovine strains isolated from healthy animals and to strains isolated from other animal species. Results Strains originating from bovine enterotoxemia cases produced variable levels of alpha toxin and perfringolysin O that were not significantly different from levels produced by strains isolated from healthy calves and other animal species. All tested strains exhibited similar mucinolytic activity independent of the isolation source. A high variability in collagenase activity between strains could be observed, and no higher collagenase levels were produced in vitro by strains isolated from enterotoxemia cases. Conclusions Bovine enterotoxemia strains do not produce higher levels of alpha toxin, perfringolysin O, mucinase and collagenase, as compared to strains derived from healthy calves and other animal species in vitro. PMID:24479821

  20. Effect of Asiaticoside, Collagenase, and Alpha-chymotrypsin on Wound Healing in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ozgur; Ozkan, Kadircan; Hatipoglu, Fatih; Uyaroglu, Aysen; Arican, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Wound dressing materials such as asiaticoside, collagenase, and alpha-chymotrypsin are often used for effective wound healing activity. In this study, the effects of asiaticoside, collagenase, and alpha-chymotrypsin were studied in rabbit models with open wounds with tissue loss and with full-thickness flank excisions for a period of 21 days. Three groups of 4 rabbits were examined during trial periods of 7, 14, and 21 days. Four circular wounds measuring 1.5 cm in diameter were made on the dorsal sides of the animals: 2 on the right and 2 the left. Asiaticoside, collagenase, and alpha-chymotrypsin were applied to wounds daily for a period of 7, 14, and 21 days, while 1 gauzed wound served as the control. All biopsy specimens were histopathologically evaluated for recovery. On day 7, microscopic review showed no differences in wound healing between groups. By day 14, alpha-chymotrypsin showed the quickest reepithelialization (P < 0.05); and by day 21 asiaticoside and collagenase (P < 0.01) showed effective recovery, due to the completion of wound healing for all animals in both groups. Alpha-chymotrypsin is more effective than the other 2 groups for only 14 days. The effectiveness of asiaticoside and collagenase displayed a more rapid improvement in comparison to alpha-chymotrypsin for healing open wounds with tissue loss for a period of 21 days.

  1. Collagenase-labile polyurethane urea synthesis and processing into hollow fiber membranes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-Li; Hong, Yi; Little, Steven R; Wagner, William R

    2014-08-11

    As a means to stimulate wound healing, a hollow fiber membrane system might be placed within a wound bed to provide local and externally regulated controlled delivery of regenerative factors. After sufficient healing, it would be desirable to triggerably degrade these fibers as opposed to pulling them out. Accordingly, a series of enzymatically degradable thermoplastic elastomers was developed as potential hollow fiber base material. Polyurethane ureas (PUUs) were synthesized based on 1, 4-diisocyanatobutane, polycaprolactone (PCL) diol and polyethylene glycol (PEG) at different molar fractions as soft segments, and collagenase-sensitive peptide GGGLGPAGGK-NH2 as a chain extender (defined as PUU-CLxEGy-peptide, where x and y are the respective molar percents). In these polymers, PEG in the polymer backbone decreased tensile strengths and initial moduli of solvent-cast films in the wet state, while increasing water absorption. Collagenase degradation was observed at 75% relative PEG content in the soft segment. Control PUUs with putrescine or nonsense peptide chain extenders did not degrade acutely in collagenase. Conduits electrospun from PUU-CL25EG75-peptide and PUU-CL50EG50-peptide exhibited appropriate mechanical strength and sustained release of a model protein from the tube lumen for 7 days. Collapse of PUU-CL25EG75-peptide tubes occurred after collagenase degradation for 3 days. In conclusion, through molecular design, synthesis and characterization, a collagenase-labile PUU-CL25EG75-peptide polymer was identified that exhibited the desired traits of triggerable lability, processability, and the capacity to act as a membrane to facilitate controlled protein release.

  2. Glial activation in the collagenase model of nociception associated with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Adães, Sara; Almeida, Lígia; Potes, Catarina S; Ferreira, Ana Rita; Castro-Lopes, José M; Ferreira-Gomes, Joana; Neto, Fani L

    2017-01-01

    Background Experimental osteoarthritis entails neuropathic-like changes in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Since glial activation has emerged as a key player in nociception, being reported in numerous models of neuropathic pain, we aimed at evaluating if glial cell activation may also occur in the DRG and spinal cord of rats with osteoarthritis induced by intra-articular injection of collagenase. Methods Osteoarthritis was induced by two injections, separated by three days, of 500 U of type II collagenase into the knee joint of rats. Movement-induced nociception was evaluated by the Knee-Bend and CatWalk tests during the following six weeks. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in satellite glial cells of the DRG was assessed by immunofluorescence and Western Blot analysis; the pattern of GFAP and activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3) expression was also compared through double immunofluorescence analysis. GFAP expression in astrocytes and IBA-1 expression in microglia of the L3-L5 spinal cord segments was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis. The effect of the intrathecal administration of fluorocitrate, an inhibitor of glial activation, on movement-induced nociception was evaluated six weeks after the first collagenase injection. Results GFAP expression in satellite glial cells of collagenase-injected animals was significantly increased six weeks after osteoarthritis induction. Double immunofluorescence showed GFAP upregulation in satellite glial cells surrounding ATF-3-positive neurons. In the spinal cord of collagenase-injected animals, an ipsilateral upregulation of GFAP and IBA-1 was also observed. The inhibition of glial activation with fluorocitrate decreased movement- and loading-induced nociception. Conclusion Collagenase-induced knee osteoarthritis leads to the development of nociception associated with movement of the affected joint and to the activation of glial cells in both the DRG and the spinal cord

  3. Identification of an Electrostatic Ruler Motif for Sequence-Specific Binding of Collagenase to Collagen.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sundar Raman; Singam, Ettayapuram Ramaprasad Azhagiya; Berinski, Michael; Subramanian, Venkatesan; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-25

    Sequence-specific cleavage of collagen by mammalian collagenase plays a pivotal role in cell function. Collagenases are matrix metalloproteinases that cleave the peptide bond at a specific position on fibrillar collagen. The collagenase Hemopexin-like (HPX) domain has been proposed to be responsible for substrate recognition, but the mechanism by which collagenases identify the cleavage site on fibrillar collagen is not clearly understood. In this study, Brownian dynamics simulations coupled with atomic-detail and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations were performed to dock matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) on a collagen IIIα1 triple helical peptide. We find that the HPX domain recognizes the collagen triple helix at a conserved R-X11-R motif C-terminal to the cleavage site to which the HPX domain of collagen is guided electrostatically. The binding of the HPX domain between the two arginine residues is energetically stabilized by hydrophobic contacts with collagen. From the simulations and analysis of the sequences and structural flexibility of collagen and collagenase, a mechanistic scheme by which MMP-1 can recognize and bind collagen for proteolysis is proposed.

  4. Survey for collagenase gene prtC in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis isolated from endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Odell, L J; Baumgartner, J C; Xia, T; David, L L

    1999-08-01

    Collagenase is a potential virulence factor shown to be expressed by Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of the collagenase gene (prtC) in 21 strains of Porphyromonas species isolated from endodontic infections. Type strains for P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277), P. endodontalis (ATCC 35406), Prevotella intermedia (ATCC 25611), and Prevotella nigrescens (ATCC 33563) were used as controls. When PCR primers specific for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of P. gingivalis or P. endodontalis were used, 16 of the strains were identified as P. gingivalis, and five strains were identified as P. endodontalis. The presence of the prtC gene for collagenase was detected using PCR. Amplicons were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, with an 815 bp amplicon representing the presence of the collagenase gene. Type strain ATCC 33277 and all 16 clinical isolates of P. gingivalis produced the collagenase gene amplicon. Neither type strain ATCC 35406 nor the five strains from clinical isolates of P. endodontalis produced the collagenase gene amplicon. These results indicate that P. gingivalis from endodontic infections possesses the prtC gene. P. endodontalis does not seem to exhibit prtC. The virulence of P. gingivalis may be related to its production of collagenase.

  5. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  6. Recent Pathophysiological Aspects of Peyronie's Disease: Role of Free Radicals, Rationale, and Therapeutic Implications for Antioxidant Treatment—Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Gennaro; Paulis, Luca; Barletta, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a chronic inflammation of tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa that causes an inelastic plaque resulting in penis deformation. Although its etiology is not completely known, there is general consensus that PD is genetically transmitted and secondary to penile trauma. In recent years, numerous studies demonstrated the role played by oxidative stress in PD pathogenesis, and other studies have described successful use of antioxidants in PD treatment. Oxidative stress is an integral part of this disease, influencing its progression. In the early stages of PD, the inflammatory infiltrate cells produce high quantities of free radicals and proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, with consequent activation of transcription factor NF-κB. While conservative therapies commonly used in the early stages of PD include oral substances (Potaba, tamoxifen, colchicine, and vitamin E), intralesional treatment (verapamil, interferon, steroids, and more recently collagenase clostridium histolyticum-Xiaflex), and local physical treatment (iontophoresis, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, and penile extender), the significant results obtained by emerging treatments with the antioxidants cited in this article suggest these therapeutic agents interfere at several levels with the disease's pathogenetic mechanisms. Antioxidants therapy outcomes are interesting for good clinical practice and also confirm the fundamental role played by oxidative stress in PD. PMID:28744308

  7. Purification and characterization of an eggshell membrane decomposing protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ME-4.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Minyi; Takenaka, Shinji; Aoki, Shunsuke; Murakami, Shuichiro; Aoki, Kenji

    2009-04-01

    A bacterial strain, ME-4, isolated from farm soil and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, grew well on a medium containing eggshell membrane (ESM). P. aeruginosa strain ME-4 decomposed the ESM by producing an extracellular protease able to solubilize it. The protease was purified to homogeneity from culture supernatant by fractionation with (NH(4))(2)SO(4), as well as CM52 cellulose and DE52 cellulose column chromatography, with a final yield of 47%. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 33 kDa. The isolated enzyme was a metalloprotease and was strongly inhibited by EDTA, o-phenanthroline, and phosphoramidon. The enzyme inhibited by these reagents was reactivated in the presence of several metal ions. The enzyme acted on various proteins and showed higher activity with collagen than collagenase from Clostridium histolyticum. Results of assays with the FRETS combinatorial libraries revealed that the enzyme preferred Ser at the P1 position and Lys at the P2 position. It also preferred hydrophobic amino acid residues at the P1' and P2' positions. The enzyme showed a much higher solubilization activity with the ESM substrate than commercially obtained enzymes. The enzyme decomposed ESM to produce water-soluble peptides, Val-Leu-Pro-Pro and (X)-Val-Pro-Pro, and a free amino acid, tryptophan.

  8. Partition Efficiency of High-Pitch Locular Multilayer Coil for Countercurrent Chromatographic Separation of Proteins Using Small-Scale Cross-Axis Coil Planet Centrifuge and Application to Purification of Various Collagenases with Aqueous-Aqueous Polymer Phase Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Inokuchi, Norio; Nakagomi, Kazuya; Ito, Yoichiro

    2010-01-01

    Partition efficiency of the high-pitch locular multilayer coil was evaluated in countercurrent chromatographic (CCC) separation of proteins with an aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system using the small-scale cross-axis coil planet centrifuge (X-axis CPC) fabricated in our laboratory. The separation column was specially made by high-pitch (ca 5 cm) winding of 1.0 mm I.D., 2.0 mm O.D. locular tubing compressed at 2 cm intervals with a total capacity of 29.5 mL. The protein separation was performed using a set of stable proteins including cytochrome C, myoglobin, and lysozyme with the 12.5% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate system (pH 9.2) under 1000 rpm of column revolution. This high-pitch locular tubing yielded substantially increased stationary phase retention than the normal locular tubing for both lower and upper mobile phases. In order to demonstrate the capability of the high-pitch locular tubing, the purification of collagenase from the crude commercial sample was carried out using an aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system. Using the 16.0% (w/w) PEG 1000 – 6.3% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate – 6.3% (w/w) monobasic potassium phosphate system (pH 6.6), collagenase I, II, V and X derived from Clostridium hystolyticum were separated from other proteins and colored small molecular weight compounds present in the crude commercial sample, while collagenase N-2 and S-1 from Streptomyces parvulus subsp. citrinus were eluted with impurities at the solvent front with the upper phase. The collagenase from C. hystolyticum retained its enzymatic activity in the purified fractions. The overall results demonstrated that the high-pitch locular multilayer coil is effectively used for the CCC purification of bioactive compounds without loss of their enzymatic activities. PMID:21869859

  9. Effect of bacterial collagenase on resin-dentin bonds degradation.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; Aguilera, Fátima S; Yamauti, Monica; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a bacterial collagenase on the degradation of resin-dentin bonds. Human dentin surfaces were bonded with: an etch-&-rinse self-priming adhesive (SB), a two-step self-etching primer/adhesive (SEB), and a 1-step self-etching adhesive (OUB). Composite build-ups were constructed. The bonded teeth were stored (24 h, 3 months, 1 year) in distilled water or in a buffered bacterial collagenase solution. Half of the specimens were stored as intact bonded teeth (Indirect Exposure/IE). The other half were sectioned into beams prior to storage (Direct Exposure/DE). After storage the intact teeth were sectioned into beams and all specimens were tested for microtensile bond strengths (MTBS). ANOVA and multiple comparisons tests were performed. Fractographic analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy. The inclusion of bacterial collagenase in the storing solution did not lower the MTBS values over those seen in specimens stored in water. SB and SEB bonds strength were equal, and were superior to OUB. After 3 months of DE, SB and OUB bonded specimens showed decreases in MTBS; similar reductions required 1 year for SEB/DE. MTBS did not decrease in IE specimens except for OUB. Resin and collagen dissolution were evident in DE groups after storing.

  10. Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) and its activators in rheumatoid arthritis: localization in the pannus-hard tissue junction and inhibition by alendronate.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Y T; Salo, T; Hanemaaijer, R; Valleala, H; Sorsa, T; Sutinen, M; Ceponis, A; Xu, J W; Santavirta, S; Teronen, O; López-Otín, C

    1999-08-01

    The hypothesis of the present work was that the pannus tissue overlying the articular hard tissues has an aggressive phenotype and contains the newly discovered collagenase-3 and its endogenous inducers and activators. We therefore analyzed the eventual presence of collagenase-3 and its regulation at the pannus-cartilage junction. Collagenase-3 mRNA (in situ hybridization) and enzyme protein (ABC and immunofluorescence staining) were found in the pannocytes in the pannus-hard tissue junction. Inflammatory round cells associated with the critical interface contained TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. These cytokines induced collagenase-3 secretion in cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Procollagenase-3 activators, stromelysin-1, 72 kDa type IV collagenase/gelatinase and membrane-type 1-MMP, were also found in the pannus-hard tissue junction. Active collagenase-3 was inhibited with alendronate (IC50 = 500-750 microM). Collagenase-3, due to its substrate profile and local synthesis in a milieu favoring its activation, might play a major role in the degradation of cartilage type II and bone type I collagens. Alendronate, at concentrations attainable in vivo, is able to inhibit collagenase-3. This might offer an option to control collagenase-3-mediated tissue destruction in rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Costs for collagenase injections compared with fasciectomy in the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Atroshi, Isam; Strandberg, Emelie; Lauritzson, Anna; Ahlgren, Eva; Waldén, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare collagenase injections and surgery (fasciectomy) for Dupuytren's contracture (DC) regarding actual total direct treatment costs and short-term outcomes. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Orthopaedic department of a regional hospital in Sweden. Participants Patients aged 65 years or older with previously untreated DC of 30° or greater in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and/or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the small, ring or middle finger. The collagenase group comprised 16 consecutive patients treated during the first 6 months following the introduction of collagenase as treatment for DC at the study centre. The controls were 16 patients randomly selected among those operated on with fasciectomy at the same centre during the preceding 3 years. Interventions Treatment with collagenase was given during two standard outpatient clinic visits (injection of 0.9 mg, distributed at multiple sites in a palpable cord, and next-day finger extension under local anaesthesia) followed by night-time splinting. Fasciectomy was carried out in the operating room (day surgery) under general or regional anaesthesia using standard technique, followed by therapy and splinting. Primary and secondary outcome measures Actual total direct costs (salaries of all medical personnel involved in care, medications, materials and other relevant costs), and total MCP and PIP extension deficit (degrees) measured by hand therapists at 6–12 weeks after the treatment. Results Collagenase injection required fewer hospital outpatient visits to a therapist and nurse than fasciectomy. Total treatment cost for collagenase injection was US$1418.04 and for fasciectomy US$2102.56. The post-treatment median (IQR) total extension deficit was 10 (0–30) for the collagenase group and 10 (0–34) for the fasciectomy group. Conclusions Treatment of DC with one collagenase injection costs 33% less than fasciectomy with equivalent efficacy at 6 weeks regarding

  12. Collagenase Treatment in Dupuytren Contractures: A Review of the Current State Versus Future Needs.

    PubMed

    Degreef, Ilse

    2016-06-01

    Dupuytren disease is highly prevalent and the finger contractures can be very extensile, compromising the patients' hand function. To restore full function, contractures have been addressed by cutting the causative strands for nearly 200 years, ever since Baron Guillaume Dupuytren demonstrated his technique at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Surgery can be minimal (fasciotomy) or quite invasive (fasciectomy and even skin replacement). However, in the last decade translational research has introduced the non-surgical technique of enzymatic fasciotomy with collagenase injections. Now, finger contractures can be released with single injections on monthly intervals, to address one joint contracture at a time. However, in hands affected with Dupuytren contractures to the extent that the patient calls for treatment, most often more than one joint is involved. In surgical treatment options all contracted joints are addressed in a single procedure. Nevertheless, extensile surgery withholds inherent risks of complications and intense rehabilitation. Today, the minimally-invasive method with enzymatic fasciotomy by collagenase injection has demonstrated reliable outcomes with few morbidities and early recovery. However, single-site injection is todays' standard procedure and multiple joints are addressed in several sessions with monthly intervals. This triggers a longer recovery and treatment burden in severely affected hands even though surgery is avoided. Therefore, further treatment modalities of collagenase use are explored. Adjustments in the treatment regimes' flexibility and collagenase injections addressing more than one joint contracture simultaneously will improve the burden of multiple sessions and, therefore, enzymatic fasciotomy may become the preferred method in more extensile Dupuytren contractures. In this independent review, the challenge of Dupuytren disease affecting a single versus multiple joints is presented. The pros and cons of collagenase

  13. Intraductal collagenase delivery into the human pancreas using syringe loading or controlled perfusion.

    PubMed

    Lakey, J R; Warnock, G L; Shapiro, A M; Korbutt, G S; Ao, Z; Kneteman, N M; Rajotte, R V

    1999-01-01

    Effective intraductal delivery of the enzyme collagenase into the pancreas is crucial to the subsequent ability to isolate viable islets. Most clinical islet transplant centers load the enzyme into the pancreas by retrograde injection using a syringe following cannulation of the pancreatic duct. An alternative approach is to perfuse the pancreas via the pancreatic duct with collagenase solution using a recirculating perfusion device system. This provides control over perfusion pressures and collagenase temperature. This study reports on our evaluation of the delivery of Liberase-HI into the pancreas of 14 consecutive adult multiorgan cadaveric donors. Alternate glands were procured and processed using an identical protocol with the exception of collagenase delivery. The first group of pancreases was loaded using the perfusion technique where cold (4 degrees C) Liberase-HI was perfused at 80 mmHg for 5 min after which the pressure was increased to 180 mmHg. The collagenase solution was then slowly warmed to 35 degrees C, transferred to the dissociation chamber and mechanically dissociated, and then purified using discontinuous gradients of Ficoll. Pancreases in the second group were loaded with collagenase (28-32 degrees C) using the syringe technique before mechanical dissociation and purification. There were no significant differences in pancreas cold ischemia, donor age, body mass index, maximum blood glucose, or serum amylase of the donors between the two groups. Mean collagenase digestion time in the digestion chamber was not different between the two groups; however, the amount of undigested tissue remaining after dissociation was significantly higher in the syringe-loaded group (15.3 +/- 2.6 g vs. 4.6 +/- 2.1 g, mean +/- SEM, p < 0.05). Postdigestion recovery of islets was 471 +/- 83 x 10(3) IE in the perfusion group compared with 391 +/- 57 x 10(3) IE for the syringe-loaded group. Postpurification recovery was higher in the perfused group (379 +/- 45 vs. 251

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of collagenase-3, a novel human matrix metalloproteinase produced by breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Freije, J M; Díez-Itza, I; Balbín, M; Sánchez, L M; Blasco, R; Tolivia, J; López-Otín, C

    1994-06-17

    A cDNA coding for a new human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) has been cloned from a cDNA library derived from a breast tumor. The isolated cDNA contains an open reading frame coding for a polypeptide of 471 amino acids. The predicted protein sequence displays extensive similarity to the previously known MMPs and presents all the structural features characteristic of the members of this protein family, including the well conserved PRCGXPD motif, involved in the latency of the enzyme and the zinc-binding domain (HEXGHXXXXXHS). In addition, this novel human MMP contains in its amino acid sequence several residues specific to the collagenase subfamily (Tyr-214, Asp-235, and Gly-237) and lacks the 9-residue insertion present in the stromelysins. According to these structural characteristics, the MMP described herein has been tentatively called collagenase-3, since it represents the third member of this subfamily, composed at present of fibroblast and neutrophil collagenases. The collagenase-3 cDNA was expressed in a vaccinia virus system, and the recombinant protein was able to degrade fibrillar collagens, providing support to the hypothesis that the isolated cDNA codes for an authentic collagenase. Northern blot analysis of RNA from normal and pathological tissues demonstrated the existence in breast tumors of three different mRNA species, which seem to be the result of the utilization of different polyadenylation sites present in the 3'-noncoding region of the gene. By contrast, no collagenase-3 mRNA was detected either by Northern blot or RNA polymerase chain reaction analysis with RNA from other human tissues, including normal breast, mammary fibroadenomas, liver, placenta, ovary, uterus, prostate, and parotid gland. On the basis of the increased expression of collagenase-3 in breast carcinomas and the absence of detectable expression in normal tissues, a possible role for this metalloproteinase in the tumoral process is proposed.

  15. Actions of the Japanese Pancreas and Islet Transplantation Association regarding transplanted human islets isolated using Liberase HI.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Anazawa, T; Gotoh, M; Uemoto, S; Kenmochi, T; Kuroda, Y; Satomi, S; Itoh, T; Yasunami, Y; Kitamoto, T; Mohri, S; Teraoka, S

    2010-12-01

    The potential for introducing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) into islet cells was indicated by recognizing that Liberase HI is isolated from Clostridium histolyticum grown in media containing brain-heart infusion broth. A national team within the Japanese Pancreas and Islet Transplantation Association implemented an islet transplantation program in Japan using Liberase HI. The program comprised 65 islet isolations from non-heart-beating donors and 34 transplants into 18 patients. Herein, we have summarized how the Association followed these recipients over the long term. We established an ad hoc committee to follow recipients transplanted with islets isolated using Liberase HI after becoming informed of the associated dangers of using this enzyme. We also stopped islet transplantations using Liberase. The committee addressed the major concerns of the risk of the collagenase being contaminated with TSE and of the recipient follow-up. All recipients were examined by diffusion MRI and EEG and then scheduled for evaluation and follow-up by specialists in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Bioassays of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions in the enzyme proceeded using knock-in mice expressing bovine prion protein. These assays could detect contaminating prions at a dilution of 1 × 10(4). After inactivating its collagenase activity, Liberase HI was injected into the abdominal cavities of knock-in mice. Four months later, prion infectivity in Liberase HI was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting of spleen homogenates using anti-prion protein antibodies. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining did not detect prions in Liberase HI. Diffusion MRI and EEG evaluations performed by CJD specialists confirmed that none of the transplanted recipients had CJD. Three years of follow-up revealed that none of the Japanese recipients of islet transplants developed CJD. Prion bioassays showed that the Liberase HI used to isolate islets

  16. First Identification of Resident and Circulating Fibrocytes in Dupuytren’s Disease Shown to Be Inhibited by Serum Amyloid P and Xiapex

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Syed Amir; Hayton, Michael John; Watson, James Stewart; Szczypa, Piotr; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Dupuytren’s disease (DD) is a common progressive fibroproliferative disorder causing permanent digital contracture. Proliferative myofibroblasts are thought to be the cells responsible for DD initiation and recurrence, although their source remains unknown. DD tissue has also been shown to harbor mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells. Fibrocytes are circulating cells that show characteristics of fibroblasts and they express surface markers for both hematopoietic and mesenchymal stromal cells. Fibrocytes differentiate from peripheral CD14+ mononuclear cells, which can be inhibited by serum amyloid P (SAP). In this study we have demonstrated the presence of fibrocytes in DD blood and tissue, moreover we have evaluated the effects of SAP and Xiapex (Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum) on fibrocytes derived from DD. H&E staining showed typical Spindle shaped morphology of fibrocytes. FACS analysis based on a unique combination of 3 markers, revealed the increased presence of fibrocytes in blood and tissue of DD patients. Additionally, immunohistology of DD nodule and cord tissue showed the presence of collagen 1+/CD34+ cells. No difference in plasma SAP levels was observed between DD and control. Higher concentrations of SAP significantly inhibited fibrocytes differentiated from DD derived monocytes compared to control. DD fascia derived fibrocytes showed resistance to growth inhibition by SAP, particularly nodule derived fibrocytes showed robust growth even at higher SAP concentrations compared to control. DD derived fibrocytes were positive for typical fibrocyte dual markers, i.e. Collagen 1/LSP-1 and collagen 1/CD34. Xiapex was more effective in inhibiting the growth of nodule derived cells compared to commercially available collagenase A. Our results show for the first time the increased presence of fibrocytes in DD patient’s blood and disease tissue compared to control tissue. Additionally, we evaluate the response of these fibrocytes to SAP and Xiapex

  17. A Trypanosoma cruzi-secreted 80 kDa proteinase with specificity for human collagen types I and IV.

    PubMed Central

    Santana, J M; Grellier, P; Schrével, J; Teixeira, A R

    1997-01-01

    Specific interactions between parasites and extracellular matrix components are an important mechanism in the dissemination of Chagas' disease. Binding of the extracellular matrix proteins to Trypanosoma cruzi receptors has been described as a significant step in this phenomenon. In this study, a specific proteinase activity was identified in cell-free extracts of amastigote, trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of T. cruzi using the collagenase fluorogenic substrate N-Suc-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin. Isolation of this activity was achieved by a four-step FPLC procedure. Optimal enzyme activity was found to occur at pH 8.0 and was associated with a single T. cruzi 80 kDa protein (Tc 80 proteinase) on SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions. An internal peptide sequence of Tc 80 proteinase was obtained (AGDNYTPPE), and no similarity was found to previously described proteinases of T. cruzi. This enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by HgCl2, tosyl-lysylchloromethane ('TLCK') p-chloromercuribenzoate and benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-diazomethane. The purified enzyme was able to hydrolyse purified human [14C]collagen types I and IV at neutral pH, but not 14C-labelled BSA, rat laminin, rabbit IgG or small proteins such as insulin or cytochrome c. In addition, Tc 80 proteinase activity was found to be secreted by T. cruzi forms infective to mammalian cells. Furthermore we demonstrated that purified Tc 80 proteinase mediates native collagen type I hydrolysis in rat mesentery. This feature is compared with that of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase. These findings suggest that Tc 80 proteinase may facilitate T. cruzi host-cell infection by degrading the collagens of the extracellular matrix and could represent a good target for Chagas' disease chemotherapy. PMID:9224638

  18. Localized hypothermia aggravates bleeding in the collagenase model of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    John, Roseleen F; Williamson, Michael R; Dietrich, Kristen; Colbourne, Frederick

    2015-03-01

    Animal studies testing whether therapeutic hypothermia is neuroprotective after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have been inconclusive. In rodents, ICH is often produced in the striatum by infusing collagenase, which causes prolonged hemorrhaging from multiple vessels. Our previous data shows that this bleeding (hematoma) is worsened by systemic hypothermia given soon after collagenase infusion. In this study we hypothesized that localized brain hypothermia would also aggravate bleeding in this model (0.2 U of collagenase in 1.2 μL of saline). We also evaluated cooling after intrastriatal thrombin infusion (1 U in 30 μL of saline)-a simplified model of ICH thought to cause bleeding. Focal hypothermia was achieved by flushing cold water through an implanted cooling device attached to the skull underneath the temporalis muscle of adult rats. Previous work and data at this time shows this method cools the striatum to ∼33°C, whereas the body remains normothermic. In comparison to normothermic groups, cooling significantly worsened bleeding when instituted at 6 hours (∼94 vs. 42 μL, p=0.018) and 12 hours (79 vs. 61 μL, p=0.042) post-ICH (24-hour survival), but not after a 24-hour delay (36-hour survival). Rats were cooled until euthanasia when hematoma size was determined by a hemoglobin-based spectrophotometry assay. Cooling did not influence cerebral blood volume after just saline or thrombin infusion. The latter is explained by the fact that thrombin did not cause bleeding beyond that caused by saline infusion. In summary, local hypothermia significantly aggravates bleeding many hours after collagenase infusion suggesting that bleeding may have confounded earlier studies with hypothermia. Furthermore, these findings serve as a cautionary note on using cooling even many hours after cerebral bleeding.

  19. Highly sensitive single-fibril erosion assay demonstrates mechanochemical switch in native collagen fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Brendan P.; Tilburey, Graham E.

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that the enzyme susceptibility of collagen, the predominant load-bearing protein in vertebrates, is altered by applied tension. However, whether tensile force increases or decreases the susceptibility to enzyme is a matter of contention. It is critical to establish a definitive understanding of the direction and magnitude of the force versus catalysis rate (kC) relationship if we are to properly interpret connective tissue development, growth, remodeling, repair, and degeneration. In this investigation, we examine collagen/enzyme mechanochemistry at the smallest scale structurally relevant to connective tissue: the native collagen fibril. A single-fibril mechanochemical erosion assay with nN force resolution was developed which permits detection of the loss of a few layers of monomer from the fibril surface. Native type I fibrils (bovine) held at three levels of tension were exposed to Clostridium histolyticum collagenase A. Fibrils held at zero-load failed rapidly and consistently (20 min) while fibrils at 1.8 pN/monomer failed more slowly (35–55 min). Strikingly, fibrils at 23.9 pN/monomer did not exhibit detectable degradation. The extracted force versus kC data were combined with previous single-molecule results to produce a “master curve” which suggests that collagen degradation is governed by an extremely sensitive mechanochemical switch. PMID:22584606

  20. Potent inhibition of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15 by the phosphonamide peptide N-(phenylethylphosphonyl)-Gly-L-Pro-L-aminohexanoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Barelli, H; Dive, V; Yiotakis, A; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1992-01-01

    A phosphonamide peptide, N-(phenylethylphosphonyl)-Gly-L-Pro-L-aminohexanoic acid, previously shown to block Clostridium histolyticum collagenases, was examined as a putative inhibitor of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15. Hydrolysis of two endopeptidase 24.16 substrates, i.e. 3-carboxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Mcc)-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-D-Lys-dinitrophenyl (Dnp) and neurotensin, were completely and dose-dependently inhibited by the phosphonamide inhibitor with KI values of 0.3 and 0.9 nM respectively. In addition, the phosphonamide peptide inhibited the hydrolysis of benzoyl (Bz)-Gly-Ala-Ala-Phe-(pAB) p-aminobenzoate and neurotensin by endopeptidase 24.15 with about a 10-fold lower potency (KI values of 5 and 7.5 nM respectively). The selectivity of this inhibitor towards several exo- and endo-peptidases belonging to the zinc-containing metallopeptidase family established that a 1 microM concentration of this inhibitor was unable to affect leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase A, angiotensin-converting enzyme and endopeptidase 24.11. The present paper therefore reports on the first hydrophilic highly potent endopeptidase 24.16 inhibitor and describes the most potent inhibitory agent directed towards endopeptidase 24.15 developed to date. These tools should allow one to assess the contribution of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15 to the physiological inactivation of neurotensin as well as other neuropeptides. PMID:1332678

  1. Regulation of collagenase-3 and osteocalcin gene expression by collagen and osteopontin in differentiating MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Alonzo, Richard C.; Kowalski, Aaron J.; Denhardt, David T.; Nickols, G. Allen; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2002-01-01

    Both collagenase-3 and osteocalcin mRNAs are expressed maximally during the later stages of osteoblast differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that collagenase-3 mRNA expression in differentiating MC3T3-E1 cells is dependent upon the presence of ascorbic acid, is inhibited in the presence of the collagen synthesis inhibitor, 3,4-dehydroproline, and is stimulated by growth on collagen in the absence of ascorbic acid. Transient transfection studies show that collagenase-3 promoter activity increases during cell differentiation and requires the presence of ascorbic acid. Additionally, we show that, in differentiating MC3T3-E1 cells, collagenase-3 gene expression increases in the presence of an anti-osteopontin monoclonal antibody that binds near the RGD motif of this protein, whereas osteocalcin expression is inhibited. Furthermore, an RGD peptidomimetic compound, designed to block interaction of ligands to the alpha(v) integrin subunit, increases osteocalcin expression and inhibits collagenase-3 expression, suggesting that the RGD peptidomimetic initiates certain alpha(v) integrin signaling in osteoblastic cells. Overall, these studies demonstrate that stimulation of collagenase-3 expression during osteoblast differentiation requires synthesis of a collagenous matrix and that osteopontin and alpha(v) integrins exert divergent regulation of collagenase-3 and osteocalcin expression during osteoblast differentiation.

  2. Developmental regulation of collagenase-3 mRNA in normal, differentiating osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 and the runt domain binding sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Selvamurugan, N.; D'Alonzo, R. C.; Partridge, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.

  3. Parathyroid hormone induces transcription of collagenase in rat osteoblastic cells by a mechanism using cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and requiring protein synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. K.; Brakenhoff, K. D.; Clohisy, J. C.; Quinn, C. O.; Partridge, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    Collagenase is synthesized and secreted by rat osteoblastic cells in response to PTH. We have previously demonstrated that this effect involves a substantial increase in collagenase mRNA via transcription. Northern blots and nuclear run-on assays were performed to further investigate the induction of collagenase by PTH in the rat osteoblastic cell line UMR 106-01. Detectable amounts of collagenase mRNA were not apparent until 2 h of PTH treatment, showed the greatest abundance at 4 h, and declined to approximately 30% of maximum by 8 h. The changes in the rate of transcription of the collagenase gene in response to PTH paralleled and preceded the changes in the steady state mRNA levels. After an initial lag period of about 1 h, collagenase transcription rates increased from very low levels to a maximal response at 2 h, returning to about 50% of maximum by 10 h. The increased transcriptional rate of the collagenase gene was found to be dependent on the concentration of PTH, with a half-maximal response at approximately 7 x 10(-10) M rat PTH-(1-34) and a maximal effect with a dose of 10(-8) M. The PTH-mediated induction of collagenase transcriptional activity was completely abolished by cycloheximide, while transcription of the beta-actin gene was unaffected by the translation inhibitor. These data suggest that a protein factor(s) is required for PTH-mediated transcriptional induction of collagenase. Since PTH increases intracellular levels of several potential second messengers, agents that mimic these substances were employed to determine which signal transduction pathway is predominant in the PTH-mediated stimulation of collagenase transcription.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  4. Purification and structure determination of gelatinase and collagenase inhibitors from Viola patrinii fermentation extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Kwak, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Yu, Hai Yang; Kang, Byoung-Won; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Jung-In; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2010-12-01

    Investigation of collagenase and gelatinase inhibitory natural components afforded two isoflavonoids. Two isoflavonoids, tectorigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (1) and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of Viola patrinii fermentation extracts (VPFE). Of these, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited collagenase inhibitory activity (IC(50)) at a concentration of less than 1.5 μM, and compound 2 showed gelatinases A and B inhibitory activity (IC(50)) at 0.3 μM and 0.8 μM, respectively.

  5. Collagenase and tissue plasminogen activator production in developing rat calvariae: normal progression despite fetal exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, B. A.; Sipe, B.; Gershan, L. A.; Fiacco, G. J.; Lorenz, T. C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to zero gravity has been shown to cause a decrease in bone formation. This implicates osteoblasts as the gravity-sensing cell in bone. Osteoblasts also are known to produce neutral proteinases, including collagenase and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which are thought to be important in bone development and remodeling. The present study investigated the effects of zero gravity on development of calvariae and their expression of collagenase and tPA. After in utero exposure to zero gravity for 9 days on the NASA STS-70 space shuttle mission, the calvariae of rat pups were examined by immunohistochemistry for the presence and location of these two proteinases. The ages of the pups were from gestational day 20 (G20) to postnatal (PN) day 35. Both collagenase and tPA were found to be present at all ages examined, with the greatest amount of both proteinases present in the PN14 rats. At later ages, high amounts were maintained for tPA but collagenase decreased substantially between ages PN21 to PN35. The location of collagenase was found to be associated with bone-lining cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and in the matrix along cement lines. In contrast, tPA was associated with endothelial cells lining the blood vessels entering bone. The presence and developmental expression of these two proteinases appeared to be unaffected by the exposure to zero gravity. The calvarial thickness of the pups was also examined; again the exposure to zero gravity showed little to no effect on the growth of the calvariae. Notably, from G20 to PN14, calvarial thickness increased dramatically, reaching a plateau after this age. It was apparent that elevated collagenase expression correlated with rapid bone growth in the period from G20 to PN14. To conclude, collagenase and tPA are present during the development of rat calvariae. Despite being produced by the same cell in vitro, i.e., the osteoblast, they are located in distinctly different places in bone in vivo. Their presence

  6. Aloe vera: an in vitro study of effects on corneal wound closure and collagenase activity.

    PubMed

    Curto, Elizabeth M; Labelle, Amber; Chandler, Heather L

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the in vitro effects of an aloe vera solution on (i) the viability and wound healing response of corneal cells and (ii) the ability to alter collagenase and gelatinase activities. Primary cultures of corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts were prepared from grossly normal enucleated canine globes and treated with an aloe solution (doses ranging from 0.0-2 mg/mL). Cellular viability was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. A corneal wound healing model was used to quantify cellular ingrowth across a defect made on the confluent surface. Anticollagenase and antigelatinase activities were evaluated by incubating a bacterial collagenase/gelatinase with aloe solution (doses ranging from 0.0-500 μg/mL) and comparing outcome measures to a general metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1, 10-phenanthroline, and canine serum (doses ranging from 0.0-100%). None of the concentrations of aloe solution tested significantly affected the viability of corneal epithelial cells or fibroblasts. Concentrations ≤175 μg/mL slightly accelerated corneal epithelial cell wound closure; this change was not significant. Concentrations ≥175 μg/mL significantly (P ≤ 0.001) slowed the rate of corneal fibroblast wound closure, while aloe concentrations <175 μg/mL did not significantly alter fibroblast wound closure. Aloe solution did not alter the ability for collagenase to degrade gelatin or collagen Type I but increased the ability for collagenase to degrade Type IV collagen. Although additional experiments are required, lower concentrations of aloe solution may be beneficial in healing of superficial corneal wounds to help decrease fibrosis and speed epithelialization. An increase in collagenase activity with aloe vera warrants further testing before considering in vivo studies. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. In vivo gene expression and immunoreactivity of Leptospira collagenase.

    PubMed

    Janwitthayanan, Weena; Keelawat, Somboon; Payungporn, Sunchai; Lowanitchapat, Alisa; Suwancharoen, Duangjai; Poovorawan, Yong; Chirathaworn, Chintana

    2013-06-12

    Pulmonary hemorrhage is an increasing cause of death of leptospirosis patients. Bacterial collagenase has been shown to be involved in lung hemorrhage induced by various infectious agents. According to Leptospira whole genome study, colA, a gene suggested to code for bacterial collagenase has been identified. We investigated colA gene expression in lung tissues of Leptospira infected hamsters. Golden Syrian Hamsters were injected intraperitoneally with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pyrogenes. The hamsters were sacrificed on days 3, 5 and 7 post-infection and lung tissues were collected for histological examination and RNA extraction. Lung pathologies including atelectasis and hemorrhage were observed. Expression of colA gene in lung tissues was demonstrated by both RT-PCR and real time PCR. In addition, ColA protein was cloned and the purified protein could react with sera from leptospirosis patients. Leptospira ColA protein may play a role in Leptospira survival or pathogenesis in vivo. Its reaction with leptospirosis sera suggests that this protein is immunogenic and could be another candidate for vaccine development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Novel Matrix-Derived Bioactive Peptides: A Role for Collagenase from Santyl® Ointment in Post-Debridement Wound Healing?

    PubMed

    Sheets, Anthony R; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N; Shi, Lei; Ronfard, Vincent; Grover, Komel V; Herman, Ira M

    2016-01-01

    Debridement, the removal of diseased, nonviable tissue, is critical for clinicians to readily assess wound status and prepare the wound bed for advanced therapeutics or downstream active healing. Removing necrotic slough and eschar through surgical or mechanical methods is less specific and may be painful for patients. Enzymatic debridement agents, such as Clostridial collagenase, selectively and painlessly degrade devitalized tissue. In addition to its debriding activities, highly-purified Clostridial collagenase actively promotes healing, and our past studies reveal that extracellular matrices digested with this enzyme yield peptides that activate cellular migratory, proliferative and angiogenic responses to injury in vitro, and promote wound closure in vivo. Intriguingly, while collagenase Santyl® ointment, a sterile preparation containing Clostridial collagenases and other non-specific proteases, is a well-accepted enzymatic debridement agent, its role as an active healing entity has never been established. Based on our previous studies of pure Clostridial collagenase, we now ask whether the mixture of enzymes contained within Santyl® produces matrix-derived peptides that promote cellular injury responses in vitro and stimulate wound closure in vivo. Here, we identify novel collagen fragments, along with collagen-associated peptides derived from thrombospondin-1, multimerin-1, fibronectin, TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 and tenascin-C, generated from Santyl® collagenase-digested human dermal capillary endothelial and fibroblastic matrices, which increase cell proliferation and angiogenic remodeling in vitro by 50-100% over controls. Using an established model of impaired healing, we further demonstrate a specific dose of collagenase from Santyl® ointment, as well as the newly-identified and chemically-synthesized ECM-derived peptides significantly increase wound re-epithelialization by 60-100% over saline-treated controls. These results not only confirm and

  9. Identification and Characterization of Novel Matrix-Derived Bioactive Peptides: A Role for Collagenase from Santyl® Ointment in Post-Debridement Wound Healing?

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Ronfard, Vincent; Grover, Komel V.; Herman, Ira M.

    2016-01-01

    Debridement, the removal of diseased, nonviable tissue, is critical for clinicians to readily assess wound status and prepare the wound bed for advanced therapeutics or downstream active healing. Removing necrotic slough and eschar through surgical or mechanical methods is less specific and may be painful for patients. Enzymatic debridement agents, such as Clostridial collagenase, selectively and painlessly degrade devitalized tissue. In addition to its debriding activities, highly-purified Clostridial collagenase actively promotes healing, and our past studies reveal that extracellular matrices digested with this enzyme yield peptides that activate cellular migratory, proliferative and angiogenic responses to injury in vitro, and promote wound closure in vivo. Intriguingly, while collagenase Santyl® ointment, a sterile preparation containing Clostridial collagenases and other non-specific proteases, is a well-accepted enzymatic debridement agent, its role as an active healing entity has never been established. Based on our previous studies of pure Clostridial collagenase, we now ask whether the mixture of enzymes contained within Santyl® produces matrix-derived peptides that promote cellular injury responses in vitro and stimulate wound closure in vivo. Here, we identify novel collagen fragments, along with collagen-associated peptides derived from thrombospondin-1, multimerin-1, fibronectin, TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 and tenascin-C, generated from Santyl® collagenase-digested human dermal capillary endothelial and fibroblastic matrices, which increase cell proliferation and angiogenic remodeling in vitro by 50–100% over controls. Using an established model of impaired healing, we further demonstrate a specific dose of collagenase from Santyl® ointment, as well as the newly-identified and chemically-synthesized ECM-derived peptides significantly increase wound re-epithelialization by 60–100% over saline-treated controls. These results not only confirm

  10. Identifying Effective Enzyme Activity Targets for Recombinant Class I and Class II Collagenase for Successful Human Islet Isolation.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Appakalai N; Green, Michael L; Breite, Andrew G; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J; Tweed, Benjamin; Vargova, Lenka; Lockridge, Amber; Kuriti, Manikya; Hughes, Michael G; Williams, Stuart K; Hering, Bernhard J; Dwulet, Francis E; McCarthy, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation. We used a factorial approach to evaluate the effect of high and low target activities of recombinant class I (rC1) and class II (rC2) collagenase on human islet yield. Consequently, 4 different enzyme formulations with divergent C1:C2 collagenase mass ratios were assessed, each supplemented with the same dose of neutral protease. Both split pancreas and whole pancreas models were used to test enzyme targets (n = 20). Islet yield/g pancreas was compared with historical enzymes (n = 42). Varying the Wunsch (rC2) and collagen degradation activity (CDA, rC1) target dose, and consequently the C1:C2 mass ratio, had no significant effect on tissue digestion. Digestions using higher doses of Wunsch and CDA resulted in comparable islet yields to those obtained with 60% and 50% of those activities, respectively. Factorial analysis revealed no significant main effect of Wunsch activity or CDA for any parameter measured. Aggregate results from 4 different collagenase formulations gave 44% higher islet yield (>5000 islet equivalents/g) in the body/tail of the pancreas (n = 12) when compared with those from the same segment using a standard natural collagenase/protease mixture (n = 6). Additionally, islet yields greater than 5000 islet equivalents/g pancreas were also obtained in whole human pancreas. A broader C1:C2 ratio can be used for human islet isolation than has been used in the past. Recombinant collagenase is an effective replacement for the natural enzyme and we have determined that high islet yield can be obtained even with low doses of rC1:rC2, which is beneficial for the survival of islets.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of open partial fasciectomy, needle aponeurotomy, and collagenase injection for dupuytren contracture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Neal C; Shauver, Melissa J; Chung, Kevin C

    2011-11-01

    We undertook a cost-utility analysis to compare traditional fasciectomy for Dupuytren with 2 new treatments, needle aponeurotomy and collagenase injection. We constructed an expected-value decision analysis model with an arm representing each treatment. A survey was administered to a cohort of 50 consecutive subjects to determine utilities of different interventions. We conducted multiple sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of varying the rate of disease recurrence in each arm of the analysis as well as the cost of the collagenase injection. The threshold for a cost-effective treatment is based on the traditional willingness-to-pay of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. The cost of open partial fasciectomy was $820,114 per QALY gained over no treatment. The cost of needle aponeurotomy was $96,474 per QALY gained versus no treatment. When we performed a sensitivity analysis and set the success rate at 100%, the cost of needle aponeurotomy was $49,631. When needle aponeurotomy was performed without surgical center or anesthesia costs and with reduced hand therapy, the cost was $36,570. When a complete collagenase injection series was priced at $250, the cost was $31,856 per QALY gained. When the injection series was priced at $945, the cost was $49,995 per QALY gained. At the market price of $5,400 per injection, the cost was $166,268 per QALY gained. In the current model, open partial fasciectomy is not cost-effective. Needle aponeurotomy is cost-effective if the success rate is high. Collagenase injection is cost-effective when priced under $945. Economic and Decision Analysis II. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of several peptidase inhibitors on the pro-inflammatory effects of substance P, capsaicin and collagenase.

    PubMed

    Damas, J; Bourdon, V; Liégeois, J F; Simmons, W H

    1996-11-01

    Injection of substance P (SP) in a rat hindpaw induced extravasation of 125I-labelled albumin in both hindpaws and salivation. Intravenous injection of SP dose-dependently increased vascular permeability. This latter effect was increased in rat paws by captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), administered locally in combination with diprotin A, an inhibitor of an dipeptidyl(amino)peptidase IV (DAP IV) or phosphoramidon, an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP). The increase in permeability induced by SP was inhibited by RP 67580, a NK-1-receptor antagonist. Intravenous injection of capsaicin induced labelled albumin extravasation in rat paws. This effect was increased by combination of captopril with diprotin A or phosphoramidon, but not by captopril associated with amastatin, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase M (AmM). It was suppressed by RP 67580. Injection of collagenase in rat paws triggered a swelling and a local plasma exudation. These responses were reduced by RP 67580 but not by RP 68651, its inactive enantiomer. They were increased by combination of captopril with diprotin A or phosphoramidon in normal rats. The potentiating effects of captopril and diprotin A were suppressed by RP 67580 in normal rats but did not develop in kininogen-deficient rats. The oedema induced by collagenase was also increased by lisinopril, another ACE inhibitor, administered locally in combination with apstatin, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase P (AmP). In rats pretreated by methysergide, collagenase-induced oedema was reduced and can be increased by captopril, by lisinopril, administered alone or by lisinopril associated with apstatin. It is concluded that SP is mainly inactivated in rat paws by ACE, DAP IV and NEP. In collagenase-induced oedema, a low amount of SP would be released from afferent nerve terminals by bradykinin formed in low amounts. Bradykinin is inactivated in rat paws by ACE and AmP. In collagenase-oedema, the pro-inflammatory effects of

  13. Optimization of the model of abdominal aortic aneurysm by co-incubation of calcium chloride and collagenase in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang; Huang, Ying; Lu, Xin-Wu; Lu, Min; Huang, Xin-Tian; Li, Wei-Min; Jiang, Mi-Er

    2009-08-01

    To optimize the model of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in rats using calcium chloride (CaCl2) and collagenase together. This study was performed at the 9th People's Hospital, Institute of Traumatic Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China from July 2008 to February 2009. Aortas of 55 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed and incubated for 20 minutes with fresh normal saline solutions supplemented with CaCl2 (0.4 M) and collagenase (4%, w/v) (group A), CaCl2 alone (group B), collagenase alone (group C), or normal saline alone (group D). After 4 weeks, the treated aortas were evaluated by digital measurement, angiography, and histological examination. In group A, there was a mean increase in diameter of 87.86% +/- 69.49% (range, 35.33-299.29%) weeks after surgery. The frequency of AAA in this group was 83.3% (10/12). One (1/13) AAA occurred in group C and none in other groups. Partial endothelial loss, elastin disruption, and abnormal collagen deposition were noted in the AAA tissues in group A, corresponded well to native aneurysms in human. The use of collagenase optimized the established CaCl2-induced rat model, giving a high frequency of AAA in a short period of time.

  14. Comparison of two cooling protocols for llama semen: with and without collagenase and seminal plasma in the medium.

    PubMed

    Carretero, M I; Giuliano, S M; Arraztoa, C C; Santa Cruz, R C; Fumuso, F G; Neild, D M

    2017-08-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) of South American Camelids could interfere with the interaction of spermatozoa with the extenders; therefore it becomes necessary to improve semen management using enzymatic treatment. Our objective was to compare two cooling protocols for llama semen. Twelve ejaculates were incubated in 0.1% collagenase and then were divided into two aliquots. One was extended in lactose and egg yolk (LEY) (Protocol A: collagenase and SP present). The other aliquot was centrifuged, and the pellet was resuspended in LEY (Protocol B: collagenase and SP absent). Both samples were maintained at 5°C during 24 hr. Routine and DNA evaluations were carried out in raw and cooled semen. Both cooling protocols maintained sperm viability, membrane function and DNA fragmentation, with Protocol A showing a significantly lowered total and progressive motility (p < .05) and Protocol B showing a significant increase in chromatin decondensation (p < .05). Protocol A avoids centrifugation, reducing processing times and making application in the field simpler. However, as neither protocol showed a significant superiority over the other, studies should be carried out in vivo to evaluate the effect on pregnancy rates of the presence of collagenase and SP in semen samples prior to either cooling or freeze-thawing. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The Modulatory Effect of Anthocyanins from Purple Sweet Potato on Human Intestinal Microbiota in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Yang, Yang; Wu, Zufang; Weng, Peifang

    2016-03-30

    In order to investigate the modulatory effect of purple sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPAs) on human intestinal microbiota, PSPAs were prepared by column chromatography and their influence on intestinal microbiota was analyzed by monitoring the bacterial populations and analyzing short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations at different time points. The numbers (log10 cell/mL) of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp., Bacteroides-Prevotella, Clostridium histolyticum, and total bacteria after 24 h of culture in anaerobic fermentation broth containing PSPAs were 8.44 ± 0.02, 8.30 ± 0.01, 7.80 ± 0.03, 7.60 ± 0.03, and 9.00 ± 0.02, respectively, compared with 8.21 ± 0.03, 8.12 ± 0.02, 7.95 ± 0.02, 7.77 ± 0.02, and 9.01 ± 0.03, respectively, in the controls. The results showed that PSPAs induced the proliferation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp., inhibited the growth of Bacteroides-Prevotella and Clostridium histolyticum, and did not affect the total bacteria number. Total SCFA concentrations in the cultures with PSPAs were significantly higher than in the controls (P < 0.05). Moreover, during the fermentation, the PSPAs were partially fragmented to phenolic acids, which may exert a better effect on intestinal microecology, suggesting that PSPAs may have prebiotic-like activity by generating SCFAs and modulating the intestinal microbiota, contributing to improvements in human health.

  16. [Study on a collagenase protocol to extract DNA from remnant feathers in edible bird's nest].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Li; Chen, Nian; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Wu, Guo-Hong; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2013-08-01

    To establish a method for extracting genomic DNA from rudimental bird feather from the precious edible bird's nest (EBN) harvested from the swiftlet cave. Observed the EBN using endoscopic and studied the influence of adding collagenase on the extracting yield of DNA. PCR amplification and sequencing for the extraction was also conducted. Collagenase was used in addition to protease K which could substantively increase the DNA yield. The DNA extracted by this method could be used for PCR and other molecular biology analyses. This method can be applied to identify the species types in biological products, especially for animal tissue materials that rich in collagen.

  17. Economic and clinical benefit of collagenase ointment compared to a hydrogel dressing for pressure ulcer debridement in a long-term care setting.

    PubMed

    Waycaster, Curtis; Milne, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the cost-effectiveness of collagenase ointment relative to autolysis with a hydrogel dressing when debriding necrotic pressure ulcers in a long-term care setting. A Markov decision process model with 2 states (necrotic nonviable wound bed transitioning to a granulated viable wound bed) was developed using data derived from a prospective, randomized, 6-week, single-center trial of 27 institutionalized subjects with pressure ulcers that were ≥ 85% necrotic nonviable tissue. Direct medical costs from the payer perspective included study treatments, wound treatment supplies, and nursing time. Clinical benefit was measured as "granulation days" and was derived from the time-dependent debridement rates of the alternative products. The average cost per patient for 42 days of pressure ulcer care was $1,817 in 2012 for the collagenase group and $1,611 for the hydrogel group. Days spent with a granulated wound were 3.6 times higher for collagenase (23.4 vs 6.5) than with the hydrogel. The estimated cost per granulation day was > 3.2 times higher for hydrogel ($249) vs collagenase ($78). In this economic analysis based on a randomized, controlled clinical trial, collagenase ointment resulted in a faster time to complete debridement and was more cost-effective than hydrogel autolysis for pressure ulcers in a long-term care setting. Even though collagenase ointment has a higher acquisition cost than hydrogel, the clinical benefit offsets the initial cost difference, resulting in lower cost per granulation day to the nursing home over the course of the 42-day analysis.

  18. Study of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Activity of the Hydrolyzed Product of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Skin Collagen with 50 kDa Collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4

    PubMed Central

    Virginia, Agnes; Rachmawati, Heni; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S.

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides produced from enzymatic hydrolysis fibrous protein have been proven to have several biological activities. Previous study showed that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen with 26 kDa collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4 showed HMG-CoA (HMGR) inhibition activity. The aim of this research was to determine the ability of the hydrolysis product produced from snakehead fish skin collagen hydrolysed by 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 in inhibiting HMGR activity. Snakehead fish skin collagen was extracted using an acid method and collagenase was produced from B. licheniformis F11.4 using half-strength Luria Bertani (LB) medium containing 5% collagen. Crude collagenase was concentrated and fractionated using the DEAE Sephadex A-25 column eluted with increasing gradient concentrations of NaCl. Collagen, collagenase, and fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and collagenolytic activity was analyzed by the zymography method. Collagenase with 50 kDa molecular weight presented in fraction one was used to hydrolyze the collagen. The reaction was done in 18 hours at 50°C. The hydrolysis product using 3.51 μg collagen and 9 ng collagenase showed 25.8% inhibition activity against pravastatin. This work shows for the first time that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen and 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 has potential as an anticholesterol agent. PMID:27110500

  19. Study of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Activity of the Hydrolyzed Product of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Skin Collagen with 50 kDa Collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4.

    PubMed

    Virginia, Agnes; Rachmawati, Heni; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides produced from enzymatic hydrolysis fibrous protein have been proven to have several biological activities. Previous study showed that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen with 26 kDa collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4 showed HMG-CoA (HMGR) inhibition activity. The aim of this research was to determine the ability of the hydrolysis product produced from snakehead fish skin collagen hydrolysed by 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 in inhibiting HMGR activity. Snakehead fish skin collagen was extracted using an acid method and collagenase was produced from B. licheniformis F11.4 using half-strength Luria Bertani (LB) medium containing 5% collagen. Crude collagenase was concentrated and fractionated using the DEAE Sephadex A-25 column eluted with increasing gradient concentrations of NaCl. Collagen, collagenase, and fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and collagenolytic activity was analyzed by the zymography method. Collagenase with 50 kDa molecular weight presented in fraction one was used to hydrolyze the collagen. The reaction was done in 18 hours at 50°C. The hydrolysis product using 3.51 μg collagen and 9 ng collagenase showed 25.8% inhibition activity against pravastatin. This work shows for the first time that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen and 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 has potential as an anticholesterol agent.

  20. Technical tips for collagenase injection treatment for Dupuytren contracture.

    PubMed

    Meals, Roy A; Hentz, Vincent R

    2014-06-01

    We describe technical tips for injecting collagenase into Dupuytren cords based on experience acquired during the prerelease Food and Drug Administration clinical trials and with subsequent clinical practice. These tips include techniques for extracting the reconstituted enzyme efficiently from the vial, injecting the cord(s) with increased safety to the tendons, and anesthetizing the hand before manipulation. The tips are intended to supplement but by no means replace the manufacturer's prescribing information and training video. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of a Collagenase-Inhibiting Flavonoid from Alchemilla vulgaris Using NMR-Based Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Mandrone, Manuela; Coqueiro, Aline; Poli, Ferruccio; Antognoni, Fabiana; Choi, Young Hae

    2018-05-24

    This paper describes the use of 1 H NMR profiling and chemometrics in order to facilitate the selection of medicinal plants as potential sources of collagenase inhibitors. A total of 49 plants with reported ethnobotanical uses, such as the healing of wounds and burns, treatment of skin-related diseases, rheumatism, arthritis, and bone diseases, were initially chosen as potential candidates. The in vitro collagenase inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants was tested. Moreover, their phytochemical profiles were analyzed by 1 H NMR and combined with the inhibitory activity data by an orthogonal partial least squares model. The results showed a correlation between the bioactivity and the concentration of phenolics, including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and tannins, in the extracts. Considering the eventual false-positive effect on the bioactivity given by tannins, a tannin removal procedure was performed on the most active extracts. After this procedure, Alchemilla vulgaris was the most persistently active, proving to owe its activity to compounds other than tannins. Thus, this plant was selected as the most promising and further investigated through bioassay-guided fractionation, which resulted in the isolation of a flavonoid, quercetin-3- O - β -glucuronide, as confirmed by NMR and HRMS spectra. This compound showed not only a higher activity than other flavonoids with the same aglycone moiety, but was also higher than doxycycline (positive control), the only Federal Drug Administration-approved collagenase inhibitor. The approach employed in this study, namely the integration of metabolomics and bioactivity-guided fractionation, showed great potential as a tool for plant selection and identification of bioactive compounds in natural product research. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants

    PubMed Central

    Thring, Tamsyn SA; Hili, Pauline; Naughton, Declan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. Methods The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Results Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts with inhibitory activity in the following order: white tea (~89%), cleavers (~58%), burdock root (~51%), bladderwrack (~50%), anise and angelica (~32%). Anti-collagenase activities were exhibited by sixteen plants of which the highest activity was seen in white tea (~87%), green tea (~47%), rose tincture (~41%), and lavender (~31%). Nine plant extracts had activities against both elastase (E) and collagenase (C) and were ranked in the order of white tea (E:89%, C:87%) > bladderwrack (E:50%, C:25%) > cleavers (E:58%, C:7%) > rose tincture (E:22%, C:41%) > green tea (E:10%: C:47%) > rose aqueous (E: 24%, C:26%) > angelica (E:32%, C:17%) > anise (E:32%, C:6%) > pomegranate (E:15%, C:11%). Total phenolic content varied between 0.05 and 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL with the exception of white tea (0.77 mg GAE/mL). For anti-oxidant assessment, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) assay revealed activity for all extracts. White tea had the highest activity equivalent to ~21 μM Trolox for a 6.25 μg aliquot. In addition, seven extracts exhibited activities = 10 μM Trolox with witch hazel (6.25 μg = 13 μM Trolox) and rose aqueous (6.25 μg = 10 μM Trolox) showing very high activities at low concentrations. A high activity for white tea was also found in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay in which it exhibited ~88% inhibition of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. High activities were also observed for green tea (86.41%), rose tincture (82.77%), witch hazel (82

  3. Stereotactic Administration of Edaravone Ameliorates Collagenase-Induced Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Guang-Zhu; Gao, Mou; Ge, Guang-Zhi; Wang, Qin-Qin; Ji, Xin-Chao; Sun, Yi-Lin; Zhang, Hong-Tian; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Edaravone is widely used for treating ischemic stroke, but it is not still confirmed in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) as an ideal medication targeting the brain parenchyma. We aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of stereotactic administration of edaravone (SI) into the brain parenchyma. Intracerebral hemorrhage rat models were established by infusion of collagenase into the caudate nucleus. Neural functional recovery was assessed using modified neurological severity scores (mNSS). A comparative study of therapeutic effects between SI and intraperitoneal injection of edaravone (IP) involved in cerebral edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, hematoma absorption, inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis. Compared with IP, the mNSS was significantly (P < 0.05) improved by SI; cerebral edema and BBB permeability were dramatically ameliorated (P < 0.05); IL-4 and IL-10 levels increased, but IL-1β and TNF-α levels significantly decreased; neuron apoptosis decreased markedly (P < 0.05); and caspase-3 and Bax expression significantly dropped, but Bcl-2 increased in SI group (P < 0.05). SI markedly improved neurological deficits in ICH rat models via antiinflammatory and antiapoptosis mechanisms and promoted M2-type microglia differentiation. SI was effective in rats with collagenase-induced ICH. © 2016 The Authors. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Phylogeny of the ammonia-producing ruminal bacteria Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Clostridium sticklandii, and Clostridium aminophilum sp. nov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paster, B. J.; Russell, J. B.; Yang, C. M.; Chow, J. M.; Woese, C. R.; Tanner, R.

    1993-01-01

    In previous studies, gram-positive bacteria which grew rapidly with peptides or an amino acid as the sole energy source were isolated from bovine rumina. Three isolates, strains C, FT (T = type strain), and SR, were considered to be ecologically important since they produced up to 20-fold more ammonia than other ammonia-producing ruminal bacteria. On the basis of phenotypic criteria, the taxonomic position of these new isolates was uncertain. In this study, the 16S rRNA sequences of these isolates and related bacteria were determined to establish the phylogenetic positions of the organisms. The sequences of strains C, FT, and SR and reference strains of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Clostridium sticklandii, Clostridium coccoides, Clostridium aminovalericum, Acetomaculum ruminis, Clostridium leptum, Clostridium lituseburense, Clostridium acidiurici, and Clostridium barkeri were determined by using a modified Sanger dideoxy chain termination method. Strain C, a large coccus purported to belong to the genus Peptostreptococcus, was closely related to P. anaerobius, with a level of sequence similarity of 99.6%. Strain SR, a heat-resistant, short, rod-shaped organism, was closely related to C. sticklandii, with a level of sequence similarity of 99.9%. However, strain FT, a heat-resistant, pleomorphic, rod-shaped organism, was only distantly related to some clostridial species and P. anaerobius. On the basis of the sequence data, it was clear that strain FT warranted designation as a separate species. The closest known relative of strain FT was C. coccoides (level of similarity, only 90.6%). Additional strains that are phenotypically similar to strain FT were isolated in this study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  5. EGA Protects Mammalian Cells from Clostridium difficile CDT, Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Leonie; Mittler, Ann-Katrin; Sadi, Mirko; Popoff, Michel R.; Schwan, Carsten; Aktories, Klaus; Mattarei, Andrea; Tehran, Domenico Azarnia; Montecucco, Cesare; Barth, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic bacteria Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum produce the binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins CDT, iota and C2, respectively. These toxins are composed of a transport component (B) and a separate enzyme component (A). When both components assemble on the surface of mammalian target cells, the B components mediate the entry of the A components via endosomes into the cytosol. Here, the A components ADP-ribosylate G-actin, resulting in depolymerization of F-actin, cell-rounding and eventually death. In the present study, we demonstrate that 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone (EGA), a compound that protects cells from multiple toxins and viruses, also protects different mammalian epithelial cells from all three binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins. In contrast, EGA did not inhibit the intoxication of cells with Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, indicating a possible different entry route for this toxin. EGA does not affect either the binding of the C2 toxin to the cells surface or the enzyme activity of the A components of CDT, iota and C2, suggesting that this compound interferes with cellular uptake of the toxins. Moreover, for C2 toxin, we demonstrated that EGA inhibits the pH-dependent transport of the A component across cell membranes. EGA is not cytotoxic, and therefore, we propose it as a lead compound for the development of novel pharmacological inhibitors against clostridial binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins. PMID:27043629

  6. EGA Protects Mammalian Cells from Clostridium difficile CDT, Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Leonie; Mittler, Ann-Katrin; Sadi, Mirko; Popoff, Michel R; Schwan, Carsten; Aktories, Klaus; Mattarei, Andrea; Azarnia Tehran, Domenico; Montecucco, Cesare; Barth, Holger

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenic bacteria Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum produce the binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins CDT, iota and C2, respectively. These toxins are composed of a transport component (B) and a separate enzyme component (A). When both components assemble on the surface of mammalian target cells, the B components mediate the entry of the A components via endosomes into the cytosol. Here, the A components ADP-ribosylate G-actin, resulting in depolymerization of F-actin, cell-rounding and eventually death. In the present study, we demonstrate that 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone (EGA), a compound that protects cells from multiple toxins and viruses, also protects different mammalian epithelial cells from all three binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins. In contrast, EGA did not inhibit the intoxication of cells with Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, indicating a possible different entry route for this toxin. EGA does not affect either the binding of the C2 toxin to the cells surface or the enzyme activity of the A components of CDT, iota and C2, suggesting that this compound interferes with cellular uptake of the toxins. Moreover, for C2 toxin, we demonstrated that EGA inhibits the pH-dependent transport of the A component across cell membranes. EGA is not cytotoxic, and therefore, we propose it as a lead compound for the development of novel pharmacological inhibitors against clostridial binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins.

  7. Thai plants with high antioxidant levels, free radical scavenging activity, anti-tyrosinase and anti-collagenase activity.

    PubMed

    Chatatikun, Moragot; Chiabchalard, Anchalee

    2017-11-09

    Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in skin photoaging and hyperpigmentation disorders. Novel whitening and anti-wrinkle compounds from natural products have recently become of increasing interest. The purpose of this study was to find products that reduce ROS in 14 Thai plant extracts. To determine total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, anti-tyrosinase activity and anti-collagenase activity, we compared extracts of 14 Thai plants prepared using different solvents (petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethanol). Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. Total phenolic content of the 14 Thai plants extracts was found at the highest levels in ethanol followed by dichloromethane and petroleum ether extracts, respectively, while flavonoid content was normally found in the dichloromethane fraction. Scavenging activity ranged from 7 to 99% scavenging as assessed by DPPH and ABTS assays. The ethanol leaf extract of Ardisia elliptica Thunb. had the highest phenolic content, antioxidant activity and collagenase inhibition, while Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. extract had the richest flavonoid content. Interestingly, three plants extracts, which were the ethanolic fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb., had high antioxidant content and activity, and significantly inhibited both tyrosinase and collagenase. Our finding show that the ethanol fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. show promise as potential ingredients for cosmetic products such as anti-wrinkle agents and skin whitening products.

  8. In vitro studies to evaluate the wound healing properties of Calendula officinalis extracts.

    PubMed

    Nicolaus, Christoph; Junghanns, Susanne; Hartmann, Anja; Murillo, Renato; Ganzera, Markus; Merfort, Irmgard

    2017-01-20

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) flower extracts have a long-lasting tradition in ethnopharmacology. Currently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved its lipophilic and aqueous alcoholic extracts as traditional medicinal products for the treatment of minor inflammation of the skin and as an aid in the healing of minor wounds. The purpose of this study was to analyse the molecular mechanism of the wound healing effects of Calendula extracts, which may reflect the phytomedicines currently used in the market. The effect of three different extracts from Calendula flowers (n-hexanic, ethanolic, aqueous) on the inflammatory phase of wound healing was studied in human immortalized keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay on NF-κB-DNA binding, qRT-PCR and ELISA experiments were performed. The effect of Calendula extracts on the new tissue formation phase of wound healing was evaluated by studying the migratory properties of these extracts, triterpene mixtures and single compounds in human immortalized keratinocytes using the scratch assay. Finally, the effect of the extracts on the formation of granulation tissue in wound healing was studied using bacterial collagenase isolated from Clostridium histolyticum and the determination of soluble collagen in the supernatant of human dermal fibroblasts. The n-hexanic and the ethanolic extracts from Calendula flowers influence the inflammatory phase by activating the transcription factor NF-κB and by increasing the amount of the chemokine IL-8, both at the transcriptional and protein level, in human immortalized keratinocytes. The migration of the keratinocytes during the new tissue formation phase was only marginally influenced in the scratch assay. However, it can be assumed that the granulation tissue was affected, as the ethanolic extract inhibited the activity of collagenase in vitro and enhanced the amount of collagen in the supernatant of human dermal fibroblasts

  9. Purification and characterization of a collagenase from Penicillium sp. UCP 1286 by polyethylene glycol-phosphate aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque Wanderley, Maria Carolina; Wanderley Duarte Neto, José Manoel; Campos Albuquerque, Wendell Wagner; de Araújo Viana Marques, Daniela; de Albuquerque Lima, Carolina; da Cruz Silvério, Sara Isabel; de Lima Filho, José Luiz; Couto Teixeira, José António; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2017-05-01

    Collagenases are proteolytic enzymes capable of degrading both native and denatured collagen, reported to be applied in industrial, medical and biotechnological sectors. Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is one of the most promising bioseparation techniques, which can substitute difficult solid-liquid separation processes, offering many advantages over conventional methods including low-processing time, low-cost material and low-energy consumption. The collagenase produced by Penicillium sp. UCP 1286 showed a stronger affinity for the bottom salt-rich phase, where the highest levels of collagenolytic activity were observed at the center point runs, using 15.0% (w/w) PEG 3350 g/mol and 12.5% (w/w) phosphate salt at pH 7.0 and concentration. The enzyme was characterized by thermal stability, pH tolerance and effect of inhibitors, showing optimal collagenolytic activity at 37 °C and pH 9.0 and proved to be a serine protease. ATPS showed high efficiency in the collagenase purification, confirmed by a single band in SDS/PAGE, and can in fact be applied as a quick and inexpensive alternative method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-surgical treatment of deep wounds triggered by harmful physical and chemical agents: a successful combined use of collagenase and hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Onesti, Maria G; Fino, Pasquale; Ponzo, Ida; Ruggieri, Martina; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-02-01

    Some chronic ulcers often occur with slough, not progressing through the normal stages of wound healing. Treatment is long and other therapies need to be performed in addition to surgery. Patients not eligible for surgery because of ASA class (American Society of Anesthesiologists class) appear to benefit from chemical therapy with collagenase or hydrocolloids in order to prepare the wound bed, promoting the healing process. We describe four cases of traumatic, upper limb deep wounds caused by different physical and chemical agents, emphasising the effectiveness of treatment based on topical application of collagenase and hyaluronic acid (HA) before standardised surgical procedures. We performed careful disinfection of lesions combined with application of topical cream containing hyaluronic acid, bacterial fermented sodium hyaluronate (0·2%w/w) salt, and bacterial collagenase obtained from non-pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus (>2·0 nkat1/g). In one patient a dermo-epidermal graft was used to cover the wide loss of substance. In two patients application of a HA-based dermal substitute was done. We obtained successful results in terms of wound healing, with satisfactory aesthetic result and optimal recovery of the affected limb functionality. Topical application of collagenase and HA, alone or before standardised surgical procedures allows faster wound healing. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Special Concerns for Seniors: Clostridium difficile

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Drugs" Home | Contact Us Special Concerns for Seniors Clostridium difficile - an introduction Clostridium difficile (“C. diff”) ... see APUA’s contribution to CDC’s Vital Signs campaign . Seniors are especially at risk People over the age ...

  12. Isolation, purification and characterization of collagenase from hepatopancreas of the land snail Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Indra, D; Ramalingam, K; Babu, Mary

    2005-09-01

    Collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1, EC:3.4.24.7) was isolated from the hepatopancreas of Achatina fulica and characterized for its enzymatic activity and immunological properties. Procollagenase was isolated using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration, followed by purification by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid and by dialysis in neutral buffer. In the presence of SDS and beta-mercaptoethanol, the procollagenase resolved into two subunits with molecular masses of 63 and 28 kDa, respectively. The 63 kDa fragment retained its ability to bind and degrade gelatin, but the 28 kDa was inactive. Analysis by 2D gel electrophoresis revealed that the 63 kDa fragment was basic (pIs 7.6, 7.8 and 8.15), while the 28 kDa fragment was acidic (pI 4.7 and 5.1). Western blot analysis confirmed the identity of collagenase, as only matrix metalloproteinase-1 rabbit antibodies against human matrix metalloproteinase-1 (N-terminal region) recognized both the isolated procollagenase and the 63 kDa fragment.

  13. Trends in the Treatment of Dupuytren Disease in the United States Between 2007 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Marc D; Carstensen, Samuel Evan; Deal, Dylan Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dupuytren disease is a common fibroproliferative disorder. Multiple procedural treatment options are available, with Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum (CCH) injection being introduced in 2010. The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in the treatment of Dupuytren disease in the United States between 2007 and 2014. Methods: The PearlDiver Humana database was queried using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for patients with Dupuytren disease that received percutaneous needle aponeurotomy (PNA), fasciotomy, fasciectomy, and CCH injection. Patients were filtered by age, number of comorbidities, and gender. Change in composition of treatments over time was analyzed for each demographic group between 2007 and 2014. Results: Patients presenting to clinic for Dupuytren disease increased from 1118 to 3280, with unchanging treatment percentage of 41. Percent fasciotomies and fasciectomies decreased from 5% to 3% and 33% to 21%, while CCH injection increased to 11% by 2012 to 2014. Percent fasciotomies decreased ( P < .05) in younger healthier (age <65, 0-1 comorbidities) and older less healthy (age 65-74, 4+ comorbidities) populations. Percent fasciectomies decreased significantly in nearly all age and comorbidity groups, but by greater amounts in patients with 2+ comorbidities with increasing age. Percent CCH injections increased in all groups, at rates similar to the losses seen in open procedures. Conclusions: CCH injections have risen to substantial levels, with corresponding decreases in the percentage of patients receiving fasciotomies and fasciectomies. Patient age, comorbidities, and gender appear to have influence on the treatment chosen, likely due to their effects on surgical risk and the importance of timely return to activity.

  14. Disease-modifying effect of anthraquinone prodrug with boswellic acid on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dhaneshwar, Suneela; Dipmala, Patil; Abhay, Harsulkar; Prashant, Bhondave

    2013-08-01

    Diacerein and its active metabolite rhein are promising disease modifying agents for osteoarthritis (OA). Boswellic acid is an active ingredient of Gugglu; a herbal medicine commonly administered in osteoarthritis. Both of them possess excellent anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities. It was thought interesting to conjugate rhein and boswellic acid into a mutual prodrug (DSRB) and evaluate its efficacy on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats wherein the conjugate, rhein, boswellic acid and their physical mixture, were tested based on various parameters. Oral administration of 3.85 mg of rhein, 12.36 mg of boswellic acid and 15.73 mg of DSRB which would release equimolar amounts of rhein and boswellic acid, exhibited significant restoration in rat body weight as compared to the untreated arthritic control group. Increase in knee diameter (mm), due to edema was observed in group injected with collagenase, which reduced significantly with the treatment of conjugate. The hematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR) and biochemical parameters (CRP, SALP, SGOT and SGPT) in the osteoarthritic rats were significantly brought back to normal values on treatment with conjugate. It also showed better anti-ulcer activity than rhein. Further the histopathological studies revealed significant anti-arthritic activity of conjugate when compared with the arthritic control group. In conclusion, the conjugate at the specified dose level of 15.73 mg/kg, p. o. (BID) showed reduction in knee diameter and it could significantly normalize the hematological and biochemical abnormalities in collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Further the histopathological studies confirmed the additive anti-arthritic effect of DSRB as compared to plain rhein.

  15. Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea: An increased problem.

    PubMed

    Urbina Soto, Leticia; García Ávila, Sara; Córdoba Alonso, Ana Isabel; Roiz Mesones, M Pía; Arnaiz García, Ana M; Valero Díaz de Lamadrid, M Carmen

    2016-12-16

    Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea is a major health problem that seems to be on the increase. In our study, we analyse the changes in the incidence of this infection over the last 11 years. A descriptive study in hospitalised patients with Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla (Santander, Spain) from 2004 to 2014. A total of 244 adults were identified [53% men; 66 (SD 15) years]. The cases of nosocomial acquisition (80%), with respect to community acquired Clostridium difficile infection, were older [67 (SD 15) years vs. 63 (19) years; P=.01), high comorbidity (86% vs. 75%; P=.01), use of antibiotics (95% vs. 75%; P<.001) and proton pump inhibitors (87% vs. 48% P<.001). There has been an increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in our hospital over an 11-year period. The clinical profile of patients with Clostridium difficile diarrhoea varies by place of acquisition of infection. The prevalence of this disease is increasing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Collagenase produced from Aspergillus sp. (UCP 1276) using chicken feather industrial residue.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Catarina Michelle Oliveira; Correia, Patyanne Carvalho; Brandão-Costa, Romero Marcos Pedrosa; Albuquerque, Wendell Wagner Campos; Lin Liu, Tatiana Pereira Shin; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2017-05-01

    An extracellular collagenolytic serine protease was purified from Aspergillus sp., isolated from the Caatinga biome in northeast Brazil by a two-step chromatographic procedure, using an anion-exchanger and gel filtration. The enzyme was produced by submerged fermentation of feather residue as a substrate. The purified collagenase showed a 2.09-fold increase in specific activity and 22.85% yield. The enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 28.7 kDa, estimated by an SDS-PAGE and AKTA system. The optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity were around 40°C and pH 8.0, respectively. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by phenyl-methylsulfonyl fluoride, a serine protease inhibitor, and was thermostable until 65°C for 1 h. We then evaluated the enzyme's potential for degradation of Type I and Type V collagens for producing peptides with antifungal activity. Our results revealed that the cleavage of Type V collagen yielded more effective peptides than Type I, inhibiting growth of Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Both groups of peptides (Type I and Type V) were identified by SDS-PAGE. To conclude, the thermostable collagenase we purified in this study has various potentially useful applications in the fields of biochemistry, biotechnology and biomedical sciences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Comparison of Treatment Outcome After Collagenase and Needle Fasciotomy for Dupuytren Contracture: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Clinical Trial With a 1-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Joakim; Ibsen-Sörensen, Allan; Fridén, Jan

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the efficacy of collagenase treatment and needle fasciotomy for contracture of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint in Dupuytren disease. This is a prospective, single-blinded, randomized study with follow-up 1 week and 1 year after treatment. One hundred and forty patients with an MCP contracture of 20° or more in a single finger were enrolled, of whom 69 patients were randomized to collagenase treatment and 71 patients to needle fasciotomy. The patients were followed at 1 week and were examined by a physiotherapist after 1 year. Measurements of joint movement and grip strength were recorded as well as patient-perceived outcomes measured by the Unité Rhumatologique des Affections de la Main (URAM) questionnaire and a visual analog scale (VAS) for the estimation of procedural pain and subjective treatment efficacy. Eighty-eight percent of the patients in the collagenase group and 90% of the patients in the needle fasciotomy group had a reduction in their MCP contracture to less than 5° 1 week after treatment, and the median gains in passive MCP movement were 48° and 46°, respectively. The median VAS score for procedural pain was 4.9 of 10 in the collagenase group and 2.7 of 10 in the needle fasciotomy group. After 1 year, 90% of the patients in both groups had full extension of the treated MCP joint. One patient in each group had a recurrence of the contracture. The median improvement in URAM score was 8 units in both groups and the VAS estimation of treatment efficacy by the patients was 8.7 of 10 in both groups. There was no significant difference between the treatment outcomes after collagenase and needle fasciotomy treatment after 1 year. Therapeutic I. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Collagenase injections for treatment of Dupuytren disease.

    PubMed

    Hentz, Vincent R

    2014-02-01

    Palmodigital fasciectomy remains the gold standard. The initial outcome is, in my experience, far more predictable than either NA or enzyme fasciotomy (EF). It is also a more durable treatment. NA and EF can be conceptualized as similar procedures--one uses a needle and the other an enzyme to weaken a cord sufficient to be able to rupture it and thus straighten a contracted joint. Both are less invasive and the hand is quick to recover. Both procedures are equally initially effective. CHH seems to offer greater durability. Today’s patients are often better educated and seek a specific type of treatment, in particular, effective nonoperative treatment. Pharmaceutical companies now market directly and effectively to patients, and this strategy and Internet use have already resulted in an increase in the number of patients searching for practitioners willing to administer and capable of administering collagenase treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clostridium kogasensis sp. nov., a novel member of the genus Clostridium, isolated from soil under a corroded gas pipeline.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yeseul; Kang, Seok-Seong; Paek, Jayoung; Jin, Tae Eun; Song, Hong Seok; Kim, Hongik; Park, Hee-Moon; Chang, Young-Hyo

    2016-06-01

    Two bacterial strains, YHK0403(T) and YHK0508, isolated from soil under a corroded gas pipe line, were revealed as Gram-negative, obligately anaerobic, spore-forming and mesophilic bacteria. The cells were rod-shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates were members of the genus Clostridium and were the most closely related to Clostridium scatologenes KCTC 5588(T) (95.8% sequence similarity), followed by Clostridium magnum KCTC 15177(T) (95.8%), Clostridium drakei KCTC 5440(T) (95.7%) and Clostridium tyrobutyricum KCTC 5387(T) (94.9%). The G + C contents of the isolates were 29.6 mol%. Peptidoglycan in the cell wall was of the A1γ type with meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipid was diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), and other minor lipids were revealed as phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), two unknown glycolipids (GL1 and GL2), an unknown aminoglycolipid (NGL), two unknown aminophospholipids (PN1 and PN2) and four unknown phospholipids (PL1 to PL4). Predominant fatty acids were C16:0 and C16:1cis9 DMA. The major end products from glucose fermentation were identified as butyrate (12.2 mmol) and acetate (9.8 mmol). Collectively, the results from a wide range of phenotypic tests, chemotaxonomic tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two isolates represent novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium kogasensis sp. nov. (type strain, YHK0403(T) = KCTC 15258(T) = JCM 18719(T)) is proposed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Cellular Entry of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Masaya; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Seike, Soshi; Oda, Masataka; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Hisatsune, Junzo; Ochi, Sadayuki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2017-08-11

    Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin are composed of two non-linked proteins, one being the enzymatic component and the other being the binding/translocation component. These latter components recognize specific receptors and oligomerize in plasma membrane lipid-rafts, mediating the uptake of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Enzymatic components induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through the ADP-ribosylation of actin and are responsible for cell rounding and death. This review focuses upon the recent advances in cellular internalization of clostridial binary toxins.

  1. Hypoxia transiently sequesters mps1 and polo to collagenase-sensitive filaments in Drosophila prometaphase oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, William D; Vietti, Dana L; Schweppe, Nicole M; Guo, Fengli; Johnson, Teri J; Hawley, R Scott

    2009-10-22

    The protein kinases Mps1 and Polo, which are required for proper cell cycle regulation in meiosis and mitosis, localize to numerous ooplasmic filaments during prometaphase in Drosophila oocytes. These filaments first appear throughout the oocyte at the end of prophase and are disassembled after egg activation. We showed here that Mps1 and Polo proteins undergo dynamic and reversible localization to static ooplasmic filaments as part of an oocyte-specific response to hypoxia. The observation that Mps1- and Polo-associated filaments reappear in the same locations through multiple cycles of oxygen deprivation demonstrates that underlying structural components of the filaments must still be present during normoxic conditions. Using immuno-electron microscopy, we observed triple-helical binding of Mps1 to numerous electron-dense filaments, with the gold label wrapped around the outside of the filaments like a garland. In addition, we showed that in live oocytes the relocalization of Mps1 and Polo to filaments is sensitive to injection of collagenase, suggesting that the structural components of the filaments are composed of collagen-like fibrils. However, the collagen-like genes we have been able to test so far (vkg and CG42453) did not appear to be associated with the filaments, demonstrating that the collagenase-sensitive component of the filaments is one of a number of other Drosophila proteins bearing a collagenase cleavage site. Finally, as hypoxia is known to cause Mps1 protein to accumulate at kinetochores in syncytial embryos, we also show that GFP-Polo accumulates at both kinetochores and centrosomes in hypoxic syncytial embryos. These findings identify both a novel cellular structure (the ooplasmic filaments) as well as a new localization pattern for Mps1 and Polo and demonstrate that hypoxia affects Polo localization in Drosophila.

  2. Effects of flexibility of the α2 chain of type I collagen on collagenase cleavage.

    PubMed

    Mekkat, Arya; Poppleton, Erik; An, Bo; Visse, Robert; Nagase, Hideaki; Kaplan, David L; Brodsky, Barbara; Lin, Yu-Shan

    2018-05-12

    Cleavage of collagen by collagenases such as matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) is a key step in development, tissue remodeling, and tumor proliferation. The abundant heterotrimeric type I collagen composed of two α1(I) chains and one α2(I) chain is efficiently cleaved by MMP-1 at a unique site in the triple helix, a process which may be initiated by local unfolding within the peptide chains. Atypical homotrimers of the α1(I) chain, found in embryonic and cancer tissues, are very resistant to MMP cleavage. To investigate MMP-1 cleavage, recombinant homotrimers were constructed with sequences from the MMP cleavage regions of human collagen chains inserted into a host bacterial collagen protein system. All triple-helical constructs were cleaved by MMP-1, with α2(I) homotrimers cleaved efficiently at a rate similar to that seen for α1(II) and α1(III) homotrimers, while α1(I) homotrimers were cleaved at a much slower rate. The introduction of destabilizing Gly to Ser mutations within the human collagenase susceptible region of the α2(I) chain did not interfere with MMP-1 cleavage. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated a greater degree of transient hydrogen bond breaking in α2(I) homotrimers compared with α1(I) homotrimers at the MMP-1 cleavage site, and showed an extensive disruption of hydrogen bonding in the presence of a Gly to Ser mutation, consistent with chymotrypsin digestion results. This study indicates that α2(I) homotrimers are susceptible to MMP-1, proves that the presence of an α1(I) chain is not a requirement for α2(I) cleavage, and supports the importance of local unfolding of α2(I) in collagenase cleavage. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Mortality and Clostridium difficile infection in an Australian setting.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brett G; Gardner, Anne; Hiller, Janet E

    2013-10-01

    To quantify the risk of death associated with Clostridium difficile infection, in an Australian tertiary hospital. Two reviews examining Clostridium difficile infection and mortality indicate that Clostridium difficile infection is associated with increased mortality in hospitalized patients. Studies investigating the mortality of Clostridium difficile infection in settings outside of Europe and North America are required, so that the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in these regions can be understood and appropriate prevention strategies made. An observational non-concurrent cohort study design was used. Data from all persons who had (exposed) and a matched sample of persons who did not have Clostridium difficile infection, for the calendar years 2007-2010, were analysed. The risk of dying within 30, 60, 90 and 180 days was compared using the two groups. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and conditional logistic regression models were applied to the data to examine time to death and mortality risk adjusted for comorbidities using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. One hundred and fifty-eight cases of infection were identified. A statistically significant difference in all-cause mortality was identified between exposed and non-exposed groups at 60 and 180 days. In a conditional regression model, mortality in the exposed group was significantly higher at 180 days. In this Australian study, Clostridium difficile infection was associated with increased mortality. In doing so, it highlights the need for nurses to immediately instigate contact precautions for persons suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection and to facilitate a timely faecal collection for testing. Our findings support ongoing surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection and associated prevention and control activities. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Clostridium subterminale septicemia in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Daganou, Maria; Kyriakoudi, Ann; Moraitou, Helen; Pontikis, Konstantinos; Avgeropoulou, Stavrina; Tripolitsioti, Paraskevi; Koutsoukou, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium subterminale is a Clostridium species that has been rarely isolated in the blood of immunocompromised patients. We report a case of C. subterminale septicemia in an immunocompetent patient who presented with acute mediastinitis following spontaneous esophageal rupture.

  5. Cellular Entry of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Masaya; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Seike, Soshi; Oda, Masataka; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Hisatsune, Junzo; Ochi, Sadayuki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin are composed of two non-linked proteins, one being the enzymatic component and the other being the binding/translocation component. These latter components recognize specific receptors and oligomerize in plasma membrane lipid-rafts, mediating the uptake of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Enzymatic components induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through the ADP-ribosylation of actin and are responsible for cell rounding and death. This review focuses upon the recent advances in cellular internalization of clostridial binary toxins. PMID:28800062

  6. Human neutrophil elastase and collagenase sequestration with phosphorylated cotton wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Howley, Phyllis S

    2007-11-01

    The design and preparation of wound dressings that redress the protease imbalance in chronic wounds is an important goal of wound healing and medical materials science. Chronic wounds contain high levels of tissue and cytokine-destroying proteases including matrix metalloprotease and neutrophil elastase. Thus, the lowering of excessive protease levels in the wound environment by wound dressing sequestration prevents the breakdown of extracellular matrix proteins and growth factors necessary for wound healing. Phosphorylated cotton wound dressings were prepared to target sequestration of proteases from chronic wound exudate through a cationic uptake binding mechanism involving salt bridge formation of the positively charged amino acid side chains of proteases with the phosphate counterions of the wound dressing fiber. Dressings were prepared by applying sodium hexametaphosphate and diammonium phosphate in separate formulations to cotton gauze by pad/dry/cure methods. Phosphorylated cotton dressings were assessed for their ability to lower elastase and collagenase activity. The phosphorylated cotton dressings lowered elastase and collagenase activity 40-80% more effectively than the untreated cotton wound dressings under conditions that mimic chronic wound exudate. Efficacy of the phosphorylated cotton was found to be related to the level of phosphorylation and a lower pH due to protonated phosphate at the surface of the dressing. The capacity of the modified gauze to sequester continued elastase secretions similar to that found in a chronic wound over a 24-h period was retained within a 80% retention of elastase sequestration and was dose-dependent. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Topical silver sulfadiazine vs collagenase ointment for the treatment of partial thickness burns in children: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ostlie, Daniel J; Juang, David; Aguayo, Pablo; Pettiford-Cunningham, Janine P; Erkmann, Erin A; Rash, Diane E; Sharp, Susan W; Sharp, Ronald J; St Peter, Shawn D

    2012-06-01

    The 2 most commonly used topical agents for partial thickness burns are silver sulfadiazine (SSD) and collagenase ointment (CO). Silver sulfadiazine holds antibacterial properties, and eschar separation occurs naturally. Collagenase ointment is an enzyme that cleaves denatured collagen facilitating separation but has no antibacterial properties. Currently, there are no prospective comparative data in children for these 2 agents. Therefore, we conducted a prospective randomized trial. After institutional review board approval, patients were randomized to daily debridement with SSD or CO. Primary outcome was the need for skin grafting. Patients were treated for 2 days with SSD with subsequent randomization. Polymyxin was mixed with CO for antibacterial coverage. Debridements were performed daily for 10 days or until the burn healed. Grafting was performed after 10 days if not healed. From January 2008 to January 2011, 100 patients were enrolled, with no differences in patient characteristics. There were no differences in clinical course, outcome, or need for skin grafting. Wound infections occurred in 7 patients treated with CO and 1 patient treated with SSD (P = .06). Collagenase ointment was more expensive than SSD (P < .001). However, total hospital charges did not differ. There are no differences in outcomes between topical SSD or CO in the management of childhood burns results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatal neutropenic enterocolitis due to clostridium septicum.

    PubMed

    Shah, B K; KC, R

    2011-10-01

    We describe a case of Clostridium septicum enterocolitis in a patient with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia undergoing autologous stem cell transplant. In the setting of neutropenia, Clostridium septicum should be suspected in patients who develop signs and symptoms of acute abdomen.

  9. Inhibition of bacterial carbonic anhydrases and zinc proteases: from orphan targets to innovative new antibiotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Supuran, C T

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-containing enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrases (CAs) and metalloproteases (MPs) play critical functions in bacteria, being involved in various steps of their life cycle, which are important for survival, colonization, acquisition of nutrients for growth and proliferation, facilitation of dissemination, invasion and pathogenicity. The development of resistance to many classes of clinically used antibiotics emphasizes the need of new antibacterial drug targets to be explored. There is a wealth of data regarding bacterial CAs and zinc MPs present in many pathogenic species, such as Neisseria spp., Helycobacter pylori Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria spp, Vibrio spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, Streptomyces spp., Clostridium spp., Enterococcus spp., etc. Some of these enzymes have been cloned, purified and characterized by crystallographic techniques. However, for the moment, few potent and specific inhibitors for bacterial MPs have been reported except for Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, botulinum and tetanus neurotoxin and anthrax lethal factor, which will be reviewed in this article. Bacteria encode α-,β-, and/or γ-CA families, but up to now only the first two classes have been investigated in some detail in different species. The α-CAs from Neisseria spp. and H. pylori as well as the β-class enzymes from E. coli, H. pylori, M. tuberculosis, Brucella spp., S. pneumoniae, S. enterica and H. influenzae have been cloned and characterized. The catalytic/inhibition mechanisms of these CAs are well understood as X-ray crystal structures are available for some of them, but no adducts of these enzymes with inhibitors have been characterized so far. In vitro and in vivo studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates have been reported. Only for Neisseria spp., H. pylori, B. suis and S

  10. Discrimination of clostridium species using a magnetic bead based hybridization assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlow, Susanne; Seise, Barbara; Pollok, Sibyll; Seyboldt, Christian; Weber, Karina; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Clostridium chauvoei is the causative agent of blackleg, which is an endogenous bacterial infection. Mainly cattle and other ruminants are affected. The symptoms of blackleg are very similar to those of malignant edema, an infection caused by Clostridium septicum. [1, 2] Therefore a reliable differentiation of Clostridium chauvoei from other Clostridium species is required. Traditional microbiological detection methods are time consuming and laborious. Additionally, the unique identification is hindered by the overgrowing tendency of swarming Clostridium septicum colonies when both species are present. [1, 3, 4] Thus, there is a crucial need to improve and simplify the specific detection of Clostridium chauvoei and Clostridium septicum. Here we present an easy and fast Clostridium species discrimination method combining magnetic beads and fluorescence spectroscopy. Functionalized magnetic particles exhibit plentiful advantages, like their simple manipulation in combination with a large binding capacity of biomolecules. A specific region of the pathogenic DNA is amplified and labelled with biotin by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These PCR products were then immobilized on magnetic beads exploiting the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. The specific detection of different Clostridium species is achieved by using fluorescence dye labeled probe DNA for the hybridization with the immobilized PCR products. Finally, the samples were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. [5

  11. Development of Clostridium septicum gas gangrene as an adverse effect of clindamycin-induced Clostridium difficile infection in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Kiser, Casey J; Urish, Kenneth L; Boateng, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium myonecrosis or gas gangrene is a life-threatening infection characterized by either traumatic or atraumatic etiology. It has been widely described in patients with traumatic open wounds and in immunocompromised patients, including malignancy. A third source can result from natural flora in the gastrointestinal tract after bowel ischemia. This is a rare occurrence and is even less commonly described in the pediatric population. We present a pediatric patient who developed Clostridium septicum myonecrosis as an iatrogenic complication from clindamycin-induced Clostridium difficile ischemic colitis.

  12. Updates on the sporulation process in Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Prabhat K; Olguín-Araneda, Valeria; Alnoman, Maryam; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2015-05-01

    Sporulation is an important strategy for certain bacterial species within the phylum Firmicutes to survive longer periods of time in adverse conditions. All spore-forming bacteria have two phases in their life; the vegetative form, where they can maintain all metabolic activities and replicate to increase numbers, and the spore form, where no metabolic activities exist. Although many essential components of sporulation are conserved among the spore-forming bacteria, there are differences in the regulation and the pathways among different genera, even at the species level. While we have gained much information from the most studied spore-forming bacterial genus, Bacillus, we still lack an in-depth understanding of spore formation in the genus Clostridium. Clostridium and Bacillus share the master regulator of sporulation, Spo0A, and its downstream pathways, but there are differences in the activation of the Spo0A pathway. While Bacillus species use a multi-component phosphorylation pathway for phosphorylation of Spo0A, termed phosphorelay, such a phosphorelay system is absent in Clostridium. On the other hand, a number of genes regulated by the different sporulation-specific transcription factors are conserved between different Clostridium and Bacillus species. In this review, we discuss the recent findings on Clostridium sporulation and compare the sporulation mechanism in Clostridium and Bacillus. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) fermentation by sequential culture of Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium beijerinckii: effect of particle size on gas production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fuel alcohols can be produced by fermenting cellulosic biomass. Clostridium beijerinckii produces both ethanol and butanol, but it is non-cellulolytic. Cellulose requires saccharification prior to fermentation by C. beijerinckii. In contrast, the thermophile, Clostridium thermocellum, is highly ce...

  14. [Spontaneous gas gangrene in a diabetic patient with Clostridium septicum].

    PubMed

    Mischke, A; Besier, S; Walcher, F; Waibel, H; Brade, V; Brandt, C

    2005-10-01

    Atraumatic infections due to Clostridium septicum are known to be associated with immunosuppression or even malignancy. In this case report, we present a patient with severe Clostridium septicum infection related to advanced colon cancer that had not previously been diagnosed. The case demonstrates the strong association between Clostridium septicum infections and malignancy, particularly in the presence of other predisposing diseases such as diabetes mellitus. It strongly suggests excluding malignant neoplasms, especially of the gastrointestinal tract, when severe Clostridium septicum infections occur. Moreover, if patients with known colorectal or other malignancy develop septicaemia or spontaneous gas gangrene, clinicians should be aware of Clostridium septicum as one of the main causative agents, as early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are important to improve prognosis.

  15. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Imlay, Hannah; Kaul, Daniel; Rao, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is a healthcare-associated infection resulting in significant morbidity. Although immunosuppression is associated with Clostridium difficile infection acquisition and adverse outcomes, the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients has been little studied in the era of antiretroviral therapy. This study identifies the risk factors for acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients. A retrospective, propensity score-matched case-control study design was employed, with patients selected from our institution's outpatient HIV clinic. Clostridium difficile infection cases were defined as having positive stool testing plus an appropriate clinical presentation. The propensity score was generated via multiple logistic regression from year of HIV diagnosis, age at first contact, duration of follow-up, gender, and initial CD4 count. The 46 cases included were matched to a total of 180 controls. Prior antibiotic treatment was a significant predictor of Clostridium difficile infection (odds ratio: 13, 95% confidence interval: 3.49-48.8, p  < .001) as was number of hospital admissions in the preceding year (odds ratio: 4.02, confidence interval: 1.81-8.94, p  < .001). Having both proton pump inhibitor use and CD4 count <200 cells/µL significantly increased odds of Clostridium difficile infection in the multivariable model (odds ratio: 15.17, confidence interval: 1.31-175.9, p  = .021). As in the general population, frequent hospitalizations and exposure to antimicrobials are independent predictors of Clostridium difficile infection acquisition in patients with HIV. Additionally, low CD4 count and proton pump inhibitor use are new potentially modifiable variables that can be targeted for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection in future interventional studies.

  16. Detection of toxigenic Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum from food sold in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukwu, Emelda E; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Coker, Akitoye O; Avila-Campos, Mario J; Solis, Rosa L; Llanco, Luis A; Ogunsola, Folasade T

    2016-12-01

    Food-borne diseases contribute to the huge burden of sickness and death globally and in the last decade, have become more frequently reported in Africa. In line with this, food safety is becoming a significant and growing public health problem in Nigeria. Diarrhoea is a common problem in Nigeria and has been reported but there has been little data on the possibility of clostridia as aetiological agents. Clostridium species are ubiquitous in the environment and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals and can serve as a marker for faecal contamination. We set out to determine the potential of these foods to transmit Clostridium species. A total of 220 food commodities from six local governments in Lagos State were sampled. Isolates obtained were identified based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Toxinotyping was done using multiplex-PCR with primers specific for alpha, beta, epsilon and iota-toxin genes, enterotoxigenic cpe gene and neurotoxigenic BoNt gene. Fifty (22.7%) clostridial species were isolated of which 29 (58%) were identified as C. perfringens. Toxinotyping of the 29 strains showed that 28 (96.6%) were toxin producing C. perfringens type A while one (3.4%) was C. perfringens type D. Two (4%) C. botulinum species were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, both harbouring BoNt/A gene. The contamination rates of food with Clostridium species show that food hygiene is a problem and Clostridium species may be a source of food borne disease in Lagos State, Nigeria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. UV-induced DNA damage is an intermediate step in UV-induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, collagenase, c-fos, and metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, B; Rahmsdorf, H J; Steffen, A; Litfin, M; Herrlich, P

    1989-01-01

    UV irradiation of human and murine cells enhances the transcription of several genes. Here we report on the primary target of relevant UV absorption, on pathways leading to gene activation, and on the elements receiving the UV-induced signal in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat, in the gene coding for collagenase, and in the cellular oncogene fos. In order to induce the expression of genes. UV radiation needs to be absorbed by DNA and to cause DNA damage of the kind that cannot be repaired by cells from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum group A. UV-induced activation of the three genes is mediated by the major enhancer elements (located between nucleotide positions -105 and -79 of HIV-1, between positions -72 and -65 of the collagenase gene, and between positions -320 and -299 of fos). These elements share no apparent sequence motif and bind different trans-acting proteins; a member of the NF kappa B family binds to the HIV-1 enhancer, the heterodimer of Jun and Fos (AP-1) binds to the collagenase enhancer, and the serum response factors p67 and p62 bind to fos. DNA-binding activities of the factors recognizing the HIV-1 and collagenase enhancers are augmented in extracts from UV-treated cells. The increase in activity is due to posttranslational modification. While AP-1 resides in the nucleus and must be modulated there, NF kappa B is activated in the cytoplasm, indicating the existence of a cytoplasmic signal transduction pathway triggered by UV-induced DNA damage. In addition to activation, new synthesis of AP-1 is induced by UV radiation. Images PMID:2557547

  18. Clostridium Difficile Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium that causes diarrhea and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis. Symptoms include Watery ... Loss of appetite Nausea Abdominal pain or tenderness C. difficile is more common in people who need ...

  19. Physical interaction of the activator protein-1 factors c-Fos and c-Jun with Cbfa1 for collagenase-3 promoter activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Alonzo, Richard C.; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Karsenty, Gerard; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we determined that the activator protein-1 (AP-1)-binding site and the runt domain (RD)-binding site and their binding proteins, c-Fos.c-Jun and Cbfa, regulate the collagenase-3 promoter in parathyroid hormone-treated and differentiating osteoblasts. Here we show that Cbfa1 and c-Fos.c-Jun appear to cooperatively bind the RD- and AP-1-binding sites and form ternary structures in vitro. Both in vitro and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid studies further demonstrate interaction between Cbfa1 with c-Fos and c-Jun in the absence of phosphorylation and without binding to DNA. Additionally, only the runt domain of Cbfa1 was required for interaction with c-Jun and c-Fos. In mammalian cells, overexpression of Cbfa1 enhanced c-Jun activation of AP-1-binding site promoter activity, demonstrating functional interaction. Finally, insertion of base pairs that disrupted the helical phasing between the AP-1- and RD-binding sites also inhibited collagenase-3 promoter activation. Thus, we provide direct evidence that Cbfa1 and c-Fos.c-Jun physically interact and cooperatively bind the AP-1- and RD-binding sites in the collagenase-3 promoter. Moreover, the AP-1- and RD-binding sites appear to be organized in a specific required helical arrangement that facilitates transcription factor interaction and enables promoter activation.

  20. Application of long sequence reads to improve genomes for Clostridium thermocellum AD2, Clostridium thermocellum LQRI, and Pelosinus fermentans R7

    DOE PAGES

    Utturkar, Sagar M.; Bayer, Edward A.; Borovok, Ilya; ...

    2016-09-29

    Here, we and others have shown the utility of long sequence reads to improve genome assembly quality. In this study, we generated PacBio DNA sequence data to improve the assemblies of draft genomes for Clostridium thermocellum AD2, Clostridium thermocellum LQRI, and Pelosinus fermentans R7.

  1. Identification of the cellular receptor of Clostridium spiroforme toxin.

    PubMed

    Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Wilczek, Claudia; Nölke, Thilo; Guttenberg, Gregor; Hornuss, Daniel; Schwan, Carsten; Aktories, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium spiroforme produces the binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin CST (C. spiroforme toxin), which has been proposed to be responsible for diarrhea, enterocolitis, and eventually death, especially in rabbits. Here we report on the recombinant production of the enzyme component (CSTa) and the binding component (CSTb) of C. spiroforme toxin in Bacillus megaterium. By using the recombinant toxin components, we show that CST enters target cells via the lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR), which has been recently identified as the host cell receptor of the binary toxins Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT) and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Microscopic studies revealed that CST, but not the related Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, colocalized with LSR during toxin uptake and traffic to endosomal compartments. Our findings indicate that CST shares LSR with C. difficile CDT and C. perfringens iota toxin as a host cell surface receptor.

  2. Reclassification of non-type strain Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598 as Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-598.

    PubMed

    Sedlar, Karel; Kolek, Jan; Provaznik, Ivo; Patakova, Petra

    2017-02-20

    The complete genome sequence of non-type strain Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598 was introduced last year; it is an oxygen tolerant, spore-forming, mesophilic heterofermentative bacterium with high hydrogen production and acetone-butanol fermentation ability. The basic genome statistics have shown its similarity to C. beijerinckii rather than the C. pasteurianum species. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the strain with several other complete clostridial genome sequences. Besides a 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and phylogenomic analysis confirmed an inaccuracy of the taxonomic status of strain Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598. Therefore, we suggest its reclassification to be Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-598. This is a specific strain and is not identical to other C. beijerinckii strains. This misclassification explains its unexpected behavior, different from other C. pasteurianum strains; it also permits better understanding of the bacterium for a future genetic manipulation that might increase its biofuel production potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased collagenase and dipeptidyl peptidase I activity in leucocytes from healthy elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, L; Richaud-Patin, Y; Díaz-Borjón, A; Jakez-Ocampo, J; Alvarado-De La Barrera, C

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of infectious diseases increases with ageing. The enzymatic activity of leucocytes may have a relevant role in the morbidity and mortality due to infections in the elderly. In this study we have compared the activity of enzymes involved in the inflammatory response in leucocytes from young and elderly women. A total of 35 healthy females was studied, 20 volunteers aged 78–98 years (mean 89.1 years) and 15 young controls aged 19–34 years (mean 26 years). All of them were in good clinical condition, without any acute or chronic disease. Intracellular enzyme activity was analysed by flow cytometry in leucocytes from young and elderly women. The enzyme substrates employed were for oxidative burst, l-aminopeptidase, collagenase, cathepsin B, C, D and, G and dipeptidyl peptidase I. The intracellular enzyme activity assessed by flow cytometry in leucocytes from young and elderly women was similar, as far as oxidative burst, l-aminopeptidase, cathepsin B, C, D and G are concerned. An increased collagenase activity was detected in granulocytes from elders. The mean fluorescence channels for this enzyme corresponded to 86 ± 23 and 60 ± 15 in cells from elders and controls, respectively (P = 0.01224). An increased dipeptidyl peptidase I activity was detected in lymphocytes from elderly women. The corresponding values for this enzyme in elders and the young were 65.9 ± 43.3 and 17.3 ± 5, respectively (P = 0.0036). The proper functional activity of intracellular enzymes involved in inflammatory responses is likely to be determinant for successful ageing. PMID:10361229

  4. Anti-osteoarthritic effects of ChondroT in a rat model of collagenase-induced osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jiwon; Bae, Kiljoon; Kim, Sun-Gil; Kwak, Dongwook; Moon, Young-Joo; Choi, Chan-Hun; Kim, Young-Ran; Na, Chang-Su; Kim, Seon-Jong

    2018-04-19

    Previously, we reported that ChondorT showed significant anti-arthritis and anti-inflammatory effects. ChondroT, a new herbal medication, consists of the water extracts of Osterici Radix, Lonicerae Folium, Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Clematidis Radix, and Phellodendri Cortex (6:4:4:4:3). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ChondroT in collagenase-induced osteoarthritis rat model. Osteoarthritis was induced by the injection of collagenase into the right knee joint cavity of rats. The samples were divided into seven groups [intact (n = 6), control (n = 6), indomethacin (n = 6), Joins tab (n = 6), ChondroT50 (n = 6), ChondroT100 (n = 6), and ChondroT200 (n = 6)]. The control group was administered normal saline, indomethacin group was administered indomethacin (2 mg/kg), and Joins tab group was administered Joins Tab (20 mg/kg). The ChondroT50, ChondroT100, and ChondroT200 groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ChondroT, respectively. All oral administrations were initiated 7 days after the induction of arthritis and were continued for a total of 12 days. At the end of the experiment, serum aminotransferase, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, leukocyte, and inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6] were analyzed. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and safranin O-fast green staining of the articular structures of the knee joint were performed. TNF-α and IL-1β decreased in the ChondroT100 and ChondroT200 groups compared with those in the control group. IL-6 and aspartate aminotransferase decreased in the ChondroT50, ChondroT100, and ChondroT200 groups compared with that in the control group. Albumin, WBC and lymphocytes decreased in the ChondroT100 and ChondroT200 groups compared with those in the control group. In H&E stain, synoviocytes, cartilage lacunae, and chondrocytes were well preserved in the ChondroT100 and ChondroT200 groups, and safranin O

  5. Identification of the Cellular Receptor of Clostridium spiroforme Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Wilczek, Claudia; Nölke, Thilo; Guttenberg, Gregor; Hornuss, Daniel; Schwan, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium spiroforme produces the binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin CST (C. spiroforme toxin), which has been proposed to be responsible for diarrhea, enterocolitis, and eventually death, especially in rabbits. Here we report on the recombinant production of the enzyme component (CSTa) and the binding component (CSTb) of C. spiroforme toxin in Bacillus megaterium. By using the recombinant toxin components, we show that CST enters target cells via the lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR), which has been recently identified as the host cell receptor of the binary toxins Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT) and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Microscopic studies revealed that CST, but not the related Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, colocalized with LSR during toxin uptake and traffic to endosomal compartments. Our findings indicate that CST shares LSR with C. difficile CDT and C. perfringens iota toxin as a host cell surface receptor. PMID:22252869

  6. Clostridium perfringens in Long Island Sound sediments: An urban sedimentary record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Mecray, E.L.; Galvin, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a conservative tracer and an indicator of sewage-derived pollution in the marine environment. The distribution of Clostridium perfringens spores was measured in sediments from Long Island Sound, USA, as part of a regional study designed to: (1) map the distribution of contaminated sediments; (2) determine transport and dispersal paths; (3) identify the locations of sediment and contaminant focusing; and (4) constrain predictive models. In 1996, sediment cores were collected at 58 stations, and surface sediments were collected at 219 locations throughout the Sound. Elevated concentrations of Clostridium perfringens in the sediments indicate that sewage pollution is present throughout Long Island Sound and has persisted for more than a century. Concentrations range from undetectable amounts to 15,000 spores/g dry sediment and are above background levels in the upper 30 cm at nearly all core locations. Sediment focusing strongly impacts the accumulation of Clostridium perfringens spores. Inventories in the cores range from 28 to 70,000 spores/cm2, and elevated concentrations can extend to depths of 50 cm. The steep gradients in Clostridium perfringens profiles in muddier cores contrast with concentrations that are generally constant with depth in sandier cores. Clostridium perfringens concentrations rarely decrease in the uppermost sediment, unlike those reported for metal contaminants. Concentrations in surface sediments are highest in the western end of the Sound, very low in the eastern region, and intermediate in the central part. This pattern reflects winnowing and focusing of Clostridium perfringens spores and fine-grained sediment by the hydrodynamic regime; however, the proximity of sewage sources to the westernmost Sound locally enhances the Clostridium perfringens signals.

  7. Cartilage regeneration by selected chondrogenic clonal mesenchymal stem cells in the collagenase-induced monkey osteoarthritis model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Ma, Anlun; Song, Lijun; Hu, Yanxin; Dun, Hao; Daloze, Pierre; Yu, Yonglin; Jiang, Jianyuan; Zafarullah, Muhammad; Chen, Huifang

    2014-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis, in which cartilage is irreversibly degraded, causing severe pain and disability. Current therapeutic strategies cannot repair damaged cartilage. We evaluated the repair potential of selected chondrogenic clonal MSCs (sC-MSCs) by delivering them into the injured cartilage site in a collagenase-induced OA model in Cynomolgus monkeys. In vitro characterization showed that the isolated monkey sC-MSCs and polyclonal MSCs (P-MSCs) expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers and could differentiate into chondrocytes. The articular cartilage lesions in animals were treated with normal saline (NS), autologous P-MSCs and sC-MSCs, respectively, by direct delivery. The clinical parameters, radiographic images, histological and immunohistochemical examinations at weeks 8, 16 and 24 post-treatment demonstrated that the abrasions of articular cartilage were significantly improved and repaired by MSC-based treatment, particularly in the sC-MSC-treated group, which displayed consistently higher histological scores than those of other groups. In summary, treatment with sC-MSCs can effectively improve the healing of cartilage lesions in the Cynomolgus monkey collagenase-induced OA model. Due to the genetic proximity of monkey and human, the therapeutic strategy presented in this study will have broad applications in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Plasmidome Interchange between Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum Converts Strains of Independent Lineages into Distinctly Different Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Skarin, Hanna; Segerman, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum (group III), Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains. PMID:25254374

  9. Plasmidome interchange between Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum converts strains of independent lineages into distinctly different pathogens.

    PubMed

    Skarin, Hanna; Segerman, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum (group III), Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains.

  10. Botulinum neurotoxin homologs in non-Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Michael J; Adams, Jeremy B; Doxey, Andrew C

    2015-01-30

    Clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) are the deadliest toxins known and the causative agents of botulism and tetanus. Despite their structural and functional complexity, no CNT homologs are currently known outside Clostridium. Here, we report the first homologs of Clostridium CNTs within the genome of the rice fermentation organism Weissella oryzae SG25. One gene in W. oryzae S25 encodes a protein with a four-domain architecture and HExxH protease motif common to botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). An adjacent gene with partial similarity to CNTs is also present, and both genes seem to have been laterally transferred into the W. oryzae genome from an unknown source. Identification of mobile, CNT-related genes outside of Clostridium has implications for our understanding of the evolution of this important toxin family. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Beneficial effect of recombinant rC1rC2 collagenases on human islet function: Efficacy of low-dose enzymes on pancreas digestion and yield.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Subhashree, Venugopal; Breite, Andrew G; Tucker, William W; Narayanan, Siddharth; Dhanasekaran, Maheswaran; Mokshagundam, SriPrakash; Green, Michael L; Hughes, Michael G; Williams, Stuart K; Dwulet, Francis E; McCarthy, Robert C; Balamurugan, Appakalai N

    2018-02-01

    A high number of human islets can be isolated by using modern purified tissue dissociation enzymes; however, this requires the use of >20 Wunsch units (WU)/g of pancreas for digestion. Attempts to reduce this dose have resulted in pancreas underdigestion and poor islet recovery but improved islet function. In this study, we achieved a high number of functional islets using a low dose of recombinant collagenase enzyme mixture (RCEM-1200 WU rC2 and 10 million collagen-degrading activity [CDA] U of rC1 containing about 209 mg of collagenase to digest a 100-g pancreas). The collagenase dose used in these isolations is about 42% of the natural collagenase enzyme mixture (NCEM) dose commonly used to digest a 100-g pancreas. Low-dose RCEM was efficient in digesting entire pancreases to obtain higher yield (5535 ± 830 and 2582 ± 925 islet equivalent/g, P < .05) and less undigested tissue (16.7 ± 5% and 37.8 ± 3%, P < .05) compared with low-dose NCEM (12WU/g). Additionally, low-dose RCEM islets retained better morphology (confirmed with scanning electron microscopy) and higher in vitro basal insulin release (2391 ± 1342 and 1778 ± 978 μU/mL; P < .05) compared with standard-dose NCEM. Nude mouse bioassay demonstrated better islet function for low-dose RCEM (area under the curve [AUC] 24 968) compared with low-dose (AUC-38 225) or standard-dose NCEM (AUC-38 685), P < .05. This is the first report indicating that islet function can be improved by using low-dose rC1rC2 (RCEM). © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Clostridium neonatale sp. nov. linked to necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and a clarification of species assignable to the genus Clostridium (Prazmowski 1880) emend. Lawson and Rainey 2016.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Kathryn; Burdz, Tamara; Wiebe, Deborah; Alfa, Michelle; Bernier, Anne-Marie

    2018-06-11

    A description of an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis among neonates, linked to the putative novel species Clostridium neonatale and assignable to the genus Clostridium, was previously reported in brief but that name had never been validly published (Alfa et al. Clin Inf Dis 2002;35:S101-S105). Features of this taxon group and its phylogenetic position with respect to contemporary species in the genus Clostridium were recently reviewed and still found to be unique. Therefore, we provide here a description based on biochemical, chemotaxonomic and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, 16S rRNA gene sequencing as well as information obtained by whole genome sequencing (WGS) for strains 99A005 T and 99A006. Those two C. neonatale strains were essentially identical to each other, with genome sizes of 4 658 596-4 705 520 bp and G+C content of 28.4-28.5 mol% (WGS). AST inferred susceptibility to 14 antibiotics. MALDI-TOF spectra were unique and could potentially be used for identification. The type strain is (NML) LCDC 99A005 T [=ATCC BAA-265 T =CCUG 46077 T =St. Boniface Hospital 30686 T ]. While performing this review, we found that the names of 24 validly published species assignable to the genus Clostridium had been omitted from the emended description of the genus (Lawson and Rainey Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2016;66 :1009-1016). Those species are listed in brief here. Lastly, based on this review, we also propose that Eubacterium budayi, Eubacterium nitritogenes and Eubacterium combesii be transferred to the emended genus Clostridium, as Clostridium budayi comb. nov., Clostridium nitritogenes comb. nov. and Clostridium combesii comb. nov., respectively.

  13. Non-Clostridium perfringens infectious agents producing necrotic enteritis-like lesions in poultry.

    PubMed

    Uzal, F A; Sentíes-Cué, C G; Rimoldi, G; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) produced by Clostridium perfringens is amongst the most prevalent enteric diseases of chickens and turkeys. However, several other bacterial, parasitic and viral agents can cause clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions in poultry very similar to those of NE and the diseases produced by those agents need to be differentiated from NE. The main differential diagnoses for C. perfringens NE include bacterial (Clostridium colinum, Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium difficile, Pasteurella multocida, Brachyspira spp.), parasitic (Eimeria spp., Histomonas meleagridis) and viral (Duck Herpesvirus type 1, Avian Paramyxovirus type 1) diseases. Confirmation of the diagnosis of these diseases requires identification of the aetiological agents by morphological, cultural and/or molecular methods.

  14. The potential economic value of screening hospital admissions for Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, S M; Curry, S R; Harrison, L H; Lee, B Y

    2012-11-01

    Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage has a prevalence reported as high as 51-85 %; with up to 84 % of incident hospital-acquired infections linked to carriers. Accurately identifying carriers may limit the spread of Clostridium difficile. Since new technology adoption depends heavily on its economic value, we developed an analytic simulation model to determine the cost-effectiveness screening hospital admissions for Clostridium difficile from the hospital and third party payer perspectives. Isolation precautions were applied to patients testing positive, preventing transmission. Sensitivity analyses varied Clostridium difficile colonization rate, infection probability among secondary cases, contact isolation compliance, and screening cost. Screening was cost-effective (i.e., incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] ≤ $50,000/QALY) for every scenario tested; all ICER values were ≤ $256/QALY. Screening was economically dominant (i.e., saved costs and provided health benefits) with a ≥10.3 % colonization rate and ≥5.88 % infection probability when contact isolation compliance was ≥25 % (hospital perspective). Under some conditions screening led to cost savings per case averted (range, $53-272). Clostridium difficile screening, coupled with isolation precautions, may be a cost-effective intervention to hospitals and third party payers, based on prevalence. Limiting Clostridium difficile transmission can reduce the number of infections, thereby reducing its economic burden to the healthcare system.

  15. The Potential Economic Value of Screening Hospital Admissions for Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Sarah M.; Curry, Scott R.; Harrison, Lee H.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage has a prevalence reported as high as 51% to 85%; with up to 84% of incident hospital-acquired infections linked to carriers. Accurately identifying carriers may limit the spread of Clostridium difficile. Methods Since new technology adoption depends heavily on its economic value, we developed a analytic simulation model to determine the cost-effectiveness screening hospital admissions for Clostridium difficile from the hospital and third party payer perspectives. Isolation precautions were applied to patients testing positive, preventing transmission. Sensitivity analyses varied Clostridium difficile colonization rate, infection probability among secondary cases, contact isolation compliance, and screening cost. Results Screening was cost-effective [i.e., incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) ≤$50,000/QALY] for every scenario tested; all ICER values ≤$256/QALY. Screening was economically dominant (i.e., saved costs and provided health benefits) with a ≥10.3% colonization rate and ≥5.88% infection probability when contact isolation compliance was ≥25% (hospital perspective). Under some conditions screening led to cost-savings per case averted (range: $53 to $272). Conclusion Clostridium difficile screening, coupled with isolation precautions, may be a cost-effective intervention to hospitals and third party payers, based on prevalence. Limiting Clostridium difficile transmission can reduce the number of infections, thereby reducing its economic burden to the healthcare system. PMID:22752150

  16. Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Vedantam, Gayatri; Clark, Andrew; Chu, Michele; McQuade, Rebecca; Mallozzi, Michael; Viswanathan, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of antibiotic- and healthcare-associated diarrhea, and its containment and treatment imposes a significant financial burden, estimated to be over $3 billion in the USA alone. Since the year 2000, CDI epidemics/outbreaks have occurred in North America, Europe and Asia. These outbreaks have been variously associated with, or attributed to, the emergence of Clostridium difficile strains with increased virulence, an increase in resistance to commonly used antimicrobials such as the fluoroquinolones, or host susceptibilities, including the use of gastric acid suppressants, to name a few. Efforts to elucidate C. difficile pathogenic mechanisms have been hampered by a lack of molecular tools, manipulatable animal models, and genetic intractability of clinical C. difficile isolates. However, in the past 5 y, painstaking efforts have resulted in the unraveling of multiple C. difficile virulence-associated pathways and mechanisms. We have recently reviewed the disease, its associated risk factors, transmission and interventions (Viswanathan, Gut Microbes 2010). This article summarizes genetics, non-toxin virulence factors, and host-cell biology associated with C. difficile pathogenesis as of 2011, and highlights those findings/factors that may be of interest as future intervention targets. PMID:22555464

  17. Promoters and proteins from Clostridium thermocellum and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wu, J. H. David; Newcomb, Michael

    2012-11-13

    The present invention relates to an inducible and a high expression nucleic acid promoter isolated from Clostridium thermocellum. These promoters are useful for directing expression of a protein or polypeptide encoded by a nucleic acid molecule operably associated with the nucleic acid promoters. The present invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs including the C. thermocellum promoters, and expression vectors and hosts containing such nucleic acid constructs. The present invention also relates to protein isolated from Clostridium thermocellum, including a repressor protein. The present invention also provides methods of using the isolated promoters and proteins from Clostridium thermocellum, including methods for directing inducible in vitro and in vivo expression of a protein or polypeptide in a host, and methods of producing ethanol from a cellulosic biomass.

  18. The Clostridium sporulation programs: diversity and preservation of endospore differentiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hinai, Mohab A; Jones, Shawn W; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2015-03-01

    Bacillus and Clostridium organisms initiate the sporulation process when unfavorable conditions are detected. The sporulation process is a carefully orchestrated cascade of events at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels involving a multitude of sigma factors, transcription factors, proteases, and phosphatases. Like Bacillus genomes, sequenced Clostridium genomes contain genes for all major sporulation-specific transcription and sigma factors (spo0A, sigH, sigF, sigE, sigG, and sigK) that orchestrate the sporulation program. However, recent studies have shown that there are substantial differences in the sporulation programs between the two genera as well as among different Clostridium species. First, in the absence of a Bacillus-like phosphorelay system, activation of Spo0A in Clostridium organisms is carried out by a number of orphan histidine kinases. Second, downstream of Spo0A, the transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of the canonical set of four sporulation-specific sigma factors (σ(F), σ(E), σ(G), and σ(K)) display different patterns, not only compared to Bacillus but also among Clostridium organisms. Finally, recent studies demonstrated that σ(K), the last sigma factor to be activated according to the Bacillus subtilis model, is involved in the very early stages of sporulation in Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. perfringens, and C. botulinum as well as in the very late stages of spore maturation in C. acetobutylicum. Despite profound differences in initiation, propagation, and orchestration of expression of spore morphogenetic components, these findings demonstrate not only the robustness of the endospore sporulation program but also the plasticity of the program to generate different complex phenotypes, some apparently regulated at the epigenetic level. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. The Clostridium Sporulation Programs: Diversity and Preservation of Endospore Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hinai, Mohab A.; Jones, Shawn W.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacillus and Clostridium organisms initiate the sporulation process when unfavorable conditions are detected. The sporulation process is a carefully orchestrated cascade of events at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels involving a multitude of sigma factors, transcription factors, proteases, and phosphatases. Like Bacillus genomes, sequenced Clostridium genomes contain genes for all major sporulation-specific transcription and sigma factors (spo0A, sigH, sigF, sigE, sigG, and sigK) that orchestrate the sporulation program. However, recent studies have shown that there are substantial differences in the sporulation programs between the two genera as well as among different Clostridium species. First, in the absence of a Bacillus-like phosphorelay system, activation of Spo0A in Clostridium organisms is carried out by a number of orphan histidine kinases. Second, downstream of Spo0A, the transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of the canonical set of four sporulation-specific sigma factors (σF, σE, σG, and σK) display different patterns, not only compared to Bacillus but also among Clostridium organisms. Finally, recent studies demonstrated that σK, the last sigma factor to be activated according to the Bacillus subtilis model, is involved in the very early stages of sporulation in Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. perfringens, and C. botulinum as well as in the very late stages of spore maturation in C. acetobutylicum. Despite profound differences in initiation, propagation, and orchestration of expression of spore morphogenetic components, these findings demonstrate not only the robustness of the endospore sporulation program but also the plasticity of the program to generate different complex phenotypes, some apparently regulated at the epigenetic level. PMID:25631287

  20. The Clostridium Sporulation Programs: Diversity and Preservation of Endospore Differentiation

    DOE PAGES

    Al-Hinai, Mohab A.; Jones, Shawn W.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.

    2015-01-28

    Bacillus and Clostridium organisms initiate the sporulation process when unfavorable conditions are detected. The sporulation process is a carefully orchestrated cascade of events at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels involving a multitude of sigma factors, transcription factors, proteases, and phosphatases. Like Bacillus genomes, sequenced Clostridium genomes contain genes for all major sporulation-specific transcription and sigma factors (spo0A, sigH, sigF, sigE, sigG, and sigK) that orchestrate the sporulation program. However, recent studies have shown that there are substantial differences in the sporulation programs between the two genera as well as among different Clostridium species. First, in the absence of amore » Bacillus-like phosphorelay system, activation of Spo0A in Clostridium organisms is carried out by a number of orphan histidine kinases. Second, downstream of Spo0A, the transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of the canonical set of four sporulation-specific sigma factors (σF, σE, σG, and σK) display different patterns, not only compared to Bacillus but also among Clostridium organisms. Finally, recent studies demonstrated that σK, the last sigma factor to be activated according to the Bacillus subtilis model, is involved in the very early stages of sporulation in Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. perfringens, and C. botulinum as well as in the very late stages of spore maturation in C. acetobutylicum. Despite profound differences in initiation, propagation, and orchestration of expression of spore morphogenetic components, these findings demonstrate not only the robustness of the endospore sporulation program but also the plasticity of the program to generate different complex phenotypes, some apparently regulated at the epigenetic level.« less

  1. Immortalization-susceptible elements and their binding factors mediate rejuvenation of regulation of the type I collagenase gene in simian virus 40 large T antigen-transformed immortal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Imai, S; Fujino, T; Nishibayashi, S; Manabe, T; Takano, T

    1994-01-01

    Dramatic changes occur in expression of the type I collagenase gene during the process of immortalization in simian virus 40 large T antigen-transformed human fibroblasts (S. Imai and T. Takano, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 189:148-153, 1992). From transient transfection assays, it was determined that these changes involved the functions of two immortalization-susceptible cis-acting elements, ISE1 and ISE2, located in a 100-bp region about 1.7 kb upstream. The profiles of binding of an activator, Proserpine, to the enhancer ISE1 were similar in the extracts of young, senescent preimmortalized and immortalized cells. ISE2 contained both negative and positive regulatory elements located adjacent to each other. The positive regulatory element consisted of a tandem array of putative Ets family- and AP-1-binding sites. An activator, Pluto, interacted with this positive regulatory element and had an AP-1-related component as a complex. The binding activity of Pluto was predominantly detected only in the extract from senescent preimmortalized cells. In contrast, a repressor, Orpheus, which bound to the ATG-rich negative regulatory element of ISE2, was prominently detected in extracts from both young preimmortalized and immortalized cells and appeared to suppress transcription in an orientation-dependent manner. Thus, the interplay of Pluto and Orpheus was suggested to be crucial for regulation of the collagenase gene accompanying in vitro aging and immortalization. Proserpine seemed to interact with Pluto to mediate strong expression of the collagenase gene in cellular senescence. On the basis of these results, we propose a model for regulation of the collagenase gene during in vitro aging and immortalization. Images PMID:7935433

  2. Increased susceptibility of skin from HERDA (Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia)-affected horses to bacterial collagenase degradation: a potential contributing factor to the clinical signs of HERDA.

    PubMed

    Rashmir-Raven, Ann; Lavagnino, Michael; Sedlak, Aleksa; Gardner, Keri; Arnoczky, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) is a genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fragile, hyper-extensible skin and ulcerative lesions. The predominance of skin lesions have been shown to occur on the dorsum of HERDA-affected horses. While this has been postulated to be due to increased exposure to sunlight of these areas, the precise pathological mechanism which causes this to occur is unclear. We hypothesized that an increase in collagenase activity, that has been associated with the exposure of dermal fibroblasts to sunlight, will significantly degrade the material properties of skin from HERDA-affected horses when compared to unaffected controls. Six unaffected and seven HERDA-affected horses, all euthanized for other reasons. Full-thickness skin samples from similar locations on each horse were collected and cut into uniform strips and their material properties (tensile modulus) determined by mechanical testing before (n = 12 samples/horse) or after (n = 12 samples/horse) incubation in bacterial collagenase at 37°C for 6 h. The change in modulus following treatment was then compared between HERDA-affected and unaffected horses using a Student's t-test. The modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses decreased significantly more than that from unaffected horses following collagenase treatment (54 ± 7% versus 30 ± 16%, P = 0.004). The significant decrease in the modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses following collagenase exposure suggests that their altered collagen microarchitecture is more susceptible to enzymatic degradation and may explain the localization of skin lesions in HERDA-affected horses to those areas of the body most exposed to sunlight. These findings appear to support the previously reported benefits of sunlight restriction in HERDA-affected horses. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  3. Clostridium perfringens in the Environment1

    PubMed Central

    Matches, Jack R.; Liston, John; Curran, Donald

    1974-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens was isolated from samples collected in Puget Sound in the state of Washington and areas considered as possible sources of these organisms to Puget Sound. The distribution of C. perfringens in the total Clostridium population was determined for fish gut contents and sediments collected in highly polluted and less polluted areas, sewage samples, freshwater sediments, and soils. The greatest numbers of C. perfringens were obtained from marine sediments collected near the sewage outfall at West Point. Fewer isolates were made from fish collected from less polluted stations, although the number of C. perfringens remained high in sediments from other Puget Sound stations. The proportion of C. perfringens in the total Clostridium populations varied between 56 and 71% for sewage samples and only 0.4 to 4.1% for freshwater sediments and soil samples. Only 25 C. perfringens isolates out of 137 from fish guts, or 18%, were identifiable serologically and these fell into 12 groups. C. perfringens were fed to fish and the fish were sacrificed after varying lengths of time. The number of C. perfringens increased slightly in the gut during the first 24 h and then the numbers decreased rapidly for the next 120 h. PMID:4371684

  4. Mathematical modeling and growth kinetics of Clostridium sporogenes in cooked beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 is a common surrogate for proteolytic Clostridium botulinum for thermal process development and validation. However, little information is available concerning the growth kinetics of C. sporogenes in food. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the...

  5. Clostridium botulinum type E occurs and grows in the alga Cladophora glomerata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, massive avian die-offs from Clostridium botulinum type E infection have occurred in the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) area of Lake Michigan. These outbreaks have been coincidental with massive blooms of the green algae Cladophora, mostly Cladophora glomerata. We tested the hypothesis that Clostridium botulinum type E can grow under suitable conditions in these algal mats. In a lab mesocosm study, Cladophora from four outbreak-impacted beaches from SLBE were compared with four unimpacted beaches in the Milwaukee–Racine area for bontE gene of Clostridium botulinum. Frequency of the bontE gene was higher after incubation (25 °C for up to 6 weeks) of Cladophora from impacted vs. the unimpacted area. Since no type E gene was detected initially in Cladophora from any of the eight locations, we infer that the increased occurrence of type E gene arose from spore germination or vegetative Clostridium growth within the existing algal mats of SLBE. Moreover, we found that the congener Clostridium perfringens readily grows in mesocosms containing Cladophora.

  6. Biochemical actions of glucocorticoids on macrophages in culture. Specific inhibition of elastase, collagenase, and plasminogen activator secretion and effects on other metabolic functions

    SciTech Connect

    Werb, Z.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of glucocorticoids on biochemical functions of macrophages from man, mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig were examined. Secretion of plasminogen activator by human peripheral blood monocytes was decreased 50% with 1 nM dexamethasone. Differentiation of murine monocytic and granulocytic colonies in agar from bone marrow precursors was decreased 50% at 7 days with 20 nM dexamethasone. Secretion of elastase, collagenase, and plasminogen activator by resident and thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages was decreased by dexamethasone, cortisol, and triamcinolone acetonide (1 to 1,000 nM), but not by progesterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone (1,000 nM); in contast, secretion of lysozyme was not affectedmore » by glucocorticoids. The inhibition of macrophage secretion by dexamethasone was both time and dose dependent. Inhibition of macrophage secretion increased with increasing glucocorticoid concentration. Half-maximum inhibition of secretion of elastase, collagenase, and plasminogen activator was seen at dexamethasone concentrations (1 to 10 nM) similar to those that half-saturated the specific glucocorticoid receptors. At high concentrations of dexamethasone (100 to 1,000 nM) the secretion of plasminogen activator was inhibited to a greater extent (>95%) than the secretion of elastase (60 to 80%).Progesterone alone had no effect on secretion, but blocked the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone and cortisol. Secretion of collagenase, neutral proteinases, and plasminogen activator by elicited rabbit alveolar macrophages was inhibited with glucocorticoids (0.1 to 100 nM) but not with progesterone or sex steroids. Secretion of a neutral elastinolytic proteinase by guinea pig alveolar macrophages was also inhibited by dexamethasone.« less

  7. ▼ Bezlotoxumab for prevention of recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    2018-05-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is a significant cause of infectious diarrhoea and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. 1,2 Management of Clostridium difficile infection often requires treatment with antibiotics (metronidazole, vancomycin or fidaxomicin) alongside supportive care to manage hydration, electrolytes and nutrition. However, the risk of recurrence is approximately 20%. 2 Here, we review the evidence for bezlotoxumab (▼ Zinplava - Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited), a monoclonal antibody licensed for the prevention of recurrence of Clostridium difficile in adults who are at high risk of recurrence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Gas discharge plasmas are effective in inactivating Bacillus and Clostridium spores.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shawn; Abramzon, Nina; Jackson, James O; Lin, Wei-Jen

    2012-03-01

    Bacterial spores are the most resistant form of life and have been a major threat to public health and food safety. Nonthermal atmospheric gas discharge plasma is a novel sterilization method that leaves no chemical residue. In our study, a helium radio-frequency cold plasma jet was used to examine its sporicidal effect on selected strains of Bacillus and Clostridium. The species tested included Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, and Clostridium botulinum type A and type E. The plasmas were effective in inactivating selected Bacillus and Clostridia spores with D values (decimal reduction time) ranging from 2 to 8 min. Among all spores tested, C. botulinum type A and C. sporogenes were significantly more resistant to plasma inactivation than other species. Observations by phase contrast microscopy showed that B. subtilis spores were severely damaged by plasmas and the majority of the treated spores were unable to initiate the germination process. There was no detectable fragmentation of the DNA when the spores were treated for up to 20 min. The release of dipicolinic acid was observed almost immediately after the plasma treatment, indicating the spore envelope damage could occur quickly resulting in dipicolinic acid release and the reduction of spore resistance.

  9. Submission of nucleotide sequence clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin to genbank database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens (CP) is ubiquitous in the nature, and a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. However, pathogenic CP is also a causative agent of poultry disease necrotic enteritis (NE). Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin is a toxin produced by the bacterium Clo...

  10. Prevention of Infection Due to Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher C; Jump, Robin L P; Chopra, Teena

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is one of the foremost nosocomial pathogens. Preventing infection is particularly challenging. Effective prevention efforts typically require a multifaceted bundled approach. A variety of infection control procedures may be advantageous, including strict hand decontamination with soap and water, contact precautions, and using chlorine-containing decontamination agents. Additionally, risk factor reduction can help reduce the burden of disease. The risk factor modification is principally accomplished though antibiotic stewardship programs. Unfortunately, most of the current evidence for prevention is in acute care settings. This review focuses on preventative approaches to reduce the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection in healthcare settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermolabile triose phosphate isomerase in a psychrophilic Clostridium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. W.; Akagi, J. M.; Himes, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    It was found that a psychrophilic Clostridium contains a triose phosphate isomerase which is very labile at moderate temperatures. An investigation showed that the optimal growth temperature of the psychrophile was between 15 and 20 deg C. No growth occurred at 25 deg C. The thermostability of the glycolytic enzymes in the cell-free extracts of Clostridium sp. strain 69 was studied. The data obtained show that the triose phosphate isomerase is quite labile at moderate temperatures. The instability of the enzyme is sufficient to explain the low maximum growth temperature of the psychrophile.

  12. Human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells improve healing after collagenase tendon injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells attract much interest in tissue regeneration because of their capacity to differentiate into mesodermal origin cells, their paracrine properties and their possible use in autologous transplantations. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and reparative potential of implanted human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs), prepared under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions utilizing human mixed platelet lysate as a culture supplement, in a collagenase Achilles tendon injury model in rats. Methods Eighty-one rats with collagenase-induced injury were divided into two groups. The first group received human mesenchymal stromal cells injected into the site of injury 3 days after lesion induction, while the second group received saline. Biomechanical testing, morphometry and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry of collagens I, II and III, versican and aggrecan, neovascularization, and hMSC survival were performed 2, 4, and 6 weeks after injury. Results Human mesenchymal stromal cell-treated rats had a significantly better extracellular matrix structure and a larger amount of collagen I and collagen III. Neovascularization was also increased in hMSC-treated rats 2 and 4 weeks after tendon injury. MTCO2 (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II) positivity confirmed the presence of hMSCs 2, 4 and 6 weeks after transplantation. Collagen II deposits and alizarin red staining for bone were found in 6 hMSC- and 2 saline-treated tendons 6 weeks after injury. The intensity of anti-versican and anti-aggrecan staining did not differ between the groups. Conclusions hMSCs can support tendon healing through better vascularization as well as through larger deposits and better organization of the extracellular matrix. The treatment procedure was found to be safe; however, cartilage and bone formation at the implantation site should be taken into account when planning subsequent in vivo and clinical trials on tendinopathy as an expected

  13. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis for studying Clostridium cell response to conversion of enzymatically hydrolyzed hay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Nescerecka, Alina; Tihomirova, Kristina; Mezule, Linda; Juhna, Talis

    2013-07-01

    Grass hay is one of assailable cellulose containing non-food agricultural wastes that can be used as a carbohydrate source by microorganisms producing biofuels. In this study three Clostridium strains Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium tetanomorphum, capable of producing acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) were adapted to convert enzymatically hydrolyzed hay used as a growth media additive. The results of growth curves, substrate degradation kinetics and FT-IR analyses of bacterial biomass macromolecular composition showed diverse strain-specific cell response to the growth medium composition.

  14. Running exercise enhances motor functional recovery with inhibition of dendritic regression in the motor cortex after collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Waseda, Yuya; Ishida, Kazuto

    2016-03-01

    Rehabilitative approaches benefit motor functional recovery after stroke and relate to neuronal plasticity. We investigated the effects of a treadmill running exercise on the motor functional recovery and neuronal plasticity after collagenase-induced striatal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with type IV collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH. Sham-operated animals were injected with saline instead of collagenase. The animals were randomly assigned to the sham control (SC), the sham exercise (SE), the ICH control (IC), or the ICH exercise (IE) group. The exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill at a speed of 9 m/min for 30 min/day between days 4 and 14 after surgery. Behavioral tests were performed using a motor deficit score, a beam-walking test and a cylinder test. At fifteen days after surgery, the animals were sacrificed, and their brains were removed. The motor function of the IE group significantly improved compared with the motor function of the IC group. No significant differences in cortical thickness were found between the groups. The IC group had fewer branches and shorter dendrite lengths compared with the sham groups. However, dendritic branches and lengths were not significantly different between the IE and the other groups. Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) expression levels increased in the IE compared with IC group, but no significant differences in other protein (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF; Nogo-A; Rho-A/Rho-associated protein kinase 2, ROCK2) expression levels were found between the groups. These results suggest that improved motor function after a treadmill running exercise after ICH may be related to the prevention of dendritic regression due to TrkB upregulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Clostridium and bacillus binary enterotoxins: bad for the bowels, and eukaryotic being.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Bradley G; Pradhan, Kisha; Fleming, Jodie M; Samy, Ramar Perumal; Barth, Holger; Popoff, Michel R

    2014-09-05

    Some pathogenic spore-forming bacilli employ a binary protein mechanism for intoxicating the intestinal tracts of insects, animals, and humans. These Gram-positive bacteria and their toxins include Clostridium botulinum (C2 toxin), Clostridium difficile (C. difficile toxin or CDT), Clostridium perfringens (ι-toxin and binary enterotoxin, or BEC), Clostridium spiroforme (C. spiroforme toxin or CST), as well as Bacillus cereus (vegetative insecticidal protein or VIP). These gut-acting proteins form an AB complex composed of ADP-ribosyl transferase (A) and cell-binding (B) components that intoxicate cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. Once inside the cytosol, the A components inhibit normal cell functions by mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin, which induces cytoskeletal disarray and death. Important aspects of each bacterium and binary enterotoxin will be highlighted in this review, with particular focus upon the disease process involving the biochemistry and modes of action for each toxin.

  16. A case of Clostridium septicum spontaneous gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Dylewski, Joe; Drummond, Robert; Rowen, John

    2007-03-01

    Severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are often life-threatening emergencies that require a rapid diagnosis. Gas gangrene is one of the most fulminant types of SSTI and is usually caused by Clostridium perfringens' contamination of an open wound. Although gas gangrene is usually associated with fecally contaminated wounds, "spontaneous" cases occur and are most commonly caused by Clostridium (C.) septicum. We report a case of spontaneous gas gangrene caused by C. septicum that only became manifest while the patient was being monitored in the emergency department. We also review the diagnosis and treatment aspects of this entity.

  17. Submission of nucleotide sequence clostridium perfringens elongation factor-tu to genbank database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens (CP) is ubiquitous in the nature, and a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. However, pathogenic CP is also a causative agent of poultry disease necrotic enteritis (NE). Clostridium-related poultry diseases such as necrotic enteritis (NE) and gang...

  18. Lead identification and optimization of novel collagenase inhibitors; pharmacophore and structure based studies

    PubMed Central

    Kalva, Sukesh; Vadivelan, S; Sanam, Ramadevi; Jagarlapudi, Sarma ARP; Saleena, Lilly M

    2012-01-01

    In this study, chemical feature based pharmacophore models of MMP-1, MMP-8 and MMP-13 inhibitors have been developed with the aid of HypoGen module within Catalyst program package. In MMP-1 and MMP-13, all the compounds in the training set mapped HBA and RA, while in MMP-8, the training set mapped HBA and HY. These features revealed responsibility for the high molecular bioactivity, and this is further used as a three dimensional query to screen the knowledge based designed molecules. These pharmacophore models for collagenases picked up some potent and novel inhibitors. Subsequently, docking studies were performed for the potent molecules and novel hits were suggested for further studies based on the docking score and active site interactions in MMP-1, MMP-8 and MMP-13. PMID:22553386

  19. Clostridium and Bacillus Binary Enterotoxins: Bad for the Bowels, and Eukaryotic Being

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, Bradley G.; Pradhan, Kisha; Fleming, Jodie M.; Samy, Ramar Perumal; Barth, Holger; Popoff, Michel R.

    2014-01-01

    Some pathogenic spore-forming bacilli employ a binary protein mechanism for intoxicating the intestinal tracts of insects, animals, and humans. These Gram-positive bacteria and their toxins include Clostridium botulinum (C2 toxin), Clostridium difficile (C. difficile toxin or CDT), Clostridium perfringens (ι-toxin and binary enterotoxin, or BEC), Clostridium spiroforme (C. spiroforme toxin or CST), as well as Bacillus cereus (vegetative insecticidal protein or VIP). These gut-acting proteins form an AB complex composed of ADP-ribosyl transferase (A) and cell-binding (B) components that intoxicate cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. Once inside the cytosol, the A components inhibit normal cell functions by mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin, which induces cytoskeletal disarray and death. Important aspects of each bacterium and binary enterotoxin will be highlighted in this review, with particular focus upon the disease process involving the biochemistry and modes of action for each toxin. PMID:25198129

  20. In vitro and in vivo antagonistic activity of new probiotic culture against Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Golić, Nataša; Veljović, Katarina; Popović, Nikola; Djokić, Jelena; Strahinić, Ivana; Mrvaljević, Igor; Terzić-Vidojević, Amarela

    2017-05-06

    Genus Clostridium accompanies more than 200 known species and at least 30 among them are associated with human and animal diseases. At the moment, the treatment of clostridial infections is based on use of antibiotics. However, due to the European ban on the use of antibiotics in livestock production, novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of these hardly curable infections have been evaluated. Hence, in this study the antimicrobial effect of newly designed probiotic culture consisted of natural isolates Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43, Lactobacillus fermentum BGHI14 and Streptococcus thermophilus BGVLJ1-44 against Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens was analyzed. The probiotic culture showed strong in vitro antimicrobial effect on C. difficile (human clinical isolate). In addition, individual strains and the probiotic combination exhibited immunomodulatory activity. The probiotic combination significantly increased the proliferation of GALT lymphocytes. At the other hand, none of the bacterial treatments (individual strains and the combination) induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β by intestinal epithelial cells, Caco-2. Interestingly, Caco-2 cells exposed to the probiotic combination produced significantly elevated amount of TGFβ pointing to potential protecting effect of the probiotic. In addition, the results of field trial on spontaneously infected goats revealed reduction of C. perfringens in goats (below the detection threshold) after the probiotic treatment. The results of this study indicated that the novel probiotic deserves to be further investigated as a promising antimicrobial agent against C. difficile and C. perfringens.

  1. Collagenase IV plays an important role in regulating hair cycle by inducing VEGF, IGF-1, and TGF-β expression

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chun; Miao, Yong; Wang, Jin; Wang, Xue; Chen, Chao-Yue; Hu, Zhi-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been reported that collagenases (matrix metalloproteinase 2 [MMP-2] and matrix metalloproteinase 9 [MMP-9]) are associated with hair cycle, whereas the mechanism of the association is largely unknown. Methods The mice were randomly allocated into four groups: saline, and 5, 10, and 15 nM SB-3CT. Immunohistochemical analysis was employed to examine MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to determine mRNA and protein levels of VEGF, IGF-1, TGF-β, and GAPDH. Growing hair follicles from anagen phase III–IV were scored based on hematoxylin and eosin staining. Hair regrowth was also evaluated. Results Results showed that mRNA expressions of enzymes changed with a peak at late anagen and a trough at telogen after depilation. Immunostaining showed that the highest expression of MMP-2 was more than that of MMP-9, and the highest expression of enzymes changed during anagen. The localizations of MMP-2 changed from dermal papilla, keratinocyte strand, out of root sheath, and basal plate at early anagen, to hair bulb, inner root sheath, and outer root sheath at late anagen. The localization of MMP-9 changed from partial keratinocyte to dermal papilla at early anagen and to outer root sheath at late anagen. VEGF, IGF-1, and TGF-β have been shown to regulate hair growth. We found mRNA and protein expressions of VEGF and IGF-1 fluctuated with a peak at anagen and a decrease at catagen to telogen. In contrast, mRNA and protein expressions of TGF-β changed with highest and lowest levels at anagen and telogen, respectively. With selective inhibitor of collagenase IV, SB-3CT, mice showed significant suppressed hair growth and decreased expression of VEGF, IGF-1, and TGF-β. The MMPs agonist also significantly increased expression of VEGF, IGF-1, and TGF-β. Meanwhile, SB-3CT treatment significantly suppressed hair growth. Conclusion All these data suggest that the type IV collagenases

  2. Lumbar Discitis Caused by Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Popoff, M. R.; Degand, Nicolas; Lotte, Laurene; Bouvet, Philippe; Baudin, Guillaume; Cua, Eric; Roger, Pierre-Marie; Ruimy, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We report here a rare case of chronic lumbar discitis caused by Clostridium perfringens in an elderly patient that was treated with a combination of β-lactams and clindamycin. Molecular analysis performed on the strain revealed an unusual toxin gene pattern. PMID:25056327

  3. Mucosal and invading bacteria in patients with inflammatory bowel disease compared with controls.

    PubMed

    Kleessen, B; Kroesen, A J; Buhr, H J; Blaut, M

    2002-09-01

    Endogenous intestinal bacteria and/or specific bacterial pathogens are suspected of being involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate IBD tissues for different bacterial population groups harbouring the mucosal surface and/or invading the mucosa. Tissue sections from surgical resections from the terminal ileum and/or the colon from 24 IBD patients (12 active ulcerative colitis (UC), 12 active Crohn disease (CD)) and 14 non-IBD controls were studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization on a quantifiable basis. More bacteria were detected on the mucosal surface of IBD patients than on those of non-IBD controls (P < 0.05). Bacterial invasion of the mucosa was evident in 83.3% of colonic specimens from the UC patients, in 55.6% of the ileal and in 25% of the colonic specimens from the CD patients, but no bacteria were detected in the tissues of the controls. Colonic UC specimens were colonized by a variety of organisms, such as bacteria belonging to the gamma subdivision of Proteobacteria, the Enterobacteriaceae, the Bacteroides/Prevotella cluster, the Clostridium histolyticum/Clostridium lituseburense group, the Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale group, high G + C Gram-positive bacteria, or sulphate-reducing bacteria, while CD samples harboured mainly bacteria belonging to the former three groups. Pathogenic events in CD and UC may be associated with different alterations in the mucosal flora of the ileum and colon.

  4. Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John G

    2017-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is a major health care challenge in terms of patient and economic consequences. For the patient, it is a morbid and sometimes a life-threatening iatrogenic complication of antibiotic treatment. In the United States, the provider's institution may face financial penalties, because the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention views this as an iatrogenic health care-associated complication that may not be reimbursable by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; this has resulted in substantial incentives for new approaches to prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Submission of nucleotide sequence clostridium perfringens pyruvate-flavodoxin oxi-reductase to genbank database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens (CP) is ubiquitous in the nature, and a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. However, pathogenic CP is also a causative agent of poultry disease necrotic enteritis (NE). Clostridium-related poultry diseases such as necrotic enteritis (NE) and gang...

  6. Community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection in children: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Borali, Elena; Ortisi, Giuseppe; Moretti, Chiara; Stacul, Elisabetta Francesca; Lipreri, Rita; Gesu, Giovanni Pietro; De Giacomo, Costantino

    2015-10-01

    Community acquired-Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased also in children in the last years. To determine the incidence of community-acquired CDI and to understand whether Clostridium difficile could be considered a symptom-triggering pathogen in infants. A five-year retrospective analysis (January 2007-December 2011) of faecal specimens from 124 children hospitalized in the Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital for prolonged or muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea was carried out. Stool samples were evaluated for common infective causes of diarrhoea and for Clostridium difficile toxins. Patients with and without CDI were compared for clinical characteristics and known risk factors for infection. Twenty-two children with CDI were identified in 5 years. An increased incidence of community-acquired CDI was observed, ranging from 0.75 per 1000 hospitalizations in 2007 to 9.8 per 1000 hospitalizations in 2011. Antimicrobial treatment was successful in all 19 children in whom it was administered; 8/22 CDI-positive children were younger than 2 years. No statistically significant differences in clinical presentation were observed between patients with and without CDI, nor in patients with and without risk factors for CDI. Our study shows that Clostridium difficile infection is increasing and suggests a possible pathogenic role in the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fidaxomicin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Craig B; Czosnowski, Quinn A

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the pharmacology, microbiology, safety, and efficacy of fidaxomicin for treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). Literature was identified through Ovid MEDLINE (1948-December 2011) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-December 2011) using the search terms fidaxomicin, OPT-80, PAR-101, OP-118, difimicin, tiacumicin, lipiarmycin, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium difficile infection, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, and cost. Drug monographs were retrieved from manufacturers' Web pages, and the Red Book component of Micromedex was used for cost information. All pertinent Phase 1, 2, and 3 studies published in English were included. Fidaxomicin is a macrocyclic compound bactericidal against C. difficile and inhibits toxin and spore production. It has poor oral absorption with high fecal concentrations. Available Phase 2 and 3 data with fidaxomicin 200 mg orally every 12 hours demonstrate similar effectiveness in treating CDI compared to oral vancomycin. Fidaxomicin was shown to have less frequency of recurrent infections. Adverse effects are uncommon and occur at similar rates as with oral vancomycin. The most frequently reported adverse effects are gastrointestinal, hematologic, and electrolyte disorders. Available data are lacking in several areas, including the efficacy and safety of fidaxomicin compared to established regimens for mild-to-moderate, life-threatening, and recurrent CDIs. The cost of a 10-day course of fidaxomicin is significantly more than that of metronidazole and vancomycin for treatment of mild-to-moderate CDI. Fidaxomicin appears to be an effective and safe alternative to oral vancomycin for treatment of mild-to-moderate and severe CDI. Data on its use compared to guideline-recommended therapies for mild-to-moderate and life-threatening CDI are needed. Further data assessing the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin are needed. Currently, it cannot be recommended over vancomycin for treatment of CDI

  8. Transformation of Clostridium acetobutylicum Protoplasts with Bacteriophage DNA

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Sharon J.; Allcock, Errol R.; Jones, David T.; Woods, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for the transformation of Clostridium acetobutylicum protoplasts with bacteriophage DNA are described. Transformation required regeneration of protoplasts and a 2-h eclipse period. PMID:16346174

  9. Evaluation of CP Chromo Select Agar for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from water.

    PubMed

    Manafi, Mammad; Waldherr, Kerstin; Kundi, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The European Directive on drinking water quality has included mCP agar as the reference method for recovering Clostridium perfringens from drinking waters. In the present study, three media (mCP, TSCF and CP Chromo Select Agar) were evaluated for recovery of C. perfringens in different surface water samples. Out of 139 water samples, using a membrane filtration technique, 131 samples (94.2%) were found to be presumptively positive for C. perfringens in at least one of the culture media. Green colored colonies on CP Chromo Select Agar (CCP agar) were counted as presumptive C. perfringens isolates. Out of 483 green colonies on CCP agar, 96.3% (465 strains, indole negative) were identified as C. perfringens, and 15 strains (3.1%) were indole positive and were identified as Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium bifermentans or Clostridium tetani. Only 3 strains (0.6%) gave false positive results and were identified as Clostridium fallax, Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tertium. Variance analysis of the data obtained shows statistically no significant differences in the counts obtained between media employed in this work. The mCP method is very onerous for routine screening and bacterial colonies could not be used for further biochemical testing. The colonies on CCP and TSCF were easy to count and subculture for confirmation tests. TSCF detects sulfite-reducing clostridia, including species other than C. perfringens, and in some cases excessive blackening of the agar frustrated counting of the colonies. If the contamination was too high, TSCF did not consistently produce black colonies and as a consequence, the colonies were white and gave false negative results. On the other hand, the identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that CCP agar was the most useful medium for C. perfringens recovery in water samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Butyric acid production from red algae by a newly isolated Clostridium sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Min; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Yunje; Han, Sung Ok; Sang, Byoung-In; Um, Youngsoon

    2015-09-01

    To produce butyric acid from red algae such as Gelidium amansii in which galactose is a main carbohydrate, microorganisms utilizing galactose and tolerating inhibitors in hydrolysis including levulinic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are required. A newly isolated bacterium, Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid not only from galactose as the sole carbon source but also from a mixture of galactose and glucose through simultaneous utilization. Notably, Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid and a small amount of acetic acid with the butyrate:acetate ratio of 45.4:1 and it even converted acetate to butyric acid. Clostridium sp. S1 tolerated 0.5-2 g levulinic acid/l and recovered from HMF inhibition at 0.6-2.5 g/l, resulting in 85-92% butyric acid concentration of the control culture. When acid-pretreated G. amansii hydrolysate was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 4.83 g butyric acid/l from 10 g galactose/l and 1 g glucose/l. Clostridium sp. S1 produces butyric acid from red algae due to its characteristics in sugar utilization and tolerance to inhibitors, demonstrating its advantage as a red algae-utilizing microorganism.

  11. Formate Dehydrogenase from Clostridium acidiurici

    PubMed Central

    Kearny, James J.; Sagers, Richard D.

    1972-01-01

    Partial purification of formate dehydrogenase from Clostridium acidiurici has been accomplished, and some properties of the enzyme have been determined. The molecular weight of the protein is at least 200,000 daltons. The enzyme showed marked instability to freezing and thawing and was inhibited strongly by oxygen and by light. Such inhibition was not reversed by incubation in the presence of thiol compounds. Cyanide inhibited the enzyme 90% at 0.1 mm concentrations, but ethylenediaminetetraacetate produced only slight inhibition at concentrations as high as 50 mm. The purified enzyme showed no ferredoxin activity in the Clostridium pasteurianum clastic system during pyruvate oxidation. Crude preparations of the enzyme could be coupled through ferredoxin to the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide during formate oxidation, but the purified enzyme could not catalyze the reduction of pyridine nucleotides by formate in the presence of ferredoxin. Formate oxidation with the purified enzyme was readily coupled to benzyl viologen reduction, in which case ferredoxin was not required. An exchange between formate and bicarbonate was catalyzed by both crude and purified preparations of the enzyme, but the net synthesis of formate from CO2 was not accomplished. PMID:4333376

  12. The story of Clostridium botulinum: from food poisoning to Botox.

    PubMed

    Ting, Patricia T; Freiman, Anatoli

    2004-01-01

    In the last fifty years, Clostridium botulinum has become notorious for its ability to produce the deadly botulinum neurotoxins. While botulinum toxin A, better known as Botox, is universally recognised by the public as a cosmetic enhancement tool, the botulinum neurotoxins are commonly used off-label for many medical conditions in ophthalmology, neurology and dermatology. The versatility of these botulinum toxins has made Clostridium botulinum one of the most widely known bacterial pathogens in medical history. This article outlines the discovery of botulinum toxins through to their present day applications in medicine.

  13. Preventing clostridium difficile infection in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Zilberberg, Marya D; Shorr, Andrew F

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a formidable problem in the twenty-first century. Because of injudicious use of antibiotics, the emergence of the hypervirulent epidemic strain of this organism has been difficult to contain. The NAP1/BI/027 strain causes more-severe disease than other widely prevalent strains and affects patients who were not traditionally thought to be at risk for Clostridium difficile infection. Critically ill patients remain at high risk for this pathogen, and preventive measures, such as meticulous contact precautions, hand hygiene, environmental disinfection, and, most importantly, antibiotic stewardship, are the cornerstones of mitigation in the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro fermentation and prebiotic potential of novel low molecular weight polysaccharides derived from agar and alginate seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, Priya; Chitarrari, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran; Grant, John; Hotchkiss, Sarah; Philp, Kevin; Campbell, Ross; Gill, Chris; Rowland, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Fermentation properties and prebiotic potential of novel low molecular weight polysaccharides (LMWPs) derived from agar and alginate bearing seaweeds was investigated. Ten LMWPs were supplemented to pH, temperature controlled anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human feces from three donors, in triplicate. Microbiota changes were monitored using Fluorescent in-situ hybridization and short chain fatty acids, the fermentation end products were analysed using gas chromatography. Of the ten LMWPs tested, Gelidium seaweed CC2253 of molecular weight 64.64 KDa showed a significant increase in bifidobacterial populations from log(10) 8.06 at 0 h to log(10) 8.55 at 24 h (p = 0.018). For total bacterial populations, alginate powder CC2238 produced a significant increase from log(10) 9.01 at 0 h to log(10) 9.58 at 24 h (p = 0.032). No changes were observed in the other bacterial groups tested viz. Bacteroides, Lactobacilli/Enterococci, Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium histolyticum. The polysaccharides also showed significant increases in total SCFA production, particularly acetic and propionic acids, indicating that they were readily fermented. In conclusion, some LMWPs derived from agar and alginate bearing seaweeds were fermented by gut bacteria and exhibited potential to be used a novel source of prebiotics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant, anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activities of Phyllanthus emblica, Manilkara zapota and silymarin: an in vitro comparative study for anti-aging applications.

    PubMed

    Pientaweeratch, Sirinya; Panapisal, Vipaporn; Tansirikongkol, Anyarporn

    2016-09-01

    Context Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae) (amla), Manilkara zapota L.P. Royen (Sapotaceae) (sapota) and silymarin are reported to contain antioxidant effects. However, information on other biological activities relating to the anti-aging properties is limited. Objective To compare in vitro antioxidants, anti-collagenase (MMP-1 and MMP-2) and anti-elastase properties as well as the phenolic and flavonoid contents of amla, sapota and silymarin as potential anti-aging ingredients. Materials and methods The ethanol amla and sapota fruit extracts were prepared by three cycles of maceration with 24 h duration each. The total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents were determined. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The effects of MMP-1, MMP-2 and elastase inhibitions were determined by using the EnzChek® assay kits (Molecular-Probes, Eugene, OR). Results Amla exhibited the highest in TPC (362.43 ± 11.2 mg GAE/g) while silymarin showed the highest in TFC (21.04 ± 0.67 mg QE/g). Results of antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS methods showed that amla possessed the most potent capacity with IC50 values of 1.70 ± 0.07 and 4.45 ± 0.10 μg/mL, respectively. Highest inhibitions against MMP-1, MMP-2 and elastase were detected for sapota with IC50 values of 89.61 ± 0.96, 86.47 ± 3.04 and 35.73 ± 0.61 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion and conclusion Test extracts offered anti-aging properties in different mechanisms. Amla showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant property with moderate anti-collagenase. Silymarin exhibited measurable flavonoid content with anti-elastase effect. Sapota showed the highest collagenase and elastase inhibitions with moderate antioxidant effect. Thus, extracts might be added as a mixture to gain the overall anti-aging effects.

  16. Analysis of the unexplored features of rrs (16S rDNA) of the Genus Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial taxonomy and phylogeny based on rrs (16S rDNA) sequencing is being vigorously pursued. In fact, it has been stated that novel biological findings are driven by comparison and integration of massive data sets. In spite of a large reservoir of rrs sequencing data of 1,237,963 entries, this analysis invariably needs supplementation with other genes. The need is to divide the genetic variability within a taxa or genus at their rrs phylogenetic boundaries and to discover those fundamental features, which will enable the bacteria to naturally fall within them. Within the large bacterial community, Clostridium represents a large genus of around 110 species of significant biotechnological and medical importance. Certain Clostridium strains produce some of the deadliest toxins, which cause heavy economic losses. We have targeted this genus because of its high genetic diversity, which does not allow accurate typing with the available molecular methods. Results Seven hundred sixty five rrs sequences (> 1200 nucleotides, nts) belonging to 110 Clostridium species were analyzed. On the basis of 404 rrs sequences belonging to 15 Clostridium species, we have developed species specific: (i) phylogenetic framework, (ii) signatures (30 nts) and (iii) in silico restriction enzyme (14 Type II REs) digestion patterns. These tools allowed: (i) species level identification of 95 Clostridium sp. which are presently classified up to genus level, (ii) identification of 84 novel Clostridium spp. and (iii) potential reduction in the number of Clostridium species represented by small populations. Conclusions This integrated approach is quite sensitive and can be easily extended as a molecular tool for diagnostic and taxonomic identification of any microbe of importance to food industries and health services. Since rapid and correct identification allows quicker diagnosis and consequently treatment as well, it is likely to lead to reduction in economic losses and mortality

  17. Comparative genomics of Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme reveals species-specific genomic properties and numerous putative antibiotic resistance determinants.

    PubMed

    Dehoux, Pierre; Marvaud, Jean Christophe; Abouelleil, Amr; Earl, Ashlee M; Lambert, Thierry; Dauga, Catherine

    2016-10-21

    Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C. bolteae and six strains of C. clostridioforme, isolated from human infection. The genome length of C. bolteae varied from 6159 to 6398 kb, and 5719 to 6059 CDSs were detected. The genomes of C. clostridioforme were smaller, between 5467 and 5927 kb, and contained 5231 to 5916 CDSs. The two species display different metabolic pathways. The genomes of C. bolteae contained lactose operons involving PTS system and complex regulation, which contribute to phenotypic differentiation from C. clostridioforme. The Acetyl-CoA pathway, similar to that of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a major butyrate producer in the human gut, was only found in C. clostridioforme. The two species have also developed diverse flagella mobility systems contributing to gut colonization. Their genomes harboured many CDSs involved in resistance to beta-lactams, glycopeptides, macrolides, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, rifampin, linezolid, bacitracin, aminoglycosides and tetracyclines. Overall antimicrobial resistance genes were similar within a species, but strain-specific resistance genes were found. We discovered a new group of genes coding for rifampin resistance in C. bolteae. C. bolteae 90B3 was resistant to phenicols and linezolide in producing a 23S rRNA methyltransferase. C. clostridioforme 90A8 contained the VanB-type Tn1549 operon conferring vancomycin resistance. We also detected numerous genes encoding proteins related to efflux pump systems. Genomic comparison of C. bolteae and C. clostridiofrome revealed

  18. The Rise and Fall of Metronidazole for Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Chahine, Elias B

    2018-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is posing urgent health threats. Older studies have shown that metronidazole and vancomycin are equally effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Given its inexpensive cost and low propensity to select antimicrobial resistant organisms, metronidazole became rapidly the drug of choice despite its pharmacokinetic limitations in the treatment of CDI. However, newer studies demonstrated that metronidazole is inferior to vancomycin, prompting clinicians to change their long-standing position on using metronidazole for mild to moderate infections and on reserving vancomycin for severe infections. Moving forward, metronidazole will fall out of favor in the treatment of CDI.

  19. Clostridium acidurici electron-bifurcating formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuning; Huang, Haiyan; Kahnt, Jörg; Thauer, Rudolf K

    2013-10-01

    Cell extracts of uric acid-grown Clostridium acidurici catalyzed the coupled reduction of NAD(+) and ferredoxin with formate at a specific activity of 1.3 U/mg. The enzyme complex catalyzing the electron-bifurcating reaction was purified 130-fold and found to be composed of four subunits encoded by the gene cluster hylCBA-fdhF2.

  20. Clostridium acidurici Electron-Bifurcating Formate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuning; Huang, Haiyan; Kahnt, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Cell extracts of uric acid-grown Clostridium acidurici catalyzed the coupled reduction of NAD+ and ferredoxin with formate at a specific activity of 1.3 U/mg. The enzyme complex catalyzing the electron-bifurcating reaction was purified 130-fold and found to be composed of four subunits encoded by the gene cluster hylCBA-fdhF2. PMID:23872566

  1. Genome sequence of Clostridium tunisiense TJ, isolated from drain sediment from a pesticide factory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Wang, Yu; Yu, Chunyan; Zhao, Yongqin; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-12-01

    Clostridium tunisiense is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobe that was first isolated in an anaerobic environment under eutrophication. Here we report the first genome sequence of the Clostridium tunisiense TJ isolated from drain sediment of a pesticide factory in Tianjin, China. The genome is of great importance for both basic and application research.

  2. Clostridium septicum gas gangrene in a previously healthy 8-year-old female with survival.

    PubMed

    Pinzon-Guzman, Carolina; Bashir, Dalia; McSherry, George; Beck, Michael J; Rocourt, Dorothy V

    2013-04-01

    We present the only reported case of an immunocompetent pediatric patient in the literature to have fulminate gas gangrene of the lower extremity and concomitant gastrointestinal tract infection due to Clostridium septicum coinfected with Clostridium difficile colitis respectively. The patient survived with aggressive medical and surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clostridium perfringens iota toxin: synergism between two proteins.

    PubMed

    Stiles, B G; Wilkins, T D

    1986-01-01

    The iota toxin of Clostridium perfringens type E is a guinea pig dermonecrotic, mouse lethal toxin which cross-reacts with the iota-like toxin of Clostridium spiroforme. Antiserum raised against C. spiroforme or C. perfringens type E neutralizes the toxin from both species. By using C. spiroforme antiserum and crossed immunoelectrophoresis, we have found that there are two cross-reacting proteins, designated iota a (ia) and iota b (ib) in the culture filtrate of C. perfringens type E. Both proteins of C. perfringens were separated by preparative isoelectric focusing and had very little toxic activity when tested alone. However, when they were recombined there were 8- and 25-fold increases in bioactivity as determined by mouse lethal and guinea pig dermonecrotic assays, respectively. These results demonstrate that the iota toxin of C. perfringens requires two immunologically and biochemically different proteins for maximum activity.

  4. Effect of chito-oligosaccharides over human faecal microbiota during fermentation in batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Mengíbar, Marian; Heras, Angeles

    2016-02-10

    Chitosan with high number of deacetylated units, its reacetylated derivative and COS obtained through an enzymatic treatment with chitosanase were tested in pH controlled batch cultures to investigate the ability of the human faecal microbiota to utilise them. Chitosan derivatives with high number of deacetylated units decreased the bacterial populations: Bifidobacterium spp., Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides, C. Histolyticum and Bacteroides/Prevotella. On the other hand, chitosan derivatives with high content of acetylated residues maintained the tested bacterial groups and could increase Lactobacillus/Enterococcus. Regarding short chain fatty acids (SCFA), only low Mw COS increased the production in similar levels than fructo-oligossacharides (FOS). The acetylated chitosans and their COS do not appear as potential prebiotics but did not affect negatively the faecal microbiota, while derivatives with high number of deacetylated units could induce a colonic microbiota imbalance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of adhA from different organisms in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tianyong; Cui, Jingxuan; Bae, Hye Ri; Lynd, Lee R; Olson, Daniel G

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulolytic anaerobic thermophile that is a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels such as ethanol. It was previously shown that expressing Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum adhA in C. thermocellum increases ethanol yield.In this study, we investigated expression of adhA genes from different organisms in Clostridium thermocellum . Based on sequence identity to T. saccharolyticum adhA , we chose adhA genes from 10 other organisms: Clostridium botulinum , Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens , Thermoanaerobacterium ethanolicus , Thermoanaerobacter mathranii , Thermococcus strain AN1, Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum , Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus , Fervidobacterium nodosum , Marinitoga piezophila , and Thermotoga petrophila . All 11 adhA genes (including T. saccharolyticum adhA ) were expressed in C. thermocellum and fermentation end products were analyzed. All 11 adhA genes increased C. thermocellum ethanol yield compared to the empty-vector control. C. botulinum and T. ethanolicus adhA genes generated significantly higher ethanol yield than T. saccharolyticum adhA . Our results indicated that expressing adhA is an effective method of increasing ethanol yield in wild-type C. thermocellum , and that this appears to be a general property of adhA genes.

  6. Lactic acid bacteria as protective cultures in fermented pork meat to prevent Clostridium spp. growth.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Diana; Mazzola, Giuseppe; Nikodinoska, Ivana; Aloisio, Irene; Langerholc, Tomaz; Rossi, Maddalena; Raimondi, Stefano; Melero, Beatriz; Rovira, Jordi

    2016-10-17

    In meat fermented foods, Clostridium spp. growth is kept under control by the addition of nitrite. The growing request of consumers for safer products has led to consider alternative bio-based approaches, the use of protective cultures being one of them. This work is aimed at checking the possibility of using two Lactobacillus spp. strains as protective cultures against Clostridium spp. in pork ground meat for fermented salami preparation. Both Lactobacillus strains displayed anti-clostridia activity in vitro using the spot agar test and after co-culturing them in liquid medium with each Clostridium strain. Only one of them, however, namely L. plantarum PCS20, was capable of effectively surviving in ground meat and of performing anti-microbial activity in carnis in a challenge test where meat was inoculated with the Clostridium strain. Therefore, this work pointed out that protective cultures can be a feasible approach for nitrite reduction in fermented meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Clostridium perfringens panophthalmitis and orbital cellulitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Guedira, Ghita; Taright, Nabil; Blin, Hélène; Fattoum, Thameur; Leroy, Jordan; El Samad, Youssef; Milazzo, Solange; Hamdad, Farida

    2018-04-10

    Clostridium perfringens is an uncommon pathogen in endophthalmitis, causing rapid destruction of ocular tissues. Clostridium perfringens infection typically occurs after penetrating injury with soil-contaminated foreign bodies. Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old male who sustained a penetrating injury with a metallic intraocular foreign body and who rapidly developed severe C. perfringens panophthalmitis with orbital cellulitis. He was managed by systemic and intravitreal antibiotics, resulting in preservation of the globe, but a poor visual outcome. Clostridial endophthalmitis secondary to penetrating injuries is a fulminant infection, almost always resulting in loss of the globe in the case of advanced infection. When feasible, early vitrectomy and intravitreal antibiotics should be considered in patients with penetrating eye injuries with contaminated foreign bodies.

  8. Inhibitory activity of reuterin, nisin, lysozyme and nitrite against vegetative cells and spores of dairy-related Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Avila, Marta; Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Hernández, Marta; Garde, Sonia

    2014-02-17

    The butyric acid fermentation, responsible for late blowing of cheese, is caused by the outgrowth in cheese of some species of Clostridium, resulting in texture and flavor defects and economical losses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antimicrobial compounds against vegetative cells and spores of C. tyrobutyricum, C. butyricum, C. beijerinckii and C. sporogenes strains isolated from cheeses with late blowing defect. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for reuterin, nisin, lysozyme and sodium nitrite were determined against Clostridium strains in milk and modified RCM (mRCM) after 7d exposure. Although the sensitivity of Clostridium to the tested antimicrobials was strain-dependent, C. sporogenes and C. beijerinckii generally had higher MIC values than the rest of Clostridium species. The majority of Clostridium strains were more resistant to antimicrobials in milk than in mRCM, and vegetative cells exhibited higher sensitivity than spores. Reuterin (MIC values 0.51-32.5 mM) and nisin (MIC values 0.05-12.5 μg/ml) were able to inhibit the growth of vegetative cells and spores of all assayed Clostridium strains in milk and mRCM. Strains of C. tyrobutyricum exhibited the highest sensitivity to lysozyme (MIC values<0.20-400 μg/ml) and sodium nitrite (MIC values 18.75-150 μg/ml). These results suggest that reuterin and nisin, with a broad inhibitory activity spectrum against Clostridium spp. spores and vegetative cells, may be the best options to control Clostridium growth in dairy products and to prevent associated spoilage, such as late blowing defect of cheese. However, further studies in cheese would be necessary to validate this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cartilage Protective and Chondrogenic Capacity of WIN-34B, a New Herbal Agent, in the Collagenase-Induced Osteoarthritis Rabbit Model and in Progenitor Cells from Subchondral Bone

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Yeon-Cheol; Seo, Byung-Kwan; Lee, Jae-Dong; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk

    2013-01-01

    We sought to determine the cartilage repair capacity of WIN-34B in the collagenase-induced osteoarthritis rabbit model and in progenitor cells from subchondral bone. The cartilage protective effect of WIN-34B was measured by clinical and histological scores, cartilage area, and proteoglycan and collagen contents in the collagenase-induced osteoarthritis rabbit model. The efficacy of chondrogenic differentiation of WIN-34B was assessed by expression of CD105, CD73, type II collagen, and aggrecan in vivo and was analyzed by the surface markers of progenitor cells, the mRNA levels of chondrogenic marker genes, and the level of proteoglycan, GAG, and type II collagen in vitro. Oral administration of WIN-34B significantly increased cartilage area, and this was associated with the recovery of proteoglycan and collagen content. Moreover, WIN-34B at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the expression of CD105, CD73, type II collagen, and aggrecan compared to the vehicle group. WIN-34B markedly enhanced the chondrogenic differentiation of CD105 and type II collagen in the progenitor cells from subchondral bone. Also, we confirmed that treatment with WIN-34B strongly increased the number of SH-2(CD105) cells and expression type II collagen in subchondral progenitor cells. Moreover, WIN-34B significantly increased proteoglycan, as measured by alcian blue staining; the mRNA level of type II α1 collagen, cartilage link protein, and aggrecan; and the inhibition of cartilage matrix molecules, such as GAG and type II collagen, in IL-1β-treated progenitor cells. These findings suggest that WIN-34B could be a potential candidate for effective anti-osteoarthritic therapy with cartilage repair as well as cartilage protection via enhancement of chondrogenic differentiation in the collagenase-induced osteoarthritis rabbit model and progenitor cells from subchondral bone. PMID:23983790

  10. Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens from wild carnivore species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; D'Elia, Mirella Lauria; Tostes Teixeira, Erika Procópio; Pereira, Pedro Lúcio Lithg; de Magalhães Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Álvaro Roberto; Kocuvan, Aleksander; Rupnik, Maja; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Junior, Carlos Augusto Oliveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2014-08-01

    Despite some case reports, the importance of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile for wild carnivores remains unclear. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify C. perfringens and C. difficile strains in stool samples from wild carnivore species in Brazil. A total of 34 stool samples were collected and subjected to C. perfringens and C. difficile isolation. Suggestive colonies of C. perfringens were then analyzed for genes encoding the major C. perfringens toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon and iota) and the beta-2 toxin (cpb2), enterotoxin (cpe) and NetB (netb) genes. C. difficile strains were analyzed by multiplex-PCR for toxins A (tcdA) and B (tcdB) and a binary toxin gene (cdtB) and also submitted to a PCR ribotyping. Unthawed aliquots of samples positive for C. difficile isolation were subjected to the detection of A/B toxins by a cytotoxicity assay (CTA). C. perfringens was isolated from 26 samples (76.5%), all of which were genotyped as type A. The netb gene was not detected, whereas the cpb2 and cpe genes were found in nine and three C. perfringens strains, respectively. C. difficile was isolated from two (5.9%) samples. A non-toxigenic strain was recovered from a non-diarrheic maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Conversely, a toxigenic strain was found in the sample of a diarrheic ocelot (Leopardus pardallis); an unthawed stool sample was also positive for A/B toxins by CTA, indicating a diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea in this animal. The present work suggests that wild carnivore species could carry C. difficile strains and that they could be susceptible to C. difficile infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of Clostridium difficile infection in patients hospitalized for flare of inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective assessment.

    PubMed

    Regnault, Helene; Bourrier, Anne; Lalande, Valerie; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Sokol, Harry; Seksik, Philippe; Barbut, Frederic; Cosnes, Jacques; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a high frequency of Clostridium difficile infections in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. To retrospectively assess the determinants and results of Clostridium difficile testing upon the admission of patients hospitalized with active inflammatory bowel disease in a tertiary care centre and to determine the predicting factors of Clostridium difficile infections. We reviewed all admissions from January 2008 and December 2010 for inflammatory bowel disease flare-ups. A toxigenic culture and a stool cytotoxicity assay were performed for all patients tested for Clostridium difficile. Out of 813 consecutive stays, Clostridium difficile diagnostic assays have been performed in 59% of inpatients. The independent predictive factors for the testing were IBD (ulcerative colitis: OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.9; p<0.0001) and colonic involvement at admission (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.1, p<0.0001). Clostridium difficile infection was present in 7.0% of the inpatients who underwent testing. In a multivariate analysis, the only independent predictor was the intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs within the two months before admission (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.3; p=0.02). Clostridium difficile infection is frequently associated with active inflammatory bowel disease. Our study suggests that a recent intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease -associated Clostridium difficile infection. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of fentanyl on pain and motor behaviors following a collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Saine, Laurence; Hélie, Pierre; Vachon, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intracerebral hemorrhage (IH) and cephalalgia are common consequences of traumatic brain injury. One of the primary obstacles for patient recovery is the paucity of treatments to support an appropriate analgesic protocol. The present study aimed to assess pain and motor behaviors following different doses of fentanyl on a rat model of IH. Methods Twenty-one male Sprague Dawley rats underwent a stereotaxic surgery to produce a collagenase-induced IH in the right caudoputamen nucleus. The control group (n=6) received saline subcutaneously (SC), and experimental groups received either 5 (n=6), 10 (n=6), or 20 (n=3) µg/kg of fentanyl SC, 2 hours following surgery and on 2 subsequent days. Only 3 animals received 20 µg/kg because this dose caused catalepsy for 15–20 minutes following the injection. The rat grimace scale, a neurological examination, balance beam test, and rotarod test were performed for 5 consecutive days postoperatively to evaluate pain and motor performance. At the end of the experimentation, the brains were evaluated to determine hematoma volume, and the number of reactive astrocytes and necrotic neurons. Results When compared to controls, the grimace scale showed that 5 µg/kg fentanyl significantly alleviated pain on day 2 only (P<0.01) and that 10 µg/kg alleviated pain on days 1 (P<0.01), 2 (P<0.001), and 3 (P<0.01). For the rotarod test, only the 10 µg/kg group showed significant decreases in performance on days 5 (P<0.05) and 6 (P<0.02). The neurological examination was not significantly different between the groups, but only the hopping test showed poor recuperation for the 5 and 10 µg/kg fentanyl group when compared to saline (P<0.01). No differences were found between the groups for the balance beam test, the histopathological results. Conclusion Fentanyl, at a dose of 10 µg/kg SC, provides substantial analgesia following a collagenase-induced IH in rats; however, it can alter motor performance following analgesic treatments

  13. Genome Sequence of Clostridium paraputrificum 373-A1 Isolated in Chile from a Patient Infected with Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Araya, Enzo; Plaza-Garrido, Angela; Díaz-Yañez, Fernando; Pizaro-Guajardo, Marjorie; Valenzuela, Sandro L.; Meneses, Claudio; Gil, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium paraputrificum is a gut microbiota member reported in several cases of bacteremia and coinfections. So far, only one genome sequence of a C. paraputrificum (AGR2156) isolate is available. Here, we present the draft genome of C. paraputrificum strain 373-A1, isolated from stools from a patient with C. difficile infection. PMID:27811092

  14. Clostridium difficile in the Military Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-05

    association between race and infection . This is similar to the Buchner and associates case- control study; which noted an increase in occurrence of C...sustained within a hospital , additional persons infected with C. difficile are needed10. Acute appendicitis ranking first among diagnoses for hospitalized ...Buchner AM, Sonnenberg A. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in a large population of hospitalized US military veterans. Dig Dis Sci

  15. Models for the study of Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Best, Emma L.; Freeman, Jane; Wilcox, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Models of Clostridium difficile infection (C. difficile) have been used extensively for Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) research. The hamster model of C. difficile infection has been most extensively employed for the study of C. difficile and this has been used in many different areas of research, including the induction of C. difficile, the testing of new treatments, population dynamics and characterization of virulence. Investigations using in vitro models for C. difficile introduced the concept of colonization resistance, evaluated the role of antibiotics in C. difficile development, explored population dynamics and have been useful in the evaluation of C. difficile treatments. Experiments using models have major advantages over clinical studies and have been indispensible in furthering C. difficile research. It is important for future study programs to carefully consider the approach to use and therefore be better placed to inform the design and interpretation of clinical studies. PMID:22555466

  16. Role of RNase Y in Clostridium perfringens mRNA Decay and Processing.

    PubMed

    Obana, Nozomu; Nakamura, Kouji; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2017-01-15

    RNase Y is a major endoribonuclease that plays a crucial role in mRNA degradation and processing. We study the role of RNase Y in the Gram-positive anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens, which until now has not been well understood. Our study implies an important role for RNase Y-mediated RNA degradation and processing in virulence gene expression and the physiological development of the organism. We began by constructing an RNase Y conditional knockdown strain in order to observe the importance of RNase Y on growth and virulence. Our resulting transcriptome analysis shows that RNase Y affects the expression of many genes, including toxin-producing genes. We provide data to show that RNase Y depletion repressed several toxin genes in C. perfringens and involved the virR-virS two-component system. We also observe evidence that RNase Y is indispensable for processing and stabilizing the transcripts of colA (encoding a major toxin collagenase) and pilA2 (encoding a major pilin component of the type IV pili). Posttranscriptional regulation of colA is known to be mediated by cleavage in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR), and we observe that RNase Y depletion diminishes colA 5'UTR processing. We show that RNase Y is also involved in the posttranscriptional stabilization of pilA2 mRNA, which is thought to be important for host cell adherence and biofilm formation. RNases have important roles in RNA degradation and turnover in all organisms. C. perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterial pathogen that produces numerous extracellular enzymes and toxins, and it is linked to digestive disorders and disease. A highly conserved endoribonuclease, RNase Y, affects the expression of hundreds of genes, including toxin genes, and studying these effects is useful for understanding C. perfringens specifically and RNases generally. Moreover, RNase Y is involved in processing specific transcripts, and we observed that this processing in C. perfringens results

  17. Therapy for Clostridium difficile infection - any news beyond Metronidazole and Vancomycin?

    PubMed

    Manthey, C F; Eckmann, L; Fuhrmann, V

    2017-11-01

    Infections with Clostridium difficile (CDI) represent a major burden for the health care system. Treatment is generally by antibiotic therapy with metronidazole and vancomycin, but efficacy remains suboptimal. Areas covered: This review discusses established and emerging treatment options for CDI, and current therapeutic guidelines, taking into account disease severity and risk of relapse. Expert commentary: New therapeutic approaches, including antibodies and new classes of antibiotics, and new measures for preventing infection with vaccines are under development in phase II/III clinical trials. We performed a systematic literature review using the search terms 'Clostridium difficile' and 'treatment'.

  18. Bacterial cellulose hydrolysis in anaerobic environmental subsystems--Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium stercorarium, thermophilic plant-fiber degraders.

    PubMed

    Zverlov, Vladimir V; Schwarz, Wolfgang H

    2008-03-01

    Cellulose degradation is a rare trait in bacteria. However, the truly cellulolytic bacteria are extremely efficient hydrolyzers of plant cell wall polysaccharides, especially those in thermophilic anaerobic ecosystems. Clostridium stercorarium, a thermophilic ubiquitous soil dweller, has a simple cellulose hydrolyzing enzyme system of only two cellulases. However, it seems to be better suited for the hydrolysis of a wide range of hemicelluloses. Clostridium thermocellum, an ubiquitous thermophilic gram-type positive bacterium, is one of the most successful cellulose degraders known. Its extracellular enzyme complex, the cellulosome, was prepared from C. thermocellum cultures grown on cellulose, cellobiose, barley beta-1,3-1,4-glucan, or a mixture of xylan and cellulose. The single proteins were identified by peptide chromatography and MALDI-TOF-TOF. Eight cellulosomal proteins could be found in all eight preparations, 32 proteins occur in at least one preparation. A number of enzymatic components had not been identified previously. The proportion of components changes if C. thermocellum is grown on different substrates. Mutants of C. thermocellum, devoid of scaffoldin CipA, that now allow new types of experiments with in vitro cellulosome reassembly and a role in cellulose hydrolysis are described. The characteristics of these mutants provide strong evidence of the positive effect of complex (cellulosome) formation on hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

  19. Clostridium perfringens bacteremia caused by choledocholithiasis in the absence of gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Atia, Antwan; Raiyani, Tejas; Patel, Pranav; Patton, Robert; Young, Mark

    2012-10-21

    A 67-years-old male presented with periumbilical abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. His anaerobic blood culture was positive for clostridium perfringens. Computed tomogram scan of the abdomen and abdominal ultrasound showed normal gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD). Subsequently magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticogram showed choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticogramwith sphincterotomy and CBD stone extraction was performed. The patient progressively improved with antibiotic therapy Choledocholithiasis should be considered as a source of clostridium perfringens bacteremia especially in the setting of elevated liver enzymes with cholestatic pattern.

  20. Clostridium perfringens in retail chicken.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Victoria J; Poppe, Cornelis; Parreira, Valeria R; Jiang, Yan-Fen; Reid-Smith, Richard; Prescott, John F

    2010-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens isolates were recovered by enrichment from retail grocery chicken samples (n = 88) in Ontario, Canada, with one sample per site. The gene associated with necrotic enteritis in chickens, netB, was found in 21% of the isolates. The tpeL gene was found in 2% and the cpb2 gene in 68% (95% "atypical" genes) of isolates. This study suggests that netB-positive C. perfringens can reach people through retail chicken. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tanshinones that selectively block the collagenase activity of cathepsin K provide a novel class of ectosteric antiresorptive agents for bone.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Preety; Law, Simon; Jamroz, Andrew; Azizi, Pouya; Zhang, Dongwei; Ciufolini, Marco; Brömme, Dieter

    2018-03-01

    Attempts to generate active site-directed cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitors for the treatment of osteoporosis have failed because of side effects. We have previously shown that an ectosteric tanshinone CatK inhibitor isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza blocked, selectively, the collagenase activity of CatK, without affecting the active site and demonstrated its bone-preserving activity in vivo. Here, we have characterize the antiresorptive potential of other tanshinones, which may provide a scaffold for side effect-free CatK inhibitors. Thirty-one tanshinones were tested for their activity against CatK in enzymic and cell-based assays. The inhibitory potency against triple helical and fibrillar collagen degradation was determined in enzymic assays, by scanning electron microscopy and mechanical strength measurements. Human osteoclast assays were used to determine the effects of the inhibitors on bone resorption, its reversibility and osteoclastogenesis. Binding sites were characterized by molecular docking. Twelve compounds showed highly effective anti-collagenase activity and protected collagen against destruction and mechanical instability without inhibiting the hydrolysis of non-collagenous substrates. Six compounds were highly effective in osteoclast bone resorption assays with IC 50 values of <500 nM. None of these tanshinones had effects on cell viability, reversibility of bone resorption inhibition and osteoclastogenesis. The core pharmacophore of the tanshinones appears to be the three-ring system with either a para- or ortho-quinone entity. Our study identified several potent ectosteric antiresorptive CatK inhibitors from the medicinal plant, S. miltiorrhiza, which may avoid side effects seen with active site-directed inhibitors in clinical trials. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Secretion of clostridium cellulase by E. coli

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Ida Kuo

    1998-01-01

    A gene, encoding an endocellulase from a newly isolated mesophilic Clostridium strain IY-2 which can digest bamboo fibers, cellulose, rice straw, and sawdust, was isolated by shotgun cloning in an E. coli expression plasmid pLC2833. E. coli positive clones were selected based on their ability to hydrolyze milled bamboo fibers and cellulose present in agar plates. One clone contained a 2.8 kb DNA fragment that was responsible for cellulase activity. Western blot analyses indicated that the positive clone produced a secreted cellulase with a mass of about 58,000 daltons that was identical in size to the subunit of one of the three major Clostridium cellulases. The products of cellulose digestion by this cloned cellulase were cellotetraose and soluble higher polymers. The cloned DNA contained signal sequences capable of directing the secretion of heterologous proteins from an E. coli host. The invention describes a bioprocess for the treatment of cellulosic plant materials to produce cellular growth substrates and fermentation end products suitable for production of liquid fuels, solvents, and acids.

  3. Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Scott R.

    2017-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have emerged as one of the principal threats to the health of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. Nucleic acid testing for C. difficile toxin genes has eclipsed traditional clinical diagnostics for CDI in sensitivity and is now widespread in clinical use, but preliminary evidence suggests that this may have come at a cost of substantially reduced positive predictive value. The importance of C. difficile colonization is increasingly recognized not only as a source for false positive clinical testing but also as a source of new infections within hospitals and other healthcare environments. In the last five years, several new treatment strategies that capitalize on the increasing understanding of the altered microbiome and host defenses in CDI patients have completed clinical trials, including fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). This article highlights the changing epidemiology, laboratory diagnostics, pathogenesis, and treatment of CDI. PMID:20513554

  4. Coculture Production of Butanol by Clostridium Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, S. L.; Foutch, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Production of butanol by anaerobic fermentation of sugars enhanced by use of two Clostridium species, one of which feeds on metabolic product of other. Renewed interest in fermentation process for making butanol stimulated by potential use of butanol as surfactant in enhanced oil recovery. Butanol also used as fuel or as chemical feedstock and currently produced synthetically from petroleum.

  5. Prevalence of Clostridium Difficile Infection in Patients After Radical Cystectomy and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Katherine J; Fan, Yunhua; Sieger, Gretchen K; Weight, Christopher J; Konety, Badrinath R

    2017-10-27

    Clostridium Difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. This study evaluates the prevalence and predictors of Clostridium Difficile infections in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Retrospective chart review was performed of all patients undergoing cystectomy and urinary diversion at a single institution from 2011-2017. Infection was documented in all cases with testing for Clostridium Difficile polymerase chain reaction toxin B. Patient and disease related factors were compared for those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy vs. those who did not in order to identify potential risk factors associated with C. Difficile infections. Chi squared test and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance. Of 350 patients who underwent cystectomy, 41 (11.7%) developed Clostridium Difficile in the 30 day post-operative period. The prevalence of C. Difficile infection was higher amongst the patients undergoing cystectomy compared to the non-cystectomy admissions at our hospital (11.7 vs. 2.9%). Incidence was not significantly different among those who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer versus those who underwent the procedure for other reasons. Median time to diagnosis was 6 days (range 3-28 days). The prevalence of C. Diff infections was not significantly different among those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy vs. those who did not (11% vs. 10.4% p  = 0.72). A significant association between C. Difficile infection was not seen with proton pump inhibitor use ( p  = 0.48), patient BMI ( p  = 0.67), chemotherapeutic regimen ( p  = 0.94), individual surgeon ( p  = 0.54), type of urinary diversion (0.41), or peri-operative antibiotic redosing ( p  = 0.26). Clostridium Difficile infection has a higher prevalence in patients undergoing cystectomy. No significant association between prevalence and exposure to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was seen.

  6. The Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Clostridium difficile Infection in Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Timothy; Weinberg, Alan; Rana, Meenakshi; Patel, Gopi; Huprikar, Shirish

    2016-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common after liver transplantation (LT); however, few studies have examined the risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of CDI in this population. A retrospective study of adults who underwent LT between January 1, 2011, and April 4, 2013, at The Mount Sinai Hospital was conducted. Potential risk factors were evaluated via univariate and multivariable analysis to determine predictors of CDI in this population. The clinical manifestations of CDI and patient outcomes were also reviewed. Clostridium difficile infection occurred in 27 (14%) of 192 patients after LT. In multivariable analysis, CDI was associated with having a model for end-stage liver disease score of 20 or greater (hazards ratio, 2.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-6.52; P = 0.010), and receiving a LT from a living donor (hazards ratio, 3.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-9.67; P = 0.006). Forty-one percent of CDI cases occurred within 1 week of LT. Seven percent of patients with CDI had a serum white blood cell count greater than 12 000 cells per μL, and 26% had a temperature greater than 38.0°C. After treatment 6 (22%) patients developed CDI relapse, and all were successfully treated. No patients died of CDI after a mean follow-up time of 1.8 years; however, overall survival was significantly lower among those with CDI (78% vs 92%; P = 0.033). Clostridium difficile infection after LT was associated with higher model for end-stage liver disease scores and receiving a LT from a living donor. Clostridium difficile infection often occurred soon after LT and was infrequently associated with leukocytosis or fever. Clostridium difficile infection in LT recipients was associated with lower overall survival.

  7. Genetic Diversity of the Flagellin Genes of Clostridium botulinum Groups I and II

    PubMed Central

    Woudstra, Cedric; Lambert, Dominic; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Austin, John

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by phenotypically and genetically different Clostridium species, including Clostridium botulinum and some strains of Clostridium baratii (serotype F) and Clostridium butyricum (serotype E). BoNT-producing clostridia responsible for human botulism encompass strains of group I (secreting proteases, producing toxin serotype A, B, or F, and growing optimally at 37°C) and group II (nonproteolytic, producing toxin serotype E, B, or F, and growing optimally at 30°C). Here we report the development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping C. botulinum strains of groups I and II based on flaVR (variable region sequence of flaA) sequences and the flaB gene. Real-time PCR typing of regions flaVR1 to flaVR10 and flaB was optimized and validated with 62 historical and Canadian C. botulinum strains that had been previously typed. Analysis of 210 isolates of European origin allowed the identification of four new C. botulinum flaVR types (flaVR11 to flaVR14) and one new flaVR type specific to C. butyricum type E (flaVR15). The genetic diversity of the flaVR among C. botulinum strains investigated in the present study reveals the clustering of flaVR types into 5 major subgroups. Subgroups 1, 3, and 4 contain proteolytic Clostridium botulinum, subgroup 2 is made up of nonproteolytic C. botulinum only, and subgroup 5 is specific to C. butyricum type E. The genetic variability of the flagellin genes carried by C. botulinum and the possible association of flaVR types with certain geographical areas make gene profiling of flaVR and flaB promising in molecular surveillance and epidemiology of C. botulinum. PMID:23603687

  8. Calcium Montmorillonite-based dietary supplement attenuates Necrotic Enteritis induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We provide the first description of Dietary Supplement of sorbent minerals attenuates Necrotic Enteritis Induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in Broilers. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry disease caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe intestinal necrosis....

  9. A thermophilic phage endolysin fusion to a Clostridium perfringens-specific cell wall binding domain creates an anti-clostridium antimicrobial with improved thermostability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens is the third leading cause of human foodborne bacterial disease and is the presumptive etiologic agent of Necrotic enteritis among chickens. Treatment of poultry with antibiotics is becoming less acceptable. Endolysin enzymes are potential replacements for antibiotics. Man...

  10. Telechelic Poly(2-oxazoline)s with a biocidal and a polymerizable terminal as collagenase inhibiting additive for long-term active antimicrobial dental materials

    PubMed Central

    Fik, Christoph P.; Konieczny, Stefan; Pashley, David H.; Waschinski, Christian J.; Ladisch, Reinhild S.; Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten; Tiller, Joerg C.

    2015-01-01

    Although modern dental repair materials show excellent mechanical and adhesion properties, they still face two major problems: First, any microbes that remain alive below the composite fillings actively decompose dentin and thus, subsequently cause secondary caries. Second, even if those microbes are killed, the extracellular proteases such as MMP, remain active and can still degrade collagenousdental tissue. In order to address both problems, a poly(2-methyloxazoline) with a biocidal quaternary ammonium and a polymerizable methacrylate terminal was explored as additive for a commercial dental adhesive. It could be demonstrated that the adhesive rendered the adhesive contact-active antimicrobial against S. mutans at a concentration of only 2.5 wt% and even constant washing with water for 101 days did not diminish this effect. Increasing the amount of the additive to 5 wt% allowed killing S. mutans cells in the tubuli of bovinedentin upon application of the adhesive. Further, the additive fully inhibited bacterial collagenase at a concentration of 0.5 wt% and reduced human recombinant collagenase MMP-9 to 13% of its original activity at that concentration. Human MMPs naturally bound to dentin were inhibited by more than 96% in a medium containing 5 wt% of the additive. Moreover, no adverse effect on the enamel/dentine shear bond strength was detected in combination with a dental composite. PMID:25130877

  11. Reactive oligoarthritis in a patient with Clostridium difficile pseudomembranous colitis. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Veillard, E; Guggenbuhl, P; Bello, S; Lamer, F; Chalès, G

    1998-12-01

    A 57-year-old man developed oligoarthritis of the right sacroiliac joint, knee and elbow in the wake of Clostridium difficile pseudomembranous colitis. He was HLA B27-positive and had a history of Reiter's syndrome. His joint manifestations resolved after a course of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug therapy and injection of the right knee with triamcinolone acetonide. Clostridium difficile should be recognized as a rare cause of reactive arthritis.

  12. What do we know about managing Dupuytren's disease cost-effectively?

    PubMed

    Dritsaki, Melina; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Gray, Alastair; Ball, Catherine; Nanchahal, Jagdeep

    2018-01-25

    Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a common and progressive, fibroproliferative disorder of the palmar and digital fascia of the hand. Various treatments have been recommended for advanced disease or to retard progression of early disease and to prevent deterioration of the finger contracture and quality of life. Recent studies have tried to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapies for DD, but there is currently no systematic assessment and appraisal of the economic evaluations. A systematic literature review was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines, to identify studies reporting economic evaluations of interventions for managing DD. Databases searched included the Ovid MEDLINE/Embase (without time restriction), National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (all years) and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Journals Library) Health Technology Assessment (HTA). Cost-effectiveness analyses of treating DD were identified and their quality was assessed using the CHEERS assessment tool for quality of reporting and Phillips checklist for model evaluation. A total of 103 studies were screened, of which 4 met the study inclusion criteria. Two studies were from the US, one from the UK and one from Canada. They all assessed the same interventions for advanced DD, namely collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection, percutaneous needle fasciotomy and partial fasciectomy. All studies conducting a cost-utility analysis, two implemented a decision analytic model and two a Markov model approach. None of them were based on a single randomised controlled trial, but rather synthesised evidence from various sources. Studies varied in their time horizon, sources of utility estimates and perspective of analysis. The overall quality of study reporting was good based on the CHEERS checklist. The quality of the model reporting in terms of model structure, data synthesis and model consistency varied across the included studies. Cost

  13. A non-aggressive, highly efficient, enzymatic method for dissociation of human brain-tumors and brain-tissues to viable single-cells.

    PubMed

    Volovitz, Ilan; Shapira, Netanel; Ezer, Haim; Gafni, Aviv; Lustgarten, Merav; Alter, Tal; Ben-Horin, Idan; Barzilai, Ori; Shahar, Tal; Kanner, Andrew; Fried, Itzhak; Veshchev, Igor; Grossman, Rachel; Ram, Zvi

    2016-06-01

    Conducting research on the molecular biology, immunology, and physiology of brain tumors (BTs) and primary brain tissues requires the use of viably dissociated single cells. Inadequate methods for tissue dissociation generate considerable loss in the quantity of single cells produced and in the produced cells' viability. Improper dissociation may also demote the quality of data attained in functional and molecular assays due to the presence of large quantities cellular debris containing immune-activatory danger associated molecular patterns, and due to the increased quantities of degraded proteins and RNA. Over 40 resected BTs and non-tumorous brain tissue samples were dissociated into single cells by mechanical dissociation or by mechanical and enzymatic dissociation. The quality of dissociation was compared for all frequently used dissociation enzymes (collagenase, DNase, hyaluronidase, papain, dispase) and for neutral protease (NP) from Clostridium histolyticum. Single-cell-dissociated cell mixtures were evaluated for cellular viability and for the cell-mixture dissociation quality. Dissociation quality was graded by the quantity of subcellular debris, non-dissociated cell clumps, and DNA released from dead cells. Of all enzymes or enzyme combinations examined, NP (an enzyme previously not evaluated on brain tissues) produced dissociated cell mixtures with the highest mean cellular viability: 93 % in gliomas, 85 % in brain metastases, and 89 % in non-tumorous brain tissue. NP also produced cell mixtures with significantly less cellular debris than other enzymes tested. Dissociation using NP was non-aggressive over time-no changes in cell viability or dissociation quality were found when comparing 2-h dissociation at 37 °C to overnight dissociation at ambient temperature. The use of NP allows for the most effective dissociation of viable single cells from human BTs or brain tissue. Its non-aggressive dissociative capacity may enable ambient

  14. Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile in parvovirus-positive dogs.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Figueiredo, Henrique Cesar Pereira; Costa, Érica Azevedo; Pelicia, Vanessa; Ribeiro, Bruna Letícia Devidé; Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in 82 diarrheic dogs positive for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV). Enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A was isolated from three (3.6%) dogs. One (1.2%) strain was also positive for NetE- and NetF-encoding genes, which are commonly associated with diarrhea in dogs. Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated from one animal (1.2%), which was also positive for A/B toxins. The present study identified C. difficile and C. perfringens infection in CPV-positive dogs. Further studies are necessary to clarify if clostridial infections may predispose or potentiate CPV-infection in dogs or vice versa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from substandard and surplus dates by Egyptian native Clostridium strains.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Zohri, Abdel-Naser Ahmed; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Ali, Shimaa Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    One hundred and seven mesophilic isolates of Clostridium were isolated from agricultural soils cultivated with different plants in Assuit Governorate, Egypt. Eighty isolates (out of 107) showed the ability to produce ABE (Acetone, butanol and ethanol) on T6 medium ranging from 0.036 to 31.89 g/L. The highest numbers of ABE producing isolates were obtained from soil samples of potato contributing 27 isolates, followed by 18 isolates from wheat and 10 isolates from onion. On the other hand, there were three native isolates that produced ABE more than those produced by the reference isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (11.543 g/L). The three isolates were identified based on phenotypic and gene encoding 16S rRNA as Clostridium beijerinckii ASU10 (KF372577), Clostridium chauvoei ASU55 (KF372580) and Clostridium roseum ASU58 (KF372581). The highest ABE level from substandard and surplus dates was produced by C. beijerinckii ASU10 (24.07 g/L) comprising butanol 67.15% (16.16 g/L), acetone 30.73% (7.4 g/L) and ethanol 2.12% (0.51 g/L), while C. roseum ASU58 and C. chauvoei ASU55 produced ABE contributing 20.20 and 13.79 g/L, respectively. ABE production by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was 15.01 g/L. This study proved that the native strains C. beijerinckii ASU10 and C. roseum ASU58 have high competitive efficacy on ABE production from economical substrate as substandard and surplus date fruits. Additionally, using this substrate without any nutritional components is considered to be a commercial substrate for desired ABE production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flooding and Clostridium difficile infection: a case-crossover analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water. It often causes acute gastrointestinal illness in older adults who are hospttalized and/or receiving antibiotics; however, community­ associated infections affecting otherwise healthy individuals have become more comm...

  17. Purification and fermentation in vitro of sesaminol triglucoside from sesame cake by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuling; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yongkang; Su, Di; Sun, Yi; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2013-02-27

    Sesaminol triglucoside (STG), the most abundant lignan glycoside existing in sesame cake/meal, has exhibited various biological activities. However, little information about its in vitro fermentation with intestinal microbiota is available. Therefore, the effect of STG from sesame cake on the fermentation of human fecal microbiota was evaluated. First, high-purity STG was successfully prepared from defatted sesame cake by extraction with 80% ethanol and simple purification procedures of polyamide column chromatography and Toyopearl HW-40S column chromatography. Then the influence of STG on intestinal microbiota was conducted by monitoring bacterial populations and analyzing the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). We found that STG could significantly induce an increase in numbers of Lactobacillus - Enterococcus group and Bifidobacterium in fermentation in vitro with human fecal microbiota, while it did not stimulate the bacterial growth of Eubacterium rectale - Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium histolyticum group, and Bacteroides - Prevotella group. Furthermore, it was found that concentrations of formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids in STG culture increased significantly during the fermentation, and its total SCFA concentration was relatively higher than those of the control and glucose cultures at 6 and 12 h fermentation. Our findings provided further evidence for the importance of human intestinal bacteria in the bioactivity of STG and its metabolites in the maintenance of human health.

  18. [Myonecrosis in users of injecting drugs (a clinical case)].

    PubMed

    Shestakova, I V; Iushchuk, N D; Tishkevich, O L

    2010-01-01

    Myonecrosis remains one of the severest manifestations of skin and soft tissue infections. Clostridia (C. perfringens, C. novyi, C. septicum, C. sordellii, C. histolyticum) are dominant and Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Bacteriodes fragilis are much less in the etiology of myonecrosis. Cases of gas gangrene have recently become more frequent among injection drug users all over the world. Russia has become the largest opiate market in Europe and consumption of these narcotic drugs is annually growing. In the Russian Federation, a larger number of injection drug users uniquely results in a rise of cases of Clostridium- and mixed flora-induced myonecrosis. Gas gangrene in HIV-positive drug abusers seems to rapidly progress to multiple organ failure and to show high death rates, rather than to develop a localized form. The analyzed case of mixed flora-induced gas gangrene is of interest to physicians of any specialties who can encounter this wound infection in HIV-positive patients.

  19. Clostridium pabulibutyricum sp. nov., a butyric-acid-producing organism isolated from high-moisture grass silage.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hisami; Nakasato, Takuya; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohtani, Yoshihisa; Terada, Fuminori; Sakai, Ken; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tohno, Masanori

    2017-12-01

    A Gram-stain-variable, strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped, catalase-negative and endospore-forming bacterial strain, designated MJC39 T , was isolated from grass silage preserved in Hokkaido, Japan. Growth occurred at 20-42 °C, pH 5.0-7.0 and NaCl concentrations up to 2 % (w/v). The isolated strain MJC39 T produced butyric acid in peptone yeast extract medium with glucose. The DNA G+C content of strain MJC39 T was 34.4±0.2 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (including C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c). No respiratory quinones were detected. The polar lipids of strain MJC39 T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified lipid, one unidentified aminolipid, two unidentified glycolipids, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified aminoglycolipid and one unidentified phosphoaminoglycolipid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJC39 T was a member of the genus Clostridium and is closely related to Clostridium tyrobutyricum JCM 11008 T (95.8 % similarity) and Clostridium algifaecis MB9-7 T (95.5 % similarity). Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain MJC39 T represents a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium pabulibutyricum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJC39 T (=JCM 31506 T =DSM 103944 T ).

  20. Fusion of a thermophilic phage endolysin to a Clostridium perfringens-specific cell wall binding domain creates an anti-clostridium antimicrobial with improved thermostability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens is the third leading cause of human foodborne bacterial disease and is the presumptive etiologic agent of Necrotic enteritis among chickens. Treatment of poultry with antibiotics is becoming less acceptable. Endolysin enzymes are potential replacements for antibiotics. Man...

  1. Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.

    PubMed

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Vukovič, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vatľák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 μL.mL(-1)-0.39 μL.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 μL.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties

  2. Isolation of Clostridium spiroforme from rabbits.

    PubMed

    Holmes, H T; Sonn, R J; Patton, N M

    1988-04-01

    The isolation of Clostridium spiroforme from intestinal contents of rabbits was achieved by sampling the supernatant-pellet interphase of centrifuged specimens processed for routine toxin analysis. High-speed centrifugation at 20,000x for 15 minutes provided a rapid and effective means of separating this anaerobic pathogen from the majority of both indigenous and non-indigenous intestinal microbial flora. The unusual helically-coiled, semicircular shape of the microorganism is considered, at least in part, responsible for this phenomenon.

  3. The pangenome of the genus Clostridium.

    PubMed

    Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2017-07-01

    The pangenome for the genus Clostridium sensu stricto, which was obtained using highly curated and annotated genomes from 16 species is presented; some of these cause disease, while others are used for the production of added-value chemicals. Multilocus sequencing analysis revealed that species of this genus group into at least two clades that include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains, suggesting that pathogenicity is dispersed across the phylogenetic tree. The core genome of the genus includes 546 protein families, which mainly comprise those involved in protein translation and DNA repair. The GS-GOGAT may represent the central pathway for generating organic nitrogen from inorganic nitrogen sources. Glycerol and glucose metabolism genes are well represented in the core genome together with a set of energy conservation systems. A metabolic network comprising proteins/enzymes, RNAs and metabolites, whose topological structure is a non-random and scale-free network with hierarchically structured modules was built. These modules shed light on the interactions between RNAs, proteins and metabolites, revealing biological features of transcription and translation, cell wall biosynthesis, C1 metabolism and N metabolism. Network analysis identified four nodes that function as hubs and bottlenecks, namely, coenzyme A, HPr kinases, S-adenosylmethionine and the ribonuclease P-protein, suggesting pivotal roles for them in Clostridium. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, Deepa; Nanda, Neha

    2017-08-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes significant morbidity and an economic impact in the United States. In this review, we provide an overview of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients with an emphasis on recent literature. C. difficile in solid organ transplant population has unique risk factors. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown favorable results in treatment of recurrent C. difficile in this population. Preliminary data from animal studies suggests excellent efficacy with immunization against C. difficile toxins. Over the last decade, number of individuals receiving solid organ transplants has increased exponentially making peri-transplant complications a common occurrence.C. difficile is a frequent cause of morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients. Early and accurate diagnosis of C. difficile requires a stepwise approach. Differentiating between asymptomatic carriage and infection is a diagnostic challenge. Microbial diversity is inversely proportional to risk of C. difficile infection. Antimicrobial stewardship programs help to retain microbial diversity in individuals susceptible to CDI. Recurrent or relapsing C. difficile infection require fecal microbiota transplantation for definitive cure.

  5. Butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1 with high butyric acid yield and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Kyung Min; Youn, Sung Hun; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Oh, Min-Kyu; Um, Youngsoon

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1. Results showed that Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid by simultaneously utilizing glucose and mannose in softwood hydrolysate and, more remarkably, it consumed acetic acid in hydrolysate. Clostridium sp. S1 utilized each of glucose, mannose, and xylose as well as mixed sugars simultaneously with partially repressed xylose utilization. When softwood (Japanese larch) hydrolysate containing glucose and mannose as the main sugars was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 21.17g/L butyric acid with the yield of 0.47g/g sugar and the selectivity of 1 (g butyric acid/g total acids) owing to the consumption of acetic acid in hydrolysate. The results demonstrate potential of Clostridium sp. S1 to produce butyric acid selectively and effectively from hydrolysate not only by utilizing mixed sugars simultaneously but also by converting acetic acid to butyric acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imipenem Resistance in Clostridium difficile Ribotype 017, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Isidro, Joana; Santos, Andrea; Nunes, Alexandra; Borges, Vítor; Silva, Catarina; Vieira, Luís; Mendes, Aristides L.; Serrano, Mónica; Henriques, Adriano O.; Gomes, João Paulo

    2018-01-01

    We describe imipenem-resistant and imipenem-susceptible clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile ribotype 017 in Portugal. All ribotype 017 isolates carried an extra penicillin-binding protein gene, pbp5, and the imipenem-resistant isolates had additional substitutions near the transpeptidase active sites of pbp1 and pbp3. These clones could disseminate and contribute to imipenem resistance. PMID:29553322

  7. Clostridium difficile in Ready-to-Eat Salads, Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Marwah M.; Brown, Derek J.; Butcher, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Of 40 ready-to-eat salads, 3 (7.5%) were positive for Clostridium difficile by PCR. Two isolates were PCR ribotype 017 (toxin A–, B+), and 1 was PCR ribotype 001. Isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole but variably resistant to other antimicrobial drugs. Ready-to-eat salads may be potential sources for virulent C. difficile. PMID:19402979

  8. Optimizing Wound Bed Preparation With Collagenase Enzymatic Debridement

    PubMed Central

    McCallon, Stanley K.; Weir, Dorothy; Lantis, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Difficult-to-heal and chronic wounds affect tens of millions of people worldwide. In the U.S. alone, the direct cost for their treatment exceeds $25 billion. Yet despite advances in wound research and treatment that have markedly improved patient care, wound healing is often delayed for weeks or months. For venous and diabetic ulcers, complete wound closure is achieved in as few as 25%–50% of chronic or hard-to-heal wounds. Wound bed preparation and the consistent application of appropriate and effective debridement techniques are recommended for the optimized treatment of chronic wounds. The TIME paradigm (Tissue, Inflammation/infection, Moisture balance and Edge of wound) provides a model to remove barriers to healing and optimize the healing process. While we often think of debridement as an episodic event that occurs in specific care giver/patient interface. There is the possibility of a maintenance debridement in which the chronic application of a medication can assist in both the macroscopic and microscopic debridement of a wound. We review the various debridement therapies available to clinicians in the United States, and explore the characteristics and capabilities of clostridial collagenase ointment (CCO), a type of enzymatic debridement, that potentially allows for epithelialization while debriding. It appears that in the case of CCO it may exert this influences by removal of the necrotic plug while promoting granulation and sustaining epithelialization. It is also easily combined with other methods of debridement, is selective to necrotic tissue, and has been safely used in various populations. We review the body of evidence has indicated that this concept of maintenance debridement, especially when combined episodic debridement may add a cost an efficacious, safe and cost-effective choice for debridement of cutaneous ulcers and burn wounds and it will likely play an expanding role in all phases of wound bed preparation. PMID:26442207

  9. Economic evaluation of interventions designed to reduce Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Brain, David; Yakob, Laith; Barnett, Adrian; Riley, Thomas; Clements, Archie; Halton, Kate; Graves, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare decision-makers are increasingly expected to balance increasing demand for health services with a finite budget. The role of economic evaluation in healthcare is increasing and this research provides decision-makers with new information about the management of Clostridium difficile infection, from an economic perspective. A model-based economic evaluation was undertaken to identify the most cost-effective healthcare intervention relating to the reduction of Clostridium difficile transmission. Efficacy evidence was synthesised from the literature and was used to inform the effectiveness of both bundled approaches and stand-alone interventions, where appropriate intervention combinations were coupled together. Changes in health outcomes were estimated by combining information about intervention effectiveness and its subsequent impact on quality of life. A bundled approach of improving hand hygiene and environmental cleaning produces the best combination of increased health benefits and cost-savings. It has the highest mean net monetary benefit when compared to all other interventions. This intervention remains the optimal decision under different clinical circumstances, such as when mortality rate and patient length of stay are increased. Bundled interventions offered the best opportunity for health improvements. These findings provide healthcare decision-makers with novel information about the allocation of scarce resources relating to Clostridium difficile. If investments are not made in interventions that clearly yield gains in health outcomes, the allocation and use of scarce healthcare resources is inappropriate and improvements in health outcomes will be forgone.

  10. [Toxins of Clostridium perfringens as a natural and bioterroristic threats].

    PubMed

    Omernik, Andrzej; Płusa, Tadeusz

    2015-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens is absolutely anaerobic rod-shaped, sporeforming bacterium. The morbidity is connected with producing toxins. Depending on the type of toxin produced Clostridium perfringens can be divided into five serotypes:A-E. Under natural conditions, this bacterium is responsible for local outbreaks of food poisoning associated with eating contaminated food which which was improperly heat treated. Some countries with lower economic level are endemic foci of necrotizing enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The bacterium is also a major cause of gas gangrene. It is a disease, associated with wound infection, with potentially fatal prognosis in the case of treatment's delays. In the absence of early radical surgery, antibiotic therapy and (if available) hyperbaric treatment leads to the spread of toxins in the body causing shock, coma and death. Due to the force of produced toxins is a pathogen that poses a substrate for the production of biological weapons. It could potentially be used to induce outbreaks of food poisoning and by missiles contamination by spore lead to increased morbidity of gas gangrene in injured soldiers. C. perfringens types B and D produce epsilon toxin considered to be the third most powerful bacterial toxin. Because of the ability to disperse the toxin as an aerosol and a lack of methods of treatment and prevention of poisoning possible factors it is a potential tool for bioterrorism It is advisable to continue research into vaccines and treatments for poisoning toxins of C. perfringens. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  11. Economic evaluation of interventions designed to reduce Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Thomas; Clements, Archie; Halton, Kate

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Healthcare decision-makers are increasingly expected to balance increasing demand for health services with a finite budget. The role of economic evaluation in healthcare is increasing and this research provides decision-makers with new information about the management of Clostridium difficile infection, from an economic perspective. Methods A model-based economic evaluation was undertaken to identify the most cost-effective healthcare intervention relating to the reduction of Clostridium difficile transmission. Efficacy evidence was synthesised from the literature and was used to inform the effectiveness of both bundled approaches and stand-alone interventions, where appropriate intervention combinations were coupled together. Changes in health outcomes were estimated by combining information about intervention effectiveness and its subsequent impact on quality of life. Results A bundled approach of improving hand hygiene and environmental cleaning produces the best combination of increased health benefits and cost-savings. It has the highest mean net monetary benefit when compared to all other interventions. This intervention remains the optimal decision under different clinical circumstances, such as when mortality rate and patient length of stay are increased. Bundled interventions offered the best opportunity for health improvements. Conclusion These findings provide healthcare decision-makers with novel information about the allocation of scarce resources relating to Clostridium difficile. If investments are not made in interventions that clearly yield gains in health outcomes, the allocation and use of scarce healthcare resources is inappropriate and improvements in health outcomes will be forgone. PMID:29298322

  12. Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin: a malevolent molecule for animals and man?

    PubMed

    Stiles, Bradley G; Barth, Gillian; Barth, Holger; Popoff, Michel R

    2013-11-12

    Clostridium perfringens is a prolific, toxin-producing anaerobe causing multiple diseases in humans and animals. One of these toxins is epsilon, a 33 kDa protein produced by Clostridium perfringens (types B and D) that induces fatal enteric disease of goats, sheep and cattle. Epsilon toxin (Etx) belongs to the aerolysin-like toxin family. It contains three distinct domains, is proteolytically-activated and forms oligomeric pores on cell surfaces via a lipid raft-associated protein(s). Vaccination controls Etx-induced disease in the field. However, therapeutic measures are currently lacking. This review initially introduces C. perfringens toxins, subsequently focusing upon the Etx and its biochemistry, disease characteristics in various animals that include laboratory models (in vitro and in vivo), and finally control mechanisms (vaccines and therapeutics).

  13. 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing, Multilocus Sequence Analysis, and Mass Spectrometry Identification of the Proposed New Species “Clostridium neonatale”

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Philippe; Ferraris, Laurent; Dauphin, Brunhilde; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Butel, Marie Jose

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis in a Canadian neonatal intensive care unit was associated with a proposed novel species of Clostridium, “Clostridium neonatale.” To date, there are no data about the isolation, identification, or clinical significance of this species. Additionally, C. neonatale has not been formally classified as a new species, rendering its identification challenging. Indeed, the C. neonatale 16S rRNA gene sequence shows high similarity to another Clostridium species involved in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, Clostridium butyricum. By performing a polyphasic study combining phylogenetic analysis (16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis) and phenotypic characterization with mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that C. neonatale is a new species within the Clostridium genus sensu stricto, for which we propose the name Clostridium neonatale sp. nov. Now that the status of C. neonatale has been clarified, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be used for better differential identification of C. neonatale and C. butyricum clinical isolates. This is necessary to precisely define the role and clinical significance of C. neonatale, a species that may have been misidentified and underrepresented during previous neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis studies. PMID:25232167

  14. Identification and cloning of two immunogenic Clostridium perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase of C. perfringens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium-related poultry diseases such as necrotic enteritis (NE) and gangrenous dermatitis (GD) cause substantial economic losses on a global scale. Two antigenic Clostridium perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), were identified by react...

  15. Detergent-Resistant Membrane Microdomains Facilitate Ib Oligomer Formation and Biological Activity of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    spore-forming bacilli such as Clostridium spiroforme (iota-like toxin), Clostridium botulinum (C2 toxin), Bacillus anthracis (lethal and edema toxins...ously (28). Goat C. spiroforme and C. perfringens type C antisera were purchased from TechLab, Inc. (Blacksburg, Va.). Mouse monoclonal antibodies...membrane preparations was specific. Previous studies showed that the binary C. spiroforme toxin shares common epitopes with iota-toxin, and antisera

  16. Biaxial stress relaxation of semilunar heart valve leaflets during simulated collagen catabolism: Effects of collagenase concentration and equibiaxial strain state.

    PubMed

    Huang, Siyao; Huang, Hsiao-Ying Shadow

    2015-10-01

    Heart valve leaflet collagen turnover and remodeling are innate to physiological homeostasis; valvular interstitial cells routinely catabolize damaged collagen and affect repair. Moreover, evidence indicates that leaflets can adapt to altered physiological (e.g. pregnancy) and pathological (e.g. hypertension) mechanical load states, tuning collagen structure and composition to changes in pressure and flow. However, while valvular interstitial cell-secreted matrix metalloproteinases are considered the primary effectors of collagen catabolism, the mechanisms by which damaged collagen fibers are selectively degraded remain unclear. Growing evidence suggests that the collagen fiber strain state plays a key role, with the strain-dependent configuration of the collagen molecules either masking or presenting proteolytic sites, thereby protecting or accelerating collagen proteolysis. In this study, the effects of equibiaxial strain state on collagen catabolism were investigated in porcine aortic valve and pulmonary valve tissues. Bacterial collagenase (0.2 and 0.5 mg/mL) was utilized to simulate endogenous matrix metalloproteinases, and biaxial stress relaxation and biochemical collagen concentration served as functional and compositional measures of collagen catabolism, respectively. At a collagenase concentration of 0.5 mg/mL, increasing the equibiaxial strain imposed during stress relaxation (0%, 37.5%, and 50%) yielded significantly lower median collagen concentrations in the aortic valve (p = 0.0231) and pulmonary valve (p = 0.0183), suggesting that relatively large strain magnitudes may enhance collagen catabolism. Collagen concentration decreases were paralleled by trends of accelerated normalized stress relaxation rate with equibiaxial strain in aortic valve tissues. Collectively, these in vitro results indicate that biaxial strain state is capable of affecting the susceptibility of valvular collagens to catabolism, providing a basis for further investigation of

  17. Multihospital Outbreak of Clostridium difficile Infection, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Robin L.P.; Riggs, Michelle M.; Sethi, Ajay K.; Pultz, Michael J.; Ellis-Reid, Tracie; Riebel, William; Gerding, Dale N.; Salata, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether a multihospital Clostridium difficile outbreak was associated with epidemic strains and whether use of particular fluoroquinolones was associated with increased infection rates, we cultured feces from C. difficile–infected patients. Use of fluoroquionolones with enhanced antianaerobic activity was not associated with increased infection rates. PMID:20409374

  18. Four phage endolysins that are lytic for clostridium perfringens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens is a bacterial pathogen and the cause of necrotic enteritis in poultry, and a source of food poisoning and gas gangrene in people. C. perfringens can also cause mild to severe enteritis in pigs. In the EU, the occurrence of C. perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis in pou...

  19. Novel de novo synthesized phosphate carrier compound ABA-PEG20k-Pi20 suppresses collagenase production in Enterococcus faecalis and prevents colonic anastomotic leak in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Wiegerinck, M; Hyoju, S K; Mao, J; Zaborin, A; Adriaansens, C; Salzman, E; Hyman, N H; Zaborina, O; van Goor, H; Alverdy, J C

    2018-04-16

    Previous work has demonstrated that anastomotic leak can be caused by collagenolytic bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis via an effect on wound collagen. In humans, E. faecalis is the organism cultured most commonly from a leaking anastomosis, and is not routinely eliminated by standard oral or intravenous antibiotics. Novel strategies are needed to contain the virulence of this pathogen when present on anastomotic tissues. Polyphosphorylated polymer ABA-PEG20k-Pi20 was tested in mice for its ability to prevent anastomotic leak caused by collagenolytic E. faecalis. The study design included a distal colonic resection and anastomosis followed by introduction of E. faecalis to anastomotic tissues via enema. Mice were assigned randomly to receive either ABA-PEG20-Pi20 or its unphosphorylated precursor ABA-PEG20k in their drinking water. The development of anastomotic leak was determined after the animals had been killed. Overnight incubation of two different E. faecalis collagenolytic strains with 2 mmol/l of ABA-PEG20k-Pi20 led to near complete inhibition of collagenase production (from 21 000 to 1000 and from 68 000 to 5000 units; P < 0·001; 6 samples per group) without suppressing bacterial growth. In mice drinking 1 per cent ABA-PEG20k-Pi20, the phosphate concentration in the distal colonic mucosa increased twofold and leak rates decreased from eight of 15 to three of 15 animals (P < 0·001). In mice drinking ABA-PEG20k-Pi20, the percentage of collagenolytic colonies among E. faecalis populations present at anastomotic tissue sites was decreased by 6-4800-fold (P = 0·008; 5 animals). These data indicate that oral intake of ABA-PEG20k-Pi20 may be an effective agent to contain the virulence of E. faecalis and may prevent anastomotic leak caused by this organism. Clinical relevance Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of anastomotic leak continues to point to intestinal bacteria as key causative agents. The presence of pathogens such as Enterococcus

  20. High prevalence of Clostridium difficile on retail root vegetables, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lim, S C; Foster, N F; Elliott, B; Riley, T V

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) in Australia has increased since mid-2011. With reports of clinically important C. difficile strains being isolated from retail foods in Europe and North America, a foodborne source of C. difficile in cases of CA-CDI is a possibility. This study represents the first to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of C. difficile in Australian retail vegetables. A total of 300 root vegetables grown in Western Australia (WA) were collected from retail stores and farmers' markets. Three vegetables of the same kind bought from the same store/market were treated as one sample. Selective enrichment culture, toxin profiling and PCR ribotyping were performed. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 30% (30/100) of pooled vegetable samples, 55·6% of organic potatoes, 50% of nonorganic potatoes, 22·2% of organic beetroots, 5·6% of organic onions and 5·3% of organic carrots. Over half (51·2%, 22/43) the isolates were toxigenic. Many of the ribotypes of C. difficile isolated were common among human and Australian animals. Clostridium difficile could be found commonly on retail root vegetables of WA. This may be potential sources for CA-CDI. This study enhances knowledge of possible sources of C. difficile in the Australian community, outside the hospital setting. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. A Quantitative Electrochemiluminescence Assay for Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-10

    Doyle, L.R. Beuchat, T.J. Montville (Eds.), Food Microbiology : Fundamentals and Fron- tiers, Second ed., ASM Press, Washington, D.C., 2001, pp. 351...D.E. Lorant, A.E. Bryant, G.A. Zimmerman, T.M. McIn- tyre, D.L. Stevens, S.M. Prescott , Alpha toxin from Clostridium per- fringens induces

  2. Inhibition of Neutrophil Collagenase/MMP-8 and Gelatinase B/MMP-9 and Protection against Endotoxin Shock

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zheng; Chen, Jianghai; Xu, Hanmei; Van den Steen, Philippe E.; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Wang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Endotoxin shock is a life-threatening disorder, associated with the rapid release of neutrophil enzymes, including neutrophil collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). After activation, these enzymes cleave extracellular matrix components and cytokines and thus may contribute to shock syndrome development. MMP inhibitors have been suggested as immunotherapy of endotoxin shock. However, little is known about the therapeutic time window of MMP inhibition. Here, a sublethal endotoxin shock mouse model was used to evaluate the effect of an MMP inhibiting peptide (P2) after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection and to study the time window between LPS and inhibitor injections. With the use of a specific ELISA the plasma P2 concentrations were monitored. Whereas we corroborated the treatment strategy of MMP targeting in endotoxin shock with a new inhibitor, we also demonstrated that the time window, within which effective MMP inhibition increased the survival rates, is rather limited. PMID:25762310

  3. Occurrence and prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in polar bears from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Jores, Joerg; Derocher, Andrew E; Staubach, Christoph; Aschfalk, Ansgar

    2008-01-01

    To obtain insight into the occurrence and prevalence of Clostridium perfringens and its major toxins in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), we took fecal samples for bacteriologic analysis from live-captured bears in the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, in 2001. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 40 of 92 samples (44%). Thirty strains were further characterized by determining toxin type and were classified to be type A, while one was also positive for the gene encoding beta2-toxin. Despite the fact that C. perfringens type A has been associated with fatal diseases in several animal species as well as in humans, our data indicate that C. perfringens type A is an normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of polar bears.

  4. Cannabidiol restores intestinal barrier dysfunction and inhibits the apoptotic process induced by Clostridium difficile toxin A in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Gigli, Stefano; Seguella, Luisa; Pesce, Marcella; Bruzzese, Eugenia; D'Alessandro, Alessandra; Cuomo, Rosario; Steardo, Luca; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Clostridium difficile toxin A is responsible for colonic damage observed in infected patients. Drugs able to restore Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced toxicity have the potential to improve the recovery of infected patients. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, which has been demonstrated to protect enterocytes against chemical and/or inflammatory damage and to restore intestinal mucosa integrity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (a) the anti-apoptotic effect and (b) the mechanisms by which cannabidiol protects mucosal integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to Clostridium difficile toxin A. Caco-2 cells were exposed to Clostridium difficile toxin A (30 ng/ml), with or without cannabidiol (10 -7 -10 -9  M), in the presence of the specific antagonist AM251 (10 -7  M). Cytotoxicity assay, transepithelial electrical resistence measurements, immunofluorescence analysis and immunoblot analysis were performed in the different experimental conditions. Clostridium difficile toxin A significantly decreased Caco-2 cells' viability and reduced transepithelial electrical resistence values and RhoA guanosine triphosphate (GTP), bax, zonula occludens-1 and occludin protein expression, respectively. All these effects were significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited by cannabidiol, whose effects were completely abolished in the presence of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonist, AM251. Cannabidiol improved Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced damage in Caco-2 cells, by inhibiting the apoptotic process and restoring the intestinal barrier integrity, through the involvement of the CB1 receptor.

  5. Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin: A Malevolent Molecule for Animals and Man?

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, Bradley G.; Barth, Gillian; Barth, Holger; Popoff, Michel R.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a prolific, toxin-producing anaerobe causing multiple diseases in humans and animals. One of these toxins is epsilon, a 33 kDa protein produced by Clostridium perfringens (types B and D) that induces fatal enteric disease of goats, sheep and cattle. Epsilon toxin (Etx) belongs to the aerolysin-like toxin family. It contains three distinct domains, is proteolytically-activated and forms oligomeric pores on cell surfaces via a lipid raft-associated protein(s). Vaccination controls Etx-induced disease in the field. However, therapeutic measures are currently lacking. This review initially introduces C. perfringens toxins, subsequently focusing upon the Etx and its biochemistry, disease characteristics in various animals that include laboratory models (in vitro and in vivo), and finally control mechanisms (vaccines and therapeutics). PMID:24284826

  6. Beneficial and harmful roles of bacteria from the Clostridium genus.

    PubMed

    Samul, Dorota; Worsztynowicz, Paulina; Leja, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria of the Clostridium genus are often described only as a biological threat and a foe of mankind. However, many of them have positive properties and thanks to them they may be used in many industry branches (e.g., in solvents and alcohol production, in medicine, and also in esthetic cosmetology). During the last 10 years interest in application of C. botulinum and C. tetani in medicine significantly increased. Currently, the structure and biochemical properties of neurotoxins produced by these bacterial species, as well as possibilities of application of such toxins as botulinum as a therapeutic factor in humans, are being intensely researched. The main aim of this article is to demonstrate that bacteria from Clostridium spp. are not only pathogens and the enemy of humanity but they also have many important beneficial properties which make them usable among many chemical, medical, and cosmetic applications.

  7. Cellular Uptake and Mode-of-Action of Clostridium difficile Toxins.

    PubMed

    Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Barth, Holger; Minton, Nigel; Aktories, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Research on the human gut pathogen Clostridium difficile and its toxins has gained much attention, particularly as a consequence of the increasing threat to human health presented by emerging hypervirulent strains. Toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) are the two major virulence determinants of C. difficile. Both are single-chain proteins with a similar multidomain architecture. Certain hypervirulent C. difficile strains also produce a third toxin, namely binary toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase). As C. difficile toxins are the causative agents of C. difficile-associated diseases (CDAD), such as antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, considerable efforts have been expended to unravel their molecular mode-of-action and the cellular mechanisms responsible for their uptake. Notably, a high proportion of studies on C. difficile toxins were performed in European laboratories. In this chapter we will highlight important recent advances in C. difficile toxins research.

  8. Comparative analysis of the ability of Clostridium clariflavum strains and Clostridium thermocellumto utilize hemicellulose and unpretreated plant material

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, Javier A.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Guseva, Anna

    2014-11-18

    Among themophilic consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) candidate organisms, environmental isolates of Clostridium clariflavum have demonstrated the ability to grow on xylan, and the genome of C. clariflavum DSM 19732 has revealed a number of mechanisms that foster solubilization of hemicellulose that are distinctive relative to the model cellulolytic thermophile Clostridium thermocellum. Growth experiments on xylan, xylooligosaccharides, and xylose reveal that C. clariflavum strains are able to completely break down xylan to xylose and that the environmental strain C. clariflavum sp. 4-2a is able to grow on monomeric xylose. C. clariflavum strains were able to utilize a larger proportion of unpretreated switchgrass,more » and solubilize a higher proportion of glucan, xylan, and arabinan, with strain 4-2a reaching the highest extent of solubilization of these components (64.7 to 69.4%) compared to C. thermocellum (29.5 to 42.5%). In addition, glycome immunoanalyses of residual plant biomass reveal differences in the extent of degradation of easily accessible xylans, with C. clariflavum strains having increased solubilization of this fraction of xylans relative to C. thermocellum. In conclusion, C. clariflavum strains exhibit higher activity than C. thermocellum in the breakdown of hemicellulose and are capable of degrading xylan to xylooligomers and xylose. This capability seems to also play a role in the higher levels of utilization of unpretreated plant material.« less

  9. Chronic Clostridium botulinum infections in farmers.

    PubMed

    Rodloff, Arne C; Krüger, Monika

    2012-04-01

    Although botulism is usually an acute, often lethal disease that is caused by the ingestion of botulinum neurotoxin, there are also recognized forms like infant botulism, wound botulism, or "botulism of undefined origin" that are characterized by the fact that Clostridium botulinum colonizes the host and produces its toxin in the host. Evidence is presented here that a disease in cattle and in human care takers of diseased animals that has evolved over the past two decades, may be a chronic, visceral form of C. botulinum infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Annotation of the Clostridium Acetobutylicum Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, M. J.

    The genome sequence of the solvent producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824, has been determined by the shotgun approach. The genome consists of a 3.94 Mb chromosome and a 192 kb megaplasmid that contains the majority of genes responsible for solvent production. Comparison of C. acetobutylicum to Bacillus subtilis reveals significant local conservation of gene order, which has not been seen in comparisons of other genomes with similar, or, in some cases, closer, phylogenetic proximity. This conservation allows the prediction of many previously undetected operons in both bacteria.

  11. Vaginal and Rectal Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens Presence Among Women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chong, Erica; Winikoff, Beverly; Charles, Dyanna; Agnew, Kathy; Prentice, Jennifer L; Limbago, Brandi M; Platais, Ingrida; Louie, Karmen; Jones, Heidi E; Shannon, Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    To characterize the presence of Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens in the vagina and rectum, identify correlates of presence, and describe strain diversity and presence of key toxins. We conducted an observational cohort study in which we screened a diverse cohort of reproductive-aged women in the United States up to three times using vaginal and rectal swabs analyzed by molecular and culture methods. We used multivariate regression models to explore predictors of presence. Strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and tested for known virulence factors by polymerase chain reaction assays. Of 4,152 participants enrolled between 2010 and 2013, 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-4.0) were positive for C sordellii and 10.4% (95% CI 9.5-11.3) were positive for C perfringens at baseline. Among the 66% with follow-up data, 94.7% (95% CI 88.0-98.3) of those positive for C sordellii and 74.4% (95% CI 69.0-79.3) of those positive for C perfringens at baseline were negative at follow-up. At baseline, recent gynecologic surgery was associated with C sordellii presence, whereas a high body mass index was associated with C perfringens presence in adjusted models. Two of 238 C sordellii isolates contained the lethal toxin gene, and none contained the hemorrhagic toxin gene. Substantial strain diversity was observed in both species with few clusters and no dominant clones identified. The relatively rare and transient nature of C sordellii and C perfringens presence in the vagina and rectum makes it inadvisable to use any screening or prophylactic approach to try to prevent clostridial infection. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01283828.

  12. The Recent Emergence of Clostridium difficile Infection in Romanian Hospitals is Associated with a High Prevalence of Polymerase Chain Reaction Ribotype 027.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Gabriel Adrian; Serban, Roxana; Pistol, Adriana; Niculcea, Andreea; Preda, Andreea; Lemeni, Daniela; Macovei, Ioana Sabina; Tălăpan, Daniela; Rafila, Alexandru; Florea, Dragoş

    2018-03-15

    To investigate the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Romanian hospitals. A survey was conducted at nine hospitals throughout Romania between November 2013 and February 2014. The survey identified 393 patients with Clostridium difficile infection. The median age was 67 years (range: 2-94 years); 56% of patients were aged >65 years. The mean prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection was 5.2 cases per 10.000 patient-days. The highest prevalences were 24.9 and 20 per 10.000 patient-days in hospitals specializing in gastroenterology and infectious diseases, respectively. Clostridium difficile infections were health care-associated in 70.5% patients and community-acquired in 10.2%. The origin was not determined in 19.3%. Clostridium difficile infection was severe in 12.3% of patients, and the in-hospital all-cause mortality was 8.8%. Polymerase chain reaction ribotype 027 had the highest prevalence in all participating hospitals and represented 82.6% of the total ribotyped isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration of moxifloxacin was >4 μg/mL for 59 of 80 tested isolates (73.8%). Of 59 isolates, 54 were highly resistant to moxifloxacin (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥32 μg/mL), and the majority were polymerase chain reaction ribotype 027 (p<0.0001). The ribotype 027 was the predominant cause of Clostridium difficile infections in Romania. In some specialized hospitals, the prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection was higher than the European mean prevalence, and this demonstrates the need for strict adherence to infection control programs.

  13. A cluster of three cases of botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F, France, August 2015.

    PubMed

    Tréhard, Hélène; Poujol, Isabelle; Mazuet, Christelle; Blanc, Quentin; Gillet, Yves; Rossignol, Frédérique; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Jourdan Da Silva, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    A cluster of three cases of food-borne botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F occurred in France in August 2015. All cases required respiratory assistance. Consumption of a Bolognese sauce at the same restaurant was the likely source of contamination. Clostridium baratii was isolated both from stool specimens from the three patients and ground meat used to prepare the sauce. This is the second episode reported in France caused by this rare pathogen.

  14. Clostridium perfringens, necrotic enteritis and its vaccination in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens type A strains are the main etiological factors for necrotic enteritis (NE), one of the economically important gastrointestinal diseases in poultry responsible for the annual loss of 2 billion dollars in US poultry industry. NE has gained worldwide importance during the last...

  15. 9 CFR 113.455 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Clostridium perfringens Type D. Each serial shall be tested as provided in this section. Any serial found... following words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of Epsilon... 0.25 gram of sodium chloride in each 100 ml of distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving...

  16. The polar lipids of Clostridium psychrophilum, an anaerobic psychrophile

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ziqiang; Tian, Bing; Perfumo, Amedea; Goldfine, Howard

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the polar lipids of Clostridium psychrophilum, a recently characterized psychrophilic Clostridium isolated from an Antarctic microbial mat. Lipids were extracted from cells grown near the optimal growth temperature (+5 °C) and at −5 °C, and analyzed by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The major phospholipids of this species are: cardiolipin, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol. Phosphatidylserine and lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine were found as minor components. The most abundant glycolipids are a monoglycosyldiradylglycerol (MGDRG) and a diglycosyldiradylglycerol (DGDRG). The latter was only seen in cells grown at −5 °C. An ethanolamine-phosphate derivative of N-acetylglucosaminyldiradylglycerol was seen in cells grown at −5 °C and an ethanolamine-phosphate derivative of MGDRG was found in cells grown at +5 °C. All lipids were present in both the all acyl and plasmalogen (alk-1′-enyl acyl) forms with the exception of PS and MGDRG, which were predominantly in the diacyl form. The significance of lipid changes at the two growth temperatures is discussed. PMID:23454375

  17. Cecal Perforation Associated with Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Luthe, Sarah Kyuragi; Sato, Ryota

    2017-04-01

    Various complications are reported with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), including fulminant CDI. Fulminant CDI is an underappreciated life-threatening condition associated with complications such as toxic megacolon and bowel perforation. A 79-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department with altered mental status. She was admitted and conservatively treated for a left thalamic hemorrhage. While hospitalized, she developed watery diarrhea due to Clostridium difficile. Although metronidazole was initiated, she developed altered mental status and septic shock. Abdominal x-ray study and computed tomography revealed a significantly dilatated colon and a massive pneumoperitoneum. She underwent subtotal colectomy with a 14-day course of intravenous meropenem. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: This case suggests that we must be aware of the complications that CDI may present and adequately consider surgical management because early diagnosis and surgical treatment is critical to reduce the mortality of fulminant CDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 9 CFR 113.454 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Clostridium perfringens Type C. Each serial shall be tested as provided in this section. Any serial found... following words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of Beta... chloride in each 100 ml of distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving at 250 °F. for 25 minutes...

  19. Constructing identities in the media: newspaper coverage analysis of a major UK Clostridium difficile outbreak.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Emma; Johnston, Bridget; Corlett, Joanne; Kearney, Nora

    2014-07-01

    To examine how a major Clostridium difficile outbreak in the UK was represented in the media. Clostridium difficile is a serious health care-associated infection with significant global prevalence. As major outbreaks have continued to occur worldwide over the last few decades, it has also resulted in increasing media coverage. Newspaper journalists are, however, frequently criticized for sensationalized and inaccurate reporting and alarming the public. Despite such criticisms, nothing is known about how the media frame Clostridium difficile related coverage. Qualitative interpretive descriptive study. An interpretive analysis of newspaper articles from the national press that reported about the outbreak from the first day of coverage over 3 weeks (12 June-3 July 2008). Twenty-eight newspaper articles were included in the study from tabloids, broadsheets, a regional and a Sunday newspaper. Monster and war metaphors were frequently adopted to portray the severity of Clostridium difficile and the impact it can have on patient safety. In addition, the positioning of the affected patients, their families, healthcare professionals and the Government produced representations of victims, villains and heroes. This subsequently evoked notions of vulnerability, blame and conflict. The media are and will remain critical convectors of public information and, as such, are hugely influential in risk perceptions and responses. Rather than simply dismissing media coverage, further understanding around how such stories in specific contexts are constructed and represented is needed so that it can help inform future communication and management strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Clostridium difficile the hospital plague.

    PubMed

    Czepiel, J; Kozicki, M; Panasiuk, P; Birczyńska, M; Garlicki, A; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, A

    2015-04-07

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become one of the major public health threats in the last two decades. An increase has been observed not only in the rate of CDI, but also in its severity and mortality. Symptoms caused by this pathogen are accompanied by intense local and systemic inflammation. We confirmed that Raman microspectroscopy can help us in understanding CDI pathogenesis. A single erythrocyte of patients with CDI shows a difference, approximately 10 times, in the intensity of the Raman spectra at the beginning of hospitalization and after one week of treatment. The intensity level is an indicator of the spread of the inflammation within the cell, confirmed by standard laboratory tests. Many of the observed bands with enormously enhanced intensity, e.g. 1587, 1344, 1253, 1118 and 664 cm(-1), come from the symmetric vibration of the pyrrole ring. Heme variation of recovered cells in the acute CDI state between the first and the seventh day of treatment seems to show increased levels of oxygenated hemoglobin. Intense inflammation alters the conformation of the protein which is reflected in the significant changes in the amide I, II and III bands. There is an observed shift and a significant intensity increase of 1253 and 970 cm(-1) amide III and skeletal protein backbone CC stretching vibration bands, respectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to find the variance in the data collected on the first and seventh day. PC2 loading in the 1645-1500 cm(-1) range shows an increase of heme, Tyr, Trp, or Phe vibrations because of changes in the protein microenvironment due to their exposure. Positive maxima at 1621, 1563 and 1550 in the PC2 loading originated from the ring vibrations. These observations indicate that Clostridium difficile toxins induce cytopathogenicity by altering cellular proteins.

  1. Comparative pathogenomics of Clostridium tetani.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan E; Wang, Rong; Shen, Rong-Fong; Wu, Wells W; Keller, James E

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum produce two of the most potent neurotoxins known, tetanus neurotoxin and botulinum neurotoxin, respectively. Extensive biochemical and genetic investigation has been devoted to identifying and characterizing various C. botulinum strains. Less effort has been focused on studying C. tetani likely because recently sequenced strains of C. tetani show much less genetic diversity than C. botulinum strains and because widespread vaccination efforts have reduced the public health threat from tetanus. Our aim was to acquire genomic data on the U.S. vaccine strain of C. tetani to better understand its genetic relationship to previously published genomic data from European vaccine strains. We performed high throughput genomic sequence analysis on two wild-type and two vaccine C. tetani strains. Comparative genomic analysis was performed using these and previously published genomic data for seven other C. tetani strains. Our analysis focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and four distinct constituents of the mobile genome (mobilome): a hypervariable flagellar glycosylation island region, five conserved bacteriophage insertion regions, variations in three CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems, and a single plasmid. Intact type IA and IB CRISPR/Cas systems were within 10 of 11 strains. A type IIIA CRISPR/Cas system was present in two strains. Phage infection histories derived from CRISPR-Cas sequences indicate C. tetani encounters phages common among commensal gut bacteria and soil-borne organisms consistent with C. tetani distribution in nature. All vaccine strains form a clade distinct from currently sequenced wild type strains when considering variations in these mobile elements. SNP, flagellar glycosylation island, prophage content and CRISPR/Cas phylogenic histories provide tentative evidence suggesting vaccine and wild type strains share a common ancestor.

  2. Clostridium septicum infection and hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Barnham, M.; Weightman, N.

    1998-01-01

    Five cases of Clostridium septicum infection secondary to Escherichia coli O157-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome have been reported. We report on three cases (one of which is included in the above five) of dual Cl. septicum and E. coil infection; all three patients were exposed to farm animals. A common zoonotic source for Cl. septicum and E. coli O157 infections should be considered. Patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome should be treated aggressively and monitored closely for Cl. septicum superinfection. PMID:9621207

  3. Clostridium difficile infections in patients with severe burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    placards indicating that hand hygiene should involve soap and water. Periodic hand hygiene compliance surveys have indicated relatively consistent...care unit: epidemiology, costs, and colonization pressure. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:123–30. [6] Marcon AP, Gamba MA, Vianna LA. Nosocomial ...Clostridium difficile infections in patients with severe burns§ Scott J. Crabtree a, Janelle L. Robertson a,b, Kevin K. Chung c, Evan M. Renz b,c

  4. Treating Clostridium difficile Infection with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Johan S.; Borody, Thomas; Brandt, Lawrence J.; Brill, Joel V.; Demarco, Daniel C.; Franzos, Marc Alaric; Kelly, Colleen; Khoruts, Alexander; Louie, Thomas; Martinelli, Lawrence P.; Moore, Thomas A.; Russell, George; Surawicz, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is increasing in incidence, severity, and mortality. Treatment options are limited and appear to be losing efficacy. Recurrent disease is especially challenging; extended treatment with oral vancomycin is becoming increasingly common but is expensive. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is safe, inexpensive, and effective; according to case and small series reports, about 90% of patients are cured. We discuss the rationale, methods, and use of FMT. PMID:21871249

  5. 9 CFR 113.110 - Clostridium Botulinum Type C Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... challenged intraperitoneally with botulinum Type C toxin which has been titrated in mice to provide for a 104... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clostridium Botulinum Type C Bacterin..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD...

  6. 9 CFR 113.110 - Clostridium Botulinum Type C Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... challenged intraperitoneally with botulinum Type C toxin which has been titrated in mice to provide for a 104... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clostridium Botulinum Type C Bacterin..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD...

  7. Clostridium Bacteria and Autism Spectrum Conditions: A Systematic Review and Hypothetical Contribution of Environmental Glyphosate Levels.

    PubMed

    Argou-Cardozo, Isadora; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, there seems to be a consensus about the multifactorial nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature provides hypotheses dealing with numerous environmental factors and genes accounting for the apparently higher prevalence of this condition. Researchers have shown evidence regarding the impact of gut bacteria on neurological outcomes, altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of psychiatric disorders. Pesticides and agrotoxics are also included among this long list of ASD-related environmental stressors. Of note, ingestion of glyphosate (GLY), a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, can reduce beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract microbiota without exerting any effects on the Clostridium population, which is highly resistant to this herbicide. In the present study, (i) we performed a systematic review to evaluate the relationship between Clostridium bacteria and the probability of developing and/or aggravating autism among children. For that purpose, electronic searches were performed on Medline/PubMed and Scielo databases for identification of relevant studies published in English up to December 2017. Two independent researches selected the studies and analyzed the data. The results of the present systematic review demonstrate an interrelation between Clostridium bacteria colonization of the intestinal tract and autism. Finally, (ii) we also hypothesize about how environmental GLY levels may deleteriously influence the gut-brain axis by boosting the growth of Clostridium bacteria in autistic toddlers.

  8. Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens toxin in patients suspected of having antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Si Hyun; Ahn, Junggu; Cho, Soongmoon; Kim, Dongchun; Kim, Kwanghyun; Lee, Heegun; Son, Hyunwoo; Lee, Hee Joo; Yong, Dongeun; Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Hye Ran; Shin, Jeong Hwan

    2017-12-01

    Although Clostridium perfringens has been reported as a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), it is uncommon to detect this pathogen in clinical microbiology laboratories in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of C. perfringens toxin in patients suspected of having AAD. A total of 135 stool specimens submitted to a clinical microbiology laboratory for C. difficile toxin assay were tested. We tried to detect both C. difficile and C. perfringens toxins using the Seeplex Diarrhea ACE Detection kit (Seegene, Seoul, Korea). We evaluated the prevalence of 10 bacteria and 5 viruses. A total of 40 Clostridium spp. were detected in 34 specimens (29.6%). The C. perfringens toxin was detected in 14 of 135 specimens (10.4%), while C. difficile toxin was detected in 26 specimens (19.3%). Other bacteria and viruses, including 8 Aeromonas spp., were detected in 15 specimens. All tests were negative in 92 of the 135 specimens (68.1%). Clostridium perfringens toxin is relatively common, and we should consider the possibility of its presence in patients suspected of having AAD, especially if C. difficile tests are negative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MALDI-TOF MS is more accurate than VITEK II ANC card and API Rapid ID 32 A system for the identification of Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Si Hyun; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Hae-Geun; Park, Dongchul; Song, Sae Am; Lee, Hee Joo; Yong, Dongeun; Choi, Jun Yong; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kim, Hye Ran; Shin, Jeong Hwan

    2016-08-01

    All 50 Clostridium difficile strains were definitely identified by Vitek2 system, Rapid ID 32A system, and MALDI-TOF. For 18 non-difficile Clostridium strains, the identification results were correct in 0, 2, and 17 strains by Vitek2, Rapid ID 32A, and MALDI-TOF, respectively. MALDI-TOF could be used as the primary tool for identification of Clostridium species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Genome Sequence of Bacteriophage CPV1 Virulent for Clostridium perfringens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Application of bacteriophages and their lytic enzymes to control Clostridium perfringens is one potential approach to reduce the pathogen on poultry farms and in poultry-processing facilities. Bacteriophages lytic for C. perfringens were isolated from sewage, feces and broiler intestinal contents. P...

  11. In vitro Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli toxin adsorption of Varium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enteric disease agents, such as Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli, produce detrimental biotoxins that cause significant economic loss annually in the poultry industry. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro biotoxin adsorption capability of Varium. An enzyme-linked im...

  12. Clostridium botulinumtype D intoxication in a dairy herd in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-four Holstein cows died after exposure to Clostridium botulinum type D toxin, presumably from contaminated haylage. The presence of type D toxin in ruminal contents was confirmed by mouse inoculation. This is the first confirmation by direct toxin isolation of C. botulinum type D toxin in cattle in North America. PMID:12839245

  13. The impact of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection on outcomes of hospitalized patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lagu, Tara; Stefan, Mihaela S; Haessler, Sarah; Higgins, Thomas L; Rothberg, Michael B; Nathanson, Brian H; Hannon, Nicholas S; Steingrub, Jay S; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2014-07-01

    To examine the impact of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HOCDI) on the outcomes of patients with sepsis. Most prior studies that have addressed this issue lacked adequate matching to controls, suffered from small sample size, or failed to consider time to infection. Retrospective cohort study. We identified adults with a principal or secondary diagnosis of sepsis who received care at 1 of the institutions that participated in a large multihospital database between July 1, 2004 and December 31, 2010. Among eligible patients with sepsis, we identified patients who developed HOCDI during their hospital stay. We used propensity matching and date of diagnosis to match cases to patients without Clostridium difficile infections and compared outcomes between the 2 groups. Of 218,915 sepsis patients, 2368 (1.08%) developed HOCDI. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in HOCDI patients than controls (25% vs 10%, P < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment, in-hospital mortality rate was 24% in cases vs. 15% in controls. In an analysis limited to survivors, adjusted length of stay (LOS) among cases with Clostridium difficile infections was 5.1 days longer than controls (95% confidence interval: 4.4-5.8) and the median-adjusted cost increase was $4916 (P < 0.001). After rigorous adjustment for time to diagnosis and presenting severity, hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection was associated with increased mortality, LOS, and cost. Our results can be used to assess the cost-effectiveness of prevention programs and suggest that efforts directed toward high-risk patient populations are needed. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  14. Survey of Clostridium difficile in retail seafood in College Station, Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America with the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer t...

  15. Hyaluronidase and Collagenase Increase the Transfection Efficiency of Gene Electrotransfer in Various Murine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Golzio, Muriel; Sersa, Gregor; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Coer, Andrej; Vidic, Suzana; Teissie, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract One of the applications of electroporation/electropulsation in biomedicine is gene electrotransfer, the wider use of which is hindered by low transfection efficiency in vivo compared with viral vectors. The aim of our study was to determine whether modulation of the extracellular matrix in solid tumors, using collagenase and hyaluronidase, could increase the transfection efficiency of gene electrotransfer in histologically different solid subcutaneous tumors in mice. Tumors were treated with enzymes before electrotransfer of plasmid DNA encoding either green fluorescent protein or luciferase. Transfection efficiency was determined 3, 9, and 15 days posttransfection. We demonstrated that pretreatment of tumors with a combination of enzymes significantly increased the transfection efficiency of electrotransfer in tumors with a high extracellular matrix area (LPB fibrosarcoma). In tumors with a smaller extracellular matrix area and less organized collagen lattice, the increase was not so pronounced (SA-1 fibrosarcoma and EAT carcinoma), whereas in B16 melanoma, in which only traces of collagen are present, pretreatment of tumors with hyaluronidase alone was more efficient than pretreatment with both enzymes. In conclusion, our results suggest that modification of the extracellular matrix could improve distribution of plasmid DNA in solid subcutaneous tumors, demonstrated by an increase in transfection efficiency, and thus have important clinical implications for electrogene therapy. PMID:21797718

  16. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol predisposes for the development of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Timbermont, Leen; Verlinden, Marc; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (P<0.001). DON significantly reduced the transepithelial electrical resistance in duodenal segments (P<0.001) and decreased duodenal villus height (P = 0.014) indicating intestinal barrier disruption and intestinal epithelial damage, respectively. This may lead to an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium and decreased absorption of dietary proteins. Protein analysis of duodenal content indeed showed that DON contamination resulted in a significant increase in total protein concentration (P = 0.023). Furthermore, DON had no effect on in vitro growth, alpha toxin production and netB toxin transcription of Clostridium perfringens. In conclusion, feed contamination with DON at concentrations below the European maximum guidance level of 5,000 µg/kg feed, is a predisposing factor for the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens.

  17. Typha capensis (Rohrb.)N.E.Br. (bulrush) extract scavenges free radicals, inhibits collagenase activity and affects human sperm motility and mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Henkel, R; Fransman, W; Hipler, U-C; Wiegand, C; Schreiber, G; Menkveld, R; Weitz, F; Fisher, D

    2012-05-01

    The biodiversity in South Africa provides more than 30,000 higher plants, of which more than 3000 are used by traditional healers to treat diseases. Typha capensis (bulrush) is one of the medicinal plants used in South Africa to treat male fertility problems. Considering that South African traditional healers have been recognised by Law and the health benefits of T. capensis have not been scientifically investigated yet, this study aimed at investigating the in vitro effects of aqueous extracts from this plant on male reproductive functions. Both leaves and rhizomes of T. capensis were dried, infused with distilled water and freeze-dried. Motile sperm from 50 men were isolated by swim-up and incubated with 1 μg ml(-1) aqueous extract of Typha rhizome for 1 h at 37 °C. Vitality, motility, sperm production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential were analysed in the test sample, a control and in the pellet from the swim-up. Results showed that the rhizome extract had significant (P < 0.0001) negative effects on all parameters. The extracts from the leaves and rhizomes revealed dose-dependent inhibitory activity for collagenase and free radical formation. No inhibitory activity for elastase was found. The inhibitory activity for collagenase might indicate possible anti-cancer effects. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  19. In vitro approaches to assess the effects of açai (Euterpe oleracea) digestion on polyphenol availability and the subsequent impact on the faecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Alqurashi, Randah M; Alarifi, Sehad N; Walton, Gemma E; Costabile, Adele F; Rowland, Ian R; Commane, Daniel M

    2017-11-01

    A considerable proportion of dietary plant-polyphenols reach the colon intact; determining the effects of these compounds on colon-health is of interest. We hypothesise that both fibre and plant polyphenols present in açai (Euterpe oleracea) provide prebiotic and anti-genotoxic benefits in the colon. We investigated this hypothesis using a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of açai pulp, and a subsequent pH-controlled, anaerobic, batch-culture fermentation model reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Following in vitro digestion, 49.8% of the total initial polyphenols were available. In mixed-culture fermentations with faecal inoculate, the digested açai pulp precipitated reductions in the numbers of both the Bacteroides-Prevotella spp. and the Clostridium-histolyticum groups, and increased the short-chain fatty acids produced compared to the negative control. The samples retained significant anti-oxidant and anti-genotoxic potential through digestion and fermentation. Dietary intervention studies are needed to prove that consuming açai is beneficial to gut health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of a Clostridium Endospore Viability Assay and Analysis of Greenland Ices and Atacama Desert Soils▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wan-Wan; Ponce, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    A microscopy-based endospore viability assay (micro-EVA) capable of enumerating germinable Clostridium endospores (GCEs) in less than 30 min has been validated and employed to determine GCE concentrations in Greenland ices and Atacama Desert soils. Inoculation onto agarose doped with Tb3+ and d-alanine triggers Clostridium spore germination and the concomitant release of ∼108 molecules of dipicolinic acid (DPA) per endospore, which, under pulsed UV excitation, enables enumeration of resultant green Tb3+-DPA luminescent spots as GCEs with time-gated luminescence microscopy. The intensity time courses of the luminescent spots were characteristic of stage I Clostridium spore germination dynamics. Micro-EVA was validated against traditional CFU cultivation from 0 to 1,000 total endospores/ml (i.e., phase-bright bodies/ml), yielding 56.4% ± 1.5% GCEs and 43.0% ± 1.0% CFU. We also show that d-alanine serves as a Clostridium-specific germinant (three species tested) that inhibits Bacillus germination of spores (five species tested) in that endospore concentration regime. Finally, GCE concentrations in Greenland ice cores and Atacama Desert soils were determined with micro-EVA, yielding 1 to 2 GCEs/ml of Greenland ice (versus <1 CFU/ml after 6 months of incubation) and 66 to 157 GCEs/g of Atacama Desert soil (versus 40 CFU/g soil). PMID:21296951

  1. Probiotics and prevention of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, E J C; Johnson, S J; Maziade, P-J; Evans, C T; Sniffen, J C; Millette, M; McFarland, L V

    2017-06-01

    The role of probiotics as adjunctive measures in the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been controversial. However, a growing body of evidence has suggested that they have a role in primary prevention of CDI. Elements of this controversy are reviewed and the proposed mechanisms of action, the value and cost effectiveness of probiotics are addressed with a focus on three agents, Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and the combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical Characterization of Clostridium Botulinum Neurotoxin Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Acid Res. 14, 7809-78 12. 10 Fujii, N., Kimura, K., Murakami, T ., Indoh, I., Yashiki, T ., Tsuzuki, K., Yokosawa , N. & Oguma, K. (1990) Microbiol...from Clostridium spp. whose genomic DNA is of a high A+ T content (greater than 70% A+ T ), exhibit an extremely strong discrimination against all...BoNT/E, 4-12 Sathyamoorthy T T et al. (1985) H E L I H S L H G LE2 YES 5’-CACGAACTTATACATTCTCTACATGG-3’ 861-886 BoNT/E, 212-220 Wernars & T T A AT

  3. Identification and cloning of two immunogenic Clostridium perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) of C. perfringens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium-related diseases such as gangrenous dermatitis (GD) and necrotic enteritis (NE) are increasingly emerging as major diseases in recent years with high economic loss around the world. In this report, we characterized two immunogenic Clostridium perfringens (CP) proteins (e.g., elongation f...

  4. A Novel Regulator Controls Clostridium difficile Sporulation, Motility and Toxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Adrianne N.; Tamayo, Rita; McBride, Shonna M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Clostridium difficile, is an anaerobic pathogen that forms spores which promote survival in the environment and transmission to new hosts. The regulatory pathways by which C. difficile initiates spore formation are poorly understood. We identified two factors with limited similarity to the Rap sporulation proteins of other spore-forming bacteria. In this study, we show that disruption of the gene CD3668 reduces sporulation and increases toxin production and motility. This mutant was more virulent and exhibited increased toxin gene expression in the hamster model of infection. Based on these phenotypes, we have renamed this locus rstA, for regulator of sporulation and toxins. Our data demonstrate that RstA is a bifunctional protein that upregulates sporulation through an unidentified pathway and represses motility and toxin production by influencing sigD transcription. Conserved RstA orthologs are present in other pathogenic and industrial Clostridium species and may represent a key regulatory protein controlling clostridial sporulation. PMID:26915493

  5. A novel regulator controls Clostridium difficile sporulation, motility and toxin production.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Tamayo, Rita; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic pathogen that forms spores which promote survival in the environment and transmission to new hosts. The regulatory pathways by which C. difficile initiates spore formation are poorly understood. We identified two factors with limited similarity to the Rap sporulation proteins of other spore-forming bacteria. In this study, we show that disruption of the gene CD3668 reduces sporulation and increases toxin production and motility. This mutant was more virulent and exhibited increased toxin gene expression in the hamster model of infection. Based on these phenotypes, we have renamed this locus rstA, for regulator of sporulation and toxins. Our data demonstrate that RstA is a bifunctional protein that upregulates sporulation through an unidentified pathway and represses motility and toxin production by influencing sigD transcription. Conserved RstA orthologs are present in other pathogenic and industrial Clostridium species and may represent a key regulatory protein controlling clostridial sporulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Immobilized anaerobic fermentation for bio-fuel production by Clostridium co-culture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2014-08-01

    Clostridium thermocellum/Clostridium thermolacticum co-culture fermentation has been shown to be a promising way of producing ethanol from several carbohydrates. In this research, immobilization techniques using sodium alginate and alkali pretreatment were successfully applied on this co-culture to improve the bio-ethanol fermentation performance during consolidated bio-processing (CBP). The ethanol yield obtained increased by over 60 % (as a percentage of the theoretical maximum) as compared to free cell fermentation. For cellobiose under optimized conditions, the ethanol yields were approaching about 85 % of the theoretical efficiency. To examine the feasibility of this immobilization co-culture on lignocellulosic biomass conversion, untreated and pretreated aspen biomasses were also used for fermentation experiments. The immobilized co-culture shows clear benefits in bio-ethanol production in the CBP process using pretreated aspen. With a 3-h, 9 % NaOH pretreatment, the aspen powder fermentation yields approached 78 % of the maximum theoretical efficiency, which is almost twice the yield of the untreated aspen fermentation.

  7. The morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jennie H; Olsen, Margaret A; Dubberke, Erik R

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious health care-associated diarrhea and is a major burden to patients and the health care system. The incidence and severity of CDI remain at historically high levels. This article reviews the morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with CDI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in a hepatology ward.

    PubMed

    Vanjak, Dominique; Girault, Guillaume; Branger, Catherine; Rufat, Pierre; Valla, Dominique-Charles; Fantin, Bruno

    2007-02-01

    During 2001, Clostridium difficile infection was observed in 23 patients hospitalized in a hepatology ward (attack rate, 0.9%). Since strain typing ruled out a clonal dissemination, we performed a case-control study. In addition to antibiotic use as a risk factor, the C. difficile infection rate was higher among patients with autoimmune hepatitis (P<.01).

  9. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe Clostridium difficile colitis

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo, J; Keates, S; Pothoulakis, C; Warny, M; Castagliuolo, I; LaMont, J; Kelly, C

    1997-01-01

    Background—Many individuals have serum antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins. Those with an impaired antitoxin response may be susceptible to recurrent, prolonged, or severe C difficile diarrhoea and colitis. 
Aims—To examine whether treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin might be effective in patients with severe pseudomembranous colitis unresponsive to standard antimicrobial therapy. 
Patients—Two patients with pseudomembranous colitis not responding to metronidazole and vancomycin were given normal pooled human immunoglobulin intravenously (200-300 mg/kg). 
Methods—Antibodies against C difficile toxins were measured in nine immunoglobulin preparations by ELISA and by cytotoxin neutralisation assay. 
Results—Both patients responded quickly as shown by resolution of diarrhoea, abdominal tenderness, and distension. All immunoglobulin preparations tested contained IgG against C difficile toxins A and B by ELISA and neutralised the cytotoxic activity of C difficile toxins in vitro at IgG concentrations of 0.4-1.6 mg/ml. 
Conclusion—Passive immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin may be a useful addition to antibiotic therapy for severe, refractory C difficile colitis. IgG antitoxin is present in standard immunoglobulin preparations and C difficile toxin neutralising activity is evident at IgG concentrations which are readily achieved in the serum by intravenous immunoglobulin administration. 

 Keywords: Clostridium difficile; toxin; diarrhoea; IgG; immunotherapy; antibiotic PMID:9378393

  10. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN SEROTYPE B.

    SciTech Connect

    SWAMINATHAN,S.; ESWARAMOORTHY,S.

    2001-11-19

    The toxigenic strains of Clostridium botulinum produce seven serologically distinct types of neurotoxins labeled A - G (EC 3.4.24.69), while Clostridium tetani produces tetanus neurotoxin (EC 3.4.24.68). Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins (BoNTs and TeNT) are produced as single inactive chains of molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Most of these neurotoxins are released after being cleaved into two chains, a heavy chain (HI) of 100 kDa and a light chain (L) of 50 kDa held together by an interchain disulfide bond, by tissue proteinases. BoNT/E is released as a single chain but cleaved by host proteinases [1]. Clostvidium botulinum neurotoxinsmore » are extremely poisonous proteins with their LD{sub 50} for humans in the range of 0.1 - 1 ng kg{sup -1} [2]. Botulinum neurotoxins are responsible for neuroparalytic syndromes of botulism characterized by serious neurological disorders and flaccid paralysis. BoNTs block the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction causing flaccid paralysis while TeNT blocks the release of neurotransmitters like glycine and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the inhibitory interneurons of the spinal cord resulting in spastic paralysis. In spite of different clinical symptoms, their aetiological agents intoxicate neuronal cells in the same way and these toxins have similar structural organization [3].« less

  11. Process engineering and scale-up of autotrophic Clostridium strain P11 syngas fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundiyana, Dimple Kumar Aiyanna

    Scope and Method of Study. Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. The process is currently being researched under laboratory- and pilot-scale in an effort to optimize the process conditions and make the process feasible for commercial production of ethanol and other biofuels such as butanol and propanol. The broad research objectives for the research were to improve ethanol yields during syngas fermentation and to design a economical fermentation process. The research included four statistically designed experimental studies in serum bottles, bench-scale and pilot-scale fermentors to screen alternate fermentation media components, to determine the effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature and buffer on syngas fermentation, to determine the effect of key limiting nutrients of the acetyl-CoA pathway in a continuous series reactor design, and to scale-up the syngas fermentation in a 100-L pilot scale fermentor. Findings and Conclusions. The first experimental study identified cotton seed extract (CSE) as a feasible medium for Clostridium strain P11 fermentation. The study showed that CSE at 0.5 g L-1 can potentially replace all the standard Clostridium strain P11 fermentation media components while using a media buffer did not significantly improve the ethanol production when used in fermentation with CSE. Scale-up of the CSE fermentation in 2-L and 5-L stirred tank fermentors showed 25% increase in ethanol yield. The second experimental study showed that syngas fermentation at 32°C without buffer was associated with higher ethanol concentration and reduced lag time in switching to solventogenesis. Conducting fermentation at 40°C or by lowering incubation pH to 5.0 resulted in reduced cell growth and no production of ethanol or acetic acid. The third experiment studied the effect of three limiting nutrients, calcium pantothenate, vitamin B12 and CoCl2 on syngas fermentation. Results

  12. Determination of binding affinity upon mutation for type I dockerin-cohesin complexes from Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulolyticum using deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kowalsky, Caitlin A; Whitehead, Timothy A

    2016-12-01

    The comprehensive sequence determinants of binding affinity for type I cohesin toward dockerin from Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulolyticum was evaluated using deep mutational scanning coupled to yeast surface display. We measured the relative binding affinity to dockerin for 2970 and 2778 single point mutants of C. thermocellum and C. cellulolyticum, respectively, representing over 96% of all possible single point mutants. The interface ΔΔG for each variant was reconstructed from sequencing counts and compared with the three independent experimental methods. This reconstruction results in a narrow dynamic range of -0.8-0.5 kcal/mol. The computational software packages FoldX and Rosetta were used to predict mutations that disrupt binding by more than 0.4 kcal/mol. The area under the curve of receiver operator curves was 0.82 for FoldX and 0.77 for Rosetta, showing reasonable agreements between predictions and experimental results. Destabilizing mutations to core and rim positions were predicted with higher accuracy than support positions. This benchmark dataset may be useful for developing new computational prediction tools for the prediction of the mutational effect on binding affinities for protein-protein interactions. Experimental considerations to improve precision and range of the reconstruction method are discussed. Proteins 2016; 84:1914-1928. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and Clostridium difficile toxin A/B do not play a role in acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs.

    PubMed

    Busch, K; Suchodolski, J S; Kühner, K A; Minamoto, Y; Steiner, J M; Mueller, R S; Hartmann, K; Unterer, S

    2015-03-07

    Although an association between clostridial pathogens and canine idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) has been described, the relevance of those bacteria and their toxins remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between severity of clinical signs and presence of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) and Clostridium difficile toxin A/B (CDT A/B) in faeces of dogs with AHDS. Faecal samples of 54 dogs with idiopathic AHDS were tested by qualitative CPE and CDT A/B ELISA, and PCR was performed to detect enterotoxin genes of C. perfringens (cpe) and toxin B genes of C. difficile (cdt b). Prevalence of cdt b and CDT A/B in dogs with AHDS was 10/54 and 2/54 versus 3/23 and 0/23 in control dogs. Prevalence of cpe was 35/54 in affected versus 9/23 in control dogs. Prevalence of CPE in dogs with AHDS (13/54) was higher compared with control dogs (0/23). No significant difference was detected between CPE-positive and -negative and between cpe-positive and -negative dogs in severity of clinical signs, duration of hospitalisation, mortality rate and selected laboratory parameters. This study suggests that CPE and CDT A/B do not play a role in idiopathic AHDS, are not associated with clinical parameters in affected dogs and cannot be used to predict disease outcome. British Veterinary Association.

  14. A New Type of Toxin A-Negative, Toxin B-Positive Clostridium difficile Strain Lacking a Complete tcdA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Mercedes; Martín, Adoración; Rupnik, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Toxins A and B are the main virulence factors of Clostridium difficile and are the targets for molecular diagnostic tests. Here, we describe a new toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive, binary toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase)-negative (A− B+ CDT−) toxinotype (XXXII) characterized by a variant type of pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) without tcdA and with atypical organization of the PaLoc integration site. PMID:25428159

  15. The Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Predisposes for the Development of Clostridium perfringens-Induced Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Antonissen, Gunther; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Timbermont, Leen; Verlinden, Marc; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (P<0.001). DON significantly reduced the transepithelial electrical resistance in duodenal segments (P<0.001) and decreased duodenal villus height (P = 0.014) indicating intestinal barrier disruption and intestinal epithelial damage, respectively. This may lead to an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium and decreased absorption of dietary proteins. Protein analysis of duodenal content indeed showed that DON contamination resulted in a significant increase in total protein concentration (P = 0.023). Furthermore, DON had no effect on in vitro growth, alpha toxin production and netB toxin transcription of Clostridium perfringens. In conclusion, feed contamination with DON at concentrations below the European maximum guidance level of 5,000 µg/kg feed, is a predisposing factor for the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens. PMID:25268498

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of tetracycline and minocycline resistance in Clostridium perfringens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of tetracycline resistance and the prevalence of tetracycline-resistance genes in strains of Clostridium perfringens isolated from different sources between 1994 and 2005. Susceptibility to tetracycline and minocycline in C. perfringens isolates ...

  17. Submission of nucleotide sequence clostridium perfringens NetB toxin to genbank database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens can cause gas gangrene and food poisoning in humans and causes several enterot-oxemic diseases in animals including avian necrotic enteritis. This disease affects all chicken producing countries worldwide and is a considerable burden on the commercial chicken production indus...

  18. Initiation of sporulation in Clostridium difficile: a twist on the classic model.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Adrianne N; McBride, Shonna M

    2014-09-01

    The formation of dormant endospores is a complex morphological process that permits long-term survival in inhospitable environments for many Gram-positive bacteria. Sporulation for the anaerobic gastrointestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile is necessary for survival outside of the gastrointestinal tract of its host. While the developmental stages of spore formation are largely conserved among endospore-forming bacteria, the genus Clostridium appears to be missing a number of conserved regulators required for efficient sporulation in other spore-forming bacteria. Several recent studies have discovered novel mechanisms and distinct regulatory pathways that control the initiation of sporulation and early-sporulation-specific gene expression. These differences in regulating the decision to undergo sporulation reflects the unique ecological niche and environmental conditions that C. difficile inhabits and encounters within the mammalian host. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of a Toxic Moiety of Low Molecular Weight from Clostridium botulinum Type A

    PubMed Central

    Gerwing, Julia; Dolman, Claude E.; Bains, Hardial S.

    1965-01-01

    Gerwing, Julia (The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada), Claude E. Dolman, and Hardial S. Bains. Isolation and characterization of a toxic moiety of low molecular weight from Clostridium botulinum type A. J. Bacteriol. 89:1383–1386. 1965.—A toxic moiety of low molecular weight has been isolated from a type A strain of Clostridium botulinum, by a method involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and elution through diethylaminoethyl cellulose at pH 5.6. By means of electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation, the toxic substance was shown to be homogeneous; a molecular weight of 12,200 was calculated. Images PMID:14293025

  20. Microbiologic factors affecting Clostridium difficile recurrence.

    PubMed

    Chilton, C H; Pickering, D S; Freeman, J

    2018-05-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilities. Furthermore, rCDI may affect quality of life, leaving patients in an rCDI cycle and dependant on antibiotic therapy. To discuss the importance of microbiologic factors in the development of rCDI. Literature was drawn from a search of PubMed from 2000 onwards with the search term 'recurrent Clostridium difficile infection' and further references cited within these articles. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have shown that CDI and rCDI risk factors are similar. Development of rCDI is attendant on many factors, including immune status or function, comorbidities and concomitant treatments. Studies suggest that poor bacterial diversity is correlated with clinical rCDI. Narrow-spectrum gut microflora-sparing antimicrobials (e.g. surotomycin, cadazolid, ridinilazole) are in development for CDI treatment, while microbiota therapeutics (faecal microbiota transplantation, nontoxigenic C. difficile, stool substitutes) are increasingly being explored. rCDI can only occur when viable C. difficile spores are present, either within the gut lumen after infection or when reacquired from the environment. C. difficile spore germination can be influenced by gut environmental factors resulting from dysbiosis, and spore outgrowth may be affected stage by some antimicrobials (e.g. fidaxomicin, ramoplanin, oritavancin). rCDI is a significant challenge for healthcare professionals, requiring a multifaceted approach; optimized infection control to minimize reinfection; C. difficile-targeted antibiotics to minimize dysbiosis; and gut microflora restoration to promote colonization resistance. These elements should be informed by our understanding of the microbiologic factors involved in both C. difficile itself and the gut microbiome. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative in vitro activities of LFF571 against Clostridium difficile and 630 other intestinal strains of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Citron, Diane M; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Merriam, C Vreni; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2012-05-01

    The in vitro activities of LFF571, a novel analog of GE2270A that inhibits bacterial growth by binding with high affinity for protein synthesis elongation factor Tu, fidaxomicin, and 10 other antimicrobial agents were determined against 50 strains of Clostridium difficile and 630 other anaerobic and aerobic organisms of intestinal origin. LFF571 possesses potent activity against C. difficile and most other Gram-positive anaerobes (MIC(90), ≤ 0.25 μg/ml), with the exception of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. The MIC(90)s for aerobes, including enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus (as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, and other streptococci were 0.06, 0.125, 2, and 8 μg/ml, respectively. Comparatively, fidaxomicin showed variable activity against Gram-positive organisms: MIC(90)s against C. difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and Bifidobacterium spp. were 0.5, ≤ 0.015, and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively, but >32 μg/ml against Clostridium ramosum and Clostridium innocuum. MIC(90) for S. pyogenes and other streptococci was 16 and >32 μg/ml, respectively. LFF571 and fidaxomicin were generally less active against Gram-negative anaerobes.

  2. Fecal microbiota transplantation in children with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Pierog, Anne; Mencin, Ali; Reilly, Norelle Rizkalla

    2014-11-01

    Clostridium difficile eradication using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successful in adults but little information is available in pediatrics. We report 6 pediatric patients with refractory C. difficile cured by FMT with no recurrences to date. Our results demonstrate that FMT can be an effective treatment for refractory C. difficile infection in pediatrics. Long-term safety and efficacy need to be studied.

  3. Diagnostic multiplex PCR for toxin genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolates.

    PubMed

    Baums, Christoph G; Schotte, Ulrich; Amtsberg, Gunter; Goethe, Ralph

    2004-05-20

    In this study we provide a protocol for genotyping Clostridium perfringens with a new multiplex PCR. This PCR enables reliable and specific detection of the toxin genes cpa, cpb, etx, iap, cpe and cpb2 from heat lysed bacterial suspensions. The efficiency of the protocol was demonstrated by typing C. perfringens reference strains and isolates from veterinary bacteriological routine diagnostic specimens.

  4. First described case of prosthetic joint infection with Clostridium disporicum.

    PubMed

    McBride, Joseph A; Sterkel, Alana K; Rehrauer, William M; Smith, Jeannina A

    2017-12-01

    An orthopedic hardware infection with Clostridium disporicum is described. C. disporicum is a gram positive anaerobic bacillus which can contain two subterminal spores. C. disporicum had not previously been reported in musculoskeletal infections. Gram stains demonstrating gram positive bacilli with two subterminal spores should alert practitioners to the possibility of C. disporicum infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Clostridium perfringens type A–E toxin plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, John C.; Theoret, James R.; Wisniewski, Jessica A.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Rood, Julian I.; McClane, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens relies upon plasmid-encoded toxin genes to cause intestinal infections. These toxin genes are associated with insertion sequences that may facilitate their mobilization and transfer, giving rise to new toxin plasmids with common backbones. Most toxin plasmids carry a transfer of clostridial plasmids locus mediating conjugation, which likely explains the presence of similar toxin plasmids in otherwise unrelated C. perfringens strains. The association of many toxin genes with insertion sequences and conjugative plasmids provides virulence flexibility when causing intestinal infections. However, incompatibility issues apparently limit the number of toxin plasmids maintained by a single cell. PMID:25283728

  6. Incidence and tracking of Clostridium perfringens through an integrated broiler chicken operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens has been shown to be widespread in the broiler chicken hatchery, grow-out, and processing operations. In a previous study, ribotypes of certain strains of C. perfringens isolated from processed chicken carcasses were shown to match ribotypes isolated from paper pad lining tra...

  7. Bacteriophages of the family siphoviridae contain amidase enzymes that lyse Clostridium perfringens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    *Agtech-Danisco, current address In chickens Clostridium perfringens (Cp) is the etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis and causes gas gangrene along with being the third leading cause of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. While the disease in poultry can be controlled by antibiotics, th...

  8. Natural Clostridium botulinum Type C Toxicosis in a Group of Cats

    PubMed Central

    Elad, D.; Yas-Natan, E.; Aroch, I.; Shamir, M. H.; Kleinbart, S.; Hadash, D.; Chaffer, M.; Greenberg, K.; Shlosberg, A.

    2004-01-01

    Clinical signs of botulism were observed in a group of eight cats, four of which died, after being fed pelican carrion. Clostridium botulinum type C was isolated from one cat. The microorganism and its toxin were found in the pelican. This is apparently the first report of natural botulism in cats. PMID:15528757

  9. Near complete genome sequence of Clostridium paradoxum strain JW-YL-7

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, Andrew; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Poole, Farris

    2016-05-05

    Clostridium paradoxum strain JW-YL-7 is a moderately thermophilic anaerobic alkaliphile isolated from the municipal sewage treatment plant in Athens, GA. We report the near-complete genome sequence of C. paradoxum strain JW-YL-7 obtained by using PacBio DNA sequencing and Pilon for sequence assembly refinement with Illumina data.

  10. Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile in cooked beef sold in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Kra Athanase; Dadie, Adjéhi Thomas; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Dje, Koffi Marcellin; Loukou, Yao Guillaume

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in cooked beef sold in the streets in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 395 kidney and flesh samples of cooked beef were collected from vendors at Abidjan and subjected to C. difficile and C. perfringens isolation and identification by using biochemical tests, API 20A system and PCR detection. Subsequently, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for confirmed isolates. Our results showed the prevalence of 12.4% for C. difficile (11.04% in kidney and 13.45% in flesh) and 5.06% for C. perfringens (2.32% in kidney and 7.17% in flesh). Metronidazole and vancomycin remained the most potent antimicrobial agents against C. difficile while metronidazole and penicillin G were the most potent agents against C. perfringens. The resistance rates to tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and erythromycin against C. difficile and C. perfringens isolates ranged from 2.05% to 8.16% and from 20% to 50%, respectively. Among all antimicrobial agents tested against C. difficile, percentages of resistance to quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid as well as to gentamicin and cefotaxime were the highest. Eight resistant phenotypes were defined for C. difficile isolates and eleven resistant phenotypes for C. perfringens isolates. Clindamycin/gentamicin/cefotaxime/ciprofloxacin/norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. difficile (55.10% of isolates) while norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. perfringens (20% of isolates). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Strategies for improved isopropanol-butanol production by a Clostridium strain from glucose and hemicellulose through consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Xin, Fengxue; Chen, Tianpeng; Jiang, Yujiang; Dong, Weiliang; Zhang, Wenming; Zhang, Min; Wu, Hao; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min

    2017-01-01

    High cost of traditional substrates and formation of by-products (such as acetone and ethanol) in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation hindered the large-scale production of biobutanol. Here, we comprehensively characterized a newly isolated solventogenic and xylanolytic Clostridium species, which could produce butanol at a high ratio with elimination of ethanol and conversion of acetone to more value-added product, isopropanol. Ultimately, direct butanol production from hemicellulose was achieved with efficient expression of indigenous xylanase by the novel strain via consolidated bioprocessing. A novel wild-type Clostridium sp. strain NJP7 was isolated and characterized in this study, which was capable of fermenting monosaccharides, e.g., glucose into butanol via a fermentative acetone-isopropanol-butanol pathway. With enhancement of buffering capacity and alcohol dehydrogenase activities, butanol and isopropanol titer by Clostridium sp. strain NJP7 was improved to 12.21 and 1.92 g/L, respectively, and solvent productivity could be enhanced to 0.44 g/L/h. Furthermore, with in situ extraction with biodiesel, the amount of butanol and isopropanol was finally improved to 25.58 and 5.25 g/L in the fed-batch mode. Meanwhile, Clostridium sp. strain NJP7 shows capability of direct isopropanol-butanol production from hemicelluloses with expression of indigenous xylanase. 2.06 g/L of butanol and 0.54 g/L of isopropanol were finally achieved through the temperature-shift simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, representing the highest butanol production directly from hemicellulose. The co-production of isopropanol with butanol by the newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain NJP7 would add on the economical values for butanol fermentation. Furthermore, the high isopropanol-butanol production with in situ extraction would also greatly enhance the economic feasibility for fermentative production of butanol-isopropanol in large scale. Meanwhile, its direct

  12. Clostridium difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Borer, Abraham; Odes, Selwyn

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease has become a serious clinical problem over the past few years. This review is focused on the current changes in epidemiology, pertinent clinical aspects, standard and newer diagnostic methods, established and novel therapies, and prevention of infection. There is emphasis on the importance of clinical awareness, rapid detection by stool testing, and appropriate antibiotic therapy, while newer technologies, antibiotics and other treatments are explored. PMID:24713726

  13. Clostridium botulinum in Scottish fish farms and farmed trout.

    PubMed

    Burns, G F; Williams, H

    1975-02-01

    Rainbow trout and specimens of pond mud were collected from three fish farms and examined for the presence of Clostridium botulinum. Two of the farms were constructed with concrete channels and one was mud-bottomed. Cl. botulinum was isolated only from the mud-bottomed farm (24% of muds), and the isolates were all non-proteolytic type B. The implications of the presence of Cl. botulinum spores in the mud of fish farms is discussed.

  14. Biodegradation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) by a strain of Clostridium bifermentans

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, C.Y.; Crawford, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    A Clostridium capable of degrading 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) cometabolically was isolated from a mixed culture obtained from a bioreactor fed TNT. This bacterium, identified as a strain of Clostridium bifermentans, and designated strain CYS-1, was able to degrade TNT via 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) to aliphatic polar products which are now being identified and are assumed to be organic acids. CYS 1 cells are tolerant of TNT and capable of degrading it at starting concentrations of up to {ge}100 mg/L TNT. The number of cells inoculated and the availability of cosubstrate nutrients are significant factors influencing TNT degradation, as aremore » TNT tolerance and survival of the cells at high TNT concentrations. In liquid media, at high TNT concentrations, TNT toxicity could be overcome by increasing the amount of inoculum and supplementing the culture with appropriate rich organic cosubstrates. Under these conditions, the reduction of 4-ADNT to 2,4-DANT occurred very fast, whereas the further degradation of 2,4-DANT proceeded more slowly.« less

  15. A simple electroelution method for rapid protein purification: isolation and antibody production of alpha toxin from Clostridium septicum.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Estefanell-Ucha, Borja; Barcia-Castro, Leticia; Páez de la Cadena, María; Álvarez-Chaver, Paula; Ayude-Vázquez, Daniel; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium septicum produces a number of diseases in human and farm animals which, in most of the cases, are fatal without clinical intervention. Alpha toxin is an important agent and the unique lethal virulent factor produced by Clostridium septicum. This toxin is haemolytic, highly lethal and necrotizing activities but is being used as an antigen to develop animal vaccines. The aim of this study was to isolate the alpha toxin of Clostridium septicum and produce highly specific antibodies against it. In this work, we have developed a simple and efficient method for alpha toxin purification, based on electroelution that can be used as a time-saving method for purifying proteins. This technique avoids contamination by other proteins that could appear during other protein purification techniques such chromatography. The highly purified toxin was used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The specificity of the antibodies was tested by western blot and these antibodies can be applied to the quantitative determination of alpha toxin by slot blot.

  16. A simple electroelution method for rapid protein purification: isolation and antibody production of alpha toxin from Clostridium septicum

    PubMed Central

    Estefanell-Ucha, Borja; Barcia-Castro, Leticia; Páez de la Cadena, María; Álvarez-Chaver, Paula; Ayude-Vázquez, Daniel; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium septicum produces a number of diseases in human and farm animals which, in most of the cases, are fatal without clinical intervention. Alpha toxin is an important agent and the unique lethal virulent factor produced by Clostridium septicum. This toxin is haemolytic, highly lethal and necrotizing activities but is being used as an antigen to develop animal vaccines. The aim of this study was to isolate the alpha toxin of Clostridium septicum and produce highly specific antibodies against it. In this work, we have developed a simple and efficient method for alpha toxin purification, based on electroelution that can be used as a time-saving method for purifying proteins. This technique avoids contamination by other proteins that could appear during other protein purification techniques such chromatography. The highly purified toxin was used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The specificity of the antibodies was tested by western blot and these antibodies can be applied to the quantitative determination of alpha toxin by slot blot. PMID:28652930

  17. Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Wiep Klaas; Lyras, Dena; Lacy, D. Borden; Wilcox, Mark H.; Kuijper, Ed J.

    2017-01-01

    Infection of the colon with the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium difficile is potentially life threatening, especially in elderly people and in patients who have dysbiosis of the gut microbiota following antimicrobial drug exposure. C. difficile is the leading cause of health-care-associated infective diarrhoea. The life cycle of C. difficile is influenced by antimicrobial agents, the host immune system, and the host microbiota and its associated metabolites. The primary mediators of inflammation in C. difficile infection (CDI) are large clostridial toxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), and, in some bacterial strains, the binary toxin CDT. The toxins trigger a complex cascade of host cellular responses to cause diarrhoea, inflammation and tissue necrosis — the major symptoms of CDI. The factors responsible for the epidemic of some C. difficile strains are poorly understood. Recurrent infections are common and can be debilitating. Toxin detection for diagnosis is important for accurate epidemiological study, and for optimal management and prevention strategies. Infections are commonly treated with specific antimicrobial agents, but faecal microbiota transplants have shown promise for recurrent infections. Future biotherapies for C. difficile infections are likely to involve defined combinations of key gut microbiota. PMID:27158839

  18. Xylanase 30 A from Clostridium thermocellum functions as a glucuronoxylan xylanohydrolase

    Treesearch

    Franz J. St John; Casey Crooks; Diane Dietrich; Jason Hurlbert

    2017-01-01

    Endoxylanases classified into glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 (GH30-8) have been shown to hydrolyze glucuronoxylan with dependence upon the glucuronic acid (GlcA) appendage. In a recent report, the GH30-8 xylanase from Clostridium thermocellum (CtXyn30A) was shown to hydrolyze arabinoxylan which contains no GlcA. Protein structure...

  19. BACTERIOPHAGES OF THE FAMILY SIPHOVIRIDAE CONTAIN AMIDASE ENZYMES THAT LYSE CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In chickens Clostridium perfringens (Cp) is the etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis and causes gas gangrene along with being the third leading cause of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. While the disease in poultry can be controlled by antibiotics, there is increasing pressure to ban...

  20. Clostridium difficile-associated disease: impact of the updated SHEA/IDSA guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, Scott E

    2010-12-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is an increasingly difficult condition to treat because of the emergence of antibiotic resistance and highly pathogenic strains of bacteria. These newly identified strains affect patients in every facet of health care, from individuals in the community to those in intensive care units and all points in between. Appropriate management regarding diagnosis, infection control, pharmacotherapy, and prevention is the key to good outcomes in all patient populations. Geriatric patients are particularly at risk of acquiring CDAD as a result of their gradually declining immune systems and increased exposure to health care facilities. Therefore, they merit a higher level of attention when CDAD is suspected. In an effort to identify the best practices, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America in conjunction with the Infectious Diseases Society of America developed guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of Clostridium-associated disease. By utilizing these guidelines to educate other health care practitioners and by considering the recommendations in their own practice, pharmacists can have a positive impact on every facet of CDAD prevention and management.

  1. The effect of a therapy protocol for increasing correction of severely contracted proximal interphalangeal joints caused by dupuytren disease and treated with collagenase injection.

    PubMed

    Skirven, Terri M; Bachoura, Abdo; Jacoby, Sidney M; Culp, Randall W; Osterman, A Lee

    2013-04-01

    To determine the effect of a specific orthotic intervention and therapy protocol on proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures of greater than 40° caused by Dupuytren disease and treated with collagenase injections. All patients with PIP joints contracted at least 40° by Dupuytren disease were prospectively invited to participate in the study. Following standard collagenase injection and cord rupture by a hand surgeon, a certified hand therapist evaluated and treated each patient based on a defined treatment protocol that consisted of orthotic intervention to address residual PIP joint contracture. In addition, exercises were initiated emphasizing reverse blocking for PIP joint extension and distal interphalangeal joint flexion exercises with the PIP joint held in extension to lengthen a frequently shortened oblique retinacular ligament. Patients were assessed before injection, immediately after injection, and 1 and 4 weeks later. There were 22 fingers in 21 patients. The mean age at treatment was 63 years (range, 37-80 y). The mean baseline passive PIP joint contracture was 56° (range, 40° to 80°). At cord rupture, the mean PIP joint contracture became 22° (range, 0° to 55°). One week after cord rupture and therapy, the contracture decreased further to a mean of 12° (range, 0° to 36°). By 4 weeks, the mean contracture was 7° (range, 0° to 35°). The differences in PIP joint contracture were statistically significant at all time points except when comparing the means at 1 week and 4 weeks. The results represent an 88% improvement of the PIP joint contracture. In the short term, it appears that severe PIP joint contractures benefit from specific, postinjection orthotic intervention and targeted exercises. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Clostridium butyricum supplementation on the development of intestinal flora and the immune system of neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Rui-Xue; Zhu, Xin-Xin; Wan, Chao-Min; Wang, Zhi-Ling; Wen, Yang; Li, Yi-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether Clostridium butyricum supplementation has a role in the regulation of the intestinal flora and the development of the immune system of neonatal mice. A total of 30 pregnant BALB/c mice, including their offspring, were randomly divided into three groups: In the maternal intervention group (Ba), maternal mice were treated with Clostridium butyricum from birth until weaning at postnatal day 21 (PD21) followed by administration of saline to the offspring at PD21-28; in the offspring intervention group (Ab), breast-feeding maternal mice were supplemented with saline and offspring were directly supplemented with Clostridium butyricum from PD21-28; in the both maternal and offspring intervention group (Bb), both maternal mice and offspring were supplemented with Clostridium butyricum at PD 0-21 and at PD21-28. While mice in the control group were given the same volume of normal saline. Stool samples from the offspring were collected at PD14, -21 and -28 to observe the intestinal flora by colony counts of Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Detection of intestinal secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels and serum cytokine (interferon-γ, and interleukin-12, -4 and -10) levels in offspring was performed to evaluate the effect on their immune system. The results revealed that compared with the control group, offspring in the Ba group displayed significantly decreased stool colony counts of Enterococcus spp. (t=3.123, P<0.01) at PD14 and significantly decreased counts of Enterobacter spp. at PD14 and -21 (t=2.563, P<0.05 and t=2.292, P<0.05, respectively). Compared with the control group, the stool colony counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were significantly increased in the Ba group at PD21 (t=3.085, P<0.01 and t=2.8508, P<0.05, respectively). The Ab group had significantly higher stool colony counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. at PD28

  3. Flooding and Health Care Visits for Clostridium Difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Floods can contaminate potable water and other resources, thus increasing the potential for fecal-oral transmission of pathogens. Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water and cause acute gastrointestinal illness. It often affects older adults who are hospital...

  4. Fulminant massive gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Shoji; Okada, Yumi; Mita, Masaki; Okamoto, Yasuo; Kato, Hirotaka; Ueyama, Shigemitsu; Fujii, Ikuzo; Morita, Sumiharu; Yoshida, Yasuaki

    2005-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens (C.P) gas gangrene is one of the most fulminant infectious diseases. We encountered fulminant massive gas gangrene in a 56- year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The patient died 14 hours after diagnosis of gas gangrene (54 hours after admission). Dramatic changes in abdominal CT imaging revealed development of a massive volume of gas in the intra-portal vein, retroperitoneum and abdominal subcutaneous tissue within 24 hours. We also proved C.P infection by immunohistological staining, leading to a diagnosis of C.P gas gangrene.

  5. Systematic review: faecal transplantation for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, B; Harstall, C; Louie, T; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S; Dieleman, L A

    2012-04-01

    Management of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD), particularly in elderly patients, remains clinically challenging. Faecal transplantation (FT) may restore normal microbiota and break the cycle of recurrent CDAD. To critically appraise the clinical research evidence on the safety and effectiveness of FT compared with standard care in the treatment of patients with CDAD. A comprehensive literature search was conducted by a research librarian to identify relevant studies published between 2000 and 2011. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Biological Abstracts, BIOSIS Previews and Web of Science were searched using the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and keywords, alone or in combination: Clostridium infections/Clostridium difficile/pseudomembranous/colitis/faeces/rectal/colon flora/gastrointestinal/nasogastric tube/enema/donor/transplant/infusion/bacteriotherapy/human probiotic infusion. Methodological quality of the included case series studies was assessed in terms of patient selection criteria, consecutive recruitment, prospective data collection, reporting of lost to follow-up, and follow-up rates. No controlled studies were found. Based on the weak evidence from seven full-text case series studies of 124 patients with recurrent/refractory CDAD, FT appears to be a safe and effective procedure. In most cases (83%) symptoms improved immediately after the first FT procedure, and some patients stayed diarrhoea free for several months or years. Although these results appear to be promising, the treatment effects of faecal transplantation cannot be determined definitively in the absence of a control group. Results from randomised controlled trials that compare faecal transplantation to oral vancomycin without or with a taper regimen will help to better define the role of faecal transplantation in the management of recurrent CDAD. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Ischaemic stroke and Clostridium septicum sepsis and meningitis in a patient with occult colon carcinoma - a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Macha, Kosmas; Giede-Jeppe, Antje; Lücking, Hannes; Coras, Roland; Huttner, Hagen B; Held, Jürgen

    2016-11-24

    Clostridium septicum is a rare cause of meningitis and brain abscess in children and adults. Gas production by the pathogen can lead to pneumocephalus and the overall mortality rate of Clostridium septicum CNS infection is as high as 74%. The most common entry site of the pathogen is the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a 74-year-old man who presented with a left-sided cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory. In addition the patient showed signs of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation. Examination of blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid led to the diagnosis of sepsis and meningitis caused by Clostridium septicum. Despite appropriate antibiotic therapy the condition of the patient deteriorated rapidly and he died on day 2 after admission. Autopsy revealed a previously unknown adenocarcinoma of the colon ascendens as entry site of the pathogen. Clostridium septicum should be considered as potential pathogen in patients with sepsis and meningitis. Gram stain morphology in conjunction with severe sepsis can rapidly point into the direction of this pathogen. CNS infections manifest either as meningoencephalitis/cerebritis or as brain abscess. Entry site of the pathogen is almost uniquely the gastrointestinal tract. In adults more than 50% suffer from colorectal carcinoma, therefore survivors of Clostridium septicum infections should be examined for underlying occult colorectal malignancy.

  7. Six rapid tests for direct detection of Clostridium difficile and its toxins in fecal samples compared with the fibroblast cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, David K; Novicki, Thomas J; Quick, John; Carlson, LaDonna; Miller, Pat; Ulness, Bruce; Cent, Anne; Ashley, Rhoda; Larson, Ann; Coyle, Marie; Limaye, Ajit P; Cookson, Brad T; Fritsche, Thomas R

    2003-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is one of the most frequent causes of nosocomial gastrointestinal disease. Risk factors include prior antibiotic therapy, bowel surgery, and the immunocompromised state. Direct fecal analysis for C. difficile toxin B by tissue culture cytotoxin B assay (CBA), while only 60 to 85% sensitive overall, is a common laboratory method. We have used 1,003 consecutive, nonduplicate fecal samples to compare six commercially available immunoassays (IA) for C. difficile detection with CBA: Prima System Clostridium difficile Tox A and VIDAS Clostridium difficile Tox A II, which detect C. difficile toxin A; Premier Cytoclone A/B and Techlab Clostridium difficile Tox A/B, which detect toxins A and B; and ImmunoCard Clostridium difficile and Triage Micro C. difficile panels, which detect toxin A and a species-specific antigen. For all tests, Triage antigen was most sensitive (89.1%; negative predictive value [NPV] = 98.7%) while ImmunoCard was most specific (99.7%; positive predictive value [PPV] = 95.0%). For toxin tests only, Prima System had the highest sensitivity (82.2%; NPV = 98.0%) while ImmunoCard had the highest specificity (99.7%; PPV = 95.0%). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients contributed 44.7% of all samples tested, and no significant differences in sensitivity or specificity were noted between HSCT and non-HSCT patients. IAs, while not as sensitive as direct fecal CBA, produce reasonable predictive values, especially when both antigen and toxin are detected. They also offer significant advantages over CBA in terms of turnaround time and ease of use.

  8. Regulation of Toxin Production in Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Kaori; Shimizu, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens is widely distributed in nature, especially in soil and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. C. perfringens causes gas gangrene and food poisoning, and it produces extracellular enzymes and toxins that are thought to act synergistically and contribute to its pathogenesis. A complicated regulatory network of toxin genes has been reported that includes a two-component system for regulatory RNA and cell-cell communication. It is necessary to clarify the global regulatory system of these genes in order to understand and treat the virulence of C. perfringens. We summarize the existing knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms here. PMID:27399773

  9. Mathematical Modeling of the Transmission Dynamics of Clostridium difficile Infection and Colonization in Healthcare Settings: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Guillaume; Guertin, Marie-Hélène; Laprise, Jean-François; Drolet, Mélanie; Brisson, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a systematic review of mathematical models of transmission dynamic of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in healthcare settings, to provide an overview of existing models and their assessment of different CDI control strategies. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science up to February 3, 2016 for transmission-dynamic models of Clostridium difficile in healthcare settings. The models were compared based on their natural history representation of Clostridium difficile, which could include health states (S-E-A-I-R-D: Susceptible-Exposed-Asymptomatic-Infectious-Resistant-Deceased) and the possibility to include healthcare workers and visitors (vectors of transmission). Effectiveness of interventions was compared using the relative reduction (compared to no intervention or current practice) in outcomes such as incidence of colonization, CDI, CDI recurrence, CDI mortality, and length of stay. Results Nine studies describing six different models met the inclusion criteria. Over time, the models have generally increased in complexity in terms of natural history and transmission dynamics and number/complexity of interventions/bundles of interventions examined. The models were categorized into four groups with respect to their natural history representation: S-A-I-R, S-E-A-I, S-A-I, and S-E-A-I-R-D. Seven studies examined the impact of CDI control strategies. Interventions aimed at controlling the transmission, lowering CDI vulnerability and reducing the risk of recurrence/mortality were predicted to reduce CDI incidence by 3–49%, 5–43% and 5–29%, respectively. Bundles of interventions were predicted to reduce CDI incidence by 14–84%. Conclusions Although CDI is a major public health problem, there are very few published transmission-dynamic models of Clostridium difficile. Published models vary substantially in the interventions examined, the outcome measures used and the representation of the natural history of Clostridium

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598, a Potential Butanol or Hydrogen Producer.

    PubMed

    Kolek, Jan; Sedlár, Karel; Provazník, Ivo; Patáková, Petra

    2014-03-20

    We present a draft genome sequence of Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598. This strain ferments saccharides by two-stage acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation, is oxygen tolerant, and has high hydrogen yields.

  11. [Management of Clostridium difficile infections at German intensive care units - results from a survey among intensivists].

    PubMed

    Bruensing, Jan; Buendgens, Lukas; Jochum, Christoph; Herbers, Ulf; Canbay, Ali; Braun, Georg; Trautwein, Christian; Huber, Wolfgang; Koch, Alexander; Tacke, Frank

    2018-06-01

    Clostridium difficile associated colitis is a frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhea at the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with poor prognosis in critically ill patients. Few studies have evaluated the efficacy of treatment options or adherence to guideline recommendations of Clostridium difficile infections at the ICU.  Therefore, on behalf of the Gastroenterology Intensive Care Medicine working group of the DGVS, we have conducted an online-based survey among leading intensivists in Germany.  Out of the 351 invited, 85 (24.2 %), primarily leading executive physicians at primary to tertiary care hospitals, completed the survey. They reported standardized diagnostic algorithms of 79.3 %, in line with current guideline recommendations (i. e., toxin testing in stool, possibly GDH screening, and endoscopy). First-line therapy of Clostridium difficile infections at the ICU was reported to be oral vancomycin in 48.3 % and oral metronidazole in 34.5 %. The success of first-line therapy was estimated at 67 % for clinical cure, 15 % persisting colitis, 5 % sepsis or megacolon, 10 % recurrence, and 3 % death. Hospitals of primary/secondary care more often used metronidazole compared to university hospitals. Standard treatments for recurrent infection were vancomycin orally (40 % alone, 29.1 % combined with metronidazole) or, more rarely, fidaxomicin (25.5 %). Fidaxomicin has been used at least once at the ICU in 79 % of the respondents. Eleven percent have used fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in selected cases at the ICU.  Our survey indicated a high awareness of German intensivists for Clostridium difficile infections, but also marked differences in local therapeutic algorithms, especially in first-line treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Haemagglutination and surface structures in strains of Clostridium spiroforme.

    PubMed

    Baldassarri, L; Pantosti, A; Caprioli, A; Mastrantonio, P; Donelli, G

    1989-07-01

    Five strains of Clostridium spiroforme were examined for their surface properties. All strains were able to agglutinate human erythrocytes. Electron microscopy showed a ruthenium red-positive capsule mediating the attachment of bacteria to erythrocytes. Two strains, showing the lowest degree of haemagglutination, exhibited an additional external layer of filamentous structures, possibly interfering with the agglutinating activity. In spite of their agglutinating ability, the C. spiroforme strains did not show surface hydrophobicity, thus suggesting the possible existence of a new type of clostridial adhesin.

  13. A case of reactive arthritis due to Clostridium difficile colitis

    PubMed Central

    Essenmacher, Alex C.; Khurram, Nazish; Bismack, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive arthritis is an acute, aseptic, inflammatory arthropathy following an infectious process but removed from the site of primary infection. It is often attributed to genitourinary and enteric pathogens, such as Chlamydia, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Yersinia, in susceptible individuals. An uncommon and less recognized cause of this disease is preceding colonic infection with Clostridium difficile, an organism associated with pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea in hospitalized patients and those recently exposed to antibiotics. Recognition of this association may be complicated by non-specific presentation of diarrhea, the interval between gastrointestinal and arthritic symptoms, and the wide differential in mono- and oligoarthritis. We present the case of a 61-year-old, hospitalized patient recently treated for C. difficile colitis who developed sudden, non-traumatic, right knee pain and swelling. Physical examination and radiographs disclosed joint effusion, and sterile aspiration produced cloudy fluid with predominant neutrophils and no growth on cultures. Diagnostic accuracy is enhanced by contemporaneous laboratory investigations excluding other entities such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis and other infections that typically precede reactive arthritis. Contribution of Clostridium infection to reactive arthritis is an obscure association frequently difficult to prove, but this organism is warranted inclusion in the differential of reactive arthritis. PMID:26908381

  14. The Binary Toxin CDT of Clostridium difficile as a Tool for Intracellular Delivery of Bacterial Glucosyltransferase Domains.

    PubMed

    Beer, Lara-Antonia; Tatge, Helma; Schneider, Carmen; Ruschig, Maximilian; Hust, Michael; Barton, Jessica; Thiemann, Stefan; Fühner, Viola; Russo, Giulio; Gerhard, Ralf

    2018-06-01

    Binary toxins are produced by several pathogenic bacteria. Examples are the C2 toxin from Clostridium botulinum , the iota toxin from Clostridium perfringens, and the CDT from Clostridium difficile . All these binary toxins have ADP-ribosyltransferases (ADPRT) as their enzymatically active component that modify monomeric actin in their target cells. The binary C2 toxin was intensively described as a tool for intracellular delivery of allogenic ADPRTs. Here, we firstly describe the binary toxin CDT from C. difficile as an effective tool for heterologous intracellular delivery. Even 60 kDa glucosyltransferase domains of large clostridial glucosyltransferases can be delivered into cells. The glucosyltransferase domains of five tested large clostridial glucosyltransferases were successfully introduced into cells as chimeric fusions to the CDTa adapter domain (CDTaN). Cell uptake was demonstrated by the analysis of cell morphology, cytoskeleton staining, and intracellular substrate glucosylation. The fusion toxins were functional only when the adapter domain of CDTa was N -terminally located, according to its native orientation. Thus, like other binary toxins, the CDTaN/b system can be used for standardized delivery systems not only for bacterial ADPRTs but also for a variety of bacterial glucosyltransferase domains.

  15. Production of a complete binary toxin (actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase) by Clostridium difficile CD196.

    PubMed

    Perelle, S; Gibert, M; Bourlioux, P; Corthier, G; Popoff, M R

    1997-04-01

    A Clostridium difficile isolate was found to produce an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase (CDT) homologous to the enzymatic components of Clostridium perfringens iota toxin and Clostridium spiroforme toxin (M. R. Popoff, E. J. Rubin, D. M. Gill, and P. Boquet, Infect. Immun. 56:2299-2306, 1988). The CDT locus from C. difficile CD196 was cloned and sequenced. It contained two genes (cdtA and cdtB) which display organizations and sequences similar to those of the iota toxin gene. The deduced enzymatic (CDTa) and binding (CDTb) components have 81 and 84% identity, respectively, with the corresponding components of iota toxin. CDTa and CDTb induced actin cytoskeleton alterations similar to those caused by other clostridial binary toxins. The lower level of production of binary toxin by CD196 than of iota toxin by C. perfringens was related to a lower transcript level, possibly due to a promoter region different from that of iota toxin genes. The cdtA and cdtB genes have been detected in 3 of 24 clinical isolates examined, and cdtB alone was found in 2 additional strains. One strain (in addition to CD196) was shown by Western blotting to produce CDTa and CDTb. These results indicate that some C. difficile strains synthesize a binary toxin that could be an additional virulence factor.

  16. Production of a complete binary toxin (actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase) by Clostridium difficile CD196.

    PubMed Central

    Perelle, S; Gibert, M; Bourlioux, P; Corthier, G; Popoff, M R

    1997-01-01

    A Clostridium difficile isolate was found to produce an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase (CDT) homologous to the enzymatic components of Clostridium perfringens iota toxin and Clostridium spiroforme toxin (M. R. Popoff, E. J. Rubin, D. M. Gill, and P. Boquet, Infect. Immun. 56:2299-2306, 1988). The CDT locus from C. difficile CD196 was cloned and sequenced. It contained two genes (cdtA and cdtB) which display organizations and sequences similar to those of the iota toxin gene. The deduced enzymatic (CDTa) and binding (CDTb) components have 81 and 84% identity, respectively, with the corresponding components of iota toxin. CDTa and CDTb induced actin cytoskeleton alterations similar to those caused by other clostridial binary toxins. The lower level of production of binary toxin by CD196 than of iota toxin by C. perfringens was related to a lower transcript level, possibly due to a promoter region different from that of iota toxin genes. The cdtA and cdtB genes have been detected in 3 of 24 clinical isolates examined, and cdtB alone was found in 2 additional strains. One strain (in addition to CD196) was shown by Western blotting to produce CDTa and CDTb. These results indicate that some C. difficile strains synthesize a binary toxin that could be an additional virulence factor. PMID:9119480

  17. SYBR Green Real-Time PCR Method To Detect Clostridium botulinum Type A▿

    PubMed Central

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Delibato, Elisabetta; Aureli, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are classically produced by Clostridium botulinum but rarely also from neurotoxigenic strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum. BoNT type A (BoNT/A), BoNT/B, BoNT/E, and very rarely BoNT/F are mainly responsible for human botulism. Standard microbiological methods take into consideration only the detection of C. botulinum. The presumptive identification of the toxigenic strains together with the typing of BoNT has to be performed by mouse bioassay. The development of PCR-based methods for the detection and typing of BoNT-producing clostridia would be an ideal alternative to the mouse bioassay. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and robust real-time PCR method for detecting C. botulinum type A. Four different techniques for the extraction and purification of DNA from cultured samples were initially compared. Of the techniques used, Chelex 100, DNeasy tissue kit, InstaGene matrix DNA, and boiling, the boiling technique was significantly less efficient than the other three. These did not give statistically different results, and Chelex 100 was chosen because it was less expensive than the others. In order to eliminate any false-negative results, an internal amplification control was synthesized and included in the amplification mixture according to ISO 22174. The specificity of the method was tested against 75 strains of C. botulinum type A, 4 strains of C. botulinum type Ab, and 101 nontarget strains. The detection limit of the reaction was less than 6 × 101 copies of C. botulinum type A DNA. The robustness of the method was confirmed using naturally contaminated stool specimens to evaluate the tolerance of inhibitor substances. SYBR green real-time PCR showed very high specificity for the detection of C. botulinum types A and Ab (inclusivity and exclusivity, 100%). PMID:17369349

  18. CLOSTRIDIUM RUBRUM SP. N. AND OTHER PECTINOLYTIC CLOSTRIDIA FROM SOIL1

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Henry; Vaughn, Reese H.

    1963-01-01

    Ng, Henry (University of California, Davis) and Reese H. Vaughn. Clostridium rubrum sp. n. and other pectinolytic clostridia from soil. J. Bacteriol. 85:1104–1113. 1963.—Reports in the literature and results of experiments described herein suggest that pectinolytic anaerobes constitute a very heterogeneous group. The cultures isolated in this study all belonged to the genus Clostridium. The following species were identified: C. butyricum, C. fallax, C. multifermentans, and C. indolis. In addition, a species believed to be previously undescribed was named C. rubrum sp. n. The ability to ferment galacturonic acid was found to be adaptive. Some cultures fermented pectin and pectic acid to the same degree, whereas others fermented pectin only partially. The partial fermentation was attributed to the lack of a pectinesterase. On the basis of fermentation balances, it was concluded that the four strains of galacturonic acid fermenters selected for study yielded identical end products in approximately the same proportions. Per mole of galacturonic acid fermented, about 2 moles of CO2, 1.5 moles of H2, 1.5 moles of acetic acid, and 0.25 mole of butyric acid were produced. PMID:14044001

  19. Clostridium difficile in faeces from healthy dogs and dogs with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the faecal occurrence and characterization of Clostridium difficile in clinically healthy dogs (N = 50) and in dogs with diarrhea (N = 20) in the Stockholm-Uppsala region of Sweden. Findings Clostridium difficile was isolated from 2/50 healthy dogs and from 2/20 diarrheic dogs. Isolates from healthy dogs were negative for toxin A and B and for the tcdA and tcdB genes. Both isolates from diarrheic dogs were positive for toxin B and for the tcdA and tcdB genes. The C. difficile isolates from healthy dogs had PCR ribotype 009 (SE-type 6) and 010 (SE-type 3) whereas both isolates from dogs with diarrhoea had the toxigenic ribotype 014 (SE-type 21). One of the isolates from healthy dogs was initially resistant to metronidazole. Conclusions This study revealed presence of toxigenic C. difficile in faecal samples of diarrheic dogs and low number of non- toxigenic isolates in healthy dogs from Uppsala-Stockholm region in Sweden. However, more comprehensive studies are warranted to investigate the role of C. difficile in gastrointestinal disease in dogs. PMID:23497714

  20. Clostridium difficile in faeces from healthy dogs and dogs with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Wetterwik, Karl-Johan; Trowald-Wigh, Gunilla; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Krovacek, Karel

    2013-03-12

    This study was conducted to evaluate the faecal occurrence and characterization of Clostridium difficile in clinically healthy dogs (N = 50) and in dogs with diarrhea (N = 20) in the Stockholm-Uppsala region of Sweden. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 2/50 healthy dogs and from 2/20 diarrheic dogs. Isolates from healthy dogs were negative for toxin A and B and for the tcdA and tcdB genes. Both isolates from diarrheic dogs were positive for toxin B and for the tcdA and tcdB genes. The C. difficile isolates from healthy dogs had PCR ribotype 009 (SE-type 6) and 010 (SE-type 3) whereas both isolates from dogs with diarrhoea had the toxigenic ribotype 014 (SE-type 21). One of the isolates from healthy dogs was initially resistant to metronidazole. This study revealed presence of toxigenic C. difficile in faecal samples of diarrheic dogs and low number of non- toxigenic isolates in healthy dogs from Uppsala-Stockholm region in Sweden. However, more comprehensive studies are warranted to investigate the role of C. difficile in gastrointestinal disease in dogs.

  1. Anaerobic decomposition of humic substances by Clostridium from the deep subsurface

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Akio; Shimizu, Satoru; Tamamura, Shuji; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Naganuma, Takeshi; Kaneko, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of humic substances (HSs) is a slow and cryptic but non-negligible component of carbon cycling in sediments. Aerobic decomposition of HSs by microorganisms in the surface environment has been well documented; however, the mechanism of anaerobic microbial decomposition of HSs is not completely understood. Moreover, no microorganisms capable of anaerobic decomposition of HSs have been isolated. Here, we report the anaerobic decomposition of humic acids (HAs) by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium sp. HSAI-1 isolated from the deep terrestrial subsurface. The use of 14C-labelled polycatechol as an HA analogue demonstrated that the bacterium decomposed this substance up to 7.4% over 14 days. The decomposition of commercial and natural HAs by the bacterium yielded lower molecular mass fractions, as determined using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the removal of carboxyl groups and polysaccharide-related substances, as well as the generation of aliphatic components, amide and aromatic groups. Therefore, our results suggest that Clostridium sp. HSAI-1 anaerobically decomposes and transforms HSs. This study improves our understanding of the anaerobic decomposition of HSs in the hidden carbon cycling in the Earth’s subsurface. PMID:26743007

  2. Observations on the distribution and ecology of Clostridium botulinum type E in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Miller, L G

    1975-06-01

    Environmental samples collected along the coastline and from the interior of Alaska were examined for the presence of Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum type E was detected in soils from 5 of 12 beaches; in 7 of 115 non-coastal soil samples; in sediments from six of eight locales; in gills of salmon from two fishing areas; and in the feces of 1 of 44 colonic samples from marine mammals. The basic biochemical characteristics of the isolates were determined. Tube tests for demonstrating gelatin liquefaction proved insensitive with these strains, whereas a plate test detected gelatinase in all isolates. The presence of multiple nidi and the continual discharge of organic materials into the environment may contribute to the perpetuation of botulinum spores by which foods prepared form marine animals become contaminated. An emphasis should be placed upon the need for measures to reduce environmental contamination, to reduce contamination during food preparation, and to alert continually the population of the hazard wherever botulism is endemic.

  3. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens in the feces of adult horses and foals with acute enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Gohari, Iman Mehdizadeh; Arroyo, Luis; Macinnes, Janet I; Timoney, John F; Parreira, Valeria R; Prescott, John F

    2014-01-01

    Up to 60% of cases of equine colitis have no known cause. To improve understanding of the causes of acute colitis in horses, we hypothesized that Clostridium perfringens producing enterotoxin (CPE) and/or beta2 toxin (CPB2) are common and important causes of severe colitis in horses and/or that C. perfringens producing an as-yet-undescribed cytotoxin may also cause colitis in horses. Fecal samples from 55 horses (43 adults, 12 foals) with clinical evidence of colitis were evaluated by culture for the presence of Clostridium difficile, C. perfringens, and Salmonella. Feces were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for C. difficile A/B toxins and C. perfringens alpha toxin (CPA), beta2 toxin (CPB2), and enterotoxin (CPE). Five C. perfringens isolates per sample were genotyped for the following genes: cpa, cpb, cpb2 consensus, cpb2 atypical, cpe (enterotoxin), etx (epsilon toxin), itx (iota toxin), netB (necrotic enteritis toxin B), and tpeL (large C. perfringens cytotoxin). The supernatants of these isolates were also evaluated for toxicity for an equine cell line. All fecal samples were negative for Salmonella. Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile were isolated from 40% and 5.4% of samples, respectively. All fecal samples were negative for CPE. Clostridium perfringens CPA and CPB2 toxins were detected in 14.5% and 7.2% of fecal samples, respectively, all of which were culture-positive for C. perfringens. No isolates were cpe, etx, netB, or tpeL gene-positive. Atypical cpb2 and consensus cpb2 genes were identified in 15 (13.6%) and 4 (3.6%) of 110 isolates, respectively. All equine C. perfringens isolates showed far milder cytotoxicity effects than a CPB-producing positive control, although cpb2-positive isolates were slightly but significantly more cytotoxic than negative isolates. Based on this studied population, we were unable to confirm our hypothesis that CPE and CPB2-producing C. perfringens are common in horses with colitis in

  4. Burden of Clostridium difficile on the healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Dubberke, Erik R; Olsen, Margaret A

    2012-08-01

    There are few high-quality studies of the costs of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and the majority of studies focus on the costs of CDI in acute-care facilities. Analysis of the best available data, from 2008, indicates that CDI may have resulted in $4.8 billion in excess costs in US acute-care facilities. Other areas of CDI-attributable excess costs that need to be investigated are costs of increased discharges to long-term care facilities, of CDI with onset in long-term care facilities, of recurrent CDI, and of additional adverse events caused by CDI.

  5. Novel FR-900493 Analogues That Inhibit the Outgrowth of Clostridium difficile Spores

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The spectrum of antibacterial activity for the nucleoside antibiotic FR-900493 (1) can be extended by chemical modifications. We have generated a small focused library based on the structure of 1 and identified UT-17415 (9), UT-17455 (10), UT-17460 (11), and UT-17465 (12), which exhibit anti-Clostridium difficile growth inhibitory activity. These analogues also inhibit the outgrowth of C. difficile spores at 2× minimum inhibitory concentration. One of these analogues, 11, relative to 1 exhibits over 180-fold and 15-fold greater activity against the enzymes, phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase (MraY) and polyprenyl phosphate-GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase (WecA), respectively. The phosphotransferase inhibitor 11 displays antimicrobial activity against several tested bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium spp., and Mycobacterium smegmatis, but no growth inhibitory activity is observed against the other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The selectivity index (Vero cell cytotoxicity/C. difficileantimicrobial activity) of 11 is approximately 17, and 11 does not induce hemolysis even at a 100 μM concentration. PMID:29503973

  6. Impact of a prevention bundle on Clostridium difficile infection rates in a hospital in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Davis, Bionca M; Yin, Jingjing; Blomberg, Doug; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai

    2016-12-01

    We sought to assess the impact of a multicomponent prevention program on hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infections in a hospital in the Southeastern United States. We collected retrospective data of 140 patients from years 2009-2014 and applied the Poisson regression model for analysis. We did not find any significant associations of increased risk of Clostridium difficile infections for the preintervention group. Further studies are needed to test multifaceted bundles in hospitals with high infection rates. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clostridium difficile Infection and Fecal Microbiota Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Liubakka, Alyssa; Vaughn, Byron P.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major source of morbidity and mortality for hospitalized patients. Although most patients have a clinical response to existing antimicrobial therapies, recurrent infection develops in up to 30% of patients. Fecal microbiota transplant is a novel approach to this complex problem, with an efficacy rate of nearly 90% in the setting of multiple recurrent CDI. This review covers the current epidemiology of CDI (including toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains, risk factors for infection, and recurrent infection), methods of diagnosis, existing first-line therapies in CDI, the role of fecal microbiota transplant for multiple recurrent CDIs, and the potential use of fecal microbial transplant for patients with severe or refractory infection. PMID:27959316

  8. Direct selection of Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentation mutants by a proton suicide method

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto, P.H.; Mendez, B.S.

    Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 10132 mutants altered in acetic acid synthesis or in the shift to solventogenesis were directly selected by a proton suicide method after mutagenic treatment, by using bromide and bromate as selective agents. The mutants were characterized according to their solvent and acid production. On the selection plates they differed in colony phenotype from the parent strain.

  9. Phospholipase C produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D: comparison of gene, enzymatic, and biological activities with those of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Ni Nengah Dwi; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tomonori; Oda, Masataka; Shimizu, Kenta; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Sakurai, Jun; Matsushita, Osamu; Oguma, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C. botulinum PLCs (Cb-PLCs), the cb-plc genes from 8 strains were sequenced, and 1 representative gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. The enzymatic and hemolytic activities of the recombinant Cb-PLC were measured and compared with those of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Each of the eight cb-plc genes encoded a 399 amino acid residue protein preceded by a 27 residue signal peptide. The protein consists of 2 domains, the N- and C-domains, and the overall amino acid sequence identity between Cb-PLC and alpha-toxin was greater than 50%, suggesting that Cb-PLC is homologous to the alpha-toxin. The key residues in the N-domain were conserved, whereas those in the C-domain which are important in membrane interaction were different than in the alpha-toxin. As expected, Cb-PLC could hydrolyze egg yolk phospholipid, p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin, and also exhibited hemolytic activity;however, its activities were about 4- to over 200-fold lower than those of alpha-toxin. Although Cb-PLC showed weak enzymatic and biological activities, it is speculated that Cb-PLC might play a role in the pathogenicity of botulism or for bacterial survival.

  10. Clostridium difficile binary toxin CDT

    PubMed Central

    Gerding, Dale N; Johnson, Stuart; Rupnik, Maja; Aktories, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Binary toxin (CDT) is frequently observed in Clostridium difficile strains associated with increased severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). CDT belongs to the family of binary ADP-ribosylating toxins consisting of two separate toxin components: CDTa, the enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase which modifies actin, and CDTb which binds to host cells and translocates CDTa into the cytosol. CDTb is activated by serine proteases and binds to lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor. ADP-ribosylation induces depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. Toxin-induced actin depolymerization also produces microtubule-based membrane protrusions which form a network on epithelial cells and increase bacterial adherence. Multiple clinical studies indicate an association between binary toxin genes in C. difficile and increased 30-d CDI mortality independent of PCR ribotype. Further studies including measures of binary toxin in stool, analyses of CDI mortality caused by CDT-producing strains, and examination of the relationship of CDT expression to TcdA and TcdB toxin variants and PCR ribotypes are needed. PMID:24253566

  11. Conserved Oligopeptide Permeases Modulate Sporulation Initiation in Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Adrianne N.; Nawrocki, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic gastrointestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile must form a metabolically dormant spore to survive in oxygenic environments and be transmitted from host to host. The regulatory factors by which C. difficile initiates and controls the early stages of sporulation in C. difficile are not highly conserved in other Clostridium or Bacillus species. Here, we investigated the role of two conserved oligopeptide permeases, Opp and App, in the regulation of sporulation in C. difficile. These permeases are known to positively affect sporulation in Bacillus species through the import of sporulation-specific quorum-sensing peptides. In contrast to other spore-forming bacteria, we discovered that inactivating these permeases in C. difficile resulted in the earlier expression of early sporulation genes and increased sporulation in vitro. Furthermore, disruption of opp and app resulted in greater virulence and increased the amounts of spores recovered from feces in the hamster model of C. difficile infection. Our data suggest that Opp and App indirectly inhibit sporulation, likely through the activities of the transcriptional regulator SinR and its inhibitor, SinI. Taken together, these results indicate that the Opp and App transporters serve a different function in controlling sporulation and virulence in C. difficile than in Bacillus subtilis and suggest that nutrient availability plays a significant role in pathogenesis and sporulation in vivo. This study suggests a link between the nutritional status of the environment and sporulation initiation in C. difficile. PMID:25069979

  12. Conserved oligopeptide permeases modulate sporulation initiation in Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Nawrocki, Kathryn L; McBride, Shonna M

    2014-10-01

    The anaerobic gastrointestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile must form a metabolically dormant spore to survive in oxygenic environments and be transmitted from host to host. The regulatory factors by which C. difficile initiates and controls the early stages of sporulation in C. difficile are not highly conserved in other Clostridium or Bacillus species. Here, we investigated the role of two conserved oligopeptide permeases, Opp and App, in the regulation of sporulation in C. difficile. These permeases are known to positively affect sporulation in Bacillus species through the import of sporulation-specific quorum-sensing peptides. In contrast to other spore-forming bacteria, we discovered that inactivating these permeases in C. difficile resulted in the earlier expression of early sporulation genes and increased sporulation in vitro. Furthermore, disruption of opp and app resulted in greater virulence and increased the amounts of spores recovered from feces in the hamster model of C. difficile infection. Our data suggest that Opp and App indirectly inhibit sporulation, likely through the activities of the transcriptional regulator SinR and its inhibitor, SinI. Taken together, these results indicate that the Opp and App transporters serve a different function in controlling sporulation and virulence in C. difficile than in Bacillus subtilis and suggest that nutrient availability plays a significant role in pathogenesis and sporulation in vivo. This study suggests a link between the nutritional status of the environment and sporulation initiation in C. difficile. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Fatal spontaneous Clostridium septicum gas gangrene: a possible association with iatrogenic gastric acid suppression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiru E; Baras, Alexander; Cornish, Toby; Riedel, Stefan; Burton, Elizabeth C

    2014-06-01

    The long-term use of proton pump inhibitors has been linked to an increased risk for the development of gastric polyps, hip fractures, pneumonia, and Clostridium difficile colitis. There is evidence that chronic acid suppression from long-term use of proton pump inhibitors poses some risk for the development of C difficile-associated diarrhea by decreasing the elimination of pathogenic microbes before reaching the lower gastrointestinal tract. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old woman with a recent history of abdominal pain and fever who presented to the emergency department with rapidly progressive spontaneous necrotizing fasciitis and gas gangrene and died within hours of presentation. Postmortem examination confirmed spreading tissue gas gangrene and myonecrosis. In addition, multiple intestinal ulcers containing Clostridium septicum were present at autopsy. This case illustrates a possible association between proton pump inhibitor therapy and fatal C septicum infection.

  14. Comparison between the two-step and the three-step algorithms for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Qutub, M O; AlBaz, N; Hawken, P; Anoos, A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate usefulness of applying either the two-step algorithm (Ag-EIAs and CCNA) or the three-step algorithm (all three assays) for better confirmation of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. The antigen enzyme immunoassays (Ag-EIAs) can accurately identify the glutamate dehydrogenase antigen of toxigenic and nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile. Therefore, it is used in combination with a toxin-detecting assay [cell line culture neutralization assay (CCNA), or the enzyme immunoassays for toxins A and B (TOX-A/BII EIA)] to provide specific evidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. A total of 151 nonformed stool specimens were tested by Ag-EIAs, TOX-A/BII EIA, and CCNA. All tests were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions and the results of Ag-EIAs and TOX-A/BII EIA were read using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 450 nm. A total of 61 (40.7%), 38 (25.3%), and 52 (34.7%) specimens tested positive with Ag-EIA, TOX-A/BII EIA, and CCNA, respectively. Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value for Ag-EIA were 94%, 87%, 96.6%, and 80.3%, respectively. Whereas for TOX-A/BII EIA, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were 73.1%, 100%, 87.5%, and 100%, respectively. With the two-step algorithm, all 61 Ag-EIAs-positive cases required 2 days for confirmation. With the three-step algorithm, 37 (60.7%) cases were reported immediately, and the remaining 24 (39.3%) required further testing by CCNA. By applying the two-step algorithm, the workload and cost could be reduced by 28.2% compared with the three-step algorithm. The two-step algorithm is the most practical for accurately detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile, but it is time-consuming.

  15. Probiotics and Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surawicz, Christina M.

    Diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotics. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea in 5-25% of individuals who take them but its occurrence is unpredictable. Diarrhea due to antibiotics is called antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Diarrhea may be mild and resolve when antibiotics are discontinued, or it may be more severe. The most severe form of AAD is caused by overgrowth of Clostridium difficile which can cause severe diarrhea, colitis, pseudomembranous colitis, or even fatal toxic megacolon. Rates of diarrhea vary with the specific antibiotic as well as with the individual susceptibility.

  16. First Report Worldwide of an Infant Botulism Case Due to Clostridium botulinum Type E▿

    PubMed Central

    Lúquez, Carolina; Dykes, Janet K.; Yu, Patricia A.; Raphael, Brian H.; Maslanka, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum type E has been associated with botulism in adults but never in infants. Infant botulism type E cases have been associated with neurotoxigenic strains of C. butyricum. We report the first infant botulism case due to C. botulinum type E worldwide. PMID:19906896

  17. A Clostridium Group IV Species Dominates and Suppresses a Mixed Culture Fermentation by Tolerance to Medium Chain Fatty Acids Products

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Stephen J.; De Groof, Vicky; Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Props, Ruben; Coma, Marta; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-01-01

    A microbial community is engaged in a complex economy of cooperation and competition for carbon and energy. In engineered systems such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation, these relationships are exploited for conversion of a broad range of substrates into products, such as biogas, ethanol, and carboxylic acids. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), for example, hexanoic acid, are valuable, energy dense microbial fermentation products, however, MCFA tend to exhibit microbial toxicity to a broad range of microorganisms at low concentrations. Here, we operated continuous mixed population MCFA fermentations on biorefinery thin stillage to investigate the community response associated with the production and toxicity of MCFA. In this study, an uncultured species from the Clostridium group IV (related to Clostridium sp. BS-1) became enriched in two independent reactors that produced hexanoic acid (up to 8.1 g L−1), octanoic acid (up to 3.2 g L−1), and trace concentrations of decanoic acid. Decanoic acid is reported here for the first time as a possible product of a Clostridium group IV species. Other significant species in the community, Lactobacillus spp. and Acetobacterium sp., generate intermediates in MCFA production, and their collapse in relative abundance resulted in an overall production decrease. A strong correlation was present between the community composition and both the hexanoic acid concentration (p = 0.026) and total volatile fatty acid concentration (p = 0.003). MCFA suppressed species related to Clostridium sp. CPB-6 and Lactobacillus spp. to a greater extent than others. The proportion of the species related to Clostridium sp. BS-1 over Clostridium sp. CPB-6 had a strong correlation with the concentration of octanoic acid (p = 0.003). The dominance of this species and the increase in MCFA resulted in an overall toxic effect on the mixed community, most significantly on the Lactobacillus spp., which resulted in a decrease in total

  18. Intratumoral injection of Clostridium novyi-NT spores induces antitumor responses

    PubMed Central

    Rusk, Anthony W.; Tung, David; Miller, Maria; Roix, Jeffrey; Khanna, Kristen V.; Murthy, Ravi; Benjamin, Robert S.; Helgason, Thorunn; Szvalb, Ariel D.; Bird, Justin E.; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Zhang, Halle H.; Qiao, Yuan; Karim, Baktiar; McDaniel, Jennifer; Elpiner, Amanda; Sahora, Alexandra; Lachowicz, Joshua; Phillips, Brenda; Turner, Avenelle; Klein, Mary K.; Post, Gerald; Diaz, Luis A.; Riggins, Gregory J.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Bettegowda, Chetan; Huso, David L.; Varterasian, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Species of Clostridium bacteria are notable for their ability to lyse tumor cells growing in hypoxic environments. We show that an attenuated strain of Clostridium novyi (C. novyi-NT) induces a microscopically precise, tumor-localized response in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model after intratumoral injection. It is well known, however, that experimental models often do not reliably predict the responses of human patients to therapeutic agents. We therefore used naturally occurring canine tumors as a translational bridge to human trials. Canine tumors are more like those of humans because they occur in animals with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, are of host origin, and are due to spontaneous rather than engineered mutations. We found that intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores was well tolerated in companion dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors, with the most common toxicities being the expected symptoms associated with bacterial infections. Objective responses were observed in 6 of 16 dogs (37.5%), with three complete and three partial responses. On the basis of these encouraging results, we treated a human patient who had an advanced leiomyosarcoma with an intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores. This treatment reduced the tumor within and surrounding the bone. Together, these results show that C. novyi-NT can precisely eradicate neoplastic tissues and suggest that further clinical trials of this agent in selected patients are warranted. PMID:25122639

  19. Clostridium difficile Associated Risk of Death Score (CARDS): A novel severity score to predict mortality among hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Zain; Fabersunne, Camila Cribb; Smith, Mark B.; Alm, Eric J.; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is public health threat and associated with significant mortality. However, there is a paucity of objectively derived CDI severity scoring systems to predict mortality. Aims To develop a novel CDI risk score to predict mortality entitled: Clostridium difficile Associated Risk of Death Score (CARDS). Methods We obtained data from the United States 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. All CDI-associated hospitalizations were identified using discharge codes (ICD-9-CM, 008.45). Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to identify independent predictors of mortality. CARDS was calculated by assigning a numeric weight to each parameter based on their odds ratio in the final logistic model. Predictive properties of model discrimination were assessed using the c-statistic and validated in an independent sample using the 2010 NIS database. Results We identified 77,776 hospitalizations, yielding an estimate of 374,747 cases with an associated diagnosis of CDI in the United States, 8% of whom died in the hospital. The 8 severity score predictors were identified on multivariate analysis: age, cardiopulmonary disease, malignancy, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, acute renal failure, liver disease and ICU admission, with weights ranging from −1 (for diabetes) to 5 (for ICU admission). The overall risk score in the cohort ranged from 0 to 18. Mortality increased significantly as CARDS increased. CDI-associated mortality was 1.2% with a CARDS of 0 compared to 100% with CARDS of 18. The model performed equally well in our validation cohort. Conclusion CARDS is a promising simple severity score to predict mortality among those hospitalized with CDI. PMID:26849527

  20. The incidence of Clostridioides difficile and Clostridium perfringens netF-positive strains in diarrheic dogs.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Amanda Nadia; Coura, Fernanda Morcatti; Rupnik, Maja; Adams, Vicki; Stent, Thomas L; Rood, Julian I; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile and Clostridium perfringens in the feces of diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs. Also, the presence of other common canine enteropathogens was examined. Toxigenic C. difficile and C. perfringens positive for the NetF-encoding gene (netF) were detected in 11 (11.9%) and seven (7.6%) diarrheic dogs, respectively. Three dogs were diagnosed simultaneously with toxigenic C. difficile and netF-positive C. perfringens. Among other enteropathogens, Giardia sp. was the most common agent detected in dogs positive for toxigenic C. difficile or netF-positive C. perfringens. The results suggest that C. difficile and C. perfringens occur more frequently as a primary cause of diarrhea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. First Report of an Infant Botulism Case Due to Clostridium botulinum Type Af

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Laura I. T.; Fernández, Rafael A.; Pareja, Virtudes; Giaroli, Gabriel; Guidarelli, Sergio R.; Dykes, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    Most infant botulism cases worldwide are due to botulinum toxin types A and B. Rarely, Clostridium botulinum strains that produce two serotypes (Ab, Ba, and Bf) have also been isolated from infant botulism cases. This is the first reported case of infant botulism due to C. botulinum type Af worldwide. PMID:25502535

  2. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin enhances production and secretion of type IV collagenases in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Y; Kawakami, S; Fujii, Y; Kihara, K; Oshima, H

    1997-03-01

    Intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an effective and widely accepted treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Rapid progression of the disease after BCG therapy, however, has been reported in some cases refractory to the treatment. We examined whether BCG treatment and coexistence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) alter the invasive potential of bladder cancer cells. Production and secretion of two type IV collagenases, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP 9, by PBMCs from five healthy donors or bladder cancer cells (T24, JTC 30, and JTC 32) were evaluated by gelatin zymography, western blot analysis, and northern blot analysis. Invasion of bladder cancer cells was also examined using reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel). BCG (5, 50, and 500 micrograms/ml) had no effect on secretion of MMP 2 and MMP 9 by bladder cancer cells, but increased the production and secretion of MMP 9 by PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. The coexistence of PBMCs increased invasion of T24 cells and BCG further enhanced the invasion. Thus, BCG promotes invasion of bladder cancer cells under certain conditions. An increase in the secretion of MMP 9 by PBMCs may account in part for the effect.

  3. [Tetanus and Clostridium tetani--a brief review].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2015-02-01

    Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin (tetanospasmin) produced by the anaerobic, gram-positive spore-forming bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is characterized by generalized rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal muscles. In most industrialized countries, tetanus is a rare disease. However, in many tropical and subtropical countries with low vaccination coverage and poor medical care, it is still widely distributed. This applies in particular for neonatal tetanus. About 50 000 newborns and infants die each year from consequences from this severe illness. Management of tetanus involves neutralization of free circulating toxin, adequate antibacterial and symptomatic therapy as well as intensive care of the patient. For prophylaxis of the disease, active tetanus toxoid vaccination is the method of choice.

  4. Trends and Seasonality in Antibiotic Resistance Among Elderly Patients with Clostridium Difficile-Associated Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the US, over 300,000 cases of Clostridium dijficile-associated disease (CDAD) occur annually in hospitals or long-term care facilities and incidence has risen over the past two decades potentially due to increased antibiotic use. A primary risk factor for CDAD is previous anti...

  5. Precision microbiome reconstitution restores bile acid mediated resistance to Clostridium difficile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffie, Charlie G.; Bucci, Vanni; Stein, Richard R.; McKenney, Peter T.; Ling, Lilan; Gobourne, Asia; No, Daniel; Liu, Hui; Kinnebrew, Melissa; Viale, Agnes; Littmann, Eric; van den Brink, Marcel R. M.; Jenq, Robert R.; Taur, Ying; Sander, Chris; Cross, Justin R.; Toussaint, Nora C.; Xavier, Joao B.; Pamer, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of mammals are colonized by hundreds of microbial species that contribute to health, including colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens. Many antibiotics destroy intestinal microbial communities and increase susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. Among these, Clostridium difficile, a major cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhoea, greatly increases morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Which intestinal bacteria provide resistance to C. difficile infection and their in vivo inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear. Here we correlate loss of specific bacterial taxa with development of infection, by treating mice with different antibiotics that result in distinct microbiota changes and lead to varied susceptibility to C. difficile. Mathematical modelling augmented by analyses of the microbiota of hospitalized patients identifies resistance-associated bacteria common to mice and humans. Using these platforms, we determine that Clostridium scindens, a bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating intestinal bacterium, is associated with resistance to C. difficile infection and, upon administration, enhances resistance to infection in a secondary bile acid dependent fashion. Using a workflow involving mouse models, clinical studies, metagenomic analyses, and mathematical modelling, we identify a probiotic candidate that corrects a clinically relevant microbiome deficiency. These findings have implications for the rational design of targeted antimicrobials as well as microbiome-based diagnostics and therapeutics for individuals at risk of C. difficile infection.

  6. Retargeting the Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin to the neuronal cytosol.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Benjamin J; Hruska, Elizabeth J; Van Cott, Kevin E; Blum, Paul H

    2016-03-30

    Many biological toxins are known to attack specific cell types, delivering their enzymatic payloads to the cytosol. This process can be manipulated by molecular engineering of chimeric toxins. Using toxins with naturally unlinked components as a starting point is advantageous because it allows for the development of payloads separately from the binding/translocation components. Here the Clostridium botulinum C2 binding/translocation domain was retargeted to neural cell populations by deleting its non-specific binding domain and replacing it with a C. botulinum neurotoxin binding domain. This fusion protein was used to deliver fluorescently labeled payloads to Neuro-2a cells. Intracellular delivery was quantified by flow cytometry and found to be dependent on artificial enrichment of cells with the polysialoganglioside receptor GT1b. Visualization by confocal microscopy showed a dissociation of payloads from the early endosome indicating translocation of the chimeric toxin. The natural Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin was then delivered to human glioblastoma A172 and synchronized HeLa cells. In the presence of the fusion protein, native cytosolic enzymatic activity of the enzyme was observed and found to be GT1b-dependent. This retargeted toxin may enable delivery of therapeutics to peripheral neurons and be of use in addressing experimental questions about neural physiology.

  7. Binding properties of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin to mucins.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshio; Takada, Noriko; Tonozuka, Takashi; Sakano, Yoshiyuki; Oguma, Keiji; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2007-04-01

    It has been reported that Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin (C16S toxin) first binds to the sialic acid on the cell surface of mucin before invading cells [A. Nishikawa, N. Uotsu, H. Arimitsu, J.C. Lee, Y. Miura, Y. Fujinaga, H. Nakada, T. Watanabe, T. Ohyama, Y. Sakano, K. Oguma, The receptor and transporter for internalization of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin into HT-29 cells, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 319 (2004) 327-333]. In this study we investigated the binding properties of the C16S toxin to glycoproteins. Although the toxin bound to membrane blotted mucin derived from the bovine submaxillary gland (BSM), which contains a lot of sialyl oligosaccharides, it did not bind to neuraminidase-treated BSM. The binding of the toxin to BSM was inhibited by N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and sialyl oligosaccharides strongly, but was not inhibited by neutral oligosaccharides. Both sialyl alpha2-3 lactose and sialyl alpha2-6 lactose prevented binding similarly. On the other hand, the toxin also bound well to porcine gastric mucin. In this case, neutral oligosaccharides might play an important role as ligand, since galactose and lactose inhibited binding. These results suggest that the toxin is capable of recognizing a wide variety of oligosaccharide structures.

  8. Retargeting the Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin to the neuronal cytosol

    PubMed Central

    Pavlik, Benjamin J.; Hruska, Elizabeth J.; Van Cott, Kevin E.; Blum, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Many biological toxins are known to attack specific cell types, delivering their enzymatic payloads to the cytosol. This process can be manipulated by molecular engineering of chimeric toxins. Using toxins with naturally unlinked components as a starting point is advantageous because it allows for the development of payloads separately from the binding/translocation components. Here the Clostridium botulinum C2 binding/translocation domain was retargeted to neural cell populations by deleting its non-specific binding domain and replacing it with a C. botulinum neurotoxin binding domain. This fusion protein was used to deliver fluorescently labeled payloads to Neuro-2a cells. Intracellular delivery was quantified by flow cytometry and found to be dependent on artificial enrichment of cells with the polysialoganglioside receptor GT1b. Visualization by confocal microscopy showed a dissociation of payloads from the early endosome indicating translocation of the chimeric toxin. The natural Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin was then delivered to human glioblastoma A172 and synchronized HeLa cells. In the presence of the fusion protein, native cytosolic enzymatic activity of the enzyme was observed and found to be GT1b-dependent. This retargeted toxin may enable delivery of therapeutics to peripheral neurons and be of use in addressing experimental questions about neural physiology. PMID:27025362

  9. Clostridium difficile Toxins A and B: Insights into Pathogenic Properties and Extraintestinal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Di Bella, Stefano; Ascenzi, Paolo; Siarakas, Steven; Petrosillo, Nicola; di Masi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has significant clinical impact especially on the elderly and/or immunocompromised patients. The pathogenicity of Clostridium difficile is mainly mediated by two exotoxins: toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). These toxins primarily disrupt the cytoskeletal structure and the tight junctions of target cells causing cell rounding and ultimately cell death. Detectable C. difficile toxemia is strongly associated with fulminant disease. However, besides the well-known intestinal damage, recent animal and in vitro studies have suggested a more far-reaching role for these toxins activity including cardiac, renal, and neurologic impairment. The creation of C. difficile strains with mutations in the genes encoding toxin A and B indicate that toxin B plays a major role in overall CDI pathogenesis. Novel insights, such as the role of a regulator protein (TcdE) on toxin production and binding interactions between albumin and C. difficile toxins, have recently been discovered and will be described. Our review focuses on the toxin-mediated pathogenic processes of CDI with an emphasis on recent studies. PMID:27153087

  10. WSES guidelines for management of Clostridium difficile infection in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Malangoni, Mark A; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Griffiths, Ewen A; Di Bella, Stefano; McFarland, Lynne V; Eltringham, Ian; Shelat, Vishal G; Velmahos, George C; Kelly, Ciarán P; Khanna, Sahil; Abdelsattar, Zaid M; Alrahmani, Layan; Ansaloni, Luca; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Barbut, Frédéric; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Bhangu, Aneel; Biffl, Walter L; Brecher, Stephen M; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Caínzos, Miguel A; Canterbury, Laura A; Catena, Fausto; Chan, Shirley; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Clanton, Jesse; Coccolini, Federico; Cocuz, Maria Elena; Coimbra, Raul; Cook, Charles H; Cui, Yunfeng; Czepiel, Jacek; Das, Koray; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Di Saverio, Salomone; Dumitru, Irina Magdalena; Eckert, Catherine; Eckmann, Christian; Eiland, Edward H; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Faro, Mario; Ferrada, Paula; Forrester, Joseph Derek; Fraga, Gustavo P; Frossard, Jean Louis; Galeiras, Rita; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gorrepati, Venkata; Ahmed, Mohamed Hassan; Herzog, Torsten; Humphrey, Felicia; Kim, Jae Il; Isik, Arda; Ivatury, Rao; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Juang, Paul; Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kim, Peter K; Kluger, Yoram; Ko, Wen Chien; LaBarbera, Francis D; Lee, Jae Gil; Leppaniemi, Ari; Lohsiriwat, Varut; Marwah, Sanjay; Mazuski, John E; Metan, Gokhan; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick Alan; Nord, Carl Erik; Ordoñez, Carlos A; Júnior, Gerson Alves Pereira; Petrosillo, Nicola; Portela, Francisco; Puri, Basant K; Ray, Arnab; Raza, Mansoor; Rems, Miran; Sakakushev, Boris E; Sganga, Gabriele; Spigaglia, Patrizia; Stewart, David B; Tattevin, Pierre; Timsit, Jean Francois; To, Kathleen B; Tranà, Cristian; Uhl, Waldemar; Urbánek, Libor; van Goor, Harry; Vassallo, Angela; Zahar, Jean Ralph; Caproli, Emanuele; Viale, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades there have been dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), with increases in incidence and severity of disease in many countries worldwide. The incidence of CDI has also increased in surgical patients. Optimization of management of C difficile, has therefore become increasingly urgent. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts prepared evidenced-based World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for management of CDI in surgical patients.

  11. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens in the feces of adult horses and foals with acute enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Gohari, Iman Mehdizadeh; Arroyo, Luis; MacInnes, Janet I.; Timoney, John F.; Parreira, Valeria R.; Prescott, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Up to 60% of cases of equine colitis have no known cause. To improve understanding of the causes of acute colitis in horses, we hypothesized that Clostridium perfringens producing enterotoxin (CPE) and/or beta2 toxin (CPB2) are common and important causes of severe colitis in horses and/or that C. perfringens producing an as-yet-undescribed cytotoxin may also cause colitis in horses. Fecal samples from 55 horses (43 adults, 12 foals) with clinical evidence of colitis were evaluated by culture for the presence of Clostridium difficile, C. perfringens, and Salmonella. Feces were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for C. difficile A/B toxins and C. perfringens alpha toxin (CPA), beta2 toxin (CPB2), and enterotoxin (CPE). Five C. perfringens isolates per sample were genotyped for the following genes: cpa, cpb, cpb2 consensus, cpb2 atypical, cpe (enterotoxin), etx (epsilon toxin), itx (iota toxin), netB (necrotic enteritis toxin B), and tpeL (large C. perfringens cytotoxin). The supernatants of these isolates were also evaluated for toxicity for an equine cell line. All fecal samples were negative for Salmonella. Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile were isolated from 40% and 5.4% of samples, respectively. All fecal samples were negative for CPE. Clostridium perfringens CPA and CPB2 toxins were detected in 14.5% and 7.2% of fecal samples, respectively, all of which were culture-positive for C. perfringens. No isolates were cpe, etx, netB, or tpeL gene-positive. Atypical cpb2 and consensus cpb2 genes were identified in 15 (13.6%) and 4 (3.6%) of 110 isolates, respectively. All equine C. perfringens isolates showed far milder cytotoxicity effects than a CPB-producing positive control, although cpb2-positive isolates were slightly but significantly more cytotoxic than negative isolates. Based on this studied population, we were unable to confirm our hypothesis that CPE and CPB2-producing C. perfringens are common in horses with colitis in

  12. Production of butanol by fermentation in the presence of cocultures of clostridium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, S. L.; Foutch, G. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Sugars are converted to a mixture of solvents including butanol by a fermentation process employing a coculture of microorganisms of the Clostridium genus, one of said microorganisms favoring the production of butyric acid and the other of which converts the butyric acid so produced to butanol. The use of a coculture substantially increases the yield of butanol over that obtained using a culture employing only one microorganism.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Bacterium Clostridium papyrosolvens C7 (ATCC 700395).

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Veronica; Dassa, Bareket; Borovok, Ilya; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A; Cate, Jamie H D

    2013-09-12

    We report the draft genome sequence of the cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium papyrosolvens C7, originally isolated from mud collected below a freshwater pond in Massachusetts. This Gram-positive bacterium grows in a mesophilic anaerobic environment with filter paper as the only carbon source, and it has a simple cellulosome system with multiple carbohydrate-degrading enzymes.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Bacterium Clostridium papyrosolvens C7 (ATCC 700395)

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda, Veronica; Dassa, Bareket; Borovok, Ilya; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the cellulose-degrading bacterium Clostridium papyrosolvens C7, originally isolated from mud collected below a freshwater pond in Massachusetts. This Gram-positive bacterium grows in a mesophilic anaerobic environment with filter paper as the only carbon source, and it has a simple cellulosome system with multiple carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. PMID:24029755

  15. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection in acute care hospitals, long-term care facilities, and outpatient clinics: Is Clostridium difficile infection underdiagnosed in long-term care facility patients?

    PubMed

    Krishna, Amar; Pervaiz, Amina; Lephart, Paul; Tarabishy, Noor; Varakantam, Swapna; Kotecha, Aditya; Awali, Reda A; Kaye, Keith S; Chopra, Teena

    2017-10-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is a common cause of diarrhea in long-term care facility (LTCF) patients. The high prevalence of C difficile infection in LTCFs noted in our study calls for a critical need to educate LTCF staff to send diarrheal stool for C difficile testing to identify more cases and prevent transmission. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clostridium perfringens gas gangrene at a wrist intravenous line insertion.

    PubMed

    Determann, Catherine; Walker, Craig Andrew

    2013-10-09

    A patient admitted to the intensive care unit for management of hypotension following a multiple medications overdose subsequently deteriorated rapidly with sepsis. A cannula site was noted to be bruised, swollen and erythematous and the X-ray demonstrated gas sitting within the tissues surrounding the metacarpal bones. The patient was referred to the orthopaedic surgeons and quickly taken for debridement of the affected area and fasciotomies of the forearm. Microbiological investigation confirmed Clostridium perfringens to be present in multiple fluid samples taken from the affected site.

  17. Economic Burden of Clostridium difficile Infection in European Countries.

    PubMed

    Reigadas Ramírez, Elena; Bouza, Emilio Santiago

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a considerable challenge to health care systems worldwide. Although CDI represents a significant burden on healthcare systems in Europe, few studies have attempted to estimate the consumption of resources associated with CDI in Europe. The reported extra costs attributable to CDI vary widely according to the definitions, design, and methodologies used, making comparisons difficult to perform. In this chapter, the economic burden of healthcare facility-associated CDI in Europe will be assessed, as will other less explored areas such as the economic burden of recurrent CDI, community-acquired CDI, pediatric CDI, and CDI in outbreaks.

  18. Hospital Clostridium difficile outbreak linked to laundry machine malfunction.

    PubMed

    Sooklal, Shelini; Khan, Ayesha; Kannangara, Saman

    2014-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacillus that is associated with diarrheal disease. C difficile is shed in the feces of affected individuals and its spores can survive on surfaces for prolonged periods of time. These spores can contaminate a hospital environment by spread through health care workers and suboptimal environmental cleaning practices. We report an outbreak of health care facility-onset C difficile infection that was eventually linked to contaminated mop pads after a laundry machine malfunction. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1313 transcriptional responses to redox perturbation

    DOE PAGES

    Sander, Kyle B.; Wilson, Charlotte M.; M. Rodriquez, Jr.; ...

    2015-12-12

    Clostridium thermocellum is a promising consolidated bioprocessing candidate organism capable of directly converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Current ethanol yields, productivities, and growth inhibitions are industrial deployment impediments for commodity fuel production by this bacterium. Redox imbalance under certain conditions and in engineered strains may contribute to incomplete substrate utilization and may direct fermentation products to undesirable overflow metabolites. As a result, towards a better understanding of redox metabolism in C. thermocellum, we established continuous growth conditions and analyzed global gene expression during addition of two stress chemicals (methyl viologen and hydrogen peroxide) which changed the fermentation redox potential.

  20. Infectious Diarrhea: Norovirus and Clostridium difficile in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    White, Mary B; Rajagopalan, Shobita; Yoshikawa, Thomas T

    2016-08-01

    Norovirus infection usually results in acute gastroenteritis, often with incapacitating nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is highly contagious and resistant to eradication with alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Appropriate preventative and infection control measures can mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with norovirus infection. Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea in the United States. Antibiotic use is by far the most common risk factor for C difficile colonization and infection. Appropriate preventive measures and judicious use of antibiotics can help mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with C difficile infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppression by Saccharomyces boulardii of toxigenic Clostridium difficile overgrowth after vancomycin treatment in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Elmer, G W; McFarland, L V

    1987-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii prevented the development of high counts of Clostridium difficile, high titers of toxin B, and positive latex agglutination tests after cessation of vancomycin treatment for hamsters. The protocol used was designed to stimulate relapse of human C. difficile-associated colitis. S. boulardii was protective in this model. PMID:3566236

  2. Wood adhesives prepared from lucerne fiber fermentation residues of Ruminococcus albus and Clostridium thermocellum

    Treesearch

    P. J. Weimer; R. G. Koegel; Linda F. Lorenz; Charles R. Frihart; William R. Kenealy

    2005-01-01

    Fermentation residues (consisting of incompletely fermented fiber, adherent bacterial cells, and a glycocalyx material that enhanced bacterial adherence) were obtained by growing the anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus albus 7 or Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 on a fibrous fraction derived from lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). The dried residue was able to...

  3. Conditions associated with Clostridium sporogenes growth as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum in nonthermally processed canned butter.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R H; Dunn, M L; Ogden, L V; Jefferies, L K; Eggett, D L; Steele, F M

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the effect of butter composition and emulsion structure on growth and survival of Clostridium sporogenes, used as a surrogate for C. botulinum in canned butter. The lack of a thermal process step in commercially available canned butter raises questions of potential safety, because it is hermetically sealed and generally exhibits anaerobic growth conditions, which are optimal for Clostridium botulinum growth. Without thermal processing, low-acid canned foods must have inhibitory factors present to prevent C. botulinum growth. Some potential intrinsic inhibitory factors, or hurdles, within butter include: reduced water activity, acidity in cultured products, elevated salt content, and the micro-droplet nature of the aqueous phase in the butter emulsion. It was hypothesized that a normal, intact butter emulsion would have sufficient hurdles to prevent C. botulinum growth, whereas a broken butter emulsion would result in a coalesced aqueous phase that would allow for C. botulinum growth. Batch-churned butter was inoculated with C. sporogenes; butter samples with varying salt contents (0, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% wt/wt NaCl) were prepared and stored in coated steel cans for varying times (1 or 2 wk) and temperatures (22 or 41°C) to determine temperature and emulsion structure effects on C. sporogenes growth. Samples stored at 41°C showed a significant increase in C. sporogenes growth compared with those stored at 22°C. Furthermore, NaCl addition was found to have a significant effect on C. sporogenes growth, with 0.8% NaCl promoting more growth than 0%, but with decreases in growth observed at 1.6 and 2.4%. Uninoculated control plates were also found to have bacterial growth; this growth was attributed to other anaerobic bacteria present within the cream. It was concluded that removal of the hurdle created by the micro-droplet size of the emulsion aqueous phase could result in C. botulinum growth even at elevated salt

  4. Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Clostridium thermoaceticum and Clostridium formicoaceticum

    PubMed Central

    Diekert, Gabriele B.; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of Clostridium formicoaceticum and C. thermoaceticum growing on fructose and glucose, respectively, were shown to rapidly oxidize CO to CO2. Rates up to 0.4 μmol min−1 mg of wet cells−1 were observed. Carbon monoxide oxidation by cell suspensions was found (i) to be dependent on pyruvate, (ii) to be inhibited by alkyl halides and arsenate, and (iii) to stimulate CO2 reduction to acetate. Cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of carbon monoxide with methyl viologen at specific rates up to 10 μmol min−1 mg of protein−1 (35°C, pH 7.2). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and ferredoxin from C. pasteurianum were ineffective as electron acceptors. The catalytic mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation was “ping-pong,” indicating that the enzyme catalyzing carbon monoxide oxidation can be present in an oxidized and a reduced form. The oxidized form was shown to react reversibly with cyanide, and the reduced form was shown to react reversibly with alkyl halides: cyanide inactivated the enzyme only in the absence of carbon monoxide, and alkyl halides inactivated it only in the presence of carbon monoxide. Extracts inactivated by alkyl halides were reactivated by photolysis. The findings are interpreted to indicate that carbon monoxide oxidation in the two bacteria is catalyzed by a corrinoid enzyme and that in vivo the reaction is coupled with the reduction of CO2 to acetate. Cultures of C. acidi-urici and C. cylindrosporum growing on hypoxanthine were found not to oxidize CO, indicating that clostridia mediating a corrinoid-independent total synthesis of acetate from CO2 do not possess a CO-oxidizing system. PMID:711675

  5. Clostridial collagenase aggravates the systemic inflammatory response in rats with partial-thickness burns.

    PubMed

    Dokumcu, Zafer; Ergun, Orkan; Celik, Handan Ak; Aydemir, Sohret; Sezak, Murat; Ozok, Geylani; Celik, Ahmet

    2008-11-01

    Clostridial collagenase A (CCA) has been shown effective in degrading collagen in eschar tissue and promoting healing in partial-thickness burns. As there are also reports of fever, leukocytosis, increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and septic complications during treatment with CCA, we aimed to determine in rats whether CCA aggravates the systemic inflammatory response. Rats with partial-thickness burns were randomly divided into groups with either no dressing (ND), povidone-iodine dressing (PID) or CCA dressing (CCAD). Body weights and temperatures, blood leukocyte counts, and serum levels of CRP, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), were measured at 0, 3, and 24h and days 3 and 7 from burn. Wounds were cultured on days 1, 3 and 7 and burn depth was evaluated on day 1. Body weights for all groups were significantly lower after burn, with highest loss (25.5%) in the CCAD group. At 3h a significant drop in rectal temperature was noted in all groups. The CCAD group had higher rectal temperature levels than the PID group on days 3 and 7 (p<0.05). Changes in serum levels of CRP, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were not significant in the ND and PID groups; the CCAD group showed a significant rise in serum levels of CRP on day 1, of IL-6 on day 3 and of TNF-alpha on day 7. Wound infection was more common in CCAD group and increased on days 3 and 7, but this was insignificant. CCA aggravated the systemic inflammatory response in rats with partial-thickness burns, which is accompanied by a higher risk of infection.

  6. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  7. Clostridium difficile infection in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Chandrabali

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming gram-positive bacillus, and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world. With the emergence of a hypervirulent strain of C. difficile (BI/NAP1/027), the epidemiology of C. difficile infection has rapidly changed in the last decade. C. difficile infection, once thought to be an easy to treat bacterial infection, has evolved into an epidemic that is associated with a high rate of mortality, causing disease in patients thought to be low-risk. In this review, we discuss the changing face of C .difficile infection and the novel treatment and prevention strategies needed to halt this ever growing epidemic. PMID:26038491

  8. Clostridium difficile infection: Evolution, phylogeny and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Briony; Androga, Grace O; Knight, Daniel R; Riley, Thomas V

    2017-04-01

    Over the recent decades, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has emerged as a global public health threat. Despite growing attention, C. difficile remains a poorly understood pathogen, however, the exquisite sensitivity offered by next generation sequencing (NGS) technology has enabled analysis of the genome of C. difficile, giving us access to massive genomic data on factors such as virulence, evolution, and genetic relatedness within C. difficile groups. NGS has also demonstrated excellence in investigations of outbreaks and disease transmission, in both small and large-scale applications. This review summarizes the molecular epidemiology, evolution, and phylogeny of C. difficile, one of the most important pathogens worldwide in the current antibiotic resistance era. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Clostridium difficile-associated reactive arthritis in two children.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Helga A; Pron, Benedicte; Mouy, Richard; Wulffraat, Nico M; Prieur, Anne-Marie

    2004-01-01

    In adults, reactive arthritis (ReA) following Clostridium difficile-enterocolitis has been documented. In children, only one case of C. difficile-associated ReA has been reported. We now describe two other cases of ReA associated with C. difficile in children. The characteristics of ReA due to C. difficile appear to be similar in adults and children. Both children show polyarthritis after an episode of diarrhoea with positive stool cultures for C. difficile. Arthritis is asymmetrical with a self-limiting course. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy is sufficient. One case is remarkable because of its prolonged course of ReA despite NSAID therapy, and its association with the presence of HLA-B27 antigen.

  10. Clostridium difficile infection: New insights into therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Kachrimanidou, Melina; Sarmourli, Theopisti; Skoura, Lemonia; Metallidis, Symeon; Malisiovas, Nikolaos

    2016-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in healthcare settings and represents a major social and economic burden. The major virulence determinants are large clostridial toxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), encoded within the pathogenicity locus. Traditional therapies, such as metronidazole and vancomycin, frequently lead to a vicious circle of recurrences due to their action against normal human microbiome. New disease management strategies together with the development of novel therapeutic and containment approaches are needed in order to better control outbreaks and treat patients. This article provides an overview of currently available CDI treatment options and discusses the most promising therapies under development.

  11. Biosynthesis of butyric acid by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Tang, Wan; Zhu, Shengquan; Du, Meini

    2018-05-28

    Butyric acid (C 3 H 7 COOH) is an important chemical that is widely used in foodstuffs along with in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The bioproduction of butyric acid through large-scale fermentation has the potential to be more economical and efficient than petrochemical synthesis. In this paper, the metabolic pathways involved in the production of butyric acid from Clostridium tyrobutyricum using hexose and pentose as substrates are investigated, and approaches to enhance butyric acid production through genetic modification are discussed. Finally, bioreactor modifications (including fibrous bed bioreactor, inner disk-shaped matrix bioreactor, fibrous matrix packed in porous levitated sphere carriers), low-cost feedstocks, and special treatments (including continuous fermentation with cell recycling, extractive fermentation with solvent, using different artificial electron carriers) intended to improve the feasibility of commercial butyric acid bioproduction are summarized.

  12. Elevation of a collagenase generated type II collagen neoepitope and proteoglycan epitopes in synovial fluid following induction of joint instability in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Q.; Lopez, M.; Hayashi, K.; lonescu, M.; Billinghurst, R. C.; Johnson, K. A.; Poole, A. R.; Markel, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Clinical relevance Measurement of markers of cartilage pathology in synovial fluid may provide clinical rheumatologists and osteoarthritis (OA) researchers important information for early diagnosis of OA as well as a method for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. This study demonstrates the value of this approach in an established model of OA (cranial cruciate ligament rupture) at a point distant enough from the original surgical manipulation so as to have little to no effect on the marker concentrations. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether measurement of markers of cartilage collagen cleavage and proteoglycan turnover in synovial fluid from a canine model could be used to detect cartilage changes following the onset of joint instability during the development of OA. Design A model of joint instability that develops OA was created in 18 mature dogs using monopolar radiofrequency energy (MRFE). MRFE was arthroscopically applied to one cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) while the contralateral CCL was sham treated. The treated CCLs ruptured approximately 8 weeks (55 ± 1.6 days) after MRFE treatment. Synovial fluid was collected at time zero prior to MRFE treatment, 4 weeks after MRFE treatment, and at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after CCL rupture. Synovial fluid concentrations of the neoepitope COL2-3/4C long (type II collagen cleavage by collagenase) and epitopes 3B3(–) (proteoglycan aggrecan sulfation) and 846 (associated with aggrecan synthesis) were analyzed. Results Compared to sham treated joints, the synovial fluid concentrations of COL2-3/4C long and 3B3(–) were significantly increased 2.2 fold and 2.9 fold, respectively, in joints with MRFE treated CCLs following CCL rupture. Concentrations of the 846 epitope in synovial fluid showed a trend toward an increase, which was not significant, after CCL rupture. Conclusions Concentrations of the collagenase-cleaved type II collagen neoepitope and 3B3(–) epitope

  13. Elevation of a collagenase generated type II collagen neoepitope and proteoglycan epitopes in synovial fluid following induction of joint instability in the dog.

    PubMed

    Chu, Q; Lopez, M; Hayashi, K; Ionescu, M; Billinghurst, R C; Johnson, K A; Poole, A R; Markel, M D

    2002-08-01

    Measurement of markers of cartilage pathology in synovial fluid may provide clinical rheumatologists and osteoarthritis (OA) researchers important information for early diagnosis of OA as well as a method for monitoring disease progression and response to treatment. This study demonstrates the value of this approach in an established model of OA (cranial cruciate ligament rupture) at a point distant enough from the original surgical manipulation so as to have little to no effect on the marker concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine whether measurement of markers of cartilage collagen cleavage and proteoglycan turnover in synovial fluid from a canine model could be used to detect cartilage changes following the onset of joint instability during the development of OA. A model of joint instability that develops OA was created in 18 mature dogs using monopolar radiofrequency energy (MRFE). MRFE was arthroscopically applied to one cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) while the contralateral CCL was sham treated. The treated CCLs ruptured approximately 8 weeks (55 +/- 1.6 days) after MRFE treatment. Synovial fluid was collected at time zero prior to MRFE treatment, 4 weeks after MRFE treatment, and at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after CCL rupture. Synovial fluid concentrations of the neoepitope COL2-3/4C long (type II collagen cleavage by collagenase) and epitopes 3B3(-) (proteoglycan aggrecan sulfation) and 846 (associated with aggrecan synthesis) were analyzed. Compared to sham treated joints, the synovial fluid concentrations of COL2-3/4C long and 3B3(-) were significantly increased 2.2 fold and 2.9 fold, respectively, in joints with MRFE treated CCLs following CCL rupture. Concentrations of the 846 epitope in synovial fluid showed a trend toward an increase, which was not significant, after CCL rupture. Concentrations of the collagenase-cleaved type II collagen neoepitope and 3B3(-) epitope in synovial fluid were significantly increased by 4 weeks and remained

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Philip A.; Dowd, Scot E.; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, DeAnna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; TenCate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De’andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  15. Administration of Probiotic Kefir to Mice with Clostridium difficile Infection Exacerbates Disease

    PubMed Central

    Spinler, Jennifer K.; Brown, Aaron; Ross, Caná L.; Boonma, Prapaporn; Conner, Margaret E.; Savidge, Tor C.

    2016-01-01

    Lifeway® kefir, a fermented milk product containing 12 probiotic organisms, is reported to show promise as an alternative to fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We employed a murine CDI model to study the probiotic protective mechanisms and unexpectedly determined that kefir drastically increased disease severity. Our results emphasize the need for further independent clinical testing of kefir as alternative therapy in recurrent CDI. PMID:27180007

  16. Clostridium septicum gas gangrene in the orbit: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fejes, I; Dégi, R; Végh, M

    2013-02-01

    Our report presents a case of Clostridium septicum gas gangrene in an unusual, orbital localization. The predisposing factors are typical: colon tumour and lymphatic malignancy. Most probably bacteria from the intestinal flora entered the bloodstream through the compromised intestinal wall and settled in the orbit resulting in the development of an abscess containing gas. At the site of the gas gangrene, an indolent B cell lymphoma was present. After surgery and antibiotic treatment, the patient healed from the C. septicum infection; but subsequently died as a consequence of the tumour.

  17. First Case of Infant Botulism Caused by Clostridium baratii Type F in California

    PubMed Central

    Barash, Jason R.; Tang, Tania W. H.; Arnon, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    In late 2003 a severely hypotonic neonate, just 38 h old at onset of illness, was found to have infant botulism caused by neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii type F. Environmental investigations failed to identify a source of this strain. This is the youngest patient reported to have infant botulism and the fifth instance of infant botulism caused by C. baratii type F. PMID:16082001

  18. First report of an infant botulism case due to Clostridium botulinum type Af.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Laura I T; Fernández, Rafael A; Pareja, Virtudes; Giaroli, Gabriel; Guidarelli, Sergio R; Dykes, Janet K; Lúquez, Carolina

    2015-02-01

    Most infant botulism cases worldwide are due to botulinum toxin types A and B. Rarely, Clostridium botulinum strains that produce two serotypes (Ab, Ba, and Bf) have also been isolated from infant botulism cases. This is the first reported case of infant botulism due to C. botulinum type Af worldwide. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Selection for pro-inflammatory mediators produces chickens more resistant to Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens is the fourth leading cause of bacterial-induced foodborne illnesses with an estimated economic burden of $342M USD per year. In addition to being a foodborne pathogen, C. perfringens is also an economically important poultry pathogen and is one of the known etiologic agents...

  20. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from clinically healthy and necrotic enteritis-afflicted broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens (CP) Type A strains are the main etiological factor for necrotic enteritis (NE), one of the important enteric diseases in poultry, which has gained worldwide attention during the last decade and is responsible for the annual loss of 6 billion dollars in US poultry industry. ...

  1. Characterization of the Enzymatic Component of the ADP-Ribosyltransferase Toxin CDTa from Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Gülke, Irene; Pfeifer, Gunther; Liese, Jan; Fritz, Michaela; Hofmann, Fred; Aktories, Klaus; Barth, Holger

    2001-01-01

    Certain strains of Clostridium difficile produce the ADP-ribosyltransferase CDT, which is a binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxin. The toxin consists of the binding component CDTb, which mediates receptor binding and cellular uptake, and the enzyme component CDTa. Here we studied the enzyme component (CDTa) of the toxin using the binding component of Clostridium perfringens iota toxin (Ib), which is interchangeable with CDTb as a transport component. Ib was used because CDTb was not expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Similar to iota toxin, CDTa ADP-ribosylates nonmuscle and skeletal muscle actin. The N-terminal part of CDTa (CDTa1–240) competes with full-length CDTa for binding to the iota toxin binding component. The C-terminal part (CDTa244–263) harbors the enzyme activity but was much less active than the full-length CDTa. Changes of Glu428 and Glu430 to glutamine, Ser388 to alanine, and Arg345 to lysine blocked ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Comparison of CDTa with C. perfringens iota toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin revealed full enzyme activity of the fragment Ia208–413 but loss of activity of several N-terminally deleted C2I proteins including C2I103–431, C2I190–431, and C2I30–431. The data indicate that CDTa belongs to the iota toxin subfamily of binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins with respect to interaction with the binding component and substrate specificity. It shares typical conserved amino acid residues with iota toxin and C2 toxin that are suggested to be involved in NAD-binding and/or catalytic activity. The enzyme components of CDT, iota toxin, and C2 toxin differ with respect to the minimal structural requirement for full enzyme activity. PMID:11553537

  2. Attributable Cost of Clostridium difficile Infection in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Preeti; Jang, Jisun; Gidengil, Courtney; Sandora, Thomas J

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVES The attributable cost of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children is unknown. We sought to determine a national estimate of attributable cost and length of stay (LOS) of CDI occurring during hospitalization in children. DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed discharge records of patients between 2 and 18 years of age from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Kids' Inpatient Database. We created a logistic regression model to predict CDI during hospitalization based on demographic and clinical characteristics. Predicted probabilities from the logistic regression model were then used as propensity scores to match 1:2 CDI to non-CDI cases. Charges were converted to costs and compared between patients with CDI and propensity-score-matched controls. In a sensitivity analysis, we adjusted for LOS as a confounder by including it in both the propensity score and a generalized linear model predicting cost. RESULTS We identified 8,527 pediatric hospitalizations (0.53%) with a diagnosis of CDI and 1,597,513 discharges without CDI. In our matched cohorts, the attributable cost of CDI occurring during a hospitalization ranged from $1,917 to $8,317, depending on whether model was adjusted for LOS. When not adjusting for LOS, CDI-associated hospitalizations cost 1.6 times more than non-CDI associated hospitalizations. Attributable LOS of CDI was approximately 4 days. CONCLUSIONS Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized children is associated with an economic burden similar to adult estimates. This finding supports a continued focus on preventing CDI in children as a priority. Pediatric CDI cost analyses should account for LOS as an important confounder of cost. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1472-1477.

  3. Incidence and Costs of Clostridium difficile Infections in Canada.

    PubMed

    Levy, Adrian R; Szabo, Shelagh M; Lozano-Ortega, Greta; Lloyd-Smith, Elisa; Leung, Victor; Lawrence, Robin; Romney, Marc G

    2015-09-01

    Background.  Limited data are available on direct medical costs and lost productivity due to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Canada. Methods.  We developed an economic model to estimate the costs of managing hospitalized and community-dwelling patients with CDI in Canada. The number of episodes was projected based on publicly available national rates of hospital-associated CDI and the estimate that 64% of all CDI is hospital-associated. Clostridium difficile infection recurrences were classified as relapses or reinfections. Resource utilization data came from published literature, clinician interviews, and Canadian CDI surveillance programs, and this included the following: hospital length of stay, contact with healthcare providers, pharmacotherapy, laboratory testing, and in-hospital procedures. Lost productivity was considered for those under 65 years of age, and the economic impact was quantified using publicly available labor statistics. Unit costs were obtained from published sources and presented in 2012 Canadian dollars. Results.  There were an estimated 37 900 CDI episodes in Canada in 2012; 7980 (21%) of these were relapses, out of a total of 10 900 (27%) episodes of recurrence. The total cost to society of CDI was estimated at $281 million; 92% ($260 million) was in-hospital costs, 4% ($12 million) was direct medical costs in the community, and 4% ($10 million) was due to lost productivity. Management of CDI relapses alone accounted for $65.1 million (23%). Conclusions.  The largest proportion of costs due to CDI in Canada arise from extra days of hospitalization. Interventions reducing the severity of infection and/or relapses leading to rehospitalizations are likely to have the largest absolute effect on direct medical costs.

  4. Incidence and Costs of Clostridium difficile Infections in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Adrian R.; Szabo, Shelagh M.; Lozano-Ortega, Greta; Lloyd-Smith, Elisa; Leung, Victor; Lawrence, Robin; Romney, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Limited data are available on direct medical costs and lost productivity due to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Canada. Methods. We developed an economic model to estimate the costs of managing hospitalized and community-dwelling patients with CDI in Canada. The number of episodes was projected based on publicly available national rates of hospital-associated CDI and the estimate that 64% of all CDI is hospital-associated. Clostridium difficile infection recurrences were classified as relapses or reinfections. Resource utilization data came from published literature, clinician interviews, and Canadian CDI surveillance programs, and this included the following: hospital length of stay, contact with healthcare providers, pharmacotherapy, laboratory testing, and in-hospital procedures. Lost productivity was considered for those under 65 years of age, and the economic impact was quantified using publicly available labor statistics. Unit costs were obtained from published sources and presented in 2012 Canadian dollars. Results. There were an estimated 37 900 CDI episodes in Canada in 2012; 7980 (21%) of these were relapses, out of a total of 10 900 (27%) episodes of recurrence. The total cost to society of CDI was estimated at $281 million; 92% ($260 million) was in-hospital costs, 4% ($12 million) was direct medical costs in the community, and 4% ($10 million) was due to lost productivity. Management of CDI relapses alone accounted for $65.1 million (23%). Conclusions. The largest proportion of costs due to CDI in Canada arise from extra days of hospitalization. Interventions reducing the severity of infection and/or relapses leading to rehospitalizations are likely to have the largest absolute effect on direct medical costs. PMID:26191534

  5. Global analysis of the sporulation pathway of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Fimlaid, Kelly A; Bond, Jeffrey P; Schutz, Kristin C; Putnam, Emily E; Leung, Jacqueline M; Lawley, Trevor D; Shen, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive, spore-forming pathogen Clostridium difficile is the leading definable cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea worldwide. C. difficile infections are difficult to treat because of their frequent recurrence, which can cause life-threatening complications such as pseudomembranous colitis. The spores of C. difficile are responsible for these high rates of recurrence, since they are the major transmissive form of the organism and resistant to antibiotics and many disinfectants. Despite the importance of spores to the pathogenesis of C. difficile, little is known about their composition or formation. Based on studies in Bacillus subtilis and other Clostridium spp., the sigma factors σ(F), σ(E), σ(G), and σ(K) are predicted to control the transcription of genes required for sporulation, although their specific functions vary depending on the organism. In order to determine the roles of σ(F), σ(E), σ(G), and σ(K) in regulating C. difficile sporulation, we generated loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding these sporulation sigma factors and performed RNA-Sequencing to identify specific sigma factor-dependent genes. This analysis identified 224 genes whose expression was collectively activated by sporulation sigma factors: 183 were σ(F)-dependent, 169 were σ(E)-dependent, 34 were σ(G)-dependent, and 31 were σ(K)-dependent. In contrast with B. subtilis, C. difficile σ(E) was dispensable for σ(G) activation, σ(G) was dispensable for σ(K) activation, and σ(F) was required for post-translationally activating σ(G). Collectively, these results provide the first genome-wide transcriptional analysis of genes induced by specific sporulation sigma factors in the Clostridia and highlight that diverse mechanisms regulate sporulation sigma factor activity in the Firmicutes.

  6. Impedance Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cells upon Challenge with C-terminal Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Geoffrey; Lo, Chun-Min

    2007-03-01

    Both in vitro and animal studies in breast, prostate, and ovarian cancers have shown that clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), which binds to CLDN4, may have an important therapeutic benefit, as it is rapidly cytotoxic in tissues overexpressing CLDN4. This study sought to evaluate the ability of C-terminal clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), a CLDN4-targetting molecule, to disrupt tight junction barrier function. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was used to measure both junctional resistance and average cell-substrate separation of ovarian cancer cell lines after exposure to C-CPE. A total of 14 ovarian cancer cell lines were used, and included cell lines derived from serous, mucinous, and clear cells. Our results showed that junctional resistance increases as CLDN4 expression increases. In addition, C-CPE is non-cytotoxic in ovarian cancer cells expressing CLDN4. However, exposure to C-CPE results in a significant (p<0.05) dose- and CLDN4-dependent decrease in junctional resistance and an increase in cell-substrate separation. Treatment of ovarian cancer cell lines with C-CPE disrupts tight junction barrier function.

  7. Attempts to identify Clostridium botulinum toxin in milk from three experimentally intoxicated Holstein cows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moeller, R.B.; Puschner, B.; Walker, R.L.; Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Cullor, J.S.; Ardans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Three adult lactating Holstein cows were injected in the subcutaneous abdominal vein with 175 ng/kg of body weight of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin (451 cow median toxic doses) to determine if this botulinum toxin crosses the blood–milk barrier. Whole blood (in sodium heparin) and clotted blood serum samples were taken at 0 min, 10 min, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 h postinoculation. Milk samples were taken at 0 min and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h postinoculation. All samples were tested for the presence of the toxin using the mouse bioassay and immunostick ELISA test. The immunostick ELISA identified the toxin in whole blood and the mouse bioassay identified the toxin in serum at all times examined in all 3 animals. Toxin was not identified by either detection method in milk samples collected from the 3 animals. From these results, it appears that Clostridium botulinum type C toxin does not cross from the blood to the milk in detectable concentrations.

  8. The identification of four histidine kinases that influence sporulation in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Mearls, Elizabeth B; Lynd, Lee R

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we sought to identify genes involved in the onset of spore formation in Clostridium thermocellum via targeted gene deletions, gene over-expression, and transcriptional analysis. We determined that three putative histidine kinases, clo1313_0286, clo1313_2735 and clo1313_1942 were positive regulators of sporulation, while a fourth kinase, clo1313_1973, acted as a negative regulator. Unlike Bacillus or other Clostridium species, the deletion of a single positively regulating kinase was sufficient to abolish sporulation in this organism. Sporulation could be restored in these asporogenous strains via overexpression of any one of the positive regulators, indicating a high level of redundancy between these kinases. In addition to having a sporulation defect, deletion of clo1313_2735 produced L-forms. Thus, this kinase may play an additional role in repressing L-form formation. This work suggests that C. thermocellum enters non-growth states based on the sensory input from multiple histidine kinases. The ability to control the development of non-growth states at the genetic level has the potential to inform strategies for improved strain development, as well as provide valuable insight into C. thermocellum biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy Scripts: Updates on Clostridium difficile Infection: Advances in Laboratory Testing to Aid Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lteif, Louis

    2017-02-01

    Clostridium difficile remains a major source of nosocomial infections and associated diarrhea. More recently, community-acquired cases are on the rise creating a concern for a serious public health threat. Appropriate infection control precautions as well as prevention and optimal management may help to avoid detrimental outbreaks. A key step is utilizing laboratory testing for quick and accurate diagnosis of potential cases. This overview article describes Clostridium difficile infection control and prevention methods and updates the most recent management strategies including a focus on the utilization and interpretation of laboratory diagnostic testing and appropriate treatment.

  10. Decreasing Clostridium difficile-Associated Fatality Rates Among Hospitalized Patients in the United States: 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Manish P; Bime, Christian; Taleban, Sasha

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a major public health problem in the United States over the last 2 decades. We examined the trends in the C. difficile-associated fatality rate, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges over the last decade. We used data from the National Inpatient Sample to identify patients with a principal diagnosis of C. difficile infection from 2004 to 2014. Outcomes included in-hospital fatality rate, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges. For each outcome, trends were also stratified by age categories because the risk of infection and associated mortality increases with age. Clostridium difficile infection discharges increased from 19.9 per 100,000 persons in 2004 to 33.8 per 100,000 persons in 2014. Clostridium difficile-associated fatality decreased from 3.6% in 2004 to 1.6% in 2014 (P < .001). Among patients aged 45-64 years, fatality decreased from 1.2% in 2004 to 0.7% in 2014 (P < .001). Among patients aged 65-84 years, fatality decreased from 4.3% in 2004 to 2.0% in 2014 (P < .001). Among patients aged ≥85 years, fatality decreased from 6.9% in 2004 to 3.6% in 2014 (P < .001). The mean length of hospital stay decreased from 6.9 days in 2004 to 5.8 days in 2014 (P < .001). The mean hospital charges increased from 2004 ($24,535) to 2014 ($35,898) (P < .001). In-hospital fatality associated with C. difficile infection in the United States has decreased more than 2-fold in the last decade, despite increasing infection rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacteraemia and breast abscess: unusual extra-intestinal manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Durojaiye, Oyewole; Gaur, Soma; Alsaffar, Layth

    2011-03-01

    Extra-intestinal manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection are uncommon. Most cases are associated with gastrointestinal disease and often occur as a mixed infection with other gut flora. We report a case of breast abscess following monomicrobial C. difficile bacteraemia in a female with background chronic hepatitis C infection and alcoholic liver disease. No evidence of colitis was found. Our case shows that C. difficile is indeed capable of spreading from the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Production of iota toxin by Clostridium spiroforme: a requirement for divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Carman, R J; van Tassell, R L; Wilkins, T D

    1987-10-01

    The effects of divalent cations (Ca2+, Co2+ and Zn2+) on the production of iota toxin by Clostridium spiroforme were studied. Toxin production had an absolute requirement for one or more cations in the range 1-5 mM. Using bispecific antisera, we showed that production of both the components of the toxin (ia and ib) were enhanced by divalent cations added to brain-heart infusion supplemented with peptone and glucose.

  13. Identification of collagenase as a critical virulence factor for invasiveness and transmission of pathogenic Leptospira species.

    PubMed

    Kassegne, Kokouvi; Hu, Weilin; Ojcius, David M; Sun, Dexter; Ge, Yumei; Zhao, Jinfang; Yang, X Frank; Li, Lanjuan; Yan, Jie

    2014-04-01

     Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease. Transmission of Leptospira from animals to humans occurs through contact with water contaminated with leptospire-containing urine of infected animals. However, the molecular basis for the invasiveness of Leptospira and transmission of leptospirosis remains unknown.  Activity of Leptospira interrogans strain Lai colA gene product (ColA) to hydrolyze different collagenic substrates was determined by spectrophotometry. Expression and secretion of ColA during infection were detected by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assay. The colA gene-deleted (ΔcolA) and colA gene-complemented (CΔcolA) mutants were generated to determine the roles of ColA in transcytosis in vitro and virulence in hamsters.  Recombinant or native ColA hydrolyzed all the tested substrates in which type III collagen was the favorite substrate with 2.16 mg/mL Km and 35.6 h(-)(1) Kcat values. Coincubation of the spirochete with HUVEC or HEK293 cells directly caused the significant elevation of ColA expression and secretion. Compared with wild-type strain, ΔcolA mutant displayed much-attenuated transcytosis through HEK293 and HUVEC monolayers, and less leptospires in blood, lung, liver, kidney and urine and 25-fold-decreased 50% lethal dose and milder histopathological injury in hamsters.  The product of colA gene is a collagenase as a crucial virulence factor in the invasiveness and transmission of L. interrogans.

  14. Epidemiology, risk factors, and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection in heart and heart-lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Cawcutt, Kelly A; Thongprayoon, Charat; Petterson, Tanya M; Kremers, Walter K; Razonable, Raymund R

    2017-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is a major cause of diarrhea in thoracic organ transplant recipients. We investigated the epidemiology, risk factors, and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in heart and heart-lung transplant (HT) recipients. This is a retrospective study from 2004 to 2013. CDI was defined by diarrhea and a positive toxigenic C. difficile in stool measured by toxin enzyme immunoassay (2004-2006) or polymerase chain reaction (2007-2013). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the association of risk factors with time to CDI and survival with CDI following transplantation. There were 254 HT recipients, with a median age of 53 years (IQR, 45-60); 34% were female. During the median follow-up of 3.1 years (IQR, 1.3-6.1), 22 (8.7%) patients developed CDI. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for CDI were combined heart-lung transplant (HR 4.70; 95% CI, 1.30-17.01 [P=.02]) and retransplantation (HR 7.19; 95% CI, 1.61-32.12 [P=.01]). Acute cellular rejection was associated with a lower risk of CDI (HR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.11-0.94 [P=.04]). CDI was found to be an independent risk factor for mortality (HR 7.66; 95% CI, 3.41-17.21 [P<.0001]). Clostridium difficile infection after HT is more common among patients with combined heart-lung and those undergoing retransplantation. CDI was associated with a higher risk of mortality in HT recipients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Identification of Clostridium difficile Reservoirs in The Patient Environment and Efficacy of Aerial Hydrogen Peroxide Decontamination.

    PubMed

    Yui, Samuel; Ali, Shanom; Muzslay, Monika; Jeanes, Annette; Wilson, A Peter R

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify, using a novel enhanced method of recovery, environmental sites where spores of Clostridium difficile persist despite cleaning and hydrogen peroxide aerial decontamination. DESIGN Cohort study. SETTING Tertiary referral center teaching hospital. METHODS In total, 16 sites representing high-frequency contact or difficult-to-clean surfaces in a single-isolation room or bed area in patient bed bays were sampled before and after terminal or hydrogen peroxide disinfection using a sponge swab. In some rooms, individual sites were not present (eg, there were no en-suite rooms in the ICU). Swab contents were homogenized, concentrated by membrane-filtration, and plated onto selective media. Results of C. difficile sampling were used to focus cleaning. RESULTS Over 1 year, 2,529 sites from 146 rooms and 44 bays were sampled. Clostridium difficile was found on 131 of 572 surfaces (22.9%) before terminal cleaning, on 105 of 959 surfaces (10.6%) after terminal cleaning, and on 43 of 967 surfaces (4.4%) after hydrogen peroxide disinfection. Clostridium difficile persisted most frequently on floor corners (97 of 334; 29.0%) after disinfection. Between the first and third quarters, we observed a significant decrease in the number of positive sites (25 of 390 vs 6 of 256). However, no similar change in the number of isolates before terminal cleaning was observed. CONCLUSION Persistence of C. difficile in the clinical environment was widespread. Although feedback of results did not improve the efficacy of manual disinfection, numbers of C. difficile following hydrogen peroxide gradually declined. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1487-1492.

  16. Carriage of Clostridium difficile by Wild Urban Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Black Rats (Rattus rattus)

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, David M.; Mak, Sunny; Jardine, Claire M.; Tang, Patrick; Weese, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important cause of enteric infections in humans. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding whether animals could be a source of C. difficile spores. Although colonization has been identified in a number of domestic species, the ability of commensal pests to serve as a reservoir for C. difficile has not been well investigated. The objective of this study was to determine whether urban rats (Rattus spp.) from Vancouver, Canada, carry C. difficile. Clostridium difficile was isolated from the colon contents of trapped rats and was characterized using ribotyping, toxinotyping, and toxin gene identification. Generalized linear mixed models and spatial analysis were used to characterize the ecology of C. difficile in rats. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 95 of 724 (13.1%) rats, although prevalence differed from 0% to 46.7% among city blocks. The odds of being C. difficile positive decreased with increasing weight (odds ratio [OR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.87), suggesting that carriage is more common in younger animals. The strains isolated included 9 ribotypes that matched recognized international designations, 5 identified by our laboratory in previous studies, and 21 “novel” ribotypes. Some strains were clustered geographically; however, the majority were dispersed throughout the study area, supporting environmental sources of exposure and widespread environmental contamination with a variety of C. difficile strains. Given that urban rats are the source of a number of other pathogens responsible for human morbidity and mortality, the potential for rats to be a source of C. difficile for humans deserves further consideration. PMID:24317079

  17. Carriage of Clostridium difficile by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and black rats (Rattus rattus).

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Patrick, David M; Mak, Sunny; Jardine, Claire M; Tang, Patrick; Weese, J Scott

    2014-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important cause of enteric infections in humans. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding whether animals could be a source of C. difficile spores. Although colonization has been identified in a number of domestic species, the ability of commensal pests to serve as a reservoir for C. difficile has not been well investigated. The objective of this study was to determine whether urban rats (Rattus spp.) from Vancouver, Canada, carry C. difficile. Clostridium difficile was isolated from the colon contents of trapped rats and was characterized using ribotyping, toxinotyping, and toxin gene identification. Generalized linear mixed models and spatial analysis were used to characterize the ecology of C. difficile in rats. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 95 of 724 (13.1%) rats, although prevalence differed from 0% to 46.7% among city blocks. The odds of being C. difficile positive decreased with increasing weight (odds ratio [OR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.87), suggesting that carriage is more common in younger animals. The strains isolated included 9 ribotypes that matched recognized international designations, 5 identified by our laboratory in previous studies, and 21 "novel" ribotypes. Some strains were clustered geographically; however, the majority were dispersed throughout the study area, supporting environmental sources of exposure and widespread environmental contamination with a variety of C. difficile strains. Given that urban rats are the source of a number of other pathogens responsible for human morbidity and mortality, the potential for rats to be a source of C. difficile for humans deserves further consideration.

  18. Disinfection methods for spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, B. anthracis, Clostridium tetani, C. botulinum and C. difficile.

    PubMed

    Oie, Shigeharu; Obayashi, Akiko; Yamasaki, Hirofumi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Motohide; Kawamoto, Keiko; Makino, Sou-ichi

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate disinfection methods for environments contaminated with bioterrorism-associated microorganism (Bacillus anthracis), we performed the following experiments. First, the sporicidal effects of sodium hypochlorite on spores of five bacterial species were evaluated. Bacillus atrophaeus was the most resistant to hypochlorite, followed in order by B. anthracis, Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani, and Clostridium difficile. Subsequently, using B. atrophaeus spores that were the most resistant to hypochlorite, the sporicidal effects of hypochlorite at lower pH by adding vinegar were evaluated. Hypochlorite containing vinegar had far more marked sporicidal effects than hypochlorite alone. Cleaning with 0.5% (5000 ppm) hypochlorite containing vinegar inactivated B. atrophaeus spores attached to vinyl chloride and plywood plates within 15 s, while that not containing vinegar did not inactivate spores attached to cement or plywood plates even after 1 h. Therefore, the surfaces of cement or plywood plates were covered with gauze soaked in 0.5% hypochlorite containing vinegar, and the sporicidal effects were evaluated. B. atrophaeus spores attached to plywood plates were not inactivated even after 6 h, but those attached to cement plates were inactivated within 5 min. On the other hand, covering the surfaces of plywood plates with gauze soaked in 0.3% peracetic acid and gauze soaked in 2% glutaral inactivated B. atrophaeus spores within 5 min and 6 h, respectively. These results suggest that hypochlorite containing vinegar is effective for disinfecting vinyl chloride, tile, and cement plates contaminated with B. anthracis, and peracetic acid is effective for disinfecting plywood plates contaminated with such microorganism.

  19. Enhancing nitrite inhibition of Clostridium botulinum with isoascorbate in perishable canned cured meat.

    PubMed Central

    Tompkin, R B; Christiansen, L N; Shaparis, A B

    1978-01-01

    Addition of sodium isoascorbate to the formulation for perishable canned comminuted cured meat markedly enhanced the efficacy of nitrite against Clostridium botulinum. This effect was reproducible through a series of three tests. In one test it was found that the initial addition of 50 microgram of sodium nitrite per g plus isoascorbate was as effective as 156 microgram of sodium nitrite per g alone. PMID:341810

  20. John G. Bartlett: Contributions to the discovery of Clostridium difficile antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Sherwood L

    2014-09-15

    In 1975 John Bartlett began trials investigating the problem of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. His work led the discovery of Clostridium difficile and he identified it as the leading cause of hospital-associated infections. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Intestinal Epithelial Cell Response to Clostridium difficile Flagella.

    PubMed

    Batah, Jameel; Kansau, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the bacterium responsible for most antibiotic-associated diarrhea in North America and Europe. This bacterium, which colonizes the gut of humans and animals, produces toxins that are known to contribute directly to damage of the gut. It is known that bacterial flagella are involved in intestinal lesions through the inflammatory host response. The C. difficile flagellin recognizes TLR5 and consequently activates the NF-κB and the MAPK signaling pathways which elicit the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Increasing interest on the role of C. difficile flagella in eliciting this cell response was recently developed and the development of tools to study cell response triggered by C. difficile flagella will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of C. difficile.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Clostridium Strains Native to Colombia with the Potential To Produce Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Morales, Juan Pablo; Perez-Mancilla, Ximena; López-Kleine, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Genomes from four Clostridium sp. strains considered to be mesophilic anaerobic bacteria, isolated from crop soil in Colombia, with a strong potential to produce alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, were analyzed. We present the draft genome of these strains, which will be useful for developing genetic engineering strategies. PMID:25999575

  3. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found producing butyrate under strict anaerobic conditions. This strain produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from MRS media (0.48 g/g glucose). RPT-4213 was also used to ferment dilute acid pretreated hydrolysates including wheat straw (WSH), corn fiber (CFH...

  4. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain RPT-4213

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found to produce butyrate under anaerobic conditions. Fermentations using Lactobacilli MRS Broth produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from glucose (0.48 g/g glucose). However, the strain was not capable of utilizing five carbon sugars. To assess the a...

  5. A Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) stewardship initiative improves adherence to practice guidelines for management of CDI.

    PubMed

    Jury, Lucy A; Tomas, Myreen; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sitzlar, Brett; Donskey, Curtis J

    2013-11-01

    A Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) stewardship initiative reduced inappropriate prescription of empirical CDI therapy and improved timeliness of treatment and adherence to clinical practice guidelines for management of CDI. The initiative required minimal resources and could easily be incorporated into traditional antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  6. In-vitro evaluation of antioxidant, anti-elastase, anti-collagenase, anti-hyaluronidase activities of safranal and determination of its sun protection factor in skin photoaging.

    PubMed

    Madan, Kumud; Nanda, Sanju

    2018-04-01

    Safranal, a monoterpene aldehyde, is present as one of the main volatile constituents of Crocus sativus Linn. (saffron flowers). This volatile constituent not only contributes to the aroma of saffron but has been reported to possess antidiabetic, antiulcer, antiasthamatic, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, cardioprotective, anticancer and UV protective properties. Most of these therapeutic actions are contributed by its potential to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant properties of phytoconstituents are now being explored for developing photoprotective skin formulations. These bioactives have the potential to protect the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin which mainly comprises of elastin and collagen. When UV rays penetrate the dermal layers, there is an increased production of elastase, collagenase and hyaluronidase leading to degradation of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid respectively. These dermal components are responsible to provide strength, elasticity and moisture to the skin. Due to frequent exposure to sunlight, these conditions tend to augment leading to wrinkle formation and sagging of skin. Although antioxidant properties of safranal have been established on various cell lines but till date no studies have been reported regarding the dermal enzyme inhibition activities. In the current research work, a comprehensive in vitro evaluation of antioxidant, anti-elastase, anti-collagenase, anti-hyaluronidase activities of safranal along with determination of sun protection factor (SPF) was carried out. The in vitro antioxidant activity was carried out by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and its IC 50 value was found to be 22.7 μg/ml. The enzyme inhibition IC 50 values of safranal for anti elastase activity were found to be 43.6 μg/ml, 70 μg/ml for antihyaluronidase activity and 9.4 μg/ml for anticollagenase activity. Photoprotective activity of safranal was determined by UV absorbance method and SPF calculated by Mansur

  7. An investigation into the association between cpb2-encoding Clostridium perfringens type A and diarrhea in neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Abdolvahab; Kircanski, Jasmina; DeLay, Josepha; Soltes, Glenn; Songer, J. Glenn; Friendship, Robert; Prescott, John F.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of cpb2-positive type A Clostridium perfringens in neonatal diarrheal illness in pigs, the jejunum and colon of matched normal and diarrheic piglets from 10 farms with a history of neonatal diarrhea were examined grossly and by histopathology, and tested for C. perfringens, for C. perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin, as well as for Clostridium difficile toxins, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, rotavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, and coccidia. Clostridium perfringens isolates were tested using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of cpa, consensus and atypical cpb2, and other virulence-associated genes. The numbers of C. perfringens in the intestinal contents were lower in diarrheic piglets (log10 5.4 CFU/g) compared with normal piglets (log10 6.5 CFU/g) (P < 0.05). The consensus cpb2 was present in 93% of isolates in each group, but atypical cpb2 was less common (56% healthy, 32% diarrheic piglets isolates, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of CPB2 toxin in the intestinal contents of normal and diarrheic piglets did not differ significantly. Clostridium difficile toxins and rotavirus were each detected in 7 of the 21 (33%) diarrheic piglets. Rotavirus, C. difficile toxins, Salmonella, or enterotoxigenic E. coli were concurrently recovered in different combinations in 4 diarrheic piglets. The cause of diarrhea in 8 of the 21 (38%) piglets on 6 farms remained unknown. The etiological diagnosis of diarrhea could not be determined in any of the piglets on 2 of the farms. This study demonstrated that the number of cpb2-positive type A C. perfringens in the intestinal contents was not a useful approach for making a diagnosis of type A C. perfringens enteritis in piglets. Further work is required to confirm whether cpb2-carrying type A C. perfringens have a pathogenic role in enteric infection in neonatal swine. PMID:23814355

  8. An investigation into the association between cpb2-encoding Clostridium perfringens type A and diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Abdolvahab; Kircanski, Jasmina; DeLay, Josepha; Soltes, Glenn; Songer, J Glenn; Friendship, Robert; Prescott, John F

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of cpb2-positive type A Clostridium perfringens in neonatal diarrheal illness in pigs, the jejunum and colon of matched normal and diarrheic piglets from 10 farms with a history of neonatal diarrhea were examined grossly and by histopathology, and tested for C. perfringens, for C. perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin, as well as for Clostridium difficile toxins, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, rotavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, and coccidia. Clostridium perfringens isolates were tested using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of cpa, consensus and atypical cpb2, and other virulence-associated genes. The numbers of C. perfringens in the intestinal contents were lower in diarrheic piglets (log₁₀ 5.4 CFU/g) compared with normal piglets (log₁₀ 6.5 CFU/g) (P < 0.05). The consensus cpb2 was present in 93% of isolates in each group, but atypical cpb2 was less common (56% healthy, 32% diarrheic piglets isolates, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of CPB2 toxin in the intestinal contents of normal and diarrheic piglets did not differ significantly. Clostridium difficile toxins and rotavirus were each detected in 7 of the 21 (33%) diarrheic piglets. Rotavirus, C. difficile toxins, Salmonella, or enterotoxigenic E. coli were concurrently recovered in different combinations in 4 diarrheic piglets. The cause of diarrhea in 8 of the 21 (38%) piglets on 6 farms remained unknown. The etiological diagnosis of diarrhea could not be determined in any of the piglets on 2 of the farms. This study demonstrated that the number of cpb2-positive type A C. perfringens in the intestinal contents was not a useful approach for making a diagnosis of type A C. perfringens enteritis in piglets. Further work is required to confirm whether cpb2-carrying type A C. perfringens have a pathogenic role in enteric infection in neonatal swine.

  9. Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Clostridium Difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Meera B.; Avila, Nathaniel P.; Dupont, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become the most frequently reported health care-associated infection in the United States [1]. As the incidence of CDI rises, so too does the burden it produces on health care and society. In an attempt to decrease the burden of CDI and provide the best outcomes for patients affected by CDI, there have been many recent advancements in the understanding, diagnosis, and management of CDI. In this article, we review the current recommendations regarding CDI testing and treatment strategies. PMID:26918176

  10. Clostridium perfringens type A fatal acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Ben J.; Van Dreumel, Tony; Slavić, Durda; Prescott, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The morning after participating in a dog show, a 2-year-old Pomeranian dog was found dead in a pool of bloody feces. Necropsy revealed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis of the entire gastrointestinal tract, with many Gram-positive bacilli on the surface and in the lumen and crypts of the intestine. Enterotoxin-positive type A Clostridium perfringens were isolated in large numbers. This dramatic case of fatal C. perfringens gastroenteritis highlights the need to better understand the role of this bacterium in enteric disease of dogs. PMID:23115371

  11. Clostridium perfringens type A fatal acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Ben J; Van Dreumel, Tony; Slavić, Durda; Prescott, John F

    2012-05-01

    The morning after participating in a dog show, a 2-year-old Pomeranian dog was found dead in a pool of bloody feces. Necropsy revealed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis of the entire gastrointestinal tract, with many Gram-positive bacilli on the surface and in the lumen and crypts of the intestine. Enterotoxin-positive type A Clostridium perfringens were isolated in large numbers. This dramatic case of fatal C. perfringens gastroenteritis highlights the need to better understand the role of this bacterium in enteric disease of dogs.

  12. Incidence Study of Spores of Clostridium botulinum in Convenience Foods

    PubMed Central

    Insalata, N. F.; Witzeman, S. J.; Fredericks, G. J.; Sunga, F. C. A.

    1969-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gather data on the incidence of Clostridium botulinum spores in selected consumer-convenience food products. The incidence of spores of C. botulinum in 100 samples of each of four categories of commercially available convenience foods was determined. These categories included (i) “boil-in-the-bag” foods, (ii) vacuum-packed foods, (iii) pressurized foods, and (iv) dehydrated and freeze-dried foods. Of the 400 samples analyzed, one was found to contain the spores of C. botulinum. This occurred in vacuum-packed frank-furters and was identified as type B. PMID:4890746

  13. The molecular-genetic analysis of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broilers on farms in Central Russia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the research was to perform phenotypic and molecular-genetic typing of Clostridium perfringens strains commonly spread on poultry farms in Central Russia. Samples of homogenized iliac and cecal contents from 760 broilers were assayed and 325 C. perfringens strains (42.8 %) were isol...

  14. Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages FCP39O and FCP26F: genomic organization and proteomic analysis of the virions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Initial screening for bacteriophages lytic for Clostridium perfringens was performed utilizing filtered samples obtained from poultry (intestinal material), soil, sewage and poultry processing drainage water. Lytic phage preparations were initially characterized by transmission electron microscopy ...

  15. A repeat offender: Recurrent extraintestinal Clostridium difficile infection following fecal microbiota transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Bradley J; Thorpe, Cheleste M; Pinkham, Nicholas V; McDermott, Laura A; Walk, Seth T; Snydman, David R

    2018-06-01

    Extraintestinal infection with Clostridium difficile has been reported but remains uncommon. Treatment of this unusual complication is complex given the limitations of current therapeutic options. Here we report a novel case of recurrent extraintestinal C. difficile infection that occurred following fecal microbiota transplantation. Using whole genome sequencing, we confirmed recrudescence rather than reinfection was responsible. The patient ultimately responded to prolonged, targeted antimicrobial therapy informed by susceptibility testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Administration of probiotic kefir to mice with Clostridium difficile infection exacerbates disease.

    PubMed

    Spinler, Jennifer K; Brown, Aaron; Ross, Caná L; Boonma, Prapaporn; Conner, Margaret E; Savidge, Tor C

    2016-08-01

    Lifeway(®) kefir, a fermented milk product containing 12 probiotic organisms, is reported to show promise as an alternative to fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We employed a murine CDI model to study the probiotic protective mechanisms and unexpectedly determined that kefir drastically increased disease severity. Our results emphasize the need for further independent clinical testing of kefir as alternative therapy in recurrent CDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spirotetronate antibiotics with anti-Clostridium activity from Actinomadura sp. 2EPS.

    PubMed

    Euanorasetr, Jirayut; Intra, Bungonsiri; Mongkol, Phayungsak; Chankhamhaengdecha, Surang; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Nihira, Takuya; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2015-02-01

    The rare actinomycetes strain 2EPS was isolated from soil and analysis of cultural, morphological characteristics, diaminopimelic acid content of its cell wall, and 16S rRNA gene sequence indicates that 2EPS belongs to genus Actinomadura. In addition, neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree also confirmed the relationships of this strain to other members of Actinomadura. A butanol extract with antibacterial activity was purified by reversed-phase chromatography to obtain three bioactive compounds, designated as compounds 1, 2 and 3. The structures of these compounds were determined using spectroscopic analysis ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR) and mass spectrometric analysis (HR-TOF-MS). Compounds 1-3 were identified and found to be the same as those included in the Japanese patent number JP 09227587 for spirotetronate antibiotics and are BE-45722A (1), BE-45722B (2) and BE-45722C (3), respectively. All compounds were active against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, and B. subtilis ATCC 6633) with low MIC values between 0.08 and 5.0 µg/ml. Moreover, both 1 and 3 also exhibited strong activity, with similar MIC values, against Clostridium perfringens S107 at 0.63 µg/ml and C. difficile 630 at 0.08 µg/ml. These results suggest the identified spirotetronate compounds may have potential in the treatment of Clostridium infections. Overall, this analysis demonstrates that rare actinomycetes are a promising source for discovery of antimicrobial compounds.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Clostridial Collagenase Ointment to Medicinal Honey for Treatment of Pressure Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Adrienne M.; Waycaster, Curtis R.; Bizier, Richard; Chu, Bong-Chul; Carter, Marissa J.; Fife, Caroline E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Compare enzymatic debridement using clostridial collagenase ointment (CCO) with autolytic debridement using medicinal honey in the hospital outpatient setting for treating pressure ulcers (PUs). Approach: Retrospective deidentified electronic health records from 2007–2013 were extracted from the U.S. Wound Registry. Propensity score matching followed by multivariable analyses was used to adjust for selection bias and assess treatment effects comparing CCO-treated versus honey-treated PUs. Key outcomes included 100% granulation and epithelialization at 1 year. Results: Five hundred seventeen CCO-treated PUs (446 patients) were matched to corresponding honey-treated PUs (341 patients). The majority of PUs were stage III (CCO 56%, honey 55%). CCO users had significantly fewer total visits (9.1 vs. 12.6; p < 0.001), fewer total selective sharp debridements (2.7 vs. 4.4; p < 0.001), and fewer PUs receiving negative pressure wound therapy (29% vs. 38%; p = 0.002) compared with honey. Innovation: CCO-treated PUs were 38% more likely to achieve 100% granulation compared to honey-treated PUs at 1 year, p = 0.018. Mean days to 100% granulation were significantly lower for CCO-treated PUs (255 vs. 282 days, p < 0.001). CCO-treated PUs were 47% (p = 0.024) more likely to epithelialize at 1 year compared to PUs treated with honey. Mean days to epithelialization were significantly lower for PUs treated with CCO at 1 year (288 vs. 308 days; p = 0.011). Conclusion: All stages of PUs treated with CCO achieved faster rates of granulation and subsequent epithelialization compared to PUs treated with medicinal honey as measured by real-world data collected in the hospital outpatient department care setting. PMID:28451469

  19. Global Analysis of the Sporulation Pathway of Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Fimlaid, Kelly A.; Bond, Jeffrey P.; Schutz, Kristin C.; Putnam, Emily E.; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Lawley, Trevor D.; Shen, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive, spore-forming pathogen Clostridium difficile is the leading definable cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea worldwide. C. difficile infections are difficult to treat because of their frequent recurrence, which can cause life-threatening complications such as pseudomembranous colitis. The spores of C. difficile are responsible for these high rates of recurrence, since they are the major transmissive form of the organism and resistant to antibiotics and many disinfectants. Despite the importance of spores to the pathogenesis of C. difficile, little is known about their composition or formation. Based on studies in Bacillus subtilis and other Clostridium spp., the sigma factors σF, σE, σG, and σK are predicted to control the transcription of genes required for sporulation, although their specific functions vary depending on the organism. In order to determine the roles of σF, σE, σG, and σK in regulating C. difficile sporulation, we generated loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding these sporulation sigma factors and performed RNA-Sequencing to identify specific sigma factor-dependent genes. This analysis identified 224 genes whose expression was collectively activated by sporulation sigma factors: 183 were σF-dependent, 169 were σE-dependent, 34 were σG-dependent, and 31 were σK-dependent. In contrast with B. subtilis, C. difficile σE was dispensable for σG activation, σG was dispensable for σK activation, and σF was required for post-translationally activating σG. Collectively, these results provide the first genome-wide transcriptional analysis of genes induced by specific sporulation sigma factors in the Clostridia and highlight that diverse mechanisms regulate sporulation sigma factor activity in the Firmicutes. PMID:23950727

  20. Physiological effects of formulation containing tannase-converted green tea extract on skin care: physical stability, collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase activities.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang-Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Noh, Dong Ouk; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-03-01

    Green tea contains numerous polyphenols, which have health-promoting effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tannase-converted green tea extract (TGE) formulation on the physical stability and activities of skin-related enzymes. Physical stability was evaluated by measuring the pH, precipitation, and colors at 25 ± 2 °C/ambient humidity and at 40 ± 2 °C/70% ± 5% relative humidity for 4 months. Activities of collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase as skin-related enzymes were assessed on TGE formulation. The concentrations of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and epicatechin-3-gallate in green tea extract were greatly decreased to the extent of negligible level when treated with tannase. The formulation containing 5% tannase-converted green tea extract showed relatively stable pH, precipitation, and color features for 16 weeks. When TGE was added to the formulation, there was a significant increase in the inhibition of elastase and tyrosinase activities ( p  < 0.05) compared with the formulation containing 5% normal green tea extract. The TGE could be used in cosmetics as skin antiwrinkling or depigmenting agent.

  1. Diversity of Group I and II Clostridium botulinum Strains from France Including Recently Identified Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Bouvet, Philippe; Popoff, Michel R

    2016-06-13

    In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947-1961], 43 from France [1986-2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis. Historical C. botulinum A strains mainly belonged to subtype A1 and sequence type (ST) 1, whereas recent strains exhibited a wide genetic diversity: subtype A1 in orfX or ha locus, A1(B), A1(F), A2, A2b2, A5(B2') A5(B3'), as well as the recently identified A7 and A8 subtypes, and were distributed into 25 STs. Clostridium botulinum A1(B) was the most frequent subtype from food-borne botulism and food. Group I C. botulinum type B in France were mainly subtype B2 (14 out of 20 historical and recent strains) and were divided into 19 STs. Food-borne botulism resulting from ham consumption during the recent period was due to group II C. botulinum B4. Type E botulism is rare in France, 5 historical and 1 recent strains were subtype E3. A subtype E12 was recently identified from an unusual ham contamination. Clostridium botulinum strains from human botulism in France showed a wide genetic diversity and seems to result not from a single evolutionary lineage but from multiple and independent genetic rearrangements. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Diversity of Group I and II Clostridium botulinum Strains from France Including Recently Identified Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Bouvet, Philippe; Popoff, Michel R.

    2016-01-01

    In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947–1961], 43 from France [1986–2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis. Historical C. botulinum A strains mainly belonged to subtype A1 and sequence type (ST) 1, whereas recent strains exhibited a wide genetic diversity: subtype A1 in orfX or ha locus, A1(B), A1(F), A2, A2b2, A5(B2′) A5(B3′), as well as the recently identified A7 and A8 subtypes, and were distributed into 25 STs. Clostridium botulinum A1(B) was the most frequent subtype from food-borne botulism and food. Group I C. botulinum type B in France were mainly subtype B2 (14 out of 20 historical and recent strains) and were divided into 19 STs. Food-borne botulism resulting from ham consumption during the recent period was due to group II C. botulinum B4. Type E botulism is rare in France, 5 historical and 1 recent strains were subtype E3. A subtype E12 was recently identified from an unusual ham contamination. Clostridium botulinum strains from human botulism in France showed a wide genetic diversity and seems to result not from a single evolutionary lineage but from multiple and independent genetic rearrangements. PMID:27189984

  3. Dentists, antibiotics and Clostridium difficile-associated disease.

    PubMed

    Beacher, N; Sweeney, M P; Bagg, J

    2015-09-25

    Dentists prescribe significant volumes of antimicrobial drugs within primary care settings. There is good evidence that many of the prescriptions are not justified by current clinical guidance and that that there is considerable misuse of these drugs in dentistry. One of the risks associated with antibiotic administration is Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD), an entity of which many healthcare workers, including dentists, have little knowledge or understanding. This review seeks to identify the extent and nature of the problem and provides an up to date summary of current views on CDAD, with particular reference to community acquired disease. As for all healthcare workers, scrupulous attention to standard infection control procedures and reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing are essential to reduce the risks of CDAD, prevent emergence of further resistant strains of microorganisms and maintain the value of the arsenal of antibiotics currently available to us.

  4. Sol-gel-based SPME fiber as a reliable sampling technique for studying biogenic volatile organic compounds released from Clostridium tetani.

    PubMed

    Ghader, Masoud; Shokoufi, Nader; Es-Haghi, Ali; Kargosha, Kazem

    2017-11-01

    A novel and efficient headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was developed to study volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emerging from microorganisms. Two homemade SPME fibers, a semi-polar poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) fiber, and a polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) fiber, along with two commercial fibers (PDMS and PDMS/DVB) were used to collect VOCs emerging from Clostridium tetani which was cultured in different media. The adsorbed VOCs were desorbed and identified, in vitro, using GC-MS. The adsorption efficiency was improved by optimizing the time duration of adsorption and desorption. About 50 components were identified by the proposed method. The main detected compounds appeared to be sulfur containing compounds such as butanethioic acid S-methyl ester, dimethyl trisulfide, and dimethyl tetrasulfide. These volatile sulfur containing compounds are derived from amino acids containing the sulfur element, which probably coexist in the mentioned bacterium or are added to the culture media. The developed HS-SPME-GC-MS method allowed the determination of the chemical fingerprint of Clostridium tetani volatile constituents, and thus provides a new, simple, and reliable tool for studying the growth of microorganisms. Graphical abstract Investigation of biogenic VOCs released from Clostridium tetani using SPME-GC-MS.

  5. Clostridium difficile in the Long-Term Care Facility: Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Robin L. P.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2014-01-01

    Residents of long-term care facilities are at high risk for Clostridium difficile infection due to frequent antibiotic exposure in a population already rendered vulnerable to infection due to advanced age, multiple comorbid conditions and communal living conditions. Moreover, asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic C. difficile and recurrent infections are prevalent in this population. Here, we discuss epidemiology and management of C. difficile infection among residents of long-term care facilities. Also, recognizing that both the population and culture differs significantly from that of hospitals, we also address prevention strategies specific to LTCFs. PMID:25685657

  6. Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

  7. Molecular Characterization of Podoviridae Bacteriophages Virulent for Clostridium perfringens and Comparison of Their Predicted Lytic Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that plays a significant role in human food-borne disease as well as non-food-borne human, animal and poultry diseases. There has been a resurgent interest in the use of bacteriophages or their gene products to control ba...

  8. Hospitalization stay and costs attributable to Clostridium difficile infection: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, L; Beriot-Mathiot, A

    2014-09-01

    In most healthcare systems, third-party payers fund the costs for patients admitted to hospital for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) whereas, for CDI cases arising as complications of hospitalization, not all related costs are refundable to the hospital. We therefore aimed to critically review and categorize hospital costs and length of hospital stay (LOS) attributable to Clostridium difficile infection and to investigate the economic burden associated with it. A comprehensive literature review selected papers describing the costs and LOS for hospitalized patients as outcomes of CDI, following the use of statistics to identify costs and LOS solely attributable to CDI. Twenty-four studies were selected. Estimated attributable costs, all ranges expressed in US dollars, were $6,774-$10,212 for CDI requiring admission, $2,992-$29,000 for hospital-acquired CDI, and $2,454-$12,850 where no categorization was made. The ranges for LOS values were 5-13.6, 2.7-21.3, and 2.8-17.9 days, respectively. The categorization of CDI attributable costs allows budget holders to anticipate the cost per CDI case, a perspective that should enrich the design of appropriate incentives for the various budget holders to invest in prevention so that CDI prevention is optimized globally. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of Lactobacillus johnsonii expressing phage endolysin for control of Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, T; Lo Curto, R; Minniti, E; Narbad, A; Mayer, M J

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium perfringens is frequently found in food and the environment and produces potent toxins that have a negative impact on both human and animal health and particularly on the poultry industry. Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785, isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract, has been demonstrated to exclude Cl. perfringens in poultry. We have investigated the interaction of wild-type Lact. johnsonii FI9785 or an engineered strain expressing a cell wall-hydrolysing endolysin with Cl. perfringens in vitro, using a batch culture designed to simulate human gastrointestinal tract conditions. Co-culture experiments indicated that acid production by Lact. johnsonii is important in pathogen control. The co-culture of the endolysin-secreting Lact. johnsonii with Cl. perfringens showed that the engineered strain had the potential to control the pathogen, but the ability to reduce Cl. perfringens numbers was not consistent. Results obtained indicate that survival of high numbers of Lact. johnsonii will be essential for effective pathogen control. Significance and impact of the study: The bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785 reduces numbers of the pathogen Clostridium perfringens in vitro. Biocontrol was improved by engineering the strain to produce and export a cell wall-hydrolysing endolysin, but good survival of the producer strain is essential. The production of bacteriophage endolysins by commensal bacteria has the potential to improve competitive exclusion of pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Cadaver Thanatomicrobiome Signatures: The Ubiquitous Nature of Clostridium Species in Human Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Javan, Gulnaz T; Finley, Sheree J; Smith, Tasia; Miller, Joselyn; Wilkinson, Jeremy E

    2017-01-01

    Human thanatomicrobiome studies have established that an abundant number of putrefactive bacteria within internal organs of decaying bodies are obligate anaerobes, Clostridium spp. These microorganisms have been implicated as etiological agents in potentially life-threatening infections; notwithstanding, the scale and trajectory of these microbes after death have not been elucidated. We performed phylogenetic surveys of thanatomicrobiome signatures of cadavers' internal organs to compare the microbial diversity between the 16S rRNA gene V4 hypervariable region and V3-4 conjoined regions from livers and spleens of 45 cadavers undergoing forensic microbiological studies. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the V4 region had a significantly higher mean Chao1 richness within the total microbiome data. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance statistical tests, based on unweighted UniFrac distances, demonstrated that taxa compositions were significantly different between V4 and V3-4 hypervariable regions ( p < 0.001). Of note, we present the first study, using the largest cohort of criminal cases to date, that two hypervariable regions show discriminatory power for human postmortem microbial diversity. In conclusion, here we propose the impact of hypervariable region selection for the 16S rRNA gene in differentiating thanatomicrobiomic profiles to provide empirical data to explain a unique concept, the Postmortem Clostridium Effect.

  11. Biohydrogen production from a novel alkalophilic isolate Clostridium sp. IODB-O3.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anil Kumar; Debroy, Arundhati; Sharma, Sandeep; Saini, Reetu; Mathur, Anshu; Gupta, Ravi; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen producing bacteria IODB-O3 was isolated from sludge and identified as Clostridium sp. by 16S rDNA gene analysis. In this study, biohydrogen production process was developed using low-cost agro-waste. Maximum H2 was produced at 37°C and pH 8.5. Maximum H2 yield was obtained 2.54±0.2mol-H2/mol-reducing sugar from wheat straw pre-hydrolysate (WSPH) and 2.61±0.1mol-H2/mol-reducing sugar from pre-treated wheat straw enzymatic-hydrolysate (WSEH). The cumulative H2 production (ml/L), 3680±105 and 3270±100, H2 production rate (ml/L/h), 153±5 and 136±5, and specific H2 production (ml/g/h), 511±5 and 681±10 with WSPH and WSEH were obtained, respectively. Biomass pre-treatment via steam-explosion generates ample amount of WSPH which remains unutilized for bioethanol production due to non-availability of efficient C5-fermenting microorganisms. This study shows that Clostridium sp. IODB-O3 is capable of utilizing WSPH efficiently for biohydrogen production. This would lead to reduced economic constrain on the overall cellulosic ethanol process and also establish a sustainable biohydrogen production process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification and Characterization of a New Enterotoxin Produced by Clostridium perfringens Isolated from Food Poisoning Outbreaks.