Science.gov

Sample records for closure hits gdp

  1. Investigation of Flux Closure in Helicity Injection Sustained Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Raman, R.; Redd, A. J.; Smith, R. J.; McCollam, K. J.; Orvis, D. J.; Muller, D.; Gates, D.; Schaffer, M.; Lao, L.; Maqueda, R.

    2001-10-01

    Achievement of flux closure is an important issue for helicity injection current drive. Such flux closure depends on non-axisymmetric relaxation. Several helicity injection current drive spherical torus and spheromak experiments have published results exhibiting flux closure during sustainment, evidenced by internal probing (CTX, CDX, SPHEX, HIST), significant temperatures (Te ~ 100 eV, HIT), and/or equilibrium reconstruction (CTX, SPHEX, HIT, HIT--II). Common to all the coaxial helicity injection (CHI) experiments (CTX, SPHEX, HIST, HIT, HIT--II, NSTX) are n=1 rotating toroidal oscillations, thought to be involved in the mechanism of flux closure. In experiments without internal probes (HIT, HIT--II, NSTX) evidence of flux closure by equilibrium reconstruction using only external measurements is indirect. A non-trivial fraction of the total toroidal current flows on open field lines. These edge currents can obscure surface probe measurements of fields produced by closed-flux currents, further increasing the difficulty of equilibrium reconstruction. Data from HIT, HIT--II, and NSTX will be presented, with a discussion of evidence for flux closure.

  2. Prediction of Malaysian monthly GDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei

    2015-12-01

    The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.

  3. But Can You Hit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The author shares a story told to him by a colleague more than thirty years ago. The dean of a midsized American university was explaining the path to tenure to a roomful of newly appointed assistant professors. "We know you boys can all "field"," he declared. "Now we want to see if you can hit." A lot has changed over the intervening decades. If…

  4. Characterization of GDP-Fucose

    PubMed Central

    James, Douglas W.; Jones, Russell L.

    1979-01-01

    The peripheral root cap cells of corn (cv. SX-17A) secrete a fucose-rich, high molecular weight, polysaccharide slime via the dictyosome pathway. To study the synthesis of this polysaccharide, a technique for isolating and assaying GDP-fucose:polysaccharide fucosyl transferase activity was developed. Corn roots were excised from germinated seeds, incubated 12 hours at 10 C in water, and ground in 100 millimolar Tris or Pipes buffer (pH 7.0) with or without 0.5 molar sucrose. The membrane-bound enzyme was solubilized by sonication in the presence of 2 molar urea and 1.5% (v/v) Triton X-100 and assayed by monitoring the incorporation of GDP-[14C]fucose into endogenous acceptors. Optimum enzyme activity is expressed at pH 7.0 and 30 C in the presence of 0.8% (v/v) Triton X-100. The enzyme does not require divalent cations for activation and is inhibited by concentrations of MnCl2 or MgCl2 greater than 1 millimolar. Corn root cap slime will serve as an exogenous acceptor for the enzyme if it is first hydrolyzed in 5 millimolar trifluoroacetic acid for 60 minutes at 18 pounds per square inch, 121 C. This procedure prepares the acceptor by removing terminal fucose residues from the slime molecule. Kinetics of fucose release during hydrolysis of native slime and in vitro synthesized product suggests that the two polymers possess similar linkages to fucose. PMID:16661104

  5. Computational Physics' Greatest Hits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bug, Amy

    2011-03-01

    The digital computer, has worked its way so effectively into our profession that now, roughly 65 years after its invention, it is virtually impossible to find a field of experimental or theoretical physics unaided by computational innovation. It is tough to think of another device about which one can make that claim. In the session ``What is computational physics?'' speakers will distinguish computation within the field of computational physics from this ubiquitous importance across all subfields of physics. This talk will recap the invited session ``Great Advances...Past, Present and Future'' in which five dramatic areas of discovery (five of our ``greatest hits'') are chronicled: The physics of many-boson systems via Path Integral Monte Carlo, the thermodynamic behavior of a huge number of diverse systems via Monte Carlo Methods, the discovery of new pharmaceutical agents via molecular dynamics, predictive simulations of global climate change via detailed, cross-disciplinary earth system models, and an understanding of the formation of the first structures in our universe via galaxy formation simulations. The talk will also identify ``greatest hits'' in our field from the teaching and research perspectives of other members of DCOMP, including its Executive Committee.

  6. Accommodation of GDP-Linked Sugars in the Active Site of GDP-Perosamine Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Paul D.; Carney, Amanda E.; Holden, Hazel M.

    2009-01-12

    Perosamine (4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-mannose), or its N-acetylated form, is one of several dideoxy sugars found in the O-antigens of such infamous Gram-negative bacteria as Vibrio cholerae O1 and Escherichia coli O157:H7. It is added to the bacterial O-antigen via a nucleotide-linked version, namely GDP-perosamine. Three enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of GDP-perosamine starting from mannose 1-phosphate. The focus of this investigation is GDP-perosamine synthase from Caulobacter crescentus, which catalyzes the final step in GDP-perosamine synthesis, the conversion of GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose to GDP-perosamine. The enzyme is PLP-dependent and belongs to the aspartate aminotransferase superfamily. It contains the typically conserved active site lysine residue, which forms a Schiff base with the PLP cofactor. Two crystal structures were determined for this investigation: a site-directed mutant protein (K186A) complexed with GDP-perosamine and the wild-type enzyme complexed with an unnatural ligand, GDP-3-deoxyperosamine. These structures, determined to 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively, revealed the manner in which products, and presumably substrates, are accommodated within the active site pocket of GDP-perosamine synthase. Additional kinetic analyses using both the natural and unnatural substrates revealed that the K{sub m} for the unnatural substrate was unperturbed relative to that of the natural substrate, but the k{sub cat} was lowered by a factor of approximately 200. Taken together, these studies shed light on why GDP-perosamine synthase functions as an aminotransferase whereas another very similar PLP-dependent enzyme, GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-mannose 3-dehydratase or ColD, catalyzes a dehydration reaction using the same substrate.

  7. Hit finding: towards 'smarter' approaches.

    PubMed

    Langer, Thierry; Hoffmann, Rémy; Bryant, Sharon; Lesur, Brigitte

    2009-10-01

    Drug discovery is complex and risky, and the chances of success are low. One starting point to discover a new drug is the selective screening of a collection of high value and good quality compounds. Selection of compounds for screening is one of the challenging initial steps in the drug discovery process and is crucial for the success of the project. Optimal selection will enhance the chances of successful hit finding with regard to both number and quality of hits. Several scenarios for compound selection can be envisaged, and are primarily driven by knowledge of the target. Deciding the most appropriate scenario is important and appropriate software packages and chemoinformatics tools are available for these purposes. After screening, researchers may face challenges in selecting the best hits for further optimization. Numerous chemoinformatics tools have emerged recently to address challenges in hit analysis, prioritization and optimization. PMID:19576852

  8. Visual Closure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groffman, Sidney

    An experimental test of visual closure based on an information-theory concept of perception was devised to test the ability to discriminate visual stimuli with reduced cues. The test is to be administered in a timed individual situation in which the subject is presented with sets of incomplete drawings of simple objects that he is required to name…

  9. Beyond GDP: Classifying Alternative Measures for Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleys, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Both the potential pitfalls of macro-economic policies focused on stimulating economic growth and the problems involved in using GDP as a measure of well-being or economic welfare have long been recognized by economists and researchers from other social sciences. Therefore, it is no surprise that alternative measures for policy-making have been…

  10. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  11. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  12. CLOSURE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.

    1958-08-26

    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  13. Sixteen years of GOME/ERS-2 total ozone data: The new direct-fitting GOME Data Processor (GDP) version 5—Algorithm description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Roozendael, M.; Spurr, R.; Loyola, D.; Lerot, C.; Balis, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Zimmer, W.; van Gent, J.; van Geffen, J.; Koukouli, M.; Granville, J.; Doicu, A.; Fayt, C.; Zehner, C.

    2012-02-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument (GOME) was launched in April 1995 on ESA's ERS-2 platform, and the GOME Data Processor (GDP) operational retrieval algorithm has produced total ozone columns since July 1995. We report on the new GDP5 spectral fitting algorithm used to reprocess the 16-year GOME data record. Previous GDP total ozone algorithms were based on the DOAS method. In contrast, GDP5 uses a direct-fitting algorithm without high-pass filtering of radiances; there is no air mass factor conversion to vertical column amount. GDP5 includes direct radiative transfer simulation of earthshine radiances and Jacobians with respect to total ozone, albedo closure and other ancillary fitting parameters - a temperature profile shift, and amplitudes for undersampling and Ring-effect interference signals. Simulations are based on climatological ozone profiles extracted from the TOMS Version 8 database, classified by total column. GDP5 uses the high-resolution Brion-Daumont-Malicet ozone absorption cross-sections, replacing older GOME-measured flight model data. The semi-empirical molecular Ring correction developed for GDP4 has been adapted for direct fitting. Cloud preprocessing for GDP5 is done using updated versions of cloud-correction algorithms OCRA and ROCINN. The reprocessed GOME GDP5 record maintains the remarkable long-term stability of time series already achieved with GDP4. Furthermore, validation results show a clear improvement in the accuracy of the ozone product with reduced solar zenith angle and seasonal dependences, particularly in comparison with correlative observations from the ground-based network of Brewer spectrophotometers.

  14. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    PubMed

    Bock, Joel R; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text]) were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points), while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research. PMID:23251507

  15. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    PubMed

    Bock, Joel R; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text]) were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points), while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research.

  16. Quantum walks with infinite hitting times

    SciTech Connect

    Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2006-10-15

    Hitting times are the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given starting vertex. The hitting time for a classical random walk on a connected graph will always be finite. We show that, by contrast, quantum walks can have infinite hitting times for some initial states. We seek criteria to determine if a given walk on a graph will have infinite hitting times, and find a sufficient condition, which for discrete time quantum walks is that the degeneracy of the evolution operator be greater than the degree of the graph. The set of initial states which give an infinite hitting time form a subspace. The phenomenon of infinite hitting times is in general a consequence of the symmetry of the graph and its automorphism group. Using the irreducible representations of the automorphism group, we derive conditions such that quantum walks defined on this graph must have infinite hitting times for some initial states. In the case of the discrete walk, if this condition is satisfied the walk will have infinite hitting times for any choice of a coin operator, and we give a class of graphs with infinite hitting times for any choice of coin. Hitting times are not very well defined for continuous time quantum walks, but we show that the idea of infinite hitting-time walks naturally extends to the continuous time case as well.

  17. Is Decoupling GDP Growth from Environmental Impact Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Paul C.; Werner, Adrian D.; Costanza, Robert; Mohr, Steve H.; Simmons, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    The argument that human society can decouple economic growth—defined as growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP)—from growth in environmental impacts is appealing. If such decoupling is possible, it means that GDP growth is a sustainable societal goal. Here we show that the decoupling concept can be interpreted using an easily understood model of economic growth and environmental impact. The simple model is compared to historical data and modelled projections to demonstrate that growth in GDP ultimately cannot be decoupled from growth in material and energy use. It is therefore misleading to develop growth-oriented policy around the expectation that decoupling is possible. We also note that GDP is increasingly seen as a poor proxy for societal wellbeing. GDP growth is therefore a questionable societal goal. Society can sustainably improve wellbeing, including the wellbeing of its natural assets, but only by discarding GDP growth as the goal in favor of more comprehensive measures of societal wellbeing. PMID:27741300

  18. Biological effects in hit and non-hit cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.; Geard, C. R.; Brenner, D. J.; Mitchell, S. A.

    It had long been considered axiomatic that heritable biological effects of radiation required direct damage to DNA. This is no longer the case. The bystander effect refers to the induction of biological effects in cells that are not directly traversed by a charged particle, but are close to cells that are. Experiments suggest that the effect is due to a molecule secreted by irradiated cells which is capable of transferring damage to distant cells. The magnitude of the effect is much larger if cells are in gap junction communication. In cell cultures, a bystander effect has been shown for cell lethality, chromosomal aberrations, mutation, oncogenic transformation and upregulation of gene expression. A similar effect has been observed in artificial 3-dimensional skin cultures. Bystander studies imply that the target for the biological effects of radiation is larger than the cell, and this has implications for biologically based models of carcinogenesis at low doses where not all cells receive a direct hit.

  19. HITS - The Navy's new DATPG system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosley, L.; Modi, M.

    A new digital automatic test program generation standard called HITS (Hierarchical Integrated Test Simulator), developed by the U.S. Navy as the answer to digital LSI/VLSI circuit technology is discussed. Three major areas of the HITS program which include system flow/unique capabilities, modeling language structures, and management of HITS are preseented. HITS contains the following major software modules: the primary model processor, the secondary model processor, the test language processor, the simulator, and the tester output generator. The functions performed by the individual system modules are described. A circuit description language, which provides user flexibility when describing complex circuit models, and its components are considered. The major areas of HITS management include: (1) HITS accessibility, distribution, and availability; (2) user support; (3) advanced development; and (4) Navy/DOD coordination and standardization.

  20. Studying the HIT-Complexity Interchange.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig E; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2016-01-01

    The design and implementation of health information technology (HIT) is challenging, particularly when it is being introduced into complex settings. While complex adaptive system (CASs) can be a valuable means of understanding relationships between users, HIT and tasks, much of the existing work using CASs is descriptive in nature. This paper addresses that issue by integrating a model for analyzing task complexity with approaches for HIT evaluation and systems analysis. The resulting framework classifies HIT-user tasks and issues as simple, complicated or complex, and provides insight on how to study them. PMID:27332158

  1. Direct incorporation of GDP into microtubules without GTP hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.M.; Hamel, E.

    1987-05-01

    Tubulin bearing (8-/sup 14/C)GDP in the exchangeable nucleotide binding site was prepared, and its polymerization was examined with microtubule-associated proteins containing minimal nucleoside diphosphate kinase and nonspecific phosphatase contamination. Although microtubule assembly required GTP, significant incorporation of tubulin-bound GDP into microtubules without exchange of the radiolabeled GDP for GTP was observed under reaction conditions which favored an increased proportion of tubulin x GDP relative to tubulin x GTP. These were low GTP concentrations, low Mg/sup 2 +/ concentrations, high tubulin concentrations, and exogenous GDP in the reaction mixture. The minimum tubulin x GTP:tubulin x GDP ratio required for microtubule assembly was determined to establish the relative importance of the two tubulin species in the initiation of assembly and was found to be about 2:1. In addition, the relative efficiency with which tubulin x GTP and tubulin x GDP were incorporated into microtubules was determined. They found that tubulin x GDP was incorporated into polymer about half as efficiently as tubulin x GTP.

  2. Developing Health Information Technology (HIT) Programs and HIT Curriculum: The Southern Polytechnic State University Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chi; Reichgelt, Han; Rutherfoord, Rebecca H.; Wang, Andy Ju An

    2014-01-01

    Health Information Technology (HIT) professionals are in increasing demand as healthcare providers need help in the adoption and meaningful use of Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems while the HIT industry needs workforce skilled in HIT and EHR development. To respond to this increasing demand, the School of Computing and Software Engineering…

  3. Hitting Is Contagious: Experience and Action Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob; Beilock, Sian L.

    2011-01-01

    In baseball, it is believed that "hitting is contagious," that is, probability of success increases if the previous few batters get a hit. Could this effect be partially explained by action induction--that is, the tendency to perform an action related to one that has just been observed? A simulation was used to investigate the effect of inducing…

  4. Recognition of Hits in a Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerak, Vojtech; Drahansky, Martin

    This paper describes two possible ways of hit recognition in a target. First method is based on frame differencing with use of a stabilization algorithm to eliminate movements of a target. Second method uses flood fill with random seed point definition to find hits in the target scene.

  5. Closure Issues with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Steven E.; Bischof, Gary H.

    Closure of the counseling relationship constitutes both an ending and a beginning. Although closure signifies the ending of the present counseling relationship, many family counselors conceptualize closure as the start of a working relationship between counselor and family that may be summoned in future times of crisis or during a difficult life…

  6. How I diagnose and manage HIT.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, Theodore E

    2011-01-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic drug reaction caused by platelet-activating IgG antibodies that recognize platelet factor 4 (PF4)/polyanion complexes. Platelet activation assays, such as the serotonin-release assay, are superior to PF4-dependent immunoassays in discerning which heparin-induced antibodies are clinically relevant. When HIT is strongly suspected, standard practice includes substituting heparin with an alternative anticoagulant; the 2 US-approved agents are the direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) lepirudin and argatroban, which are "niche" agents used only to manage HIT. However, only ~ 10% of patients who undergo serological investigation for HIT actually have this diagnosis. Indeed, depending on the clinical setting, only 10%-50% of patients with positive PF4-dependent immunoassays have platelet-activating antibodies. Therefore, overdiagnosis of HIT can be minimized by insisting that a positive platelet activation assay be required for definitive diagnosis of HIT. For these reasons, a management strategy that considers the real possibility of non-HIT thrombocytopenia is warranted. One approach that I suggest is to administer an indirect, antithrombin (AT)-dependent factor Xa inhibitor (danaparoid or fondaparinux) based upon the following rationale: (1) effectiveness in treating and preventing HIT-associated thrombosis; (2) effectiveness in treating and preventing thrombosis in diverse non-HIT situations; (3) both prophylactic- and therapeutic-dose protocols exist, permitting dosing appropriate for the clinical situation; (4) body weight-adjusted dosing protocols and availability of specific anti-factor Xa monitoring reduce risk of under- or overdosing (as can occur with partial thromboplastin time [PTT]-adjusted DTI therapy); (5) their long half-lives reduce risk of rebound hypercoagulability; (6) easy coumarin overlap; and (7) relatively low cost. PMID:22160026

  7. Hitting the Highway? Keep Safety in Mind

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160238.html Hitting the Highway? Keep Safety in Mind Planning ahead is essential ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Traveler's Health Recent ...

  8. Optical spectrosopy of HiTS supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Forster, F.; Smith, C.; Vivas, K.; Pignata, G.; Olivares, F.; Hamuy, M.; Martin, J. San; Maureira, J. C.; Cabrera, G.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Galbany, L.; Bufano, F.; de Jaeger, T.; Hsiao, E.; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.

    2015-04-01

    We report optical wavelength spectroscopy obtained using the Goodman instrument mounted on the SOAR at CTIO on UT 2015-03-30, for two supernovae discovered by HiTS, the High Cadence Transient Survey (see ATELs #7289, #7290).

  9. Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159853.html Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults To curb diabetes, researchers ... News) -- Among obese American adults, control of blood sugar is worsening, leading to more diabetes and heart ...

  10. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Blanton, Paul; Bobbitt, John H.

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.

  11. Hitting is contagious: experience and action induction.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-03-01

    In baseball, it is believed that "hitting is contagious," that is, probability of success increases if the previous few batters get a hit. Could this effect be partially explained by action induction--that is, the tendency to perform an action related to one that has just been observed? A simulation was used to investigate the effect of inducing stimuli on batting performance for more-experienced (ME) and less-experienced (LE) baseball players. Three types of inducing stimuli were compared with a no-induction condition: action (a simulated ball traveling from home plate into left, right, or center field), outcome (a ball resting in either left, right, or center field), and verbal (the word "left", "center", or "right"). For both ME and LE players, fewer pitchers were required for a successful hit in the action condition. For ME players, there was a significant relationship between the inducing stimulus direction and hit direction for both the action and outcome prompts. For LE players, the prompt only had a significant effect on batting performance in the action condition, and the magnitude of the effect was significantly smaller than for ME. The effect of the inducing stimulus decreased as the delay (i.e., no. of pitches between prompt and hit) increased, with the effect being eliminated after roughly 4 pitches for ME and 2 pitches for LE. It is proposed that the differences in the magnitude and time course of action induction as a function of experience occurred because ME have more well-developed perceptual-motor representations for directional hitting. PMID:21443380

  12. Hitting is contagious: experience and action induction.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-03-01

    In baseball, it is believed that "hitting is contagious," that is, probability of success increases if the previous few batters get a hit. Could this effect be partially explained by action induction--that is, the tendency to perform an action related to one that has just been observed? A simulation was used to investigate the effect of inducing stimuli on batting performance for more-experienced (ME) and less-experienced (LE) baseball players. Three types of inducing stimuli were compared with a no-induction condition: action (a simulated ball traveling from home plate into left, right, or center field), outcome (a ball resting in either left, right, or center field), and verbal (the word "left", "center", or "right"). For both ME and LE players, fewer pitchers were required for a successful hit in the action condition. For ME players, there was a significant relationship between the inducing stimulus direction and hit direction for both the action and outcome prompts. For LE players, the prompt only had a significant effect on batting performance in the action condition, and the magnitude of the effect was significantly smaller than for ME. The effect of the inducing stimulus decreased as the delay (i.e., no. of pitches between prompt and hit) increased, with the effect being eliminated after roughly 4 pitches for ME and 2 pitches for LE. It is proposed that the differences in the magnitude and time course of action induction as a function of experience occurred because ME have more well-developed perceptual-motor representations for directional hitting.

  13. A Reassessment of the Relationship between GDP and Life Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Proto, Eugenio; Rustichini, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    The scientific debate on the relation between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and self reported indices of life satisfaction is still open. In a well-known finding, Easterlin reported no significant relationship between happiness and aggregate income in time-series analysis. However, life satisfaction appears to be strictly monotonically increasing with income when one studies this relation at a point in time across nations. Here, we analyze the relation between per capita GDP and life satisfaction without imposing a functional form and eliminating potentially confounding country-specific factors. We show that this relation clearly increases in country with a per capita GDP below 15,000 USD (2005 in Purchasing Power Parity), then it flattens for richer countries. The probability of reporting the highest level of life satisfaction is more than 12% lower in the poor countries with a per capita GDP below 5,600 USD than in the counties with a per capita GDP of about 15,000 USD. In countries with an income above 17,000 USD the probability of reporting the highest level of life satisfaction changes within a range of 2% maximum. Interestingly enough, life satisfaction seems to peak at around 30,000 USD and then slightly but significantly decline among the richest countries. These results suggest an explanation of the Easterlin paradox: life satisfaction increases with GDP in poor country, but this relation is approximately flat in richer countries. We explain this relation with aspiration levels. We assume that a gap between aspiration and realized income is negatively perceived; and aspirations to higher income increase with income. These facts together have a negative effect on life satisfaction, opposite to the positive direct effect of the income. The net effect is ambiguous. We predict a higher negative effect in individuals with higher sensitivity to losses (measured by their neuroticism score) and provide econometric support of this explanation. PMID:24312179

  14. A reassessment of the relationship between GDP and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Proto, Eugenio; Rustichini, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    The scientific debate on the relation between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and self reported indices of life satisfaction is still open. In a well-known finding, Easterlin reported no significant relationship between happiness and aggregate income in time-series analysis. However, life satisfaction appears to be strictly monotonically increasing with income when one studies this relation at a point in time across nations. Here, we analyze the relation between per capita GDP and life satisfaction without imposing a functional form and eliminating potentially confounding country-specific factors. We show that this relation clearly increases in country with a per capita GDP below 15,000 USD (2005 in Purchasing Power Parity), then it flattens for richer countries. The probability of reporting the highest level of life satisfaction is more than 12% lower in the poor countries with a per capita GDP below 5,600 USD than in the counties with a per capita GDP of about 15,000 USD. In countries with an income above 17,000 USD the probability of reporting the highest level of life satisfaction changes within a range of 2% maximum. Interestingly enough, life satisfaction seems to peak at around 30,000 USD and then slightly but significantly decline among the richest countries. These results suggest an explanation of the Easterlin paradox: life satisfaction increases with GDP in poor country, but this relation is approximately flat in richer countries. We explain this relation with aspiration levels. We assume that a gap between aspiration and realized income is negatively perceived; and aspirations to higher income increase with income. These facts together have a negative effect on life satisfaction, opposite to the positive direct effect of the income. The net effect is ambiguous. We predict a higher negative effect in individuals with higher sensitivity to losses (measured by their neuroticism score) and provide econometric support of this explanation.

  15. Statistical properties and pre-hit dynamics of price limit hits in the Chinese stock markets.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yu-Lei; Xie, Wen-Jie; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Price limit trading rules are adopted in some stock markets (especially emerging markets) trying to cool off traders' short-term trading mania on individual stocks and increase market efficiency. Under such a microstructure, stocks may hit their up-limits and down-limits from time to time. However, the behaviors of price limit hits are not well studied partially due to the fact that main stock markets such as the US markets and most European markets do not set price limits. Here, we perform detailed analyses of the high-frequency data of all A-share common stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2000 to 2011 to investigate the statistical properties of price limit hits and the dynamical evolution of several important financial variables before stock price hits its limits. We compare the properties of up-limit hits and down-limit hits. We also divide the whole period into three bullish periods and three bearish periods to unveil possible differences during bullish and bearish market states. To uncover the impacts of stock capitalization on price limit hits, we partition all stocks into six portfolios according to their capitalizations on different trading days. We find that the price limit trading rule has a cooling-off effect (object to the magnet effect), indicating that the rule takes effect in the Chinese stock markets. We find that price continuation is much more likely to occur than price reversal on the next trading day after a limit-hitting day, especially for down-limit hits, which has potential practical values for market practitioners.

  16. Statistical Properties and Pre-Hit Dynamics of Price Limit Hits in the Chinese Stock Markets

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yu-Lei; Xie, Wen-Jie; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Price limit trading rules are adopted in some stock markets (especially emerging markets) trying to cool off traders’ short-term trading mania on individual stocks and increase market efficiency. Under such a microstructure, stocks may hit their up-limits and down-limits from time to time. However, the behaviors of price limit hits are not well studied partially due to the fact that main stock markets such as the US markets and most European markets do not set price limits. Here, we perform detailed analyses of the high-frequency data of all A-share common stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2000 to 2011 to investigate the statistical properties of price limit hits and the dynamical evolution of several important financial variables before stock price hits its limits. We compare the properties of up-limit hits and down-limit hits. We also divide the whole period into three bullish periods and three bearish periods to unveil possible differences during bullish and bearish market states. To uncover the impacts of stock capitalization on price limit hits, we partition all stocks into six portfolios according to their capitalizations on different trading days. We find that the price limit trading rule has a cooling-off effect (object to the magnet effect), indicating that the rule takes effect in the Chinese stock markets. We find that price continuation is much more likely to occur than price reversal on the next trading day after a limit-hitting day, especially for down-limit hits, which has potential practical values for market practitioners. PMID:25874716

  17. Structures of NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-02-01

    Crystal structures of the bacterial α1,6-fucosyltransferase NodZ in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose are presented. Rhizobial NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase (α1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5′-diphosphate-β-l-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signalling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two α1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of α1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 Å resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme–product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-l-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 Å resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among α1,2-, α1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop

  18. Precise timing when hitting falling balls.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball. PMID:24904380

  19. Improvements of HITS Algorithms for Spam Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yasuhito; Tezuka, Yu; Nishizeki, Takao

    The HITS algorithm proposed by Kleinberg is one of the representative methods of scoring Web pages by using hyperlinks. In the days when the algorithm was proposed, most of the pages given high score by the algorithm were really related to a given topic, and hence the algorithm could be used to find related pages. However, the algorithm and the variants including Bharat's improved HITS, abbreviated to BHITS, proposed by Bharat and Henzinger cannot be used to find related pages any more on today's Web, due to an increase of spam links. In this paper, we first propose three methods to find “linkfarms,” that is, sets of spam links forming a densely connected subgraph of a Web graph. We then present an algorithm, called a trust-score algorithm, to give high scores to pages which are not spam pages with a high probability. Combining the three methods and the trust-score algorithm with BHITS, we obtain several variants of the HITS algorithm. We ascertain by experiments that one of them, named TaN+BHITS using the trust-score algorithm and the method of finding linkfarms by employing name servers, is most suitable for finding related pages on today's Web. Our algorithms take time and memory no more than those required by the original HITS algorithm, and can be executed on a PC with a small amount of main memory.

  20. HiTS additional supernova candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Points, S.; Medina, G.; Munoz, R.; Martin, J. San; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera, G.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Galbany, L.; Pignata, G.; de Jaeger, Th.; Martinez, J.; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.; Perez, C.

    2015-03-01

    HiTS, the High Cadence Transient Survey (see ATELs #5949, #7099), reports the discovery of additional supernova candidates detected using an image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  1. CEOs: Gulf crisis hits hospitals' bottom line.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J

    1990-12-01

    Hospital CEOs say the Persian Gulf crisis could hit them hard where it counts. In fact, hospitals are already seeing some adverse impact from events in the Middle East. From fundraising to plant management to strategic planning, the confrontations in the Gulf are having an impact on the hospital's bottom line.

  2. Precise timing when hitting falling balls

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball. PMID:24904380

  3. Precise timing when hitting falling balls.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball.

  4. The crystal structure of human GDP-L-fucose synthase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Sun, Lihua; Li, Jian; Xu, Chunyan; Yu, Feng; Liu, Yahui; Ji, Chaoneng; He, Jianhua

    2013-09-01

    Human GDP-l-fucose synthase, also known as FX protein, synthesizes GDP-l-fucose from its substrate GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-mannose. The reaction involves epimerization at both C-3 and C-5 followed by an NADPH-dependent reduction of the carbonyl at C-4. In this paper, the first crystal structure of human FX protein was determined at 2.37 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit of the crystal structure contains four molecules which form two homodimers. Each molecule consists of two domains, a Rossmann-fold NADPH-binding motif and a carboxyl terminal domain. Compared with the Escherichia coli GDP-l-fucose synthase, the overall structures of these two enzymes have four major differences. There are four loops in the structure of human FX protein corresponding to two α-helices and two β-sheets in that of the E. coli enzyme. Besides, there are seven different amino acid residues binding with NAPDH comparing human FX protein with that from E. coli. The structure of human FX reveals the key catalytic residues and could be useful for the design of drugs for the treatment of inflammation, auto-immune diseases, and possibly certain types of cancer.

  5. Quick actuating closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, III, Dorsey E. (Inventor); Updike, deceased, Benjamin T. (Inventor); Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quick actuating closure for a pressure vessel 80 in which a wedge ring 30 with a conical outer surface 31 is moved forward to force shear blocks 40, with conical inner surfaces 41, radially outward to lock an end closure plug 70 within an opening 81 in the pressure vessel 80. A seal ring 60 and a preload ramp 50 sit between the shear blocks 40 and the end closure plug 70 to provide a backup sealing capability. Conical surfaces 44 and 55 of the preload ramp 50 and the shear blocks 40 interact to force the seal ring 60 into shoulders 73 and 85 in the end closure plug 70 and opening 81 to form a tight seal. The end closure plug 70 is unlocked by moving the wedge ring 30 rearward, which causes T-bars 32 of the wedge ring 30 riding within T -slots 42 of the shear blocks 40 to force them radially inward. The end closure plug 70 is then removed, allowing access to the interior of the pressure vessel 80.

  6. 76 FR 25355 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Recommendations AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice..., clinical operations, implementation, and privacy and security. HIT Standards Committee's Schedule for...

  7. Probability of Brownian motion hitting an obstacle

    SciTech Connect

    Knessl, C.; Keller, J.B.

    2000-02-01

    The probability p(x) that Brownian motion with drift, starting at x, hits an obstacle is analyzed. The obstacle {Omega} is a compact subset of R{sup n}. It is shown that p(x) is expressible in terms of the field U(x) scattered by {Omega} when it is hit by plane wave. Therefore results for U(x), and methods for finding U(x) can be used to determine p(x). The authors illustrate this by obtaining exact and asymptotic results for p(x) when {Omega} is a slit in R{sup 2}, and asymptotic results when {Omega} is a disc in R{sup 3}.

  8. Hitting and trapping times on branched structures.

    PubMed

    Agliari, Elena; Sartori, Fabio; Cattivelli, Luca; Cassi, Davide

    2015-05-01

    In this work we consider a simple random walk embedded in a generic branched structure and we find a close-form formula to calculate the hitting time H(i,f) between two arbitrary nodes i and j. We then use this formula to obtain the set of hitting times {H(i,f)} for combs and their expectation values, namely, the mean first-passage time, where the average is performed over the initial node while the final node f is given, and the global mean first-passage time, where the average is performed over both the initial and the final node. Finally, we discuss applications in the context of reaction-diffusion problems. PMID:26066144

  9. Visual factors in hitting and catching.

    PubMed

    Regan, D

    1997-12-01

    To hit or catch an approaching ball, it is necessary to move a bat or hand to the right place at the right time. The performance of top sports players is remarkable: positional errors of less than 5 cm and temporal errors of less than 2 or 3 ms are reliably maintained. There are three schools of thought about how this is achieved. One holds that predictive visual information about where the ball will be at some future instance (when) is used to achieve the hit or catch. The second holds that the bat or hand is moved to the correct position by exploiting some relation between visual information and the required movement. The third focuses on the use of prior knowledge to supplement inadequate visual information. For a rigid spherical ball travelling at constant speed along or close to the line of sight, the retinal images contain both binocular and monocular correlates of the ball's instantaneous direction of motion in depth. Also, the retinal images contain both binocular and monocular information about time of arrival. Humans can unconfound and use this visual information, but they are unable to estimate the absolute distance of the ball or its approach speed other than crudely. In cricket, this visual inadequacy allows a slow bowler to cause the batsman to misjudge where the ball will hit the ground. Such a bowler uses a three-pronged strategy: first, to deliver the ball in such a way as to prevent the batsman from obtaining the necessary visual information until it is too late to react; secondly, to force the batsman to rely entirely on inadequate retinal image information; thirdly, to allow the batsman to learn a particular relationship between the early part of the ball's flight and the point where the ball hits the ground, and then to change the relationship with such skill that the batsman does not detect the change. PMID:9486432

  10. Visual factors in hitting and catching.

    PubMed

    Regan, D

    1997-12-01

    To hit or catch an approaching ball, it is necessary to move a bat or hand to the right place at the right time. The performance of top sports players is remarkable: positional errors of less than 5 cm and temporal errors of less than 2 or 3 ms are reliably maintained. There are three schools of thought about how this is achieved. One holds that predictive visual information about where the ball will be at some future instance (when) is used to achieve the hit or catch. The second holds that the bat or hand is moved to the correct position by exploiting some relation between visual information and the required movement. The third focuses on the use of prior knowledge to supplement inadequate visual information. For a rigid spherical ball travelling at constant speed along or close to the line of sight, the retinal images contain both binocular and monocular correlates of the ball's instantaneous direction of motion in depth. Also, the retinal images contain both binocular and monocular information about time of arrival. Humans can unconfound and use this visual information, but they are unable to estimate the absolute distance of the ball or its approach speed other than crudely. In cricket, this visual inadequacy allows a slow bowler to cause the batsman to misjudge where the ball will hit the ground. Such a bowler uses a three-pronged strategy: first, to deliver the ball in such a way as to prevent the batsman from obtaining the necessary visual information until it is too late to react; secondly, to force the batsman to rely entirely on inadequate retinal image information; thirdly, to allow the batsman to learn a particular relationship between the early part of the ball's flight and the point where the ball hits the ground, and then to change the relationship with such skill that the batsman does not detect the change.

  11. Hitting a baseball: a biomechanical description.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Banks, S A; Cook, F F; Draovitch, P

    1995-11-01

    A tremendous amount of time and energy has been dedicated to the development of conditioning programs, mechanics drills, and rehabilitation protocols for the throwing athlete. In comparison, a significantly smaller amount has been spent on the needs of the hitting athlete. Before these needs can be addressed, an understanding of mechanics and the demands placed on the body during the swing must be developed. This study uses three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data to define and quantify biomechanics during the baseball swing. The results show that a hitter starts the swing with a weight shift toward the rear foot and the generation of trunk coil. As the hitter strides forward, force applied by the front foot equal to 123% of body weight promotes segment acceleration around the axis of the trunk. The hip segment rotates to a maximum speed of 714 degrees/sec followed by a maximum shoulder segment velocity of 937 degrees/sec. The product of this kinetic link is a maximum linear bat velocity of 31 m/sec. By quantifying the hitting motion, a more educated approach can be made in developing rehabilitation, strength, and conditioning programs for the hitting athlete. PMID:8580946

  12. Universal Hitting Time Statistics for Integrable Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmann, Carl P.; Marklof, Jens; Strömbergsson, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The perceived randomness in the time evolution of "chaotic" dynamical systems can be characterized by universal probabilistic limit laws, which do not depend on the fine features of the individual system. One important example is the Poisson law for the times at which a particle with random initial data hits a small set. This was proved in various settings for dynamical systems with strong mixing properties. The key result of the present study is that, despite the absence of mixing, the hitting times of integrable flows also satisfy universal limit laws which are, however, not Poisson. We describe the limit distributions for "generic" integrable flows and a natural class of target sets, and illustrate our findings with two examples: the dynamics in central force fields and ellipse billiards. The convergence of the hitting time process follows from a new equidistribution theorem in the space of lattices, which is of independent interest. Its proof exploits Ratner's measure classification theorem for unipotent flows, and extends earlier work of Elkies and McMullen.

  13. Hitting a baseball: a biomechanical description.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Banks, S A; Cook, F F; Draovitch, P

    1995-11-01

    A tremendous amount of time and energy has been dedicated to the development of conditioning programs, mechanics drills, and rehabilitation protocols for the throwing athlete. In comparison, a significantly smaller amount has been spent on the needs of the hitting athlete. Before these needs can be addressed, an understanding of mechanics and the demands placed on the body during the swing must be developed. This study uses three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data to define and quantify biomechanics during the baseball swing. The results show that a hitter starts the swing with a weight shift toward the rear foot and the generation of trunk coil. As the hitter strides forward, force applied by the front foot equal to 123% of body weight promotes segment acceleration around the axis of the trunk. The hip segment rotates to a maximum speed of 714 degrees/sec followed by a maximum shoulder segment velocity of 937 degrees/sec. The product of this kinetic link is a maximum linear bat velocity of 31 m/sec. By quantifying the hitting motion, a more educated approach can be made in developing rehabilitation, strength, and conditioning programs for the hitting athlete.

  14. Structures of NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    PubMed Central

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Rhizobial NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase (α1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5′-­diphosphate-β-l-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signalling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two α1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of α1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 Å resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme–product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-l-­glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 Å resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-­terminal domain, which are conserved among α1,2-, α1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand βC2 and helix αC3. In addition, there is a shift of the αC3 helix itself upon GDP

  15. Structures of NodZ [alpha]1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-03-26

    Rhizobial NodZ {alpha}1,6-fucosyltransferase ({alpha}1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5'-diphosphate-{beta}-L-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signaling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two {alpha}1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of {alpha}1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 {angstrom} resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme-product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-L-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 {angstrom} resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among {alpha}1,2-, {alpha}1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand {beta}C2 and helix {alpha}C3. In addition, there is

  16. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  17. Human septin isoforms and the GDP-GTP cycle.

    PubMed

    Zent, Eldar; Wittinghofer, Alfred

    2014-02-01

    Septins form oligomeric complexes consisting of septins from different subgroups, which form filaments that are involved in a number of biological processes. They are GTP-binding proteins that contain all the necessary elements to perform the general GDP-to-GTP conformational switch. It is however unclear whether or not such a switch is important for the dynamics of septin filaments. Here we investigate the complex GTPase reaction of members of each of the four human septin groups, which is dominated by the stability of dimer formation via the nucleotide binding or so-called G-interface. The results also show that the actual hydrolysis reaction is very similar for three septin groups in the monomeric state while the Sept6 has no GTPase activity. Sept7, the only member of the Sept7 subgroup, forms a very tight G-interface dimer in the GDP-bound state. Here we show that the stability of the interface is dramatically decreased by exchanging GDP with a nucleoside triphosphate, which is believed to influence filament formation and dynamics via Sept7.

  18. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  19. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.258... Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove... facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure care...

  20. Rescue of Notch signaling in cells incapable of GDP-L-fucose synthesis by gap junction transfer of GDP-L-fucose in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ayukawa, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O; Ishio, Akira; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Aoyama, Naoki; Suzuki, Takuya; Matsuno, Kenji

    2012-09-18

    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates cell-cell interactions to determine many cell-fate decisions. N contains EGF-like repeats, many of which have an O-fucose glycan modification that regulates N-ligand binding. This modification requires GDP-L-fucose as a donor of fucose. The GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic pathways are well understood, including the de novo pathway, which depends on GDP-mannose 4,6 dehydratase (Gmd) and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose 3,5-epimerase/4-reductase (Gmer). However, the potential for intercellularly supplied GDP-L-fucose and the molecular basis of such transportation have not been explored in depth. To address these points, we studied the genetic effects of mutating Gmd and Gmer on fucose modifications in Drosophila. We found that these mutants functioned cell-nonautonomously, and that GDP-L-fucose was supplied intercellularly through gap junctions composed of Innexin-2. GDP-L-fucose was not supplied through body fluids from different isolated organs, indicating that the intercellular distribution of GDP-L-fucose is restricted within a given organ. Moreover, the gap junction-mediated supply of GDP-L-fucose was sufficient to support the fucosylation of N-glycans and the O-fucosylation of the N EGF-like repeats. Our results indicate that intercellular delivery is a metabolic pathway for nucleotide sugars in live animals under certain circumstances.

  1. Health Information Technology Knowledge and Skills Needed by HIT Employers

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, S.H.; Gongora-Ferraez, M.J.; Joost, E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the health information technology (HIT) workforce knowledge and skills needed by HIT employers. Methods Statewide face-to-face and online focus groups of identified HIT employer groups in Austin, Brownsville, College Station, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, Lubbock, San Antonio, and webinars for rural health and nursing informatics. Results HIT employers reported needing an HIT workforce with diverse knowledge and skills ranging from basic to advanced, while covering information technology, privacy and security, clinical practice, needs assessment, contract negotiation, and many other areas. Consistent themes were that employees needed to be able to learn on the job and must possess the ability to think critically and problem solve. Many employers wanted persons with technical skills, yet also the knowledge and understanding of healthcare operations. Conclusion The HIT employer focus groups provided valuable insight into employee skills needed in this fast-growing field. Additionally, this information will be utilized to develop a statewide HIT workforce needs assessment survey. PMID:23646090

  2. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  3. Statistical mechanics of the hitting set problem.

    PubMed

    Mézard, Marc; Tarzia, Marco

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we present a detailed study of the hitting set (HS) problem. This problem is a generalization of the standard vertex cover to hypergraphs: one seeks a configuration of particles with minimal density such that every hyperedge of the hypergraph contains at least one particle. It can also be used in important practical tasks, such as the group testing procedures where one wants to detect defective items in a large group by pool testing. Using a statistical mechanics approach based on the cavity method, we study the phase diagram of the HS problem, in the case of random regular hypergraphs. Depending on the values of the variables and tests degrees different situations can occur: The HS problem can be either in a replica symmetric phase, or in a one-step replica symmetry breaking one. In these two cases, we give explicit results on the minimal density of particles, and the structure of the phase space. These problems are thus in some sense simpler than the original vertex cover problem, where the need for a full replica symmetry breaking has prevented the derivation of exact results so far. Finally, we show that decimation procedures based on the belief propagation and the survey propagation algorithms provide very efficient strategies to solve large individual instances of the hitting set problem.

  4. Cutaneous presentation of Double Hit Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Khelfa, Yousef; Lebowicz, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), representing approximately 25% of diagnosed NHL. DLBCL is heterogeneous disease both clinically and genetically. The 3 most common chromosomal translocations in DLBCL involve the oncogenes BCL2, BCL6, and MYC. Double hit (DH) DLBCL is an aggressive form in which MYC rearrangement is associated with either BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangement. Patients typically present with a rapidly growing mass, often with B symptoms. Extranodal disease is often present. Though there is a paucity of prospective trials in this subtype, double hit lymphoma (DHL) has been linked to very poor outcomes when patients are treated with standard R-CHOP. There is, therefore, a lack of consensus regarding the standard treatment for DHL. Several retrospective analyses have been conducted to help guide treatment of this disease. These suggest that DA EPOCH-R may be the most promising regimen and that achievement of complete resolution predicts better long-term outcomes. PMID:27115017

  5. HitKeeper, a generic software package for hit list management

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Jörg; Muller, Michael; Pagni, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Background The automated annotation of biological sequences (protein, DNA) relies on the computation of hits (predicted features) on the sequences using various algorithms. Public databases of biological sequences provide a wealth of biological "knowledge", for example manually validated annotations (features) that are located on the sequences, but mining the sequence annotations and especially the predicted and curated features requires dedicated tools. Due to the heterogeneity and diversity of the biological information, it is difficult to handle redundancy, frequent updates, taxonomic information and "private" data together with computational algorithms in a common workflow. Results We present HitKeeper, a software package that controls the fully automatic handling of multiple biological databases and of hit list calculations on a large scale. The software implements an asynchronous update system that introduces updates and computes hits as soon as new data become available. A query interface enables the user to search sequences by specifying constraints, such as retrieving sequences that contain specific motifs, or a defined arrangement of motifs ("metamotifs"), or filtering based on the taxonomic classification of a sequence. Conclusion The software provides a generic and modular framework to handle the redundancy and incremental updates of biological databases, and an original query language. It is published under the terms and conditions of version 2 of the GNU Public License and available at . PMID:17391514

  6. Formulation of the Multi-Hit Model With a Non-Poisson Distribution of Hits

    SciTech Connect

    Vassiliev, Oleg N.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: We proposed a formulation of the multi-hit single-target model in which the Poisson distribution of hits was replaced by a combination of two distributions: one for the number of particles entering the target and one for the number of hits a particle entering the target produces. Such an approach reflects the fact that radiation damage is a result of two different random processes: particle emission by a radiation source and interaction of particles with matter inside the target. Methods and Materials: Poisson distribution is well justified for the first of the two processes. The second distribution depends on how a hit is defined. To test our approach, we assumed that the second distribution was also a Poisson distribution. The two distributions combined resulted in a non-Poisson distribution. We tested the proposed model by comparing it with previously reported data for DNA single- and double-strand breaks induced by protons and electrons, for survival of a range of cell lines, and variation of the initial slopes of survival curves with radiation quality for heavy-ion beams. Results: Analysis of cell survival equations for this new model showed that they had realistic properties overall, such as the initial and high-dose slopes of survival curves, the shoulder, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) In most cases tested, a better fit of survival curves was achieved with the new model than with the linear-quadratic model. The results also suggested that the proposed approach may extend the multi-hit model beyond its traditional role in analysis of survival curves to predicting effects of radiation quality and analysis of DNA strand breaks. Conclusions: Our model, although conceptually simple, performed well in all tests. The model was able to consistently fit data for both cell survival and DNA single- and double-strand breaks. It correctly predicted the dependence of radiation effects on parameters of radiation quality.

  7. Hit-and-run planetary collisions.

    PubMed

    Asphaug, Erik; Agnor, Craig B; Williams, Quentin

    2006-01-12

    Terrestrial planet formation is believed to have concluded in our Solar System with about 10 million to 100 million years of giant impacts, where hundreds of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos acquired random velocities through gravitational encounters and resonances with one another and with Jupiter. This led to planet-crossing orbits and collisions that produced the four terrestrial planets, the Moon and asteroids. But here we show that colliding planets do not simply merge, as is commonly assumed. In many cases, the smaller planet escapes from the collision highly deformed, spun up, depressurized from equilibrium, stripped of its outer layers, and sometimes pulled apart into a chain of diverse objects. Remnants of these 'hit-and-run' collisions are predicted to be common among remnant planet-forming populations, and thus to be relevant to asteroid formation and meteorite petrogenesis.

  8. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan N; Hamlington, Peter E; Dahm, Werner J A

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures. PMID:27078285

  9. A Two-Hit Model of Autism: Adolescence as the Second Hit

    PubMed Central

    Picci, Giorgia; Scherf, K. Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence brings dramatic changes in behavior and neural organization. Unfortunately, for some 30% of individuals with autism, there is marked decline in adaptive functioning during adolescence. We propose a two-hit model of autism. First, early perturbations in neural development function as a “first hit” that sets up a neural system that is “built to fail” in the face of a second hit. Second, the confluence of pubertal hormones, neural reorganization, and increasing social demands during adolescence provides the “second hit” that interferes with the ability to transition into adult social roles and levels of adaptive functioning. In support of this model, we review evidence about adolescent-specific neural and behavioral development in autism. We conclude with predictions and recommendations for empirical investigation about several domains in which developmental trajectories for individuals with autism may be uniquely deterred in adolescence. PMID:26609500

  10. Nevada Test Site closure program

    SciTech Connect

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  11. Orbiter door closure tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acres, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Safe reentry of the shuttle orbiter requires that the payload bay doors be closed and securely latched. Since a malfunction in the door drive or bulkhead latch systems could make safe reentry impossible, the requirement to provide tools to manually close and secure the doors was implemented. The tools would disconnect a disabled door or latch closure system and close and secure the doors if the normal system failed. The tools required to perform these tasks have evolved into a set that consists of a tubing cutter, a winch, a latching tool, and a bolt extractor. The design, fabrication, and performance tests of each tool are described.

  12. Roughness Optimization at High Modes for GDP CHx Microshells

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, M.; Dumay, B.; Chicanne, C.; Barnouin, J.; Legaie, O.; Baclet, P.

    2004-03-15

    For the ''Megajoule'' Laser (LMJ) facility of the CEA, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) is the nominal ablator to be used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. These capsules contain the fusible deuterium-tritium mixture to achieve ignition. Coatings are prepared by glow discharge polymerization (GDP) with trans-2-butene and hydrogen. The films properties have been investigated. Laser fusion targets must have optimized characteristics: a diameter of about 2.4 mm for LMJ targets, a thickness up to 175 {mu}m, a sphericity and a thickness concentricity better than 99% and an outer and an inner roughness lower than 20 nm at high modes. The surface finish of these laser fusion targets must be extremely smooth to minimize hydrodynamic instabilities.Movchan and Demchishin, and later Thornton introduced a structure zone model (SZM) based on both evaporated and sputtered metals. They investigated the influence of base temperature and the sputtering gas pressure on structure and properties of thick polycrystalline coatings of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide. An original cross-sectional analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows amorphous materials characterization and permits to make an analogy between the amorphous GDP material and the existing model (SZM). The purpose of this work is to understand the relationship between the deposition parameters, the growing structures and the surface roughness.The coating structure as a function of deposition parameters was first studied on plane silicon substrates and then optimized on PAMS shells. By adjusting the coating parameters, the structures are modified, and in some case, the high modes roughness decreases dramatically.

  13. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  14. Improved Curveball Hitting through the Enhancement of Visual Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Kurt; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of using visual cues to highlight the seams of baseballs, to improve the hitting of curveballs by five undergraduate varsity baseball team candidates. Results indicated that subjects hit a greater percentage of marked than unmarked balls. (Author/DB)

  15. Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

  16. Object Rotation Effects on the Timing of a Hitting Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mark A.; van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Davids, Keith

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigated how perturbing optical information affects the guidance of an unfolding hitting action. Using monocular and binocular vision, six participants were required to hit a rectangular foam object, released from two different heights, under four different approach conditions, two with object rotation (to perturb…

  17. FINAL CLOSURE PLAN SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS CLOSURE, SITE 300

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J E; Scott, J E; Mathews, S E

    2004-09-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the University of California (LLNL) operates two Class II surface impoundments that store wastewater that is discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater is the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years has significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners are nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project is to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using portable, above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks will be installed prior to closure of the impoundments and will include heaters for allowing evaporation during relatively cool weather. Golder Associates (Golder) has prepared this Final Closure Plan (Closure Plan) on behalf of LLNL to address construction associated with the clean closure of the impoundments. This Closure Plan complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR {section}21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Plan provides the following information: (1) A site characterization, including the site location, history, current operations, and geology and hydrogeology; (2) The regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) The closure procedures; and, (4) The procedures for validation and documentation of clean closure.

  18. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.197... Tank Systems § 264.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  19. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265... post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this...

  20. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.258... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or... or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with...

  1. 40 CFR 265.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.197... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  2. Antarctic ozone hole hits record depth

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-18

    A bad year for the ozone over Antarctica looked like a good bet this year. For the past 2 years, stratospheric ozone destruction has equaled the record set in 1987. Now things look even worse, with a record-setting ozone hole. In 1987, 1989, and 1990, the minimum amount of ozone over Antarctica early each October was 120 to 125 Dobson units compared to the typical level of 220 that prevailed before manmade Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) began eating into the ozone layer. The depletion allowed as much as twice the usual amount of biologically damaging ultraviolet light to reach the earth's surface. But researchers took some comfort in the fact that the hole seemed to have hit a barrier to further losses. Now that barrier may have been breached. On 6 October, the satellite-borne Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer detected an ozone minimum of 110 Dobson units. The region of the lower stratosphere where icy cloud particles and the chlorine of CFCs combine to destroy ozone - between 14 and 24 kilometers - looks much the same as it did in 1987.

  3. Nimodipine in traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage: a re-analysis of the HIT I and HIT II trials.

    PubMed

    Murray, G D; Teasdale, G M; Schmitz, H

    1996-01-01

    Two large randomised controlled trials have been performed to study the effect of the calcium antagonist nimodipine on the outcome of severe head injury, HIT I [1] amd HIT II [4]. Both trials showed a modest and statistically non-significant increase in the proportion of favourable outcomes in patients treated with nimodipine. A subgroup analysis of the HIT II trial [4, 5] suggested, however, that there could be a substantial protective effect of nimodipine in patients with traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). This report provides a re-analysis of the HIT I data to see whether it provides a re-analysis of the HIT I data to see whether in HIT II. This involved performing a central review of the CT scans for the HIT I patients, to identify those individuals with evidence of traumatic SAH. The sample size was small, but the HIT I data gave no support to the hypothesis that nimodipine is protective in the traumatic SAH subgroup, where 69% of patients had a poor outcome on placebo and 74% of patients had a poor outcome on nimodipine. The data do not exclude the possibility of a clinically relevant beneficial effect of nimodipine in the traumatic SAH subgroup, but further data are required to provide a definitive answer. In addition, we present a pooled analysis of the data from the two trials, which suggests that the overall benefit of treating unselected head injured patients with nimodipine is unlikely to be clinically relevant. PMID:8955434

  4. Cloning and characterization of GDP-perosamine synthetase (Per) from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and synthesis of GDP-perosamine in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Guohui; Liu Jun; Liu Xiang; Chen Min; Zhang Houcheng Wang, Peng George

    2007-11-23

    GDP-perosamine synthetase (Per, E.C. not yet classified) is important to the synthesis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 O-antigen. The mutant in per gene can disrupt the synthesis of O157 O-antigen. In this study, GDP-perosamine synthetase was cloned from E. coli O157:H7 and over-expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant His-tagged Per fusion protein was a decamer with molecular weight of 431 kDa. The optimal pH value of this recombinant protein was 7.5. The divalent ions had no significant effect on Per-catalyzed reaction. The K{sub m} and K{sub cat}/K{sub m} for GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose were 0.09 mM and 2.1 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} S{sup -1}, and those for L-glutamate were 2 mM and 0.52 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1}S{sup -1}, respectively. Per was used to synthesize GDP-perosamine from GDP-mannose together with recombinant GDP-mannose dehydratase (GMD, E.C. 4.2.1.47). The purified GDP-perosamine was identified by MS and NMR. In summary, this work provided a feasible approach for the synthesis of GDP-perosamine which can lead to the study of LPS biosynthesis of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7.

  5. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  6. 40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria. (a) Owners or... (a)(2) of this section, and (2) An erosion layer that provides equivalent protection from wind...

  7. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  8. Spontaneous ileostomy closure

    PubMed Central

    Alyami, Mohammad S.; Lundberg, Peter W.; Cotte, Eddy G.; Glehen, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic ileostomies are routinely placed during colorectal surgery for the diversion of intestinal contents to permit healing of the distal anastomosis prior to elective reversal. We present an interesting case of spontaneous closure of a diverting ileostomy without any adverse effects to the patient. A 65-year-old woman, positive for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer type-I, with locally invasive cancer of the distal colon underwent en-bloc total colectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingoophorectomy with creation of a proximal loop ileostomy. The ostomy temporarily closed without reoperation at 10 weeks, after spontaneously reopening, it definitively closed, again without surgical intervention at 18 weeks following the original surgery. This rare phenomenon has occurred following variable colorectal pathology and is poorly understood, particularly in patients with aggressive disease and adjunct perioperative interventions. PMID:27279518

  9. CPT-hole closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.

  10. Ozone loss hits us where we live

    SciTech Connect

    Appenzeller, T.

    1991-11-01

    The news about Earth's ozone layer just keeps getting worse. Three weeks ago, NASA researchers reported that the ozone hole over the Antarctic hit a record depth this year. Now comes the United Nations Environment Program, together with the World Meteorological Organization, with an even more distressing assessment of the state of the ozone layer. For the first time, the 80-member UN panel said, measurements show the ozone shield is eroding over temperate latitudes in summer, exposing crops and people to a larger dose of ultraviolet light just when they are most vulnerable. For a small group of atmospheric modelers, though, the bad news is bittersweet. Four months ago researchers predicted summertime ozone losses of just the magnitude the UN panel has now reported: about 3% over the past decade for northern temperate latitudes. Ozone modelers are encouraged by the agreement, particularly because other models are now yielding the same result. The modeling effort was spurred by earlier measurements showing a serious erosion of ozone at midlatitudes, mainly in winter. In 1988, an analysis of data collected from the ground showed that ozone levels at the latitude of the US were dropping by about 1% to 3% per decade; last April, an analysis of measurements from the satellite-borne Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer boosted that figure to between 4% and 5%. Those findings raised the question: What mechanisms could be driving the midlatitude losses The fact that the losses seemed to be concentrated in winter suggested one possibility. The winter ozone losses at the poles are driven by chemical reactions taking place on the surface of ice crystals in polar stratospheric clouds. Such clouds don't form at temperate latitudes. But some researchers suggested that masses of air already depleted in ozone or enriched in reactive chlorine by the chemistry in the polar clouds might be escaping to temperate latitudes during the winter.

  11. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN GDP SHELLS USED AS CRYOGENIC DIRECT DRIVE TARGETS AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,D; CHEN,K.C; DICKEN,M; MORRIS,C; ANDREWS,R; GREENWOOD,A.L; CASTILLO,E

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D{sub 2} and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D{sub 2}. In this paper, they present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters (standard GDP) using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters (strong GDP) of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells.

  12. Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS, T.L.

    2003-02-01

    Among the highest priorities for action under the ''Hanford Federal Facility and Agreement and Consent Order'', hereafter referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement, is the retrieval, treatment and disposal of Hanford Site tank waste. Tank waste is recognized as one of the primary threats to the Columbia River and one of the most complex technical challenges. Progress has been made in resolving safety issues, characterizing tank waste and past tank leaks, enhancing double-shell tank waste transfer and operations systems, retrieving single-shell tank waste, deploying waste treatment facilities, and planning for the disposal of immobilized waste product. However, limited progress has been made in developing technologies and providing a sound technical basis for tank system closure. To address this limitation the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project was created to develop information through technology demonstrations in support of waste retrieval and closure decisions. To complete its mission the Accelerated Tank Closure Demonstration Project has adopted performance objectives that include: protecting human health and the environment; minimizing/eliminating potential waste releases to the soil and groundwater; preventing water infiltration into the tank; maintaining accessibility of surrounding tanks for future closure; maintaining tank structural integrity; complying with applicable waste retrieval, disposal, and closure regulations; and maintaining flexibility for final closure options in the future.

  13. Biochemical characterization of GDP-L-fucose de novo synthesis pathway in fungus Mortierella alpina

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Yan; Perepelov, Andrei V.; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Hao; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2010-01-22

    Mortierella alpina is a filamentous fungus commonly found in soil, which is able to produce large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. L-Fucose is an important sugar found in a diverse range of organisms, playing a variety of biological roles. In this study, we characterized the de novo biosynthetic pathway of GDP-L-fucose (the nucleotide-activated form of L-fucose) in M. alpina. Genes encoding GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-keto-6-deoxymannose 3,5-epimerase/4-reductase (GMER) were expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes were produced as His-tagged fusion proteins. Conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose by GMD and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose to GDP-L-fucose by GMER were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, electro-spray ionization-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The k{sub m} values of GMD for GDP-mannose and GMER for GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose were determined to be 0.77 mM and 1.047 mM, respectively. Both NADH and NADPH may be used by GMER as the coenzyme. The optimum temperature and pH were determined to be 37 {sup o}C and pH 9.0 (GMD) or pH 7.0 (GMER). Divalent cations are not required for GMD and GMER activity, and the activities of both enzymes may be enhanced by DTT. To our knowledge this is the first report on the characterization of GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  14. Biosynthesis of GDP-fucose and other sugar nucleotides in the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Sílvia; Bandini, Giulia; Ospina, Diego; Bernabeu, Maria; Mariño, Karina; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Izquierdo, Luis

    2013-06-01

    Carbohydrate structures play important roles in many biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, and host-pathogen interactions. Sugar nucleotides are activated forms of sugars used by the cell as donors for most glycosylation reactions. Using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method, we identified and quantified the pools of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, GDP-mannose, and GDP-fucose in Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic life stages. We assembled these data with the in silico functional reconstruction of the parasite metabolic pathways obtained from the P. falciparum annotated genome, exposing new active biosynthetic routes crucial for further glycosylation reactions. Fucose is a sugar present in glycoconjugates often associated with recognition and adhesion events. Thus, the GDP-fucose precursor is essential in a wide variety of organisms. P. falciparum presents homologues of GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-L-fucose synthase enzymes that are active in vitro, indicating that most GDP-fucose is formed by a de novo pathway that involves the bioconversion of GDP-mannose. Homologues for enzymes involved in a fucose salvage pathway are apparently absent in the P. falciparum genome. This is in agreement with in vivo metabolic labeling experiments showing that fucose is not significantly incorporated by the parasite. Fluorescence microscopy of epitope-tagged versions of P. falciparum GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and GDP-L-fucose synthase expressed in transgenic 3D7 parasites shows that these enzymes localize in the cytoplasm of P. falciparum during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle. Although the function of fucose in the parasite is not known, the presence of GDP-fucose suggests that the metabolite may be used for further fucosylation reactions.

  15. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  16. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  17. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  18. Closure report for N Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule.

  19. [Angle-closure chronic glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2003-10-01

    The incidence of chronic angle closure glaucoma is considerably greater than the incidence of the acute type. This type of glaucoma may mimic primary open angle glaucoma with visual field deterioration, optic nerve alteration and intraocular pressure elevation with a quiet painless eye. Its diagnosis is based on indentation gonioscopy showing peripheral anterior synechiae. The mechanisms of angle closure are the pupillary block, the plateau iris configuration and the creeping form. The treatment of chronic angle closure glaucoma is based on laser peripheral iridotomy. PMID:14646832

  20. The Chelyabinsk Meteorite Hits an Anomalous Zone in the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2013-09-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite is "strange" because it hits an area in the Urals where anomalous events are observed: shining skies, light balls, UFOs, electrphonic bolids. The area tectonically occurs at the intersection of two fold belts: Urals and Timan.

  1. Concussion Study Shows Player-To-Player Hits Most Damaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159936.html Concussion Study Shows Player-to-Player Hits Most Damaging ... American football continue to debate how to prevent concussions, a new study using data from devices inside ...

  2. Do pigeons prefer alternatives that include near-hit outcomes?

    PubMed

    Stagner, Jessica P; Case, Jacob P; Sticklen, Mary F; Duncan, Amanda K; Zentall, Thomas R

    2015-07-01

    Pigeons show suboptimal choice on a gambling-like task similar to that shown by humans. Humans also show a preference for gambles in which there are near hits (losses that come close to winning). In the present research, we asked if pigeons would show a preference for alternatives with near-hit-like trials. In Experiment 1, we included an alternative that presented a near hit, in which a stimulus associated with reinforcement (a presumed conditioned reinforcer) changed to a stimulus associated with the absence of reinforcement (a presumed conditioned inhibitor). The pigeons tended to avoid this alternative. In Experiment 2, we varied the duration of the presumed conditioned reinforcer (2 vs. 8 s) that changed to a presumed conditioned inhibitor (8 vs. 2 s) and found that the longer the conditioned reinforcer was presented, the more the pigeons avoided it. In Experiment 3, the near-hit alternative involved an ambiguous stimulus for 8 s that changed to a presumed conditioned reinforcer (or a presumed conditioned inhibitor) for 2 s, but the pigeons still avoided it. In Experiment 4, we controlled for the duration of the conditioned reinforcer by presenting it first for 2 s followed by the ambiguous stimulus for 8 s. Once again, the pigeons avoided the alternative with the near-hit trials. In all 4 experiments, the pigeons tended to avoid alternatives that provided near-hit-like trials. We concluded that humans may be attracted to near-hit trials because near-hit trials give them the illusion of control, whereas this does not appear to be a factor for pigeons.

  3. Thomson Scattering Measurements on HIT-SI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everson, C. J.; Morgan, K. D.; Jarboe, T. R.

    2015-11-01

    A multi-point Thomson Scattering diagnostic has been implemented on HIT-SI3 (Helicity Injected Torus - Steady Inductive 3) to measure electron temperature. The HIT-SI3 experiment is a modification of the original HIT-SI apparatus that uses three injectors instead of two. This modification alters the configuration of magnetic fields and thus the plasma behavior in the device. The scientific aim of HIT-SI3 is to develop a deeper understanding of how injector behavior and interactions influence current drive and plasma performance in the spheromak. The Thomson Scattering system includes a 20 J (1 GW pulse) Ruby laser that provides the incident beam, and collection optics that are installed such that measurements can be taken at four spatial locations in HIT-SI3 plasmas. For each measurement point, a 3-channel polychromator is used to detect the relative level of scattering. These measurements allow for the presence of temperature gradients in the spheromak to be investigated. Preliminary HIT-SI3 temperature data are presented and can be compared to predictions from computational models. Work supported by the D.O.E.

  4. Verbs in the lexicon: Why is hitting easier than breaking?

    PubMed Central

    Mckoon, Gail; Love, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Adult speakers use verbs in syntactically appropriate ways. For example, they know implicitly that the boy hit at the fence is acceptable but the boy broke at the fence is not. We suggest that this knowledge is lexically encoded in semantic decompositions. The decomposition for break verbs (e.g. crack, smash) is hypothesized to be more complex than that for hit verbs (e.g. kick, kiss). Specifically, the decomposition of a break verb denotes that “an entity changes state as the result of some external force” whereas the decomposition for a hit verb denotes only that “an entity potentially comes in contact with another entity.” In this article, verbs of the two types were compared in a lexical decision experiment — Experiment 1 — and they were compared in sentence comprehension experiments with transitive sentences (e.g. the car hit the bicycle and the car broke the bicycle) — Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 1, processing times were shorter for the hit than the break verbs and in Experiments 2 and 3, processing times were shorter for the hit sentences than the break sentences, results that are in accord with the complexities of the postulated semantic decompositions. PMID:22649484

  5. Superfast Cosmic Jet "Hits the Wall"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    -288. The jet travelled quickly until its advance suddenly was stopped and the endpoint of the jet became brighter than the core. "This fast-moving material obviously hit something," Hjellming said. What did it it hit? "Probably a mixture of external material plus material from a previous jet ejection." Further studies of the collision could yield new information about the physics of cosmic jets. Such jets are believed to be powered by black holes into which material is being drawn. The exact mechanism by which the black hole's gravitational energy accelerates particles to nearly the speed of light is not well understood. There is even dispute about the types of particles ejected. Competing models call for either a mixture of electrons and protons or a mixture of electrons and positrons. Because protons are more than 1,800 times more massive than electrons or positrons (the positively-charged antiparticle of the electron), the electron-proton mixture would be much more massive than the electron-positron pair. Thus, an electron-proton jet is called a heavy jet and an electron-positron jet is called a light jet. A light jet would be much more easily slowed or stopped by tenuous interstellar material than a heavy jet, so the collision of XTE J1748-288's jet may indicate that it is a light jet. "There's still a lot more work to do before anyone can conclude that, but the collision offers the possibility of answering the light-heavy jet question," Hjellming said. A 1998 VLA study by John Wardle of Brandeis University and his colleagues indicated that the jet of a distant quasar is a light, electron-positron jet. Though the black holes in quasars are supermassive, usually millions of times more massive than the Sun, the physics of jet production in them is thought to be similar to the physics of jet production by smaller black holes, only a few times more massive than the sun, such as the one possibly in XTE J1748-288. The VLA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy

  6. GDP dissociation inhibitor domain II required for Rab GTPase recycling.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P M; Burd, C G

    2001-03-16

    Rab GTPases are localized to distinct subsets of organelles within the cell, where they regulate SNARE-mediated membrane trafficking between organelles. One factor required for Rab localization and function is Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI), which is proposed to recycle Rab after vesicle fusion by extracting Rab from the membrane and loading Rab onto newly formed transport intermediates. GDI is composed of two domains; Rab binding is mediated by Domain I, and the function of Domain II is not known. In this study, Domain II of yeast GDI, encoded by the essential GDI1/SEC19 gene, was targeted in a genetic screen to obtain mutants that might lend insight into the function of this domain. In one gdi1 mutant, the cytosolic pools of all Rabs tested were depleted, and Rab accumulated on membranes, suggesting that this mutant Gdi1 protein has a general defect in extraction of Rab from membranes. In a second gdi1 mutant, the endosomal/vacuolar Rabs Vps21/Ypt51p and Ypt7p accumulated in the cytosol bound to Gdi1p, but localization of Ypt1p and Sec4p were not significantly affected. Using an in vitro assay which reconstitutes Gdi1p-mediated membrane loading of Rab, this mutant Gdi1p was found to be defective in loading of Vps21p but not Ypt1p. Loading of Vps21p by loading-defective Gdi1p was restored when acceptor membranes prepared from a deletion strain lacking Vps21p were used. These results suggest that membrane-associated Rab may regulate recruitment of GDI-Rab from the cytosol, possibly by regulating a GDI-Rab receptor. We conclude that Domain II of Gdi1p is essential for Rab loading and Rab extraction, and confirm that each of these activities is required for Gdi1p function in vivo.

  7. Enhancing GDP-fucose production in recombinant Escherichia coli by metabolic pathway engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yafei; Han, Donglei; Pan, Ying; Wang, Shuaishuai; Fang, Junqiang; Wang, Peng; Liu, Xian-wei

    2015-02-01

    Guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-fucose is the indispensible donor substrate for fucosyltransferase-catalyzed synthesis of fucose-containing biomolecules, which have been found involving in various biological functions. In this work, the salvage pathway for GDP-fucose biosynthesis from Bacterioides fragilis was introduced into Escherichia coli. Besides, the biosynthesis of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), an essential substrate for GDP-fucose biosynthesis, was enhanced via overexpression of enzymes involved in the salvage pathway of GTP biosynthesis. The production capacities of metabolically engineered strains bearing different combinations of recombinant enzymes were compared. The shake flask fermentation of the strain expressing Fkp, Gpt, Gmk and Ndk obtained the maximum GDP-fucose content of 4.6 ± 0.22 μmol/g (dry cell mass), which is 4.2 fold that of the strain only expressing Fkp. Through fed-batch fermentation, the GDP-fucose content further rose to 6.6 ± 0.14 μmol/g (dry cell mass). In addition to a better productivity than previous fermentation processes based on the de novo pathway for GDP-fucose biosynthesis, the established schemes in this work also have the advantage to be a potential avenue to GDP-fucose analogs encompassing chemical modification on the fucose residue.

  8. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  9. Interrelationships of tubulin-GDP and tubulin-GTP in microtubule assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.M.; Hamel, E.

    1987-11-03

    The author previously reported that direct incorporation of GDP (i.e., without an initial hydrolysis of GTP) into microtubules occurs throughout an assembly cycle in a constant proportion. The exact proportion varied with reaction conditions, becoming greater under all conditions in which tubulin-GDP increased relative to tubulin-GTP (low Mg/sup 2 +/ and GTP concentrations, high tubulin concentrations, and in the presence of exogeneous GDP). These findings led the authors to explore further interrelationships of tubulin-GDP and tubulin-GTP in microtubule assembly. They have now determined the minimum amount of tubulin-GTP required for the initiation of microtubule assembly and the relative efficiency with which tubulin-GDP participates in microtubule elongation. When (8-/sup 14/C)GTP, (8-/sup 14/C)GDP, and tubulin concentrations were varied at a constant Mg/sup 2 +/ concentration (0.2 mM), initiation of assembly required that 35% of the nucleotide-bearing tubulin be in the form of tubulin-GTP, and incorporation of tubulin-GDP into microtubules during elongation was only 60% as efficient as would be predicted on the basis of its proportional concentration in the reaction mixtures. Very different results were obtained when the Mg/sup 2 +/ concentration was varied. In the absence of exogenous Mg/sup 2 +/, only 20% tubulin-GTP was required for initiation, and tubulin-GDP was directly incorporated into microtubules half as efficiently as would be predicted on the basis of its concentration in the reaction mixture. At the highest Mg/sup 2 +/ concentration examined (4 mM), 80% tubulin-GTP was required for initiation of assembly, and tubulin-GDP was incorporated into microtubules as efficiently as tubulin-GTP.

  10. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum to produce GDP-L-fucose from glucose and mannose.

    PubMed

    Chin, Young-Wook; Park, Jin-Byung; Park, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum was metabolically engineered to convert glucose and mannose into guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-L-fucose, a precursor of fucosyl-oligosaccharides, which are involved in various biological and pathological functions. This was done by introducing the gmd and wcaG genes of Escherichia coli encoding GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose-3,5-epimerase-4-reductase, respectively, which are known as key enzymes in the production of GDP-L-fucose from GDP-D-mannose. Coexpression of the genes allowed the recombinant C. glutamicum cells to produce GDP-L-fucose in a minimal medium containing glucose and mannose as carbon sources. The specific product formation rate was much higher during growth on mannose than on glucose. In addition, the specific product formation rate was further increased by coexpressing the endogenous phosphomanno-mutase gene (manB) and GTP-mannose-1-phosphate guanylyl-transferase gene (manC), which are involved in the conversion of mannose-6-phosphate into GDP-D-mannose. However, the overexpression of manA encoding mannose-6-phosphate isomerase, catalyzing interconversion of mannose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate showed a negative effect on formation of the target product. Overall, coexpression of gmd, wcaG, manB and manC in C. glutamicum enabled production of GDP-L-fucose at the specific rate of 0.11 mg g cell(-1) h(-1). The specific GDP-L-fucose content reached 5.5 mg g cell(-1), which is a 2.4-fold higher than that of the recombinant E. coli overexpressing gmd, wcaG, manB and manC under comparable conditions. Well-established metabolic engineering tools may permit optimization of the carbon and cofactor metabolisms of C. glutamicum to further improve their production capacity.

  11. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.1102 Section 264.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 264.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a...

  12. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.1102 Section 264.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 264.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a...

  13. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.1102 Section 264.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 264.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a...

  14. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.1102 Section 264.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 264.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a...

  15. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.197 Section 264.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner...

  16. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... or decontaminated, he or she must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  17. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this subpart... estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for magazines or units must meet all of the...

  18. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this subpart... estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for magazines or units must meet all of the...

  19. RCRA closure of mixed waste impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Blaha, F.J.; Greengard, T.C.; Arndt, M.B.

    1989-11-01

    A case study of a RCRA closure action at the Rocky Flats Plant is presented. Closure of the solar evaporation ponds involves removal and immobilization of a mixed hazardous/radioactive sludge, treatment of impounded water, groundwater monitoring, plume delineation, and collection and treatment of contaminated groundwater. The site closure is described within the context of regulatory negotiations, project schedules, risk assessment, clean versus dirty closure, cleanup levels, and approval of closure plans and reports. Lessons learned at Rocky Flats are summarized.

  20. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development

    PubMed Central

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development. PMID:27381418

  1. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development.

    PubMed

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development. PMID:27381418

  2. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development.

    PubMed

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L

    2016-07-06

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development.

  3. HIT: a new approach for hiding multimedia information in text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kwae, Essam A.; Cheng, Li

    2002-04-01

    A new technique for hiding multimedia data in text, called the Hiding in Text (HIT) technique, is introduced. The HIT technique can transform any type of media represented by a long binary string into innocuous text that follows correct grammatical rules. This technique divides English words into types where each word can appear in any number of types. For each type, there is a dictionary, which maps words to binary codes. Marker types are special types whose words do not repeat in any other type. Each generated sentence must include at least one word from the marker type. In the hiding phase, a binary string is input to the HIT encoding algorithm, which then selects sentence templates at random. The output is a set of English sentences according to the selected templates and the dictionaries of types. In the retrieving phase, the HIT technique uses the position of the marker word to identify the template used to build each sentence. The proposed technique greatly improves the efficiency and the security features of previous solutions. Examples for hiding text and image information in a cover text are given to illustrate the HIT technique.

  4. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-15

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients)

  5. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-01

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients).

  6. GTP- and GDP-Dependent Rab27a Effectors in Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    Small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) participate in a wide variety of cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and intracellular transport. Conventionally, only the guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-bound small GTPase interacts with effector proteins, and the resulting downstream signals control specific cellular functions. Therefore, the GTP-bound form is regarded as active, and the focus has been on searching for proteins that bind the GTP form to look for their effectors. The Rab family small GTPase Rab27a is highly expressed in some secretory cells and is involved in the control of membrane traffic. The present study reviews recent progress in our understanding of the roles of Rab27a and its effectors in pancreatic beta-cells. In the basal state, GTP-bound Rab27a controls insulin secretion at pre-exocytic stages via its GTP-dependent effectors. We previously identified novel guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-bound Rab27-interacting proteins. Interestingly, GDP-bound Rab27a controls endocytosis of the secretory membrane via its interaction with these proteins. We also demonstrated that the insulin secretagogue glucose converts Rab27a from its GTP- to GDP-bound forms. Thus, GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate pre-exocytic and endocytic stages in membrane traffic, respectively. Since the physiological importance of GDP-bound GTPases has been largely overlooked, we consider that the investigation of GDP-dependent effectors for other GTPases is necessary for further understanding of cellular function.

  7. Improved curveball hitting through the enhancement of visual cues.

    PubMed

    Osborne, K; Rudrud, E; Zezoney, F

    1990-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of using visual cues to highlight the seams of baseballs to improve the hitting of curveballs. Five undergraduate varsity baseball team candidates served as subjects. Behavior change was assessed through an alternating treatments design involving unmarked balls and two treatment conditions that included baseballs with 1/4-in. and 1/8-in. orange stripes marking the seams of the baseballs. Results indicated that subjects hit a greater percentage of marked than unmarked balls. These results suggest that the addition of visual cues may be a significant and beneficial technique to enhance hitting performance. Further research is suggested regarding the training procedures, effect of feedback, rate of fading cues, generalization to live pitching, and generalization to other types of pitches.

  8. Improved curveball hitting through the enhancement of visual cues.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, K; Rudrud, E; Zezoney, F

    1990-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of using visual cues to highlight the seams of baseballs to improve the hitting of curveballs. Five undergraduate varsity baseball team candidates served as subjects. Behavior change was assessed through an alternating treatments design involving unmarked balls and two treatment conditions that included baseballs with 1/4-in. and 1/8-in. orange stripes marking the seams of the baseballs. Results indicated that subjects hit a greater percentage of marked than unmarked balls. These results suggest that the addition of visual cues may be a significant and beneficial technique to enhance hitting performance. Further research is suggested regarding the training procedures, effect of feedback, rate of fading cues, generalization to live pitching, and generalization to other types of pitches. PMID:2249972

  9. Fundamental base closure environmental principles

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Military base closures present a paradox. The rate, scale and timing of military base closures is historically unique. However, each base itself typically does not present unique problems. Thus, the challenge is to design innovative solutions to base redevelopment and remediation issues, while simultaneously adopting common, streamlined or pre-approved strategies to shared problems. The author presents six environmental principles that are fundamental to base closure. They are: remediation not clean up; remediation will impact reuse; reuse will impact remediation; remediation and reuse must be coordinated; environmental contamination must be evaluated as any other initial physical constraint on development, not as an overlay after plans are created; and remediation will impact development, financing and marketability.

  10. The mechanics of airway closure.

    PubMed

    Heil, Matthias; Hazel, Andrew L; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2008-11-30

    We describe how surface-tension-driven instabilities of the lung's liquid lining may lead to pulmonary airway closure via the formation of liquid bridges that occlude the airway lumen. Using simple theoretical models, we demonstrate that this process may occur via a purely fluid-mechanical "film collapse" or through a coupled, fluid-elastic "compliant collapse" mechanism. Both mechanisms can lead to airway closure in times comparable with the breathing cycle, suggesting that surface tension is the primary mechanical effect responsible for the closure observed in peripheral regions of the human lungs. We conclude by discussing the influence of additional effects not included in the simple models, such as gravity, the presence of pulmonary surfactant, respiratory flow and wall motion, the airways' geometry, and the mechanical structure of the airway walls. PMID:18595784

  11. Humid site stabilization and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Cutshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the work described here is to identify and evaluate the importance of factors that are expected to dictate the nature of site stabilization and closure requirements. Subsequent efforts will plan for implementation of such requirements. Two principal areas of site stabilization and closure effort will be pursued initially - geological management and vegetation management. The geological effort will focus on chemical weathering and surficial erosion. Such catastrophic geologic events as landslides, flooding, earthquakes, volcanos, etc. are already considered in site selection and operation and these factors will not be emphasized initially. Vegetation management will be designed to control erosion, to minimize nuclide mobilization by roots and to be compatible with natural successional pressures. It is anticipated that the results of this work will be important both to site selection and operation as well as the actual stabilization and closure procedure.

  12. Closure of Building 624 incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, M.N.; Hallisey, M.L.; Terusaki, S.; Steverson, M.

    1992-06-01

    The Building 624 incinerator was a Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) mixed waste incinerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This incinerator was in operation from 1978 to 1989. The incinerator was to be closed as a mixed waste incinerator, but was to continue burning classified nonhazardous solid waste. The decision was later made to discontinue all use of the incinerator. Closure activities were performed from June 15 to December 15, 1991, when a clean closure was completed. The main part of the closure was the characterization, which included 393 samples and 30 blanks. From these 393 samples, approximately 13 samples indicated the need for further investigation, such as an isotopic scan; however, none of the samples was concluded to be hazardous or radioactive.

  13. Applications of Biophysics in High-Throughput Screening Hit Validation.

    PubMed

    Genick, Christine Clougherty; Barlier, Danielle; Monna, Dominique; Brunner, Reto; Bé, Céline; Scheufler, Clemens; Ottl, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    For approximately a decade, biophysical methods have been used to validate positive hits selected from high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns with the goal to verify binding interactions using label-free assays. By applying label-free readouts, screen artifacts created by compound interference and fluorescence are discovered, enabling further characterization of the hits for their target specificity and selectivity. The use of several biophysical methods to extract this type of high-content information is required to prevent the promotion of false positives to the next level of hit validation and to select the best candidates for further chemical optimization. The typical technologies applied in this arena include dynamic light scattering, turbidometry, resonance waveguide, surface plasmon resonance, differential scanning fluorimetry, mass spectrometry, and others. Each technology can provide different types of information to enable the characterization of the binding interaction. Thus, these technologies can be incorporated in a hit-validation strategy not only according to the profile of chemical matter that is desired by the medicinal chemists, but also in a manner that is in agreement with the target protein's amenability to the screening format. Here, we present the results of screening strategies using biophysics with the objective to evaluate the approaches, discuss the advantages and challenges, and summarize the benefits in reference to lead discovery. In summary, the biophysics screens presented here demonstrated various hit rates from a list of ~2000 preselected, IC50-validated hits from HTS (an IC50 is the inhibitor concentration at which 50% inhibition of activity is observed). There are several lessons learned from these biophysical screens, which will be discussed in this article.

  14. Crystal structure of a tetrameric GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase from a bacterial GDP-D-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, N.A.; Mulichak, A.M.; Lam, J.S.; Rocchetta, H.L.; Garavito, R.M.

    2010-03-08

    D-Rhamnose is a rare 6-deoxy monosaccharide primarily found in the lipopolysaccharide of pathogenic bacteria, where it is involved in host-bacterium interactions and the establishment of infection. The biosynthesis of D-rhamnose proceeds through the conversion of GDP-D-mannose by GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose, which is subsequently reduced to GDP-D-rhamnose by a reductase. We have determined the crystal structure of GMD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in complex with NADPH and GDP. GMD belongs to the NDP-sugar modifying subfamily of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzymes, all of which exhibit bidomain structures and a conserved catalytic triad (Tyr-XXX-Lys and Ser/Thr). Although most members of this enzyme subfamily display homodimeric structures, this bacterial GMD forms a tetramer in the same fashion as the plant MUR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The cofactor binding sites are adjoined across the tetramer interface, which brings the adenosyl phosphate moieties of the adjacent NADPH molecules to within 7 {angstrom} of each other. A short peptide segment (Arg35-Arg43) stretches into the neighboring monomer, making not only protein-protein interactions but also hydrogen bonding interactions with the neighboring cofactor. The interface hydrogen bonds made by the Arg35-Arg43 segment are generally conserved in GMD and MUR1, and the interacting residues are highly conserved among the sequences of bacterial and eukaryotic GMDs. Outside of the Arg35-Arg43 segment, residues involved in tetrameric contacts are also quite conserved across different species. These observations suggest that a tetramer is the preferred, and perhaps functionally relevant, oligomeric state for most bacterial and eukaryotic GMDs.

  15. Hit parade: the future of the sports concussion crisis.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    While concussions have long been linked to brain and central nervous system issues, a new study suggests that repeated hits to the head-mild or otherwise-can lead to memory loss, depression, and dementia. This postmortem brain study, conducted at the Boston University Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy, provides new and troubling evidence about chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a long-term degenerative and incurable brain disease. Although military personnel and others are vulnerable to the disease, the highest risk is among athletes involved in contact sports in which hits to the head are considered "part of the game."

  16. Interval Throwing and Hitting Programs in Baseball: Biomechanics and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward S; Bishop, Meghan E; Baker, Dylan; West, Robin V

    2016-01-01

    Baseball injuries from throwing and hitting generally occur as a consequence of the repetitive and high-energy motions inherent to the sport. Biomechanical studies have contributed to understanding the pathomechanics leading to injury and to the development of rehabilitation programs. Interval-based throwing and hitting programs are designed to return an athlete to competition through a gradual progression of sport-specific exercises. Proper warm-up and strict adherence to the program allows the athlete to return as quickly and safely as possible.

  17. Direct determination of the hit locations from experimental HPGe pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Désesquelles, P.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Dimmock, M. R.; Lazarus, I. H.; Ljungvall, J.; Nelson, L.; Nga, D.-T.; Nolan, P. J.; Rigby, S. V.; Simpson, J.; Van-Oanh, N.-T.

    2013-11-01

    The gamma-tracking technique optimises the determination of the energy and emission angle of gamma-rays detected by modern segmented HPGe detectors. This entails the determination, using the delivered pulse shapes, of the interaction points of the gamma-ray within the crystal. The direct method presented here allows the localisation of the hits using only a large sample of pulses detected in the actual operating conditions. No external crystal scanning system or pulse shape simulation code is needed. In order to validate this method, it is applied to sets of pulses obtained using the University of Liverpool scanning system. The hit locations are determined by the method with good precision.

  18. Interval Throwing and Hitting Programs in Baseball: Biomechanics and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward S; Bishop, Meghan E; Baker, Dylan; West, Robin V

    2016-01-01

    Baseball injuries from throwing and hitting generally occur as a consequence of the repetitive and high-energy motions inherent to the sport. Biomechanical studies have contributed to understanding the pathomechanics leading to injury and to the development of rehabilitation programs. Interval-based throwing and hitting programs are designed to return an athlete to competition through a gradual progression of sport-specific exercises. Proper warm-up and strict adherence to the program allows the athlete to return as quickly and safely as possible. PMID:26991569

  19. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  20. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  1. Different effects of guanine nucleotides (GDP and GTP) on protein-mediated mitochondrial proton leak.

    PubMed

    Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the influence of GDP and GTP on isolated mitochondria respiring under conditions favoring oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and under conditions excluding this process, i.e., in the presence of carboxyatractyloside, an adenine nucleotide translocase inhibitor, and/or oligomycin, an FOF1-ATP synthase inhibitor. Using mitochondria isolated from rat kidney and human endothelial cells, we found that the action of GDP and GTP can differ diametrically depending on the conditions. Namely, under conditions favoring OXPHOS, both in the absence and presence of linoleic acid, an activator of uncoupling proteins (UCPs), the addition of 1 mM GDP resulted in the state 4 (non-phosphorylating respiration)-state 3 (phosphorylating respiration) transition, which is characteristic of ADP oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, the addition of 1 mM GTP resulted in a decrease in the respiratory rate and an increase in the membrane potential, which is characteristic of UCP inhibition. The stimulatory effect of GDP, but not GTP, was also observed in inside-out submitochondrial particles prepared from rat kidney mitochondria. However, the effects of GDP and GTP were more similar in the presence of OXPHOS inhibitors. The importance of these observations in connection with the action of UCPs, adenine nucleotide translocase (or other carboxyatractyloside-sensitive carriers), carboxyatractyloside- and purine nucleotide-insensitive carriers, as well as nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDPK) are considered. Because the measurements favoring oxidative phosphorylation better reflect in vivo conditions, our study strongly supports the idea that GDP cannot be considered a significant physiological inhibitor of UCP. Moreover, it appears that, under native conditions, GTP functions as a more efficient UCP inhibitor than GDP and ATP.

  2. Hit Identification and Optimization in Virtual Screening: Practical Recommendations Based Upon a Critical Literature Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tian; Cao, Shuyi; Su, Pin-Chih; Patel, Ram; Shah, Darshan; Chokshi, Heta B.; Szukala, Richard; Johnson, Michael E.; Hevener, Kirk E.

    2013-01-01

    A critical analysis of virtual screening results published between 2007 and 2011 was performed. The activity of reported hit compounds from over 400 studies was compared to their hit identification criteria. Hit rates and ligand efficiencies were calculated to assist in these analyses and the results were compared with factors such as the size of the virtual library and the number of compounds tested. A series of promiscuity, drug-like, and ADMET filters were applied to the reported hits to assess the quality of compounds reported and a careful analysis of a subset of the studies which presented hit optimization was performed. This data allowed us to make several practical recommendations with respect to selection of compounds for experimental testing, defining hit identification criteria, and general virtual screening hit criteria to allow for realistic hit optimization. A key recommendation is the use of size-targeted ligand efficiency values as hit identification criteria. PMID:23688234

  3. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Reekers, Jim A.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zelenak, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0-14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  4. U.S. Teen Births Hit Another Record Low: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161207.html U.S. Teen Births Hit Another Record Low: CDC Less sex, ... Sept. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Births to U.S. teens reached a record low last year, continuing a ...

  5. Madoff Debacle Hits Colleges and Raises Questions about Trustee Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Several colleges and universities lost millions in the alleged $50-billion Ponzi scheme run by the Wall Street trader Bernard L. Madoff. The losses include institutions' endowment holdings in hedge funds that were invested with Madoff as well as hits taken by supporting foundations and donors. Several foundations that have been active in higher…

  6. Appreciating an Old Favorite: Sousa's All-Time Hit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Outryve, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents John Philip Sousa's all time hit, "The Stars and Stripes Forever". It is one of the most recognizable pieces of American music. Wherever John Philip Sousa and his band appeared, this march was likely to be played. According to American poet and educator Eli Siegel (1902-78), who first articulated the philosophy…

  7. HiTS real-time supernova detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Medina, G.; Pignata, G.; Galbany, L.; Martin, J. San; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera, G.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Jaeger, Th. de; Martinez, J.; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.; Perez, C.

    2015-02-01

    HiTS, the High Cadence Transient Survey (see ATELs #5949, #5956, #7099, #7108, #7115, #7122, #7131, #7132), reports the discovery of 5 additional supernova candidates detected using a novel real-time high-cadence image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  8. HiTS real-time supernova detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Pignata, G.; Martinez, J.; Medina, G.; Galbany, L.; Martin, J. San; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera, G.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.; Perez, C.

    2015-02-01

    Body: HiTS: The High Cadence Transient Survey (see ATELs #5949, #5956, #7099, #7108, #7115) reports the discovery of 9 additional supernova candidates detected using a novel real-time high-cadence image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  9. HiTS real-time supernova detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Galbany, L.; de Jaeger, Th.; Martinez, J.; Cabrera, G.; Martin, J. San; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Pignata, G.; Medina, G.; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.

    2015-02-01

    HiTS: The High Cadence Transient Survey (ATELs #5949, #5956, #7099) reports the discovery of one additional supernova candidate detected using a novel real-time high-cadence image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  10. HiTS real-time supernova detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Pignata, G.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Medina, G.; Martinez, J.; Galbany, L.; Martin, J. San; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera, G.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Jaeger, Th. de; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.; Perez, C.

    2015-02-01

    HiTS: The High Cadence Transient Survey (see ATELs #5949, #5956, #7099, #7108, #7115, #7122, #7131) reports the discovery of 9 additional supernova candidates detected using a novel real-time high-cadence image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  11. HiTS real-time supernova detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Pignata, G.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Medina, G.; Martinez, J.; Galbany, Â. L.; Martin, J. San; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera, G.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Jaeger, Th. de; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.; Perez, C.

    2015-02-01

    HiTS: The High Cadence Transient Survey (see ATELs #5949, #5956, #7099, #7108, #7115, #7122) reports the discovery of 9 additional supernova candidates detected using a novel real-time high-cadence image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  12. HiTS real-time supernova detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Medina, G.; Galbany, L.; Martinez, J.; San Martin, J.; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera, G.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Pignata, G.; de Jaeger, Th.; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.; Perez, C.; Points, S.

    2015-03-01

    HiTS, the High Cadence Transient Survey (see ATELs #5949, #5956, #7099, #7108, #7115, #7122, #7131, #7146, #7148, #7149), reports the discovery of additional supernova candidates detected using a novel real-time high-cadence image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  13. HiTS real-time supernova detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Galbany, L.; De Jaeger, Th.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Martinez, J.; Cabrera, G.; San Martin, J.; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.,; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Pignata, G.; Medina, G.; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.

    2015-02-01

    HiTS: The High Cadence Transient Survey (ATELs #5949, #5956, #7099) reports the discovery of 4 additional supernova candidates detected using a novel real-time high-cadence image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  14. HiTS real-time supernova detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Medina, G.; Galbany, L.; Martinez, J.; Martin, J. San; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera, G.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Pignata, G.; Jaeger, Th. de; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.; Perez, C.

    2015-02-01

    HiTS, the High Cadence Transient Survey (see ATELs #5949, #5956, #7099, #7108, #7115, #7122, #7131, #7146, #7148), reports the discovery of additional supernova candidates detected using a novel real-time high-cadence image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  15. HiTS real-time supernova detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Medina, G.; Galbany, L.; Martinez, J.; Martin, J. San; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Cabrera, G.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Pignata, G.; Jaeger, Th. de; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.; Perez, C.

    2015-02-01

    HiTS, the High Cadence Transient Survey (see ATELs #5949, #5956, #7099, #7108, #7115, #7122, #7131, #7146), reports the discovery of additional supernova candidates detected using a novel real-time high-cadence image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  16. HiTS real-time supernova detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, F.; Maureira, J. C.; Galbany, L.; De Jaeger, Th.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Martinez, J.; Cabrera, G.; San Martin, J.; Hamuy, M.; Estevez, P.; Smith, R. C.; Vivas, K.; Flores, S.; Huijse, P.; Anderson, J.; Bufano, F.; Pignata, G.; Medina, G.; Munoz, R.; Vera, E.

    2015-02-01

    HiTS: The High Cadence Transient Survey (ATELs #5949, #5956) reports the discovery of 4 possible supernova explosions detected using a novel real-time high-cadence image subtraction / classification pipeline developed at the Center for Mathematical Modelling (CMM) in collaboration with the Millennium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS).

  17. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Hit All-Time High: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_161565.html Sexually Transmitted Diseases Hit All-Time High: CDC More prevention efforts needed, agency ... Oct. 19, 2016 HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights reserved. News stories are provided by HealthDay ...

  18. Assessing the lipophilicity of fragments and early hits.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Paul N; Murray, Christopher W

    2011-07-01

    A key challenge in many drug discovery programs is to accurately assess the potential value of screening hits. This is particularly true in fragment-based drug design (FBDD), where the hits often bind relatively weakly, but are correspondingly small. Ligand efficiency (LE) considers both the potency and the size of the molecule, and enables us to estimate whether or not an initial hit is likely to be optimisable to a potent, druglike lead. While size is a key property that needs to be controlled in a small molecule drug, there are a number of additional properties that should also be considered. Lipophilicity is amongst the most important of these additional properties, and here we present a new efficiency index (LLE(AT)) that combines lipophilicity, size and potency. The index is intuitively defined, and has been designed to have the same target value and dynamic range as LE, making it easily interpretable by medicinal chemists. Monitoring both LE and LLE(AT) should help both in the selection of more promising fragment hits, and controlling molecular weight and lipophilicity during optimisation. PMID:21614595

  19. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.1102 Section 265.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 265.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.1102 Section 265.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 265.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.1102 Section 265.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 265.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.1102 Section 265.1102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 265.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  3. A comparison of age level on baseball hitting kinematics.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; DeRenne, Coop; Taylor, Marcus K; Moorman, Claude T; Imamura, Rodney; Barakatt, Edward; Andrews, James R

    2009-08-01

    We propose that learning proper hitting kinematics should be encouraged at a young age during youth baseball because this may help reinforce proper hitting kinematics as a player progresses to higher levels of baseball in their adult years. To enhance our understanding between youth and adult baseball hitting, kinematic and temporal analyses of baseball hitting were evaluated with a high-speed motion analysis system between 12 skilled youth and 12 skilled adult baseball players. There were only a small number of temporal differences between youth and adult hitters, with adult hitters taking significantly greater time than youth hitters during the stride phase and during the swing. Compared with youth hitters, adult hitters a) had significantly greater (p < .01) lead knee flexion when the hands started to move forward; b) flexed the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the transition phase (31 degrees versus 13 degrees); c) extended the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the bat acceleration phase (59 degrees versus 32 degrees); d) maintained a more open pelvis position at lead foot off ground; and e) maintained a more open upper torso position when the hands started to move forward and a more closed upper torso position at bat-ball contact. Moreover, adult hitters had greater peak upper torso angular velocity (857 degrees/s versus 717 degrees/s), peak left elbow extension angular velocity (752 degrees/s versus 598 degrees/s), peak left knee extension angular velocity (386 degrees/s versus 303 degrees/s), and bat linear velocity at bat-ball contact (30 m/s versus 25 m/s). The numerous differences in kinematic and temporal parameters between youth and adult hitters suggest that hitting mechanics are different between these two groups. PMID:19827470

  4. One-hit models of carcinogenesis: conservative or not

    SciTech Connect

    Bailar, J.C. III; Crouch, E.A.C.; Shaikh, R.; Spiegelman, D.

    1988-12-01

    One-hit formulas are widely believed to be conservative when used to analyze carcinogenesis bioassays, in the sense that they will rarely underestimate risks of cancer at low exposures. Such formulas are generally applied to the lifetime incidence of cancer at a specific site, with risks estimated from animal data at zero dose (control), and two or more additional doses that are appreciable fractions of a maximum tolerated dose. No empirical study has demonstrated that the one-hit formula is conservative in the sense described. The Carcinogenesis Bioassay Database System contains data on 1212 separate bioassays of 308 chemical substances tested at exactly three evaluable doses. These provided sufficient data to examine 8432 specific combination of cancer site with sex, species, and chemical. For each of these they fitted a one-hit formula to the zero and maximum dose data points, then examined the relation of the fitted curve to the incidence rate observed at the mid-dose, with and without adjustment for intercurrent mortality. Both underestimates and overestimates of risk at mid-dose occurred substantially more often than expected by chance. They cannot tell whether such underestimates would occur at lower doses, but offer six biological reasons why underestimates might be expected. In a high percentage of animal bioassays, the one-hit formula is not conservative when applied in the usual way to animal data. It remains possible that the one-hit formula may indeed be conservative at sufficiently low doses (below the observational range), but the usual procedure, applied to the usual dose range, can be nonconservative in estimating the slope of the formula at such low doses. Risk assessments for regulation of carcinogens should incorporate some measure of additional uncertainty.

  5. A comparison of age level on baseball hitting kinematics.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; DeRenne, Coop; Taylor, Marcus K; Moorman, Claude T; Imamura, Rodney; Barakatt, Edward; Andrews, James R

    2009-08-01

    We propose that learning proper hitting kinematics should be encouraged at a young age during youth baseball because this may help reinforce proper hitting kinematics as a player progresses to higher levels of baseball in their adult years. To enhance our understanding between youth and adult baseball hitting, kinematic and temporal analyses of baseball hitting were evaluated with a high-speed motion analysis system between 12 skilled youth and 12 skilled adult baseball players. There were only a small number of temporal differences between youth and adult hitters, with adult hitters taking significantly greater time than youth hitters during the stride phase and during the swing. Compared with youth hitters, adult hitters a) had significantly greater (p < .01) lead knee flexion when the hands started to move forward; b) flexed the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the transition phase (31 degrees versus 13 degrees); c) extended the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the bat acceleration phase (59 degrees versus 32 degrees); d) maintained a more open pelvis position at lead foot off ground; and e) maintained a more open upper torso position when the hands started to move forward and a more closed upper torso position at bat-ball contact. Moreover, adult hitters had greater peak upper torso angular velocity (857 degrees/s versus 717 degrees/s), peak left elbow extension angular velocity (752 degrees/s versus 598 degrees/s), peak left knee extension angular velocity (386 degrees/s versus 303 degrees/s), and bat linear velocity at bat-ball contact (30 m/s versus 25 m/s). The numerous differences in kinematic and temporal parameters between youth and adult hitters suggest that hitting mechanics are different between these two groups.

  6. A cross-section test of Cobb-Douglass production function between market capitalization and GDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakian, Adam; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-02-01

    Most classical economic theories imply that both (a) economies with lower output (GDP) per person tend to grow faster in per capita terms and (b) economies with lower capital per person tend to grow faster in per capita terms. It is well-known that the former was found to be wrong. Taking market capitalization as a proxy for physical capital, we analyze a cohort of countries over a 17-year period (1994-2010) and we find the latter statement in agreement with empirical data implying a contradictive result that while capital data worldwide tend to converge, GDP data tend to diverge. However, for the countries analyzed, for which we have both market capitalization and GDP data, we find that even economies with lower output (GDP) per person tend to grow faster in per capita terms. The result that for all countries one obtains divergence while for a group of countries having both market capitalization and GDP data we have convergence is in contrast with the refutation of (a) but our results only apply to countries that have an exchange market, and are thus participating in globalization, indicating the convergent effect of globalization.

  7. Comparative study of structural models of Leishmania donovani and human GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Daligaux, Pierre; Bernadat, Guillaume; Tran, Linh; Cavé, Christian; Loiseau, Philippe M; Pomel, Sébastien; Ha-Duong, Tâp

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania is the parasite responsible for the neglected disease leishmaniasis. Its virulence and survival require biosynthesis of glycoconjugates, whose guanosine diphospho-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GDP-MP) is a key player. However, experimentally resolved structures of this enzyme are still lacking. We herein propose structural models of the GDP-MP from human and Leishmania donovani. Based on a multiple sequences alignment, the models were built with MODELLER and then carefully refined with all atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. Their quality was evaluated against several standard criteria, including their ability to bind GDP-mannose assessed by redocking calculations. Special attention was given in this study to interactions of the catalytic site residues with the enzyme substrate and competitive inhibitors, opening the perspective of medicinal chemistry developments.

  8. Comparative study of structural models of Leishmania donovani and human GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylases.

    PubMed

    Daligaux, Pierre; Bernadat, Guillaume; Tran, Linh; Cavé, Christian; Loiseau, Philippe M; Pomel, Sébastien; Ha-Duong, Tâp

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania is the parasite responsible for the neglected disease leishmaniasis. Its virulence and survival require biosynthesis of glycoconjugates, whose guanosine diphospho-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GDP-MP) is a key player. However, experimentally resolved structures of this enzyme are still lacking. We herein propose structural models of the GDP-MP from human and Leishmania donovani. Based on a multiple sequences alignment, the models were built with MODELLER and then carefully refined with all atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. Their quality was evaluated against several standard criteria, including their ability to bind GDP-mannose assessed by redocking calculations. Special attention was given in this study to interactions of the catalytic site residues with the enzyme substrate and competitive inhibitors, opening the perspective of medicinal chemistry developments. PMID:26562546

  9. Micronutrient deficiencies in early childhood can lower a country's GDP: The Myanmar example.

    PubMed

    Win, Aung Zaw

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is a developing country in South East Asia. While Myanmar is among the 20 countries where 80% of the world's malnourished children live, its military consumes the majority of the national budget. Children who are malnourished between conception and age two are at high risk for impaired physical and mental development, which adversely affects the country's productivity and growth. Myanmar is facing three major micronutrient deficiencies which are iodine, iron and vitamin A deficiencies. The three micronutrient deficiencies can cost about 2.4% of the country's GDP. Children are the future of Myanmar and persistent micronutrient deficiencies will hamper its economic growth and lower its GDP. PMID:26421387

  10. Micronutrient deficiencies in early childhood can lower a country's GDP: The Myanmar example.

    PubMed

    Win, Aung Zaw

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is a developing country in South East Asia. While Myanmar is among the 20 countries where 80% of the world's malnourished children live, its military consumes the majority of the national budget. Children who are malnourished between conception and age two are at high risk for impaired physical and mental development, which adversely affects the country's productivity and growth. Myanmar is facing three major micronutrient deficiencies which are iodine, iron and vitamin A deficiencies. The three micronutrient deficiencies can cost about 2.4% of the country's GDP. Children are the future of Myanmar and persistent micronutrient deficiencies will hamper its economic growth and lower its GDP.

  11. Atrioventricular block after ASD closure

    PubMed Central

    Asakai, Hiroko; Weskamp, Sofia; Eastaugh, Lucas; d'Udekem, Yves; Pflaumer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart defect. There is limited data on both early and late atrioventricular (AV) block post ASD closure. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of AV block associated with ASD closure. Methods A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent ASD closure either with a device or surgical method at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne between 1996 and 2010 was performed. Baseline demographics, procedural details and follow-up data were collected from medical records. Results A total of 378 patients were identified; 242 in the device group and 136 in the surgical group. Fourteen patients (3.7%) had AV block (1 with second degree and 13 with first degree) at a median follow-up of 28 months; 11/242 (4.5%) in the device group and 3/135 (2.2%) in the surgical group (p=0.39). Six patients had new-onset AV block after ASD closure. In the device subgroup, patients with AV block at follow-up had a larger indexed device size compared with those without (22 (15–31) vs 18(7–38), p=0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed the presence of AV block either pre procedure or post procedure to be the only variables associated with late AV block. Conclusions Late AV block in patients with repaired ASD is rare and most likely independent of the technique used. In the device subgroup, the only risk factor identified to be associated with late AV block was the presence of either preprocedural or postprocedural AV block, so long-term follow-up for these patients should be provided. PMID:27540418

  12. 77 FR 66617 - HIT Policy and Standards Committees; Workgroup Application Database

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy and Standards Committees; Workgroup Application Database AGENCY: Office of the... Application Database. The Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) has launched a new Health Information Technology Federal Advisory Committee Workgroup Application Database. Name of Committees: HIT...

  13. 75 FR 62399 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... from the HIT Policy Committee regarding health information technology standards, implementation... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT...

  14. 75 FR 32472 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS... Information Technology (ONC). Name of Committee: HIT Standards Committee. General Function of the...

  15. Sampling and monitoring for closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLemore, V.T.; Russell, C.C.; Smith, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    The Metals Mining Sector of the Acid Drainage Technology Initiative (ADTI-MMS) addresses technical drainage-quality issues related to metal mining and related metallurgical operations, for future and active mines, as well as, for historical mines and mining districts. One of the first projects of ADTI-MMS is to develop a handbook describing the best sampling, monitoring, predicting, mitigating, and modeling of drainage from metal mines, pit lakes and related metallurgical facilities based upon current scientific and engineering practices. One of the important aspects of planning a new mine in today's regulatory environment is the philosophy of designing a new or existing mine or expansion of operations for ultimate closure. The holistic philosophy taken in the ADTI-MMS handbook maintains that sampling and monitoring programs should be designed to take into account all aspects of the mine-life cycle. Data required for the closure of the operation are obtained throughout the mine-life cycle, from exploration through post-closure.

  16. Manual laterality and hitting performance in major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Grondin, S; Guiard, Y; Ivry, R B; Koren, S

    1999-06-01

    Asymmetrical hand function was examined in the context of expert sports performance: hitting in professional baseball. An archival study was conducted to examine the batting performance of all Major League Baseball players from 1871 to 1992, focusing on those who batted left (n = 1,059) to neutralize the game asymmetry. Among them, left-handers (n = 421) were more likely to hit with power and to strike out than right-handers (n = 638). One possible account, based on the idea of hand dominance and an analogy to tennis, is that batting left involves a double-handed forehand for left-handers and a weaker and more reliable double-handed backhand for right-handers. The results are also interpretable in the light of Y. Guiard's (1987) kinematic chain model of a between-hands asymmetrical division of labor, which provides a detailed account of why left batting is optimal for left-handers. PMID:10385985

  17. A memory model for internet hits after media exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chessa, Antonio G.; Murre, Jaap M. J.

    2004-02-01

    We present a cognitive model, based on the mathematical theory of point processes, which extends the results of two studies by Johansen (Physica A 276 (2000) 338; Physica A 296 (2001) 539) on download relaxation dynamics. Responses from subjects are considered as single events, which are received from original listeners or readers and from a network of social contacts, through which a message may propagate further. We collected data on the number of daily visits at our web site after a radio interview with the second author, in which the name of the web site was mentioned. A model based on an exponential hit time distribution and a homogeneous point process for regular visitors fits our data and Johansen's very well and is superior to both the power law and the logarithmic function. The fits suggest that hit data from different sources share the same cognitive mechanism, which are controlled merely by the encoding and retrieval of the target information memorised.

  18. Manual laterality and hitting performance in major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Grondin, S; Guiard, Y; Ivry, R B; Koren, S

    1999-06-01

    Asymmetrical hand function was examined in the context of expert sports performance: hitting in professional baseball. An archival study was conducted to examine the batting performance of all Major League Baseball players from 1871 to 1992, focusing on those who batted left (n = 1,059) to neutralize the game asymmetry. Among them, left-handers (n = 421) were more likely to hit with power and to strike out than right-handers (n = 638). One possible account, based on the idea of hand dominance and an analogy to tennis, is that batting left involves a double-handed forehand for left-handers and a weaker and more reliable double-handed backhand for right-handers. The results are also interpretable in the light of Y. Guiard's (1987) kinematic chain model of a between-hands asymmetrical division of labor, which provides a detailed account of why left batting is optimal for left-handers.

  19. The Effects of Pain Cues on Hitting Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubanoski, Richard A.; Kong, Colleen

    This study investigates the effects of pain and non-pain consequences on groups of 22 high- and 22 low-aggression boys, as determined by a peer rating scale. The boys, who had a mean age of 10 years, 8 months, were instructed to hit a punching apparatus. Through earphones, half of each group heard pain cues, i.e., "ouch", while the other half…

  20. Hitting moving targets with a continuously changing temporal window.

    PubMed

    de la Malla, Cristina; López-Moliner, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Hitting a moving target requires that we do not miss the target when it is around the aimed position. The time available for us not to miss the target when it is at the position of interest is usually called the time window and depends on target's speed and size. These variables, among others, have been manipulated in previous studies but kept constant within the same trial or session. Here, we present results of a hitting task in which targets underwent simple harmonic motion, which is defined by a sinusoidal function. Target velocity changes continuously in this motion and so does the time window which is shorter in the centre (peak velocity) and longer at the turning points (lowest velocity) within a single trial. We studied two different conditions in which the target moved with a reliable (across trials) amplitude displacement or reliable peak velocity, respectively, and subjects were free to decide where and when to hit it. Results show that subjects made a compromise between maximum and minimum target's speed, so that they did hit the target at intermediate speed values. Interestingly, the reliability of target peak velocity (or displacement) modulated the point of interception. When target's peak velocity was more reliable, subjects intercepted the target at positions with smaller temporal windows and the reverse was true when displacement was reliable. Subjects adapted the interceptive behaviour to the underlying statistical structure of the targets. Finally, in a control condition in which the temporal window also depended on the instant size and not only on speed, subjects intercepted the target when it moved at similar speeds than when the size was constant. This finding suggests that velocity rather than the temporal window contributed more to controlling the interceptive movements.

  1. Effective progression of nuclear magnetic resonance-detected fragment hits.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Hugh L; Wyss, Daniel F

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become increasingly popular over the last decade as an alternate lead generation tool to HTS approaches. Several compounds have now progressed into the clinic which originated from a fragment-based approach, demonstrating the utility of this emerging field. While fragment hit identification has become much more routine and may involve different screening approaches, the efficient progression of fragment hits into quality lead series may still present a major bottleneck for the broadly successful application of FBDD. In our laboratory, we have extensive experience in fragment-based NMR screening (SbN) and the subsequent iterative progression of fragment hits using structure-assisted chemistry. To maximize impact, we have applied this approach strategically to early- and high-priority targets, and those struggling for leads. Its application has yielded a clinical candidate for BACE1 and lead series in about one third of the SbN/FBDD projects. In this chapter, we will give an overview of our strategy and focus our discussion on NMR-based FBDD approaches. PMID:21371601

  2. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.332 State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements. Each State Medicaid HIT plan must...

  3. Teachers' Perspectives on Hitting Back in School: Between Inexcusable Violence and Self-Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Amos

    2015-01-01

    Israeli schools expressly forbid a student to hit back after being attacked. In semistructured interviews, 71 Israeli educators were asked for their views on the hitting-back tactic. The interviews compared their attitude toward hitting back as teachers with their take on the matter as parents. The results, analyzed using grounded theory, show…

  4. Identification of different roles for RanGDP and RanGTP in nuclear protein import.

    PubMed Central

    Görlich, D; Panté, N; Kutay, U; Aebi, U; Bischoff, F R

    1996-01-01

    The importin-alpha/beta heterodimer and the GTPase Ran play key roles in nuclear protein import. Importin binds the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Translocation of the resulting import ligand complex through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) requires Ran and is terminated at the nucleoplasmic side by its disassembly. The principal GTP exchange factor for Ran is the nuclear protein RCC1, whereas the major RanGAP is cytoplasmic, predicting that nuclear Ran is mainly in the GTP form and cytoplasmic Ran is in the GDP-bound form. Here, we show that nuclear import depends on cytoplasmic RanGDP and free GTP, and that RanGDP binds to the NPC. Therefore, import might involve nucleotide exchange and GTP hydrolysis on NPC-bound Ran. RanGDP binding to the NPC is not mediated by the Ran binding sites of importin-beta, suggesting that translocation is not driven from these sites. Consistently, a mutant importin-beta deficient in Ran binding can deliver its cargo up to the nucleoplasmic side of the NPC. However, the mutant is unable to release the import substrate into the nucleoplasm. Thus, binding of nucleoplasmic RanGTP to importin-beta probably triggers termination, i.e. the dissociation of importin-alpha from importin-beta and the subsequent release of the import substrate into the nucleoplasm. Images PMID:8896452

  5. An Empirical Analysis of Differences in GDP per Capita and the Role of Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sfakianakis, George; Magoutas, Anastasios I.; Georgopoulos, Demosthenes

    2010-01-01

    Using a generalized production function approach and insights from empirical research on the determinants of growth, this paper assesses the relative importance of specific factors in explaining differences in the levels of per capita GDP. Emphasis is placed on education, physical capital accumulation, the share of the public sector in economic…

  6. Hydrogen bonding in the mechanism of GDP-mannose mannosyl hydrolase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildvan, A. S.; Xia, Z.; Azurmendi, H. F.; Legler, P. M.; Balfour, M. R.; Lairson, L. L.; Withers, S. G.; Gabelli, S. B.; Bianchet, M. A.; Amzel, L. M.

    2006-06-01

    GDP-mannose mannosyl hydrolase (GDPMH) from E. coli catalyzes the hydrolysis of GDP-α- D-sugars to GDP and β- D-sugars by nucleophilic substitution with inversion at the anomeric C1 of the sugar, with general base catalysis by His-124. The 1.3 Å X-ray structure of the GDPMH-Mg 2+-GDP complex was used to model the complete substrate, GDP-mannose into the active site. The substrate is linked to the enzyme by 12 hydrogen bonds, as well as by the essential Mg 2+. In addition, His-124 was found to participate in a hydrogen bonded triad: His-124-NδH⋯Tyr-127-OH⋯Pro-120(C dbnd6 O). The contributions of these hydrogen bonds to substrate binding and to catalysis were investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. The hydrogen bonded triad detected in the X-ray structure was found to contribute little to catalysis since the Y127F mutation of the central residue shows only 2-fold decreases in both kcat and Km. The GDP leaving group is activated by the essential Mg 2+ which contributes at least 10 5-fold to kcat, and by nine hydrogen bonds, including those from Tyr-103, Arg-37, Arg-52, and Arg-65 (via an intervening water), each of which contribute factors to kcat ranging from 24- to 309-fold. Both Arg-37 and Tyr-103 bind the β-phosphate of the leaving GDP and are only 5.0 Å apart. Accordingly, the R37Q/Y103F double mutant shows partially additive effects of the two single mutants on kcat, indicating cooperativity of Arg-37 and Tyr-103 in promoting catalysis. The extensive activation of the GDP leaving group suggests a mechanism with dissociative character with a cationic oxocarbenium-like transition state and a half-chair conformation of the sugar ring, as found with glycosidase enzymes. Accordingly, Asp-22 which contributes 10 2.1- to 10 2.6-fold to kcat, is positioned to both stabilize a developing cationic center at C1 and to accept a hydrogen bond from the C2-OH of the mannosyl group, and His-88, which contributes 10 2.3-fold to kcat, is positioned to accept

  7. Thermogenesis and mitochondrial GDP binding with age in response to the novel agonist CGP-12177A.

    PubMed

    Scarpace, P J; Matheny, M; Borst, S E

    1992-02-01

    The ability to regulate body temperature diminishes with age in both humans and rodents. To investigate whether attenuation of sympathetically activated thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) may account for the loss of thermoregulation with age, we assessed O2 consumption and body temperature in response to norepinephrine and the specific BAT beta-adrenergic agonist CGP-12177A in 6-, 18-, and 24-mo-old rats. In addition, the effects of this agonist on interscapular BAT mitochondrial GDP binding in young and senescent rats were determined. CGP-12177A rapidly induced an elevation in O2 consumption, which peaked at 25 min, followed by a decline over 4 h. The peak increase in O2 consumption over baseline and the cumulative 4-h response were decreased with age [P less than 0.02, analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. CGP-12177A induced an increase in body temperature that paralleled but appropriately lagged behind the increase in O2 consumption and that was decreased with age (P less than 0.02, ANOVA). The norepinephrine-induced increase in O2 consumption was also reduced with age but was not paralleled by a change in body temperature and was associated with a four- to fivefold increase in physical activity. In young rats CGP-12177A increased the number of available BAT mitochondrial GDP binding sites at 20 and 60 min post-injection, but in senescent rats GCP-12177A was unable to increase GDP binding. These data indicate that CGP-12177A is a novel agonist for BAT thermogenesis. With age there is a reduced capacity for thermogenesis that involves a failure to increase GDP binding, either due to a diminished amount of uncoupling protein with age or a failure to unmask reserve GDP binding sites.

  8. The burden of natural and technological disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO African region.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Aldis, W; Mwabu, Germano M

    2002-01-01

    The WHO Africa region has the highest disaster mortality rate compared to the other five regions of the organization. Those deaths are hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. We estimated the impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data (from the UNDP and the World Bank publications) on 45 out of 46 countries in the WHO African Region. The coefficients for capital (K), educational enrolment (EN), life expectancy (LE) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while imports (M) and disaster mortality (DS) were found to impact negatively on GDP. The abovementioned explanatory variables were found to have statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.018. We have demonstrated that disaster mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increase in educational enrolment, they should always recall that investments in strengthening national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively shall yield significant economic returns. PMID:17298162

  9. Dimensions of Well-Being in EU Regions: Do GDP and Unemployment Tell Us All We Need to Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kitty

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and GDP are widely used as proxies for a broader concept of well-being in the European Union, especially at regional level. This paper asks whether such an approach is reasonable. Using data from a range of sources, it examines the association between unemployment, GDP and a number of alternative well-being indicators in five…

  10. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a)...

  11. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    DOEpatents

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  12. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  13. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  14. Estimated Radiation on Mars, Hits per Cell Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This global map of Mars shows estimates for amounts of high-energy-particle cosmic radiation reaching the surface, a serious health concern for any future human exploration of the planet.

    The estimates are based on cosmic-radiation measurements made on the way to Mars by the Mars radiation environment experiment, an instrument on NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, plus information about Mars' surface elevations from the laser altimeter instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The areas of Mars expected to have least radiation are where elevation is lowest, because those areas have more atmosphere above them to block out some of the radiation. Earth's thick atmosphere shields us from most cosmic radiation, but Mars has a much thinner atmosphere than Earth does.

    Colors in the map refer to the estimated average number of times per year each cell nucleus in a human there would be hit by a high-energy cosmic ray particle. The range is generally from two hits (color-coded green), a moderate risk level, to eight hits (coded red), a high risk level.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor missions for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. The Mars radiation environment experiment was developed by NASA's Johnson Space Center. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for Odyssey, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Test-retest reliability for hitting accuracy tennis test.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Estevam; Foster, Ernest B; Pascoe, David D

    2011-12-01

    Strecker, E, Foster, EB, and Pascoe, DD. Test-retest reliability for hitting accuracy tennis test. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3501-3505, 2011-The purpose of this investigation was to assess a test-retest reliability of the hitting accuracy tennis test (HATT). Twelve National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) division I tennis players (4 men and 8 women) volunteered to participate in this investigation. Skill tests consisted of 15 consecutive ground strokes in all 4 directions (forehand [FH] and backhand [BH]; crosscourt and up the line) with not >1 minute between directions. The court was divided into 12 areas, and each area was assigned a value according to a grid system based on offensive, defensive, and neutral shots ranging from 1 point to 6 points. Total score, unforced errors, and shot index (total number of shots that landed on optimal performance areas 5 and 6 minus total number of unforced errors) were used for statistical analysis. The order of shot direction was randomized between participants and trials. The analysis of variance with repeated measures (p value ≤ 0.05) of this investigation showed no statistical difference between trials on any of the measurements. The results also suggest that division I level tennis players have the ability to hit accurately specific targets on a tennis court using either FH or BH with minimal daily variation. Therefore, we conclude that the HATT for trained tennis athletes is a simple, reliable, and accurate assessment tool to measure tennis skill performance based on accuracy. The HATT is also an easy, inexpensive training device that coaches can use to monitor players development.

  16. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.

    1998-06-30

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

  17. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  18. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, G.

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  19. Structural determinants of hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Longo, D R; Chase, G A

    1984-05-01

    In a retrospective case-control study, structural characteristics of hospitals that closed during the years 1976-1980 were contrasted with three comparison groups: hospitals that were acquired in a merger; hospitals that joined a multihospital system; and hospitals that remained autonomously opened, to investigate these characteristics as predictors of closure. Characteristics investigated included environmental, structural, and process variables. The independent variables were measured 5 years prior to outcome. Findings indicate that closed hospitals resemble hospitals acquired in a merger ("failure"), and likewise autonomous hospitals resemble hospitals that join a multihospital system ("success"). The most important predictors of hospital failure were the physician-to-population ratio, the East North Central and West North Central census regions, the level of diversification, low occupancy rate, location in a standard metropolitan statistical area, the chief executive officer's lack of affiliation in the American College of Hospital Administrators, profit status, bed size of less than 50, and presence in a state with a rate-setting agency. Surprisingly, this study shows the bed-to-population ratio to be unrelated to closure. In addition, the findings strongly support the open-system perspective, which, unlike the closed-system perspective, is concerned with the vulnerability of the organization to the uncontrollable and often unpredictable influences of the environment.

  20. Criticality assessment of LLRWDF closure

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrack, A.G.; Weber, J.H.; Woody, N.D.

    1992-10-06

    During the operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF), large amounts (greater than 100 kg) of enriched uranium (EU) were buried. This EU came primarily from the closing and decontamination of the Naval Fuels Facility in the time period from 1987--1989. Waste Management Operations (WMO) procedures were used to keep the EU boxes separated to prevent possible criticality during normal operation. Closure of the LLRWDF is currently being planned, and waste stabilization by Dynamic Compaction (DC) is proposed. Dynamic compaction will crush the containers in the LLRWDF and result in changes in their geometry. Research of the LLRWDF operations and record keeping practices have shown that the EU contents of trenches are known, but details of the arrangement of the contents cannot be proven. Reviews of the trench contents, combined with analysis of potential critical configurations, revealed that some portions of the LLRWDF can be expected to be free of criticality concerns while other sections have credible probabilities for the assembly of a critical mass, even in the uncompacted configuration. This will have an impact on the closure options and which trenches can be compacted.

  1. Dynamic stereoacuity: a test for hitting a baseball?

    PubMed

    Solomon, H; Zinn, W J; Vacroux, A

    1988-07-01

    Vision is a critical ingredient in professional sports such as baseball. It would, therefore, be logical to assume that vision testing should be able to discriminate between good and bad performance. Past attempts to establish this vision/performance relationship have not been successful. We believe the fault is anchored in the fact that all routine vision testing is static and unable to measure motion parameters. Using an instrument of our design to test dynamic stereoacuity, we have been able to detect subtle differences among individuals. The data show a segregation between major league hitters and pitchers. Such information could be used as one clue to predict hitting performance. PMID:3403900

  2. The groin hit: complications of intravenous drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Roszler, M H; McCarroll, K A; Donovan, K R; Rashid, T; Kling, G A

    1989-05-01

    We are seeing an increased number of complications in intravenous drug abusers who resort to injecting the groin for vascular access (the "groin hit"). Vascular complications include venous thrombosis, arteriovenous fistula, mycotic aneurysm, ruptured pseudoaneurysm, and dissecting hematoma. Soft tissue complications include cellulitis and abscess. The latter may dissect into the extraperitoneal space. Skeletal complications include osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. This paper illustrates the radiographic spectrum of these complications. An algorithm will illustrate the radiographic evaluation of a groin mass in a drug addict. PMID:2727357

  3. Hit efficiency study of CMS prototype forward pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongwook; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author describes the measurement of the hit efficiency of a prototype pixel device for the CMS forward pixel detector. These pixel detectors were FM type sensors with PSI46V1 chip readout. The data were taken with the 120 GeV proton beam at Fermilab during the period of December 2004 to February 2005. The detectors proved to be highly efficient (99.27 {+-} 0.02%). The inefficiency was primarily located near the corners of the individual pixels.

  4. Proteolytic Cleavage of Notch: “HIT and RUN”

    PubMed Central

    van Tetering, G.; Vooijs, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Notch pathway is a highly conserved signaling pathway in multicellular eukaryotes essential in controlling spatial patterning, morphogenesis and homeostasis in embryonic and adult tissues. Notch proteins coordinate cell-cell communication through receptor-ligand interactions between adjacent cells. Notch signaling is frequently deregulated by oncogenic mutation or overexpression in many cancer types. Notch activity is controlled by three sequential cleavage steps leading to ectodomain shedding and transcriptional activation. Here we review the key regulatory steps in the activation of Notch, from receptor maturation to receptor activation (HIT) via a rate-limiting proteolytic cascade (RUN) in the context of species-specific differences. PMID:21506924

  5. Dynamic stereoacuity: a test for hitting a baseball?

    PubMed

    Solomon, H; Zinn, W J; Vacroux, A

    1988-07-01

    Vision is a critical ingredient in professional sports such as baseball. It would, therefore, be logical to assume that vision testing should be able to discriminate between good and bad performance. Past attempts to establish this vision/performance relationship have not been successful. We believe the fault is anchored in the fact that all routine vision testing is static and unable to measure motion parameters. Using an instrument of our design to test dynamic stereoacuity, we have been able to detect subtle differences among individuals. The data show a segregation between major league hitters and pitchers. Such information could be used as one clue to predict hitting performance.

  6. Social Network Closure and Child Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Newsome, Deborah; Nickerson, Pamela; Bazley, Ronda

    2001-01-01

    Identified fourth graders' peer groups and measured social network closure--extent to which meaningful social relationships exist between children and their friends' parents and among parents whose children are friends. Found that higher social network closure related to higher academic achievement and lower parent-reported externalizing…

  7. 40 CFR 264.351 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.351 Closure. At closure the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous...

  8. Quick release storage battery closure assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell, R.R.

    1984-10-16

    A quick release storage battery closure assembly for removably engaging the inspection opening defining bosses on a storage battery, the one that replaces the individual caps that normally are used for closing the inspection openings. The closure assembly is particularly adapted for use where the storage batteries are arranged as a group, such as on a golf cart or industrial vehicle.

  9. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.26 Emergency closures. (a) The Director may close... in time available and the nature of the particular emergency situation, such notice shall follow...

  10. 50 CFR 92.21 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency closures. 92.21 Section 92.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... Harvest § 92.21 Emergency closures. (a) The Regional Director, after consultation with the...

  11. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on local radio and television. (b) Any such closure or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  12. 50 CFR 635.28 - Fishery closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... closure, NMFS will also take into consideration the criteria specified in § 635.27(a)(8). (b) Sharks—(1... this section, when NMFS calculates that the landings for the shark species management group, as... of closure for that shark species, shark management group, and/or region that will be effective...

  13. Hospital closure: Phoenix, Hydra or Titanic?

    PubMed

    Dunne, T; Davis, S

    1996-01-01

    Very little has been published about the effects of hospital closure in terms of the service, financial or management issues of the process. Attempts through a case-study format to redress the balance and as such represents the reflections of practitioners who have recently undergone the experience of hospital closure and the often neglected issues arising both during and after the process.

  14. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  15. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  16. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  17. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  18. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on local radio and television. (b) Any such closure...

  19. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on local radio and television. (b) Any such closure...

  20. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on local radio and television. (b) Any such closure...

  1. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    PubMed

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  2. [Diagnosis and treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) based on its atypical immunological features].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Shigeki; Maeda, Takuma

    2016-03-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic side effect of heparin therapy caused by HIT antibodies, i.e., anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin IgG with platelet-activating properties. For serological diagnosis, antigen immunoassays are commonly used worldwide. However, such assays do not indicate their platelet-activating properties, leading to low specificity for the HIT diagnosis. Therefore, over-diagnosis is currently the most serious problem associated with HIT. The detection of platelet-activating antibodies using a washed platelet activation assay is crucial for appropriate HIT diagnosis. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIT include it having several clinical features atypical for an immune-mediated disease. Heparin-naïve patients can develop IgG antibodies as early as day 4, as in a secondary immune response. Evidence for an anamnestic response on heparin re-exposure is lacking. In addition, HIT antibodies are relatively short-lived, unlike those in a secondary immune response. These lines of evidence suggest that the mechanisms underlying HIT antibody formation may be compatible with a non-T cell-dependent immune reaction. These atypical clinical and serological features should be carefully considered while endeavoring to accurately diagnose HIT, which leads to appropriate therapies such as immediate administration of an alternative anticoagulant to prevent thromboembolic events and re-administration of heparin during surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass when HIT antibodies are no longer detectable.

  3. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in African Countries: Evidence from Semiparametric Estimation with Panel Data

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zhike; Zhu, Huiming

    2014-01-01

    A large body of literature studies on the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE) and GDP have been analyzed using data intensively from developed countries, but little is known for other regions. This paper considers a semiparametric panel data analysis for the study of the relationship between per capita HCE and per capita GDP for 42 African countries over the period 1995–2009. We found that infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births has a negative effect on per capita HCE, while the proportion of the population aged 65 is statistically insignificant in African countries. Furthermore, we found that the income elasticity is not constant but varies with income level, and health care is a necessity rather than a luxury for African countries. PMID:24741366

  4. A hybrid group method of data handling with discrete wavelet transform for GDP forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, Nadira Mohamed; Shabri, Ani

    2013-09-01

    This study is proposed the application of hybridization model using Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in time series forecasting. The objective of this paper is to examine the flexibility of the hybridization GMDH in time series forecasting by using Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A time series data set is used in this study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the forecasting model. This data are utilized to forecast through an application aimed to handle real life time series. This experiment compares the performances of a hybrid model and a single model of Wavelet-Linear Regression (WR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and conventional GMDH. It is shown that the proposed model can provide a promising alternative technique in GDP forecasting.

  5. The impact of the GDP and population on trade of COMESA using panel data approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzalouh, Lubna; Ismail, Mohd. Tahir; Rahman, Rosmanjawati Abd.

    2016-06-01

    The general consensus from a plethora of literature is that the estimates of variability for analyzing panel data models are precise and achieve accurate inferences. Panel data can also be used to control for heterogeneity through several models, such as the fixed effect model (FEM), the random effects model (REM), and the pooled regression model(PM). This study aims to uncover the increases in trade volume among the member countries of Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and identify the important factors that affect COMESA trade using panel data models. In addition, this study intends to investigate the independent variables and their effect on the export and import of COMESA member countries. Results show that in FEM, an increase in GDP leads to a 65% increase in imports, and in REM, an increase in GDP leads to an 86% increase in exports. These findings suggest that FEM and REM are appropriate for explaining the imports and exports of COMESA, respectively.

  6. National GDP, Science Interest and Science Achievement: A Person-by-Nation Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Drob, Elliot M. Tucker; Cheung, Amanda K.; Briley, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing science achievement is a critical target of educational policy, with important implications for national and international economic and technological competitiveness. Previous research has identified both science interest and socioeconomic status (SES) as robust predictors of science achievement, but little research has examined their joint effects. In a dataset drawn from approximately 400,000 high school students from 57 countries, we document large interest by SES and interest by per capita gross domestic product (GDP) interactions in the prediction of science achievement. Student interest in science is a substantially stronger predictor of science achievement in higher socioeconomic contexts and in higher GDP nations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in higher opportunity contexts, motivational factors play larger roles in learning and achievement. They add to the growing body of evidence indicating that substantial cross national differences in psychological effect sizes are not simply a logical possibility, but in many cases, an empirical reality. PMID:25304883

  7. A Hit or Miss History of Statistics at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, Kathleen V.

    1999-08-04

    The Statistics and Human Factors Department at SNL has evolved as the Labs' mission has evolved from engineering designs for the non-nuclear parts of nuclear weapons, including the safety and security components, to a multi-program lab focusing on national security. Twenty years ago their client base was the engineers, scientists, and managers of the nuclear weapon stockpile program, at Sandia and other facilities within the DOE complex. Client relationships developed over years of association. Components and systems were assigned to statisticians so that they could develop a knowledge base in that area. Because of the many different component types and system designs in the stockpile, they typically juggled five or six statistical projects at a time. project participation other than statistical consulting was limited. They rarely had the time to lead project teams, and any skills or inclinations in that direction were often undeveloped. This paper describes a (hit-or-miss) selection of some early and recent efforts. This paper also presents their self-assessment metrics and their external assessment metrics. These metrics were selected to track the business aspects of the department; they are systematic (not hit-or-miss). These two types of histories should allow them to judge whether we're doing the right things, and also doing things right.

  8. Multiple cell hits by particle tracks in solid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, P.

    1992-08-01

    Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) and Quality Factor (Q) at extreme values of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) have been determined on the basis of experiments with single-cell systems and specific tissue responses. In typical single cell systems, each heavy particle (Ar or Fe) passes through a single cell or no cell. In tissue end-point experiments each heavy particle passes through several cells, and the LET can exceed 200 keV/μm in every cell. In most laboratory animal tissue systems, however, only a small portion of the hit cells are capable of expressing the end-point of interest to the investigator, such as cell killing, mutation or carcinogenesis. The following question must therefore be addressed: Do RBE's and Q factors derived from single-cell experiments properly account for the increased probability of multiple-cell damage by HZE tracks? A model is offered in which measured radiation effects and known tissue properties are combined to estimate the value of a multiplier of damage effectiveness on the basis of number of cells at risk, p3n, per track containing a hit cell, where n is the number of cells per track, based on tissue and organ geometry, and p3 is the probability that a cell in the track is capable of expressing the experimental end-point.

  9. Adiabatic condition and the quantum hitting time of Markov chains

    SciTech Connect

    Krovi, Hari; Ozols, Maris; Roland, Jeremie

    2010-08-15

    We present an adiabatic quantum algorithm for the abstract problem of searching marked vertices in a graph, or spatial search. Given a random walk (or Markov chain) P on a graph with a set of unknown marked vertices, one can define a related absorbing walk P{sup '} where outgoing transitions from marked vertices are replaced by self-loops. We build a Hamiltonian H(s) from the interpolated Markov chain P(s)=(1-s)P+sP{sup '} and use it in an adiabatic quantum algorithm to drive an initial superposition over all vertices to a superposition over marked vertices. The adiabatic condition implies that, for any reversible Markov chain and any set of marked vertices, the running time of the adiabatic algorithm is given by the square root of the classical hitting time. This algorithm therefore demonstrates a novel connection between the adiabatic condition and the classical notion of hitting time of a random walk. It also significantly extends the scope of previous quantum algorithms for this problem, which could only obtain a full quadratic speedup for state-transitive reversible Markov chains with a unique marked vertex.

  10. Promiscuous 2-aminothiazoles (PrATs): a frequent hitting scaffold.

    PubMed

    Devine, Shane M; Mulcair, Mark D; Debono, Cael O; Leung, Eleanor W W; Nissink, J Willem M; Lim, San Sui; Chandrashekaran, Indu R; Vazirani, Mansha; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Simpson, Jamie S; Baell, Jonathan B; Scammells, Peter J; Norton, Raymond S; Scanlon, Martin J

    2015-02-12

    We have identified a class of molecules, known as 2-aminothiazoles (2-ATs), as frequent-hitting fragments in biophysical binding assays. This was exemplified by 4-phenylthiazol-2-amine being identified as a hit in 14/14 screens against a diverse range of protein targets, suggesting that this scaffold is a poor starting point for fragment-based drug discovery. This prompted us to analyze this scaffold in the context of an academic fragment library used for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) and two larger compound libraries used for high-throughput screening (HTS). This analysis revealed that such "promiscuous 2-aminothiazoles" (PrATs) behaved as frequent hitters under both FBDD and HTS settings, although the problem was more pronounced in the fragment-based studies. As 2-ATs are present in known drugs, they cannot necessarily be deemed undesirable, but the combination of their promiscuity and difficulties associated with optimizing them into a lead compound makes them, in our opinion, poor scaffolds for fragment libraries. PMID:25559643

  11. Spontaneous closure of congenital coronary artery fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Schleich, J; Rey, C; Gewillig, M; Bozio, A

    2001-01-01

    Six cases of full spontaneous closure of congenital coronary artery fistulas, and one case of near closure, as seen by colour Doppler echocardiography, are presented. It is worth reconsidering the classical view that nearly all cases of spontaneous closure are eligible for surgical or percutaneous correction to prevent the development of significant and potentially fatal complications. As the natural course of coronary artery fistulas is still poorly defined, asymptomatic patients, especially those under 7 years old with small shunts, should be periodically followed up by echocardiography rather than be subjected to operative closure, even by catheterisation.


Keywords: congenital heart disease; coronary artery disease; coronary artery fistula; spontaneous closure PMID:11250983

  12. PLAN FOR CLOSURE OF HANFORDS CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    AUSTIN, B.A.

    2004-12-15

    This paper summarizes an approach to reduce risk to the public and environment through accelerated closure of Hanford's Central Plateau, based on a plan developed by Fluor Hanford and submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE)-Richland Office, for consideration, in September, 2004. This plan provides a framework and starting point for discussions with regulators and further planning for closure activities on the Plateau. The closure strategy and approach required developing a full inventory of items needing closure as well as identifying and defining technical and regulatory approaches that were compatible with current regulatory processes, reduce risks, and met DOE objectives. This effort, and the paper that follows, integrates closure activities among several contractors and two DOE field offices.

  13. Closure models for turbulent reacting flows

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Tarbell, J.M. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    In this paper, a simple procedure based on fast and slow reaction asymptotics has been employed to drive first-order closure models for the nonlinear reaction terms in turbulent mass balances from mechanistic models of turbulent mixing and reaction. The coalescence-redispersion (CRD) model, the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model, the three-environment (3E) model, and the four-environment (4E) model have been used to develop closure equations. The closure models have been tested extensively against experimental data for both single and multiple reactions. The closures based on slow asymptotics for the CRD, 3E and 4E models provide very good predictions of all of the experimental data, while other models available either in the literature or derived here are not adequate. The simple new closure equations developed in this paper may be useful in modeling systems involving turbulent mixing and complex chemical reactions.

  14. Nursing home closures and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between quality of care in nursing homes and their likelihood of closure. We hypothesize that lower-quality facilities will be more likely to close than higher-quality facilities. Using the rates of physical restraint use, urethral catheterization, contractures, pressure ulcers, and psychotropic medication use as quality measures from approximately 12,000 facilities from 1992 to 1998, the author examine cross-sectional and change score relationships between these measures and a nursing home's likelihood of closure. The descriptive analysis shows that 621 nursing homes closed in this time period, and the results for physical restraint use were robust in their positive association with closures in most analyses lending some support for this study's hypothesis. However, overall, the author concludes that nursing facility closures are relatively rare events. And the likelihood of closure, even for poor-quality facilities, is low. PMID:15643031

  15. Differential dynamics of RAS isoforms in GDP- and GTP-bound states.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Abhijeet; Travesset, Alex

    2015-06-01

    RAS subfamily proteins regulates cell growth promoting signaling processes by cycling between active (GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) states. Different RAS isoforms, though structurally similar, exhibit functional specificity and are associated with different types of cancers and developmental disorders. Understanding the dynamical differences between the isoforms is crucial for the design of inhibitors that can selectively target a particular malfunctioning isoform. In this study, we provide a comprehensive comparison of the dynamics of all the three RAS isoforms (HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS) using extensive molecular dynamics simulations in both the GDP- (total of 3.06 μs) and GTP-bound (total of 2.4 μs) states. We observed significant differences in the dynamics of the isoforms, which rather interestingly, varied depending on the type of the nucleotide bound and the simulation temperature. Both SwitchI (Residues 25-40) and SwitchII (Residues 59-75) differ significantly in their flexibility in the three isoforms. Furthermore, Principal Component Analysis showed that there are differences in the conformational space sampled by the GTP-bound RAS isoforms. We also identified a previously unreported pocket, which opens transiently during MD simulations, and can be targeted to regulate nucleotide exchange reaction or possibly interfere with membrane localization. Further, we present the first simulation study showing GDP destabilization in the wild-type RAS protein. The destabilization of GDP/GTP occurred only in 1/50 simulations, emphasizing the need of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) to accelerate such an extremely unfavorable process. This observation along with the other results presented in this article further support our previously hypothesized mechanism of GEF-assisted nucleotide exchange.

  16. Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Bacillus subtilis GTPase YphC–GDP complex

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ling; Muench, Stephen P.; Roujeinikova, Anna; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.; Rice, David W.

    2006-05-01

    Crystals of a selenomethionine-incorporated YphC–GDP complex have been grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and polyethylene glycol as a precipitating agent. The Bacillus subtilis YphC gene encodes an essential GTPase thought to be involved in ribosome binding and whose protein product may represent a target for the development of a novel antibacterial agent. Sequence analysis reveals that YphC belongs to the EngA family of GTPases, which uniquely contain two adjacent GTP-binding domains. Crystals of a selenomethionine-incorporated YphC–GDP complex have been grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and polyethylene glycol as a precipitating agent. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.71, b = 65.05, c = 110.61 Å, and have one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Data sets at three different wavelengths were collected on a single crystal to 2.5 Å resolution at the Daresbury SRS in order to solve the structure by MAD. Ultimately, analysis of YphC in complex with GDP may allow a greater understanding of the EngA family of essential GTPases.

  17. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Minako; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The large (L) protein of rabies virus (RABV) plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5′-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5′-triphosphorylated but not 5′-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5′-AACA(C/U), with GDP to generate the 5′-terminal cap structure G(5′)ppp(5′)A. The 5′-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286) in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents. PMID:27213429

  18. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence from OPEC Data, 1995-2012

    PubMed Central

    Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Ghaderi, Hossein; Salehi, Masoud; Fazaeli, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a large body of literature examining income in relation to health expenditures. The share of expenditures in health sector from GDP in developed countries is often larger than in non-developed countries, suggesting that as the level of economic growth increases, health spending increase, too. Objectives: This paper estimates long-run relationships between health expenditures and GDP based on panel data of a sample of 12 countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), using data for the period 1995-2012. Patients & Methods: We use panel data unit root tests, cointegration analysis and ECM model to find long-run and short-run relation. This study examines whether health is a luxury or a necessity for OPEC countries within a unit root and cointegration framework. Results: Panel data analysis indicates that health expenditures and GDP are co-integrated and have Engle and Granger causality. In addition, in oil countries that have oil export income, the share of government expenditures in the health sector is often greater than in private health expenditures similar developed countries. Conclusions: The findings verify that health care is not a luxury good and income has a robust relationship to health expenditures in OPEC countries. PMID:26383195

  19. The Rabies Virus L Protein Catalyzes mRNA Capping with GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase Activity.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Minako; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The large (L) protein of rabies virus (RABV) plays multiple enzymatic roles in viral RNA synthesis and processing. However, none of its putative enzymatic activities have been directly demonstrated in vitro. In this study, we expressed and purified a recombinant form of the RABV L protein and verified its guanosine 5'-triphosphatase and GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) activities, which are essential for viral mRNA cap formation by the unconventional mechanism. The RABV L protein capped 5'-triphosphorylated but not 5'-diphosphorylated RABV mRNA-start sequences, 5'-AACA(C/U), with GDP to generate the 5'-terminal cap structure G(5')ppp(5')A. The 5'-AAC sequence in the substrate RNAs was found to be strictly essential for RNA capping with the RABV L protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis showed that some conserved amino acid residues (G1112, T1170, W1201, H1241, R1242, F1285, and Q1286) in the PRNTase motifs A to E of the RABV L protein are required for cap formation. These findings suggest that the putative PRNTase domain in the RABV L protein catalyzes the rhabdovirus-specific capping reaction involving covalent catalysis of the pRNA transfer to GDP, thus offering this domain as a target for developing anti-viral agents.

  20. [Outpatient reinduction therapy with gemcitabine, dexamethasone, Cisplatin (GDP) for patients with relapsed and refractory lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Aota, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masaru; Watanabe, Naoki; Tomomatu, Jyunichi; Gotoh, Akihiko; Komatu, Norio

    2015-01-01

    For younger patients with relapsed or refractory lymphomas who respond to salvage therapy, autologous stem cell trans- plantation(ASCT)is the standard of care. Recently, it was demonstrated that the gemcitabine/dexamethasone/cisplatin (GDP) regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) prior to ASCT was not inferior to the standard dexamethasone/cytarabine/cisplatin (DHAP) regimen for patients with relapsed and refractory aggressive lymphoma. In Japan, most patients who receive CDDP-containing regimens are hospitalized because of the substantial transfusions required for preventing renal dysfunction. We initiated GDP therapy combined with a short period of hydration and the administration of a magnesium agent and mannitol for 5 patients with relapsed and refractory aggressive lymphoma. In 4 cases, GDP was safely administered on an outpatient basis. Furthermore, peripheral blood stem cells were successfully collected in 2 patients. After stem cell harvest, ASCT was performed in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with the patient remaining in complete remission (CR) after ASCT.

  1. Closure for milliliter scale bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Klein, David L.; Laidlaw, Robert D.; Andronaco, Gregory; Boyer, Stephen G.

    2010-12-14

    A closure for a microreactor includes a cap that is configured to be inserted into a well of the microreactor. The cap, or at least a portion of the cap, is compliant so as to form a seal with the well when the cap is inserted. The cap includes an aperture that provides an airway between the inside of the well to the external environment when the cap is inserted into the well. A porous plug is inserted in the aperture, e.g., either directly or in tube that extends through the aperture. The porous plug permits gas within the well to pass through the aperture while preventing liquids from passing through to reduce evaporation and preventing microbes from passing through to provide a sterile environment. A one-way valve may also be used to help control the environment in the well.

  2. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... final closure satisfy the closure performance standards, including, but not limited to, ground-water... the owner or operator from removing hazardous wastes and decontaminating or dismantling equipment...

  3. 76 FR 46297 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... access only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary... issues related to their specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards,...

  4. 76 FR 14975 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... access only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary... specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards, clinical quality,...

  5. 42 CFR 495.338 - Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... statement setting forth the security and interface requirements to be employed for all State HIT systems, and related systems, and the system failure and disaster recovery procedures available....

  6. Rational Prediction with Molecular Dynamics for Hit Identification

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Sara E; Swift, Robert V; Amaro, Rommie E

    2012-01-01

    Although the motions of proteins are fundamental for their function, for pragmatic reasons, the consideration of protein elasticity has traditionally been neglected in drug discovery and design. This review details protein motion, its relevance to biomolecular interactions and how it can be sampled using molecular dynamics simulations. Within this context, two major areas of research in structure-based prediction that can benefit from considering protein flexibility, binding site detection and molecular docking, are discussed. Basic classification metrics and statistical analysis techniques, which can facilitate performance analysis, are also reviewed. With hardware and software advances, molecular dynamics in combination with traditional structure-based prediction methods can potentially reduce the time and costs involved in the hit identification pipeline. PMID:23110535

  7. Hit-to-Lead Studies for the Antimalarial Tetrahydroisoquinolone Carboxanilides.

    PubMed

    Floyd, David M; Stein, Philip; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Jian; Castro, Steve; Clark, Julie A; Connelly, Michele; Zhu, Fangyi; Holbrook, Gloria; Matheny, Amy; Sigal, Martina S; Min, Jaeki; Dhinakaran, Rajkumar; Krishnan, Senthil; Bashyum, Sridevi; Knapp, Spencer; Guy, R Kiplin

    2016-09-01

    Phenotypic whole-cell screening in erythrocytic cocultures of Plasmodium falciparum identified a series of dihydroisoquinolones that possessed potent antimalarial activity against multiple resistant strains of P. falciparum in vitro and show no cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. Systematic structure-activity studies revealed relationships between potency and modifications at N-2, C-3, and C-4. Careful structure-property relationship studies, coupled with studies of metabolism, addressed the poor aqueous solubility and metabolic vulnerability, as well as potential toxicological effects, inherent in the more potent primary screening hits such as 10b. Analogues 13h and 13i, with structural modifications at each site, were shown to possess excellent antimalarial activity in vivo. The (+)-(3S,4S) enantiomer of 13i and similar analogues were identified as the more potent. On the basis of these studies, we have selected (+)-13i for further study as a preclinical candidate. PMID:27505686

  8. Inflammation and the Two-Hit Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Feigenson, Keith A.; Kusnecov, Alex W.; Silverstein, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    The high societal and individual cost of schizophrenia necessitates finding better, more effective treatment, diagnosis, and prevention strategies. One of the obstacles in this endeavor is the diverse set of etiologies that comprises schizophrenia. A substantial body of evidence has grown over the last few decades to suggest that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous syndrome with overlapping symptoms and etiologies. At the same time, an increasing number of clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have shown links between schizophrenia and inflammatory conditions. In this review, we analyze the literature on inflammation and schizophrenia, with a particular focus on comorbidity, biomarkers, and environmental insults. We then identify several mechanisms by which inflammation could influence the development of schizophrenia via the two-hit hypothesis. Lastly, we note the relevance of these findings to clinical applications in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24247023

  9. Pathomechanisms Underlying X-Adrenoleukodystrophy: A Three-Hit Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Inderjit; Pujol, Aurora

    2011-01-01

    X-adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a complex disease where inactivation of ABCD1 gene results in clinically diverse phenotypes, the fatal disorder of cerebral ALD (cALD) or a milder disorder of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN). Loss of ABCD1 function results in defective beta oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) resulting in excessive accumulation of VLCFA, the biochemical “hall mark” of X-ALD. At present, the ABCD1-mediated mechanisms that determine the different phenotype of X-ALD are not well understood. The studies reviewed here suggest for a “three-hit hypothesis” for neuropathology of cALD. An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with these three phases of cALD disease should facilitate the development of effective pharmacological therapeutics for X-ALD. PMID:20626745

  10. Ozone hits low levels over Antarctica, U. S

    SciTech Connect

    Zurer, P.

    1993-10-04

    This year's Antarctic ozone hole is as deep as any ever observed and is approaching the record geographical extent of 1992, according to preliminary satellite data. In addition, both groundbased and satellite observations indicate that ozone concentrations over the U.S. hit record lows earlier this year. For more than a decade, almost all the ozone at certain altitudes over Antarctica has been destroyed as the Sun returns to the polar region in September. This dramatic photochemical depletion, catalyzed by chlorine and bromine from man-made compounds, reaches its nadir in early October. Ozone levels return to near normal later in the season, when the circular pattern of winds that isolates air over Antarctica breaks down, and ozone-rich air pours in from the north.

  11. From eye movements to actions: how batsmen hit the ball.

    PubMed

    Land, M F; McLeod, P

    2000-12-01

    In cricket, a batsman watches a fast bowler's ball come toward him at a high and unpredictable speed, bouncing off ground of uncertain hardness. Although he views the trajectory for little more than half a second, he can accurately judge where and when the ball will reach him. Batsmen's eye movements monitor the moment when the ball is released, make a predictive saccade to the place where they expect it to hit the ground, wait for it to bounce, and follow its trajectory for 100-200 ms after the bounce. We show how information provided by these fixations may allow precise prediction of the ball's timing and placement. Comparing players with different skill levels, we found that a short latency for the first saccade distinguished good from poor batsmen, and that a cricket player's eye movement strategy contributes to his skill in the game.

  12. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  13. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  14. In at the deep end--an insight into scuba diving and related dental problems for the GDP.

    PubMed

    Jagger, R G; Jackson, S J; Jagger, D C

    1997-11-22

    Scuba diving is one of the fastest growing sports in the world. It is inevitable that the general dental practitioner (GDP) will have patients who participate in this sport and they should be aware of a number of problems that a diver can experience that are associated with the teeth and related structures. The aim of this article is to introduce the GDP to the dental problems associated with diving and make recommendations on dental care for scuba divers.

  15. Thermodynamics of the GTP-GDP-operated conformational switch of selenocysteine-specific translation factor SelB.

    PubMed

    Paleskava, Alena; Konevega, Andrey L; Rodnina, Marina V

    2012-08-10

    SelB is a specialized translation factor that binds GTP and GDP and delivers selenocysteyl-tRNA (Sec-tRNA(Sec)) to the ribosome. By analogy to elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), SelB is expected to control the delivery and release of Sec-tRNA(Sec) to the ribosome by the structural switch between GTP- and GDP-bound conformations. However, crystal structures of SelB suggested a similar domain arrangement in the apo form and GDP- and GTP-bound forms of the factor, raising the question of how SelB can fulfill its delivery function. Here, we studied the thermodynamics of guanine nucleotide binding to SelB by isothermal titration calorimetry in the temperature range between 10 and 25 °C using GTP, GDP, and two nonhydrolyzable GTP analogs, guanosine 5'-O-(γ-thio)triphosphate (GTPγS) and guanosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)-triphosphate (GDPNP). The binding of SelB to either guanine nucleotide is characterized by a large heat capacity change (-621, -467, -235, and -275 cal × mol(-1) × K(-1), with GTP, GTPγS, GDPNP, and GDP, respectively), associated with compensatory changes in binding entropy and enthalpy. Changes in heat capacity indicate a large decrease of the solvent-accessible surface area in SelB, amounting to 43 or 32 amino acids buried upon binding of GTP or GTPγS, respectively, and 15-19 amino acids upon binding GDP or GDPNP. The similarity of the GTP and GDP forms in the crystal structures can be attributed to the use of GDPNP, which appears to induce a structure of SelB that is more similar to the GDP than to the GTP-bound form.

  16. Lead generation and examples opinion regarding how to follow up hits.

    PubMed

    Orita, Masaya; Ohno, Kazuki; Warizaya, Masaichi; Amano, Yasushi; Niimi, Tatsuya

    2011-01-01

    In fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), not only identifying the starting fragment hit to be developed but also generating a drug lead from that starting fragment hit is important. Converting fragment hits to leads is generally similar to a high-throughput screening (HTS) hits-to-leads approach in that properties associated with activity for a target protein, such as selectivity against other targets and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/Tox), and physicochemical properties should be taken into account. However, enhancing the potency of the fragment hit is a key requirement in FBDD, unlike HTS, because initial fragment hits are generally weak. This enhancement is presently achieved by adding additional chemical groups which bind to additional parts of the target protein or by joining or combining two or more hit fragments; however, strategies for effecting greater improvements in effective activity are needed. X-ray analysis is a key technology attractive for converting fragments to drug leads. This method makes it clear whether a fragment hit can act as an anchor and provides insight regarding introduction of functional groups to improve fragment activity. Data on follow-up chemical synthesis of fragment hits has allowed for the differentiation of four different strategies: fragment optimization, fragment linking, fragment self-assembly, and fragment evolution. Here, we discuss our opinion regarding how to follow up on fragment hits, with a focus on the importance of fragment hits as an anchor moiety to so-called hot spots in the target protein using crystallographic data. PMID:21371599

  17. The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong

    2012-07-01

    The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner.

  18. Hit-and-run, hit-and-stay, and commensal bacteria present different peptide content when viewed from the perspective of the T cell.

    PubMed

    He, Lu; De Groot, Anne S; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2015-11-27

    Different types of bacteria face different pressures from the immune system, with those that persist ("hit-and-stay") potentially having to adapt more in order to escape than those prone to short-lived infection ("hit-and-run"), and with commensal bacteria potentially different from both due to additional physical mechanisms for avoiding immune detection. The Janus Immunogenicity Score (JIS) was recently developed to assess the likelihood of T cell recognition of an antigen, using an analysis that considers both binding of a peptide within the antigen by major histocompatability complex (MHC) and recognition of the peptide:MHC complex by cognate T cell receptor (TCR). This score was shown to be predictive of T effector vs. T regulatory or null responses in experimental data, as well as to distinguish viruses representative of the hit-and-stay vs. hit-and-run phenotypes. Here, JIS-based analyses were conducted in order to characterize the extent to which the pressure to avoid T cell recognition is manifested in genomic differences among representative hit-and-run, hit-and-stay, and commensal bacteria. Overall, extracellular proteins were found to have different JIS profiles from cytoplasmic ones. Contrasting the bacterial groups, extracellular proteins were shown to be quite different across the groups, much more so than intracellular proteins. The differences were evident even at the level of corresponding peptides in homologous protein pairs from hit-and-run and hit-and-stay bacteria. The multi-level analysis of patterns of immunogenicity across different groups of bacteria provides a new way to approach questions of bacterial immune camouflage or escape, as well as to approach the selection and optimization of candidates for vaccine design.

  19. Extender for securing a closure

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, II, Patrick A.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus for securing a closure such as door or a window that opens and closes by movement relative to a fixed structure such as a wall or a floor. Many embodiments provide a device for relocating a padlock from its normal location where it secures a fastener (such as a hasp) to a location for the padlock that is more accessible for locking and unlocking the padlock. Typically an extender is provided, where the extender has a hook at a first end that is disposed through the eye of the staple of the hasp, and at an opposing second end the extender has an annulus, such as a hole in the extender or a loop or ring affixed to the extender. The shackle of the padlock may be disposed through the annulus and may be disposed through the eye of a second staple to secure the door or window in a closed or open position. Some embodiments employ a rigid sheath to enclose at least a portion of the extender. Typically the rigid sheath has an open state where the hook is exposed outside the sheath and a closed state where the hook is disposed within the sheath.

  20. Cavity closure arrangement for high pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Amtmann, Hans H.

    1981-01-01

    A closure arrangement for a pressure vessel such as the pressure vessel of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor wherein a liner is disposed within a cavity penetration in the reactor vessel and defines an access opening therein. A closure is adapted for sealing relation with an annular mounting flange formed on the penetration liner and has a plurality of radially movable locking blocks thereon having outer serrations adapted for releasable interlocking engagement with serrations formed internally of the upper end of the penetration liner so as to effect high strength closure hold-down. In one embodiment, ramping surfaces are formed on the locking block serrations to bias the closure into sealed relation with the mounting flange when the locking blocks are actuated to locking positions.

  1. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of UST residuals at closure: their quantities, origins, physical/chemical properties, ease of removal by various cleaning methods, and their environmental mobility and persistence. The investigation covered ...

  2. 49 CFR 195.124 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY... must have pressure and temperature ratings at least equal to those of the pipe to which the closure...

  3. 43 CFR 420.2 - General closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.2 General closure. Reclamation lands are closed to off- road vehicle use, except for an area or trail specifically opened to use of off- road vehicles in accordance...

  4. 33 CFR 155.805 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.805 Closure devices. (a) Each end of each transfer hose on board.... (b) New, unused hose is exempt from the requirement in paragraph (a) of this section....

  5. 33 CFR 155.805 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.805 Closure devices. (a) Each end of each transfer hose on board.... (b) New, unused hose is exempt from the requirement in paragraph (a) of this section....

  6. 33 CFR 155.805 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.805 Closure devices. (a) Each end of each transfer hose on board.... (b) New, unused hose is exempt from the requirement in paragraph (a) of this section....

  7. 33 CFR 155.805 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.805 Closure devices. (a) Each end of each transfer hose on board.... (b) New, unused hose is exempt from the requirement in paragraph (a) of this section....

  8. Systematization of a set of closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F

    2011-11-01

    Approximations in population dynamics are gaining popularity since stochastic models in large populations are time consuming even on a computer. Stochastic modeling causes an infinite set of ordinary differential equations for the moments. Closure models are useful since they recast this infinite set into a finite set of ordinary differential equations. This paper systematizes a set of closure approximations. We develop a system, which we call a power p closure of n moments, where 0≤p≤n. Keeling's (2000a,b) approximation with third order moments is shown to be an instantiation of this system which we call a power 3 closure of 3 moments. We present an epidemiological example and evaluate the system for third and fourth moments compared with Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and final closure including, but not limited to, procedures for cleaning equipment and removing... closure of a boiler or industrial furnace. The owner or operator must submit the closure plan to the... expects to begin partial or final closure of a boiler or industrial furnace. Owners or operators...

  10. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and final closure including, but not limited to, procedures for cleaning equipment and removing... closure of a boiler or industrial furnace. The owner or operator must submit the closure plan to the... expects to begin partial or final closure of a boiler or industrial furnace. Owners or operators...

  11. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and final closure including, but not limited to, procedures for cleaning equipment and removing... closure of a boiler or industrial furnace. The owner or operator must submit the closure plan to the... expects to begin partial or final closure of a boiler or industrial furnace. Owners or operators...

  12. Occupancy estimation and the closure assumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rota, Christopher T.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    1. Recent advances in occupancy estimation that adjust for imperfect detection have provided substantial improvements over traditional approaches and are receiving considerable use in applied ecology. To estimate and adjust for detectability, occupancy modelling requires multiple surveys at a site and requires the assumption of 'closure' between surveys, i.e. no changes in occupancy between surveys. Violations of this assumption could bias parameter estimates; however, little work has assessed model sensitivity to violations of this assumption or how commonly such violations occur in nature. 2. We apply a modelling procedure that can test for closure to two avian point-count data sets in Montana and New Hampshire, USA, that exemplify time-scales at which closure is often assumed. These data sets illustrate different sampling designs that allow testing for closure but are currently rarely employed in field investigations. Using a simulation study, we then evaluate the sensitivity of parameter estimates to changes in site occupancy and evaluate a power analysis developed for sampling designs that is aimed at limiting the likelihood of closure. 3. Application of our approach to point-count data indicates that habitats may frequently be open to changes in site occupancy at time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, with 71% and 100% of species investigated in Montana and New Hampshire respectively, showing violation of closure across time periods of 3 weeks and 8 days respectively. 4. Simulations suggest that models assuming closure are sensitive to changes in occupancy. Power analyses further suggest that the modelling procedure we apply can effectively test for closure. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our demonstration that sites may be open to changes in site occupancy over time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, combined with the sensitivity of models to violations of the closure assumption, highlights the importance of properly addressing

  13. [Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus: results and costs compared to surgical closure].

    PubMed

    Vieu, T; Beaurain, S; Angel, C; Leriche, H; Petit, J; Conso, J F; Planché, C; Losay, J

    1995-10-01

    The comparison of the clinical results and costs of the two methods of closure of patient ductus arteriosus was undertaken in two comparable groups of 40 patients treated in the same period in the same hospital. After transcatheter closure there was a 9% residual shunt rate at 3 years, the 2 patients with a residual continuous murmur being operated secondarily. The only complication was severe haemolysis which regressed after transcatheter ablation of the prosthesis. After surgical closure, there were no residual shunt. Some postoperative complications were observed in 20% of cases, usually benign (ventilatory problems, dysphonia or urinary infection), but occasionally more serious (peroperative lesion of the pulmonary artery). Morbidity, inherent to the technique of closure, was very different and much less in catheter closure. The average cost (daily cost x average length of hospital stay) was much less with transcatheter closure 38,558 francs versus 11,240 francs. On the other hand, the direct cost of transcatheter closure was greater than that of surgery: 32,798 francs versus 20,903 francs, the difference being related to the actual price of the prosthesis. The authors conclude that the 3 year results of transcatheter closure of patent ductus arterious make this technique a reasonable therapeutic alternative to surgery. From the safety point of view, the two techniques are comparable bu patient confort is greater with transcatheter closure for an increase in cost of the initial procedure which should decrease in relation to the types and prices of the prosthesis used.

  14. [Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus: results and costs compared to surgical closure].

    PubMed

    Vieu, T; Beaurain, S; Angel, C; Leriche, H; Petit, J; Conso, J F; Planché, C; Losay, J

    1995-10-01

    The comparison of the clinical results and costs of the two methods of closure of patient ductus arteriosus was undertaken in two comparable groups of 40 patients treated in the same period in the same hospital. After transcatheter closure there was a 9% residual shunt rate at 3 years, the 2 patients with a residual continuous murmur being operated secondarily. The only complication was severe haemolysis which regressed after transcatheter ablation of the prosthesis. After surgical closure, there were no residual shunt. Some postoperative complications were observed in 20% of cases, usually benign (ventilatory problems, dysphonia or urinary infection), but occasionally more serious (peroperative lesion of the pulmonary artery). Morbidity, inherent to the technique of closure, was very different and much less in catheter closure. The average cost (daily cost x average length of hospital stay) was much less with transcatheter closure 38,558 francs versus 11,240 francs. On the other hand, the direct cost of transcatheter closure was greater than that of surgery: 32,798 francs versus 20,903 francs, the difference being related to the actual price of the prosthesis. The authors conclude that the 3 year results of transcatheter closure of patent ductus arterious make this technique a reasonable therapeutic alternative to surgery. From the safety point of view, the two techniques are comparable bu patient confort is greater with transcatheter closure for an increase in cost of the initial procedure which should decrease in relation to the types and prices of the prosthesis used. PMID:8745615

  15. Brown adipose tissue mitochondria: modulation by GDP and fatty acids depends on the respiratory substrates

    PubMed Central

    De Meis, Leopoldo; Ketzer, Luisa A.; Camacho-Pereira, Juliana; Galina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The UCP1 [first UCP (uncoupling protein)] that is found in the mitochondria of brown adipocytes [BAT (brown adipose tissue)] regulates the heat production, a process linked to non-shivering thermogenesis. The activity of UCP1 is modulated by GDP and fatty acids. In this report, we demonstrate that respiration and heat released by BAT mitochondria vary depending on the respiratory substrate utilized and the coupling state of the mitochondria. It has already been established that, in the presence of pyruvate/malate, BAT mitochondria are coupled by faf-BSA (fatty-acid-free BSA) and GDP, leading to an increase in ATP synthesis and mitochondrial membrane potential along with simultaneous decreases in both the rates of respiration and heat production. Oleate restores the uncoupled state, inhibiting ATP synthesis and increasing the rates of both respiration and heat production. We now show that in the presence of succinate: (i) the rates of uncoupled mitochondria respiration and heat production are five times slower than in the presence of pyruvate/malate; (ii) faf-BSA and GDP accelerate heat and respiration as a result and, in coupled mitochondria, these two rates are accelerated compared with pyruvate/malate; (iii) in spite of the differences in respiration and heat production noted with the two substrates, the membrane potential and the ATP synthesized were the same; and (iv) oleate promoted a decrease in heat production and respiration in coupled mitochondria, an effect different from that observed using pyruvate/malate. These effects are not related to the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species). We suggest that succinate could stimulate a new route to heat production in BAT mitochondria. PMID:21561434

  16. Projections of health care expenditures as a share of the GDP: actuarial and macroeconomic approaches.

    PubMed Central

    Warshawsky, M J

    1994-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION. Can the steady increases in health care expenditures as a share of GDP projected by widely cited actuarial models be rationalized by a macroeconomic model with sensible parameters and specification? DATA SOURCES. National Income and Product Accounts, and Social Security and Health Care Financing Administration are the data sources used in parameters estimates. STUDY DESIGN. Health care expenditures as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) are projected using two methodological approaches--actuarial and macroeconomic--and under various assumptions. The general equilibrium macroeconomic approach has the advantage of allowing an investigation of the causes of growth in the health care sector and its consequences for the overall economy. DATA COLLECTION METHODS. Simulations are used. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Both models unanimously project a continued increase in the ratio of health care expenditures to GDP. Under the most conservative assumptions, that is, robust economic growth, improved demographic trends, or a significant moderation in the rate of health care price inflation, the health care sector will consume more than a quarter of national output by 2065. Under other (perhaps more realistic) assumptions, including a continuation of current trends, both approaches predict that health care expenditures will comprise between a third and a half of national output. In the macroeconomic model, the increasing use of capital goods in the health care sector explains the observed rise in relative prices. Moreover, this "capital deepening" implies that a relatively modest fraction of the labor force is employed in health care and that the rest of the economy is increasingly starved for capital, resulting in a declining standard of living. PMID:8063567

  17. A GDP-driven model for the binary and weighted structure of the International Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almog, Assaf; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Recent events such as the global financial crisis have renewed the interest in the topic of economic networks. One of the main channels of shock propagation among countries is the International Trade Network (ITN). Two important models for the ITN structure, the classical gravity model of trade (more popular among economists) and the fitness model (more popular among networks scientists), are both limited to the characterization of only one representation of the ITN. The gravity model satisfactorily predicts the volume of trade between connected countries, but cannot reproduce the missing links (i.e. the topology). On the other hand, the fitness model can successfully replicate the topology of the ITN, but cannot predict the volumes. This paper tries to make an important step forward in the unification of those two frameworks, by proposing a new gross domestic product (GDP) driven model which can simultaneously reproduce the binary and the weighted properties of the ITN. Specifically, we adopt a maximum-entropy approach where both the degree and the strength of each node are preserved. We then identify strong nonlinear relationships between the GDP and the parameters of the model. This ultimately results in a weighted generalization of the fitness model of trade, where the GDP plays the role of a ‘macroeconomic fitness’ shaping the binary and the weighted structure of the ITN simultaneously. Our model mathematically explains an important asymmetry in the role of binary and weighted network properties, namely the fact that binary properties can be inferred without the knowledge of weighted ones, while the opposite is not true.

  18. Seal closure for a galvanic dry cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schumm, B. Jr.

    1984-09-04

    A galvanic dry cell includes a cylindrical container having an open end provided with a closure having a centrally disposed aperture adapted to be slid over and secured to the carbon rod of the cell and a peripherally disposed depending flange having an undercoating of a soft sealant into which the upper rim of the container is embedded, thereby providing a seal closure for the container.

  19. The Determinants of Care Home Closure

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Stephen; Forder, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the causes of full closure of care homes in the English care home/nursing home market. We develop theoretical arguments about two causes for closure that are triggered by errors or external shocks: poor economic sustainability and regulatory action. Homes aiming to operate with lower quality in the market are argued for a number of reasons to be more susceptible to errors/shocks in setting quality, especially negative errors, leading to an empirical hypothesis that observed quality should negatively affect closure chance. In addition, given quality, homes facing relatively high levels of local competition should also have an increased chance of closure. We use a panel of care homes from 2008 and 2010 to examine factors affecting their closure status in subsequent years. We allow for the potential endogeneity of home quality and use multiple imputation to replace missing data. Results suggest that homes with comparatively higher quality and/or lower levels of competition have less chance of closure than other homes. We discuss that the results provide some support for the policy of regulators providing quality information to potential purchasers in the market. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25760588

  20. 75 FR 21629 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Workgroup, the Certification/Adoption Workgroup, the NHIN Workgroup, the Privacy & Security Policy Workgroup... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee... will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the...

  1. Visual Illusions and the Control of Ball Placement in Goal-Directed Hitting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caljouw, Simone R.; Van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2010-01-01

    When hitting, kicking, or throwing balls at targets, online control in the target area is impossible. We assumed this lack of late corrections in the target area would induce an effect of a single-winged Muller-Lyer illusion on ball placement. After extensive practice in hitting balls to different landing locations, participants (N = 9) had to hit…

  2. 75 FR 17744 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee... Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of change of location for meetings. This notice references forthcoming... Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee;...

  3. Hit to lead SAR study on benzoxazole derivatives for an NPY Y5 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Omori, Naoki; Kouyama, Naoki; Yukimasa, Akira; Watanabe, Kana; Yokota, Yasunori; Tanioka, Hideki; Nambu, Hirohide; Yukioka, Hideo; Sato, Norihito; Tanaka, Yukari; Sekiguchi, Kazutaka; Okuno, Takayuki

    2012-03-01

    We report a hit to lead study on a novel benzoxazole NPY Y5 antagonist. Starting from HTS hit 1, structure-activity relationships were developed. Compound 12 showed reduction of food intake and a tendency to suppress body weight gain over the 21-day experimental period.

  4. Construction of the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (HIT-SI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, P. E.; Gu, P.; Hamp, W. T.; Izzo, V. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Rogers, J. A.

    2001-10-01

    HIT-SI is a ``bow tie'' spheromak designed to implement Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI). The engineering requirements of SIHI lead to several unique design features, including a multiply connected electrically insulating o-ring seal and a close-fitting passive flux conserver that is electrically insulated from the plasma. Prototype tests have been performed to verify the performance of the o-ring seal and the plasma sprayed zirconia insulation. An engineering test of the new HIT-SI front end will be done before it replaces the present HIT-II front end on HIT. Startup and one millisecond of sustainment will be done to test breakdown and verify power supply requirements. The power supplies and external coils are designed to provide 20 MW at 5 kHz to 50 kHz for 1 ms to the helicity injection circuits for this test. Progress in the construction and assembly of HIT-SI will be presented.

  5. PageRank, HITS and a unified framework for link analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Chris; He, Xiaofeng; Husbands, Parry; Zha, Hongyuan; Simon, Horst

    2001-10-01

    Two popular webpage ranking algorithms are HITS and PageRank. HITS emphasizes mutual reinforcement between authority and hub webpages, while PageRank emphasizes hyperlink weight normalization and web surfing based on random walk models. We systematically generalize/combine these concepts into a unified framework. The ranking framework contains a large algorithm space; HITS and PageRank are two extreme ends in this space. We study several normalized ranking algorithms which are intermediate between HITS and PageRank, and obtain closed-form solutions. We show that, to first order approximation, all ranking algorithms in this framework, including PageRank and HITS, lead to same ranking which is highly correlated with ranking by indegree. These results support the notion that in web resource ranking indegree and outdegree are of fundamental importance. Rankings of webgraphs of different sizes and queries are presented to illustrate our analysis.

  6. NPAR- products, applications and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Vora, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    Almost a decade ago the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) developed and implemented a comprehensive research program (NUREG-1144) widely known as NPAR or Nuclear Plant Aging Research. The NPAR program is a structured research program specifically oriented to understanding significant age-related degradation mechanisms and their long term effects on properties and performance of important components and systems and ways to mitigate detrimental effects of aging. It provided a road map and a phased approach to research that is applicable to any structure, system, or component of interest. This hardware-oriented engineering research program led the industry worldwide and communicated a need to understand and manage age-related degradation effects in selected but important structures and components. At the conclusion (1995) of the NPAR program, 22 electrical and mechanical components, 13 safety-related systems, and 10 special topics will have been studied and results summarized in 160 technical reports. This reference library of information listed and summarized in NUREG-1377, Rev. No. 4 provides a foundation upon which individual programs can be built for the specific needs of a utility, a regulator, or equipment manufacturers. During the life of the NPAR program, it has provided technical bases and support for license renewal, codes and standards, resolution of generic safety issues, information notices, regulatory guides and the standard Review Plan, as well as the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and The NRC Regions. All ongoing NPAR activities will either be completed or terminated by the end of 1995. No new initiative will be undertaken. This paper summarizes NPAR products and accomplishments, application of the research results, and its status and closure.

  7. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE`s 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM`s accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document.

  8. SHIELD-HIT12A - a Monte Carlo particle transport program for ion therapy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassler, N.; Hansen, D. C.; Lühr, A.; Thomsen, B.; Petersen, J. B.; Sobolevsky, N.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT simulates the transport of ions through matter. Since SHIELD-HIT08 we added numerous features that improves speed, usability and underlying physics and thereby the user experience. The "-A" fork of SHIELD-HIT also aims to attach SHIELD-HIT to a heavy ion dose optimization algorithm to provide MC-optimized treatment plans that include radiobiology. Methods: SHIELD-HIT12A is written in FORTRAN and carefully retains platform independence. A powerful scoring engine is implemented scoring relevant quantities such as dose and track-average LET. It supports native formats compatible with the heavy ion treatment planning system TRiP. Stopping power files follow ICRU standard and are generated using the libdEdx library, which allows the user to choose from a multitude of stopping power tables. Results: SHIELD-HIT12A runs on Linux and Windows platforms. We experienced that new users quickly learn to use SHIELD-HIT12A and setup new geometries. Contrary to previous versions of SHIELD-HIT, the 12A distribution comes along with easy-to-use example files and an English manual. A new implementation of Vavilov straggling resulted in a massive reduction of computation time. Scheduled for later release are CT import and photon-electron transport. Conclusions: SHIELD-HIT12A is an interesting alternative ion transport engine. Apart from being a flexible particle therapy research tool, it can also serve as a back end for a MC ion treatment planning system. More information about SHIELD-HIT12A and a demo version can be found on http://www.shieldhit.org.

  9. Characterization of an fungal l-fucokinase involved in Mortierella alpina GDP-l-fucose salvage pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongchao; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Haiqin; Yang, Qin; Zhou, Xin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2016-08-01

    GDP-l-fucose functions as a biological donor for fucosyltransferases, which are required for the catalysis of l-fucose to various acceptor molecules including oligosaccharides, glycoproteins and glycolipids. Mortierella alpina is one of the highest lipid-producing fungi and can biosynthesis GDP-l-fucose in the de novo pathway. Analysis of the M. alpina genome suggests that there is a gene encoding l-fucokinase (FUK) for the conversion of fucose to l-fucose-1-phosphate in the GDP-l-fucose salvage pathway, which has never been found in fungi before. This gene was characterized to explore its role in GDP-l-fucose synthesis. The yield of GDP-l-fucose is relatively higher in lipid accumulation phase (0.096 mg per g cell) than that in cell multiplication phase (0.074 mg per g cell) of M. alpina Additionally, the transcript level of FUK is up regulated by nitrogen exhaustion when M. alpina starts to accumulate lipid, highlights the functional significance of FUK in the GDP-l-fucose biosynthesis in M. alpina Gene encoding FUK was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and the resulting protein was purified to homogeneity. The product of FUK reaction was analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters and other properties of FUK were investigated. Comparative analyses between the FUK protein and other homologous proteins were performed. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a comprehensive characterization of FUK in a fungus. Mortierella alpina could be used as an alternative source for the production of GDP-l-fucose.

  10. Backbone resonance assignments for G protein α(i3) subunit in the GDP-bound state.

    PubMed

    Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-10-01

    Guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signaling pathways, by coupling the activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the cell surface to intracellular responses. In the resting state, G protein forms a heterotrimer, consisting of the G protein α subunit with GDP (Gα·GDP) and the G protein βγ subunit (Gβγ). Ligand binding to GPCRs promotes the GDP-GTP exchange on Gα, leading to the dissociation of the GTP-bound form of Gα (Gα·GTP) and Gβγ. Then, Gα·GTP and Gβγ bind to their downstream effector enzymes or ion channels and regulate their activities, leading to a variety of cellular responses. Finally, Gα hydrolyzes the bound GTP to GDP and returns to the resting state by re-associating with Gβγ. The G proteins are classified with four major families based on the amino acid sequences of Gα: i/o, s, q/11, and 12/13. Here, we established the backbone resonance assignments of human Gαi3, a member of the i/o family with a molecular weight of 41 K, in complex with GDP. The chemical shifts were compared with those of Gα(i3) in complex with a GTP-analogue, GTPγS, which we recently reported, indicating that the residues with significant chemical shift differences are mostly consistent with the regions with the structural differences between the GDP- and GTPγS-bound states, as indicated in the crystal structures. The assignments of Gα(i3)·GDP would be useful for the analyses of the dynamics of Gα(i3) and its interactions with various target molecules.

  11. Per-capita GDP and nonequilibrium wealth-concentration in a model for trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2013-12-01

    Data describing the per-capita Gross Domestic Product of around two hundred countries in years 1960 to 2008 are analyzed and found to decay approximately exponentially with rank. We discuss this experimental fact in the context of a wealth exchange model called Yard-Sale exchange, in which pairs of agents (i.e. nations) 'bet' for a fraction f of the wealth of the poorest of them. If the chances for this poorest agent to win the bet are not large enough, this model presents a 'wealth condensation' phase, in which one lucky agent gets to own the whole wealth in the end. In a recent study of this model [1], it was found that, in the condensed phase, the typical wealth of an agent with rank R decays exponentially with R. By establishing a parallel between wealth of a nation and its per-capita GDP, these observations suggest that international trade rules are such that strong wealth concentration is favored. Possible extensions of this work, that also consider endogenous factors affecting the evolution of GDP, are also discussed.

  12. Improving health and well-being independently of GDP: dividends of greener and prosocial economies.

    PubMed

    Pretty, Jules; Barton, Jo; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez; Bragg, Rachel; Pencheon, David; Wood, Carly; Depledge, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Increases in gross domestic product (GDP) beyond a threshold of basic needs do not lead to further increases in well-being. An explanation is that material consumption (MC) also results in negative health externalities. We assess how these externalities influence six factors critical for well-being: (i) healthy food; (ii) active body; (iii) healthy mind; (iv) community links; (v) contact with nature; and (vi) attachment to possessions. If environmentally sustainable consumption (ESC) were increasingly substituted for MC, thus improving well-being and stocks of natural and social capital, and sustainable behaviours involving non-material consumption (SBs-NMC) became more prevalent, then well-being would increase regardless of levels of GDP. In the UK, the individualised annual health costs of negative consumption externalities (NCEs) currently amount to £62 billion for the National Health Service, and £184 billion for the economy (for mental ill-health, dementia, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, loneliness and cardiovascular disease). A dividend is available if substitution by ESC and SBs-NMC could limit the prevalence of these conditions.

  13. Cryptococcus neoformans dual GDP-mannose transporters and their role in biology and virulence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo A; Griffith, Cara L; Skowyra, Michael L; Salinas, Nichole; Williams, Matthew; Maier, Ezekiel J; Gish, Stacey R; Liu, Hong; Brent, Michael R; Doering, Tamara L

    2014-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic yeast responsible for lethal meningoencephalitis in humans. This pathogen elaborates a polysaccharide capsule, which is its major virulence factor. Mannose constitutes over one-half of the capsule mass and is also extensively utilized in cell wall synthesis and in glycosylation of proteins and lipids. The activated mannose donor for most biosynthetic reactions, GDP-mannose, is made in the cytosol, although it is primarily consumed in secretory organelles. This compartmentalization necessitates specific transmembrane transporters to make the donor available for glycan synthesis. We previously identified two cryptococcal GDP-mannose transporters, Gmt1 and Gmt2. Biochemical studies of each protein expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that both are functional, with similar kinetics and substrate specificities in vitro. We have now examined these proteins in vivo and demonstrate that cells lacking Gmt1 show significant phenotypic differences from those lacking Gmt2 in terms of growth, colony morphology, protein glycosylation, and capsule phenotypes. Some of these observations may be explained by differential expression of the two genes, but others suggest that the two proteins play overlapping but nonidentical roles in cryptococcal biology. Furthermore, gmt1 gmt2 double mutant cells, which are unexpectedly viable, exhibit severe defects in capsule synthesis and protein glycosylation and are avirulent in mouse models of cryptococcosis.

  14. Characterization of GDP-Fucose: Polysaccharide Fucosyl Transferase in Corn Roots (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    James, D W; Jones, R L

    1979-12-01

    The peripheral root cap cells of corn (cv. SX-17A) secrete a fucose-rich, high molecular weight, polysaccharide slime via the dictyosome pathway. To study the synthesis of this polysaccharide, a technique for isolating and assaying GDP-fucose:polysaccharide fucosyl transferase activity was developed. Corn roots were excised from germinated seeds, incubated 12 hours at 10 C in water, and ground in 100 millimolar Tris or Pipes buffer (pH 7.0) with or without 0.5 molar sucrose. The membrane-bound enzyme was solubilized by sonication in the presence of 2 molar urea and 1.5% (v/v) Triton X-100 and assayed by monitoring the incorporation of GDP-[(14)C]fucose into endogenous acceptors. Optimum enzyme activity is expressed at pH 7.0 and 30 C in the presence of 0.8% (v/v) Triton X-100. The enzyme does not require divalent cations for activation and is inhibited by concentrations of MnCl(2) or MgCl(2) greater than 1 millimolar. Corn root cap slime will serve as an exogenous acceptor for the enzyme if it is first hydrolyzed in 5 millimolar trifluoroacetic acid for 60 minutes at 18 pounds per square inch, 121 C. This procedure prepares the acceptor by removing terminal fucose residues from the slime molecule. Kinetics of fucose release during hydrolysis of native slime and in vitro synthesized product suggests that the two polymers possess similar linkages to fucose.

  15. Cryptococcus neoformans Dual GDP-Mannose Transporters and Their Role in Biology and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo A.; Griffith, Cara L.; Skowyra, Michael L.; Salinas, Nichole; Williams, Matthew; Maier, Ezekiel J.; Gish, Stacey R.; Liu, Hong; Brent, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic yeast responsible for lethal meningoencephalitis in humans. This pathogen elaborates a polysaccharide capsule, which is its major virulence factor. Mannose constitutes over one-half of the capsule mass and is also extensively utilized in cell wall synthesis and in glycosylation of proteins and lipids. The activated mannose donor for most biosynthetic reactions, GDP-mannose, is made in the cytosol, although it is primarily consumed in secretory organelles. This compartmentalization necessitates specific transmembrane transporters to make the donor available for glycan synthesis. We previously identified two cryptococcal GDP-mannose transporters, Gmt1 and Gmt2. Biochemical studies of each protein expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that both are functional, with similar kinetics and substrate specificities in vitro. We have now examined these proteins in vivo and demonstrate that cells lacking Gmt1 show significant phenotypic differences from those lacking Gmt2 in terms of growth, colony morphology, protein glycosylation, and capsule phenotypes. Some of these observations may be explained by differential expression of the two genes, but others suggest that the two proteins play overlapping but nonidentical roles in cryptococcal biology. Furthermore, gmt1 gmt2 double mutant cells, which are unexpectedly viable, exhibit severe defects in capsule synthesis and protein glycosylation and are avirulent in mouse models of cryptococcosis. PMID:24747214

  16. GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase is essential for cell wall integrity, morphogenesis and viability of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hechun; Ouyang, Haomiao; Zhou, Hui; Jin, Cheng

    2008-09-01

    GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPP) catalyses the synthesis of GDP-mannose, which is the precursor for the mannose residues in glycoconjugates, using mannose 1-phosphate and GTP as substrates. Repression of GMPP in yeast leads to phenotypes including cell lysis, defective cell wall, and failure of polarized growth and cell separation. Although several GMPPs have been isolated and characterized in filamentous fungi, the physiological consequences of their actions are not clear. In this study, Afsrb1, which is a homologue of yeast SRB1/PSA1/VIG9, was identified in the Aspergillus fumigatus genome. The Afsrb1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant AfSrb1 was functionally confirmed as a GMPP. By the replacement of the native Afsrb1 promoter with an inducible Aspergillus nidulans alcA promoter, the conditional inactivation mutant strain YJ-gmpp was constructed. The presence of 3 % glucose completely blocked transcription of P(alcA)-Afsrb1, and was lethal to strain YJ-gmpp. Repression of Afsrb1 expression in strain YJ-gmpp led to phenotypes including hyphal lysis, defective cell wall, impaired polarity maintenance, and branching site selection. Also, rapid germination and reduced conidiation were documented. However, in contrast to yeast, strain YJ-gmpp retained the ability to direct polarity establishment and septation. Our results showed that the Afsrb1 gene is essential for cell wall integrity, morphogenesis and viability of Aspergillus fumigatus.

  17. The effect of fastball backspin rate on baseball hitting accuracy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Morohoshi, Jun; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of fastballs of equivalent speed can differ; for example, one element of this difference could be due to the effect of rate and orientation of ball spin on launched ball trajectory. In the present experiment, baseball batters' accuracy in hitting fastballs with different backspin rates at a constant ball velocity of 36 m/s was examined. Thirteen skilled baseball players (professionals, semiprofessionals, and college varsity players) participated in the study. The movements of bat and ball were recorded using two synchronized high-speed video cameras. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) was calculated and used to analyze the relationship between ball backspin rate and the vertical distance between ball center and sweet spot at the moment of ball-bat impact. Ball backspin rate was positively correlated with increases in the distance from the optimal contact point of the swung bat (sweet spot) to the actual point of contact (r = .38, P < .001). Batters were most effective at the usual backspin rate for the ball velocity used. The decrease in accuracy of the batter's swing that was observed when the fastball's backspin deviated from the usual rate likely occurred because experienced batters predict ball trajectory from perceived ball speed. PMID:22923374

  18. Scientific impact: the story of your big hit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinatra, Roberta; Wang, Dashun; Deville, Pierre; Song, Chaoming; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2014-03-01

    A gradual increase in performance through learning and practice characterize most trades, from sport to music or engineering, and common sense suggests this to be true in science as well. This prompts us to ask: what are the precise patterns that lead to scientific excellence? Does performance indeed improve throughout a scientific career? Are there quantifiable signs of an impending scientific hit? Using citation-based measures as a proxy of impact, we show that (i) major discoveries are not preceded by works of increasing impact, nor are followed by work of higher impact, (ii) the precise time ranking of the highest impact work in a scientist's career is uniformly random, with the higher probability to have a major discovery in the middle of scientific careers being due only to changes in productivity, (iii) there is a strong correlation between the highest impact work and average impact of a scientist's work. These findings suggest that the impact of a paper is drawn randomly from an impact distribution that is unique for each scientist. We present a model which allows to reconstruct the individual impact distribution, making possible to create synthetic careers that exhibit the same properties of the real data and to define a ranking based on the overall impact of a scientist. RS acknowledges support from the James McDonnell Foundation.

  19. Stochastic, weighted hit size theory of cellular radiobiological action

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    A stochastic theory that appears to account well for the observed responses of cell populations exposed in radiation fields of different qualities and for different durations of exposure is described. The theory appears to explain well most cellular radiobiological phenomena observed in at least autonomous cell systems, argues for the use of fluence rate (phi) instead of absorbed dose for quantification of the amount of radiation involved in low level radiation exposure. With or without invoking the cell sensitivity function, the conceptual improvement would be substantial. The approach suggested also shows that the absorbed dose-cell response functions currently employed do not reflect the spectrum of cell sensitivities to increasing cell doses of a single agent, nor can RBE represent the potency ratio for different agents that can produce similar quantal responses. Thus, for accurate comparison of cell sensitivities among different cells in the same individual, or between the cells in different kinds of individuals, it is necessary to quantify cell sensitivity in terms of the hit size weighting or cell sensitivity function introduced here. Similarly, this function should be employed to evaluate the relative potency of radiation and other radiomimetic chemical or physical agents.

  20. The "first hit" toward alcohol reinforcement: role of ethanol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Israel, Yedy; Quintanilla, María Elena; Karahanian, Eduardo; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario

    2015-05-01

    This review analyzes literature that describes the behavioral effects of 2 metabolites of ethanol (EtOH): acetaldehyde and salsolinol (a condensation product of acetaldehyde and dopamine) generated in the brain. These metabolites are self-administered into specific brain areas by animals, showing strong reinforcing effects. A wealth of evidence shows that EtOH, a drug consumed to attain millimolar concentrations, generates brain metabolites that are reinforcing at micromolar and nanomolar concentrations. Salsolinol administration leads to marked increases in voluntary EtOH intake, an effect inhibited by mu-opioid receptor blockers. In animals that have ingested EtOH chronically, the maintenance of alcohol intake is no longer influenced by EtOH metabolites, as intake is taken over by other brain systems. However, after EtOH withdrawal brain acetaldehyde has a major role in promoting binge-like drinking in the condition known as the "alcohol deprivation effect"; a condition seen in animals that have ingested alcohol chronically, are deprived of EtOH for extended periods, and are allowed EtOH re-access. The review also analyzes the behavioral effects of acetate, a metabolite that enters the brain and is responsible for motor incoordination at low doses of EtOH. Also discussed are the paradoxical effects of systemic acetaldehyde. Overall, evidence strongly suggests that brain-generated EtOH metabolites play a major role in the early ("first-hit") development of alcohol reinforcement and in the generation of relapse-like drinking.

  1. The effect of fastball backspin rate on baseball hitting accuracy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Morohoshi, Jun; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of fastballs of equivalent speed can differ; for example, one element of this difference could be due to the effect of rate and orientation of ball spin on launched ball trajectory. In the present experiment, baseball batters' accuracy in hitting fastballs with different backspin rates at a constant ball velocity of 36 m/s was examined. Thirteen skilled baseball players (professionals, semiprofessionals, and college varsity players) participated in the study. The movements of bat and ball were recorded using two synchronized high-speed video cameras. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) was calculated and used to analyze the relationship between ball backspin rate and the vertical distance between ball center and sweet spot at the moment of ball-bat impact. Ball backspin rate was positively correlated with increases in the distance from the optimal contact point of the swung bat (sweet spot) to the actual point of contact (r = .38, P < .001). Batters were most effective at the usual backspin rate for the ball velocity used. The decrease in accuracy of the batter's swing that was observed when the fastball's backspin deviated from the usual rate likely occurred because experienced batters predict ball trajectory from perceived ball speed.

  2. An eddy closure for potential vorticity

    SciTech Connect

    Ringler, Todd D

    2009-01-01

    The Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is extended to include a direct influence in the momentum equation. The extension is carried out in two stages; an analysis of the inviscid system is followed by an analysis of the viscous system. In the inviscid analysis the momentum equation is modified such that potential vorticity is conserved along particle trajectories following a transport velocity that includes the Bolus velocity in a manner exactly analogous to the continuity and tracer equations. In addition (and in contrast to traditional GM closures), the new formulation of the inviscid momentum equation results in a conservative exchange between potential and kinetic forms of energy. The inviscid form of the eddy closure conserves total energy to within an error proportional to the time derivative of the Bolus velocity. The hypothesis that the viscous term in the momentum equation should give rise to potential vorticity being diffused along isopycnals in a manner analogous to other tracers is examined in detail. While the form of the momentum closure that follows from a strict adherence to this hypothesis is not immediately interpretable within the constructs of traditional momentum closures, three approximations to this hypothesis results in a form of dissipation that is consistent with traditional Laplacian diffusion. The first two approximations are that relative vorticity, not potential vorticity, is diffused along isopyncals and that the flow is in approximate geostrophic balance. An additional approximation to the Jacobian term is required when the dissipation coefficient varies in space. More importantly, the critique of this hypothesis results in the conclusion that the viscosity parameter in the momentum equation should be identical to the tradition GM closure parameter {Kappa}. Overall, we deem the viscous form of the eddy closure for potential vorticity as a viable closure for use in ocean circulation models.

  3. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ..., the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components, contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste, and manage them...

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth: a multivariate and causality analysis for Ghana, 1971-2013.

    PubMed

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth in Ghana was investigated from 1971 to 2013 by comparing the vector error correction model (VECM) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). Prior to testing for Granger causality based on VECM, the study tested for unit roots, Johansen's multivariate co-integration and performed a variance decomposition analysis using Cholesky's technique. Evidence from the variance decomposition shows that 21 % of future shocks in carbon dioxide emissions are due to fluctuations in energy use, 8 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in GDP, and 6 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in population. There was evidence of bidirectional causality running from energy use to GDP and a unidirectional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to energy use, carbon dioxide emissions to GDP, carbon dioxide emissions to population, and population to energy use. Evidence from the long-run elasticities shows that a 1 % increase in population in Ghana will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.72 %. There was evidence of short-run equilibrium relationship running from energy use to carbon dioxide emissions and GDP to carbon dioxide emissions. As a policy implication, the addition of renewable energy and clean energy technologies into Ghana's energy mix can help mitigate climate change and its impact in the future.

  5. Carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth: a multivariate and causality analysis for Ghana, 1971-2013.

    PubMed

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth in Ghana was investigated from 1971 to 2013 by comparing the vector error correction model (VECM) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). Prior to testing for Granger causality based on VECM, the study tested for unit roots, Johansen's multivariate co-integration and performed a variance decomposition analysis using Cholesky's technique. Evidence from the variance decomposition shows that 21 % of future shocks in carbon dioxide emissions are due to fluctuations in energy use, 8 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in GDP, and 6 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in population. There was evidence of bidirectional causality running from energy use to GDP and a unidirectional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to energy use, carbon dioxide emissions to GDP, carbon dioxide emissions to population, and population to energy use. Evidence from the long-run elasticities shows that a 1 % increase in population in Ghana will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.72 %. There was evidence of short-run equilibrium relationship running from energy use to carbon dioxide emissions and GDP to carbon dioxide emissions. As a policy implication, the addition of renewable energy and clean energy technologies into Ghana's energy mix can help mitigate climate change and its impact in the future. PMID:27030236

  6. Simulating GTP:Mg and GDP:Mg with a simple force field: a structural and thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Thomas; Satpati, Priyadarshi

    2013-04-01

    Di- and tri-phosphate nucleotides are essential cofactors for many proteins, usually in an Mg(2+) -bound form. Proteins like GTPases often detect the difference between NDP and NTP and respond by changing conformations. To study such complexes, simple, fixed charge force fields have been used, which allow long simulations and precise free energy calculations. The preference for NTP or NDP binding depends on many factors, including ligand structure and Mg(2+) coordination and the changes they undergo upon binding. Here, we use a simple force field to examine two Mg(2+) coordination modes for the unbound GDP and GTP: direct, or "Inner Sphere" (IS) coordination by one or more phosphate oxygens and indirect, "Outer Sphere" (OS) coordination involving one or more bridging waters. We compare GTP: and GDP:Mg binding with OS and IS coordination; combining the results with experimental data then indicates that GTP prefers the latter. We also examine different kinds of IS coordination and their sensitivity to a key force field parameter: the optimal Mg:oxygen van der Waals distance Rmin . Increasing Rmin improves the Mg:oxygen distances, the GTP: and GDP:Mg binding affinities, and the fraction of GTP:Mg with β + γ phosphate coordination, but does not improve or change the GTP/GDP affinity difference, which remains much larger than experiment. It has no effect on the free energy of GDP binding to a GTPase.

  7. A High-Throughput Assay for Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Based on the Transcreener GDP Assay.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Melvin; Schabdach, Amanda; Kumar, Meera; Zielinski, Tom; Donover, Preston S; Laury-Kleintop, Lisa D; Lowery, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Ras homologous (Rho) family GTPases act as molecular switches controlling cell growth, movement, and gene expression by cycling between inactive guanosine diphosphate (GDP)- and active guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound conformations. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) positively regulate Rho GTPases by accelerating GDP dissociation to allow formation of the active, GTP-bound complex. Rho proteins are directly involved in cancer pathways, especially cell migration and invasion, and inhibiting GEFs holds potential as a therapeutic strategy to diminish Rho-dependent oncogenesis. Methods for measuring GEF activity suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) are limited. We developed a simple, generic biochemical assay method for measuring GEF activity based on the fact that GDP dissociation is generally the rate-limiting step in the Rho GTPase catalytic cycle, and thus addition of a GEF causes an increase in steady-state GTPase activity. We used the Transcreener GDP Assay, which relies on selective immunodetection of GDP, to measure the GEF-dependent stimulation of steady-state GTP hydrolysis by small GTPases using Dbs (Dbl's big sister) as a GEF for Cdc42, RhoA, and RhoB. The assay is well suited for HTS, with a homogenous format and far red fluorescence polarization (FP) readout, and it should be broadly applicable to diverse Rho GEF/GTPase pairs.

  8. Cloning and expression of Helicobacter pylori GDP-l-fucose synthesizing enzymes (GMD and GMER) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, N; Mäki, M; Räbinä, J; Roos, C; Mattila, P; Renkonen, R

    2001-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative gastric pathogen causing diseases from mild gastric infections to gastric cancer. The difference in clinical outcome has been suggested to be due to strain differences. H. pylori undergoes phase variation by changing its lipopolysaccharide structure according to the environmental conditions. The O-antigen of H. pylori contains fucosylated glycans, similar to Lewis structures found in human gastric epithelium. These Lewis glycans of H. pylori have been suggested to play a role in pathogenesis in the adhesion of the bacterium to gastric epithelium. In the synthesis of fucosylated structures, GDP-l-fucose is needed as a fucose donor. Here, we cloned the two key enzymes of GDP-l-fucose synthesis, H. pylori gmd coding for GDP-d-mannose dehydratase (GMD), and gmer coding for GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase/4-reductase (GMER) and expressed them in an enzymatically active form in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The end product of these enzymes, GDP-l-fucose was used as a fucose donor in a fucosyltransferase assay converting sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine to sialyl Lewis X.

  9. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-10-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations.

  10. Taking Closure to the Next Level - 13030

    SciTech Connect

    Feist, E.T.

    2013-07-01

    The River Corridor Closure Project (RCCP) is the Hanford Site's first closure project and when it is complete, in 2015, it will have cleaned up 220 mi{sup 2} of contaminated land adjacent to the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) was selected by the DOE to manage the removal and cleanup of Hanford's nuclear legacy along the River Corridor. Work began in 2005 and is now more than 85% complete with more than 2 years left in the contract. A Closure Team was commissioned in December 2009 and has since issued a closure strategy and a disciplined three-phase approach to transition land parcels to DOE, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) as cleanup is completed. This process supports DOE-RL objectives for progressive footprint reduction based on the division of the River Corridor into geographical land parcels. It also allows for incremental area-by-area transition and turnover to the Long-Term Stewardship program. Several important milestones stand between now and the successful end of the RCCP. They include overall funding impacts, working with DOE-RL on new scope additions, meeting regulatory milestones, and maintaining a strong safety performance. (authors)

  11. Space Station evolution study oxygen loop closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. G.; Delong, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the current Space Station Freedom (SSF) Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC), physical scars for closing the oxygen loop by the addition of oxygen generation and carbon dioxide reduction hardware are not included. During station restructuring, the capability for oxygen loop closure was deferred to the B-modules. As such, the ability to close the oxygen loop in the U.S. Laboratory module (LAB A) and the Habitation A module (HAB A) is contingent on the presence of the B modules. To base oxygen loop closure of SSF on the funding of the B-modules may not be desirable. Therefore, this study was requested to evaluate the necessary hooks and scars in the A-modules to facilitate closure of the oxygen loop at or subsequent to PMC. The study defines the scars for oxygen loop closure with impacts to cost, weight and volume and assesses the effects of byproduct venting. In addition, the recommended scenarios for closure with regard to topology and packaging are presented.

  12. Butylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for columellar incision closure.

    PubMed

    Ozturan, O; Miman, M C; Aktas, D; Oncel, S

    2001-07-01

    Cosmetic outcome of the columellar incision closure in external rhinoplasty patients has been a subject of discussion. This study was conducted to assess whether tissue adhesives provide an alternative option for sutureless closure of columellar skin incisions for cases utilizing open technique rhinoplastic surgery. One hundred and one patients undergoing external rhinoplasty were randomized to either topical application of butylcyanoacrylate or polypropylene sutures for columellar skin closure. The majority of tension on the wound edges was taken up using 5-0 chromic catgut. Cosmetic outcomes were evaluated by two otolaryngologists independently using visual analogue and Hollander wound evaluation scales in a blinded manner. There was no statistically significant difference in cosmesis between the surgeons' evaluation scores for either type or repair of the columellar incision. Since the tissue adhesive forms its own protective barrier, post-operative care is simplified. Closure with adhesives eliminates the need for post-operative suture removal requiring an extra visit that should lead to more efficient use of physician and patient time. Butylcyanoacrylate performs cosmetically as well as standard suture closure of columellar skin incision used for external rhinoplasty.

  13. Being selective at the plate: processing dependence between perceptual variables relates to hitting goals and performance.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2013-08-01

    Performance of a skill that involves acting on a goal object (e.g., a ball to be hit) can influence one's judgment of the size and speed of that object. The present study examined how these action-specific effects are affected when the goal of the actor is varied and they are free to choose between alternative actions. In Experiment 1, expert baseball players were asked to perform three different directional hitting tasks in a batting simulation and make interleaved perceptual judgments about three ball parameters (speed, plate crossing location, and size). Perceived ball size was largest (and perceived speed was slowest) when the ball crossing location was optimal for the particular hitting task the batter was performing (e.g., an "outside" pitch for opposite-field hitting). The magnitude of processing dependency between variables (speed vs. location and size vs. location) was positively correlated with batting performance. In Experiment 2, the action-specific effects observed in Experiment 1 were mimicked by systematically changing the ball diameter in the simulation as a function of plate crossing location. The number of swing initiations was greater when ball size was larger, and batters were more successful in the hitting task for which the larger pitches were optimal (e.g., greater number of pull hits than opposite-field hits when "inside" pitches were larger). These findings suggest attentional accentuation of goal-relevant targets underlies action-related changes in perception and are consistent with an action selection role for these effects.

  14. Throat hit in users of the electronic cigarette: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey on the Internet in 2012-2014 was used to study the "throat hit," the specific sensation in the throat felt by users of e-cigarettes. Participants were 1672 current users of e-cigarettes, visitors of Websites dedicated to e-cigarettes and to smoking cessation. It was assessed whether the strength of the throat hit was associated with the characteristics of e-cigarettes and e-liquids, modifications of the devices, patterns of use, reasons for use, satisfaction with e-cigarettes, dependence on e-cigarettes, smoking behavior, and perceived effects on smoking. The strongest throat hit was obtained by using better-quality models and liquids with high nicotine content. Those who reported a "very strong" throat hit used liquids with 17.3 mg/mL nicotine, versus 7.1 mg/mL for those reporting a "very weak" hit (p < .001). The strength of the throat hit was also associated with ratings of dependence on e-cigarettes, and with the perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes to relieve craving for tobacco and to facilitate smoking cessation. All the variables assessing satisfaction with e-cigarettes were associated with a stronger throat hit. From a public health perspective, there is a trade-off between e-cigarette models that provide high levels of nicotine, a strong throat hit, high satisfaction, and more effects on smoking, but may also be addictive, and models than contain less nicotine and are less addictive, but produce a weaker throat hit, are less satisfactory, and are possibly less efficient at helping people quit smoking. This trade-off must be kept in mind when regulating e-cigarettes. PMID:26653150

  15. Throat hit in users of the electronic cigarette: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey on the Internet in 2012-2014 was used to study the "throat hit," the specific sensation in the throat felt by users of e-cigarettes. Participants were 1672 current users of e-cigarettes, visitors of Websites dedicated to e-cigarettes and to smoking cessation. It was assessed whether the strength of the throat hit was associated with the characteristics of e-cigarettes and e-liquids, modifications of the devices, patterns of use, reasons for use, satisfaction with e-cigarettes, dependence on e-cigarettes, smoking behavior, and perceived effects on smoking. The strongest throat hit was obtained by using better-quality models and liquids with high nicotine content. Those who reported a "very strong" throat hit used liquids with 17.3 mg/mL nicotine, versus 7.1 mg/mL for those reporting a "very weak" hit (p < .001). The strength of the throat hit was also associated with ratings of dependence on e-cigarettes, and with the perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes to relieve craving for tobacco and to facilitate smoking cessation. All the variables assessing satisfaction with e-cigarettes were associated with a stronger throat hit. From a public health perspective, there is a trade-off between e-cigarette models that provide high levels of nicotine, a strong throat hit, high satisfaction, and more effects on smoking, but may also be addictive, and models than contain less nicotine and are less addictive, but produce a weaker throat hit, are less satisfactory, and are possibly less efficient at helping people quit smoking. This trade-off must be kept in mind when regulating e-cigarettes.

  16. Current challenges and novel treatment strategies in double hit lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Mary Ann; Tsui, Alpha; Wall, Meaghan; Huang, David C. S.; Roberts, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade B-cell lymphomas with recurrent chromosomal break points have been termed ‘double hit lymphoma’ (DHL). The most commonly seen DHL is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with t(14;18) and t(8;14) or t(8;22) resulting in overexpression of BCL2 and MYC, respectively. The increased proliferation due to MYC overexpression, without the ability for an apoptotic brake as a result of BCL2 overexpression, results in ‘the perfect storm of oncogenesis’. Thus this disease presents a number of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for the hematologist. The first and foremost challenge is to recognize the DHL. As different morphological entities can be affected it is incumbent on pathologists and clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion especially in disease that appears unusually aggressive or refractory to therapy. Diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a sensitive and specific method for detection of the disease but is time-consuming and expensive. While detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is sensitive and correlates with survival, standardized methods for this are not widely agreed upon. The second and equally important challenge in DHL is optimizing clinical outcome in a group of patients for whom the prognosis is widely regarded as poor. While improvements have been achieved by dose escalating standard chemotherapeutic regimens, many patients continue to do badly. Furthermore as a disease of aging many patients are unsuitable for dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens. There are now multiple novel targeted agents in various stages of clinical development that offer hope for better outcomes without undue toxicity. Among the most exciting of these developments include specific inhibitors of both BCL2 and MYC. PMID:26834954

  17. Double hit lymphoma: the MD Anderson Cancer Center clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Oki, Yasuhiro; Noorani, Mansoor; Lin, Pei; Davis, Richard E; Neelapu, Sattva S; Ma, Long; Ahmed, Mohamed; Rodriguez, Maria Alma; Hagemeister, Fredrick B; Fowler, Nathan; Wang, Michael; Fanale, Michelle A; Nastoupil, Loretta; Samaniego, Felipe; Lee, Hun J; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Pinnix, Chelsea C; Medeiros, Leonard J; Nieto, Yago; Khouri, Issa; Kwak, Larry W; Turturro, Francesco; Romaguera, Jorge E; Fayad, Luis E; Westin, Jason R

    2014-09-01

    We report our experience with 129 cases of double hit lymphoma (DHL), defined as B-cell lymphoma with translocations and/or extra signals involving MYC plus BCL2 and/or BCL6. All cases were reviewed for histopathological classification. Median age was 62 years (range, 18-85), 84% of patients had advanced-stage disease, and 87% had an International Prognostic Index score ≥2. Fourteen patients (11%) had a history of low-grade follicular lymphoma. MYC translocation was present in 81%, and extra signals of MYC in 25% of patients. IGH-BCL2 translocation was present in 84% and extra signals of BCL2 in 12% of patients. Two-year event-free survival (EFS) rates in all patients and patients who received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone), R-EPOCH (rituximab, etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin), and R-HyperCVAD/MA (rituximab, hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone, alternating with cytarabine plus methotrexate) were 33%, 25%, 67% and 32%, respectively. In patients achieving complete response with initial therapy (n = 71), 2-year EFS rates in patients who did (n = 23) or did not (n = 48) receive frontline stem cell transplantation were 68% and 53%, respectively (P = 0·155). The cumulative incidence of central nervous system involvement was 13% at 3 years. Multivariate analysis identified performance status ≥2 and bone marrow involvement as independent adverse prognostic factors for EFS and OS. Further research is needed to identify predictive and/or targetable biological markers and novel therapeutic approaches for DHL patients.

  18. APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR WELDING END CLOSURE TO CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Correy, T.B.

    1959-08-01

    A semi-automatic apparatus is described for welding a closure to the open end of a can containing a nuclear fuel slug. An arc is struck at the center of the closure and is shifted to a region near its periphery. Then the assembly of closure, can, and fuel slug is rotated so that the peripheral region of the closure is preheated. Next the arc is shifted to the periphery itself of the closure, and the assembly is rotated so that the closure is welded to the can.

  19. Biological organisation as closure of constraints.

    PubMed

    Montévil, Maël; Mossio, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    We propose a conceptual and formal characterisation of biological organisation as a closure of constraints. We first establish a distinction between two causal regimes at work in biological systems: processes, which refer to the whole set of changes occurring in non-equilibrium open thermodynamic conditions; and constraints, those entities which, while acting upon the processes, exhibit some form of conservation (symmetry) at the relevant time scales. We then argue that, in biological systems, constraints realise closure, i.e. mutual dependence such that they both depend on and contribute to maintaining each other. With this characterisation in hand, we discuss how organisational closure can provide an operational tool for marking the boundaries between interacting biological systems. We conclude by focusing on the original conception of the relationship between stability and variation which emerges from this framework.

  20. Biological constraints do not entail cognitive closure.

    PubMed

    Vlerick, Michael

    2014-12-01

    From the premise that our biology imposes cognitive constraints on our epistemic activities, a series of prominent authors--most notably Fodor, Chomsky and McGinn--have argued that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects and properties of the world. Cognitive constraints, they argue, entail cognitive closure. I argue that this is not the case. More precisely, I detect two unwarranted conflations at the core of arguments deriving closure from constraints. The first is a conflation of what I will refer to as 'representation' and 'object of representation'. The second confuses the cognitive scope of the assisted mind for that of the unassisted mind. Cognitive closure, I conclude, cannot be established from pointing out the (uncontroversial) existence of cognitive constraints.

  1. Hanford Patrol Academy demolition sites closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    The Hanford Site is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites, the unit addressed in this paper. This document consists of a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application, Form 3 (Revision 4), and a closure plan for the site. An explanation of the Part A Form 3 submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. This Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of December 15, 1994.

  2. Closure device for lead-acid batteries

    DOEpatents

    Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1983-01-01

    A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

  3. Statistical Analysis of Probability of Detection Hit/Miss Data for Small Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, C. A.; Hugo, G. R.

    2003-03-01

    This paper examines the validity of statistical methods for determining nondestructive inspection probability of detection (POD) curves from relatively small hit/miss POD data sets. One method published in the literature is shown to be invalid for analysis of POD hit/miss data. Another standard method is shown to be valid only for data sets containing more than 200 observations. An improved method is proposed which allows robust lower 95% confidence limit POD curves to be determined from data sets containing as few as 50 hit/miss observations.

  4. Efficiency of hit generation and structural characterization in fragment-based ligand discovery.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Andreas; Jansson, Anna; Åberg, Anders; Nordlund, Pär

    2011-08-01

    Fragment-based ligand discovery constitutes a useful strategy for the generation of high affinity ligands with suitable physico-chemical properties to serve as drug leads. There is an increasing number of generic biophysical screening strategies established with the potential for accelerating the generation of useful fragment hits. Crystal structures of these hits can subsequently be used as starting points for fragment evolution to high affinity ligands. Emerging understanding of the efficiency and operative aspects of hit generation and structural characterization in FBLD suggests that this method should be well suited for academic ligand development of chemical tools and experimental therapeutics.

  5. Crystal structure of the GTPase domain and the bundle signalling element of dynamin in the GDP state.

    PubMed

    Anand, Roopsee; Eschenburg, Susanne; Reubold, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Dynamin is the prototype of a family of large multi-domain GTPases. The 100 kDa protein is a key player in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, where it cleaves off vesicles from membranes using the energy from GTP hydrolysis. We have solved the high resolution crystal structure of a fusion protein of the GTPase domain and the bundle signalling element (BSE) of dynamin 1 liganded with GDP. The structure provides a hitherto missing snapshot of the GDP state of the hydrolytic cycle of dynamin and reveals how the switch I region moves away from the active site after GTP hydrolysis and release of inorganic phosphate. Comparing our structure of the GDP state with the known structures of the GTP state, the transition state and the nucleotide-free state of dynamin 1 we describe the structural changes through the hydrolytic cycle.

  6. Detection of UCP1 protein and measurements of dependent GDP-sensitive proton leak in non-phosphorylating thymus mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Kieran J; Carroll, Audrey M; O'Brien, Gemma; Porter, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    Over several years we have provided evidence that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is present in thymus mitochondria. We have demonstrated the conclusive evidence for the presence of UCP1 in thymus mitochondria and we have been able to demonstrate a GDP-sensitive UCP1-dependent proton leak in non-phosphorylating thymus mitochondria. In this chapter, we show how to detect UCP1 in mitochondria isolated from whole thymus using immunoblotting. We show how to measure GDP-sensitive UCP1-dependent oxygen consumption in non-phosphorylating thymus mitochondria and we show that increased reactive oxygen species production occurs on addition of GDP to non-phosphorylating thymus mitochondria. We conclude that reactive oxygen species production rate can be used as a surrogate for detecting UCP1 catalyzed proton leak activity in thymus mitochondria.

  7. 2401-W Waste storage building closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.M.

    1999-07-15

    This plan describes the performance standards met and closure activities conducted to achieve clean closure of the 2401-W Waste Storage Building (2401-W) (Figure I). In August 1998, after the last waste container was removed from 2401-W, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) notified Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in writing that the 2401-W would no longer receive waste and would be closed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit (98-EAP-475). Pursuant to this notification, closure activities were conducted, as described in this plan, in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and completed on February 9, 1999. Ecology witnessed the closure activities. Consistent with clean closure, no postclosure activities will be necessary. Because 2401-W is a portion of the Central Waste Complex (CWC), these closure activities become the basis for removing this building from the CWC TSD unit boundary. The 2401-W is a pre-engineered steel building with a sealed concrete floor and a 15.2-centimeter concrete curb around the perimeter of the floor. This building operated from April 1988 until August 1998 storing non-liquid containerized mixed waste. All waste storage occurred indoors. No potential existed for 2401-W operations to have impacted soil. A review of operating records and interviews with cognizant operations personnel indicated that no waste spills occurred in this building (Appendix A). After all waste containers were removed, a radiation survey of the 2401-W floor for radiological release of the building was performed December 17, 1998, which identified no radiological contamination (Appendix B).

  8. Structural basis of GDP release and gating in G protein coupled Fe[superscript 2+] transport

    SciTech Connect

    Guilfoyle, Amy; Maher, Megan J.; Rapp, Mikaela; Clarke, Ronald; Harrop, Stephen; Jormakka, Mika

    2009-09-29

    G proteins are key molecular switches in the regulation of membrane protein function and signal transduction. The prokaryotic membrane protein FeoB is involved in G protein coupled Fe{sup 2+} transport, and is unique in that the G protein is directly tethered to the membrane domain. Here, we report the structure of the soluble domain of FeoB, including the G protein domain, and its assembly into an unexpected trimer. Comparisons between nucleotide free and liganded structures reveal the closed and open state of a central cytoplasmic pore, respectively. In addition, these data provide the first observation of a conformational switch in the nucleotide-binding G5 motif, defining the structural basis for GDP release. From these results, structural parallels are drawn to eukaryotic G protein coupled membrane processes.

  9. Final Clean Closure Report Site 300 Surface Impoundments Closure Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, K

    2006-02-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory operated two Class II surface impoundments that stored wastewater that was discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater was the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners were nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project was to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks were installed and put into service prior to closure of the impoundments. This Clean Closure Report (Closure Report) complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR section 21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Closure Report provides the following information: (1) a brief site description; (2) the regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) the closure procedures; and (4) the findings and documentation of clean closure.

  10. Ion closure theory for high collisionality revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young Held, Eric D.

    2015-06-15

    According to analytical calculations of the ion collision operator, the ion-electron collision terms could be larger than the ion-ion collision terms. In the previous work [J.-Y. Ji and E. D. Held, Phys. Plasmas 20, 042114 (2013)], the ion-electron collision effects are diminished by the ion temperature change terms introduced from unlikely assumptions. In this work, the high-collisionality closures for ions are calculated without the temperature change terms. The ion-electron collision terms significantly modify existing closure coefficients.

  11. Closure properties of Watson-Crick grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.

  12. Electron parallel closures for arbitrary collisionality

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young Held, Eric D.

    2014-12-15

    Electron parallel closures for heat flow, viscosity, and friction force are expressed as kernel-weighted integrals of thermodynamic drives, the temperature gradient, relative electron-ion flow velocity, and flow-velocity gradient. Simple, fitted kernel functions are obtained for arbitrary collisionality from the 6400 moment solution and the asymptotic behavior in the collisionless limit. The fitted kernels circumvent having to solve higher order moment equations in order to close the electron fluid equations. For this reason, the electron parallel closures provide a useful and general tool for theoretical and computational models of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  13. Interaction of Anesthetics with the Rho GTPase Regulator Rho GDP Dissociation Inhibitor†

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Cojen; Shanmugasundararaj, Sivananthaperumal; Miller, Keith W.; Malinowski, Steve A.; Cook, Anthony C.; Slater, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    The physiological effects of anesthetics have been ascribed to their interaction with hydrophobic sites within functionally relevant CNS proteins. Studies have shown that volatile anesthetics compete for luciferin binding to the hydrophobic substrate binding site within firefly luciferase and inhibit its activity (Franks, N. P., and Lieb, W. R. (1984) Nature 310, 599–601). To assess whether anesthetics also compete for ligand binding to a mammalian signal transduction protein, we investigated the interaction of the volatile anesthetic, halothane, with the Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDIα), which binds the geranylgeranyl moiety of GDP-bound Rho GTPases. Consistent with the existence of a discrete halothane binding site, the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of RhoGDIα was quenched by halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) in a saturable, concentration-dependent manner. Bromine quenching of tryptophan fluorescence is short range and W192 and W194 of the RhoGDIα are located within the geranylgeranyl binding pocket, suggesting that halothane binds within this region. Supporting this, N-acetyl-geranylgeranyl cysteine reversed tryptophan quenching by halothane. Short chain n-alcohols (n<6) also reversed tryptophan quenching, suggesting that RhoGDIα may also bind n-alkanols. Consistent with this, E193 was photo-labeled by 3-azibutanol. This residue is located in the vicinity of, but outside, the geranylgeranyl chain binding pocket, suggesting that the alcohol binding site is distinct from that occupied by halothane. Supporting this, N-acetyl-geranylgeranyl cysteine enhanced E193 photo-labeling by 3-azibutanol. Overall, the results suggest that halothane binds to a site within the geranylgeranyl chain binding pocket of RhoGDIα, whereas alcohols bind to a distal site that interacts allosterically with this pocket. PMID:18702520

  14. Relating traffic fatalities to GDP in Europe on the long term.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Lassarre, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    Modeling road safety development can provide important insight into policies for the reduction of traffic fatalities. In order to achieve this goal, both the quantifiable impact of specific parameters, as well as the underlying trends that cannot always be measured or observed, need to be considered. One of the key relationships in road safety links fatalities with risk and exposure, where exposure reflects the amount of travel, which in turn translates to how much travelers are exposed to risk. In general two economic variables: GDP and unemployment rate are selected to analyse the statistical relationships with some indicators of road accident fatality risk. The objective of this research is to provide an overview of relevant literature on the topic and outline some recent developments in macro-panel data analysis that have resulted in ongoing research that has the potential to improve our ability to forecast traffic fatality trends, especially under turbulent financial situations. For this analysis, time series of the number of fatalities and GDP in 30 European countries for a period of 38 years (1975-2012) are used. This process relies on estimating long-term models (as captured by long term time-series models, which model each country separately). Based on these developments, utilizing state-of-the-art modelling and analysis techniques such as the Common Correlated Effects Mean Group estimator (Pesaran), the long-term elasticity mean value equals 0.63, and is significantly different from zero for 10 countries only. When we take away the countries, where the number of fatalities is stationary, the average elasticity takes a higher value of nearly 1. This shows the strong sensitivity of the estimate of the average elasticity over a panel of European countries and underlines the necessity to be aware of the underlying nature of the time series, to get a suitable regression model. PMID:27042989

  15. Relating traffic fatalities to GDP in Europe on the long term.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Lassarre, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    Modeling road safety development can provide important insight into policies for the reduction of traffic fatalities. In order to achieve this goal, both the quantifiable impact of specific parameters, as well as the underlying trends that cannot always be measured or observed, need to be considered. One of the key relationships in road safety links fatalities with risk and exposure, where exposure reflects the amount of travel, which in turn translates to how much travelers are exposed to risk. In general two economic variables: GDP and unemployment rate are selected to analyse the statistical relationships with some indicators of road accident fatality risk. The objective of this research is to provide an overview of relevant literature on the topic and outline some recent developments in macro-panel data analysis that have resulted in ongoing research that has the potential to improve our ability to forecast traffic fatality trends, especially under turbulent financial situations. For this analysis, time series of the number of fatalities and GDP in 30 European countries for a period of 38 years (1975-2012) are used. This process relies on estimating long-term models (as captured by long term time-series models, which model each country separately). Based on these developments, utilizing state-of-the-art modelling and analysis techniques such as the Common Correlated Effects Mean Group estimator (Pesaran), the long-term elasticity mean value equals 0.63, and is significantly different from zero for 10 countries only. When we take away the countries, where the number of fatalities is stationary, the average elasticity takes a higher value of nearly 1. This shows the strong sensitivity of the estimate of the average elasticity over a panel of European countries and underlines the necessity to be aware of the underlying nature of the time series, to get a suitable regression model.

  16. Superoxide activates a GDP-sensitive proton conductance in skeletal muscle mitochondria from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Talbot, Darren A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rey, Benjamin; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Brand, Martin D

    2003-12-26

    We present the partial nucleotide sequence of the avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) gene from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), showing that the protein is 88-92% identical to chicken (Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), and hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura). We show that superoxide activates the proton conductance of mitochondria isolated from king penguin skeletal muscle. GDP abolishes the superoxide-activated proton conductance, indicating that it is mediated via avUCP. In the absence of superoxide there is no GDP-sensitive component of the proton conductance from penguin muscle mitochondria demonstrating that avUCP plays no role in the basal proton leak. PMID:14651968

  17. Transforming growth factor β signaling upregulates the expression of human GDP-fucose transporter by activating transcription factor Sp1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu-Xin; Ma, Anna; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    GDP-fucose transporter plays a crucial role in fucosylation of glycoproteins by providing activated fucose donor, GDP-fucose, for fucosyltransferases in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. Fucose-containing glycans are involved in many biological processes, which are essential for growth and development. Mutations in the GDP-fucose transporter gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome II, a disease characterized by slow growth, mental retardation and immunodeficiency. However, no information is available regarding its transcriptional regulation. Here, by using human cells, we show that TGF-β1 specifically induces the GDP-fucose transporter expression, but not other transporters tested such as CMP-sialic acid transporter, suggesting a diversity of regulatory pathways for the expression of these transporters. The regulatory elements that are responsive to the TGF-β1 stimulation are present in the region between bp -330 and -268 in the GDP-fucose transporter promoter. We found that this region contains two identical octamer GC-rich motifs (GGGGCGTG) that were demonstrated to be essential for the transporter expression. We also show that the transcription factor Sp1 specifically binds to the GC-rich motifs in vitro and Sp1 coupled with phospho-Smad2 is associated with the promoter region covering the Sp1-binding motifs in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. In addition, we further confirmed that Sp1 is essential for the GDP-fucose transporter expression stimulated by TGF-β1 using a luciferase reporter system. These results highlight the role of TGF-β signaling in regulation of the GDP-fucose transporter expression via activating Sp1. This is the first transcriptional study for any nucleotide sugar transporters that have been identified so far. Notably, TGF-β1 receptor itself is known to be modified by fucosylation. Given the essential role of GDP-fucose transporter in fucosylation, the finding that TGF-β1 stimulates the expression of

  18. 75 FR 33811 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Policy Committee's Privacy & Security Tiger Team. General Function of the Committee: To provide... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Privacy & Security Tiger Team Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the...

  19. A functional modulation for timing a movement: a coordinative structure in baseball hitting.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Hiromu

    2007-02-01

    In baseball hitting, a powerful bat-swing needs to be produced by utilizing ground reaction force (GRF) and it should also be temporally coordinated relative to the flight of the pitch. The temporal organization of hitting movements associated with these task requirements was investigated by analyzing GRF during hitting slow and fast pitches. The timing of stepping with a front foot and shifting weight forward was modulated relative to the pitch's speed. The temporal relation between successive motion phases was compensatory and timing variability progressively reduced up to ball-bat contact. These results demonstrated the coordinative structure of the hitting movement for timing the bat-swing relative to the pitch's flight. PMID:17204344

  20. 76 FR 28784 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... access only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary... Standards Committee Workgroups will hold the following public meetings during June 2011: June 1st Vocabulary... specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards, clinical quality,...

  1. 76 FR 39107 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... access only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary... Standards Committee Workgroups will hold the following public meetings during July 2011: July 8th Vocabulary... specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards, clinical quality,...

  2. 76 FR 22398 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... access only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary... Standards Committee Workgroups will hold the following public meetings during May 2011: May 5th Vocabulary... specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards, clinical quality,...

  3. 76 FR 9784 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for...

  4. 75 FR 5595 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that permits... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of...

  5. 75 FR 16126 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that permits... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of...

  6. 75 FR 151 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... the development and adoption of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure that permits... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of...

  7. 75 FR 6398 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Adoption/Certification Workgroup Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces...

  8. A functional modulation for timing a movement: a coordinative structure in baseball hitting.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Hiromu

    2007-02-01

    In baseball hitting, a powerful bat-swing needs to be produced by utilizing ground reaction force (GRF) and it should also be temporally coordinated relative to the flight of the pitch. The temporal organization of hitting movements associated with these task requirements was investigated by analyzing GRF during hitting slow and fast pitches. The timing of stepping with a front foot and shifting weight forward was modulated relative to the pitch's speed. The temporal relation between successive motion phases was compensatory and timing variability progressively reduced up to ball-bat contact. These results demonstrated the coordinative structure of the hitting movement for timing the bat-swing relative to the pitch's flight.

  9. 75 FR 369 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee meetings of a federal advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  10. 75 FR 3906 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee meetings of a federal advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  11. 75 FR 12752 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee meetings of a Federal advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  12. 75 FR 8078 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee meetings of a Federal advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  13. 76 FR 1432 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee meetings of a Federal advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  14. 75 FR 51819 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee meetings of a Federal advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  15. 75 FR 21630 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee meetings of a Federal advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  16. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and final closure, including, but not limited to, procedures for cleaning equipment and removing... closure of a boiler or industrial furnace, whichever is earlier. (2) The date when he “expects to...

  17. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and final closure, including, but not limited to, procedures for cleaning equipment and removing... closure of a boiler or industrial furnace, whichever is earlier. (2) The date when he “expects to...

  18. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and final closure, including, but not limited to, procedures for cleaning equipment and removing... closure of a boiler or industrial furnace, whichever is earlier. (2) The date when he “expects to...

  19. [Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Importance for anesthesia and intensive care].

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, S; Seyfert, U T

    1999-11-01

    For many decades, heparins have been used successfully for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic complications world-wide. Although heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT Type II) is a well-known adverse effect of heparin therapy, thromboembolic complications during heparin therapy are rarely diagnosed exactly to be related to HIT. At present an immunologic etiology of HIT by generation of multimodal immune complexes against a neo antigen of heparin and platelet factor 4 is equivocally accepted. The incidence of HIT seems to be related to the type of heparin (unfractioned/low molecular weight) or other underlying risks such as peripheral occlusive vessel disease. Mortality and complications resulting from HIT is reported to be about 20-30% each. For diagnosis of HIT Type II, clinical observation and simultaneous laboratory testing are essential. Discontinuation of heparin is a simple and essential manoeuvre, and anticoagulation has to be continued by alternative drugs. The heparinoid danaparoid-sodium and the thrombin inhibitor recombinant hirudin have been used successfully world-wide for treatment in many patients with HIT Type II including cardiopulmonary bypass surgery or renal replacement procedures. Furthermore, other therapeutical alternatives (e.g. immunoglobulins, prostaglandines) exist. Randomised controlled studies have to evaluate which drug has to be preferred in the future including risk/benefit ratio. The need of supplementary surgical procedures (e.g. embolectomy) depends on the individual clinical status. The patients have to be informed in detail about their underlying disease and further deleterious consequences of re-exposition with heparin. HIT should be recorded in an emergency certificate and the national Committee on Drugs should be informed about this severe side effect of heparin therapy.

  20. Closure: It's More than Just Lining Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Charles A.; Clemons, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The value of effective lesson planning for optimized learning is a well researched and established concept in education. Although different formats exist for lesson planning, most contain common components, including a structured ending. One common term for a planned ending to a lesson is closure. Unfortunately, not all lessons are well planned…

  1. Automatically closing swing gate closure assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Chih; Schuck, William J.; Gilmore, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    A swing gate closure assembly for nuclear reactor tipoff assembly wherein the swing gate is cammed open by a fuel element or spacer but is reliably closed at a desired closing rate primarily by hydraulic forces in the absence of a fuel charge.

  2. 50 CFR 622.43 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Spanish mackerel taken under the bag limits. (4) Royal red shrimp in the Gulf. Royal red shrimp in or from the Gulf EEZ may not be retained, and the sale or purchase of royal red shrimp taken from the Gulf EEZ... prohibition on sale/purchase during a closure for Gulf reef fish, king and Spanish mackerel, royal red...

  3. Novel bivariate moment-closure approximations.

    PubMed

    Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy; Marion, Glenn; Gibson, Gavin

    2007-08-01

    Nonlinear stochastic models are typically intractable to analytic solutions and hence, moment-closure schemes are used to provide approximations to these models. Existing closure approximations are often unable to describe transient aspects caused by extinction behaviour in a stochastic process. Recent work has tackled this problem in the univariate case. In this study, we address this problem by introducing novel bivariate moment-closure methods based on mixture distributions. Novel closure approximations are developed, based on the beta-binomial, zero-modified distributions and the log-Normal, designed to capture the behaviour of the stochastic SIS model with varying population size, around the threshold between persistence and extinction of disease. The idea of conditional dependence between variables of interest underlies these mixture approximations. In the first approximation, we assume that the distribution of infectives (I) conditional on population size (N) is governed by the beta-binomial and for the second form, we assume that I is governed by zero-modified beta-binomial distribution where in either case N follows a log-Normal distribution. We analyse the impact of coupling and inter-dependency between population variables on the behaviour of the approximations developed. Thus, the approximations are applied in two situations in the case of the SIS model where: (1) the death rate is independent of disease status; and (2) the death rate is disease-dependent. Comparison with simulation shows that these mixture approximations are able to predict disease extinction behaviour and describe transient aspects of the process.

  4. Mechanics of Blastopore Closure during Amphibian Gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Feroze, Rafey; Shawky, Joseph H.; von Dassow, Michelangelo; Davidson, Lance A.

    2014-01-01

    Blastopore closure in the amphibian embryo involves large scale tissue reorganization driven by physical forces. These forces are tuned to generate sustained blastopore closure throughout the course of gastrulation. We describe the mechanics of blastopore closure at multiple scales and in different regions around the blastopore by characterizing large scale tissue deformations, cell level shape change and subcellular F-actin organization and by measuring tissue force production and structural stiffness of the blastopore during gastrulation. We find that the embryo generates a ramping magnitude of force until it reaches a peak force on the order of 0.5 μ Newtons. During this time course, the embryo also stiffens 1.5 fold. Strain rate mapping of the dorsal, ventral and lateral epithelial cells proximal to the blastopore reveals changing patterns of strain rate throughout closure. Cells dorsal to the blastopore, which are fated to become neural plate ectoderm, are polarized and have straight boundaries. In contrast, cells lateral and ventral to the blastopore are less polarized and have tortuous cell boundaries. The F-actin network is organized differently in each region with the highest percentage of alignment occurring in the lateral region. Interestingly F-actin was consistently oriented toward the blastopore lip in dorsal and lateral cells, but oriented parallel to the lip in ventral regions. Cell shape and F-actin alignment analyses reveal different local mechanical environments in regions around the blastopore, which was reflected by the strain rate maps. PMID:25448691

  5. 50 CFR 622.246 - Area closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.246 Area closures. (a) Golden crab trap closed areas. In the golden crab northern zone, a golden crab trap may not be deployed in waters less than 900 ft (274 m) deep....

  6. 50 CFR 622.246 - Area closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.246 Area closures. (a) Golden crab trap closed areas. In the golden crab northern zone, a golden crab trap may not be deployed in waters less than 900 ft (274 m) deep....

  7. Academic Program Closures: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houpt, Corinne A., Ed.

    The materials in this compendium are intended to assist counsel and administrators at institutions of higher education faced with the need to consider and plan for program closures. Some materials also deal with the closely related issues of financial exigency, faculty reductions, and reductions in force. Section I offers the following papers:…

  8. Rural Primary School Closures in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Richard C.

    A three-phase interdisciplinary effort between educators and environmental planners is focusing on the social effects of rural primary school reorganization now occuring in England as a result of a declining birth rate and the resulting need for school closure. A questionnaire mailed nationally to rural Local Education Authorities, cross-community…

  9. 50 CFR 92.21 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., posting of the areas affected, notifying the State wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency closures. 92.21 Section 92.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  10. 50 CFR 92.21 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., posting of the areas affected, notifying the State wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency closures. 92.21 Section 92.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  11. 50 CFR 92.21 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., posting of the areas affected, notifying the State wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency closures. 92.21 Section 92.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  12. 50 CFR 92.21 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., posting of the areas affected, notifying the State wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency closures. 92.21 Section 92.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  13. Eye closure enhances dark night perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Brodoehl, Stefan; Klingner, Carsten M.; Witte, Otto W.

    2015-01-01

    We often close our eyes when we explore objects with our fingers to reduce the dominance of the visual system over our other senses. Here we show that eye closure, even in complete darkness, results in improved somatosensory perception due to a switch from visual predominance towards a somatosensory processing mode. Using a tactile discrimination task and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) data were acquired from healthy subjects with their eyes opened and closed in two environments: under ambient light and in complete darkness. Under both conditions the perception threshold decreased when subjects closed their eyes, and their fingers became more sensitive. In complete darkness, eye closure significantly increased occipital blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the somatosensory and secondary visual processing areas. This change in brain activity was associated with enhanced coupling between the sensory thalamus and somatosensory cortex; connectivity between the visual and somatosensory areas decreased. The present study demonstrates that eye closure improves somatosensory perception not merely due to the lack of visual signals; instead, the act of closing the eyes itself alters the processing mode in the brain: with eye closure the brain switches from thalamo-cortical networks with visual dominance to a non-visually dominated processing mode. PMID:26012706

  14. 50 CFR 635.28 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... closure, NMFS will also take into consideration the criteria specified in § 635.27(a)(8). (b) Sharks. (1... for the shark species or complexes specified in § 635.27(b)(1) will remain open. (2) When NMFS calculates that the landings for the shark species or complexes, as specified in § 635.27(b)(1), has...

  15. 50 CFR 635.28 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... closure, NMFS will also take into consideration the criteria specified in § 635.27(a)(8). (b) Sharks. (1... for the shark species or complexes specified in § 635.27(b)(1) will remain open. (2) When NMFS calculates that the landings for the shark species or complexes, as specified in § 635.27(b)(1), has...

  16. 50 CFR 635.28 - Fishery closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 635.28, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... closure, NMFS will also take into consideration the criteria specified in § 635.27(a)(8). (b) Sharks—(1... this section, when NMFS calculates that the landings for the shark species management group,...

  17. 50 CFR 665.466 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closures. 665.466 Section 665.466 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries §...

  18. 50 CFR 665.466 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closures. 665.466 Section 665.466 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries §...

  19. 50 CFR 665.466 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closures. 665.466 Section 665.466 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries §...

  20. 50 CFR 665.466 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closures. 665.466 Section 665.466 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries §...

  1. 50 CFR 665.466 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closures. 665.466 Section 665.466 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries §...

  2. 50 CFR 679.22 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....22, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... closures in the Chum Salmon Savings Area. (11) (12) Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas. No federally permitted vessel may fish with bottom contact gear in the Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas,...

  3. 50 CFR 679.22 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....22, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... closures in the Chum Salmon Savings Area. (11) (12) Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas. No federally permitted vessel may fish with bottom contact gear in the Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas,...

  4. 50 CFR 679.22 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... closures in the Chum Salmon Savings Area. (11) (12) Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas. No federally permitted vessel may fish with bottom contact gear in the Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas,...

  5. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS..., rare, unique, or vanishing species of plants, animals, birds or fish. (b) Special...

  6. 40 CFR 264.575 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.575..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and...-closure, and financial responsibility, such a drip pad is then considered to be landfill, and the owner...

  7. 40 CFR 265.445 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....443(b)(1) must: (i) Include in the closure plan for the drip pad under § 265.112 both a plan for... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures...

  8. 40 CFR 265.445 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....443(b)(1) must: (i) Include in the closure plan for the drip pad under § 265.112 both a plan for... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures...

  9. 40 CFR 265.445 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....443(b)(1) must: (i) Include in the closure plan for the drip pad under § 265.112 both a plan for... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures...

  10. 40 CFR 265.445 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....443(b)(1) must: (i) Include in the closure plan for the drip pad under § 265.112 both a plan for... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures...

  11. 40 CFR 264.575 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.575..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and...-closure, and financial responsibility, such a drip pad is then considered to be landfill, and the owner...

  12. 40 CFR 264.575 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.575..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and...-closure, and financial responsibility, such a drip pad is then considered to be landfill, and the owner...

  13. 40 CFR 264.575 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.575..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and...-closure, and financial responsibility, such a drip pad is then considered to be landfill, and the owner...

  14. Fundamental mechanics of aortic heart valve closure.

    PubMed

    Hose, David Rodney; Narracott, Andrew James; Penrose, Justin M T; Baguley, David; Jones, Ian P; Lawford, Patricia V

    2006-01-01

    Stresses in a prosthetic heart valve at closure are determined by its geometrical and structural characteristics, by the mechanical support environment, and by the momentum of the valve leaflets or occluder and of the blood at the instant of closure. The mass of blood to be arrested is significantly greater than that of the leaflets or occluder, and is therefore likely to dominate the closure impulse. The kinetic energy of the blood must be transduced into potential energy in the structural components (valve leaflets, aortic root and aorta). This paper presents a methodology for computation and parameterisation of the blood momentum associated with a valve in the aortic position. It is suggested that the influence of physiological parameters, such as systolic waveform and systemic impedance, on the closure characteristics can be investigated based on the fluid dynamic implications. Detailed results are presented for a single leaflet mechanical valve (Bjork-Shiley 60 degrees Convexo-Concave). It is demonstrated that a simple analytical method can yield results that might be adequate for the purposes of valve design.

  15. RECENT PROGRESS IN DOE WASTE TANK CLOSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2008-02-01

    The USDOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four USDOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews.

  16. Recent Progress in DOE Waste Tank Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, Ch.H.; Cook, J.R.

    2008-07-01

    The US DOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four US DOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews. (authors)

  17. 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, S.N.

    1994-08-15

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 300 Area Process Trenches, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. For the purposes of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Westinghouse Hanford Company is identified as ``co-operator.`` The 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan (Revision 0) consists of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Form 3 and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application, Form 3 submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and six appendices. The 300 Area Process Trenches received dangerous waste discharges from research and development laboratories in the 300 Area and from fuels fabrication processes. This waste consisted of state-only toxic (WT02), corrosive (D002), chromium (D007), spent halogenated solvents (F001, F002, and F003), and spent nonhalogented solvent (F005). Accurate records are unavailable concerning the amount of dangerous waste discharged to the trenches. The estimated annual quantity of waste (item IV.B) reflects the total quantity of both regulated and nonregulated waste water that was discharged to the unit.

  18. Prosody, Phonology, and Parsing in Closure Ambiguities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Paul; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigated the relationship of syntactic structure with prosodic and phonological information, focusing on distinctions between early and late closure sentences in terms both of intonational phrasing and of stress placement on stress shift items such as "Hong Kong." Contains 63 references. (MDM)

  19. Measuring Need for Closure in Classroom Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBacker, Teresa K.; Crowson, H. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Need for closure, as formulated by Kruglanski and colleagues [Kruglanski, A. W. (1990). Lay epistemic theory in social-cognitive psychology. "Psychological Inquiry," 1(3), 181-197; Kruglanski, A. W., & Webster, D. M. (1996). Motivated closing of the mind: Seizing and freezing. "Psychological Review," 103, 263-283; Webster, D. M., & Kruglanski, A.…

  20. Opening up closure. Semiotics across scales

    PubMed

    Lemke

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic emergence of new levels of organization in complex systems is related to the semiotic reorganization of discrete/continuous variety at the level below as continuous/discrete meaning for the level above. In this view both the semiotic and the dynamic closure of system levels is reopened to allow the development and evolution of greater complexity.

  1. Management of Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jimmy; Choy, Bonnie N K; Shum, Jennifer W H

    2016-01-01

    Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a progressive optic nerve degeneration and is defined as a glaucomatous optic neuropathy with associated characteristic enlargement of optic disc cupping and visual field loss that is secondary to ocular hypertension caused by closure of the drainage angle. Angle closure is caused by appositional approximation or adhesion between the iris and the trabecular meshwork. The main treatment strategy for PACG lies in the reduction of intraocular pressure, reopening of the closed angle, and possible prevention of further angle closure. There is no universally agreed best surgical treatment for PACG. Trabeculectomy, goniosynechialysis (GSL), glaucoma implant, and cyclodestructive procedures are effective surgical options. Each of them plays an important role in the management of PACG with its own pros and cons. Accumulating evidence is available to show the effectiveness of visually significant and visually nonsignificant cataract extraction in the treatment of PACG. Trabeculectomy and GSL are often combined with cataract extraction, which may offer additional pressure control benefits to patients with PACG. This review article will discuss laser peripheral iridotomy, argon laser peripheral iridoplasty, and surgeries such as GSL, phacoemulsification, and phaco plus glaucoma surgeries that lower intraocular pressure and also alter the anterior segment and/or drainage angle anatomy. Currently, glaucoma implants and cyclodestruction are mainly reserved for PACG patients who have failed previous filtering operations. Their role as initial surgical treatment for PACG will not be discussed. PMID:26886121

  2. USER FRUSTRATION IN HIT INTERFACES: EXPLORING PAST HCI RESEARCH FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CLINICIANS’ EXPERIENCES

    PubMed Central

    Opoku-Boateng, Gloria A.

    2015-01-01

    User frustration research has been one way of looking into clinicians’ experience with health information technology use and interaction. In order to understand how clinician frustration with Health Information Technology (HIT) use occurs, there is the need to explore Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) literature that addresses both frustration and HIT use. In the past three decades, HCI frustration research has increased and expanded. Researchers have done a lot of work to understand emotions, end-user frustration and affect. This paper uses a historical literature review approach to review the origins of emotion and frustration research and explore the research question; Does HCI research on frustration provide insights on clinicians’ frustration with HIT interfaces? From the literature review HCI research on emotion and frustration provides additional insights that can indeed help explain user frustration in HIT. Different approaches and HCI perspectives also help frame HIT user frustration research as well as inform HIT system design. The paper concludes with a suggested directions on how future design and research may take. PMID:26958238

  3. USER FRUSTRATION IN HIT INTERFACES: EXPLORING PAST HCI RESEARCH FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CLINICIANS' EXPERIENCES.

    PubMed

    Opoku-Boateng, Gloria A

    2015-01-01

    User frustration research has been one way of looking into clinicians' experience with health information technology use and interaction. In order to understand how clinician frustration with Health Information Technology (HIT) use occurs, there is the need to explore Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) literature that addresses both frustration and HIT use. In the past three decades, HCI frustration research has increased and expanded. Researchers have done a lot of work to understand emotions, end-user frustration and affect. This paper uses a historical literature review approach to review the origins of emotion and frustration research and explore the research question; Does HCI research on frustration provide insights on clinicians' frustration with HIT interfaces? From the literature review HCI research on emotion and frustration provides additional insights that can indeed help explain user frustration in HIT. Different approaches and HCI perspectives also help frame HIT user frustration research as well as inform HIT system design. The paper concludes with a suggested directions on how future design and research may take.

  4. On the accuracy of the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System used in football helmets.

    PubMed

    Jadischke, Ron; Viano, David C; Dau, Nathan; King, Albert I; McCarthy, Joe

    2013-09-01

    On-field measurement of head impacts has relied on the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System, which uses helmet mounted accelerometers to determine linear and angular head accelerations. HIT is used in youth and collegiate football to assess the frequency and severity of helmet impacts. This paper evaluates the accuracy of HIT for individual head impacts. Most HIT validations used a medium helmet on a Hybrid III head. However, the appropriate helmet is large based on the Hybrid III head circumference (58 cm) and manufacturer's fitting instructions. An instrumented skull cap was used to measure the pressure between the head of football players (n=63) and their helmet. The average pressure with a large helmet on the Hybrid III was comparable to the average pressure from helmets used by players. A medium helmet on the Hybrid III produced average pressures greater than the 99th percentile volunteer pressure level. Linear impactor tests were conducted using a large and medium helmet on the Hybrid III. Testing was conducted by two independent laboratories. HIT data were compared to data from the Hybrid III equipped with a 3-2-2-2 accelerometer array. The absolute and root mean square error (RMSE) for HIT were computed for each impact (n=90). Fifty-five percent (n=49) had an absolute error greater than 15% while the RMSE was 59.1% for peak linear acceleration.

  5. Are stripes beneficial? Dazzle camouflage influences perceived speed and hit rates.

    PubMed

    von Helversen, Bettina; Schooler, Lael J; Czienskowski, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    In the animal kingdom, camouflage refers to patterns that help potential prey avoid detection. Mostly camouflage is thought of as helping prey blend in with their background. In contrast, disruptive or dazzle patterns protect moving targets and have been suggested as an evolutionary force in shaping the dorsal patterns of animals. Dazzle patterns, such as stripes and zigzags, are thought to reduce the probability with which moving prey will be captured by impairing predators' perception of speed. We investigated how different patterns of stripes (longitudinal-i.e., parallel to movement direction-and vertical-i.e., perpendicular to movement direction) affect the probability with which humans can hit moving objects and if differences in hitting probability are caused by a misperception of speed. A first experiment showed that longitudinally striped objects were hit more often than unicolored objects. However, vertically striped objects did not differ from unicolored objects. A second study examining the link between perceived speed and hitting probability showed that longitudinally and vertically striped objects were both perceived as moving faster and were hit more often than unicolored objects. In sum, our results provide evidence that striped patterns disrupt the perception of speed, which in turn influences how often objects are hit. However, the magnitude and the direction of the effects depend on additional factors such as speed and the task setup. PMID:23637795

  6. Interval estimates for closure-phase and closure-amplitude imaging in radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Bernat, Andrew; Kosheleva, Olga; Finkel'shtejn, Andrej

    1992-01-01

    Interval estimates for closure-phase and closure-amplitude imaging that enable the reconstruction of a radioimage from results of approximate measurements are presented. If the intervals for the measured values are known, the precision of the result of the reconstruction cannot be solved by standard interval methods, because the phase value is based on a circle but not on a real line. If the phase theta (x bar) is measured with precision epsilon, so that the closure phase theta (x bar) + theta (y bar) - theta (x bar + y bar) is known with precision 3 epsilon, then from these measurements theta can be reconstructed with precision 6 epsilon. Similar estimates are given for closure amplitude.

  7. Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, P.C.; Skokan, B.

    2007-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

  8. 40 CFR 264.603 - Post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post-closure care. 264.603 Section 264... Miscellaneous Units § 264.603 Post-closure care. A miscellaneous unit that is a disposal unit must be maintained in a manner that complies with § 264.601 during the post-closure care period. In addition, if...

  9. 32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Base closure and realignment. 989.25 Section 989... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special requirements for environmental analysis. The permanent base...

  10. 32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Base closure and realignment. 989.25 Section 989... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special requirements for environmental analysis. The permanent base...

  11. 32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Base closure and realignment. 989.25 Section 989... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special requirements for environmental analysis. The permanent base...

  12. 32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Base closure and realignment. 989.25 Section 989... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special requirements for environmental analysis. The permanent base...

  13. 32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Base closure and realignment. 989.25 Section 989... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special requirements for environmental analysis. The permanent base...

  14. 27 CFR 28.102 - Bottles to have closures affixed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles to have closures... Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.102 Bottles to have closures affixed. Every bottle containing distilled spirits to be withdrawn under the provisions of this subpart shall have a closure...

  15. 49 CFR 178.360-4 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closure devices. 178.360-4 Section 178.360-4... Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-4 Closure devices. (a) Each closure device must be as follows: (1) Screw-type cap or plug; number of threads per inch must not be less...

  16. The Effect of Rural Hospital Closures on Community Economic Health

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, George M; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Randolph, Randy K; Poley, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of rural hospital closures on the local economy. Data Sources U.S. Census Bureau, OSCAR, Medicare Cost Reports, and surveys of individuals knowledgeable about local hospital closures. Study Design Economic data at the county level for 1990–2000 were combined with information on hospital closures. The study sample was restricted to rural counties experiencing a closure during the sample period. Longitudinal regression methods were used to estimate the effect of hospital closure on per-capita income, unemployment rate, and other community economic measures. Models included both leading and lagged closure terms allowing a preclosure economic downturn as well as time for the closure to be fully realized by the community. Data Collection Information on closures was collected by contacting every state hospital association, reconciling information gathered with that contained in the American Hospital Association file and OIG reports. Principal Findings Results indicate that the closure of the sole hospital in the community reduces per-capita income by $703 (p<0.05) or 4 percent (p<0.05) and increases the unemployment rate by 1.6 percentage points (p<0.01). Closures in communities with alternative sources of hospital care had no long-term economic impact, although income decreased for 2 years following the closure. Conclusions The local economic effects of a hospital closure should be considered when regulations that affect hospitals' financial well-being are designed or changed. PMID:16584460

  17. 40 CFR 146.72 - Post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post-closure care. 146.72 Section 146... Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 146.72 Post-closure care. (a) The owner or operator of a Class I hazardous waste well shall prepare, maintain, and comply with a plan for post-closure care that meets...

  18. 40 CFR 146.72 - Post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Post-closure care. 146.72 Section 146... Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 146.72 Post-closure care. (a) The owner or operator of a Class I hazardous waste well shall prepare, maintain, and comply with a plan for post-closure care that meets...

  19. 40 CFR 146.72 - Post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post-closure care. 146.72 Section 146... Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 146.72 Post-closure care. (a) The owner or operator of a Class I hazardous waste well shall prepare, maintain, and comply with a plan for post-closure care that meets...

  20. 40 CFR 258.61 - Post-closure care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.61 Post-closure care... final cover, including making repairs to the cover as necessary to correct the effects of settlement... human health and the environment; (3) Monitoring the ground water in accordance with the requirements...

  1. 40 CFR 258.61 - Post-closure care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.61 Post-closure care... final cover, including making repairs to the cover as necessary to correct the effects of settlement... human health and the environment; (3) Monitoring the ground water in accordance with the requirements...

  2. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  3. A novel GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase involved in quality control of the nucleoside diphosphate sugar pool in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lital N; Gomez, Tara A; Clarke, Steven G; Linster, Carole L

    2011-06-17

    The plant VTC2 gene encodes GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in plant vitamin C biosynthesis. Genes encoding apparent orthologs of VTC2 exist in both mammals, which produce vitamin C by a distinct metabolic pathway, and in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans where vitamin C biosynthesis has not been demonstrated. We have now expressed cDNAs of the human and worm VTC2 homolog genes (C15orf58 and C10F3.4, respectively) and found that the purified proteins also display GDP-hexose phosphorylase activity. However, as opposed to the plant enzyme, the major reaction catalyzed by these enzymes is the phosphorolysis of GDP-D-glucose to GDP and D-glucose 1-phosphate. We detected activities with similar substrate specificity in worm and mouse tissue extracts. The highest expression of GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase was found in the nervous and male reproductive systems. A C. elegans C10F3.4 deletion strain was found to totally lack GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase activity; this activity was also found to be decreased in human HEK293T cells transfected with siRNAs against the human C15orf58 gene. These observations confirm the identification of the worm C10F3.4 and the human C15orf58 gene expression products as the GDP-D-glucose phosphorylases of these organisms. Significantly, we found an accumulation of GDP-D-glucose in the C10F3.4 mutant worms, suggesting that the GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase may function to remove GDP-D-glucose formed by GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase, an enzyme that has previously been shown to lack specificity for its physiological D-mannose 1-phosphate substrate. We propose that such removal may prevent the misincorporation of glucosyl residues for mannosyl residues into the glycoconjugates of worms and mammals.

  4. Book Review: "The Road to Sustainability, GDP and Future Generations" Pulselli et al, WIT Press, Southhampton, UK 197p 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    “The Road to Sustainability, GDP and future generations” by Pulselli, F.M., Bastianoni, S., Marchettini, N. Tiezzi, E. was reviewed upon request by the journal’s editor. Briefly, this book presents the authors’ perspective on the complex and important topic of sustainability. Su...

  5. Structure of Gαi1 bound to a GDP-selective peptide provides insight into guanine nucleotide exchange

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Christopher A.; Willard, Francis S.; Jezyk, Mark R.; Fredericks, Zoey; Bodor, Erik T.; Jones, Miller B.; Blaesius, Rainer; Watts, Val J.; Harden, T. Kendall; Sondek, John; Ramer, J. Kevin; Siderovski, David P.

    2005-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are molecular switches that regulate numerous signaling pathways involved in cellular physiology. This characteristic is achieved by the adoption of two principal states: an inactive, GDP-bound and an active, GTP-bound state. Under basal conditions G-proteins exist in the inactive GDP-bound state, thus nucleotide exchange is crucial to the onset of signaling. Despite our understanding of G-protein signaling pathways, the mechanism of nucleotide exchange remains elusive. We employed phage display technology to identify nucleotide-state-dependent Gα binding peptides. Herein, we report a GDP-selective Gα-binding peptide, KB-752, that enhances spontaneous nucleotide exchange of Gαi subunits. Structural determination of the Gαi1/peptide complex reveals unique changes in the Gα switch regions predicted to enhance nucleotide exchange by creating a GDP dissociation route. Our results cast light onto a potential mechanism by which Gα subunits adopt a conformation suitable for nucleotide exchange. PMID:16004878

  6. Interconversion of two GDP-bound conformations and their selection in an Arf-family small G protein.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hideyasu; Nishikiori, Masaki; Xiang, Hongyu; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Katoh, Etsuko

    2011-07-13

    ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) and other Arf-family small G proteins participate in many cellular functions via their characteristic GTP/GDP conformational cycles, during which a nucleotide(∗)Mg(2+)-binding site communicates with a remote N-terminal helix. However, the conformational interplay between the nucleotides, the helix, the protein core, and Mg(2+) has not been fully delineated. Herein, we report a study of the dynamics of an Arf-family protein, Arl8, under various conditions by means of NMR relaxation spectroscopy. The data indicated that, when GDP is bound, the protein core, which does not include the N-terminal helix, reversibly transition between an Arf-family GDP form and another conformation that resembles the Arf-family GTP form. Additionally, we found that the N-terminal helix and Mg(2+), respectively, stabilize the aforementioned former and latter conformations in a population-shift manner. Given the dynamics of the conformational changes, we can describe the Arl8 GTP/GDP cycle in terms of an energy diagram.

  7. Tools for Closure Project and Contract Management: Development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, C. M.; Sheppard, F. R.

    2002-02-26

    This paper details the development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline - an innovative project management effort undertaken to ensure proactive management of the Rocky Flats Closure Contract in support of the Department's goal for achieving the safe closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in December 2006. The accelerated closure of RFETS is one of the most prominent projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management program. As the first major former weapons plant to be remediated and closed, it is a first-of-kind effort requiring the resolution of multiple complex technical and institutional challenges. Most significantly, the closure of RFETS is dependent upon the shipment of all special nuclear material and wastes to other DOE sites. The Department is actively working to strengthen project management across programs, and there is increasing external interest in this progress. The development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline represents a groundbreaking and cooperative effort to formalize the management of such a complex project across multiple sites and organizations. It is original in both scope and process, however it provides a useful precedent for the other ongoing project management efforts within the Environmental Management program.

  8. 77 FR 75186 - Notice of Closure, Target Shooting Public Safety Closure on the Lake Mountains in Utah County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure, Target Shooting Public Safety Closure on the Lake Mountains... approximately 900 acres of public land on the Lake Mountains in Utah County, Utah, to recreational target... Lake Mountains area. DATES: This target shooting closure within the described area will remain...

  9. Fragment-Based Whole Cell Screen Delivers Hits against M. tuberculosis and Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Wilfried; Lim, Jia Jie; Yeo, Si Ying; Ramanujulu, Pondy M.; Dymock, Brian W.; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reactive multi-target ‘fragment drugs’ represent critical components of current tuberculosis regimens. These compounds, such as pyrazinamide, are old synthetic antimycobacterials that are activated inside Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and are smaller than the usual drug-like, single-target molecules. Based on the success of small ‘dirty’ drugs in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, we suggested previously that fragment-based whole cell screens should be introduced in our current antimycobacterial drug discovery efforts. Here, we carried out such a screen and characterized bactericidal activity, selectivity and spectrum of hits we obtained. A library of 1725 fragments was tested at a single concentration for growth inhibitory activity against M. bovis BCG as screening strain and 38 of 116 primary hits were confirmed in dose response analyses to be active against virulent M. tuberculosis. Bacterial kill experiments showed that most hits displayed bactericidal activity at their minimal inhibitory concentration. Cytotoxicity assays established that a large proportion of hits displayed a favorable selectivity index for mammalian cells. Importantly, one third of M. tuberculosis active fragments were also active against M. abscessus and M. avium, two emerging non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pathogens, opening the opportunity to develop broad spectrum antimycobacterials. Activity determination against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans) showed only a small overlap indicating a generally narrow spectrum of these novel antimicrobial hits for mycobacteria. In conclusion, we carried out the first fragment-based whole cell screen against bacteria and identified a substantial number of hits with excellent physicochemical properties and dual activity against M. tuberculosis and NTM

  10. Fragment-Based Whole Cell Screen Delivers Hits against M. tuberculosis and Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Wilfried; Lim, Jia Jie; Yeo, Si Ying; Ramanujulu, Pondy M; Dymock, Brian W; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reactive multi-target 'fragment drugs' represent critical components of current tuberculosis regimens. These compounds, such as pyrazinamide, are old synthetic antimycobacterials that are activated inside Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and are smaller than the usual drug-like, single-target molecules. Based on the success of small 'dirty' drugs in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, we suggested previously that fragment-based whole cell screens should be introduced in our current antimycobacterial drug discovery efforts. Here, we carried out such a screen and characterized bactericidal activity, selectivity and spectrum of hits we obtained. A library of 1725 fragments was tested at a single concentration for growth inhibitory activity against M. bovis BCG as screening strain and 38 of 116 primary hits were confirmed in dose response analyses to be active against virulent M. tuberculosis. Bacterial kill experiments showed that most hits displayed bactericidal activity at their minimal inhibitory concentration. Cytotoxicity assays established that a large proportion of hits displayed a favorable selectivity index for mammalian cells. Importantly, one third of M. tuberculosis active fragments were also active against M. abscessus and M. avium, two emerging non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pathogens, opening the opportunity to develop broad spectrum antimycobacterials. Activity determination against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans) showed only a small overlap indicating a generally narrow spectrum of these novel antimicrobial hits for mycobacteria. In conclusion, we carried out the first fragment-based whole cell screen against bacteria and identified a substantial number of hits with excellent physicochemical properties and dual activity against M. tuberculosis and NTM pathogens

  11. Being selective at the plate: processing dependence between perceptual variables relates to hitting goals and performance.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2013-08-01

    Performance of a skill that involves acting on a goal object (e.g., a ball to be hit) can influence one's judgment of the size and speed of that object. The present study examined how these action-specific effects are affected when the goal of the actor is varied and they are free to choose between alternative actions. In Experiment 1, expert baseball players were asked to perform three different directional hitting tasks in a batting simulation and make interleaved perceptual judgments about three ball parameters (speed, plate crossing location, and size). Perceived ball size was largest (and perceived speed was slowest) when the ball crossing location was optimal for the particular hitting task the batter was performing (e.g., an "outside" pitch for opposite-field hitting). The magnitude of processing dependency between variables (speed vs. location and size vs. location) was positively correlated with batting performance. In Experiment 2, the action-specific effects observed in Experiment 1 were mimicked by systematically changing the ball diameter in the simulation as a function of plate crossing location. The number of swing initiations was greater when ball size was larger, and batters were more successful in the hitting task for which the larger pitches were optimal (e.g., greater number of pull hits than opposite-field hits when "inside" pitches were larger). These findings suggest attentional accentuation of goal-relevant targets underlies action-related changes in perception and are consistent with an action selection role for these effects. PMID:23163787

  12. Fragment-Based Whole Cell Screen Delivers Hits against M. tuberculosis and Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Wilfried; Lim, Jia Jie; Yeo, Si Ying; Ramanujulu, Pondy M.; Dymock, Brian W.; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reactive multi-target ‘fragment drugs’ represent critical components of current tuberculosis regimens. These compounds, such as pyrazinamide, are old synthetic antimycobacterials that are activated inside Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and are smaller than the usual drug-like, single-target molecules. Based on the success of small ‘dirty’ drugs in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, we suggested previously that fragment-based whole cell screens should be introduced in our current antimycobacterial drug discovery efforts. Here, we carried out such a screen and characterized bactericidal activity, selectivity and spectrum of hits we obtained. A library of 1725 fragments was tested at a single concentration for growth inhibitory activity against M. bovis BCG as screening strain and 38 of 116 primary hits were confirmed in dose response analyses to be active against virulent M. tuberculosis. Bacterial kill experiments showed that most hits displayed bactericidal activity at their minimal inhibitory concentration. Cytotoxicity assays established that a large proportion of hits displayed a favorable selectivity index for mammalian cells. Importantly, one third of M. tuberculosis active fragments were also active against M. abscessus and M. avium, two emerging non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pathogens, opening the opportunity to develop broad spectrum antimycobacterials. Activity determination against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans) showed only a small overlap indicating a generally narrow spectrum of these novel antimicrobial hits for mycobacteria. In conclusion, we carried out the first fragment-based whole cell screen against bacteria and identified a substantial number of hits with excellent physicochemical properties and dual activity against M. tuberculosis and NTM

  13. Schizophrenia two-hit hypothesis in velo-cardio facial syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, Hywel J; Monks, Stephen; Murphy, Kieran C; Kirov, George; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Deletion of chr22q11 gives rise to velo-cardio facial syndrome (VCFS) and increases schizophrenia risk. The source of this elevated risk although unknown could result from stochastic, environmental, or genetic factors, the latter encompassing a range of complexity from polygenic mechanisms to "second-hit" mutations. For this study we tested the two-hit hypothesis where additional risk is conferred through a second CNV. We identified large (>100 kb) CNVs in 48 VCFS cases (23 with psychosis--25 without) and show in the psychotic VCFS group there is a significant (P = 0.02) increase in the average size of CNVs (354-227 kb). To identify second-hit loci we focused on individuals possessing gene-centric CNVs and through literature mining identified 4 (31%) psychotic VCFS individuals (n = 13) that overlapped loci previously implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders compared to 1 (10%) from the non-psychotic VCFS individuals (n = 10). For replication 17 VCFS patients with schizophrenia from the molecular genetics of schizophrenia dataset were used to identify further CNVs. Thirteen individuals possessing gene-centric CNVs were identified including 3 (23%) individuals possessing a potential second-hit, taking the overall total in the psychotic VCFS group (n = 26) to 7 (27%) potential second-hit loci. Notably a deletion in a psychotic VCFS patient at 2q23.1 hit the gene MBD5 which when deleted gives rise to intellectual disability, epilepsy, and autistic features. Through this study we potentially extend this phenotypic spectrum to include schizophrenia. Our results suggest the two-hit hypothesis may be relevant to a proportion of VCFS patients with psychosis but sample sizes are small and further studies warranted.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan for the Y-12 9409-5 Tank Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This document presents information on the closure of the Y-12 9409-5 Tank Storage Facility. Topics discussed include: facility description; closure history; closure performance standard; partial closure; maximum waste inventory; closure activities; schedule; and postclosure care.

  15. Suitability of Exoseal Vascular Closure Device for Antegrade Femoral Artery Puncture Site Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelter, Christopher Liebl, Andrea; Poullos, Nektarios; Ruppert, Volker; Vorwerk, Dierk

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the efficacy and safety of the Exoseal vascular closure device for antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. Methods. In a prospective study from February 2011 to January 2012, a total of 93 consecutive patients received a total of 100 interventional procedures via an antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. An Exoseal vascular closure device (6F) was used for closure in all cases. Puncture technique, duration of manual compression, and use of compression bandages were documented. All patients were monitored by vascular ultrasound and color-coded duplex sonography of their respective femoral artery puncture site within 12 to 36 h after angiography to check for vascular complications. Results. In 100 antegrade interventional procedures, the Exoseal vascular closure device was applied successfully for closure of the femoral artery puncture site in 96 cases (96 of 100, 96.0 %). The vascular closure device could not be deployed in one case as a result of kinking of the vascular sheath introducer and in three cases because the bioabsorbable plug was not properly delivered to the extravascular space adjacent to the arterial puncture site, but instead fully removed with the delivery system (4.0 %). Twelve to 36 h after the procedure, vascular ultrasound revealed no complications at the femoral artery puncture site in 93 cases (93.0 %). Minor vascular complications were found in seven cases (7.0 %), with four cases (4.0 %) of pseudoaneurysm and three cases (3.0 %) of significant late bleeding, none of which required surgery. Conclusion. The Exoseal vascular closure device was safely used for antegrade puncture of the femoral artery, with a high rate of procedural success (96.0 %), a low rate of minor vascular complications (7.0 %), and no major adverse events.

  16. Characterization of the gene coding for GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (algD) from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, M; Martínez-Salazar, J M; Lloret, L; Moreno, S; Núñez, C; Espín, G; Soberón-Chávez, G

    1996-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii presents a differentiation process leading to the formation of desiccation-resistant cysts. Alginate, the exopolysaccharide produced by this bacterium, has been postulated to have a role in cyst formation. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of the A. vinelandii gene coding for the enzyme GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (algD), which is the key enzyme for alginate synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This gene has a high degree of similarity with the algD gene from P. aeruginosa, and similar proteins seem to be involved in algD regulation in both bacteria. We show the existence of two mRNA start sites; one of these sites corresponds to a promoter transcribed by RNA polymerase containing a sigma E subunit. An A. vinelandii algD mutant which is completely impaired in alginate production and which is unable to form desiccation-resistant cells was constructed. The effects of NH4, NO3, and NaCl concentrations on algD transcription for three A. vinelandii strains producing different alginate levels were evaluated. We found a strict correlation between alginate production and algD transcription for the three strains studied; however, the effects on algD transcription under the conditions studied were different for each strain. The nitrogen source regulates algD expression in the wild-type strain. PMID:8606150

  17. AtGDI2, a novel Arabidopsis gene encoding a Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Yoshizumi, T; Anai, T; Matsui, M; Uchimiya, H; Nakano, A

    1998-01-01

    The GTPase cycle of Rab/Ypt proteins is strictly controlled by several classes of regulators to ensure their proper roles in membrane traffic. GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) is known to play essential roles in regulating nucleotide states and subcellular localizations of Rab/Ypt proteins. To obtain further knowledge on this regulator molecule in plants, we isolated and characterized two genes of Arabidopsis thaliana that encode different GDIs. AtGDI1 has been identified by a novel functional cloning in yeast [Ueda et al. (1996) Plant Cell, 8, 2079-2091] and AtGDI2 was isolated by cross-hybridization in this study. AtGDI2, as well as AtGDI1, complements the yeast sec19/gdi1 mutant, indicating that they can replace the function of yeast GDI. Evidence is shown that both AtGDI1 and AtGDI2 can interact with Ara4, an Arabidopsis Rab protein, in the yeast ypt1 mutant cells. AtGDI2 is ubiquitously expressed in Arabidopsis tissues with some difference from AtGDI1 in expression level. Genomic DNA hybridization using specific probes reveals the presence of one more GDI gene in Arabidopsis. This may imply differentiated roles of GDI in higher plants.

  18. Rice GDP dissociation inhibitor 3 inhibits OsMAPK2 activity through physical interaction.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jae Bok; Yi, Young Byung; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2011-11-01

    GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) plays an essential role in regulating the state of bound nucleotides and subcellular localizations of Rab proteins. In our previous study, we showed that OsGDI3 facilitates the recycling of OsRab11 with a help of OsGAP1. In this study, we show that OsGDI3 complement the yeast sec19-1 mutant, a temperature-sensitive allele of the yeast GDI gene, suggesting that OsGDI3 is a functional ortholog of yeast GDI. To obtain further knowledge on the function of OsGDI3, candidate OsGDI3-interacting proteins were identified by yeast two-hybrid screens. OsMAPK2 is one of OsGDI3 interacting proteins from yeast two-hybrid screens and subject to further analysis. A kinase assay showed that the autophosphorylation activity of OsMAPK2 is inhibited by OsGDI3 in vitro. In addition, ectopic expressions of OsGDI3-in Arabidopsis cause reductions at the level of phosphorylated AtMPK in phosphorylation activity. Taken together, OsGDI3 functions as a negative regulator of OsMAPK2 through modulating its kinase activity.

  19. GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase from Pogonatherum paniceum enhances salinity and drought tolerance of transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ai, Taobo; Liao, Xuehong; Li, Rui; Fan, Linhong; Luo, Fengxue; Xu, Ying; Wang, Shenghua

    2016-01-01

    Pogonatherum paniceum is a highly drought- and salt-tolerant plant species that is typically used for ecological restoration and the conservation of soil and water in many countries. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying plant abiotic stress responses, especially to salinity and drought stresses, in species such as P. paniceum could be important to broader crop improvement efforts. GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase) is the limiting enzyme in the synthesis of L-ascorbic acid (AsA), which plays a crucial role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have cloned and characterized the cDNA of the PpGMP gene of P. paniceum encoding a GMPase. The full-length cDNA sequence contains 1411 nucleotides encoding a putative protein with 361 amino acid residues and an approximate molecular mass of 39.68 kDa. The GMPase transcript was up-regulated in P. paniceum plants subjected to salinity and drought stress, respectively. Transgenic tobacco expressing PpGMPase exhibited enhanced salinity and drought resistance, a higher seed germination rate, better growth performance, a higher AsA content, a more stable redox state, higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lower levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and H2O2 under drought and salinity stress. Taken together, expression of PpGMPase in tobacco conferred salinity and drought stress tolerance by increasing the content of AsA, thereby enhancing ROS-detoxifying functions. Thus, PpGMP is a potential candidate gene for crop improvement.

  20. Autonomic Closure for Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ryan; Hamlington, Peter; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2015-11-01

    A new autonomic subgrid-scale closure has been developed for large eddy simulation (LES). The approach poses a supervised learning problem that captures nonlinear, nonlocal, and nonequilibrium turbulence effects without specifying a predefined turbulence model. By solving a regularized optimization problem on test filter scale quantities, the autonomic approach identifies a nonparametric function that represents the best local relation between subgrid stresses and resolved state variables. The optimized function is then applied at the grid scale to determine unknown LES subgrid stresses by invoking scale similarity in the inertial range. A priori tests of the autonomic approach on homogeneous isotropic turbulence show that the new approach is amenable to powerful optimization and machine learning methods and is successful for a wide range of filter scales in the inertial range. In these a priori tests, the autonomic closure substantially improves upon the dynamic Smagorinsky model in capturing the instantaneous, statistical, and energy transfer properties of the subgrid stress field.

  1. In situ soil remediation speeds site closure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    An automotive parts manufacturing site in Madison, Wisconsin contaminated primarily with 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) achieved closure in 15 months using an in situ soil remediation technology that improved soil conditions nearly a thousand fold. TCA concentrations were as high as 19,600 ppb. However, TCA levels dropped to 20 ppb after one year of system operation, prompting the state agency to grant closure for the remediation project in late 1992, following 15 months of operation. The groundwater remediation system is a packed-to-wet air stripper. It includes two groundwater extraction wells, each pumping 30 gallons per minute, and three soil vadose zone wells with a total design capacity of 100 cubic feet per minute. The soil-vapor extraction system included two 15-foot-deep wells and a 40-foot-deep well connected to a blower with condensate-recovery equipment.

  2. Gap geometry dictates epithelial closure efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ravasio, Andrea; Cheddadi, Ibrahim; Chen, Tianchi; Pereira, Telmo; Ong, Hui Ting; Bertocchi, Cristina; Brugues, Agusti; Jacinto, Antonio; Kabla, Alexandre J.; Toyama, Yusuke; Trepat, Xavier; Gov, Nir; Neves de Almeida, Luís; Ladoux, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Closure of wounds and gaps in tissues is fundamental for the correct development and physiology of multicellular organisms and, when misregulated, may lead to inflammation and tumorigenesis. To re-establish tissue integrity, epithelial cells exhibit coordinated motion into the void by active crawling on the substrate and by constricting a supracellular actomyosin cable. Coexistence of these two mechanisms strongly depends on the environment. However, the nature of their coupling remains elusive because of the complexity of the overall process. Here we demonstrate that epithelial gap geometry in both in vitro and in vivo regulates these collective mechanisms. In addition, the mechanical coupling between actomyosin cable contraction and cell crawling acts as a large-scale regulator to control the dynamics of gap closure. Finally, our computational modelling clarifies the respective roles of the two mechanisms during this process, providing a robust and universal mechanism to explain how epithelial tissues restore their integrity. PMID:26158873

  3. Gap geometry dictates epithelial closure efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ravasio, Andrea; Cheddadi, Ibrahim; Chen, Tianchi; Pereira, Telmo; Ong, Hui Ting; Bertocchi, Cristina; Brugues, Agusti; Jacinto, Antonio; Kabla, Alexandre J; Toyama, Yusuke; Trepat, Xavier; Gov, Nir; Neves de Almeida, Luís; Ladoux, Benoit

    2015-07-09

    Closure of wounds and gaps in tissues is fundamental for the correct development and physiology of multicellular organisms and, when misregulated, may lead to inflammation and tumorigenesis. To re-establish tissue integrity, epithelial cells exhibit coordinated motion into the void by active crawling on the substrate and by constricting a supracellular actomyosin cable. Coexistence of these two mechanisms strongly depends on the environment. However, the nature of their coupling remains elusive because of the complexity of the overall process. Here we demonstrate that epithelial gap geometry in both in vitro and in vivo regulates these collective mechanisms. In addition, the mechanical coupling between actomyosin cable contraction and cell crawling acts as a large-scale regulator to control the dynamics of gap closure. Finally, our computational modelling clarifies the respective roles of the two mechanisms during this process, providing a robust and universal mechanism to explain how epithelial tissues restore their integrity.

  4. 7-methylguanosine diphosphate (m(7)GDP) is not hydrolyzed but strongly bound by decapping scavenger (DcpS) enzymes and potently inhibits their activity.

    PubMed

    Wypijewska, Anna; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Stepinski, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek; Davis, Richard E; Darzynkiewicz, Edward

    2012-10-01

    Decapping scavenger (DcpS) enzymes catalyze the cleavage of a residual cap structure following 3' → 5' mRNA decay. Some previous studies suggested that both m(7)GpppG and m(7)GDP were substrates for DcpS hydrolysis. Herein, we show that mononucleoside diphosphates, m(7)GDP (7-methylguanosine diphosphate) and m(3)(2,2,7)GDP (2,2,7-trimethylguanosine diphosphate), resulting from mRNA decapping by the Dcp1/2 complex in the 5' → 3' mRNA decay, are not degraded by recombinant DcpS proteins (human, nematode, and yeast). Furthermore, whereas mononucleoside diphosphates (m(7)GDP and m(3)(2,2,7)GDP) are not hydrolyzed by DcpS, mononucleoside triphosphates (m(7)GTP and m(3)(2,2,7)GTP) are, demonstrating the importance of a triphosphate chain for DcpS hydrolytic activity. m(7)GTP and m(3)(2,2,7)GTP are cleaved at a slower rate than their corresponding dinucleotides (m(7)GpppG and m(3)(2,2,7)GpppG, respectively), indicating an involvement of the second nucleoside for efficient DcpS-mediated digestion. Although DcpS enzymes cannot hydrolyze m(7)GDP, they have a high binding affinity for m(7)GDP and m(7)GDP potently inhibits DcpS hydrolysis of m(7)GpppG, suggesting that m(7)GDP may function as an efficient DcpS inhibitor. Our data have important implications for the regulatory role of m(7)GDP in mRNA metabolic pathways due to its possible interactions with different cap-binding proteins, such as DcpS or eIF4E.

  5. Acoustic emission measurement of fatigue crack closure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.; Rhyim, Y.M. . Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials); Kwon, D. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering); Ono, K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1995-03-01

    In this study the acoustic emission (AE) technique has been applied to measure the crack closure loads precisely and the results have been compared with those measured by the conventional techniques such as the crack opening displacement (COD) method, back face strain gage (BFS) method, and surface strain gage method. In addition, fatigue tests at high stress ratio (R=0.8) have also been conducted to compared the results with those of the above methods at R=0.1 and to verify the accuracy of each method. The material used in the present investigation was an Al-Li 8090 alloy which was supplied as a 44.5mm thick rolled plate in the solution heat treated, 6% stretched and naturally aged condition. The COD and BFS methods show relatively good agreement with each other and measure the through-thickness mean value of crack closure loads. In the plane strain condition, the crack closure levels obtained by the COD and BFS methods were lower than those by the AE and surface train gage methods. The data obtained by the surface strain gage method must be interpreted carefully, because the shape of the compliance curves is affected by the location relative to the crack tip. The intrinsic fatigue life curve (da/dN vs. [Delta]K[sub eff]) obtained by the AE technique fitted well with the curve of high stress ratio (R=0.8) test at high [Delta]K, suggesting that the AE technique is sensitive to local crack-tip behavior on a microscopic scale and can be considered as a reliable measurement method for crack closure phenomena under repetitive loads.

  6. Simple Case Treatment Planning: Diastema Closure.

    PubMed

    Calamia, Vincent; Pantzis, Alexandria

    2015-07-01

    This article demonstrates the use of a smile evaluation form as an adjunct in arriving at diagnosis and developing a treatment plan for a patient desiring Diastema closure. It also shows the importance of the diagnostic wax-up for temporization and visualization of case outcome. The case also demonstrates the use of soft tissue lasers to create a gingival harmony that enhanced the resulting esthetics. Feldspathic porcelain was used for the final restorations because they provide optimal esthetics and translucency.

  7. Waste acceptance criteria for closure generated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The PORTS Facility has been operating since 1954. The PORTS Facility is used to enrich uranium for nuclear navy applications and commercial nuclear reactors. The PORTS process uses molecular diffusion techniques to separate the U-235 isotope from the U-238 isotope. The PORTS Facility consists of a complex cascade of compressors and converters through which gaseous uranium hexafluoride feed is processed. The feed contains approximately 0.7 percent U-235 by weight while products contain from 4 to 97 percent U-235 by weight, depending on the final application. In general, the majority of the closure wastes generated at PORTS consists of personal protective equipment (PPE), rags, soils, decontamination solutions, and construction related debris. These hazardous wastes will be predominately characterized on the basis of process knowledge. PORTS assumes its conservative waste characterizations that are based on process knowledge are correct unless and until further investigation and/or analysis proves the constituents are not present or are present at concentrations below characteristic regulatory thresholds. Waste Acceptance Criteria for wastes generated by the closure of active and inactive RCRA facilities at PORTS has been developed. The criteria presented in this document govern the activities that are performed during the closure and subsequent generation of waste and relocation from the closure locations to the storage unit. These criteria are intended to ensure the proper handling, classification, processing, and storage of wastes in order to prevent hazardous waste release that may pose a threat to human health or the environment. Any wastes currently stored at each of the facilities that are to be closed will be transferred to the X-326 or X-7725 Storage Units. The waste transfers will be accomplished in accordance with the Container Transfer Plan.

  8. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C.

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  9. Gorlin syndrome with an ovarian leiomyoma associated with a PTCH1 second hit.

    PubMed

    Akizawa, Yoshika; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Ryo; Nagata, Reiko; Aoki, Ryoko; Ishitani, Ken; Nagashima, Yoji; Matsui, Hideo; Saito, Kayoko

    2016-04-01

    We describe a Gorlin syndrome (GS) case with two different second hit mutations of PTCH1, one in a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and the other in an ovarian leiomyoma. GS is a rare genetic condition manifesting as multiple basal cell nevi associated with other features such as medulloblastomas, skeletal abnormalities, and ovarian fibromas. A 21-year-old Japanese woman with a history of two KCOTs was diagnosed with GS according to clinical criteria. A PTCH1 mutation, c.1427del T, was detected in peripheral blood. A novel PTCH1 mutation, c.264_265insAATA, had been found in the maxillary KCOT as a second hit mutation. More recently, the ovarian tumor was detected during a gynecological examination. Laparoscopic adnexectomy was performed, and the pathological diagnosis of the ovarian tumor was leiomyoma. Interestingly, another novel mutation, loss of heterozygosity spanning from 9q22.32 to 9q31.2, including PTCH1 and 89 other genes, was detected in this ovarian tumor, providing evidence of a second hit mutation. This is the first report describing a GS-associated ovarian tumor carrying a second hit in the PTCH1 region. We anticipate that accumulation of more cases will clarify the importance of second hit mutations in ovarian tumor formation in GS. PMID:26782978

  10. Atomic features of an autoantigen in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).

    PubMed

    Cai, Zheng; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Greene, Mark I; Cines, Douglas B

    2016-07-01

    Autoantigen development is poorly understood at the atomic level. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an autoimmune thrombotic disorder caused by antibodies to an antigen composed of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin or cellular glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In solution, PF4 exists as an equilibrium among monomers, dimers and tetramers. Structural studies of these interacting components helped delineate a multi-step process involved in the pathogenesis of HIT. First, heparin binds to the 'closed' end of the PF4 tetramer and stabilizes its conformation; exposing the 'open' end. Second, PF4 arrays along heparin/GAG chains, which approximate tetramers, form large antigenic complexes that enhance antibody avidity. Third, pathogenic HIT antibodies bind to the 'open' end of stabilized PF4 tetramers to form an IgG/PF4/heparin ternary immune complex and also to propagate the formation of 'ultralarge immune complexes' (ULCs) that contain multiple IgG antibodies. Fourth, ULCs signal through FcγRIIA receptors, activating platelets and monocytes directly and generating thrombin, which transactivates hematopoietic and endothelial cells. A non-pathogenic anti-PF4 antibody prevents tetramer formation, binding of pathogenic antibody, platelet activation and thrombosis, providing a new approach to manage HIT. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of HIT may lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutics for this autoimmune disease.

  11. Two Methods for Efficient Solution of the Hitting-Set Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatan, Farrokh; Fijany, Amir

    2005-01-01

    A paper addresses much of the same subject matter as that of Fast Algorithms for Model-Based Diagnosis (NPO-30582), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. However, in the paper, the emphasis is more on the hitting-set problem (also known as the transversal problem), which is well known among experts in combinatorics. The authors primary interest in the hitting-set problem lies in its connection to the diagnosis problem: it is a theorem of model-based diagnosis that in the set-theory representation of the components of a system, the minimal diagnoses of a system are the minimal hitting sets of the system. In the paper, the hitting-set problem (and, hence, the diagnosis problem) is translated from a combinatorial to a computational problem by mapping it onto the Boolean satisfiability and integer- programming problems. The paper goes on to describe developments nearly identical to those summarized in the cited companion NASA Tech Briefs article, including the utilization of Boolean-satisfiability and integer- programming techniques to reduce the computation time and/or memory needed to solve the hitting-set problem.

  12. Flower opening and closure: an update.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

    2014-11-01

    This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene.

  13. Quick actuating closure and handling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Johnny W.; White, Dorsey E., III; Updike, Benjamin T.; Gregory, Peyton B.

    1988-01-01

    A quick activating closure and handling system, which utilizes conical sections for locking, was developed to allow quick access to the combustor internal components of the 8 ft High Temperature Tunnel. These critical components include the existing methane spraybar, a transpiration cooled nozzle and the new liquid oxygen (LOX) injection system housed within the combustor. A substantial cost savings will be realized once the mechanism is installed since it will substantially reduce the access time and increase the time available for conducting wind tunnel tests. A need exists for more frequent inspections when the wind tunnel operates at the more severe conditions generated by using LOX in the combustor. A loads analysis and a structural (finite element) analysis were conducted to verify that the new closure system is compatible with the existing pressure shell. In addition, strain gages were placed on the pressure vessel to verify how the pressure shell reacts to transient pressure loads. A scale model of the new closure system was built to verify the operation of the conical sections in the locking mechanisms.

  14. Flower opening and closure: an update.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

    2014-11-01

    This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene. PMID:25135521

  15. A Quadratic Closure for Compressible Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Futterman, J A

    2008-09-16

    We have investigated a one-point closure model for compressible turbulence based on third- and higher order cumulant discard for systems undergoing rapid deformation, such as might occur downstream of a shock or other discontinuity. In so doing, we find the lowest order contributions of turbulence to the mean flow, which lead to criteria for Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Rapid distortion theory (RDT) as originally applied by Herring closes the turbulence hierarchy of moment equations by discarding third order and higher cumulants. This is similar to the fourth-order cumulant discard hypothesis of Millionshchikov, except that the Millionshchikov hypothesis was taken to apply to incompressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence generally, whereas RDT is applied only to fluids undergoing a distortion that is 'rapid' in the sense that the interaction of the mean flow with the turbulence overwhelms the interaction of the turbulence with itself. It is also similar to Gaussian closure, in which both second and fourth-order cumulants are retained. Motivated by RDT, we develop a quadratic one-point closure for rapidly distorting compressible turbulence, without regard to homogeneity or isotropy, and make contact with two equation turbulence models, especially the K-{var_epsilon} and K-L models, and with linear instability growth. In the end, we arrive at criteria for Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Finite Volume simulations.

  16. A closure scheme for chemical master equations.

    PubMed

    Smadbeck, Patrick; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2013-08-27

    Probability reigns in biology, with random molecular events dictating the fate of individual organisms, and propelling populations of species through evolution. In principle, the master probability equation provides the most complete model of probabilistic behavior in biomolecular networks. In practice, master equations describing complex reaction networks have remained unsolved for over 70 years. This practical challenge is a reason why master equations, for all their potential, have not inspired biological discovery. Herein, we present a closure scheme that solves the master probability equation of networks of chemical or biochemical reactions. We cast the master equation in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe the time evolution of probability distribution moments. We postulate that a finite number of moments capture all of the necessary information, and compute the probability distribution and higher-order moments by maximizing the information entropy of the system. An accurate order closure is selected, and the dynamic evolution of molecular populations is simulated. Comparison with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, which merely sample the probability distribution, demonstrates this closure scheme is accurate for several small reaction networks. The importance of this result notwithstanding, a most striking finding is that the steady state of stochastic reaction networks can now be readily computed in a single-step calculation, without the need to simulate the evolution of the probability distribution in time.

  17. Stochastic particle acceleration and statistical closures

    SciTech Connect

    Dimits, A.M.; Krommes, J.A.

    1985-10-01

    In a recent paper, Maasjost and Elsasser (ME) concluded, from the results of numerical experiments and heuristic arguments, that the Bourret and the direct-interaction approximation (DIA) are ''of no use in connection with the stochastic acceleration problem'' because (1) their predictions were equivalent to that of the simpler Fokker-Planck (FP) theory, and (2) either all or none of the closures were in good agreement with the data. Here some analytically tractable cases are studied and used to test the accuracy of these closures. The cause of the discrepancy (2) is found to be the highly non-Gaussian nature of the force used by ME, a point not stressed by them. For the case where the force is a position-independent Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (i.e., Gaussian) process, an effective Kubo number K can be defined. For K << 1 an FP description is adequate, and conclusion (1) of ME follows; however, for K greater than or equal to 1 the DIA behaves much better qualitatively than the other two closures. For the non-Gaussian stochastic force used by ME, all common approximations fail, in agreement with (2).

  18. Hospital admissions before and after shipyard closure.

    PubMed

    Iversen, L; Sabroe, S; Damsgaard, M T

    1989-10-28

    To determine the effect of job loss on health an investigation was made of admissions to hospitals in 887 men five years before and three years after the closure of a Danish shipyard. The control group comprised 441 men from another shipyard. The information on hospital admissions was obtained from the Danish national register of patients. The relative risk of admission in the control group dropped significantly in terms of the number of men admitted from the study group from 1.29 four to five years before closure to 0.74 in the three years after closure. This was especially true of admissions due to accidents (1.33 to 0.46) and diseases of the digestive system (4.53 to 1.03). For diseases of the circulatory system, particularly cardiovascular diseases, the relative risk increased from 0.8 to 1.60, and from 1.0 to 2.6 respectively. These changes in risk of illness after redundancy are probably a consequence of a change from the effects of a high risk work environment to the effects of psychosocial stresses such as job insecurity and unemployment.

  19. Hospital admissions before and after shipyard closure.

    PubMed

    Bartley, M; Fagin, L

    1990-03-01

    "To determine the effect of job loss on health an investigation was made of admissions to hospitals in 887 men five years before and three years after the closure of a Danish shipyard. The control group comprised 441 men from another shipyard. The information on hospital admissions was obtained from the Danish national register of patients. The relative risk of admission in the control group dropped significantly in terms of the number of men admitted from the study group from 1.29 four to five years before closure to 0.74 in the three years after closure. This was especially true of admissions due to accidents (1.33 to 0.46) and diseases of the digestive system (4.53 to 1.03). For diseases of the circulatory system, particularly cardiovascular diseases, the relative risk increased from 0.8 to 1.60, and from 1.0 to 2.6 respectively. These changes in risk of illness after redundancy are probably a consequence of a change from the effects of a high risk work environment to the effects of psychosocial stresses such as job insecurity and unemployment."

  20. A review of sternal closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Alhalawani, Adel M F; Towler, Mark R

    2013-11-01

    Sternotomy and sternal closure occur prior to and post cardiac surgery, respectively. Although post-operative complications associated with poor sternal fixation can result in morbidity, mortality, and considerable resource utilization, sternotomy is preferred over other methods such as lateral thoracotomy. Rigid sternal fixation is associated with stability and reduced incidence of post-operative complications. This is a comprehensive review of the literature evaluating in vivo, in vitro, and clinical responses to applying commercial and experimental surgical tools for sternal fixation after median sternotomy. Wiring, interlocking, plate-screw, and cementation techniques have been examined for closure, but none have experienced widespread adoption. Although all techniques have their advantages, serious post-operative complications were associated with the use of wiring and/or plating techniques in high-risk patients. A fraction of studies have analyzed the use of sternal interlocking systems and only a single study analyzed the effect of using kryptonite cement with wires. Plating and interlocking techniques are superior to wiring in terms of stability and reduced rate of post-operative complications; however, further clinical studies and long-term follow-up are required. The ideal sternal closure should ensure stability, reduced rate of post-operative complications, and a short hospitalization period, alongside cost-effectiveness. PMID:23812580

  1. Closure of fatigue cracks at high strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyyer, N. S.; Dowling, N. E.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on smooth specimens to study the closure behavior of short cracks at high cyclic strains under completely reversed cycling. Testing procedures and methodology, and closure measurement techniques, are described in detail. The strain levels chosen for the study cover from predominantly elastic to grossly plastic strains. Crack closure measurements are made at different crack lengths. The study reveals that, at high strains, cracks close only as the lowest stress level in the cycle is approached. The crack opening is observed to occur in the compressive part of the loading cycle. The applied stress needed to open a short crack under high strain is found to be less than for cracks under small scale yielding. For increased plastic deformations, the value of sigma sub op/sigma sub max is observed to decrease and approaches the value of R. Comparison of the experimental results with existing analysis is made and indicates the limitations of the small scale yielding approach where gross plastic deformation behavior occurs.

  2. Deriving statistical closure from dynamical optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkington, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Turbulence theorists have traditionally deduced statistical models by generating a hierarchy of moment equations and invoking some closure rules to truncate the hierarchy. In this talk a conceptually different approach to model reduction and statistical closure will be presented, and its implications for coarse-graining fluid turbulence will be indicated. The author has developed this method in the context of nonequilibrium statistical descriptions of Hamiltonian systems with many degrees of freedom. With respect to a chosen parametric statistical model, the lack-of-fit of model paths to the full dynamics is minimized in a time-integrated, mean-squared sense. This optimal closure method is applied to coarse-grain spectrally-truncated inviscid dynamics, including the Burgers-Hopf equation and incompressible two-dimensional flow, using the means and/or variances of low modes as resolved variables. The derived reduced dynamics for these test cases contain (1) scale-dependent dissipation which is not a local eddy viscosity, (2) modified nonlinear interactions between resolved modes, and (3) coupling between the mean and variance of each resolved mode. These predictions are validated against direct numerical simulations of ensembles for the fully resolved dynamics.

  3. Applications of the Time-Varying Multi-Hazard Index to Armed Conflicts and GDP Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isanuk, M.; Skorik, A.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2004-12-01

    The time-varying Multi-Hazard Index has many potential applications for comparisons against quantitative measures of sustainable development. We have compared the time-varying severity of multiple natural hazards against time-varying socio-economic data for selected countries. Our analysis compares Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and armed conflict occurrence against multiple hazard severity as measured by an empirical time-varying multiple hazard index. The purpose of these analyses is to establish and characterize correlations between the Multi-Hazard Index and trends in GDP and conflicts over the past 25 years. To analyze the relationship between natural hazards and armed conflicts, the Multi-Hazard Index was correlated against the number of conflicts at each intensity level for individual countries. A preliminary analysis was performed studying the apparent relationship as well as the possible existence of time lags. In a similar although more quantitative analysis, the GDP data was correlated against the Multi-Hazard Index for a particular country at different time lags. Analysis involving the conflict datasets yielded varying results from country to country. Colombia shows the strongest correlation, with all positive values of the Multi-Hazard Index followed by an escalation in conflict intensity. The results for other countries are more difficult to interpret as certain years show increases in the number of conflicts at one intensity level and a decrease for other intensity levels. Some issues that need to be addressed include the coding of the intensity for the conflict data, the dating for both conflicts and hazards, and the use of national boundaries as geographic extents. The degree of correlation between GDP growth and the Multi-Hazard Index varies from country to country as well. Our calculations for Honduras show an extremely high correlation, for example, implying a strong economic sensitivity to natural hazards, whereas for China no significant

  4. Invited commentary: how research on public school closures can inform research on public hospital closures.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alison K; Ahern, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    The literature on social capital and civic engagement as they relate to health and health services outcomes is nuanced and sometimes conflicting, and has been a topic of much investigation in the pages of Social Science and Medicine. Ko et al. (2014) add to this research by considering two health services outcomes: the closure and privatization of public hospitals. We draw from education research on the role of community/civic engagement in public school closures to identify areas for future research to better understand these nuances. Qualitative research on school closures suggest that there are both well-managed and poorly managed closure decisions, and there are diverse community groups with interests in the decision who can interact with each other in nuanced ways. Furthermore, across stakeholder groups, there is not always agreement as to if closure would help or harm their students' education. We encourage health and health services researchers to glean insights from education research and other disciplines disparate but related and relevant to public health when developing research questions and considering alternative methodologies.

  5. Control of closure/constriction duration in lingual consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofqvist, Anders

    2003-10-01

    This study examines tongue movements in the production of lingual consonants where the duration of the oral closure/constriction is varied for linguistic purposes. Earlier work has shown that the tongue continues to move during the closure/constriction. The magnitude of the movement path during the closure/constriction is influenced by the vowel environment. Since the tongue has to stay in contact with the hard palate to maintain the closure/constriction, one might expect that the movement during the closure will be about the same for short and long consonants. To maintain the contact, a speaker would thus have to make a slower movement for the long consonants. Tongue and jaw movements were recorded in native Japanese speakers using a magnetometer system. Preliminary results for three speakers show that the closure/constriction duration for the long consonants was usually more than twice as long as that for the short consonants. The results also show a slightly longer movement path during the closure/constriction for the long consonants. As expected, the average speed of the tongue movement during the closure/constriction was systematically slower for the long consonants. In addition there was a positive correlation between closure/constriction duration and the path during the closure/constriction. [Work supported by NIH.

  6. Double-hit and double-protein-expression lymphomas: aggressive and refractory lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Coiffier, Bertrand

    2015-11-01

    Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) is a subgroup of aggressive lymphomas with both MYC and BCL2 gene rearrangements, characterised by a rapidly progressing clinical course that is refractory to aggressive treatment and short survival. Over time, the definition was modified and now includes diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with MYC translocation combined with an additional translocation involving BCL2 or BCL6. Some cases that have a similar clinical course with concomitant overexpression of MYC or BCL2 proteins were recently characterised as immunohistochemical double-hit lymphomas (ie, double-protein-expression lymphomas [DPLs]). The clinical course of these DPLs is worse than so-called standard DLBCL but suggested by some studies to be slightly better than DHL, although there is overlap between the two categories. Present treatment does not allow cure or long-term survival in patients with genetic or immunohistochemical double-hit lymphomas, but several new drugs are being developed. PMID:26545844

  7. Hitting the Fast Ball and Shaggin' Flies: a Physicist Considers Batting and Fielding in Baseball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, Robert

    2003-03-01

    I describe some of the information processing that batters and fielders use to hit and field in baseball. The decision to hit the fast ball must be made using information from the first 15 feet of the ball's travel and the batter might as well not scan the last half of the flight. The procedures an outfielder uses to field a fly ball, adopted instinctively by 9 year old Little Leaguers, follows from mechanisms designed for the tracking of prey by predator and the avoidance of predators by prey. To this we add the utility of the acoustics of the bat-ball collision for balls hit directly at outfielders, and strategies for the avoidance of errors on ground balls to infielders.

  8. Helix Dipole Movement and Conformational Variability Contribute to Allosteric GDP Release in G[alpha] Subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Preininger, Anita M.; Funk, Michael A.; Oldham, William M.; Meier, Scott M.; Johnston, Christopher A.; Adhikary, Suraj; Kimple, Adam J.; Siderovski, David P.; Hamm, Heidi E.; Iverson, Tina M.

    2009-06-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (Galphabetagamma) transmit signals from activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream effectors through a guanine nucleotide signaling cycle. Numerous studies indicate that the carboxy-terminal alpha5 helix of Galpha subunits participates in Galpha-receptor binding, and previous EPR studies suggest this receptor-mediated interaction induces a rotation and translation of the alpha5 helix of the Galpha subunit [Oldham, W. M., et al. (2006) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 13, 772-777]. On the basis of this result, an engineered disulfide bond was designed to constrain the alpha5 helix of Galpha(i1) into its EPR-measured receptor-associated conformation through the introduction of cysteines at position 56 in the alpha1 helix and position 333 in the alpha5 helix (I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1)). A functional mimetic of the EPR-measured alpha5 helix dipole movement upon receptor association was additionally created by introduction of a positive charge at the amino terminus of this helix, D328R Galpha(i1). Both proteins exhibit a dramatically elevated level of basal nucleotide exchange. The 2.9 A resolution crystal structure of I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1) in complex with GDP-AlF(4)(-) reveals the shift of the alpha5 helix toward the guanine nucleotide binding site that is anticipated by EPR measurements. The structure of the I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1) subunit further revealed altered positions for the switch regions and throughout the Galpha(i1) subunit, accompanied by significantly elevated crystallographic temperature factors. Combined with previous evidence in the literature, the structural analysis supports the critical role of electrostatics of the alpha5 helix dipole and overall conformational variability during nucleotide release.

  9. GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase from Pogonatherum paniceum enhances salinity and drought tolerance of transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ai, Taobo; Liao, Xuehong; Li, Rui; Fan, Linhong; Luo, Fengxue; Xu, Ying; Wang, Shenghua

    2016-01-01

    Pogonatherum paniceum is a highly drought- and salt-tolerant plant species that is typically used for ecological restoration and the conservation of soil and water in many countries. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying plant abiotic stress responses, especially to salinity and drought stresses, in species such as P. paniceum could be important to broader crop improvement efforts. GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase) is the limiting enzyme in the synthesis of L-ascorbic acid (AsA), which plays a crucial role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have cloned and characterized the cDNA of the PpGMP gene of P. paniceum encoding a GMPase. The full-length cDNA sequence contains 1411 nucleotides encoding a putative protein with 361 amino acid residues and an approximate molecular mass of 39.68 kDa. The GMPase transcript was up-regulated in P. paniceum plants subjected to salinity and drought stress, respectively. Transgenic tobacco expressing PpGMPase exhibited enhanced salinity and drought resistance, a higher seed germination rate, better growth performance, a higher AsA content, a more stable redox state, higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lower levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and H2O2 under drought and salinity stress. Taken together, expression of PpGMPase in tobacco conferred salinity and drought stress tolerance by increasing the content of AsA, thereby enhancing ROS-detoxifying functions. Thus, PpGMP is a potential candidate gene for crop improvement. PMID:27442366

  10. Doublecortin Is Excluded from Growing Microtubule Ends and Recognizes the GDP-Microtubule Lattice.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Andreas; van Haren, Jeffrey; Ribeiro, Susana A; Wittmann, Torsten

    2016-06-20

    Many microtubule (MT) functions are mediated by a diverse class of proteins (+TIPs) at growing MT plus ends that control intracellular MT interactions and dynamics and depend on end-binding proteins (EBs) [1]. Cryoelectron microscopy has recently identified the EB binding site as the interface of four tubulin dimers that undergoes a conformational change in response to β-tubulin GTP hydrolysis [2, 3]. Doublecortin (DCX), a MT-associated protein (MAP) required for neuronal migration during cortical development [4, 5], binds to the same site as EBs [6], and recent in vitro studies proposed DCX localization to growing MT ends independent of EBs [7]. Because this conflicts with observations in neurons [8, 9] and the molecular function of DCX is not well understood, we revisited intracellular DCX dynamics at low expression levels. Here, we report that DCX is not a +TIP in cells but, on the contrary, is excluded from the EB1 domain. In addition, we find that DCX-MT interactions are highly sensitive to MT geometry. In cells, DCX binding was greatly reduced at MT segments with high local curvature. Remarkably, this geometry-dependent binding to MTs was completely reversed in the presence of taxanes, which reconciles incompatible observations in cells [9] and in vitro [10]. We propose a model explaining DCX specificity for different MT geometries based on structural changes induced by GTP hydrolysis that decreases the spacing between adjacent tubulin dimers [11]. Our data are consistent with a unique mode of MT interaction in which DCX specifically recognizes this compacted GDP-like MT lattice.

  11. A rho GDP dissociation inhibitor produced by apoptotic T-cells inhibits growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Dhiman, Rohan; Paidipally, Padmaja; Cheekatla, Satyanarayana S; Tripathi, Deepak; Welch, Elwyn; Tvinnereim, Amy R; Jones, Brenda; Theodorescu, Dan; Barnes, Peter F; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we found that a subpopulation of CD4(+)CD25(+) (85% Foxp3(+)) cells from persons with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) inhibits growth of M. tuberculosis (M. tb) in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). A soluble factor, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (D4GDI), produced by apoptotic CD4(+)CD25(+) (85% Foxp3(+)) cells is responsible for this inhibition of M. tb growth in human macrophages and in mice. M. tb-expanded CD4(+C)D25(+)Foxp3(+)D4GDI(+) cells do not produce IL-10, TGF-β and IFN-γ. D4GDI inhibited growth of M. tb in MDMs by enhancing production of IL-1β, TNF-α and ROS, and by increasing apoptosis of M. tb-infected MDMs. D4GDI was concentrated at the site of disease in tuberculosis patients, with higher levels detected in pleural fluid than in serum. However, in response to M. tb, PBMC from tuberculosis patients produced less D4GDI than PBMC from persons with LTBI. M. tb-expanded CD4+CD25+ (85% Foxp3(+)) cells and D4GDI induced intracellular M. tb to express the dormancy survival regulator DosR and DosR-dependent genes, suggesting that D4GDI induces a non-replicating state in the pathogen. Our study provides the first evidence that a subpopulation of CD4(+)CD25(+) (85% Foxp3+) cells enhances immunity to M. tb, and that production of D4GDI by this subpopulation inhibits M. tb growth.

  12. Causal relationship between CO₂ emissions, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness, and urbanization in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Farhani, Sahbi; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the causal relationship between CO2 emissions, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness, and urbanization in Tunisia over the period of 1971-2012. The long-run relationship is investigated by the auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration and error correction method (ECM). The results of the analysis reveal a positive sign for the coefficient of financial development, suggesting that the financial development in Tunisia has taken place at the expense of environmental pollution. The Tunisian case also shows a positive monotonic relationship between real GDP and CO2 emissions. This means that the results do not support the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. In addition, the paper explores causal relationship between the variables by using Granger causality models and it concludes that financial development plays a vital role in the Tunisian economy.

  13. Implementing the essential medicine concept in the country with the highest GDP per capita in the world.

    PubMed

    Cheraghali, A M

    2013-01-01

    Qatar, an oil-exporting country with a population of about 1.7 million, achieved the highest gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in the world in 2010. Total health expenditure as a percentage of GDP in 2010 in Qatar was 2.0%, with the government's share at 75% of the total health care budget. Hamad Medical Corporation hospitals and the independent public Qatar Primary Health Care PHC) centres are the main public health care service providers. PHC consists of 24 centres providing a wide range of health services. The PHC medicines list is a subset of the Hamad Medical Corporation medicine list. However, the PHC list of medicines could be improved both in its selection procedures and medicines included to correlate more directly to type of medical services provided by the Qatar PHC system in its different types of centres.

  14. Solution structure of the zinc finger HIT domain in protein FON

    PubMed Central

    He, Fahu; Umehara, Takashi; Tsuda, Kengo; Inoue, Makoto; Kigawa, Takanori; Matsuda, Takayoshi; Yabuki, Takashi; Aoki, Masaaki; Seki, Eiko; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako; Tanaka, Akiko; Sugano, Sumio; Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-01-01

    The zinc finger HIT domain is a sequence motif found in many proteins, including thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 3 (TRIP-3), which is possibly involved in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Novel zinc finger motifs are suggested to play important roles in gene regulation and chromatin remodeling. Here, we determined the high-resolution solution structure of the zinc finger HIT domain in ZNHIT2 (protein FON) from Homo sapiens, by an NMR method based on 567 upper distance limits derived from NOE intensities measured in three-dimensional NOESY spectra. The structure yielded a backbone RMSD to the mean coordinates of 0.19 Å for the structured residues 12–48. The fold consists of two consecutive antiparallel β-sheets and two short C-terminal helices packed against the second β-sheet, and binds two zinc ions. Both zinc ions are coordinated tetrahedrally via a CCCC-CCHC motif to the ligand residues of the zf-HIT domain in an interleaved manner. The tertiary structure of the zinc finger HIT domain closely resembles the folds of the B-box, RING finger, and PHD domains with a cross-brace zinc coordination mode, but is distinct from them. The unique three-dimensional structure of the zinc finger HIT domain revealed a novel zinc-binding fold, as a new member of the treble clef domain family. On the basis of the structural data, we discuss the possible functional roles of the zinc finger HIT domain. PMID:17656577

  15. Multiple NSAID-induced hits injure the small intestine: underlying mechanisms and novel strategies.

    PubMed

    Boelsterli, Urs A; Redinbo, Matthew R; Saitta, Kyle S

    2013-02-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) injury including jejunal/ileal mucosal ulceration, bleeding, and even perforation in susceptible patients. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, but they are distinct from those related to gastric injury. Based on recent insights from experimental models, including genetics and pharmacology in rodents typically exposed to diclofenac, indomethacin, or naproxen, we propose a multiple-hit pathogenesis of NSAID enteropathy. The multiple hits start with an initial pharmacokinetic determinant caused by vectorial hepatobiliary excretion and delivery of glucuronidated NSAID or oxidative metabolite conjugates to the distal small intestinal lumen, where bacterial β-glucuronidase produces critical aglycones. The released aglycones are then taken up by enterocytes and further metabolized by intestinal cytochrome P450s to potentially reactive intermediates. The "first hit" is caused by the NSAID and/or oxidative metabolites that induce severe endoplasmic reticulum stress or mitochondrial stress and lead to cell death. The "second hit" is created by the significant subsequent inflammatory response that would follow such a first-hit injury. Based on these putative mechanisms, strategies have been developed to protect the enterocytes from being exposed to the parent NSAID and/or oxidative metabolites. Among these, a novel strategy already demonstrated in a murine model is the selective disruption of bacteria-specific β-glucuronidases with a novel small molecule inhibitor that does not harm the bacteria and that alleviates NSAID-induced enteropathy. Such mechanism-based strategies require further investigation but provide potential avenues for the alleviation of the GI toxicity caused by multiple NSAID hits.

  16. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are Golgi-localised GDP-sugar transporters in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Utz, Daniella; Handford, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Plant nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) are responsible for the import of nucleotide-sugar substrates into the Golgi lumen, for subsequent use in glycosylation reactions. NSTs are specific for either GDP- or UDP-sugars, and almost all transporters studied to date have been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana L. In order to determine the conservation of the import mechanism in other higher plant species, here we report the identification and characterisation of VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless), which are the orthologues of the GDP-sugar transporters GONST3 and GONST4 in Arabidopsis. Both grapevine NSTs possess the molecular features characteristic of GDP-sugar transporters, including a GDP-binding domain (GXL/VNK) towards the C-terminal. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B expression is highest at berry setting and decreases throughout berry development and ripening. Moreover, we show using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged versions and brefeldin A treatments, that both are localised in the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, in vitro transport assays after expression of both NSTs in tobacco leaves indicate that VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are capable of transporting GDP-mannose and GDP-glucose, respectively, but not a range of other UDP- and GDP-sugars. The possible functions of these NSTs in glucomannan synthesis and/or glycosylation of sphingolipids are discussed.

  17. Closure plan for Solid Waste Storage Area 6: Volume 1, Closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This Closure Plan for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) a disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and hazardous materials, of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) describes how portions of SWSA 6 will be closed under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status per 40 CFR 265 Subpart G (TN Rule 1200-1-11-.05(7)). An overview is provided of activities necessary for final closure and corrective measures for all of SWSA 6. Results of surface waters and groundwater sampling are provided.

  18. On hitting children: a review of corporal punishment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Knox, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Research has clearly demonstrated associations between corporal punishment of children and maladaptive behavior patterns such as aggression and delinquency. Hitting children is an act of violence and a clear violation of children's human rights. In this article, the position of the United States on corporal punishment of children is discussed. Professional and international progress on ending corporal punishment is explained, and the relationship between corporal punishment and child abuse is discussed. An appeal is made for prevention efforts such as parent education and removal of social sanctions for hitting children that may hold significant promise for preventing child maltreatment.

  19. Cosmic ray hit frequencies in critical sites in the central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Vazquez, M. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Atwell, W.; Kim, M.; Capala, J.

    One outstanding question to be addressed in assessing the risk of exposure to space travelers from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) outside the geomagnetosphere is to ascertain the effects of single heavy-ion hits on cells in critical regions of the central nervous system (CNS). As a first step toward this end, it is important to determine how many ``hits'' might be received by a neural cell in several critical CNS areas during an extended mission outside the confines of the earth's magnetic field. Critical sites in the CNS: the macula, and an interior brain point (typical of the genu, thalamus, hippocampus and nucleus basalis of Meynert) were chosen for the calculation of hit frequencies from galactic cosmic rays for a mission to Mars during solar minimum (i.e., at maximum cosmic-ray intensity). The shielding at a given position inside the body was obtained using the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model, and a radiation transport code which includes nuclear fragmentation was used to calculate yearly fluences at the point of interest. Since the final Mars spacecraft shielding configuration has not yet been determined, we considered the minimum amount of aluminum required for pressure vessel-wall requirements in the living quarters of a spacecraft, and a typical duty area as a pressure vessel plus necessary equipment. The conclusions are: (1) variation of the position of the ``target site'' within the head plays only a small role in varying hit frequencies; (2) the average number of hits depends linearly on the cross section of the critical portion of the cell assumed in the calculation; (3) for a three-year mission to Mars at solar minimum (i.e., assuming the 1977 spectrum of galactic cosmic rays), 2% or 13% of the ``critical sites'' of cells in the CNS would be directly hit at least once by iron ions, depending on whether 60 mum^2 or 471 mum^2 is assumed as the critical cross sectional area; and (4) roughly 6 million out of some 43 million hippocampal cells and 55

  20. Cosmic ray hit frequencies in critical sites in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B; Vazquez, M E; Wilson, J W; Atwell, W; Kim, M; Capala, J

    1998-01-01

    One outstanding question to be addressed in assessing the risk of exposure to space travelers from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) outside the geomagnetosphere is to ascertain the effects of single heavy-ion hits on cells in critical regions of the central nervous system (CNS). As a first step toward this end, it is important to determine how many "hits" might be received by a neural cell in several critical CNS areas during an extended mission outside the confines of the earth's magnetic field. Critical sites in the CNS: the macula, and an interior brain point (typical of the genu, thalamus, hippocampus and nucleus basalis of Meynert) were chosen for the calculation of hit frequencies from galactic cosmic rays for a mission to Mars during solar minimum (i.e., at maximum cosmic-ray intensity). The shielding at a given position inside the body was obtained using the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model, and a radiation transport code which includes nuclear fragmentation was used to calculate yearly fluences at the point of interest. Since the final Mars spacecraft shielding configuration has not yet been determined, we considered the minimum amount of aluminum required for pressure vessel-wall requirements in the living quarters of a spacecraft, and a typical duty area as a pressure vessel plus necessary equipment. The conclusions are: (1) variation of the position of the "target site" within the head plays only a small role in varying hit frequencies; (2) the average number of hits depends linearly on the cross section of the critical portion of the cell assumed in the calculation; (3) for a three-year mission to Mars at solar minimum (i.e., assuming the 1977 spectrum of galactic cosmic rays), 2% or 13% of the "critical sites" of cells in the CNS would be directly hit at least once by iron ions, depending on whether 60 micrometers2 or 471 micrometers2 is assumed as the critical cross sectional area; and (4) roughly 6 million out of some 43 million hippocampal cells

  1. Cosmic ray hit frequencies in critical sites in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B; Vazquez, M E; Wilson, J W; Atwell, W; Kim, M; Capala, J

    1998-01-01

    One outstanding question to be addressed in assessing the risk of exposure to space travelers from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) outside the geomagnetosphere is to ascertain the effects of single heavy-ion hits on cells in critical regions of the central nervous system (CNS). As a first step toward this end, it is important to determine how many "hits" might be received by a neural cell in several critical CNS areas during an extended mission outside the confines of the earth's magnetic field. Critical sites in the CNS: the macula, and an interior brain point (typical of the genu, thalamus, hippocampus and nucleus basalis of Meynert) were chosen for the calculation of hit frequencies from galactic cosmic rays for a mission to Mars during solar minimum (i.e., at maximum cosmic-ray intensity). The shielding at a given position inside the body was obtained using the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model, and a radiation transport code which includes nuclear fragmentation was used to calculate yearly fluences at the point of interest. Since the final Mars spacecraft shielding configuration has not yet been determined, we considered the minimum amount of aluminum required for pressure vessel-wall requirements in the living quarters of a spacecraft, and a typical duty area as a pressure vessel plus necessary equipment. The conclusions are: (1) variation of the position of the "target site" within the head plays only a small role in varying hit frequencies; (2) the average number of hits depends linearly on the cross section of the critical portion of the cell assumed in the calculation; (3) for a three-year mission to Mars at solar minimum (i.e., assuming the 1977 spectrum of galactic cosmic rays), 2% or 13% of the "critical sites" of cells in the CNS would be directly hit at least once by iron ions, depending on whether 60 micrometers2 or 471 micrometers2 is assumed as the critical cross sectional area; and (4) roughly 6 million out of some 43 million hippocampal cells

  2. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    SciTech Connect

    Simonetti, Angelita; Fabbretti, Attilio; Hazemann, Isabelle; Jenner, Lasse; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2–GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue.

  3. Shock compression of glow discharge polymer (GDP): density functional theory (DFT) simulations and experiments on Sandia's Z-machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Cochrane, K. R.; Ao, T.; Lemke, R. W.; Flicker, D. G.; Schoff, M. E.; Blue, B. E.; Hamel, S.; Herrmann, M. C.

    2015-11-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) is used extensively as capsule/ablation material in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules. Accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) under shock and release is particularly important for high-fidelity design, analysis, and optimization of ICF experiments since the capsule material is subject to several converging shocks as well as release towards the cryogenic fuel. We performed Density Functional Theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, to gain knowledge of the behavior of GDP - including the effect of changes in chemical composition. The shock pressures calculated from DFT are compared experimental data taken on magnetically launched flyer plate impact experiments on at Sandia's Z-machine. Large GDP samples were grown in a planar geometry to improve the sample quality and maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere following manufacturing, thus allowing for a direct comparison to the DFT/QMD simulations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Shock compression of glow discharge polymer (GDP): density functional theory (DFT) simulations and experiments on Sandia's Z machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, Kyle R.; Ao, T.; Lemke, R. W.; Hamel, S.; Schoff, M. E.; Blue, B. E.; Herrmann, M. C.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2014-03-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) is used extensively as capsule/ablation material in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules. Accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) under shock and release is particularly important for high-fidelity design, analysis, and optimization of ICF experiments since the capsule material is subject to several converging shocks as well as release towards the cryogenic fuel. We performed Density Functional Theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, to gain knowledge of the behavior of GDP - for example regarding the role of chemical dissociation during shock compression, we find that the dissociation regime along the Hugoniot extends from 50 GPa to 250 GPa. The shock pressures calculated from DFT are compared experimental data taken at Sandia's Z-machine. The GDP samples were grown in a planar geometry to improve the sample quality and maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere following manufacturing, thus allowing for a direct comparison to the DFT/QMD simulations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Shock compression of glow discharge polymer (GDP): density functional theory (DFT) simulations and experiments on Sandia's Z-machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, K. R.; Ao, T.; Hamel, S.; Lemke, R. W.; Schoff, M. E.; Blue, B. E.; Herrmann, M. C.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2015-06-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) is used extensively in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules. Accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) under shock and release is particularly important for high-fidelity design and analysis of ICF experiments since the capsule material is subject to several converging shocks as well as release towards the cryogenic fuel. We performed Density Functional Theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics simulations, to gain knowledge of the behavior of GDP - for example regarding the role of chemical dissociation during shock compression, we find that the dissociation regime along the Hugoniot extends from 50 GPa to 250 GPa. The shock pressures calculated from DFT are compared to experimental data taken on magnetically launched flyer plate impact experiments at Sandia's Z-machine. Large GDP samples were grown in a planar geometry to improve the sample quality and maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere following manufacturing, thus allowing for a direct comparison to the simulations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

  6. The biocompatibility of neutral pH, low-GDP peritoneal dialysis solutions: benefit at bench, bedside, or both?

    PubMed

    Perl, Jeffrey; Nessim, Sharon J; Bargman, Joanne M

    2011-04-01

    For patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), the development of peritonitis, the decline of residual kidney function, and the loss of peritoneal membrane function are central events that affect both patient and technique survival. The use of glucose as the osmotic agent in conventional PD solutions may increase the susceptibility to each of these events. However, its use may also be associated with systemic metabolic perturbations and, in turn, an increase in cardiovascular morbidity. Both in vitro and in vivo evidence suggest that both the local peritoneal and systemic toxicity induced by the use of glucose may be in part mediated by the presence of glucose degradation products (GDPs) coupled with the hyperosmolarity, reduced pH, and use of lactate as the buffer in conventional PD solutions. Therefore, the use of neutral pH, low-GDP (NpHL(GDP)), bicarbonate-buffered PD solutions may represent a promising strategy to attenuate some of these adverse effects. However, the impact of these novel solutions on clinical outcomes remains largely unknown. In this review, we will highlight evidence regarding the biocompatibility of NpHL(GDP) PD solutions, review the utility of current biomarkers in the evaluation of biocompatibility, and discuss the clinical outcome data with these solutions.

  7. The structural basis for catalytic function of GMD and RMD, two closely related enzymes from the GDP-d-rhamnose biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erin M.; McNally, David J.; Brisson, Jean-Robert; Messner, Paul; Garavito, R. M.; Lam, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    The rare 6-deoxysugar d-rhamnose is a component of bacterial cell surface glycans, including the d-rhamnose homopolymer produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, called A-band O polysaccharide. GDP-d-rhamnose synthesis from GDP-d-mannose is catalyzed by two enzymes. The first is a GDP-d-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (GMD). The second enzyme, RMD, reduces the GMD product (GDP-6-deoxy-d-lyxo-hexos-4-ulose) to GDP-d-rhamnose. Genes encoding GMD and RMD are present in P. aeruginosa, and genetic evidence indicates they act in A-band O-polysaccharide biosynthesis. Details of their enzyme functions have not, however, been previously elucidated. We aimed to characterize these enzymes biochemically, and to determine the structure of RMD to better understand what determines substrate specificity and catalytic activity in these enzymes. We used capillary electrophoresis and NMR analysis of reaction products to precisely define P. aeruginosa GMD and RMD functions. P. aeruginosa GMD is bifunctional, and can catalyze both GDP-d-mannose 4,6-dehydration and the subsequent reduction reaction to produce GDP-d-rhamnose. RMD catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of GDP-6-deoxy-d-lyxo-hexos-4-ulose, as predicted. Reconstitution of GDP-d-rhamnose biosynthesis in vitro revealed that the P. aeruginosa pathway may be regulated by feedback inhibition in the cell. We determined the structure of RMD from Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus at 1.8 Å resolution. The structure of A. thermoaerophilus RMD is remarkably similar to that of P. aeruginosa GMD, which explains why P. aeruginosa GMD is also able to catalyze the RMD reaction. Comparison of the active sites and amino acid sequences suggests that a conserved amino acid side chain (Arg185 in P. aeruginosa GMD) may be crucial for orienting substrate and cofactor in GMD enzymes. PMID:19459932

  8. Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis AtNUDX9 as a GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphohydrolase: its involvement in root growth inhibition in response to ammonium

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Maruta, Takanori; Ogawa, Takahisa; Tanabe, Noriaki; Tamoi, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    GDP-d-mannose (GDP-d-Man) is an important intermediate in ascorbic acid (AsA) synthesis, cell wall synthesis, protein N-glycosylation, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchoring in plants. Thus, the modulation of intracellular levels of GDP-d-Man could be important for maintaining various cellular processes. Here an Arabidopsis GDP-d-Man pyrophosphohydrolase, AtNUDX9 (AtNUDT9; At3g46200), which hydrolysed GDP-d-Man to GMP and mannose 1-phosphate, was identified. The K m and V max values for GDP-d-Man of AtNUDX9 were 376±24 μM and 1.61±0.15 μmol min–1 mg–1 protein, respectively. Among various tissues, the expression levels of AtNUDX9 and the total activity of GDP-d-Man pyrophosphohydrolase were the highest in the roots. The GDP-d-Man pyrophosphohydrolase activity was increased in the root of plants grown in the presence of ammonium. No difference was observed in the levels of AsA in the leaf and root tissues of the wild-type and knockout-nudx9 (KO-nudx9) plants, whereas a marked increase in N-glycoprotein levels and enhanced growth were detected in the roots of KO-nudx9 plants in the presence of ammonium. These results suggest that AtNUDX9 is involved in the regulation of GDP-d-Man levels affecting ammonium sensitivity via modulation of protein N-glycosylation in the roots. PMID:26049160

  9. Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis AtNUDX9 as a GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphohydrolase: its involvement in root growth inhibition in response to ammonium.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Maruta, Takanori; Ogawa, Takahisa; Tanabe, Noriaki; Tamoi, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-09-01

    GDP-d-mannose (GDP-d-Man) is an important intermediate in ascorbic acid (AsA) synthesis, cell wall synthesis, protein N-glycosylation, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchoring in plants. Thus, the modulation of intracellular levels of GDP-d-Man could be important for maintaining various cellular processes. Here an Arabidopsis GDP-d-Man pyrophosphohydrolase, AtNUDX9 (AtNUDT9; At3g46200), which hydrolysed GDP-d-Man to GMP and mannose 1-phosphate, was identified. The K m and V max values for GDP-d-Man of AtNUDX9 were 376±24 μM and 1.61±0.15 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively. Among various tissues, the expression levels of AtNUDX9 and the total activity of GDP-d-Man pyrophosphohydrolase were the highest in the roots. The GDP-d-Man pyrophosphohydrolase activity was increased in the root of plants grown in the presence of ammonium. No difference was observed in the levels of AsA in the leaf and root tissues of the wild-type and knockout-nudx9 (KO-nudx9) plants, whereas a marked increase in N-glycoprotein levels and enhanced growth were detected in the roots of KO-nudx9 plants in the presence of ammonium. These results suggest that AtNUDX9 is involved in the regulation of GDP-d-Man levels affecting ammonium sensitivity via modulation of protein N-glycosylation in the roots.

  10. Comparison of single layer staple closure versus double layer hand-sewn closure for equine pelvic flexure enterotomy.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Julie M; Brounts, Sabrina; Livesey, Michael; Wiedmeyer, Kerri

    2012-06-01

    Our objective was to compare thoracoabdominal (TA Premium™ 90) stapled enterotomy closure to traditional hand-sewn closure, using time to perform the technique, luminal diameter, and bursting pressure in ex-vivo specimens. The pelvic flexures of 13 client-owned horses were harvested. Each pelvic flexure had 1 enterotomy performed; 6 were closed via staples, 7 closures were hand-sewn. Luminal diameter at the enterotomy site was assessed via contrast radiography performed pre-and post-enterotomy. Bursting pressure of the closure was assessed by continuous manometry during rapid infusion. Time to perform stapled closure was significantly shorter than hand-sewn closure (P < 0.0001). Percent reduction of luminal diameters was significantly decreased in stapled specimens (P = 0.034). There was no significant difference in bursting strength between closure techniques (P = 0.196). In conclusion, stapled enterotomy closure offers statistically significant reduction in closure time and better maintains pre-enterotomy luminal diameter without reducing biomechanical strength, compared to a double layer hand-sewn closure. PMID:23204588

  11. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-01

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references.

  12. Modeling the Interactions Between Multiple Crack Closure Mechanisms at Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    A fatigue crack closure model is developed that includes interactions between the three closure mechanisms most likely to occur at threshold; plasticity, roughness, and oxide. This model, herein referred to as the CROP model (for Closure, Roughness, Oxide, and Plasticity), also includes the effects of out-of plane cracking and multi-axial loading. These features make the CROP closure model uniquely suited for, but not limited to, threshold applications. Rough cracks are idealized here as two-dimensional sawtooths, whose geometry induces mixed-mode crack- tip stresses. Continuum mechanics and crack-tip dislocation concepts are combined to relate crack face displacements to crack-tip loads. Geometric criteria are used to determine closure loads from crack-face displacements. Finite element results, used to verify model predictions, provide critical information about the locations where crack closure occurs.

  13. Retrograde approach for closure of ruptured sinus of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Jayaranganath, M; Subramanian, Anand; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa

    2010-07-01

    Though ruptured sinuses of Valsalva have been traditionally managed surgically, they are amenable to transcatheter closure. Various devices have been used for closure of these defects. We describe a novel technique of closure of a ruptured right sinus of Valsalva into the right ventricular outflow tract. A muscular ventricular septal defect occluder was deployed retrogradely, without resorting to the usual antegrade technique involving formation of an arteriovenous loop. PMID:20603510

  14. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  15. Post Closure Safety of the Morsleben Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Preuss, J.; Eilers, G.; Mauke, R.; Moeller-Hoeppe, N.; Engelhardt, H.-J.; Kreienmeyer, M.; Lerch, C.; Schrimpf, C.

    2002-02-26

    After the completion of detailed studies of the suitability the twin-mine Bartensleben-Marie, situated in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany), was chosen in 1970 for the disposal of low and medium level radioactive waste. The waste emplacement started in 1978 in rock cavities at the mine's fourth level, some 500 m below the surface. Until the end of the operational phase in 1998 in total about 36,800 m{sup 3} of radioactive waste was disposed of. The Morsleben LLW/ILW repository (ERAM) is now under licensing for closure. After completing the licensing procedure the repository will be sealed and backfilled to exclude any undue future impact onto man or the environment. The main safety objective is to protect the biosphere from the harmful effects of the disposed radionuclides. Furthermore, classical or conventional requirements call for ruling out or minimizing other unfavorable environmental effects. The ERAM is an abandoned rock salt and potash mine. As a consequence it has a big void volume, however small parts of the cavities are backfilled with crushed salt rocks. Other goals of the closure concept are therefore a long-term stabilization of the cavities to prevent a dipping or buckling of the ground surface. In addition, groundwater protection shall be assured. For the sealing of the repository a closure concept was developed to ensure compliance with the safety protection objectives. The concept anticipates the backfilling of the cavities with hydraulically setting backfill materials (salt concretes). The reduction of the remaining void volume in the mine causes in the case of brine intrusions a limitation of the leaching processes of the exposed potash seams. However, during the setting process the hydration heat of the concrete will lead to an increase of the temperature and hence to thermally induced stresses of the concrete and the surrounding rocks. Therefore, the influence of these stresses and deformations on the stability of the salt body and

  16. LncRNA-HIT Functions as an Epigenetic Regulator of Chondrogenesis through Its Recruitment of p100/CBP Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Hanqian L.; Quinn, Jeffrey J.; Yang, Yul W.; Thornburg, Chelsea K.; Chang, Howard Y.; Stadler, H. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression profiling in E 11 mouse embryos identified high expression of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), LNCRNA-HIT in the undifferentiated limb mesenchyme, gut, and developing genital tubercle. In the limb mesenchyme, LncRNA-HIT was found to be retained in the nucleus, forming a complex with p100 and CBP. Analysis of the genome-wide distribution of LncRNA-HIT-p100/CBP complexes by ChIRP-seq revealed LncRNA-HIT associated peaks at multiple loci in the murine genome. Ontological analysis of the genes contacted by LncRNA-HIT-p100/CBP complexes indicate a primary role for these loci in chondrogenic differentiation. Functional analysis using siRNA-mediated reductions in LncRNA-HIT or p100 transcripts revealed a significant decrease in expression of many of the LncRNA-HIT-associated loci. LncRNA-HIT siRNA treatments also impacted the ability of the limb mesenchyme to form cartilage, reducing mesenchymal cell condensation and the formation of cartilage nodules. Mechanistically the LncRNA-HIT siRNA treatments impacted pro-chondrogenic gene expression by reducing H3K27ac or p100 activity, confirming that LncRNA-HIT is essential for chondrogenic differentiation in the limb mesenchyme. Taken together, these findings reveal a fundamental epigenetic mechanism functioning during early limb development, using LncRNA-HIT and its associated proteins to promote the expression of multiple genes whose products are necessary for the formation of cartilage. PMID:26633036

  17. PERFORMANCE OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR RADIOACTIVE GAS CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of the design and testing of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The containment vessel closure incorporates features specifically designed for the containment of tritium when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of Type B radioactive material shipping Packages. The paper discusses functional performance of the containment vessel closure of the BTSP prototype packages and separate testing that evaluated the performance of the metallic C-Rings used in a mock BTSP closure.

  18. Bolt preload selection for pulsed-loaded vessel closures

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Lewis, B.B.; Bowers, S.M.

    1995-02-01

    Bounding, closed-form solutions are developed for selecting the bolt preload for a square, flat plate closure subjected to a pressure pulse load. The solutions consider the limiting case in which preload is primarily dependent on closure bending response as well as the limiting case in which preload depends on elastic bolt response. The selection of bolt preload is illustrated. Also presented in the paper is a detailed finite element analysis of dynamically loaded, bolted circular closure. The responses of the structure, closure, and bolts are included, and results are obtained for various preloads. The analysis illustrates a method of bolt preload modeling for use in general finite element computer programs.

  19. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Baruteau, Alban-Elouen; Hascoët, Sébastien; Baruteau, Julien; Boudjemline, Younes; Lambert, Virginie; Angel, Claude-Yves; Belli, Emre; Petit, Jérôme; Pass, Robert

    2014-02-01

    This review aims to describe the past history, present techniques and future directions in transcatheter treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Transcatheter PDA closure is the standard of care in most cases and PDA closure is indicated in any patient with signs of left ventricular volume overload due to a ductus. In cases of left-to-right PDA with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, closure may be performed under specific conditions. The management of clinically silent or very tiny PDAs remains highly controversial. Techniques have evolved and the transcatheter approach to PDA closure is now feasible and safe with current devices. Coils and the Amplatzer Duct Occluder are used most frequently for PDA closure worldwide, with a high occlusion rate and few complications. Transcatheter PDA closure in preterm or low-bodyweight infants remains a highly challenging procedure and further device and catheter design development is indicated before transcatheter closure is the treatment of choice in this delicate patient population. The evolution of transcatheter PDA closure from just 40 years ago with 18F sheaths to device delivery via a 3F sheath is remarkable and it is anticipated that further improvements will result in better safety and efficacy of transcatheter PDA closure techniques.

  20. Accountability in Action: A Comprehensive Guide to Charter School Closure. School Closure Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechtenhiser, Kim, Ed.; Wade, Andrew, Ed.; Lin, Margaret, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Closing a failing charter school is difficult, but it can be done. In fact, it has been done hundreds of times across the country. However, if you are on the staff or the board of a charter school authorizing agency that is facing a closure decision, the fact that other authorizers have closed schools may be of small comfort. You are facing a…