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Sample records for cloud rr lyrae

  1. Anomalous double-mode RR Lyrae stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soszyński, I.; Smolec, R.; Dziembowski, W. A.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Skowron, D.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.

    2016-12-01

    We report the discovery of a new subclass of double-mode RR Lyrae stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The sample of 22 pulsating stars has been extracted from the latest edition of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment collection of RR Lyrae variables in the Magellanic System. The stars pulsating simultaneously in the fundamental (F) and first-overtone (1O) modes have distinctly different properties than regular double-mode RR Lyrae variables (RRd stars). The P1O/PF period ratios of our anomalous RRd stars are within a range of 0.725-0.738, while `classical' double-mode RR Lyrae variables have period ratios in the range of 0.742-0.748. In contrast to the typical RRd stars, in the majority of the anomalous pulsators, the F-mode amplitudes are higher than the 1O-mode amplitudes. The light curves associated with the F-mode in the anomalous RRd stars show different morphology than the light curves of, both, regular RRd stars and single-mode RRab stars. Most of the anomalous double-mode stars show long-term modulations of the amplitudes (Blazhko-like effect). Translating the period ratios into the abundance parameter, Z, we find for our stars Z ∈ (0.002, 0.005) - an order of magnitude higher values than typical for RR Lyrae stars. The mass range of the RRd stars inferred from the WI versus PF diagram is (0.55-0.75) M⊙. These parameters cannot be accounted for with single star evolution assuming a Reimers-like mass-loss. Much greater mass-loss caused by interaction with other stars is postulated. We blame the peculiar pulsation properties of our stars to the parametric resonance instability of the 1O-mode to excitation of the F- and 2O-modes as with the inferred parameters of the stars 2ω1O ≈ ωF + ω2O.

  2. Preliminary results for RR Lyrae stars and Classical Cepheids from the Vista Magellanic Cloud (VMC) survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripepi, V.; Moretti, M. I.; Clementini, G.; Marconi, M.; Cioni, M. R.; Marquette, J. B.; Tisserand, P.

    2012-09-01

    The Vista Magellanic Cloud (VMC, PI M.R. Cioni) survey is collecting K S -band time series photometry of the system formed by the two Magellanic Clouds (MC) and the "bridge" that connects them. These data are used to build K S -band light curves of the MC RR Lyrae stars and Classical Cepheids and determine absolute distances and the 3D geometry of the whole system using the K-band period luminosity ( PLK S ), the period-luminosity-color ( PLC) and the Wesenhiet relations applicable to these types of variables. As an example of the survey potential we present results from the VMC observations of two fields centered respectively on the South Ecliptic Pole and the 30 Doradus star forming region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The VMC K S -band light curves of the RR Lyrae stars in these two regions have very good photometric quality with typical errors for the individual data points in the range of ˜0.02 to 0.05 mag. The Cepheids have excellent light curves (typical errors of ˜0.01 mag). The average K S magnitudes derived for both types of variables were used to derive PLK S relations that are in general good agreement within the errors with the literature data, and show a smaller scatter than previous studies.

  3. Properties of RR Lyrae stars in the inner regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borissova, J.; Minniti, D.; Rejkuba, M.; Alves, D.; Cook, K. H.; Freeman, K. C.

    2004-08-01

    We present the radial velocities, metallicities and the K-band magnitudes of 74 RR Lyrae stars in the inner regions of the LMC. The intermediate resolution spectra and infrared images were obtained with FORS1 at the ESO VLT and with the SOFI infrared imager at the ESO NTT. The best 43 RR Lyrae with measured velocities yield an observed velocity dispersion of σ=61± 7 km s-1. We obtain a true LMC RR Lyrae velocity dispersion of σ=53 km s-1, which is higher than the velocity dispersion of any other LMC population previously measured. This is the first empirical evidence for a kinematically hot, metal-poor halo in the LMC as discussed in Minniti et al. (\\cite{Minniti03}). Using Layden's (1994) modification of the \\Delta S method we measured the metallicity for 23 of our stars. The mean value is [Fe/H] =-1.46±0.09 dex. The absolute magnitudes MV and MK of RR Lyrae stars are linear functions of metallicity. In the V band, our data agree with the Olech et al. (\\cite{Olech03}) relation, in the K band the slope is flatter. The average apparent V luminosity of 70 RR Lyrae stars is < V> = 19.45±0.04 and the average K luminosity of 37 RR Lyrae stars is < K>=18.20±0.06. There is no obvious relation between apparent V magnitude and Log P, while the RR Lyrae K band magnitudes show a well defined linear trend with Log P. Using the Bono et al. (\\cite{Bono01}) and Bono et al. (2003) theoretical Near-Infrared Period-Luminosity-Metallicity relations we calculate the LMC distance modulus μ0 = 18.48±0.08. Based on observations collected with the Very Large Telescope and the New Technology Telescope of the European Southern Observatory within the Observing Programs 64.N-0176(B) and 70.B-0547. Tables 3, 4 and 6 are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/97

  4. Colors of RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Cecil G.

    1999-02-01

    The methods of Davis & Cox are applied to a series of models described by Bono & Stellingwerf to determine the colors of RR Lyrae stars. Convection is ignored, and the radiation flow is treated by a complete variable Eddington, multifrequency-dependent radiative transfer approximation.

  5. NONLINEAR ASTEROSEISMOLOGY OF RR LYRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, L.; Kollath, Z.; Szabo, R.; Bryson, S.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Kolenberg, K.

    2012-09-20

    The observations of the Kepler Space Telescope revealed that fundamental-mode RR Lyrae stars may show various radial overtones. The presence of multiple radial modes may allow us to conduct nonlinear asteroseismology: comparison of mode amplitudes and frequency shifts between observations and models. Here we report the detection of three radial modes in the star RR Lyr, the eponym of the class, using the Kepler short cadence data: besides the fundamental mode, both the first and the ninth overtones can be derived from the data set. RR Lyrae shows period doubling, but switches occasionally to a state where a pattern of six pulsation cycles repeats instead of two. We found hydrodynamic models that show the same three modes and the period-six state, allowing for comparison with the observations.

  6. RR Lyrae Variables in Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Clementini, Gisella

    2009-09-01

    The pioneering studies of RR Lyrae stars in globular clusters by Oosterhoff and by Sawyer Hogg in the 1930s and 1940s called attention to interesting systematic differences among RR Lyrae populations in different systems. When such studies were extended to the dwarf spheroidal companions of the Milky Way in the 1960s, it was found that the average properties of their RR Lyrae stars were often different from those that had previously been observed in globular clusters. Observations of RR Lyrae stars have now extended to the Andromeda Galaxy and other Local Group systems, with still greater variety being apparent. Our understanding of the reasons for these differences among the RR Lyrae populations in different systems is by no means complete, but properties of RR Lyrae stars within these different systems are tied to differing horizontal branch morphologies and also shed light upon scenarios for the formation of the Galaxy.

  7. FIRST KEPLER RESULTS ON RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kolenberg, K.; Guggenberger, E.; Szabo, R.; Benko, J. M.; Derekas, A.; Kollath, Z.; Nuspl, J.; Kurtz, D. W.; Gilliland, R. L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Brown, T. M.; Chadid, M.; Criscienzo, M. Di; Kinemuchi, K.; Kunder, A.; Kopacki, G.; Moskalik, P.; Nemec, J. M.; Silvotti, R.

    2010-04-20

    We present the first results of our analyses of selected RR Lyrae stars for which data have been obtained by the Kepler Mission. As expected, we find a significant fraction of the RRab stars to show the Blazhko effect, a still unexplained phenomenon that manifests itself as periodic amplitude and phase modulations of the light curve, on timescales of typically tens to hundreds of days. The long time span of the Kepler Mission of 3.5 yr and the unprecedentedly high precision of its data provide a unique opportunity for the study of RR Lyrae stars. Using data of a modulated star observed in the first roll as a showcase, we discuss the data, our analyses, findings, and their implications for our understanding of RR Lyrae stars and the Blazhko effect. With at least 40% of the RR Lyrae stars in our sample showing modulation, we confirm the high incidence rate that was only found in recent high-precision studies. Moreover, we report the occurrence of additional frequencies, beyond the main pulsation mode and its modulation components. Their half-integer ratio to the main frequency is reminiscent of a period doubling effect caused by resonances, observed for the first time in RR Lyrae stars.

  8. RR Lyrae period luminosity relations with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeley, Jillian R.; Marengo, Massimo; CRRP Team

    2017-01-01

    RR Lyrae variable stars have long been known to be valuable distance indicators, but only recently has a well defined period luminosity relationship been utilized at infrared wavelengths. In my thesis, I am combining Spitzer Space Telescope data of RR Lyrae stars obtained as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Program with ground based NIR data to characterize the period-luminosity-metallicity (PLZ) relation and provide an independent Population II calibration of the cosmic distance scale. I will discuss the ongoing efforts to calibrate this relation using objects such as M4 and NGC 6441 and how the first data release from the Gaia mission impacts our findings. I will also compare my preliminary empirical relations to theoretical PLZ relations derived from stellar pulsation models.

  9. The RR Lyrae stars: New perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, D. H.; Barnes, J. E-mail: jonathan.barnes@slcc.edu

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate that the Oosterhoff II (Oo II) RR Lyrae ab variables are hotter by ∼270 K, at the same period, than Oo I variables. Or, at the same ((B) – (V)){sub 0} value the Oo II variables have larger radii than Oo I variables. This accounts for the reason Oo II variables are brighter (0.12-0.20 mag) than Oo I variables. The dependence of the light amplitude of RR Lyrae variables on temperature is independent of Oo type. This makes it possible to derive an accurate set of equations to relate intrinsic (B – V){sub 0} color indices to light amplitudes, which in turn can be used to determine the interstellar reddening (E (B – V)). With just a few variables (∼5), it is possible to determine the E (B – V) to an accuracy of <0.01 mag in the absence of systematic photometric errors. We discuss the errors introduced in color excess determinations by including the Blazhko stars in a solution. A comparison of color excess values of 23 globular clusters and two regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), determined with the aid of our newly developed equations, are found to compare favorably (∼0.01 mag) with color excess values found in the literature. Four new Oo III variables, some found in metal-poor clusters, are discussed. An analysis of the galactic-field variables indicates the majority are Oo I and Oo II variables, but a few short-period (log P < –0.36) metal-strong variables, so far not found in galactic globular clusters are evidently ∼0.30 mag fainter than Oo I variables. Oo III variables may also be present in the field. We conclude that the RR Lyrae ab variables are primarily restricted to four sequences or groups. If we assume that the Oo I variables' mean absolute magnitude is Mv = 0.61, the mean absolute magnitudes of the other three sequences are: short-period variables Mv ∼ 0.89 mag, Oo II Mv ∼ 0.43 mag, and Oo III Mv ∼ 0.29 mag. The Oo I fundamental RR Lyrae ab red edge (FRE) and fundamental blue edge (FBE) occur at approximately

  10. The magnificent past of RR Lyrae variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poretti, E.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Klotz, A.; Audejean, M.; Hirosawa, K.

    2016-05-01

    We briefly review the results obtained by using the times of maximum brightness of RR Lyrae variables. They cover more than 120 years and have been used to study the evolutionary changes of the pulsational periods, the different shapes of the Blazhko effect among Galactic RRab stars, and the interplay between pulsational and Blazhko periods in the eponym of the class, RR Lyr. The data are stored in the GEOS database, continuously fed by contributions from professional and amateur astronomers.

  11. OGLE-ing the Magellanic System: Three-Dimensional Structure of the Clouds and the Bridge using RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacyszyn-Dobrzeniecka, A. M.; Skowron, D. M.; Mróz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Ulaczyk, K.

    2017-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional analysis of a sample of 22 859 type ab RR Lyr stars in the Magellanic System from the OGLE-IV Collection of RR Lyr stars. The distance to each object was calculated based on its photometric metallicity and a theoretical relation between color, absolute magnitude and metallicity. The LMC RR Lyr distribution is very regular and does not show any substructures. We demonstrate that the bar found in previous studies may be an overdensity caused by blending and crowding effects. The halo is asymmetrical with a higher stellar density in its north-eastern area, which is also located closer to us. Triaxial ellipsoids were fitted to surfaces of a constant number density. Ellipsoids farther from the LMC center are less elongated and slightly rotated toward the SMC. The inclination and position angle change significantly with the a axis size. The median axis ratio is 1:1.23:1.45. The RR Lyr distribution in the SMC has a very regular, ellipsoidal shape and does not show any substructures or asymmetries. All triaxial ellipsoids fitted to surfaces of a constant number density have virtually the same shape (axis ratio) and are elongated along the line-of-sight. The median axis ratio is 1:1.10:2.13. The inclination angle is very small and thus the position angle is not well defined. We present the distribution of RR Lyr stars in the Magellanic Bridge area, showing that the Magellanic Clouds' halos overlap. A comparison of the distributions of RR Lyr stars and Classical Cepheids shows that the former are significantly more spread and distributed regularly, while the latter are very clumped and form several distinct substructures.

  12. Anomalous RR Lyrae stars(?): CM Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fabrizio, L.; Clementini, G.; Marconi, M.; Carretta, E.; Ivans, I. I.; Bragaglia, A.; Di Tomaso, S.; Merighi, R.; Smith, H. A.; Sneden, C.; Tosi, M.

    2002-11-01

    Time-series of B, V, I CCD photometry and radial velocity measurements from high-resolution spectroscopy (R= 30 000) covering the full pulsation cycle are presented for the field RR Lyrae star CM Leonis. The photometric data span a 6-yr interval from 1994 to 1999, and allow us to firmly establish the pulsation mode and periodicity of the variable. The derived period P= 0.361 699 d (+/-0.000001) is very close to the value published in the Fourth Edition of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (P= 0.361 732 d). However, contrary to what was previously found, the amplitude and shape of the light curve qualify CM Leo as a very regular first overtone pulsator with a prominent hump on the rising branch of its multicolour light curves. According to an abundace analysis performed on three spectra taken near minimum light (0.42 < φ < 0.61), CM Leo is a metal-poor star with metal abundance [Fe/H]=-1.93 +/- 0.20. The photometric and radial velocity curves of CM Leo have been compared with the predictions of suitable pulsational models to infer tight constraints on the stellar mass, effective temperature, and distance modulus of the star. We derive a true distance modulus of CM Leo of μ0= 13.11 +/- 0.02 mag and a corresponding absolute magnitude of MV= 0.47 +/- 0.04. This absolute magnitude, once corrected for evolutionary and metallicity effects, leads to a true distance modulus of the Large Magellanic Cloud of μ0= 18.43 +/- 0.06 mag, in better agreement with the long astronomical distance scale.

  13. Studying RR Lyrae Stars with Kepler/K2 (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, C.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) While RR Lyrae stars have long been studied from the ground, the high photometric precision, high cadence, and long observing times offered by the Kepler Space Telescope have yielded exciting discoveries that are revolutionizing our understanding of these stars. In its new K2 mission, Kepler is observing an even larger sample of RR Lyrae stars, promising to provide new insights into them and our Milky Way. In this talk I will present some of the most exciting new discoveries about RR Lyrae stars from the K2 mission with a special focus on what we are learning about the RR Lyrae in the globular cluster M4, our first chance to observe a single population of RR Lyrae with Kepler.

  14. RR Lyrae stars in local group galaxies. I. NGC 185

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, A.; Hoessel, J.G. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Washburn Observatory, Madison, WI )

    1990-01-01

    Deep CCD images of NGC 185 taken with the 4-shooter on the Hale 5-m telescope have been processed to find and photometrically measure RR Lyrae stars. 176 variable stars have been found, of which 151 are surmised to be RR Lyrae stars. Finding charts, periods, and light curves are presented. The RR Lyrae stars in this galaxy have a very wide distribution of periods indicating a wide range of metallicity. The mean magnitudes of the RR Lyraes is determined to be 25.20 mag. A distance modulus of 23.79 is derived, based on the best currently available values of foreground extinction and mean absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. 33 refs.

  15. MACHO RR lyrae in the inner halo and bulge

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, A.; Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T.S.; Becker, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Minniti, D.; Peterson, B. A.; Pratt, M. R.; Quinn, P. J.; Rodgers, A. W.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sutherland, W.; Tomaney, A.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D.

    1998-10-01

    The RR Lyrse in the bulge have been proposed to be the oldest populations in the Milky Way, tracers of how the galaxy formed. We study here the distribution of ?{approximately}1600 bulge RR Lyrae stars found by the MACHO Project. The RR Lyrae with 0.4 ? R ? 3 kpc show a density law that is well fit by the extension of the metal-poor stellar halo present in the outer regions of the Milky Way.

  16. Synthetic Mean Colors for RR Lyrae Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, Giuseppe; Caputo, Filippina; Stellingwerf, Robert F.

    1995-07-01

    Convective pulsating models computed for wide ranges of luminosity and effective temperature (Bono & Stellingwerf 1994) are used together with stellar atmosphere models (Kurucz 1992) to obtain a set of synthetic B - V and V - K mean colors for ah and c-type RR Lyrae variables. The results clearly show that neither the blue nor the infrared mean colors are representative of the equivalent static value, i.e., the color of the variable if it were a static star, over the whole instability strip. Moreover, it is shown that the discrepancy between synthetic mean colors and static color is a function of the amplitude of the light curve. On this basis, the amplitude corrections to observed mean colors to obtain the color of the underlying static star are derived.

  17. RR Lyrae Stars: Cosmic Lighthouses With a Twist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolenberg, K.

    2012-06-01

    Since their discovery over a century ago, RR Lyrae stars have proven to be valuable objects for the entire field of astrophysics. They are used as standard candles and witnesses of galactic evolution. Though the pulsations that cause their light variations are dominated by relatively “simple” radial modes, some aspects of RR Lyrae pulsation remain enigmatic. Besides the visual, photographic, and photometric observations of these stars that span several decades, spectroscopic data provide an in-depth view on the pulsations. In the past decade, particularly since the launch of the satellite missions with asteroseismology as part of their program (for example, MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler), several findings have helped us better understand the structure and pulsations of RR Lyrae stars. Nevertheless, ground-based observations and long-term monitoring of RR Lyrae stars, as done by the AAVSO members, remain of utmost importance.

  18. Studying RR Lyrae Stars in M4 with K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, Jason; Moskalik, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomena, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During its campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. We present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in the two observed RRc stars. In three RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6 days, 22.4 days, and 44.5 days.

  19. Contamination of RR Lyrae stars from Binary Evolution Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Belczyński, Krzysztof; Stępień, Kazimierz; Wiktorowicz, Grzegorz; Iłkiewicz, Krystian

    2016-06-01

    Binary Evolution Pulsator (BEP) is an extremely low-mass member of a binary system, which pulsates as a result of a former mass transfer to its companion. BEP mimics RR Lyrae-type pulsations but has different internal structure and evolution history. We present possible evolution channels to produce BEPs, and evaluate the contamination value, i.e. how many objects classified as RR Lyrae stars can be undetected BEPs. In this analysis we use population synthesis code StarTrack.

  20. RR Lyrae stars in NGC 6362★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolec, R.; Moskalik, P.; Kałużny, J.; Pych, W.; Różyczka, M.; Thompson, I. B.

    2017-01-01

    We present the analysis of the top-quality photometry of RR Lyrae stars in the globular cluster NGC 6362, gathered over 11 observing seasons by the CASE project. 16 stars are fundamental mode pulsators (RRab stars) and 16 are first overtone pulsators (RRc stars). In two stars, previously identified as RRab, V3 and V34, we detect additional periodicity identified as radial first overtone mode. Lower than usual period ratios (0.730 and 0.728), dominant pulsation in the radial fundamental mode and presence of a long-period modulation indicate, that these two variables are not classical RRd stars, but are new members of the recently identified class of anomalous RRd variables. In a significant fraction of RRc stars, 63 per cent, we detect additional shorter-period variability in the (0.60, 0.65)P1 range. This form of double-periodic pulsation must be common in first overtone RR Lyr stars, as space observations indicate. The incidence rate we find in NGC 6362, is the highest in ground-based observations reported so far. We study the properties of these stars in detail; in particular we confirm that in the colour-magnitude diagram, this group is adjacent to the interface between RRab and RRc stars, as first reported in the analysis of M3 observations by Jurcsik et al. The incidence rate of the Blazhko effect is also very high: we observe it in 69 per cent of RRab stars and in 19 per cent of RRc stars. Rare, double-periodic modulation is reported in one RRab and in one RRc star. Finally we discuss V37 - a peculiar variable in which we detect two close high-amplitude periodicities and modulation. Its previous classification as RRc must be treated as tentative.

  1. The MACHO Project Large Magellanic Cloud Variable Star Inventory. XIII. Fourier Parameters for the First Overtone RR Lyrae Variables and the LMC Distance

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C; Alves, D; Axelrod, T; Becker, A; Bennett, D; Clement, C; Cook, K; Drake, A; Freeman, K; Geha, M; Griest, K; Lehner, M; Marshall, S; Minniti, D; Muzzin, A; Nelson, C; Peterson, B; Popowski, P; Pratt, M; Quinn, P; Rodgers, A; Rowe, J; Sutherland, W; Vandehei, T; Welch, D

    2003-12-31

    Shapes of RR Lyrae light curves can be described in terms of Fourier coefficients which past research has linked with physical characteristics such as luminosity, mass and temperature. Fourier coefficients have been derived for the V and R light curves of 785 overtone RR Lyrae variables in 16 MACHO fields near the bar of the LMC. In general, the Fourier phase differences {phi}{sub 21}, {phi}{sub 31} and {phi}{sub 41} increase and the amplitude ratio R{sub 21} decreases with increasing period. The coefficients for both the V and R magnitudes follow these patterns, but the phase differences for the R curves are on average slightly greater, and their amplitudes are about 20% smaller, than the ones for the V curves. The {phi}{sub 31} and R{sub 21} coefficients have been compared with those of the first overtone RR Lyrae variables in the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6441, M107, M5, M3, M2, {omega} Centauri and M68. The results indicate that many of the LMC variables have properties similar to the ones in M2, M3, M5 and the Oosterhoff type I variables in {omega} Cen, but they are different from the Oosterhoff type II variables in {omega} Cen. Equations derived from hydrodynamic pulsation models have been used to calculate the luminosity and temperature for the 330 bona fide first-overtone variables. The results indicate that they have Log L in the range 1.6 to 1.8 L{sub {center_dot}} and log T{sub eff} between 3.85 and 3.87. Based on these temperatures, a mean color excess E(V-R) = 0.08 mag, equivalent to E(B-V) = 0.14 mag, has been estimated for these 330 stars. The 80 M5-like variables (selected according to their location in the {phi}{sub 31} - log P plot) are used to determine an LMC distance. After correcting for the effects of extinction and crowding, a mean apparent magnitude < V{sub 0} > = 18.99 {+-} 0.02 (statistical) {+-} 0.16 (systematic) has been estimated for these 80 stars. Combining this with a mean absolute magnitude M{sub V} = 0.56 {+-} 0.06 for M5

  2. RR Lyrae stars in local group galaxies. II. NGC 147

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, A.; Hoessel, J.G.; Mossman, A.E. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Washburn Observatory, Madison, WI )

    1990-07-01

    Deep CCD images of NGC 147 taken with the 4-shooter on the Hale 5 m telescope have been processed to find and photometrically measure RR Lyrae stars. 36 variable stars have been found, of which 32 are surmised to be RR Lyrae stars. Finding charts, periods, and light curves are presented. The mean magnitude of the RR Lyraes is determined to be 25.25 mag. A distance modulus 23.92 is derived, based on the best currently available values of foreground extinction and mean absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. A wide range of periods is seen for the RR Lyrae stars, indicating a correspondingly wide range of metallicities for the stars in NGC 147. The distance modulus derived here places NGC 147 at a distance of 154 kpc from the center of M31, and in conjunction with the line sight velocities of these two galaxies, this implies a lower limit of 7.2 x 10 to the 11th solar masses for the mass of M31. 23 refs.

  3. RR Lyrae stars in eclipsing systems -- historical candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liška, J.; Skarka, M.; Hájková, P.; Auer, R. F.

    2016-03-01

    Discovery of binary systems among RR Lyrae stars belongs to challenges of present astronomy. So far, none of classical RR Lyrae stars was clearly confirmed, that it is a part of an eclipsing system. From this reason we studied two RR Lyrae stars, VX Her and RW Ari, in which changes assigned to eclipses were detected in sixties and seventies of the 20th century. In this paper our preliminary results based on analysis of new photometric measurements are presented as well as the results from the detailed analysis of original measurements. A new possible eclipsing system, RZ Cet was identified in the archive data. Our analysis rather indicates errors in measurements and reductions of the old data than real changes for all three stars.

  4. The RR Lyrae variable population in the Phoenix dwarf galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ordoñez, Antonio J.; Sarajedini, Ata; Yang, Soung-Chul E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu

    2014-05-10

    We present the first detailed study of the RR Lyrae variable population in the Local Group dSph/dIrr transition galaxy, Phoenix, using previously obtained HST/WFPC2 observations of the galaxy. We utilize template light curve fitting routines to obtain best fit light curves for RR Lyrae variables in Phoenix. Our technique has identified 78 highly probable RR Lyrae stars (54 ab-type; 24 c-type) with about 40 additional candidates. We find mean periods for the two populations of (P {sub ab}) = 0.60 ± 0.03 days and (P{sub c} ) = 0.353 ± 0.002 days. We use the properties of these light curves to extract, among other things, a metallicity distribution function for ab-type RR Lyrae. Our analysis yields a mean metallicity of ([Fe/H]) = –1.68 ± 0.06 dex for the RRab stars. From the mean period and metallicity calculated from the ab-type RR Lyrae, we conclude that Phoenix is more likely of intermediate Oosterhoff type; however the morphology of the Bailey diagram for Phoenix RR Lyraes appears similar to that of an Oosterhoff type I system. Using the RRab stars, we also study the chemical enrichment law for Phoenix. We find that our metallicity distribution is reasonably well fitted by a closed-box model. The parameters of this model are compatible with the findings of Hidalgo et al., further supporting the idea that Phoenix appears to have been chemically enriched as a closed-box-like system during the early stage of its formation and evolution.

  5. On the origin of period changes in RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzini, A.; Sweigart, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The observed period changes are explained with respect to the behavior of the semiconductive zone (SCZ) within the core of an RR Lyrae star. General consideration are given which suggest that the composition changes occuring within the SCZ during the horizontal-branch evolution result from many small mixing events, each of which slightly perturbs the pulsation period. Results indicate that small mixing events within the core of an RR Lyrae star can produce changes in the pulsation period comparable with those typically observed. It is further indicated that these mixing events together with the nuclear burning between them can produce period changes of both signs.

  6. RR Lyrae in Sagittarius Dwarf Globular Clusters (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritzl, B. J.; Gehrman, T. J.; Bell, E.; Salinas, R.; Smith, H. A.; Catelan, M.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Milky Way Galaxy was built up in part by the cannibalization of smaller dwarf galaxies. Some of them likely contained globular clusters. The Sagittarius dwarf galaxy provides a unique opportunity to study a system of globular clusters that originated outside the Milky Way. We have investigated the RR Lyrae populations in two Sagittarius globular clusters, Arp 2 and Terzan 8. The RR Lyrae are used to study the properties of the clusters and to compare this system to Milky Way globular clusters. We will discuss whether or not dwarf galaxies similar to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy could have played a role in the formation of the Milky Way Galaxy.

  7. Bulge RR Lyrae stars in the VVV tile b201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, F.; Minniti, D.; Saito, R. K.; Navarrete, C.; Dékány, I.; McDonald, I.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Catelan, M.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey is one of the six ESO public surveys currently ongoing at the VISTA telescope on Cerro Paranal, Chile. VVV uses near-IR (ZYJHKs) filters that at present provide photometry to a depth of Ks ~ 17.0 mag in up to 36 epochs spanning over four years, and aim at discovering more than 106 variable sources as well as trace the structure of the Galactic bulge and part of the southern disk. Aims: A variability search was performed to find RR Lyrae variable stars. The low stellar density of the VVV tile b201, which is centered at (ℓ,b) ~ (-9°, -9°), makes it suitable to search for variable stars. Previous studies have identified some RR Lyrae stars using optical bands that served to test our search procedure. The main goal is to measure the reddening, interstellar extinction, and distances of the RR Lyrae stars and to study their distribution on the Milky Way bulge. Methods: For each star in the tile with more than 25 epochs (~90% of the objects down to Ks ~ 17.0 mag), the standard deviation and χ2 test were calculated to identify variable candidates. Periods were determined using the analysis of variance. Objects with periods in the RR Lyrae range of 0.2 ≤ P ≤ 1.2 days were selected as candidate RR Lyrae. They were individually examined to exclude false positives. Results: A total of 1.5 sq deg were analyzed, and we found 39 RR Lyr stars, 27 of which belong to the ab-type and 12 to the c-type. Our analysis recovers all the previously identified RR Lyrae variables in the field and discovers 29 new RR Lyr stars. The reddening and extinction toward all the RRab stars in this tile were derived, and distance estimations were obtained through the period-luminosity relation. Despite the limited amount of RR Lyrae stars studied, our results are consistent with a spheroidal or central distribution around ~8.1 and ~8.5 kpc. for either the Cardelli or Nishiyama extinction law. Our analysis does not reveal a stream

  8. DISTANCE SCALE ZERO POINTS FROM GALACTIC RR LYRAE STAR PARALLAXES

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Barnes, Thomas G.; Feast, Michael W.; Harrison, Thomas E.; Bean, Jacob L.; Kolenberg, Katrien; Menzies, John W.; Laney, C. D.; Chaboyer, Brian; Fossati, Luca; Nesvacil, Nicole; Smith, Horace A.; Kochukhov, Oleg; Nelan, Edmund P.; Taylor, Denise; Shulyak, D. V.; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2011-12-15

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars-five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and {kappa} Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 {+-} 0.16 mas; XZ Cyg, 1.67 {+-} 0.17 mas; SU Dra, 1.42 {+-} 0.16 mas; RR Lyr, 3.77 {+-} 0.13 mas; UV Oct, 1.71 {+-} 0.10 mas; VY Pyx, 6.44 {+-} 0.23 mas; and {kappa} Pav, 5.57 {+-} 0.28 mas; an average {sigma}{sub {pi}}/{pi} = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for M{sub V} -[Fe/H] and M{sub K} -[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids.

  9. Distance Scale Zero Points from Galactic RR Lyrae Star Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Feast, Michael W.; Barnes, Thomas G.; Harrison, Thomas E.; Bean, Jacob L.; Menzies, John W.; Chaboyer, Brian; Fossati, Luca; Nesvacil, Nicole; Smith, Horace A.; Kolenberg, Katrien; Laney, C. D.; Kochukhov, Oleg; Nelan, Edmund P.; Shulyak, D. V.; Taylor, Denise; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2011-12-01

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars—five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and κ Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 ± 0.16 mas XZ Cyg, 1.67 ± 0.17 mas SU Dra, 1.42 ± 0.16 mas RR Lyr, 3.77 ± 0.13 mas UV Oct, 1.71 ± 0.10 mas VY Pyx, 6.44 ± 0.23 mas and κ Pav, 5.57 ± 0.28 mas an average σπ/π = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for MV -[Fe/H] and MK -[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  10. The light curves of RR Lyrae field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, N. R.; Teays, T. J.

    1982-10-01

    Fourier decompositions have been made of the light curves of a large sample of RR Lyrae field stars. The coefficients have been tabulated. Following the scheme of an earlier investigation of classical Cepheids, certain combinations of the low-order coefficients - phi21, R21, and phi31 - are plotted against period. The Bailey-type c pulsators stand out from the type ab stars, particularly on the R21 plot which is found to be a more sensitive discriminator of Bailey type than is the traditionally employed amplitude-period diagram. The RR Lyrae plots of phi21, R21, and phi31 are compared with those previously obtained for classical Cepheids. It is noted that, while the Cepheid plots display a tightly defined progression with period, reflecting the influence of a modal resonance, in the RR Lyrae case there is much more scatter. However, some evidence is shown to exist for a Cepheid-like progression appearing among the longer period RR Lyrae pulsators and culminating in the unique small-amplitude variable XZ Ceti.

  11. Radiative Transfer Effects on the Colors of RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. G.

    The methods of Davis and Cox (1980), are applied to a series of models described by Bono and Stellingwerf(1994) to determine the colors of RR Lyrae stars. Convection is ignored and the radiation flow is treated by a complete variable Eddington, multi-frequency dependent radiative transfer approximation.

  12. Radiative Transfer Effects on the Colors of RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. G.

    The methods of Davis & Cox (1980), are applied to a series of models described by Bono & Stellingwerf(1994), to determine the colors of RR Lyrae stars. Convection is ignored and the radiative flow is treated by a complete variable Eddington multi-frequency group radiative transfer approximation.

  13. The Composition of HB Stars: RR Lyrae Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementini, G.; Carretta, E.; Gratton, R.; Merighi, R.; Mould, J. R.; McCarthy, J. K.

    1995-11-01

    We used moderately high-resolution, high S/N spectra to study the chemical composition of 10 field ab-type RR Lyrae stars. A new temperature scale was determined from literature Infrared Flux Method measures of subdwarfs and the Kurucz (1992) model atmospheres, and used to calibrate colors for both dwarfs and RR Lyraes. The applicability of Kurucz (1992) model atmospheres in the analysis of RR Lyraes at minimum light was analyzed: we found that they are able to reproduce colors, excitation and ionization equilibria as well as the wings of Halpha. We derived abundances for 21 species. The metal abundances of the program stars span the range -2.50<[Fe/H]<+0.17$. Lines of most elements are found to form in LTE conditions. Fe lines satisfy very well the excitation and ionization equilibria. RR Lyraes share the typical abundance pattern of other stars of similar [Fe/H]: alpha-elements are overabundant by about 0.4dex and Mn is underabundant by about 0.6dex in stars with [Fe/H]<-1. Significant departures from LTE are found only for a few species. We used our new [Fe/H] abundances, as well as values from Butler and coworkers (corrected to our system), and from high resolution spectroscopy of globular clusters giants, to obtain a new calibration of the DeltaS index: [Fe/H]= -0.194(\\pm 0.011)DeltaS -0.08(\\pm 0.18) and to update the metallicity calibration of the Ca II K line index: [Fe/H]= 0.65(\\pm 0.17)W'(K) -3.49(\\pm 0.39). Finally, our new metallicity scale was used to revise the [Fe/H] dependence of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae stars, Mv: Mv = 0.20(\\pm 0.03)[Fe/H] + 1.06(\\pm 0.04).

  14. Gaia Parallax Zero Point from RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew; Kollmeier, Juna A.

    2017-02-01

    Like Hipparcos, Gaia is designed to give absolute parallaxes, independent of any astrophysical reference system. And indeed, Gaia's internal zero-point error for parallaxes is likely to be smaller than any individual parallax error. Nevertheless, due in part to mechanical issues of unknown origin, there are many astrophysical questions for which the parallax zero-point error σ(π_0) will be the fundamentally limiting constraint. These include the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Galactic Center. We show that by using the photometric parallax estimates for RR Lyrae stars (RRL) within 8kpc, via the ultra-precise infrared period-luminosity relation, one can independently determine a hyper-precise value for π_{0}. Despite their paucity relative to bright quasars, we show that RRL are competitive due to their order-of-magnitude improved parallax precision for each individual object relative to bright quasars. We show that this method is mathematically robust and well-approximated by analytic formulae over a wide range of relevant distances.

  15. RR Lyrae stars in M31 globular clusters: B514

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, R.; Federici, L.; Clementini, G.; Cacciari, C.; Merighi, R.; Kinemuchi, K.; Catelan, M.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Marconi, M.; Pritzl, B.; Smith, H.

    We present preliminary results of a variable star search in the metal-poor globular cluster B514 of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. A large number of RR Lyrae stars have been identified for the first time in a globular cluster of M31. The average period of the RR Lyrae variables (< Pab > = 0.58 days and < Pc > = 0.35 days, for fundamental-mode and first-overtone pulsators, respectively) and the position in the period-amplitude diagram both suggest that B514 is likely an Oosterhoff I cluster, contrary to the general behaviour of the metal-poor globular clusters in the Milky Way, which show instead Oosterhoff type II pulsation properties.

  16. RR Lyrae Atmospherics: Wrinkles Old and New. A Preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.

    2011-01-01

    I report some results of an echelle spectroscopic survey of RR Lyrae stars begun in 2006 that I presented in my Henry Norris Lecture of 2010 January 4. Topics include (1) atmospheric velocity gradients, (2) phase-dependent envelope turbulence as it relates to Peterson's discoveries of axial rotation on the horizontal branch and to Stothers' explanation of the Blazhko effect, (3) the three apparitions of hydrogen emission during a pulsation cycle, (4) the occurrence of He I lines in emission and absorption, (5) detection of He II emission and metallic line doubling in Blazhko stars, and finally (6) speculation about what helium observations of RR Lyrae stars in omega Centauri might tell us about the putative helium populations and the horizontal branch of that strange globular cluster. This paper preserves the substance and style of remarks that accompanied the author's PowerPoint presentation of the 2009 Henry Norris Russell lecture.

  17. The Extinction Toward the Galactic Bulge from RR Lyrae Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, A; Popowski, P; Cook, K; Chaboyer, B

    2007-11-07

    The authors present mean reddenings toward 3525 RR0 Lyrae stars from the Galactic bulge fields of the MACHO Survey. These reddenings are determined using the color at minimum V-band light of the RR0 Lyrae stars themselves and are found to be in general agreement with extinction estimates at the same location obtained from other methods. Using 3256 stars located in the Galactic Bulge, they derive the selective extinction coefficient R{sub V,VR} = A{sub V}/E(V-R) = 4.2 {+-} 0.2. this value is what is expected for a standard extinction law with R{sub V,BV} = 3.1 {+-} 0.3

  18. Estimating the Distance and Metallicity of an RR Lyrae Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Shouvik

    2013-03-01

    Minnesota State University Moorhead has a working observatory and recently renovated named the Paul P Feder Observatory at the Buffalo River State Park in the Northwest Minnesota. The observatory is equipped with a 16'' Cassegrain reflecting telescope, an Apogee Alta CCD camera, two research grade computers and the SBIG SGS Spectrograph, which was installed in the observatory facility in fall 2012. The student researcher used the facility and made photometric and spectroscopic observations of the RR Lyrae stars. The distance of the RR Lyrae star was estimated by analyzing the photometric data, extracting information about period and measured quantify brightness from the observed science images. High resolution spectroscopy was performed on the same star and its applicability to metallicity estimation will be reported.

  19. Proper-Motion Based Kinematics Study of Galactic RR Lyraes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambis, Andrei; Berdnikov, Leonid; Rastorguev, Alexei; Zabolotskikh, Marina

    2015-08-01

    We cross-match an extensive sample of almost 2000 RR Lyrae type stars located within ≈7 kpc from the Sun drawn from the lists of Torrealba et al. (2015) and Drake et al. (2013) with the US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalogue (UCAC4) and SDSS DR12 used as sources of proper motions and ALLWISE data release of the WISE infrared photometric catalog to analyze the kinematics of the RR Lyrae type star population in the extended solar neoghborhood. We find the mean velocities and the components of the velocity ellipsoid tensors of the halo and thick-disk subpopulations and the dependence of these parameters on Galactocentric distance and the height above the Galactic midplane.

  20. Contamination of RR Lyrae stars from Binary Evolution Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarek, P.

    2015-09-01

    A Binary Evolution Pulsator (BEP) is a low-mass (0.26 M_⊙) member of a binary system, which pulsates as a result of a former mass transfer to its companion. The BEP mimics RR~Lyrae-type pulsations, but has completely different internal structure and evolution history. Although there is only one known BEP (OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-02792), it has been estimated that approximately 0.2% of objects classified as RR Lyrae stars can be undetected Binary Evolution Pulsators. In the present work, this contamination value is re-evaluated using the population synthesis method. The output falls inside a range of values dependent on tuning the parameters in the StarTrack code, and varies from 0.06% to 0.43%.

  1. New systemic radial velocities of suspected RR Lyrae binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenberger, E.; Barnes, T. G.; Kolenberg, K.

    2016-05-01

    Among the tens of thousands of known RR Lyrae stars there are only a handful that show indications of possible binarity. The question why this is the case is still unsolved, and has recently sparked several studies dedicated to the search for additional RR Lyraes in binary systems. Such systems are particularly valuable because they might allow to constrain the stellar mass. Most of the recent studies, however, are based on photometry by finding a light time effect in the timings of maximum light. This approach is a very promising and successful one, but it has a major drawback: by itself, it cannot serve as a definite proof of binarity, because other phenomena such as the Blazhko effect or intrinsic period changes could lead to similar results. Spectroscopic radial velocity measurements, on the other hand, can serve as definite proof of binarity. We have therefore started a project to study spectroscopically RR Lyrae stars that are suspected to be binaries. We have obtained radial velocity (RV) curves with the 2.1m telescope at McDonald observatory. From these we derive systemic RVs which we will compare to previous measurements in order to find changes induced by orbital motions. We also construct templates of the RV curves that can facilitate future studies. We also observed the most promising RR Lyrae binary candidate, TU UMa, as no recent spectroscopic measurements were available. We present a densely covered pulsational RV curve, which will be used to test the predictions of the orbit models that are based on the O - C variations.

  2. Verbesserte Elemente der RR-Lyrae-Sterne IQ Bootis, V651 Aurigae und BQ Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maintz, Gisela

    2015-04-01

    CCD observations of neglected RR Lyrae stars were taken at my private observatory. IQ Boo is a RRab star with a hump in the rising branch. BQ Lyr shows a weak Blazhko effect. The elements of these stars were revised. Star Max period +- JD [d] [d] IQ Boo 2457213.4681 0.535234 0.000001 V651 Aur 2457040.4056 0.617715 0.000003 BQ Lyr 2455703.4120 0.4350488 0.0000002

  3. An Update on the Status of RR Lyrae Research - Report of the RRL2015 Meeting (October, Hungary) (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolenberg, K.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) In October 2015 we organized the first international meeting focused on RR Lyrae research, with the goal to discuss recent developments and future RR Lyrae plans. The Scientific rationale is the following:

  4. 47 Tucanae, membership and metallicity of three RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. W.; Butler, D.

    1980-01-01

    The Preston ΔS metal abundance parameter has been determined for three RR Lyrae stars in the extended field of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. The variables V12 and HV809 are found to be nonmembers with [Fe/H] values of -1.7 ± 0.03 and -1.8 ± 0.13 respectively. V9, having [Fe/H] = -1.1 ± 0.11, is a probable member since (1) it is located very near the cluster center, and (2) our [Fe/H] value is in excellent agreement with the new cluster value reported by Pilachowski, Canterna, and Wallerstein.

  5. Physical parameter determination of seven RR Lyrae stars in Bootes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J. H.; Arellano, A.; Sareyan, J. P.; Peña, R.; Alvarez, M.

    2007-06-01

    uvbyβ photoelectric photometry of the RR Lyrae stars AE, RS, ST, TV, TW, UU, and XX Bootis has been acquired in order to determine the physical parameters of the stars. We used the correlation between the Fourier parameters derived from the light curves and the physical parameters such as the absolute magnitude M_v, intrinsic colour (B-V)_0 and metal abundance [Fe/H]. Once reddening has been determined, unreddened indices are obtained and T_{eff} and log g followed along the cycle, using a comparison with the theoretical models given for our determined metallicity.

  6. A search for binary candidates among the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars observed by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenberger, Elisabeth; Steixner, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Although roughly half of all stars are considered to be part of binary or multiple systems, there are only two confirmed cases of RR Lyrae pulsators with companions. One of them is TU Uma [1] - a classical RR Lyrae star in a very eccentric orbit - and the other is OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-02792 [2]. Considering the wealth of well-studied RR Lyrae stars, this number is astoundingly low. Having more RR Lyrae stars in binary systems at hand would be extremely valuable to get independent measurements of the masses. The data from the Kepler mission with their unprecedented precision and the long time span of about four years offer a unique possibility to systematically search for the signatures of binarity in RR Lyrae stars. Using the pulsation as a clock, we studied the variations in the timing of maximum light to hunt for possible binary systems in the sample.

  7. The luminosity and kinematics of RR Lyrae stars in the solar neighbourhood. I - Statistical parallaxes of RR Lyraes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugnell, P.; Reid, N.; Murray, C. A.

    1986-05-01

    We have used an improved maximum-likelihood statistic to determine the absolute magnitude and kinematics of local RR Lyrae variables from a statistical and secular parallax analysis of proper motions and radial velocities. Our analysis indicates a 'best-buy' absolute magnitude (at mean intensity) of (Mv)= +0.75±0.2. We show that our analysis reconciles the divergent results of Heck & Lakaye and Clube & Dawe. We find no statistically significant evidence for any correlation between absolute magnitude and metallicity. However, there is a correlation between systemic rotation and both metallicity and period.

  8. THE RR LYRAE VARIABLES AND HORIZONTAL BRANCH OF NGC 6656 (M22) {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, Andrea; Walker, Alistair R.; Paredes Alvarez, Leonardo; Stetson, Peter B.; Cassisi, Santi; Layden, Andrew; Bono, Giuseppe; Catelan, Márcio; Clem, James L.; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Salaris, Maurizio; Lee, Jae-Woo; Chaboyer, Brian E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl

    2013-11-01

    The first calibrated broadband UBVI time-series photometry is presented for the RR Lyrae variable stars in NGC 6656 (M22), with observations spanning a range of 22 years. We have also redetermined the variability types and periods for the RR Lyrae stars identified previously by photographic observations, revising the number of fundamental-mode RR Lyrae variables (RR0) to 10 and the number of first-overtone variables (RR1) to 16. The mean periods of the RR0 and RR1 variables are (P) {sub RR0} = 0.66 ± 0.02 days and (P) {sub RR1} = 0.33 ± 0.01 days, respectively, supporting an Oosterhoff II classification for the cluster. The number ratio of RR1-type to all RR-type variables is N {sub 1}/N{sub RR} = 0.61, also consistent with an Oosterhoff II designation. Both the RR Lyrae stars' minimum light colors and the blue edge of the RR Lyrae instability strip suggest E( B – – V) = 0.36 ± 0.02 mag toward M22. Regarding the HB morphology of M22, we find (B-R)/(B+V+R) = +0.97 ± 0.1 and at least one ''gap'' located in an unusual part of the blue HB, in the middle of the so-called hot HB stars.

  9. Stability of full-amplitude solutions for RR Lyrae variables

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, S.W.; Cox, A.N.

    1982-07-30

    Since the discovery of numerous double-mode RR Lyrae variables in the globular cluster M15 by Cox, Hodson, and Clancy (1981a and 1983, CHC), double-mode behavior in these Population II variables has made it possible to theoretically determine their masses, composition, and maybe even their evolution direction. The most unusual characteristic of these new double-mode pulsators is that they are found in a narrow range of first overtone periods (P/sub 1/=0./sup d/38-0./sup d/43) and period ratios (P/sub 1//P/sub 0/=0.746+-0.001), where P/sub 0/ is the fundamental mode period. This compares with P/sub 1/=0./sup d/41 and P/sub 1//P/sub 0/=0.746 for AQ Leonis, the only known field double-mode RR Lyrae star. Recent linear studies by CHC (1981a and 1983) suggest that double-mode behavior in this class of stars results from mode switching between the fundamental (F) and first overtone (1H) radial pulsation modes at the transition line just to the red of the F-mode blue edge.

  10. Stellar evolution and period changes in RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young-Wook

    1991-01-01

    The observed secular period changes of RR Lyrae stars in five globular clusters have been compared with those predicted by synthetic models of the horizontal branch (HB). It is shown that most of the observed number distributions of the period change rate beta could be attributed to evolutionary effects, if the random observational error is of order + or - 0.07 days/Myr in beta as suggested by the observers. The model calculations indicate that the mean rate of period change in RR Lyrae stars in globular clusters depends sensitively on their HB type, as is the case for the period shift at a given effective temperature. The distinct bias toward positive period changes in M15 and Omega Cen is evidence that most HB stars in the Oosterhoff group II clusters pass through the instability strip from blue to red toward the end of their core helium burning phase. If confirmed by future observations, this is strong support for the Lee et al. (1990) explanation of the Sandage (1957) period-shift effect.

  11. Magnetic models can not explain the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadid, M.; Wade, G. A.; Shorlin, S. L. S.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2004-05-01

    We report a new series of high-precision Stokes V profiles and longitudinal magnetic field measurements of RR Lyrae, obtained with the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter over a period of four years. These data provide no evidence whatsoever for a strong magnetic field in the photosphere of RR Lyrae, whish is consistent with Preston's (1967) results, but inconsistent with apparent magnetic field detections by Babcock (1958) and Romanov et a. (1987, 1994). Following discussion of these disparate results, we conclude that RR Lyrae is a bona fide non-magnetic star, a conclusion which leads to the general falsification of models of the Blazkho effect requiring strong photospheric magnetic fields.

  12. The unique dynamical system underlying RR Lyrae pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollath, Z.

    2016-05-01

    Hydrodynamic models of RR Lyrae pulsation display a very rich behaviour. Contrary to earlier expectations, high order resonances play a crucial role in the nonlinear dynamics representing the interacting modes. Chaotic attractors can be found at different time scales: both in the pulsation itself and in the amplitude equations shaping the possible modulation of the oscillations. Although there is no one-to-one connection between the nonlinear features found in the numerical models and the observed behaviour, the richness of the found phenomena suggests that the interaction of modes should be taken seriously in the study of the still unsolved puzzle of Blazhko effect. One of the main lessons of this complex system is that we should rethink the simple interpretation of the observed effect of resonances.

  13. Physical parameters of seven field RR Lyrae Stars in bootes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J. H.; Arellano Ferro, A.; Peña Miller, R.; Sareyan, J. P.; Álvarez, M.

    2009-10-01

    Strömgren uvby-β photometry is reported for the RR Lyrae stars AE, RS, ST, TV, TW, UU, and XX in Bootes. The physical parameters M/M_⊙, log(L/L_⊙), M_V, log T_{eff} and [Fe/H], have been estimated from the Fourier decomposition of the light curves and the empirical calibrations developed for this type of stars. The obtained [Fe/H] values are compared with those calculated from the Δ S index for some sample stars. It was found that reddening in the zone is negligible compared to that shown by several objects in the same sky zone. From that, distance to the stars was calculated. The variation of the unreddened indexes (b-y)_0 and c_1 along the pulsational cycle allows the direct comparison with the theoretical grids and, hence, an independent determination of T_{eff} and log g.

  14. Intriguing triple-mode RR Lyrae star with period doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolec, R.; Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Moskalik, P.; Skowron, D.; Pietrzyński, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Mróz, P.

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery of an intriguing triple-mode RR Lyrae star found in the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) Galactic bulge collection, OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-24137. In the OGLE catalogue, the star was identified as RRd star - double-mode pulsator, pulsating simultaneously in the fundamental and in the first overtone modes. We find that third mode is excited and firmly detect its period doubling. Period ratios are not far from that expected for triple-mode - fundamental, first and third overtone - pulsation. Unfortunately, we cannot reproduce period ratios of the three modes with a consistent set of pulsation models. Therefore the other interpretation, that additional mode is non-radial, is also likely.

  15. A Spectroscopisc's View of Nearby RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.

    2016-06-01

    I am greatly honored to be the second Bohdan Paczyński Medal lecturer. Bohdan was a dear friend who left an indelible imprint on my life. He was, as well, an invaluable participant in my early explorations of RR Lyrae spectra, the subject of this lecture. I share the hope of Polskie Towarzystwo Astronomiczne that the Paczyński lecture series will serve to remind present and future astronomers, particularly those who will never have the opportunity to see or hear Bohdan Paczyński in person, of the boisterous enthusiasm, sharp wit, and penetrating insight that he brought to every scientific question, to every conversation, to every social occasion that attracted his attention. To this end I begin with a few memories of Bohdan from the mid 20th century.

  16. Chemical abundances of solar neighbourhood RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancino, E.; Britavskiy, N.; Romano, D.; Cacciari, C.; Mucciarelli, A.; Clementini, G.

    2015-03-01

    We have analysed a sample of 18 RR Lyrae stars (17 fundamental-mode - RRab - and one first overtone - RRc) and three Population II Cepheids (two BL Her stars and one W Vir star), for which high-resolution (R ≥ 30 000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ≥ 30) spectra were obtained with either SARG at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (La Palma, Spain) or UVES at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (Paranal, Chile). Archival data were also analysed for a few stars, sampling ≳3 phases for each star. We obtained atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, vt, and [M/H]) and abundances of several iron-peak and α-elements (Fe, Cr, Ni, Mg, Ca, Si, and Ti) for different pulsational phases, obtaining <[α/Fe]> = +0.31±0.19 dex over the entire sample covering -2.2 < [Fe/H] < -1.1 dex. We find that silicon is indeed extremely sensitive to the phase, as reported by previous authors, and cannot be reliably determined. Apart from this, metallicities and abundance ratios are consistently determined, regardless of the phase, within 0.10-0.15 dex, although caution should be used in the range 0 ≲ φ ≲ 0.15. Our results agree with literature determinations for both variable and non-variable field stars, obtained with very different methods, including low- and high-resolution spectroscopy. W Vir and BL Her stars, at least in the sampled phases, appear indistinguishable from RRab from the spectroscopic analysis point of view. Our large sample, covering all pulsation phases, confirms that chemical abundances can be obtained for RR Lyrae with the classical equivalent-width -based technique and static model atmospheres, even rather close to the shock phases.

  17. The luminosities and distance scales of type II Cepheid and RR Lyrae variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feast, Michael W.; Laney, Clifton D.; Kinman, Thomas D.; van Leeuwen, Floor; Whitelock, Patricia A.

    2008-06-01

    Infrared and optical absolute magnitudes are derived for the type II Cepheids κ Pav and VY Pyx using revised Hipparcos parallaxes and for κ Pav, V553 Cen and SW Tau from pulsational parallaxes. Revised Hipparcos and HST parallaxes for RR Lyrae agree satisfactorily and are combined in deriving absolute magnitudes. Phase-corrected J, H and Ks mags are given for 142 Hipparcos RR Lyraes based on Two-Micron All-Sky Survey observations. Pulsation and trigonometrical parallaxes for classical Cepheids are compared to establish the best value for the projection factor (p) used in pulsational analyses. The MV of RR Lyrae itself is 0.16 +/- 0.12 mag brighter than predicted from an MV-[Fe/H] relation based on RR Lyrae stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at a modulus of 18.39 +/- 0.05 as found from classical Cepheids. This is consistent with the prediction of Catelan & Cortés that it is overluminous for its metallicity. The results for the metal- and carbon-rich Galactic disc stars, V553 Cen and SW Tau, each with small internal errors (+/-0.08 mag) have a mean deviation of only 0.02 mag from the period-luminosity (PL) relation established by Matsunaga et al. for type II Cepheids in globular clusters and with a zero-point based on the same LMC-scale. Comparing directly the luminosities of these two stars with published data on type II Cepheids in the LMC and in the Galactic bulge leads to an LMC modulus of 18.37 +/- 0.09 and a distance to the Galactic Centre of R0 = 7.64 +/- 0.21kpc. The data for VY Pyx agree with these results within the uncertainties set by its parallax. Evidence is presented that κ Pav may have a close companion and possible implications of this are discussed. If the pulsational parallax of this star is incorporated in the analyses, the distance scales just discussed will be increased by ~0.15 +/- 0.15 mag. V553 Cen and SW Tau show that at optical wavelengths PL relations are wider for field stars than for those in globular clusters. This is

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M5 RR Lyrae times of maxima (Arellano Ferro+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano Ferro, A.; Ahumada, J. A.; Kains, N.; Luna, A.

    2016-11-01

    Secular period changes in RR Lyrae M5 stars are analysed by means of two approac hes, taking advantage of the data long time-base of about 118 years. Few authentically evolved stars are identified. (3 data files).

  19. Searching for distant RR Lyrae stars using the High cadence Transient Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina T., G.; Katherina Vivas, A.; Forster, F.; Munoz, R. R.

    2016-05-01

    The High cadence Transient Survey is a deep optical campaign carried out with the Dark Energy Camera imager at the 4m telescope on Cerro Tololo, Chile, aimed at detecting early supernova explosions. However, the cadence and survey strategy are well matched for RR Lyrae detection as well, with up to 37 single-band observations. Our goal is to use the data from the survey to find distant RR Lyrae and study their connection with known or undiscovered halo substructures. In the first year of the survey, we have been able to detect new RR Lyrae stars candidates out to at least 100 kpc from the Sun, and preliminary results also show the tantalizing detection of RR Lyrae even farther away.

  20. The Search for RR Lyrae Variables in the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Chandler; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Long, James

    2017-01-01

    RR Lyrae variables are stars with a characteristic relationship between magnitude and phase and whose distances can be easily determined, making them extremely valuable in mapping and analyzing galactic substructure. We present our method of searching for RR Lyrae variable stars using data extracted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The DES probes for stars as faint as i = 24.3. Finding such distant RR Lyrae allows for the discovery of objects such as dwarf spheroidal tidal streams and dwarf galaxies; in fact, at least one RR Lyrae has been discovered in each of the probed dwarf spheroidal galaxies orbiting the Milky Way (Baker & Willman 2015). In turn, these discoveries may ultimately resolve the well-known missing satellite problem, in which theoretical simulations predict many more dwarf satellites than are observed in the local Universe. Using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram to determine the period of the star being analyzed, we could display the relationship between magnitude and phase and visually determine if the star being analyzed was an RR Lyrae. We began the search in frequently observed regions of the DES footprint, known as the supernova fields. We then moved our search to known dwarf galaxies found during the second year of the DES. Unfortunately, we did not discover RR Lyrae in the probed dwarf galaxies; this method should be tried again once more observations are taken in the DES.

  1. New pulsational properties of eight `anomalous' RR Lyrae variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementini, G.; Tosi, M.; Bragaglia, A.; Merighi, R.; Maceroni, C.

    1995-08-01

    CCD photometry in the V band is presented for seven field RR Lyrae stars selected from a sample of eight variables; these, according to data collected in the literature, are expected to be ab-type pulsators, to have short periods (and hence high metallicity), and to be located at a high z from the Galactic plane. New periods and epochs are derived for them. The new periods are only slightly shorter than the values published in the fourth edition of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS4). In six cases our amplitude of the light variation is significantly smaller than that published in the GCVS4, and in at least three cases the actual pulsation appears to be in the first harmonic rather than in the fundamental mode. All the suggested c-type pulsators show variations in the amplitude and/or quite scattered light curves. Some possible explanations are given. From a spectrophotometric analysis of the sample, only DL Com is confirmed to pulsate in the fundamental mode, to have a short period, and to be located at a relatively high z. However, a single object cannot be taken as evidence for a significant metal-rich population at a large distance from the Galactic plane.

  2. The chemical compositions of RR Lyrae type c variable stars

    SciTech Connect

    Govea, Jose; Gomez, Thomas; Sneden, Christopher; Preston, George W. E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu

    2014-02-20

    We present a detailed chemical abundance study of eight RR Lyrae variable stars of subclass c (RRc). The target RRc stars chosen for study exhibit 'Blazhko-effect' period and amplitude modulations to their pulsational cycles. Data for this study were gathered with the echelle spectrograph of the 100 inch du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Spectra were obtained throughout each star's pulsation cycle. Atmospheric parameters—effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulent velocity, and metallicity—were derived at multiple phase points. We found metallicities and element abundance ratios to be constant within observational uncertainties over the pulsational cycles of all stars. Moreover, the α-element and Fe-group abundance ratios with respect to iron are consistent with other horizontal-branch members (RRab, blue and red non-variables). Finally, we have used the [Fe/H] values of these eight RRc stars to anchor the metallicity estimates of a large-sample RRc snapshot spectroscopic study being conducted with the same telescope and instrument combination employed here.

  3. The effect of Livermore OPAL opacities on the evolutionary masses of RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Sukyoung; Lee, Young-Wook; Demarque, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of the new Livermore OPAL opacities on the evolution of horizontal-branch (HB) stars. This work was motivated by the recent stellar pulsation calculations using the new Livermore opacities, which suggest that the masses of double-mode RR Lyrae stars are 0.1-0.2 solar mass larger than those based on earlier opacities. Unlike the pulsation calculations, we find that the effect of opacity change on the evolution of HB stars is not significant. In particular, the effect of the mean masses of RR Lyrae stars is very small, showing a decrease of only 0.01-0.02 solar mass compared to the models based on old Cox-Stewart opacities. Consequently, with the new Livermore OPAL opacities, both the stellar pulsation and evolution models now predict approximately the same masses for the RR Lyrae stars. Our evolutionary models suggest that the mean masses of the RR Lyrae stars are about 0.76 and about 0.71 solar mass for M15 (Oosterhoff group II) and M3 (group I), respectively. If (alpha/Fe) = 0.4, these values are decreased by about 0.03 solar mass. Variations of the mean masses of RR Lyrae stars with HB morphology and metallicity are also presented.

  4. No evidence of a strong magnetic field in the Blazhko star RR Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadid, M.; Wade, G. A.; Shorlin, S. L. S.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report a new series of high-precision (median σB˜ 80 G) longitudinal magnetic field measurements of RR Lyrae, the brightest Blazhko star, obtained with the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter over a period of almost 4 years from 1999-2002. These data provide no evidence whatsoever for a strong magnetic field in the photosphere of RR Lyrae, a result consistent with Preston's (\\cite{Preston67}) results, but inconsistent with apparent magnetic field detections by Babcock (\\cite{Babcock58}) and Romanov et al. (\\cite{Romanov87}, \\cite{Romanov94}). Following discussion of these disparate results, we conclude that RR Lyrae is a {bona fide} non-magnetic star, a conclusion which leads to the general falsification of models of the Blazkho effect requiring strong photospheric magnetic fields. Furthermore, due to the 4 year baseline of our observations, we can also dismiss the hypothesis that RR Lyrae undergoes a 4-year ``magnetic cycle''. Therefore the origin of the observed 4-year modulation of RR Lyrae remains unexplained, and we stress the need for additional theoretical efforts to come to a better understanding of this phenomenon. Based on observations obtained with the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter attached to the 2 m Bernard-Lyot Telescope of the Pic du Midi Observatory, France.

  5. CCD Photometry of Candidate RR Lyrae Stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Qiu, Y. L.; Deng, J. S.; Hu, J. Y.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2005-10-01

    We present unfiltered CCD photometry of a sample of 71 candidate RR Lyrae stars during 2003 and 2004, out of 148 candidate stars that were selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) commissioning data by Ivezić and coworkers. We obtain light curves of 69 candidate stars and present a catalog of their positions, amplitudes, periods, types, and mean magnitudes. We confirm that the 69 stars are true RR Lyrae variables based on periods and light curves, for the first time for 41 of them. We identify 57 type ab, 11 type c, and 1 type d (double-mode) in our sample. The double-mode RR Lyrae star shows properties similar to globular cluster stars and are unlike field stars of the Galactic halo in the Petersen diagram. We also find one RR Lyrae star that is related to Pal 5 and recover another. In our sample, only two candidate stars do not have a reasonable light curve. We conclude that the ratio of contamination in our sample is less than ~8%, which shows that the criteria used by Ivezić and coworkers to select RR Lyrae stars from the SDSS two-epoch data are reliable.

  6. PERIOD CHANGE SIMILARITIES AMONG THE RR LYRAE VARIABLES IN OOSTERHOFF I AND OOSTERHOFF II GLOBULAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, Andrea; Walker, Alistair; De Propris, Roberto; Stetson, Peter B.; Bono, Giuseppe; Di Cecco, Alessandra; Nemec, James M.; Monelli, Matteo; Cassisi, Santi; Andreuzzi, Gloria; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Zoccali, Manuela

    2011-01-15

    We present period change rates (dP/dt) for 42 RR Lyrae variables in the globular cluster IC 4499. Despite clear evidence of these period increases or decreases, the observed period change rates are an order of magnitude larger than predicted from theoretical models of this cluster. We find that there is a preference for increasing periods, a phenomenon observed in most RR Lyrae stars in Milky Way globular clusters. The period change rates as a function of position in the period-amplitude plane are used to examine possible evolutionary effects in OoI clusters, OoII clusters, field RR Lyrae stars, and the mixed-population cluster {omega} Centauri. It is found that there is no correlation between the period change rate and the typical definition of Oosterhoff groups. If the RR Lyrae period changes correspond with evolutionary effects, this would be in contrast to the hypothesis that RR Lyrae variables in OoII systems are evolved horizontal-branch stars that spent their zero-age horizontal-branch phase on the blue side of the instability strip. This may suggest that age may not be the primary explanation for the Oosterhoff types.

  7. Characterizing RR Lyraes using SDSS, Single-Epoch Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Stacy Scott; Wilhelm, Ronald J.; De Lee, Nathan M.

    2017-01-01

    Starting with Data Release-7, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has made available the single-epoch spectra (SES) that were previously combined to produce the final composite spectra available for stars and galaxies. These SES can be used to probe time-variability through spectral line strength variations. RR Lyrae stars (RRL) have typically been identified using periodic variations in their light curves. Today, using the SDSS-SES it is possible to, in some cases, identify RRL from changes in the line strengths of the Ca-IIK, H-$\\beta$, H-$\\gamma$, and H-$\\delta$ lines. Similarly, it is possible to construct composite spectra that are free of phase-blending, by grouping SES that have similar spectral line strengths, for an individual star. We have developed a method for comparing SES with synthetic spectra spanning a range of T = [5500,8500]K, log g = [1.0-4.0] and [Fe/H]=[-3.0-0.0] to produce temperatures, surface gravities and metallicities for all SES taken for a given star. Using this method we are able to search for variations in temperature that are 2-sigma beyond the computed uncertainty, indicating that spectral variation is occurring. We will show results using a sample of bright RRL stars of known pulsation phase and stars from SDSS-Stripe82 which have published light curves for several hundred RRLs. We will also present a temperature-phase diagram that shows stars with consistent phases can be produced allowing us to construct composite spectra that are of the same phase for a given star. This is crucially important to the accurate determination of metal abundance for stars in the SDSS spectral foot-print. We will also show details of the compiled Catalina Surveys for stars with SDSS spectroscopy.

  8. Disentangling the Virgo Overdensity with RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Zinn, Robert; Farmer, John; Duffau, Sonia; Ping, Yiding

    2016-11-01

    We use a combination of spatial distribution and radial velocity to search for halo substructures in a sample of 412 RR Lyrae stars (RRLSs) that covers a region of ∼525 square degrees of the Virgo overdensity (VOD) and spans distances from the Sun from 4 to 75 kpc. With a friends-of-friends algorithm we identified six high-significance groups of RRLSs in phase space, which we associate mainly with the VOD and with the Sagittarius stream. Four other groups were also flagged as less significant overdensities. Three high-significance and three lower-significance groups have distances between ∼10 and 20 kpc, which places them in the distance range attributed by others to the VOD. The largest of these is the Virgo stellar stream at 19 kpc, which has 18 RRLSs, a factor of two increase over the number known previously. While these VOD groups are distinct according to our selection criteria, their overlap in position and distance and, in a few cases, similarity in radial velocity are suggestive that they may not all stem from separate accretion events. Even so, the VOD appears to be caused by more than one overdensity. The Sagittarius (Sgr) stream is a very obvious feature in the background of the VOD at a mean distance of 44 kpc. Two additional high-significance groups were detected at distances \\gt 40 {kpc}. Their radial velocities and locations differ from the expected path of the Sgr debris in this part of the sky, and they are likely to be remnants of other accretion events.

  9. La Silla quest RR Lyrae star survey: Region I

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, R.; Miller, L.; Horowitz, B.; Baltay, C.; Ellman, N.; Hadjiyska, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Vivas, A. K.

    2014-01-20

    A search for RR Lyrae stars (RRLSs) in ∼840 deg{sup 2} of the sky in right ascension 150°-210° and declination –10° to + 10° yielded 1013 type ab and 359 type c RRLS. This sample is used to study the density profile of the Galactic halo, halo substructures, and the Oosterhoff type of the halo over distances (d {sub ☉}) from ∼5 to ∼80 kpc. The halo is flattened toward the Galactic plane, and its density profile steepens in slope at galactocentric distances greater than ∼25 kpc. The RRLS in the stellar stream from the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy match well the model of Law and Majewski for the stars that were stripped 1.3-3.2 Gyr ago, but not for the ones stripped 3.2-5.0 Gyr ago. Over densities are found at the locations of the Virgo Overdensity and the Virgo Stellar Stream. Within 1° of 1220-1, which Jerjen et al. identify as a halo substructure at d {sub ☉} ∼ 24 kpc, there are four RRLS that are possibly members. Away from substructures, the RRLS are a mixture of Oosterhoff types I and II, but mostly OoI (∼73%). The accretion of galaxies resembling in RRLS content the most massive Milky Way satellites (LMC, SMC, For, Sgr) may explain this preponderance of OoI. Six new RRLS and three new anomalous Cepheids were found in the Sextans dSph galaxy.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RR Lyrae in SDSS Stripe 82 (Suveges+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suveges, M.; Sesar, B.; Varadi, M.; Mowlavi, N.; Becker, A. C.; Ivezic, Z.; Beck, M.; Nienartowicz, K.; Rimoldini, L.; Dubath, P.; Bartholdi, P.; Eyer, L.

    2013-05-01

    We propose a robust principal component analysis framework for the exploitation of multiband photometric measurements in large surveys. Period search results are improved using the time-series of the first principal component due to its optimized signal-to-noise ratio. The presence of correlated excess variations in the multivariate time-series enables the detection of weaker variability. Furthermore, the direction of the largest variance differs for certain types of variable stars. This can be used as an efficient attribute for classification. The application of the method to a subsample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 data yielded 132 high-amplitude delta Scuti variables. We also found 129 new RR Lyrae variables, complementary to the catalogue of Sesar et al., extending the halo area mapped by Stripe 82 RR Lyrae stars towards the Galactic bulge. The sample also comprises 25 multiperiodic or Blazhko RR Lyrae stars. (8 data files).

  11. RR Lyrae stars and color-magnitude diagram of the globular cluster NGC 6388

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silbermann, N. A.; Smith, Horace A.; Bolte, Michael; Hazen, Martha L.

    1994-01-01

    We present new V, B-V, and V, V-R color-magnitude diagrams for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6388. These diagrams indicate that NGC 6388 is a metal-rich globular cluster with color-magnitude morphology similar to that of 47 Tucanae. We have conducted a search for new variable stars close to NGC 6388, finding three new RR Lyrae stars. The membership of these and previously discovered RR Lyrae stars near NGC 6388 is discussed. There is reason for believing that some of these variables are nonmembers. Others, however, may belong to the cluster and may be similar to the RR Lyrae star V9 in 47 Tuc.

  12. Detailed chemical abundances of distant RR Lyrae stars in the Virgo Stellar Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffau, S.; Sbordone, L.; Vivas, A. K.; Hansen, C. J.; Zoccali, M.; Catelan, M.; Minniti, D.; Grebel, E. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first detailed chemical abundances for distant RR Lyrae stars members of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS), derived from X- Shooter medium-resolution spectra. Sixteen elements from carbon to barium have been measured in six VSS RR Lyrae stars, sampling all main nucleosynthetic channels. For the first time we will be able to compare in detail the chemical evolution of the VSS progenitor with those of Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies (LG dSph) as well as the one of the smooth halo.

  13. EXPLORING THE SAGITTARIUS STREAM WITH SEKBO SURVEY RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, Sayuri L.; Da Costa, G. S.; Keller, Stefan C.

    2009-10-20

    A sample of RR Lyrae (RRL) variables from the Southern Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt Object survey in regions overlapping the expected position of debris from the interaction of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy with the Milky Way (R.A. approx 20 and 21.5 hr; distance = 16-21 kpc) has been followed up spectroscopically and photometrically. The 21 photometrically confirmed type ab RRLs in this region have ([Fe/H]) = -1.79 +- 0.08 on our system, consistent with the abundances found for RRLs in a different portion of the Sgr tidal debris stream. The distribution of velocities in the Galactic standard of rest frame (V {sub GSR}) of the 26 RRLs in the region is not consistent with a smooth halo population. Upon comparison with the Sgr disruption models of Law et al., a prominent group of five stars having highly negative radial velocities (V {sub GSR} approx-175 km s{sup -1}) is consistent with predictions for old trailing debris when the Galactic halo potential is modeled as oblate. In contrast, the prolate model does not predict any significant number of Sgr stars at the locations of the observed sample. The observations also require that the recent trailing debris stream has a broader spread perpendicular to the Sgr plane than predicted by the models. We have also investigated the possible association of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS) with Sgr debris by comparing radial velocities for RRLs in the region with the same models, finding similarities in the velocity-position trends. As suggested by our earlier work, the stars in the VSS region with large negative V {sub GSR} values are likely to be old leading Sgr debris, but we find that while old trailing Sgr debris may well make a contribution at positive V {sub GSR} values, it is unlikely to fully account for the VSS feature. Overall we find that further modeling is needed, as trailing arm data generally favor oblate models while leading arm data favor prolate models, with no single potential fitting all the observed data.

  14. Harmonizing the RR Lyrae and Clump Distance Scales-Stretching the Short Distance Scale to Intermediate Ranges?

    SciTech Connect

    Popowski, P.

    2000-01-31

    I explore the consequences of making the RR Lyrae and clump giant distance scales consistent in the solar neighborhood, Galactic bulge and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). I employ two major assumptions: (1) that the absolute magnitude -metallicity, M{sub V}(RR) - [Fe/H], relation for RR Lyrae stars is universal, and (2) that absolute I-magnitudes of clump giants, M{sub I}(RC), in Baade's Window can be inferred from the local Hipparcos calibration of clump giants' magnitudes. A comparison between the solar neighborhood and Baade's Window sets M{sub V}(RR) at [Fe/H] = -1.6 in the range (0.59 {+-} 0.05, 0.70 {+-} 0.05), somewhat brighter than the statistical parallax solution. A comparison between Baade's Window and the LMC sets the M{sub I}{sup LMC}(RC) in the range (-0.33 {+-} 0.09, -0.53 {+-} 0.09). The distance modulus to the LMC is {mu}{sup LMC} {element_of} (18.24 {+-} 0.08, 18.44 {+-} 0.07). I argue that the currently available information slightly favors the short distance scale but is insufficient to select the correct solutions with high confidence.

  15. Gaia Data Release 1. The Cepheid and RR Lyrae star pipeline and its application to the south ecliptic pole region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementini, G.; Ripepi, V.; Leccia, S.; Mowlavi, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Marconi, M.; Szabados, L.; Eyer, L.; Guy, L. P.; Rimoldini, L.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Holl, B.; Busso, G.; Charnas, J.; Cuypers, J.; De Angeli, F.; De Ridder, J.; Debosscher, J.; Evans, D. W.; Klagyivik, P.; Musella, I.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez, D.; Regibo, S.; Riello, M.; Sarro, L. M.; Süveges, M.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The European Space Agency spacecraft Gaia is expected to observe about 10 000 Galactic Cepheids and over 100 000 Milky Way RR Lyrae stars (a large fraction of which will be new discoveries), during the five-year nominal lifetime spent scanning the whole sky to a faint limit of G = 20.7 mag, sampling their light variation on average about 70 times. Aims: We present an overview of the Specific Objects Study (SOS) pipeline developed within the Coordination Unit 7 (CU7) of the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC), the coordination unit charged with the processing and analysis of variable sources observed by Gaia, to validate and fully characterise Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars observed by the spacecraft. The algorithms developed to classify and extract information such as the pulsation period, mode of pulsation, mean magnitude, peak-to-peak amplitude of the light variation, subclassification in type, multiplicity, secondary periodicities, and light curve Fourier decomposition parameters, as well as physical parameters such as mass, metallicity, reddening, and age (for classical Cepheids) are briefly described. Methods: The full chain of the CU7 pipeline was run on the time series photometry collected by Gaia during 28 days of ecliptic pole scanning law (EPSL) and over a year of nominal scanning law (NSL), starting from the general Variability Detection, general Characterization, proceeding through the global Classification and ending with the detailed checks and typecasting of the SOS for Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars (SOS Cep&RRL). We describe in more detail how the SOS Cep&RRL pipeline was specifically tailored to analyse Gaia's G-band photometric time series with a south ecliptic pole (SEP) footprint, which covers an external region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and to produce results for confirmed RR Lyrae stars and Cepheids to be published in Gaia Data Release 1 (Gaia DR1). Results: G-band time series photometry and characterisation by the

  16. Period changes of 7 bright RR Lyrae variables included in the BAV standard program.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunder, E.

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of 1578 times of maxima historical and present period changes of the RR Lyrae stars SW And, SW Aqr, AA Aql, X Ari, RS Boo, RR Cet and XZ Cyg are analysed. In tables the period jumps and the quadratic terms of the elements are quantified and timed; elements are given to describe the historical O-C-curves; instant elements are listed to support nowadays observations.

  17. Lighthouses in the fog: Locating the faintest Milky Way satellites with RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesar, B.

    2016-05-01

    Almost every known low-luminosity Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxy contains at least one RR Lyrae star. Assuming that a fraction of distant (60 < dhelio < 100 kpc) Galactic halo RR Lyrae stars are members of yet to be discovered low-luminosity dSph galaxies, we perform a guided search for these low-luminosity dSph galaxies. In order to detect the presence of dSph galaxies, we combine stars selected from more than 123 sight- lines centered on RR Lyrae stars identified by the Palomar Transient Factory. We find that this method is sensitive enough to detect the presence of Segue 1- like galaxies (MV = -1.5+0.6-0.8, rh = 30 pc) even if only ~20 sightlines were occupied by such dSph galaxies. Yet, when our method is applied to the SDSS DR10 imaging catalog, no signal is detected. An application of our method to sightlines occupied by pairs of close (< 200 pc) horizontal branch stars, also did not yield a detection. Thus, we place upper limits on the number of low- luminosity dSph galaxies with half-light radii from 30 pc to 120 pc, and in the probed volume of the halo. Stronger constraints on the luminosity function may be obtained by applying our method to sightlines centered on RR Lyrae stars selected from the Pan-STARRS1 survey, and eventually, from LSST.

  18. Observing globular cluster RR Lyraes with the BYU West Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, E. J.; Joner, M. D.; Walton, R. S.

    2016-05-01

    We have utilized the 0.9-meter telescope of the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory to secure data on six northern hemi- sphere globular clusters. Here we present observations of RR Lyrae stars located in these clusters. We compare light curves produced using both DAOPHOT and ISIS software packages. Light curve fitting is done with FITLC.

  19. THE SWIFT UVOT STARS SURVEY. II. RR LYRAE STARS IN M3 AND M15

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Balzer, Benjamin G.; Hagen, Lea M. Z. E-mail: blp14@psu.edu E-mail: lea.zernow.hagen@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    We present the first results of a near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of RR Lyrae stars from the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Mission. It is well-established that RR Lyrae stars have large amplitudes in the far- and near-ultraviolet. We have used UVOT’s unique wide-field NUV imaging capability to perform the first systematic NUV survey of variable stars in the Galactic globular clusters M3 and M15. We identify 280 variable stars, comprised of 275 RR Lyrae, 2 anomalous Cepheids, 1 classical Cepheid, 1 SX Phoenicis star, and 1 possible long-period or irregular variable. Only two of these are new discoveries. We compare our results to previous investigations and find excellent agreement in the periods with significantly larger amplitudes in the NUV. We map out, for the first time, an NUV Bailey diagram from globular clusters, showing the usual loci for fundamental mode RRab and first overtone RRc pulsators. We show the unique sensitivity of NUV photometry to both the temperatures and the surface gravities of RR Lyrae stars. Finally, we show evidence of an NUV period–metallicity–luminosity relationship. Future investigations will further examine the dependence of NUV pulsation parameters on metallicity and Oosterhoff classification.

  20. A new Phi_31-period-metallicity relation for RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Vazquez, C. E.; Monelli, M.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Gallart, C.; Bernard, E. J.; Fiorentino, G.; Dall'Ora, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new calibration of the 31-period-metallicity relation based on cluster instead of field RR Lyrae stars. The novel approach relies on mean Fourier decomposition parameters of their optical light curves, mean periods and metal abundances rooted on a solid metallicity scale. The key advantage when compared with similar relations in the literature is that individual cluster samples cover a broad range in periods, and therefore the opportunity to fully characterize, at fixed metal content, their pulsational behaviour. To accomplish this goal, we used data for seven globular clusters hosting at least 20 RR Lyrae stars and covering a broad range in metallicity (from -2.3 to -1.1 dex). To further extend the metallicity range, we also included field RR Lyrae stars with a good sampling of the light curve (ASAS, Catalina), and for which iron measurements based on high-resolution spectra are available. We applied the new calibration to 167 fundamental RR Lyrae in the Sculptor dSph and we found a considerable spread in metallicity, thus confirming the fast early chemical evolution of this galaxy (Martinez-Vazquez et al. 2015).

  1. Characterization of the VVV Survey RR Lyrae Population across the Southern Galactic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, Dante; Dékány, Istvan; Majaess, Daniel; Palma, Tali; Pullen, Joyce; Rejkuba, Marina; Alonso-García, Javier; Catelan, Marcio; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Gonzalez, Oscar A.; Hempel, Maren; Irwin, Mike; Lucas, Philip W.; Saito, Roberto K.; Tissera, Patricia; Valenti, Elena; Zoccali, Manuela

    2017-04-01

    Deep near-IR images from the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey were used to search for RR Lyrae stars in the Southern Galactic plane. A sizable sample of 404 RR Lyrae of type ab stars was identified across a thin slice of the fourth Galactic quadrant (295° < ℓ < 350°, ‑2.°24 < b < ‑1.°05). The sample’s distance distribution exhibits a maximum density that occurs at the bulge tangent point, which implies that this primarily Oosterhoff type I population of RRab stars does not trace the bar delineated by their red clump counterparts. The bulge RR Lyrae population does not extend beyond ℓ ∼ 340°, and the sample’s spatial distribution presents evidence of density enhancements and substructure that warrants further investigation. Indeed, the sample may be employed to evaluate Galactic evolution models, and is particularly lucrative since half of the discovered RR Lyrae are within reach of Gaia astrometric observations.

  2. A HIGH-VELOCITY BULGE RR LYRAE VARIABLE ON A HALO-LIKE ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, Andrea; Storm, J.; Rich, R. M.; Hawkins, K.; Poleski, R.; Johnson, C. I.; Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y.; Cordero, M. J.; Nataf, D. M.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Koch, A.; De Propris, R.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; and others

    2015-07-20

    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of −372 ± 8 km s{sup −1} and true space velocity of −482 ± 22 km s{sup −1} relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, −2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.

  3. FSR 1716: A New Milky Way Globular Cluster Confirmed Using VVV RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, Dante; Palma, Tali; Dékány, Istvan; Hempel, Maren; Rejkuba, Marina; Pullen, Joyce; Alonso-García, Javier; Barbá, Rodolfo; Barbuy, Beatriz; Bica, Eduardo; Bonatto, Charles; Borissova, Jura; Catelan, Marcio; Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; Chene, Andre Nicolas; José Clariá, Juan; Cohen, Roger E.; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Dias, Bruno; Emerson, Jim; Froebrich, Dirk; Buckner, Anne S. M.; Geisler, Douglas; Gonzalez, Oscar A.; Gran, Felipe; Hagdu, Gergely; Irwin, Mike; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Kurtev, Radostin; Lucas, Philip W.; Majaess, Daniel; Mauro, Francesco; Moni-Bidin, Christian; Navarrete, Camila; Ramírez Alegría, Sebastian; Saito, Roberto K.; Valenti, Elena; Zoccali, Manuela

    2017-03-01

    We use deep multi-epoch near-IR images of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey to search for RR Lyrae stars toward the Southern Galactic plane. Here, we report the discovery of a group of RR Lyrae stars close together in VVV tile d025. Inspection of the VVV images and PSF photometry reveals that most of these stars are likely to belong to a globular cluster that matches the position of the previously known star cluster FSR 1716. The stellar density map of the field yields a >100σ detection for this candidate globular cluster that is centered at equatorial coordinates R.A. J2000 = 16:10:30.0, decl. J2000 = ‑53:44:56 and galactic coordinates l = 329.77812, b = ‑1.59227. The color–magnitude diagram of this object reveals a well-populated red giant branch, with a prominent red clump at K s = 13.35 ± 0.05, and J ‑ K s = 1.30 ± 0.05. We present the cluster RR Lyrae positions, magnitudes, colors, periods, and amplitudes. The presence of RR Lyrae indicates an old globular cluster, with an age >10 Gyr. We classify this object as an Oosterhoff type I globular cluster, based on the mean period of its RR Lyrae type ab, < P> =0.540 days, and argue that this is a relatively metal-poor cluster with [Fe/H] = ‑1.5 ± 0.4 dex. The mean extinction and reddening for this cluster are {A}{Ks}=0.38+/- 0.02 and E(J ‑ K s ) = 0.72 ± 0.02 mag, respectively, as measured from the RR Lyrae colors and the near-IR color–magnitude diagram. We also measure the cluster distance using the RR Lyrae type ab stars. The cluster mean distance modulus is (m ‑ M)0 = 14.38 ± 0.03 mag, implying a distance D = 7.5 ± 0.2 kpc and a Galactocentric distance R G = 4.3 kpc.

  4. THE DETERMINATION OF REDDENING FROM INTRINSIC VR COLORS OF RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, Andrea; Chaboyer, Brian; Layden, Andrew E-mail: Brian.Chaboyer@dartmouth.edu

    2010-02-15

    New R-band observations of 21 local field RR Lyrae variable stars are used to explore the reliability of minimum light (V - R) colors as a tool for measuring interstellar reddening. For each star, R-band intensity mean magnitudes and light amplitudes are presented. Corresponding V-band light curves from the literature are supplemented with the new photometry, and (V - R) colors at minimum light are determined for a subset of these stars as well as for other stars in the literature. Two different definitions of minimum light color are examined, one which uses a Fourier decomposition to the V and R light curves to find (V - R) at minimum V-band light, (V - R) {sup F} {sub min}, and the other which uses the average color between the phase interval 0.5-0.8, (V - R){sup {phi}}{sup (0.5-0.8)} {sub min}. From 31 stars with a wide range of metallicities and pulsation periods, the mean dereddened RR Lyrae color at minimum light is (V - R) {sup F} {sub min,0} = 0.28 {+-} 0.02 mag and (V - R){sup {phi}}{sup (0.5-0.8)} {sub min,0} = 0.27 {+-} 0.02 mag. As was found by Guldenschuh et al. using (V - I) colors, any dependence of the star's minimum light color on metallicity or pulsation amplitude is too weak to be formally detected. We find that the intrinsic (V - R) of Galactic bulge RR Lyrae stars are similar to those found by their local counterparts and hence that bulge RR0 Lyrae stars do not have anomalous colors as compared to the local RR Lyrae stars.

  5. Updated census of RR Lyrae stars in the globular cluster ω Centauri (NGC 5139)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, C.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Catelan, M.; Clement, C. M.; Gran, F.; Alonso-García, J.; Angeloni, R.; Hempel, M.; Dékány, I.; Minniti, D.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: ω Centauri (NGC 5139) contains many variable stars of different types and, in particular, more than one hundred RR Lyrae stars. This enabled gathering a homogeneous sample (in terms of instrument, image quality, and time coverage) of high-quality near-infrared (NIR) RR Lyrae light curves by performing an extensive time-series campaign aimed at this object. We have conducted a variability survey of ω Cen in the NIR, using ESO's 4.1 m Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). This is the first paper of a series describing our results. Methods: ω Cen was observed using VIRCAM mounted on VISTA. A total of 42 epochs in J and 100 epochs in KS were obtained, distributed over a total timespan of 352 days. Point-spread function photometry was performed using DAOPHOT in the inner and DoPhot in the outer regions of the cluster. Periods of the known variable stars were improved when necessary using an ANOVA analysis. Results: We collected an unprecedented homogeneous and complete NIR catalog of RR Lyrae stars in the field of ω Cen, allowing us to study for the first time all the RR Lyrae stars associated with the cluster, except for four stars that are located far away from the cluster center. We derived membership status, subclassifications between RRab and RRc subtypes, periods, amplitudes, and mean magnitudes for all the stars in our sample. Additionally, four new RR Lyrae stars were discovered, two of which are very likely cluster members. We also discuss here the distribution of ω Cen stars in the Bailey (period-amplitude) diagram. We provide reference lines in this plane for both Oosterhoff Type I (OoI) and Oosterhoff Type II (OoII) components in J and KS. Conclusions: We clarify the status of many (candidate) RR Lyrae stars that have been reported as unclear in previous studies. This includes stars with anomalous positions in the color-magnitude diagram, uncertain periods or/and variability types, and possible field interlopers. We conclude

  6. The globular cluster Omega Centauri - The origin of the mysterious correlation between the RR Lyrae luminosity and Fe/H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young-Wook

    1991-01-01

    The observed correlation between the RR Lyrae luminosity and Fe/H for all Omega Cen RR Lyrae stars for which Fe/H has been determined by the delta-S method is considered, and emphasis is placed on the lack of luminosity variation among the variables in Omega Cen. Model calculations are shown to suggest that the observed 'flat' correlation between the RR Lyrae luminosity and Fe/H for stars having Fe/H forbidden line less than -1.4 can be reproduced if the HB stars in Omega Cen obey the nonmonotonic behavior of the HB morphology with decreasing Fe/H similar to that observed in the Galactic globular cluster system. This is considered to be a natural consequence of recent HB evolutionary models suggesting that the RR Lyrae mean luminosity depends on HB morphology as well as metallicity.

  7. HST/ACS Observations of RR Lyrae Stars in Six Ultra-Deep Fields of M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffery, E. J.; Smith, E.; Brown, T. M.; Sweigart, A. V.; Kalirai, J. S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Guhathakurta, P.; Renzini, A.; Rich, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present HST/ACS observations of RR Lyrae variable stars in six ultra deep fields of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), including parts of the halo, disk, and giant stellar stream. Past work on the RR Lyrae stars in M31 has focused on various aspects of the stellar populations that make up the galaxy s halo, including their distances and metallicities. This study builds upon this previous work by increasing the spatial coverage (something that has been lacking in previous studies) and by searching for these variable stars in constituents of the galaxy not yet explored. Besides the 55 RR Lyrae stars we found in our initial field located 11kpc from the galactic nucleus, we find additional RR Lyrae stars in four of the remaining five ultra deep fields as follows: 21 in the disk, 24 in the giant stellar stream, 3 in the halo field 21kpc from the galactic nucleus, and 5 in one of the halo fields at 35kpc. No RR Lyrae were found in the second halo field at 35kpc. The RR Lyrae populations of these fields appear to mostly be of Oosterhoff I type, although the 11kpc field appears to be intermediate or mixed. We will discuss the properties of these stars including period and reddening distributions. We calculate metallicities and distances for the stars in each of these fields using different methods and compare the results, to an extent that has not yet been done. We compare these methods not just on RR Lyrae in our M31 fields, but also on a data set of Milky Way field RR Lyrae stars.

  8. HST/ACS OBSERVATIONS OF RR LYRAE STARS IN SIX ULTRA-DEEP FIELDS OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffery, E. J.; Smith, E.; Brown, T. M.; Kalirai, J. S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Sweigart, A. V.; Rich, R. M.

    2011-05-15

    We present HST/ACS observations of RR Lyrae variable stars in six ultra-deep fields of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), including parts of the halo, disk, and giant stellar stream. Past work on the RR Lyrae stars in M31 has focused on various aspects of the stellar populations that make up the galaxy's halo, including their distances and metallicities. This study builds upon this previous work by increasing the spatial coverage (something that has been lacking in previous studies) and by searching for these variable stars in constituents of the galaxy not yet explored. Besides the 55 RR Lyrae stars we found in our initial field located 11 kpc from the galactic nucleus, we find additional RR Lyrae stars in four of the remaining five ultra-deep fields as follows: 21 in the disk, 24 in the giant stellar stream, three in the halo field 21 kpc from the galactic nucleus, and five in one of the halo fields at 35 kpc. No RR Lyrae stars were found in the second halo field at 35 kpc. The RR Lyrae populations of these fields appear to be mostly of Oosterhoff I type, although the 11 kpc field appears to be intermediate or mixed. We will discuss the properties of these stars including period and reddening distributions. We calculate metallicities and distances for the stars in each of these fields using different methods and compare the results, to an extent that has not yet been done. We compare these methods not just on RR Lyrae stars in our M31 fields, but also on a data set of Milky Way field RR Lyrae stars.

  9. Near-field cosmology with RR Lyrae variable stars: A first view of substructure in the southern sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffau, S.; Vivas, A. K.; Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Hajdu, G.; Torrealba, G.; Cortes, C.; Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S.; Drake, A. J.

    2016-05-01

    We present an update of a spectroscopic follow-up survey at low- resolution of a large number of RR Lyrae halo overdensity candidates found in the southern sky. The substructure candidates were identified in the RR Lyrae catalog of Torrealba et al. (2015) using Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) data. Radial velocities and mean metallicities have been estimated for target stars in almost half of the original overdensities to assess their potential membership to coherent halo features.

  10. KIC 2831097 - a 2-yr-orbital-period RR Lyrae binary candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sódor, Á.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Bognár, Zs.

    2017-02-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler first-overtone RR Lyrae pulsator, KIC 2831097. The pulsation shows large, 0.1-d amplitude, systematic phase variations that can be interpreted as light traveltime effect caused by orbital motion in a binary system, superimposed on a linear pulsation-period decrease. The assumed eccentric (e = 0.47) orbit with the period of ≈2 yr is the shortest among the non-eclipsing RR Lyrae binary candidates. The binary model gives the lowest estimate for the mass of the companion of 8.4 M⊙, that places it among black hole candidates. Beside the first-overtone pulsation, numerous additional non-radial pulsation frequencies were also identified. We detected an ≈47-d Blazhko-like irregular light-curve modulation.

  11. THE IMPACT OF CONTAMINATED RR LYRAE/GLOBULAR CLUSTER PHOTOMETRY ON THE DISTANCE SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Majaess, D.; Turner, D.; Lane, D.; Gieren, W.

    2012-06-10

    RR Lyrae variables and the stellar constituents of globular clusters are employed to establish the cosmic distance scale and age of the universe. However, photometry for RR Lyrae variables in the globular clusters M3, M15, M54, M92, NGC 2419, and NGC 6441 exhibit a dependence on the clustercentric distance. For example, variables and stars positioned near the crowded high-surface brightness cores of the clusters may suffer from photometric contamination, which invariably affects a suite of inferred parameters (e.g., distance, color excess, absolute magnitude, etc.). The impetus for this study is to mitigate the propagation of systematic uncertainties by increasing awareness of the pernicious impact of contaminated and radial-dependent photometry.

  12. On the Sandage period shift effect among field RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young-Wook

    1990-01-01

    The origin of the disagreement between the results of the synthetic horizontal branch (HB) model of Lee et al. (1990) and the Sandage (1990) analysis of Lub's (1977) data on a sample of field RR Lyrae stars is investigated, extending the original synthetic HB calculations of Lee et al. to all HB types over the metallicity range of the Galactic halo. It is shown that the period shifts of the RR Lyrae stars in globular clusters depend strongly on their HB type and metallicity. Results suggest that the disagreement between the slopes, Delta logP(Teff)/Delta Fe/H, obtained by Lee et al. and the ones obtained by Sandage can be explained by the fact that Lub's sample may have contained many highly evolved stars in the metallicity range of Fe/H between -2.0 and -1.6, since Lee's analysis did not include these stars.

  13. On the Sandage period shift effect among field RR Lyrae stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. Victoria Univ. )

    1990-11-01

    The origin of the disagreement between the results of the synthetic horizontal branch (HB) model of Lee et al. (1990) and the Sandage (1990) analysis of Lub's (1977) data on a sample of field RR Lyrae stars is investigated, extending the original synthetic HB calculations of Lee et al. to all HB types over the metallicity range of the Galactic halo. It is shown that the period shifts of the RR Lyrae stars in globular clusters depend strongly on their HB type and metallicity. Results suggest that the disagreement between the slopes, Delta logP(Teff)/Delta Fe/H, obtained by Lee et al. and the ones obtained by Sandage can be explained by the fact that Lub's sample may have contained many highly evolved stars in the metallicity range of Fe/H between -2.0 and -1.6, since Lee's analysis did not include these stars. 48 refs.

  14. DISTANCE TO THE SAGITTARIUS DWARF GALAXY USING MACHO PROJECT RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, Andrea; Chaboyer, Brian E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu

    2009-05-15

    We derive the distance to the northern extension of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy from 203 Sgr RR0 Lyrae stars found in the MACHO database. Their distances are determined differentially with respect to 288 Galactic bulge RR0 Lyrae stars also found in the MACHO data. We find a distance modulus difference of 2.41 mag at l = 5{sup 0} and b = -8{sup 0} and that the extension of the Sgr galaxy toward the galactic plane is inclined toward us. Assuming R {sub GC} = 8 kpc, this implies the distance to these stars is (m - M){sub 0} = 16.97 {+-} 0.07 mag, which corresponds to D = 24.8 {+-} 0.8 kpc. Although this estimate is smaller than previous determinations for this galaxy and agrees with previous suggestions that Sgr's body is truly closer to us, this estimate is larger than studies at comparable galactic latitudes.

  15. Classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars: similar, but not too much.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, G.; Braga, V. F.; Pietrinferni, A.; Magurno, D.; Dall'Ora, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Fukue, K.; Inno, L.; Marengo, M.; Bergemann, M.; Buonanno, R.; da Silva, R.; Fabrizio, M.; Ferraro, I.; Gilmozzi, R.; Iannicola, G.; Kausch, W.; Kobayashi, N.; Kovtyukh, V.; Lemasle, B.; Marconi, M.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Matsunaga, N.; Monelli, M.; Neeley, J.; Nonino, M.; Proxauf, B.; Przybilla, N.; Romaniello, M.; Salaris, M.; Sneden, C.; Stetson, P. B.; Thévenin, F.; Tsujimoto, T.; Urbaneja, M.; Valenti, E.; Zoccali, M.

    We discuss evolutionary and pulsation properties of classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars. We focus our attention on the role that they play as standard candles and as tracers of young and old stellar populations. We also introduce some plain physical argument concerning the occurrence of optical/near-infrared Period-Luminosity relations in classical Cepheids and in RR Lyrae. Moreover, we outline pros and cons of the different diagnostics adopted to estimate individual distances, and in particular, the uncertainties affecting reddening and chemical compositions. We also address some relevant issues concerning optical and Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of radial variables. Finally, we briefly outline near future experiments concerning Galactic and extra-galactic stellar variability projects.

  16. RR Lyrae Variable Stars: Pulsational Constraints Relevant to the Oosterhoff Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, Giuseppe; Caputo, Filippina; Castellani, Vittorio; Marconi, Marcella

    1995-08-01

    A solution to the old Oosterhoff controversy is proposed on the basis of a new theoretical pulsational scenario concerning RR Lyrae cluster variables (Bono and coworkers). We show that the observed constancy of the lowest pulsation period in both Oosterhoff type I and Oosterhoff type II prototypes (M3, M15) can be easily reproduced only by assuming the canonical evolutionary horizontal-branch luminosity levels of these Galactic globular clusters and therefore by rejecting the Sandage period-shift effect (SPSE).

  17. Period-doubling bifurcation and high-order resonances in RR Lyrae hydrodynamical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolláth, Z.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, R.

    2011-06-01

    We investigated period doubling, a well-known phenomenon in dynamical systems, for the first time in RR Lyrae models. These studies provide theoretical background for the recent discovery of period doubling in some Blazhko RR Lyrae stars with the Kepler space telescope. Since period doubling has been observed only in Blazhko-modulated stars so far, the phenomenon can help in understanding the modulation as well. Utilizing the Florida-Budapest turbulent convective hydrodynamical code, we have identified the phenomenon in both radiative and convective models. A period-doubling cascade was also followed up to an eight-period solution, confirming that destabilization of the limit cycle is indeed the underlying phenomenon. Floquet stability roots were calculated to investigate the possible causes and occurrences of the phenomenon. A two-dimensional diagnostic diagram was constructed to illustrate the various resonances between the fundamental mode and the different overtones. Combining the two tools, we confirmed that the period-doubling instability is caused by a 9:2 resonance between the ninth overtone and the fundamental mode. Destabilization of the limit cycle by a resonance of a high-order mode is possible because the overtone is a strange mode. The resonance is found to be strong enough to shift the period of overtone by up to 10 per cent. Our investigations suggest that a more complex interplay of radial (and presumably non-radial) modes could happen in RR Lyrae stars that might have connections with the Blazhko effect as well.

  18. A machine learned classifier for RR Lyrae in the VVV survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elorrieta, Felipe; Eyheramendy, Susana; Jordán, Andrés; Dékány, István; Catelan, Márcio; Angeloni, Rodolfo; Alonso-García, Javier; Contreras-Ramos, Rodrigo; Gran, Felipe; Hajdu, Gergely; Espinoza, Néstor; Saito, Roberto K.; Minniti, Dante

    2016-11-01

    Variable stars of RR Lyrae type are a prime tool with which to obtain distances to old stellar populations in the Milky Way. One of the main aims of the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) near-infrared survey is to use them to map the structure of the Galactic Bulge. Owing to the large number of expected sources, this requires an automated mechanism for selecting RR Lyrae, and particularly those of the more easily recognized type ab (i.e., fundamental-mode pulsators), from the 106-107 variables expected in the VVV survey area. In this work we describe a supervised machine-learned classifier constructed for assigning a score to a Ks-band VVV light curve that indicates its likelihood of being ab-type RR Lyrae. We describe the key steps in the construction of the classifier, which were the choice of features, training set, selection of aperture, and family of classifiers. We find that the AdaBoost family of classifiers give consistently the best performance for our problem, and obtain a classifier based on the AdaBoost algorithm that achieves a harmonic mean between false positives and false negatives of ≈7% for typical VVV light-curve sets. This performance is estimated using cross-validation and through the comparison to two independent datasets that were classified by human experts.

  19. Searching for the Progenitor Galaxy of Omega Centauri Using RR Lyrae Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignano, Natalia; Vivas, Anna Katherina; Catelan, Marcio; Torrealba, Gabriel; Fernandez Trincado, Jose Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    Radial velocities of 32 RR Lyrae stars from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey in the neighborhood of Omega Centauri were measured from low-resolution spectra taken by the Goodman Spectrograph on SOAR, Cerro Pachón, Chile. An over-density of stars with the same velocity as the cluster would imply that these stars were once part of ω Cen but have since been tidally stripped, supporting the hypothesis that ω Cen is the remain of a nucleated dwarf galaxy. This study is the most complete of any one similar, covering an area of 100 sq. degrees around the cluster and using RR Lyrae stars known to have similar distance to the cluster. Statistical tests comparing the distribution of RR Lyrae velocities to the expected distribution of velocities of halo stars show no over-density of stars at the velocity of ω Cen or any other velocity, discarding the presence of any substructure in this part of the sky.

  20. The identification of RR Lyrae and δ Scutti stars from variable galaxy evolution explorer ultraviolet sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kinman, T. D.; Brown, Warren R.

    2014-12-01

    We identify the RR Lyrae and δ Scuti stars in three catalogs of Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) variable sources. The NUV amplitude of RR Lyrae stars is about twice that in V, so we find a larger percentage of low-amplitude variables than catalogs such as Abbas et al. Interestingly, the (NUV – V){sub 0} color is sensitive to metallicity and can be used to distinguish between variables of the same period but differing [Fe/H]. This color is also more sensitive to T {sub eff} than optical colors and can be used to identify the red edge of the instability gap. We find 8 δ Scuti stars, 17 RRc stars, 1 RRd star, and 84 RRab stars in the GALEX variable catalogs of Welsh et al. and Wheatley et al. We also classify 6 δ Scuti stars, 5 RRc stars, and 18 RRab stars among the 55 variable GALEX sources identified as 'stars' or RR Lyrae stars in the catalog of Gezari et al. We provide ephemerides and light curves for the 26 variables that were not previously known.

  1. The Identification of RR Lyrae and δ Scutti Stars from Variable Galaxy Evolution Explorer Ultraviolet Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T. D.; Brown, Warren R.

    2014-12-01

    We identify the RR Lyrae and δ Scuti stars in three catalogs of Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) variable sources. The NUV amplitude of RR Lyrae stars is about twice that in V, so we find a larger percentage of low-amplitude variables than catalogs such as Abbas et al. Interestingly, the (NUV - V)0 color is sensitive to metallicity and can be used to distinguish between variables of the same period but differing [Fe/H]. This color is also more sensitive to T eff than optical colors and can be used to identify the red edge of the instability gap. We find 8 δ Scuti stars, 17 RRc stars, 1 RRd star, and 84 RRab stars in the GALEX variable catalogs of Welsh et al. and Wheatley et al. We also classify 6 δ Scuti stars, 5 RRc stars, and 18 RRab stars among the 55 variable GALEX sources identified as "stars" or RR Lyrae stars in the catalog of Gezari et al. We provide ephemerides and light curves for the 26 variables that were not previously known.

  2. RR Lyrae stars as a tracer of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Sohee; Lee, Young-Wook

    2017-01-01

    In the multiple stellar population paradigm, we suggest that the observed period-shift of RR Lyrae variables between the two Oosterhoff groups is due to the “population-shift” within the instability strip (IS) with increasing metallicity. In the metal-poor group II globular clusters (GCs), the IS is populated by second generation stars with enhanced helium and CNO abundances, while the RR Lyrae stars in the metal-rich group I GCs are produced mostly by first-generation stars without these enhancements. When these models are extended to all metallicity regimes, the observed Oosterhoff dichotomies in the inner and outer halo GCs can be naturally reproduced. In order to achieve this, however, specific star formation histories are required for the inner and outer halos, which is consistent with the dual origin of the Milky Way halo. We further show that two sequences of RR Lyrae stars recently discovered in the Milky Way bulge can also be reproduced by our multiple population models.

  3. CCD Photometry of RR Lyrae Stars in M5 as a Test for the Pulsational Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocato, E.; Castellani, V.; Ripepi, V.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper we present a new CCD based investigation of RR Lyrae pulsators in the Oo. I globular cluster M5. We confirm the variability of 11 Gerashchenko (1987) objects, adding the evidence for further 15 variables in the central region of the cluster. BV light curves for 15 RR Lyrae are presented. With the addition of further 11 light curves by Storm et al. [PASP, 103, 1264 (1991)] one is dealing with a sample of 26 well-studied cluster pulsators. The data for these stars have been combined with similar data for RR Lyrae in clusters M3, M 15, and M68 to allow a comparison with the theoretical scenario recently presented by Bono & Stellingwerf [ApJS, 93, 233 (1994)]. On this basis, we discuss the distribution of stars in the period amplitude diagram, disclosing a substantial reduction of Sandage's period shift. We suggest that theoretical constraints concerning periods and amplitudes could allow information on masses and luminosity of the pulsators to be derived directly from the Bailey diagram. Static temperatures have been derived for all stars in the sample, and we discuss the dependence on the temperature of the observed pulsational properties.

  4. Probing Kinematic Substructures in the Virgo Overdensity using RR Lyrae from Recent Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, John; Vivas, A. Katherina

    2015-01-01

    The Virgo Overdensity is one of the most intriguing features of the galactic halo, as it covers a large portion of the sky and seems to contain several kinematic substructures. It has been suggested that the remnants of several merger events coexist in this region. RR Lyrae stars are an excellent tracer for disentangling the different components of this overdensity, since they are excellent standard candles; by using both positions and pulsation-corrected radial velocities, we can identify distinct groups in phase space. In the last year, several surveys for RR Lyraes covering the Virgo region have become publicly available. We present analysis of ~300 spectra for ~200 stars in the Virgo overdensity region. This is a significant increase in the known sample of these stars in the region, spanning a significantly larger area of the sky than previous studies. Photometry for these data are taken primarily from the La Silla and Venezuela QUEST variability surveys with spectra provided by SDSS Data Release 10. Radial velocities for type ab RR Lyrae stars are corrected using the new set of template radial velocity curves for Balmer and metallic lines given by Sesar (2012). We combine data from QUEST, the Catalina Sky Survey, LINEAR, and spectroscopic observations from Duffau (2014) to give our full sample. A preliminary analysis reveals confirmation for several known stellar streams.

  5. Revisiting CoRoT RR Lyrae stars: detection of period doubling and temporal variation of additional frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, R.; Benkő, J. M.; Paparó, M.; Chapellier, E.; Poretti, E.; Baglin, A.; Weiss, W. W.; Kolenberg, K.; Guggenberger, E.; Le Borgne, J.-F.

    2014-10-01

    Context. High-precision, space-based photometric missions like CoRoT and Kepler have revealed new and surprising phenomena in classical variable stars. Such discoveries were the period doubling in RR Lyrae stars and the frequent occurrence of additional periodicities some of which can be explained by radial overtone modes, but others are discordant with the radial eigenfrequency spectrum. Aims: We search for signs of period doubling in CoRoT RR Lyrae stars. The occurrence of this dynamical effect in modulated RR Lyrae stars might help us to gain more information about the mysterious Blazhko effect. The temporal variability of the additional frequencies in representatives of all subtypes of RR Lyrae stars is also investigated. Methods: We preprocess CoRoT light curves by applying trend and jump correction and outlier removal. Standard Fourier technique is used to analyze the frequency content of our targets and follow the time-dependent phenomena. Results: The most comprehensive collection of CoRoT RR Lyrae stars, including new discoveries is presented and analyzed. We found alternating maxima and in some cases half-integer frequencies in four CoRoT Blazhko RR Lyrae stars, as clear signs of the presence of period doubling. This reinforces that period doubling is an important ingredient for understanding the Blazhko effect - a premise we derived previously from the Kepler RR Lyrae sample. As expected, period doubling is detectable only for short time intervals in most modulated RRab stars. Our results show that the temporal variability of the additional frequencies in all RR Lyrae subtypes is ubiquitous. The ephemeral nature and the highly variable amplitude of these variations suggest a complex underlying dynamics of and an intricate interplay between radial and possibly nonradial modes in RR Lyrae stars. The omnipresence of additional modes in all types of RR Lyrae - except in non-modulated RRab stars - implies that asteroseismology of these objects should be

  6. Weak Galactic halo-Fornax dSph connection from RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, G.; Monelli, M.; Stetson, P. B.; Bono, G.; Gallart, C.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Bernard, E. J.; Massari, D.; Braga, V. F.; Dall'Ora, M.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: For the first time accurate pulsation properties of the ancient variable stars of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) are discussed in the broad context of galaxy formation and evolution. Methods: Homogeneous multi-band BVI optical photometry of spanning twenty years has allowed us to identify and characterize more than 1400 RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) in this galaxy. Results: Roughly 70% are new discoveries. We investigate the period-amplitude distribution and find that Fornax shows a lack of high amplitude (AV ⪆ 0.75 mag) short period fundamental-mode RRLs (P ≲ 0.48 d, HASPs). These objects occur in stellar populations more metal-rich than [Fe/H] -1.5 and they are common in the Galactic halo (hereafter Halo) and in globulars. This evidence suggests that old Fornax stars (older than 10 Gyr) are relatively metal poor. A detailed statistical analysis of the role of the present-day Fornax dSph in reproducing the Halo period distribution shows that it can only account for up to 20% of the Halo when combined with RRLs in massive dwarf galaxies (Sagittarius dSph, Large Magellanic Cloud). This finding indicates that Fornax-like systems played a smaller role than massive dwarfs in building up the Halo. Conclusions: We also discuss the occurrence of HASPs in connection with the luminosity and the early chemical composition of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that, independently of their individual star formation histories, bright (MV ≲ -13.5 mag) galaxies have HASPs, whereas faint ones (MV ⪆ -11 mag) do not. Interestingly enough, Fornax belongs to a luminosity range (-11 < MV ≲ -13.5 mag) in which the occurrence of HASPs appears to be correlated with the early star formation and chemical enrichment of the host galaxy.

  7. WEAK GALACTIC HALO-DWARF SPHEROIDAL CONNECTION FROM RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorentino, Giuliana; Bono, Giuseppe; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Martínez-Vásquez, Clara E.; Tolstoy, Eline; Salaris, Maurizio; Bernard, Edouard J.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role that dwarf galaxies may have played in the formation of the Galactic halo (Halo) using RR Lyrae stars (RRL) as tracers of their ancient stellar component. The comparison is performed using two observables (periods, luminosity amplitudes) that are reddening and distance independent. Fundamental mode RRL in 6 dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) and 11 ultra faint dwarf galaxies (∼1300) show a Gaussian period distribution well peaked around a mean period of (Pab) = 0.610 ± 0.001 days (σ = 0.03). The Halo RRL (∼15,000) are characterized by a broader period distribution. The fundamental mode RRL in all the dSphs apart from Sagittarius are completely lacking in High Amplitude Short Period (HASP) variables, defined as those having P ≲ 0.48 days and A{sub V} ≥ 0.75 mag. Such variables are not uncommon in the Halo and among the globular clusters and massive dwarf irregulars. To further interpret this evidence, we considered 18 globulars covering a broad range in metallicity (–2.3 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.1) and hosting more than 35 RRL each. The metallicity turns out to be the main parameter, since only globulars more metal-rich than [Fe/H] ∼ –1.5 host RRL in the HASP region. This finding suggests that dSphs similar to the surviving ones do not appear to be the major building-blocks of the Halo. Leading physical arguments suggest an extreme upper limit of ∼50% to their contribution. On the other hand, massive dwarfs hosting an old population with a broad metallicity distribution (Large Magellanic Cloud, Sagittarius) may have played a primary role in the formation of the Halo.

  8. Finest light curve details, physical parameters, and period fluctuations of CoRoT RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkő, J. M.; Szabó, R.; Derekas, A.; Sódor, Á.

    2016-12-01

    The CoRoT satellite supplied the scientific community with a huge data base of variable stars. Among them the RR Lyrae stars have intensively been discussed in numerous papers in the last few years, but the latest runs have not been checked to find RR Lyrae stars up to now. Our main goal was to fill this gap and complete the CoRoT RR Lyrae sample. We found nine unstudied RR Lyrae stars. Seven of them are new discoveries. We identified three new Blazhko stars. The Blazhko effect shows non-strictly repetitive nature for all stars. The frequency spectrum of the Blazhko star CoRoT 104948132 contains second overtone frequency with the highest known period ratio. The harmonic amplitude and phase declines with the harmonic order were studied for non-Blazhko stars. We found a period dependent but similar shape amplitude decline for all stars. We discovered significant random period fluctuation for one of the two oversampled target, CM Ori. After a successful transformation of the CoRoT band parameters to the Johnson V values we estimated the basic physical properties such as mass, luminosity, metallicity. The sample can be divided into two subgroups with respect to the metallicity but otherwise the physical parameters are in the canonical range of RR Lyrae stars.

  9. GEOS RR Lyrae Survey: Blazhko Period Measurement of Three RRab Stars - CX Lyrae, NU Aurigae, and VY Coronae Borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ponthiere, P.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Fumagalli, F.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Krajci, T.; Llapasset, J.-M.; Menzies, K.; Nobile, M.; Sabo, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of collaborative observations of three RR Lyrae stars (CX Lyr, NU Aur, and VY CrB) which have a strong Blazhko effect. This work has been initiated and performed in the framework of the GEOS RR Lyr Survey (Groupe Européen d'Observations Stellaires). From the measured light curves, we have determined the times and the magnitudes at maximum. The times of maxima have been compared to ephemerides to obtain the (O-C) values and from a period analysis of these (O-C) values, the Blazhko period is derived. The Blazhko periods of NU Aur (114.8 days) and VY CrB (32.3 days) are reported here for the first time and a more accurate period for CX Lyr (68.3 days) has been obtained. The three stars are subject to strong Blazhko effect, but this effect has different characteristics for each of them. When we compare the variations of magnitude at maximum and variations of (O-C) values with respect to the Blazhko phase, these variations are in phase, in opposition, or even in quadrature.

  10. KELT RR Lyrae Variable Stars Observed by NKU Schneider and Michigan State Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lee, Nathan M.; Brueneman, Stacy; Hicks, Logan; Russell, Neil; Kinemuchi, Karen; Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph; Paegert, Martin; Smith, Horace A.

    2017-01-01

    In this poster we will discuss our ongoing program to use extant light curves from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey to find and characterize RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the disk and inner halo of the Milky Way. RRL stars are of particular interest because they are standard candles and can be used to map out structure in the galaxy. The periods and shape of RRL light curves also contain information about their Oosterhoff type, which can probe galactic formation history, and metallicity respectively. Although there have been several large photometric surveys for RR Lyrae in the nearby galaxy (OGLE, NSVS, ASAS, and MACHO to name a few), they have each been limited in either sky coverage or number of epochs. The KELT survey represents a new generation of surveys that has many epochs over a large portion of the sky. KELT samples over 70% of the entire sky, and has a long-time-baseline of up to 11 years with a very high cadence rate of less than 20 minutes. This translates to upwards of 11,000 epochs per light curve with completeness out to 3 kpc from the Sun. This poster will present follow-up multi-color photometry taken of RR Lyrae candidate stars found in the KELT survey. These stars were observed using an 11inch telescope at the NKU Schneider Observatory. We also have archival photometry of these stars from the Michigan State Observatory. We will discuss photometric accuracies, cadence, and initial analysis of these stars. We will also discuss the capabilities of our new observatory as well as future follow-up and analysis plans.

  11. AH Cam: A metal-rich RR Lyrae star with the shortest known Blazhko period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Horace A.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Lee, Kevin M.; Williams, Jeffrey; Silbermann, N. A.; Bolte, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of 746 new V-band observations of the RR Lyrae star AH Cam obtained during 1989 - 1992 clearly show that its light curve cannot be described by a single period. In fact, at first glance, the Fourier spectrum of the photometry resembles that of a double-mode pulsator, with peaks at a fundamental period of 0.3686 d and an apparent secondary period of 0.2628 d. Nevertheless, the dual-mode solution is a poor fit to the data. Rather, we believe that AH Cam is a single-mode RR Lyrae star undergoing the Blazhko effect: periodic modulation of the amplitude and shape of its light curve. What was originally taken to be the period of the second mode is instead the 1-cycle/d alias of a modulation sidelobe in the Fourier spectrum. The data are well described by a modulation period of just under 11 d, which is the shortest Blazhko period reported to date in the literature and confirms the earlier suggestion by Goranskii. A low-resolution spectrum of AH Cam indicates that it is relatively metal rich, with delta-S less than or = 2. Its high metallicity and short modulation period may provide a critical test of at least one theory for the Blazhko effect. Moskalik's internal resonance model makes specific predictions of the growth rate of the fundamental model vs fundamental period. AH Cam falls outside the regime of other known Blazhko variables and resonance model predictions, but these are appropriate for metal-poor RR Lyrae stars. If the theory matches the behavior of AH Cam for a metal-rich stellar model, this would bolster the resonance hypothesis.

  12. Observing Globular Cluster RR Lyrae Variables with the BYU West Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, E. J.; Joner, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    We have utilized the 0.9-meter telescope of the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory to secure data on six northern hemisphere globular clusters. Here we present representative observations of RR Lyrae stars located in these clusters, including light curves. We compare light curves produced using both DAOPHOT and ISIS software packages. Light curve fitting is done with FITLC. We find that for well-separated stars, DAOPHOT and ISIS provide comparable results. However, for stars within the cluster core, ISIS provides superior results. These improved techniques will allow us to better measure the properties of cluster variable stars.

  13. Observing Globular Cluster RR Lyraes with the BYU West Mountain Observator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Elizabeth; Joner, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    We have utilized the 0.9-meter telescope of the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory to secure data on six northern hemisphere globular clusters. Here we present observations of RR Lyrae stars located in these clusters, including light curves. We compare light curves produced using both DAOPHOT and ISIS software packages. Light curve fitting is done with FITLC. We acknowledge continued support from the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical sciences for operation of the West Mountain Observatory. Some of the observations included in this presentation were secured within the term of NSF grant AST-0618209.

  14. Metal-rich or misclassified? The case of four RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, L.; Juhasz, A. L.; Plachy, E.; Szabo, R.

    2016-06-01

    We analysed the light curve of four, apparently extremely metal-rich fundamenta-mode RR Lyrae stars. We identified two stars, MT Tel and ASAS J091803-3022.6 as RRc (first-overtone) pulsators that were misclassified as RRab ones in the ASAS survey. In the case of the other two stars, V397 Gem and ASAS J075127-4136.3, we could not decide conclusively, as they are outliers in the period-Fourier-coefficient space from the loci of both classes, but their photometric metallicities also favour the RRc classification.

  15. The RR Lyrae Period-Luminosity Relation in IRAC Channels 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Meredith; Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew; Seibert, Mark; Rich, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    We present new period-luminosity relations for RR Lyrae variables in the globular cluster ω Centauri derived from time-resolved IRAC data, the slopes of which are in reasonable agreement with those derived from WISE data by Madore et al (2013), Klein et al (2014), and Dambis et al (2014). We also present an investigation into the correlation of the PL residuals with individual metallicities from Rey et al (2000) and Sollima et al (2006). We find no compelling evidence for a metallicity correlation in the residuals, based on a spread of up to 1.19 dex in [Fe/H].

  16. Convection in pulsating stars. I - Nonlinear hydrodynamics. II - RR Lyrae convection and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1982-11-01

    A nonlinear, nonlocal, time-dependent treatment of convection suitable for use in models of cool giant stars is presented. Local conservation equations plus a diffusive transport equation are used to derive the convective hydrodynamic equations for the case in which turbulent pressure, energy, and viscosity cannot be ignored. The effects of convective overshooting, superadiabatic gradients, convection/pulsation interaction, and time dependence enter this treatment in a natural way. Methods of treating turbulent viscosity and acoustic losses are discussed. Also, an efficient computational scheme for computing the derivatives needed for an implicit hydrodynamic code is outlined. Application to RR Lyrae star envelopes will be presented in a companion paper.

  17. ON THE MODULATION OF RR LYRAE STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M3

    SciTech Connect

    Jurcsik, J.; Smitola, P.; Nuspl, J.; Hajdu, G.

    2014-12-10

    New, extended time-series photometry of M3 RR Lyrae stars has revealed that 4 of the 10 double-mode stars show large-amplitude Blazhko modulation of both radial modes. The first, detailed analysis of the peculiar behavior of the unique, Blazhko RRd stars is given. While the P1/P0 period ratio is normal, and the overtone mode is dominant in the other RRd stars of the cluster, the period ratio is anomalous and the fundamental mode has a larger (or similar) mean amplitude than the overtone has in Blazhko RRd stars. The modulations of the fundamental and overtone modes are synchronized only in one of the Blazhko RRd stars. No evidence of any connection between the modulations of the modes in the other three stars is found. The Blazhko modulation accounts, at least partly, for the previously reported amplitude and period changes of these stars. Contrary to the ∼50% Blazhko statistics of RRab and RRd stars, Blazhko modulation occurs only in 10% of the overtone variables in M3. Four of the five Blazhko RRc stars are bright, evolved objects, and one has a period and brightness similar to those of Blazhko RRd stars. The regions of the instability strip with high and low occurrence rates of the Blazhko modulation overlap with the regions populated by first- and second-generation stars according to theoretical and observational studies, raising up the possibility that the Blazhko modulation occurs preferentially in first-generation RR Lyrae stars.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Field RR Lyrae stars (Liska+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liska, J.; Skarka, M.; Zejda, M.; Mikulasek, Z.; de Villiers, S. N.

    2016-05-01

    Differential photometry for VX Her in 'table1.dat' file. New photometric measurements for VX Her were performed at Masaryk University Observatory, Brno, Czech Republic during 13 nights (April-August 2014) with 0.6-m (24-inch) Newtonian telescope, CCD G2-0402, in BVRI bands. CCD images were calibrated in a standard way (dark frame and flat field corrections). The C-Munipack software (Motl 2009) was used for this processing as well as for differential photometry. TYC 1510-269-1 and TYC 1510-149-1 were used as comparison and check stars, respectively. Differential photometry for AT Ser and SS Leo is in 'table2.dat' file. New photometric measurements for these two stars were obtained using 1-inch refractor (a photographic lens Sonnar 4/135mm, lens focal ratio/focal length) and ATIK 16IC CCD camera with green photometric filter with similar throughput as the Johnson V filter. Exposures were 30s and each five frames were combined to a single image to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. The time resolution of a such combined frame is about 170s. The comparison stars were HD 142799 for AT Ser and HD 100763 for SS Leo. List with candidates for binaries with RR Lyrae component - RRLyrBinCan database (version 2016 May 5) is in 'table3.dat' file. 'table4.dat' file contains false-positives binary candidates among RR Lyrae stars. 'table5.dat' and 'table6.dat' files contain used maxima timings given in GEOS RR Lyr database, or newly determined in this study. (7 data files).

  19. Ground-Based BVRI Time-Series Follow-Up Observations for the RR Lyrae stars in Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Young-Beom; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Nemec, James M.

    2015-09-01

    Time series observations for the 41 RR Lyrae stars in Kepler's fields were carried out in 2010 to 2013 using a number of meter class (or smaller) telescopes. These telescopes include the 1-m and 41-cm telescopes of Lulin Observatory (LOT and SLT respectively, Taiwan), the 81-cm telescope of Tenagra-II Observatory (TNG, Arizona, USA), the 1-m telescope at the Mt. Lemmon Optical Astronomy Observatory (LOAO, Arizona, USA), the 1.8-m and 15-cm telescopes at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, Korea), and the 61-cm telescope at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO, Korea). All of these telescopes were equipped with commercial available CCD imagers, and the observations were done in standard BVRI filters. Photometric calibration of the RR Lyrae light curves was done with standard stars listed in Landolt standard stars [1]. Observations of selected Landolt standard stars (centered on SA 107-456 & SA 110-232) in Johnson-Kron-Cousins BVRI filters, spanning three distinct airmasses, were done with the 81-cm Tenagra II telescope on 25 June 2011. Raw imaging data were reduced with IRAF in the same manner as in the case of the RR Lyrae, and astrometric calibrated with astrometry.net [2]. We calibrated BVRI magnitudes for 40 RR Lyrae stars.

  20. An RR Lyrae survey with the Lick astrograph. V - A survey of three fields at intermediate latitudes towards the galactic anticenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T. D.; Mahaffey, C. T.; Wirtanen, C. A.

    1982-02-01

    Photometric data, positions, and finding charts are given for 62 variables in three astrograph fields covering 84 square degrees at galactic latitudes - 18°, +26°, and +36° towards the anticenter. These variables have mean photographic magnitudes in the range 11.2 < mpg < 17.9. Nineteen of these are RR Lyrae stars of the type ab RR Lyrae of type c (15.2 < mpg < 16.6). Periods are given for 51 of the variables including all the RR Lyrae stars. Photoelectric observations are given for all the RR Lyrae stars and their B - V colors at minimum light are used in a discussion of the extinctions in these fields. Spectroscopic observations of 26 of the variables (predominantly the RR Lyrae stars) are described in an accompanying paper by Butler, Kemper, Kraft, and Suntzeff (1982). It is found that the RR Lyrae stars in these anticenter fields and at the north galactic pole show a significant deficiency of very metal-poor members (with [Fe/H] < - 1.6) if compared with samples of globular clusters or a sample of nearby subdwarfs, and the reasons are discussed. Despite this disadvantage, the absolute brightness of the RR Lyrae stars and their characteristic light variations which enable them to be recognized with a high degree of completeness at great distances, continue to make them important tracers of the structure of the galactic halo.

  1. Evidence for an old Galactic bulge from RR Lyrae stars in Baade's window - Implications for the formation of the Galaxy and the age of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young-Wook

    1992-01-01

    Recent abundance measurements of RR Lyrae variables in the Baade's window field of the Galactic nuclear bulge are examined, and the observed metallicity distributions of the RR Lyraes in different Galactic radial zones are compared with those predicted for the HB population models. It is shown that the observed systematic variation with Galactocentric distance is only explained if the age of the stellar population increases, in the mean, with decreasing R(G). Thus, the oldest stellar population, the RR Lyraes in the Galactic nuclear bulge, is indeed older than that in the halo.

  2. State-of-the-Art Metal Abundances For Field RR Lyrae Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, E.; Clementini, G.; Merighi, R.; Gratton, R. G.; Mould, J. R.; McCarthy, J. K.

    1996-04-01

    We present abundance analysis for 10 field ab-type RR Lyraes, using high S/N (>200), moderately high resolution ( ~ 18000) CCD spectra to obtain accurate metallicities. A new temperature scale was determined and non-LTE effects were fully taken into account. The derived metal abundances of the program stars span the range -2.50 < [Fe/H] < +0.17. We used our new [Fe/H] abundances, as well as values from Butler and coworkers (corrected to our system), to obtain a revised calibration of the Delta S index (Preston 1959): $[Fe/H] = -0.194(+/- 0.011)Delta S - 0.08 (+/- 0.18) $ Our new metallicity scale is then stretched on both low and high metallicity ends with respect to Butler's (1975) calibration.

  3. Ca II K line - A new metallicity indicator for RR Lyrae stars

    SciTech Connect

    Clementini, G.; Tosi, M.; Merighi, R. )

    1991-06-01

    CCD spectra, which cover wavelengths between 3900 and 4400 A at a dispersion of 43 A/mm, are obtained for 26 field RR Lyrae variables of Bailey type ab to verify Preston's delta-S calibration scale. The width of the Ca II K line is found to correlate very well with the direct Fe/H values, particularly when Fe/H = 0.53 W-prime(K) - 3.08, where W-prime(K) is the width of the K line corrected for interstellar contribution. The K line equivalent is shown to be a reliable method for deriving the Fe/H abundance from low resolution spectra taken from these stars. 47 refs.

  4. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Equivalent width of 21 RR Lyrae stars (Pancino+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancino, E.; Britavskiy, N.; Romano, D.; Cacciari, C.; Mucciarelli, A.; Clementini, G.

    2015-02-01

    Equivalent widths and atomic data of the absorption lines used in the abundance analysis, for each separate exposure at different phases. Observations of 15 RR Lyrae stars (DR And, X Ari, TW Boo, RZ Cam, RX Cet, U Com, RV CrB, SW CVn, UZ CVn, AE Dra, SZ Gem, VX Her, DH Hya, TU UMa, and RV UMa) and one BL Her star (UY Eri) were carried out with SARG@TNG, operated on the island of La Palma, Spain, during two separate runs in 2009 March and between September and November. Eight stars (SW Aqr, TW Cap, DH Hya, V Ind, SS Leo, V716 Oph, BK Tuc, and UV Vir) were observed with UVES@VLT, between 2009 April and August in service mode. (3 data files).

  6. The occurrence of binary evolution pulsators in classical instability strip of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarek, P.; Wiktorowicz, G.; Iłkiewicz, K.; Smolec, R.; Stępień, K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Gieren, W.; Belczynski, K.

    2017-04-01

    Single star evolution does not allow extremely low-mass stars to cross the classical instability strip (IS) during the Hubble time. However, within binary evolution framework low-mass stars can appear inside the IS once the mass transfer (MT) is taken into account. Triggered by a discovery of low-mass (0.26 M⊙) RR Lyrae-like variable in a binary system, OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-02792, we investigate the occurrence of similar binary components in the IS, which set up a new class of low-mass pulsators. They are referred to as binary evolution pulsators (BEPs) to underline the interaction between components, which is crucial for substantial mass-loss prior to the IS entrance. We simulate a population of 500 000 metal-rich binaries and report that 28 143 components of binary systems experience severe MT (losing up to 90 per cent of mass), followed by at least one IS crossing in luminosity range of RR Lyrae (RRL) or Cepheid variables. A half of these systems enter the IS before the age of 4 Gyr. BEPs display a variety of physical and orbital parameters, with the most important being the BEP mass in range 0.2-0.8 M⊙, and the orbital period in range 10-2 500 d. Based on the light curve only, BEPs can be misclassified as genuine classical pulsators, and as such they would contaminate genuine RRL and classical Cepheid variables at levels of 0.8 and 5 per cent, respectively. We state that the majority of BEPs will remain undetected and we discuss relevant detection limitations.

  7. Nonradial Mode Instability in Static and Radially Pulsating Models of RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoolst, T.; Dziembowski, W. A.; Kawaler, S. D.

    Anomalous behaviours such as amplitude modulation or two mode excitation among classical pulsating stars remains unexplained. The possible role of nonradial mode excitation has already been suggested (Kovacs 1993, Van Hoolst & Waelkens 1995) but no calculations for realistic models have been done. As a first step toward clarifying the problem, we investigate linear nonadiabatic properties of nonradial modes in centrally condensed stars. We begin with an outline of the method of calculation of the nonadiabatic oscillations in full and realistic models of such stars. The method is then applied to a static model which corresponds to a RR Lyrae star in the mid of the instability strip. We find a large number of unstable low degree modes in the vicinity of unstable radial modes. The growth rates of such modes, however, are considerably lower than those of the radial. We also recover an old result (Dziembowski 1977, Osaki 1977) that at higher degrees there are modes trapped in the envelope with growth rates similar to that of radial modes. Subsequently, we consider monomode radial pulsation of this model. We assume that the excited mode saturates the linear instability of all modes and we study the destabilizing effect of the 1:1 resonance between the radial mode and nearby nonradial modes of low degrees. The instability depends on the radial mode amplitude, the frequency difference, and the damping rate of the nonradial mode. We find that at the pulsation amplitudes typical for RR Lyrae stars the resonant excitation of some nonradial oscillation is almost certain and that the excitation of the l=1 mode is most likely. References: Dziembowski, W.D., 1977, Acta Astron. 27, 95 Kovacs, G., 1993, in: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, eds.: J.R. Buchler and H.E. Kanrup, p.70 Osaki, Y., 1977, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 29, 235 Van Hoolst, T, Waelkens, C, 1995, Astron. Astrophys. 295, 361

  8. Lyra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lyre; abbrev. Lyr, gen. Lyrae; area 286 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Hercules and Cygnus, and culminates at midnight in early July. It is an ancient constellation pattern, which was associated with an eagle or vulture in the Indian subcontinent and Arab countries, and with the mythical lyre invented by Hermes and given by Apollo to Orpheus in ancient Greece. Its brig...

  9. Pushing the Limits, Episode 2: K2 Observations of Extragalactic RR Lyrae Stars in the Dwarf Galaxy Leo IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, L.; Pál, A.; Plachy, E.; Ripepi, V.; Moretti, M. I.; Szabó, R.; Kiss, L. L.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first observations of extragalactic pulsating stars in the K2 ecliptic survey of the Kepler space telescope. The variability of all three RR Lyrae stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo IV was successfully detected, at a brightness of Kp ≈ 21.5 mag, from data collected during Campaign 1. We identified one modulated star and another likely Blazhko candidate with periods of 29.8 ± 0.9 days and more than 80 days, respectively. EPIC 210282473 represents the first star beyond the Magellanic Clouds for which the Blazhko period and cycle-to-cycle variations in the modulation were unambiguously measured. The photometric [Fe/H] indices of the stars agree with earlier results that Leo IV is a very metal-poor galaxy. Two out of the three stars blend with brighter background galaxies in the K2 frames. We demonstrate that image subtraction can be reliably used to extract photometry from faint confused sources, which will be crucial not only for the K2 mission but also for future space photometric missions.

  10. Testing iSpec for the determination of atmospheric parameters and abundances of δ Cephei and RR Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Anderson, R. I.; Eyer, L.; Mowlavi, N.

    2017-03-01

    Classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars are radially pulsating stars where the spectral type varies according to pulsation phase. Several studies used synthesis and the equivalent width method to determine the variations of effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity for classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars (Luck and Andrievsky 2004; Kovtyukh et al. 2005; Andrievsky et al 2005; Luck et al 2008; Takeda et al. 2013; Fossati et al. 2014). We evaluated the applicability of iSpec (Blanco-Cuaresma et al. 2014 - http://www.blancocuaresma.com/s/), which has been extensively used with non-pulsating FGK stars, and derived atmospheric parameters as a function of phase for δ Cephei and RR Lyrae (the two prototypes stars for each class). The results showed that when we apply a non-adapted traditional spectroscopic method to pulsating stars, derived gravities do not seem to follow a physically logical evolution. Nevertheless, metallicity is globally stable and effective temperature variations globally agree with expectations from the radius variations indicated by the radial velocity variability. Max/min values and average results agree with the literature. In terms of broadening parameters, macroturbulent and projected rotation velocities are very difficult to disentangle even if their profiles are not exactly the same. Individual chemical abundances as function of phase are stable as it was expected (the chemical composition of the star should not vary). We plan to use this information to identify absorption lines that are reliable and stable (less affected by blending) during the whole pulsating cycle. This new line selection may help to improve the determination of atmospheric parameters and it could allow us to be more confident in the study of other less known Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RR Lyrae as tracers in the Virgo overdensity region (Vivas+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, A. K.; Zinn, R.; Farmer, J.; Duffau, S.; Ping, Y.

    2017-02-01

    In addition to the SDSS spectra, several RR Lyrae stars (RRLSs) were observed by our team with the 4.1m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR; 3500-6160Å) (Cerro Pachon, Chile) and the 3.5m Wisconsin Indiana Yale and NOAO (WIYN; 4000-6800Å at 4.6Å resolution) (Kitt Peak, USA) telescopes. Six RRLSs were observed with SOAR in 2014 February and March. 26 additional RRLSs were observed with WIYN in 2011 January. (4 data files).

  12. The distance to the Galactic centre based on Population II Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Udalski, A.; Bono, G.

    2008-04-01

    Context: The distance to the Galactic centre (GC) is important for determining the distance scale in the Universe. The value derived by Eisenhauer et al. (2005) of 7.62 ± 0.32 kpc based on the orbit of one star around the central black hole is shorter than most other distance estimates based on a variety of different methods. Aims: To establish an independent distance to the GC with high accuracy, Population-ii Cepheids were used that have been discovered in the ogle-ii and ogle-iii surveys. Methods: Thirty-nine Population-ii Cepheids were monitored with the SOFI infrared camera on 4 nights spanning 14 days, typically obtaining between 5 and 11 epochs of data. Light curves were fitted using the known periods from the OGLE data to determine the mean K-band magnitude with an accuracy of 0.01-0.02 mag. It so happens that 37 RR Lyrae stars are in the field-of-view of the observations, and mean K-band magnitudes are derived for this sample as well. Results: After correction for reddening, the period-luminosity relation of Population-ii Cepheids in the K-band is determined, and the derived slope of -2.24 ± 0.14 is consistent with the value derived by Matsunaga et al. (2006, MNRAS, 370, 1979). Fixing the slope to their more accurate value results in a zero point and implies a distance modulus to the GC of 14.51 ± 0.12, with an additional systematic uncertainty of 0.07 mag. Similarly, from the RR Lyrae K-band period-luminosity relation, we derive a value of 14.48 ± 0.17 (random) ± 0.07 (syst.). The two independent determinations are averaged to find 14.50 ± 0.10 (random) ± 0.07(syst.), or 7.94 ± 0.37 ± 0.26 kpc. The absolute magnitude scale of the adopted period-luminosity relations is tied to an LMC distance modulus of 18.50 ± 0.07. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO Programme 079.B-0107).

  13. Standard Galactic Field RR Lyrae. I. Optical to Mid-infrared Phased Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, Andrew J.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Seibert, Mark; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Clementini, Gisella

    2017-03-01

    We present a multi-wavelength compilation of new and previously published photometry for 55 Galactic field RR Lyrae variables. Individual studies, spanning a time baseline of up to 30 years, are self-consistently phased to produce light curves in 10 photometric bands covering the wavelength range from 0.4 to 4.5 microns. Data smoothing via the GLOESS technique is described and applied to generate high-fidelity light curves, from which mean magnitudes, amplitudes, rise times, and times of minimum and maximum light are derived. 60,000 observations were acquired using the new robotic Three-hundred MilliMeter Telescope (TMMT), which was first deployed at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, CA, and is now permanently installed and operating at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. We provide a full description of the TMMT hardware, software, and data reduction pipeline. Archival photometry contributed approximately 31,000 observations. Photometric data are given in the standard Johnson UBV, Kron–Cousins {R}C{I}C, 2MASS JHK, and Spitzer [3.6] and [4.5] bandpasses.

  14. TU Comae Berenices: Blazhko RR Lyrae Star in a Potential Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ponthière, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Menzies, K.; Sabo, R.

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a photometry campaign of TU Com performed over a five-year time span. The analysis showed that the possible Blazhko period of 75 days published by the General Catalogue of Variable Stars is not correct. We identified two Blazhko periods of 43.6 and 45.5 days. This finding is based on measurement of 124 light maxima. A spectral analysis of the complete light curve confirmed these two periods. Besides the Blazhko amplitude and phase modulations, another long term periodic phase variation has been identified. This long term periodic variation affects the times of maximum light only and can be attributed to a light-travel time effect due to orbital motion of a binary system. The orbital parameters have been estimated by a nonlinear least-square fit applied to the set of (O-C) values. The Levenberg-Marquart algorithm has been used to perform the nonlinear least-square fit. The tentative orbital parameters include an orbital period of 1676 days, a minimal semi-major axis of 1.55 AU and a small eccentricity of 0.22. The orbital parameter estimation also used 33 (O-C) values obtained from the SWASP survey database. Spectroscopic radial velocity measurements are needed to confirm this binarity. If confirmed, TU Com would be the first Blazhko RR Lyrae star detected in a binary system.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RR Lyrae in 15 Galactic globular clusters (Dambis+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambis, A. K.; Rastorguev, A. S.; Zabolotskikh, M. V.

    2014-11-01

    Last year, the WISE All-Sky Data Release (Cutri et al., 2012, Cat. II/328) was made public, mapping the entire sky in four mid-infrared bands W1, W2, W3 and W4 with the effective wavelengths of 3.368, 4.618, 12.082 and 22.194um, respectively. We cross-correlated the WISE single-exposure data base with the Catalogue of Galactic globular-cluster variables by Clement et al. (2001AJ....122.2587C), the Catalogue of Accurate Equatorial Coordinates for Variable Stars in Globular Clusters by Samus et al. (2009PASP..121.1378S, Cat. J/PASP/121/1378) and the catalogue of Sawyer Hogg (1973PDDO....3....6S, Cat. V/97) (for ω Cen, NGC 6723 and NGC 6934) to compute (via Fourier fits) the intensity-mean average W1- and W2-band magnitudes, and , for a total of 357 and 272 RR Lyrae type variables in 15 and 9 Galactic globular clusters, respectively. (1 data file).

  16. The distance to IC 4499 from K-band photometry of 32 RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, J.

    2004-03-01

    Single epoch K-band photometry of 32 RR Lyrae stars in the young galactic globular cluster IC 4499 is presented. The mean magnitudes have been estimated using the K-band template light-curves of Jones et al. (\\cite{Jones96}). We derive an independent estimate of the distance and reddening for the cluster based on the new < MK>-\\log P-[Fe/H] relation from Bono et al. (\\cite{Bono03}) which has a zero-point in agreement with the canonical LMC distance of (m-M)0 = 18.5. For an assumed metallicity of [Fe/H] =-1.65±0.1 we find (m-M)0 = 16.47 ±0.04 ±0.06 (random and systematic errors respectively) and E(B-V)=0.24±0.03 in good agreement with the findings of Walker & Nemec (\\cite{WN96}) based on optical data. The distance estimate is very robust to uncertainties in the reddening estimate but naturally depends directly on the adopted zero-point of the < MK>-log P-[Fe/H] relation. Based on data from the European Southern Observatory.

  17. Peculiar double-periodic pulsation in RR Lyrae stars of the OGLE collection - II. Short-period stars with a dominant radial fundamental mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Smolec, R.; Skarka, M.; Netzel, H.

    2017-03-01

    We report the discovery of a new group of double-periodic stars in the OGLE Galactic bulge photometry. In 38 stars identified as fundamental-mode RR Lyrae and four classified as first-overtone RR Lyrae, we detected an additional shorter periodicity. The periods of the dominant variability in the newly discovered group are 0.28 < PD < 0.41 d. Period ratios (0.68-0.72) are smaller than the period ratios of the Galactic bulge RRd stars. The typical amplitude ratio (of the additional to the dominant periodicity) is 20 per cent for the stars identified as fundamental-mode RR Lyrae and 50 per cent for stars classified as first-overtone RR Lyrae. 10 stars from our sample exhibit equidistant peaks in the frequency spectrum, which suggests the Blazhko-type modulation of the main pulsation frequency and/or additional periodicity. The Fourier coefficients R21 and R31 are some of the lowest among fundamental-mode RR Lyrae stars, but among the highest for the first-overtone pulsators. For the phase Fourier coefficients φ21 and φ31, our stars lie between RRab and RRc stars. The stars discussed were compared with radial linear pulsation models. Their position in the Petersen diagram cannot be reproduced by assuming that two radial modes are excited and their physical parameters are like those characteristic of RR Lyrae stars. The non-radial-mode scenario also faces difficulties. We conclude that the dominant variability is most likely due to pulsation in the radial fundamental mode, which applies to stars classified as first-overtone mode pulsators. At this point, we cannot explain the nature of the additional periodicity. Even more, the classification of the stars as RR Lyrae should be treated as tentative.

  18. Period–color and Amplitude–color Relations at Maximum and Minimum Light for RR Lyrae Stars in the SDSS Stripe 82 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Schrecengost, Zachariah; Singh, Harinder P.

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of period–color (PC) and amplitude–color (AC) relations at the maximum and minimum light can be used to probe the interaction of the hydrogen ionization front (HIF) with the photosphere and the radiation hydrodynamics of the outer envelopes of Cepheids and RR Lyraes. For example, theoretical calculations indicated that such interactions would occur at minimum light for RR Lyrae and result in a flatter PC relation. In the past, the PC and AC relations have been investigated by using either the (V ‑ R)MACHO or (V ‑ I) colors. In this work, we extend previous work to other bands by analyzing the RR Lyraes in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 Region. Multi-epoch data are available for RR Lyraes located within the footprint of the Stripe 82 Region in five (ugriz) bands. We present the PC and AC relations at maximum and minimum light in four colors: (u ‑ g)0, (g ‑ r)0, (r ‑ i)0, and (i ‑ z)0, after they are corrected for extinction. We found that the PC and AC relations for this sample of RR Lyraes show a complex nature in the form of flat, linear or quadratic relations. Furthermore, the PC relations at minimum light for fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars are separated according to the Oosterhoff type, especially in the (g ‑ r)0 and (r ‑ i)0 colors. If only considering the results from linear regressions, our results are quantitatively consistent with the theory of HIF-photosphere interaction for both fundamental and first overtone RR Lyraes.

  19. First stars. XIII. Two extremely metal-poor RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Nordström, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Spite, M.; Andersen, J.; Beers, T. C.; Cayrel, R.; Spite, F.; Molaro, P.; Barbuy, B.; Depagne, E.; François, P.; Hill, V.; Plez, B.; Sivarani, T.

    2011-03-01

    Context. The chemical composition of extremely metal-poor stars (EMP stars; [Fe/H] < ~ -3) is a unique tracer of early nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. As such stars are rare, we wish to find classes of luminous stars which can be studied at high spectral resolution. Aims: We aim to determine the detailed chemical composition of the two EMP stars CS 30317-056 and CS 22881-039, originally thought to be red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars, and compare it to earlier results for EMP stars as well as to nucleosynthesis yields from various supernova (SN) models. In the analysis, we discovered that our targets are in fact the two most metal-poor RR Lyrae stars known. Methods: Our detailed abundance analysis, taking into account the variability of the stars, is based on VLT/UVES spectra (R ≃ 43 000) and 1D LTE OSMARCS model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. For comparison with SN models we also estimate NLTE corrections for a number of elements. Results: We derive LTE abundances for the 16 elements O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr and Ba, in good agreement with earlier values for EMP dwarf, giant and RHB stars. Li and C are not detected in either star. NLTE abundance corrections are newly calculated for O and Mg and taken from the literature for other elements. The resulting abundance pattern is best matched by model yields for supernova explosions with high energy and/or significant asphericity effects. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, except for Li and C, the surface composition of EMP RR Lyr stars is not significantly affected by mass loss, mixing or diffusion processes; hence, EMP RR Lyr stars should also be useful tracers of the chemical evolution of the early Galactic halo. The observed abundance ratios indicate that these stars were born from an ISM polluted by energetic, massive (25-40 M⊙) and /or aspherical supernovae, but the NLTE corrections for Sc and certain other elements do play a role in the choice of model. Based on

  20. Chemical abundances in a high-velocity RR Lyrae star near the bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Rich, R. M.; Koch, A.; Xu, S.; Kunder, A.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2016-05-01

    Low-mass variable high-velocity stars are interesting study cases for many aspects of Galactic structure and evolution. Until recently, the only known high- or hyper-velocity stars were young stars thought to originate from the Galactic center. Wide-area surveys such as APOGEE and BRAVA have found several low-mass stars in the bulge with Galactic rest-frame velocities higher than 350 km s-1. In this study we present the first abundance analysis of a low-mass RR Lyrae star that is located close to the Galactic bulge, with a space motion of ~-400 km s-1. Using medium-resolution spectra, we derived abundances (including upper limits) of 11 elements. These allowed us to chemically tag the star and discuss its origin, although our derived abundances and metallicity, at [Fe/H] =-0.9 dex, do not point toward one unambiguous answer. Based on the chemical tagging, we cannot exclude that it originated in the bulge. However, its retrograde orbit and the derived abundances combined suggest that the star was accelerated from the outskirts of the inner (or even outer) halo during many-body interactions. Other possible origins include the bulge itself, or the star might have been stripped from a stellar cluster or the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy when it merged with the Milky Way. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  1. RR Lyrae in XSTPS: The halo density profile in the north galactic cap

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, L.; Smith, M. C.; Yuan, H.-B.; Liu, X.-W.; Zhang, H.-H.; Zhao, H.-B.; Yao, J.-S. E-mail: msmith@shao.ac.cn

    2014-06-20

    We present a catalog of RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) observed by the Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey (XSTPS). The area we consider is located in the north Galactic cap, covering ≈376.75 deg{sup 2} at α ≈ 150° and δ ≈ 27° down to a magnitude limit of i ≈ 19. Using the variability information afforded by the multi-epoch nature of our XSTPS data, combined with colors from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we are able to identify candidate RRLs. We find 318 candidates, derive distances to them, and estimate the detection efficiency. The majority of our candidates have more than 12 observations, and for these we are able to calculate periods. These also allow us to estimate our contamination level, which we predict is between 30% and 40%. Finally, we use the sample to probe the halo density profile in the 9-49 kpc range and find that it can be well fitted by a double power law. We find good agreement between this model and the models derived for the south Galactic cap using the Watkins et al. and Sesar et al. RRL data sets, after accounting for possible contamination in our data set from Sagittarius stream members. We consider non-spherical double power-law models of the halo density profile and again find agreement with literature data sets, although we have limited power to constrain the flattening due to our small survey area. Much tighter constraints will be placed by current and future wide-area surveys, most notably ESA's astrometric Gaia mission. Our analysis demonstrates that surveys with a limited number of epochs can effectively be mined for RRLs. Our complete sample is provided as accompanying online material; as an example the first few entries of each electronic table are shown in the text.

  2. Nonlinear stellar pulsation. 2: Radiative models of RR-Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuchtinger, M. U.; Dorfi, E. A.

    1994-11-01

    We employ an implicit adaptive grid technique to investigate radiative full amplitude models of RR-Lyrae stars. To give an insight into the adoptive method we present a sequence of pulsating envelopes corresponding to a horizontal path through the instability strip. The stellar mass, luminosity and chemical composition are fixed at 0.578 solar mass, 64.3 solar luminosity and (X,Y,Z) = (0.7,0.299,0.001) respectively and the effective temperature is varied from 6000 to 7100 K. Simultaneously with the nonlinear pulsating envelope we are able to model the stellar atmosphere as demonstrated for one particular set of stellar parameters. Recent tables from the opacity project (Seaton et al. 1994) are used for the opacity and the equation of state is taken from Wuchterl (1990). Time-dependent grey radiative transfer is included by solving the moment equations of the transfer equation and we use a variable Eddington factor to close the moment system. Employing an adaptive grid algorithm the numerical scheme is second order in time and space (time centered and monotonic second order advection), and an artificial tensor viscosity is implemented to handle shock waves. In this article we demonstrate that our adaptive numerical method is an efficient state of the art approach to nonlinear radial stellar pulsations. The adaptive grid can be tailored to resolve the driving regions of the star and track them continuously throughout the whole pulsation cycle. As a consequence we are able to calculate accurate light- and radial velocity curves with shapes comparable to observations and without numerical perturbations. The model including the stellar atmosphere exhibits periodical variations of the atmospheric structure accompanied by strong shock waves leading to velocity amplitudes of about 170 km/s at the outer boundary of the model.

  3. ON A NEW THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR RR LYRAE STARS. I. THE METALLICITY DEPENDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Marconi, M.; Coppola, G.; Musella, I.; Ripepi, V.; Bono, G.; Braga, V.; Buonanno, R.; Pietrinferni, A.; Castellani, M.; Stellingwerf, R. F. E-mail: giuseppe.bono@roma2.infn.it E-mail: adriano@oa-teramo.inaf.it E-mail: rfs@swcp.com

    2015-07-20

    We present new nonlinear, time-dependent convective hydrodynamical models of RR Lyrae stars computed assuming a constant helium-to-metal enrichment ratio and a broad range in metal abundances (Z = 0.0001–0.02). The stellar masses and luminosities adopted to construct the pulsation models were fixed according to detailed central He-burning horizontal-branch evolutionary models. The pulsation models cover a broad range in stellar luminosity and effective temperatures and the modal stability is investigated for both fundamental (FU) and first overtone polsators (FOs). We predict the topology of the instability strip (IS) as a function of the metal content and new analytical relations for the edges of the IS in the observational plane. Moreover, a new analytical relation to constrain the pulsation mass of double pulsators as a function of the period ratio and the metal content is provided. We derive new Period–Radius–Metallicity relations for FU and FO pulsators. They agree quite well with similar empirical and theoretical relations in the literature. From the predicted bolometric light curves, transformed into optical (UBVRI) and near-infrared (NIR; JHK) bands, we compute the intensity-averaged mean magnitudes along the entire pulsation cycle and in turn new and homogenous metal-dependent (RIJHK) Period–Luminosity relations. Moreover, we compute new dual and triple-band optical, optical–NIR, and NIR Period–Wesenheit–Metallicity relations. Interestingly, we find that the optical Period-W(V, B–V) is independent of the metal content and that the accuracy of individual distances is a balance between the adopted diagnostics and the precision of photometric and spectroscopic data sets.

  4. Spectroscopy of Bright Quest RR Lyrae Stars: Velocity Substructures Toward Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Jaffé, Yara L.; Zinn, Robert; Winnick, Rebeccah; Duffau, Sonia; Mateu, Cecilia

    2008-10-01

    Using a sample of 43 bright (V < 16.1, distance <13 kpc) RR Lyrae stars (RRLS) from the QUasar Equatorial Survey with spectroscopic radial velocities and metallicities, we find that several separate halo substructures contribute to the Virgo overdensity (VOD). While there is little evidence of a halo substructure in the spatial distribution of these stars, their distribution in radial velocity reveals two moving groups. These results are reinforced when the sample is combined with a sample of blue horizontal branch stars that were identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the combined sample provides evidence for one additional moving group. These groups correspond to peaks in the radial velocity distribution of a sample of F-type main-sequence stars that was recently observed in the same direction by the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE), although in one case the RRLS and F star groups may not lie at the same distance. One of the new substructures has a very narrow range in metallicity, which is more consistent with it being the debris from a destroyed globular cluster than from a dwarf galaxy. A small concentration of stars have radial velocities that are similar to the Virgo Stellar Stream that was identified previously in a fainter sample of RRLS. Our results suggest that this feature extends to distances as short as ~12 kpc, compared to its previous detection at ~19 kpc. None of the new groups and only one star in the sample have velocities that are consistent with membership in the leading tidal stream from the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, which some authors have suggested is the origin of the VOD.

  5. METAL ABUNDANCES, RADIAL VELOCITIES, AND OTHER PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE RR LYRAE STARS IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, James M.; Cohen, Judith G.; Sesar, Branimir; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Derekas, Aliz; Moskalik, Pawel; Chadid, Merieme; Bruntt, Hans E-mail: jmn@isr.bc.ca E-mail: bsesar@astro.caltech.edu E-mail: derekas@konkoly.hu E-mail: chadid@marseille.fr

    2013-08-20

    Spectroscopic iron-to-hydrogen ratios, radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and new photometric analyses are presented for 41 RR Lyrae stars (and one probable high-amplitude {delta} Sct star) located in the field-of-view of the Kepler space telescope. Thirty-seven of the RR Lyrae stars are fundamental-mode pulsators (i.e., RRab stars) of which sixteen exhibit the Blazhko effect. Four of the stars are multiperiodic RRc pulsators oscillating primarily in the first-overtone mode. Spectroscopic [Fe/H] values for the 34 stars for which we were able to derive estimates range from -2.54 {+-} 0.13 (NR Lyr) to -0.05 {+-} 0.13 dex (V784 Cyg), and for the 19 Kepler-field non-Blazhko stars studied by Nemec et al. the abundances agree will with their photometric [Fe/H] values. Four non-Blazhko RR Lyrae stars that they identified as metal-rich (KIC 6100702, V2470 Cyg, V782 Cyg and V784 Cyg) are confirmed as such, and four additional stars (V839 Cyg, KIC 5520878, KIC 8832417, KIC 3868420) are also shown here to be metal-rich. Five of the non-Blazhko RRab stars are found to be more metal-rich than [Fe/H] {approx}-0.9 dex while all of the 16 Blazhko stars are more metal-poor than this value. New P-{phi}{sub 31}{sup s}-[Fe/H] relationships are derived based on {approx}970 days of quasi-continuous high-precision Q0-Q11 long- and short-cadence Kepler photometry. With the exception of some Blazhko stars, the spectroscopic and photometric [Fe/H] values are in good agreement. Several stars with unique photometric characteristics are identified, including a Blazhko variable with the smallest known amplitude and frequency modulations (V838 Cyg)

  6. GSC 03529-02286, GSC 02008-00283 und GSC 07165-03037 - Drei neue RR-Lyrae-Sterne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Klaus; Srdoc, Gregor; Huemmerich, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    During an extended investigation of candidate variable stars from the SuperWASP database (cf. e.g. Bernhard and Srdoc, 2011), three new RR Lyrae stars have been discovered. The following elements have been derived: GSC 03529-02286 (Type RRc): HJD (Max) = 2454327.472 (4) + E* 0.277202 (2) GSC 02008-00283 (Type RRc): HJD (Max) = 2453567.669 (2) + E* 0.349129 (2) GSC 07165-03037 (Type RRab): HJD (Max) = 2453901.869 (2) + E* 0.561553 (2) Klaus Bernhard and Stefan Huemmerich are member of the BAV.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: I light curves of RR Lyrae from OGLE II (Bernhard+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, K.; Wils, P.

    2010-05-01

    We present the discovery of ten RR Lyrae variables. They were found in a search for new variables in the OGLE II Photometric Database (Szymanski 2005AcA....55...43S, Udalski et al. 1997AcA....47..319U). Suitable parameters (e.g. Isig>0.1, e_Imed

  8. Observing RR Lyrae Variables in the M3 Globular Cluster with the BYU West Mountain Observatory (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have utilized the 0.9-meter telescope of the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory to secure data on the northern hemisphere globular cluster NGC 5272 (M3). We made 216 observations in the V filter spaced between March and August 2012. We present light curves of the M3 RR Lyrae stars using different techniques. We compare light curves produced using DAOPHOT and ISIS software packages for stars in both the halo and core regions of this globular cluster. The light curve fitting is done using FITLC.

  9. Near-Field Cosmology with RR Lyrae Variable Stars: A First View of Substructure in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, C.; Duffau, S.; Vivas, A. K.; Catelan, M.; Hajdu, G.; Torrealba, G.; Cortés, C.; Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S.; Drake, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present the current status of the spectroscopic follow-up of a large number of RR Lyrae (RRL) halo overdensity candidates recently found by Torrealba et al. (2015) using southern-hemisphere data from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS). Characterizing the individual RRL stars in these overdensities is crucial to confirm them as real halo substructures. Low-resolution spectra have been obtained for RRL stars in 11 different overdensities, using the SOAR and Magellan telescopes. Radial velocities and metallicities have been derived so far for 123 and 99 RRL stars, respectively.

  10. On the RR Lyrae Stars in Globulars. IV. ω Centauri Optical UBVRI Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, V. F.; Stetson, P. B.; Bono, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Fiorentino, G.; Freyhammer, L. M.; Iannicola, G.; Marengo, M.; Neeley, J.; Valenti, E.; Buonanno, R.; Calamida, A.; Castellani, M.; da Silva, R.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Di Cecco, A.; Fabrizio, M.; Freedman, W. L.; Giuffrida, G.; Lub, J.; Madore, B. F.; Marconi, M.; Marinoni, S.; Matsunaga, N.; Monelli, M.; Persson, S. E.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pietrinferni, A.; Prada-Moroni, P.; Pulone, L.; Stellingwerf, R.; Tognelli, E.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    New accurate and homogeneous optical UBVRI photometry has been obtained for variable stars in the Galactic globular cluster ω Cen (NGC 5139). We secured 8202 CCD images covering a time interval of 24 years and a sky area of 84 × 48 arcmin. The current data were complemented with data available in the literature and provided new, homogeneous pulsation parameters (mean magnitudes, luminosity amplitudes, periods) for 187 candidate ω Cen RR Lyrae (RRLs). Among them we have 101 RRc (first overtone) and 85 RRab (fundamental) variables, and a single candidate RRd (double-mode) variable. Candidate Blazhko RRLs show periods and colors that are intermediate between the RRc and RRab variables, suggesting that they are transitional objects. A comparison of the period distribution and the Bailey diagram indicates that RRLs in ω Cen show a long-period tail not present in typical Oosterhoff II (OoII) globulars. The RRLs in dwarf spheroidals and in ultra-faint dwarfs have properties between Oosterhoff intermediate and OoII clusters. Metallicity plays a key role in shaping the above evidence. These findings do not support the hypothesis that ω Cen is the core remnant of a spoiled dwarf galaxy. Using optical period-Wesenheit relations that are reddening-free and minimally dependent on metallicity we find a mean distance to ω Cen of 13.71 ± 0.08 ± 0.01 mag (semi-empirical and theoretical calibrations). Finally, we invert the I-band period-luminosity-metallicity relation to estimate individual RRLs’ metal abundances. The metallicity distribution agrees quite well with spectroscopic and photometric metallicity estimates available in the literature. Based in part on proprietary data and on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under multiple requests by the authors; and in part upon data distributed by the NOAO Science Archive. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National

  11. Variaciones seculares de período en las RR Lyrae de ω~Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marraco, H. G.; Milesi, G. E.

    Utilizando 689 observaciones de 35 estrellas RR Lyrae del cúmulo globular ω Centauri hemos obtenido nuevas determinaciones de sus períodos y sus correspondientes variaciones seculares. Las observaciones fueron obtenidas de la literatura con la excepción de un grupo 66 determinaciones que se presentan por vez primera aquí. Utilizando el parámetro testigo σ descripto en Marraco & Muzzio (Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 92, 700, 1980), hemos realizado un ajuste bidimensional en P y β (donde β es la variación secular del período). Con este fin la totalidad de las 689 observaciones fueron llevadas a un sistema fotométrico común. Para esto se realizó un cuidadoso análisis de los numerosos errores en la identificación de las estrellas de las series de comparación. Los resultados de los ajustes bidimensionales fueron analizados utilizando técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes. Con este fin el parámetro de ajuste σ fue representado como función de P y β. En las imágenes resultantes se buscaron los mínimos y al menor de ellos se lo aceptó como período instantáneo verdadero y su variación secular β. La determinación precisa de cada parámetro se realizó mediante ajuste de gaussianas y se determinaron sus errores. A modo de ejemplo la variable #8 fue analizada en una matriz de 501 × 501 elementos representando el parámetro σ para valores comprendidos entre 0,521034 < P < 0,521534 dias y -150×10-10 < β < +150×10-10 dias/dia. El mejor período instantáneo (correspondiente a la época DJ=2.426.908) y su variación secular son P = 0,5212859±0,0000001 días y β 14,012±,010×10-10 días/día respectivamente. Con estos valores el parámetro testigo resulta σ= 0,127 . Si no se tiene en cuenta la variación secular del período y se busca aquél de mejor ajuste para β = 0, se obtiene P = 0,5212960 días, pero entonces el parámetro de ajuste resulta tan alto como σ = 0,23 .

  12. Discovering Cepheid and RR Lyrae Stars: Pan-STARRS Science Archive @ STScI and Robotically Controlled Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Elizabeth; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Engle, Scott G.; Anderson, Richard I.; Rest, Armin; Calamida, Annalisa; Dosovitz Fox, Ori; Laney, David

    2017-01-01

    Cepheid and RR Lyrae stars are an integral part of the cosmic distance ladder and are also useful for studying galactic structure and stellar ages. This project aims to greatly expand the number of known periodic variables in our galaxy by identifying candidates in the PanSTARRS-1 3pi catalog, and carrying out systematically targeted characterization with robotically controlled telescopes. Candidate targets are selected from available detection tables based on color and variability indices and are then fully vetted using robotic telescopes: the RCT 1.3 meter (Kitt Peak National Observatory) and RATIR 1.5 meter (Mexico). Here we present work to develop a full, semi-automated prescription for candidate selection, targeted follow-up photometry, cataloging, and classification, which allows the review of approximately 25 variable candidates every two weeks. We make comparisons of our sample selection and purity from a similar study based on Pan-STARRS data (Hernitschek et al. 2016), as well as candidates identified in Gaia DR1. The goal, through continued observation and analysis, is to identify at least 10,000 new variables, hundreds of which will be new Cepheid and RR Lyrae stars.

  13. Common Origin of Two RR Lyrae Populations and the Double Red Clump in the Milky Way Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Wook; Jang, Sohee

    2016-12-01

    A recent survey looking toward the Milky Way bulge has discovered two sequences of RR Lyrae stars on the period-amplitude diagram with a maximum period-shift of {{Δ }}{log} P ≈ 0.015 between the two populations. Here we show, from our synthetic horizontal-branch models, that this period-shift is most likely due to the small difference in helium abundance (ΔY = 0.012) between the first- and second-generation stars (G1 and G2), as is the case in our models for the inner halo globular clusters with similar metallicity ([Fe/H] ≈ -1.1). We further show that the observed double red clump (RC) in the bulge is naturally reproduced when these models are extended to solar metallicity following ΔY/ΔZ ≈ 6 for G2, as would be expected from the chemical evolution models. Therefore, the two populations of RR Lyrae stars and the double RC observed in the bulge appear to be different manifestations of the same multiple population phenomenon in the metal-poor and metal-rich regimes, respectively.

  14. OGLE-ing the Magellanic System: Photometric Metallicity from Fundamental Mode RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowron, D. M.; Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Kozłowski, S.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.

    2016-09-01

    In an era of extensive photometric observations, the catalogs of RR Lyr type variable stars number tens of thousands of objects. The relation between the iron abundance [Fe/H] and the Fourier parameters of the stars light curve allows us to investigate mean metallicities and metallicity gradients in various stellar environments, independently of time-consuming spectroscopic observations. In this paper we use almost 6500 V- and I-band light curves of fundamental mode RR Lyr stars from the OGLE-IV survey to provide a relation between the V- and I-band phase parameter ϕ31 used to estimate [Fe/H]. The relation depends on metallicity, which limits its applicability. We apply this relation to metallicity formulae developed for the Johnson V- and the Kepler Kp-band to obtain the relation between [Fe/H] and ϕ31 for the I-band photometry. Last, we apply the new relation of Nemec to the OGLE-IV fundamental mode RR Lyr stars data and construct a metallicity map of the Magellanic Clouds. Median [Fe/H] is -1.39±0.44 dex for the LMC and -1.77±0.48 dex for the SMC, on the Jurcsik metallicity scale. We also find a metallicity gradient within the LMC with a slope of -0.029±0.002 dex/kpc in the inner 5 kpc and -0.030±0.003 dex/kpc beyond 8 kpc, and no gradient in-between (-0.019±0.002 dex/kpc integrally). We do not observe a metallicity gradient in the SMC, although we show that the metal-rich RRab stars are more concentrated toward the SMC center than the metal-poor.

  15. Pulsations and Period Changes of the Non-Blazhko RR Lyrae Variable Y Oct Observed from Dome A, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhihua; Fu, Jianning; Zong, Weikai; Wang, Lingzhi; Macri, Lucas M.; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, Jon S.; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, Daniel; Pennypacker, Carl R.; Yang, Huigen; Yuan, Xiangyan; York, Donald; Xu, Zhou; Zhu, Zhenxi; Zhu, Zonghong

    2015-01-01

    During the operation of the Chinese Small Telescope Array (CSTAR) in Dome A of Antarctica in the years 2008, 2009, and 2010, large amounts of photometric data have been obtained for variable stars in the CSTAR field. We present here the study of one of six RR Lyrae variables, Y Oct, observed with CSTAR in Dome A, Antarctica. Photometric data in the i band were obtained in 2008 and 2010, with a duty cycle (defined as the fraction of time representing scientifically available data to CSTAR observation time) of about 44% and 52%, respectively. In 2009, photometric data in the g and r bands were gathered for this star, with a duty cycle of 65% and 60%, respectively. Fourier analysis of the data in the three bands only shows the fundamental frequency and its harmonics, which is characteristic of the non-Blazhko RR Lyrae variables. Values of the fundamental frequency and the amplitudes, as well as the total pulsation amplitude, are obtained from the data in the three bands separately. The amplitude of the fundamental frequency and the total pulsation amplitude in the g band are the largest, and those in the i band the smallest. Two-hundred fifty-one times of maximum are obtained from the three seasons of data, which are analyzed together with 38 maximum times provided in the GEOS RR Lyrae database. A period change rate of -0.96 ± 0.07 days Myr-1 is then obtained, which is a surprisingly large negative value. Based on relations available in the literature, the following physical parameters are derived: [Fe/H] = -1.41 ± 0.14, MV = 0.696 ± 0.014 mag, V-K = 1.182 ± 0.028 mag, log {{T}eff} = 3.802 ± 0.003 K, log g = 2.705 ± 0.004, log L/{{L}⊙ } = 1.625 ± 0.013, and log M/{{M}⊙ } = -0.240 ± 0.019.

  16. Metal Abundances, Radial Velocities, and Other Physical Characteristics for the RR Lyrae Stars in The Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, James M.; Cohen, Judith G.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Derekas, Aliz; Moskalik, Pawel; Sesar, Branimir; Chadid, Merieme; Bruntt, Hans

    2013-08-01

    Spectroscopic iron-to-hydrogen ratios, radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and new photometric analyses are presented for 41 RR Lyrae stars (and one probable high-amplitude δ Sct star) located in the field-of-view of the Kepler space telescope. Thirty-seven of the RR Lyrae stars are fundamental-mode pulsators (i.e., RRab stars) of which sixteen exhibit the Blazhko effect. Four of the stars are multiperiodic RRc pulsators oscillating primarily in the first-overtone mode. Spectroscopic [Fe/H] values for the 34 stars for which we were able to derive estimates range from -2.54 ± 0.13 (NR Lyr) to -0.05 ± 0.13 dex (V784 Cyg), and for the 19 Kepler-field non-Blazhko stars studied by Nemec et al. the abundances agree will with their photometric [Fe/H] values. Four non-Blazhko RR Lyrae stars that they identified as metal-rich (KIC 6100702, V2470 Cyg, V782 Cyg and V784 Cyg) are confirmed as such, and four additional stars (V839 Cyg, KIC 5520878, KIC 8832417, KIC 3868420) are also shown here to be metal-rich. Five of the non-Blazhko RRab stars are found to be more metal-rich than [Fe/H] ~-0.9 dex while all of the 16 Blazhko stars are more metal-poor than this value. New P-\\phi _31^s-[Fe/H] relationships are derived based on ~970 days of quasi-continuous high-precision Q0-Q11 long- and short-cadence Kepler photometry. With the exception of some Blazhko stars, the spectroscopic and photometric [Fe/H] values are in good agreement. Several stars with unique photometric characteristics are identified, including a Blazhko variable with the smallest known amplitude and frequency modulations (V838 Cyg). Based in part on observations made at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. Also, based in part on

  17. EXPLORING THE VARIABLE SKY WITH LINEAR. II. HALO STRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE TRACED BY RR LYRAE STARS TO 30 kpc

    SciTech Connect

    Sesar, Branimir; Ivezic, Zeljko; Morgan, Dylan M.; Becker, Andrew C.; Stuart, J. Scott; Sharma, Sanjib; Palaversa, Lovro; Juric, Mario; Wozniak, Przemyslaw; Oluseyi, Hakeem

    2013-08-01

    We present a sample of {approx}5000 RR Lyrae stars selected from the recalibrated LINEAR data set and detected at heliocentric distances between 5 kpc and 30 kpc over {approx}8000 deg{sup 2} of sky. The coordinates and light curve properties, such as period and Oosterhoff type, are made publicly available. We analyze in detail the light curve properties and Galactic distribution of the subset of {approx}4000 type ab RR Lyrae (RRab) stars, including a search for new halo substructures and the number density distribution as a function of Oosterhoff type. We find evidence for the Oosterhoff dichotomy among field RR Lyrae stars, with the ratio of the type II and I subsamples of about 1:4, but with a weaker separation than for globular cluster stars. The wide sky coverage and depth of this sample allow unique constraints for the number density distribution of halo RRab stars as a function of galactocentric distance: it can be described as an oblate ellipsoid with an axis ratio q = 0.63 and with either a single or a double power law with a power-law index in the range -2 to -3. Consistent with previous studies, we find that the Oosterhoff type II subsample has a steeper number density profile than the Oosterhoff type I subsample. Using the group-finding algorithm EnLink, we detected seven candidate halo groups, only one of which is statistically spurious. Three of these groups are near globular clusters (M53/NGC 5053, M3, M13), and one is near a known halo substructure (Virgo Stellar Stream); the remaining three groups do not seem to be near any known halo substructures or globular clusters and seem to have a higher ratio of Oosterhoff type II to Oosterhoff type I RRab stars than what is found in the halo. The extended morphology and the position (outside the tidal radius) of some of the groups near globular clusters are suggestive of tidal streams possibly originating from globular clusters. Spectroscopic follow-up of detected halo groups is encouraged.

  18. Pulsations and period changes of the non-Blazhko RR lyrae variable Y oct observed from Dome A, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Zhihua, Huang; Jianning, Fu; Weikai, Zong; Lingzhi, Wang; Zonghong, Zhu; M, Macri Lucas; Lifan, Wang; Ashley, Michael C. B.; S, Lawrence Jon; Daniel, Luong-Van; Xiangqun, Cui; Long-Long, Feng; Xuefei, Gong; Qiang, Liu; Huigen, Yang; Xiangyan, Yuan; Xu, Zhou; Zhenxi, Zhu; R, Pennypacker Carl; G, York Donald

    2015-01-01

    During the operation of the Chinese Small Telescope Array (CSTAR) in Dome A of Antarctica in the years 2008, 2009, and 2010, large amounts of photometric data have been obtained for variable stars in the CSTAR field. We present here the study of one of six RR Lyrae variables, Y Oct, observed with CSTAR in Dome A, Antarctica. Photometric data in the i band were obtained in 2008 and 2010, with a duty cycle (defined as the fraction of time representing scientifically available data to CSTAR observation time) of about 44% and 52%, respectively. In 2009, photometric data in the g and r bands were gathered for this star, with a duty cycle of 65% and 60%, respectively. Fourier analysis of the data in the three bands only shows the fundamental frequency and its harmonics, which is characteristic of the non-Blazhko RR Lyrae variables. Values of the fundamental frequency and the amplitudes, as well as the total pulsation amplitude, are obtained from the data in the three bands separately. The amplitude of the fundamental frequency and the total pulsation amplitude in the g band are the largest, and those in the i band the smallest. Two-hundred fifty-one times of maximum are obtained from the three seasons of data, which are analyzed together with 38 maximum times provided in the GEOS RR Lyrae database. A period change rate of −0.96 ± 0.07 days Myr{sup −1} is then obtained, which is a surprisingly large negative value. Based on relations available in the literature, the following physical parameters are derived: [Fe/H] = −1.41 ± 0.14, M{sub V} = 0.696 ± 0.014 mag, V−K = 1.182 ± 0.028 mag, logT{sub eff} = 3.802 ± 0.003 K, logg = 2.705 ± 0.004, logL/L{sub ⊙} = 1.625 ± 0.013, and logM/M{sub ⊙} = −0.240 ± 0.019.

  19. Fundamental parameters of RR Lyrae stars from multicolour photometry and Kurucz atmospheric models - II. Adaptation to double-mode stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcza, S.; Benkő, J. M.

    2012-02-01

    Our photometric-hydrodynamic method is generalized to determine the fundamental parameters of multiperiodic radially pulsating stars. We report 302 UBV(RI)C Johnson-Kron-Cousins observations of GSC 4868-0831. Using these and the published photometric data of V372 Ser, we determine the metallicity, reddening, distance, mass, radius, equilibrium luminosity and effective temperature. The results underline the necessity of using multicolour photometry, including an ultraviolet band, to classify the subgroups of RR Lyrae stars properly. Our U observations might reveal that GSC 4868-0831 is a subgiant star pulsating in two radial modes and that V372 Ser is a giant star with the size and mass of an RRd star.

  20. CU Comae: A New Field Double-Mode RR Lyrae Variable, the Most Metal-poor Discovered to Date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementini, G.; Di Tomaso, S.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Bragaglia, A.; Merighi, R.; Tosi, M.; Carretta, E.; Gratton, R. G.; Ivans, I. I.; Kinard, A.; Marconi, M.; Smith, H. A.; Wilhelm, R.; Woodruff, T.; Sneden, C.

    2000-10-01

    We report the discovery of a new double-mode RR Lyrae variable (RRd) in the field of our Galaxy: CU Comae. CU Com is the sixth such RRd identified to date and is the most metal-poor RRd ever detected. Based on BVI CCD photometry spanning 11 years of observations, we find that CU Com has periods P0=0.5441641 days (+/-0.0000049) and P1=0.4057605 days (+/-0.0000018). The amplitude of the primary (first overtone) period of CU Com is about twice the amplitude of the secondary (fundamental) period. The combination of the fundamental period of pulsation P0 and the period ratio of P1/P0=0.7457 places the variable on the metal-poor side of the Petersen diagram, in the region occupied by M68 and M15 RRd's. A mass of 0.83 Msolar is estimated for CU Com using an updated theoretical calibration of the Petersen diagram. High-resolution spectroscopy (R=30,000) covering the full pulsation cycle of CU Com was obtained with the 2.7 m telescope of the McDonald Observatory and has been used to build up the radial velocity curve of the variable. An abundance analysis performed on the four spectra taken near minimum light (0.54<φ<0.71) confirms the metal-poor nature of CU Com, for which we derive [Fe/H]=-2.38+/-0.20. This value places this new RRd at the extreme metal-poor edge of the metallicity distribution of the RR Lyrae variables in our Galaxy. Based on data obtained with the 1.52 m telescope of the Bologna Observatory in Loiano, the Southwestern University 40 cm telescope, and the 2.7 m telescope of the McDonald Observatory.

  1. Cyclic variations in O-C diagrams of field RR Lyrae stars as a result of LiTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liška, J.; Skarka, M.; Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.; de Villiers, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an extensive overview of known and proposed RR Lyrae stars in binaries. The aim is to revise and extend the list with new Galactic field systems. We utilized maxima timings for 11 RRab type stars with suspicious behaviour from the GEOS data base, and determined maxima timings from data of sky surveys and our own observations. This significantly extended the number of suitable maxima timings. We modelled the proposed Light Time Effect (LiTE) in O-C diagrams to determine orbital parameters for these systems. In contrast to recent studies, our analysis focused on decades-long periods instead of periods in the order of years. Secondary components were found to be predominantly low-mass objects. However, for RZ Cet and AT Ser the mass of the suspected companion of more than one solar mass suggests that it is a massive white dwarf, a neutron star or even a black hole. We found that the semimajor axes of the proposed orbits are between 1 and 20 au. Because the studied stars belong to the closest RR Lyraes, maximal angular distances between components during orbit should at least be between 1 and 13 mas and this improves the chance to detect both stars using current telescopes. However, our interpretation of the O-C diagrams as a consequence of the LiTE should be considered as preliminary without reliable spectroscopic measurements. On the other hand, our models give a prediction of the period and radial velocity evolution which should be sufficient for plausible proof of binarity.

  2. Finding, Characterizing, and Classifying Variable Sources in Multi-epoch Sky Surveys: QSOs and RR Lyrae in PS1 3π data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schlafly, Edward F.; Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogg, David W.; Ivezić, Željko; Grebel, Eva K.; Bell, Eric F.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Burgett, W. S.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-01-01

    In area and depth, the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π survey is unique among many-epoch, multi-band surveys and has enormous potential for the all-sky identification of variable sources. PS1 has observed the sky typically seven times in each of its five bands (grizy) over 3.5 years, but unlike SDSS, not simultaneously across the bands. Here we develop a new approach for quantifying statistical properties of non-simultaneous, sparse, multi-color light curves through light curve structure functions, effectively turning PS1 into a ∼35-epoch survey. We use this approach to estimate variability amplitudes and timescales (ωr, τ) for all point sources brighter than rP1 = 21.5 mag in the survey. With PS1 data on SDSS Stripe 82 as “ground truth,” we use a Random Forest Classifier to identify QSOs and RR Lyrae based on their variability and their mean PS1 and WISE colors. We find that, aside from the Galactic plane, QSO and RR Lyrae samples of purity ∼75% and completeness ∼92% can be selected. On this basis we have identified a sample of ∼1,000,000 QSO candidates, as well as an unprecedentedly large and deep sample of ∼150,000 RR Lyrae candidates with distances from ∼10 to ∼120 kpc. Within the Draco dwarf spheroidal, we demonstrate a distance precision of 6% for RR Lyrae candidates. We provide a catalog of all likely variable point sources and likely QSOs in PS1, a total of 25.8 × 106 sources.

  3. A new velocity curve of the RR Lyrae star TU Ursae Majoris - Evidence for duplicity

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, A.; White, R.E. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ )

    1990-02-01

    Spectra taken at the coude focus of the 5-m Hale telescope were reduced to obtain a velocity curve for the field RR Lyr star TU UMa. The observations were aimed at detecting differences (if any) in the velocity curves obtained from weak metal lines shortward of the Balmer jump, as opposed to those from similar lines longward of the Balmer jump, so that velocity gradients deep in the atmosphere could be studied. The mean velocity from this velocity curve is different from those measured at earlier epochs. This suggests that TU UMa is a binary system in which the visible component is the RR Lyr star. Fluctuations in times of light maxima are interpreted here as time delays due to light travel time as the RR Lyr component moves in its orbit. 35 refs.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Parallaxes of Galactic RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, B. E.

    2011-04-01

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Pop II variable stars: the five RR Lyr stars; RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, UV Oct; and two W Vir Pop II Cepheids; VY Pyx and kappa Pav. We obtain these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensor 1r, a white-light interferometer on Hubble Space Telescope. We measure absolute parallaxes with an average precision, 6.6%. Using these parallaxes we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Considering only the RR Lyr stars, we use these absolute magnitudes to construct a K-band Leavitt Law (Period-Luminosity relation) and a Galactic Mv-[Fe/H] relation. We employ these relations to determine independent distances to the LMC and several globular clusters. For the LMC our K-band distance modulus from RR Lyr stars agrees within the errors with a previous value derived by us from Galactic Cepheids, uncorrected for metallicity. These results are based on observations made through grants GO-11211 and GO-11789 administered through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  5. Spectroscopic determinations of surface gravities of giant stars, and ultraviolet observations of RR Lyrae and X Arietis

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnell, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    The surface gravities of four K giant stars, including the well-known standard stars Arcturus (..cap alpha.. Boo) and Aldebaran (..cap alpha.. Tau) were determined from an analysis of the molecular dissociation equilibrium of OH. High-resolution FTS spectra of the infrared ground-state vibration-rotation lines of the OH ..delta..v = 1 and ..delta.. v = 2 sequences were used in the analysis. The oxygen abundances were derived from the (O I) lines at 6300 and 6363 A. The surface gravities of 5 further G and K giants were determined from an analysis of the molecular equilibrium of MgH, the magnesium abundances being derived from visible and near-infrared high-excitation-potential MgI lines. Ultraviolet observations of RR Lyrae and X Arietis obtained with the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite are also discussed. These observations are compared with light curves derived using model atmospheres and synthetic spectrum calculations in conjunction with angular diameters determined by Manduca et al. (1981) from photometry at longer wavelengths. A good agreement is found.

  6. Spectroscopic determinations of surface gravities of giant stars, and ultraviolet observations of RR Lyrae and X ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnell, Jeremiah Tighe

    The surface gravities of four giant K stars, including the well known standard stars Arcturus (alpha Boo) and Aldebaran (alpha Tau) are determined from an analysis of the molecular dissociation equilibrium of OH. High resolution FTS spectra of the infrared ground state vibration-rotation lines of the OH delta v = 1 and delta v = 2 sequences were used in the analysis. The oxygen abundances were derived from the (OI) line at 6300 and 6363 A. Lifetimes for the OH delta v = 2 sequence lines are derived based on the electric dipole moment function and rotationless Einstein A values. Masses for the stars based on the derived gravities, measured parallaxes, and angular diameters are discussed. The surface gravities of 5 more G and K giants were determined from an analysis of the molecular equilibrium of MgH, the magnesium abundances being derived from visible and near infrared high excitation potential MgI lines. The MgH/MgI gravities are compared to surface gravities derived based on an analysis of the ionization equilibrium of iron. It is found that the implied giant star masses are not significantly subsolar. Ultraviolet observations of RR Lyrae and X Arietis obtained with the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite are also discussed. These observations are compared with light curves derived using model atmospheres and synthetic spectrum calculations in conjunction with angular diameters determined from photometry at longer wavelengths. A good agreement was found.

  7. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: THE DISTANCE TO THE CARINA DWARF GALAXY FROM INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Suchomska, Ksenia; Konorski, Piotr; Górski, Marek; Pilecki, Bogumił; Wielgórski, Piotr; Gieren, Wolfgang; Graczyk, Dariusz E-mail: ksenia@astrouw.edu.pl E-mail: pilecki@astrouw.edu.pl E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl E-mail: mgorski@astrouw.edu.pl

    2015-09-15

    We obtained single-phase near-infrared (NIR) magnitudes in the J- and K-band for a sample of 33 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the Carina dSph galaxy. Applying different theoretical and empirical calibrations of the NIR period–luminosity–metallicity relation for RRL stars, we find consistent results and obtain a true, reddening-corrected distance modulus of 20.118 ± 0.017 (statistical) ± 0.11 (systematic) mag. This value is in excellent agreement with the results obtained in the context of the Araucaria Project from NIR photometry of red clump stars (20.165 ± 0.015) and the tip of red giant branch (20.09 ± 0.03 ± 0.12 mag in the J band, 20.14 ± 0.04 ± 0.14 mag in the K band), as well as with most independent distance determinations to this galaxy. The NIR RRL method proved to be a reliable tool for accurate distance determination at the 5% level or better, particularly for galaxies and globular clusters that lack young standard candles, like Cepheids.

  8. The Araucaria Project: The Distance to the Carina Dwarf Galaxy from Infrared Photometry of RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Suchomska, Ksenia; Konorski, Piotr; Górski, Marek; Pilecki, Bogumił; Graczyk, Dariusz; Wielgórski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    We obtained single-phase near-infrared (NIR) magnitudes in the J- and K-band for a sample of 33 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the Carina dSph galaxy. Applying different theoretical and empirical calibrations of the NIR period-luminosity-metallicity relation for RRL stars, we find consistent results and obtain a true, reddening-corrected distance modulus of 20.118 ± 0.017 (statistical) ± 0.11 (systematic) mag. This value is in excellent agreement with the results obtained in the context of the Araucaria Project from NIR photometry of red clump stars (20.165 ± 0.015) and the tip of red giant branch (20.09 ± 0.03 ± 0.12 mag in the J band, 20.14 ± 0.04 ± 0.14 mag in the K band), as well as with most independent distance determinations to this galaxy. The NIR RRL method proved to be a reliable tool for accurate distance determination at the 5% level or better, particularly for galaxies and globular clusters that lack young standard candles, like Cepheids. Based on data collected with the VLT/HAWK-I instrument at ESO Paranal Observatory, Chile, as a part of a program 082.D-0123(B).

  9. RR Lyrae stars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region: period-color and amplitude-color relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngeow, C.-C.; Kanbur, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Singh, H.

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of period-color (PC) and amplitude-color (AC) relations at the maximum and minimum light for RR Lyrae (RRL) stars can be used to probe the interaction of the hydrogen ionization front with photosphere at the atmosphere for this type of pulsating variables. For example, theoretical calculation indicated that such interaction would occur at the minimum light for RRL stars and caused a flat PC relation. In the past, the PC and AC relations have been investigated by using either the (V - R) or (V - I) colors. Here, we extend previous works to multi-bands by analyzing the RRL stars in SDSS (Sloan Digitized Sky Survey) Stripe 82 region, at which multi-epoch data are available for RRL stars located within the footprint of Stripe 82 region in ugriz bands. We present the PC and AC relations in four colors after correcting for extinction. We found that the structure of PC and AC relations for this sample of RRL stars is more complicated than a linear regression fit.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Double-mode RR Lyrae stars in LINEAR (Poleski+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poleski, R.

    2014-11-01

    The LINEAR survey operated between 1998 and 2009 using two 1m telescopes. Each of the mosaic cameras had a 2deg2 field of view with a 2.25" pixel scale. Observations were collected without a filter and sometimes in nonphotometric conditions. On average, 250 epochs were collected per field, and the number rises to 500 for targets close to the ecliptic plane. Such a dataset is suitable for a search for periodic variable stars. The catalog of such objects was presented by Palaversa et al. (2013AJ....146..101P, Cat. J/AJ/146/101). It includes more than 7000 stars, most of which are RR Lyr pulsators. There are 2923 RRab and 990 RRc stars. We performed the search for other radial modes in RR Lyr type stars. (2 data files).

  11. The early chemical enrichment histories of two Sculptor group dwarf galaxies as revealed by RR lyrae variables

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Soung-Chul; Kim, Sang Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann; Wagner-Kaiser, Rachel; Sarajedini, Ata

    2014-03-20

    We present the results of our analysis of the RR Lyrae (RRL) variable stars detected in two transition-type dwarf galaxies (dTrans), ESO294-G010 and ESO410-G005 in the Sculptor group, which is known to be one of the closest neighboring galaxy groups to our Local Group. Using deep archival images from the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified a sample of RRL candidates in both dTrans galaxies (219 RRab (RR0) and 13 RRc (RR1) variables in ESO294-G010; 225 RRab and 44 RRc stars in ESO410-G005). The metallicities of the individual RRab stars are calculated via the period-amplitude-[Fe/H] relation derived by Alcock et al. This yields mean metallicities of ([Fe/H]){sub ESO294} = –1.77 ± 0.03 and ([Fe/H]){sub ESO410} = –1.64 ± 0.03. The RRL metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) are investigated further via simple chemical evolution models; these reveal the relics of the early chemical enrichment processes for these two dTrans galaxies. In the case of both galaxies, the shapes of the RRL MDFs are well described by pre-enrichment models. This suggests two possible channels for the early chemical evolution for these Sculptor group dTrans galaxies: (1) the ancient stellar populations of our target dwarf galaxies might have formed from the star forming gas which was already enriched through 'prompt initial enrichment' or an 'initial nucleosynthetic spike' from the very first massive stars, or (2) this pre-enrichment state might have been achieved by the end products from more evolved systems of their nearest neighbor, NGC 55. We also study the environmental effects of the formation and evolution of our target dTrans galaxies by comparing their properties with those of 79 volume limited (D {sub ☉} < 2 Mpc) dwarf galaxy samples in terms of the luminosity-metallicity relation and the H I gas content. The presence of these RRL stars strongly supports the idea that although the Sculptor Group galaxies have a considerably

  12. Kinematic structure in the Galactic halo at the North Galactic Pole: RR Lyrae and blue horizontal branch stars show different kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T. D.; Cacciari, C.; Bragaglia, A.; Buzzoni, A.; Spagna, A.

    2007-03-01

    Radial velocities and proper motions (derived from the GSC-II data base) are given for 38 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars and 79 blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in a ~200 deg2 area around the North Galactic Pole (NGP). Both heliocentric (UVW) and galactocentric (VR, Vφ, Vz) space motions are derived for these stars using a homogeneous distance scale consistent with (m - M)0 = 18.52 for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). An analysis of the 26 RRL and 52 BHB stars whose height (Z) above the plane is less than 8 kpc shows that this halo sample is not homogeneous. Our BHB sample (like that of Sirko et al.) has a zero galactic rotation (Vφ) and roughly isotropic velocity dispersions. The RRL sample shows a definite retrograde rotation (Vφ = -95 +/- 29 kms-1) and non-isotropic velocity dispersions. The combined BHB and RRL sample has a retrograde galactic rotation (V) that is similar to that found by Majewski for his sample of subdwarfs in Selected Area (SA) 57. The velocity dispersion of the RRL stars that have a positive W motion is significantly smaller than the dispersion of those `streaming down' with a negative W. Also, the ratio of RRL to BHB stars is smaller for the sample that has positive W. Our halo sample occupies 10.4 kpc3 at a mean height of 5 kpc above the Galactic plane. In this volume, one component (rich in RRL stars) shows retrograde rotation and the streaming motion that we associate with the accretion process. The other component (traced by the BHB stars) shows essentially no rotation and less evidence of streaming. These two components have horizontal branch (HB) morphologies that suggest that they may be the field star equivalents of the young and old halo globular clusters, respectively. Clearly, it is quite desirable to use more than one tracer in any kinematic analysis of the halo.

  13. Evidence for Distinct Components of the Galactic Stellar Halo from 838 RR Lyrae Stars Discovered in the LONEOS-I Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Miceli, A; Rest, A; Stubbs, C W; Hawley, S L; Cook, K H; Magnier, E A; Krisciunas, K; Bowell, E; Koehn, B

    2007-02-23

    We present 838 ab-type RR Lyrae stars from the Lowell Observatory Near Earth Objects Survey Phase I (LONEOS-I). These objects cover 1430 deg{sup 2} and span distances ranging from 3-30kpc from the Galactic Center. Object selection is based on phased, photometric data with 28-50 epochs. We use this large sample to explore the bulk properties of the stellar halo, including the spatial distribution. The period-amplitude distribution of this sample shows that the majority of these RR Lyrae stars resemble Oosterhoff type I, but there is a significant fraction (26%) which have longer periods and appear to be Oosterhoff type II. We find that the radial distributions of these two populations have significantly different profiles ({rho}{sub OoI} {approx} R{sup -2.26{+-}0.07} and {rho}{sub OoII} {approx} R{sup -2.88{+-}0.11}). This suggests that the stellar halo was formed by at least two distinct accretion processes and supports dual-halo models.

  14. CoRoT light curves of Blazhko RR Lyrae stars. Evidence of a strong correlation between phase and amplitude modulations of CoRoT ID 0105288363

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadid, M.; Perini, C.; Bono, G.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Weiss, W. W.; Deboscher, J.

    2011-03-01

    Context. The CoRoT - Convection Rotation and planetary Transits - space mission provides a unique opportunity to monitor RR Lyrae stars with excellent time-sampling, unprecedented photometric precision, and a long time base of 150 days. Aims: The pulsation characteristics of RR Lyrae stars rely on robust physics, but we still lack a firm quantitative understanding of the physical mechanisms driving the Blazhko modulation and the long-term changes in their pulsation behavior. We use the high-precision space data of an unknown RR Lyrae star CoRoT ID 0105288363 observed during a second long run centered on the Galaxy - LRc02 -, to improve our understanding of the pulsation properties of RR Lyrae stars. Methods: The CoRoT data were corrected using a jump and trend filtering code. We applied different period-finding techniques including Period04, MuFrAn, PDM, and SigSpec. Amplitude and phase modulation were investigated using an analytical function method as well as traditional O-C diagrams. Results: For the first time, we detect significant cycle-to-cycle changes in the Blazhko modulation, which appear to be analogous to those predicted by Stothers - owing to the suppression of turbulent convection - to explain this phenomenon. We discuss the clear correlations between the phase and the amplitude of the bump, and the skewness and acuteness of the light curve during different Blazhko cycles. We find that these quantities are strongly anticorrelated with the fundamental pulsation period. This provides a strong support to the slow convective cycle model suggested by Stothers. We also detect a long-term modulation period in the maximum brightness spectrum. A more extended coverage of the long-term modulation is required to constrain its period. Seventh-order side peaks of the pulsation multiplet structure are also visible with the left-side peak amplitudes being higher than those of the right. This has never previously been detected. Future theoretical investigations are

  15. Blazhko effect in the Galactic bulge fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars - I. Incidence rate and differences between modulated and non-modulated stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.

    2017-04-01

    We present the first paper of a series focused on the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae type stars pulsating in the fundamental mode that are located in the Galactic bulge. A comprehensive overview of the incidence rate and light-curve characteristics of the Blazhko stars is given. We analysed 8282 stars having the best quality data in the OGLE-IV survey, and found that at least 40.3 per cent of the stars show modulation of their light curves. The number of Blazhko stars we identified is 3341, which is the largest sample ever studied, implying that these are the most relevant statistical results currently available. Using combined data sets with OGLE-III observations, we found that 50 per cent of the stars that show unresolved peaks close to the main component in OGLE-IV are actually Blazhko stars with extremely long periods. Blazhko stars with modulation occur preferentially among RR Lyrae stars with shorter pulsation periods in the Galactic bulge. Fourier amplitude and phase coefficients based on the mean light curves appear to be substantially lower for Blazhko stars than for stars with an unmodulated light curve on average. We derived new relations for the compatibility parameter Dm in the I passband and relations that allow for differentiating modulated and non-modulated stars easily based on R31, ϕ21 and ϕ31. Photometric metallicities, intrinsic colours and absolute magnitudes computed using empirical relations are the same for Blazhko and non-modulated stars in the Galactic bulge, suggesting there is no correlation between the occurrence of the Blazhko effect and these parameters.

  16. Exact solutions of bulk viscous with string cloud attached to strange quark matter for higher dimensional FRW universe in Lyra geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlar, Halife; Aygün, Sezgin

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have investigated bulk viscous with strange quark matter attached to the string cloud for higher dimensional Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe in Lyra geometry. By using varying deceleration parameter and conservation equations we have solved Einstein Field Equations (EFE's) and obtained generalized exact solutions for our model. Also we have found that string is not survived for bulk viscous with strange quark matter attached to the string cloud in framework higher dimensional FRW universe in Lyra geometry. This result agrees with Kiran and Reddy, Krori et al, Sahoo and Mishra and Mohanty et al. in four and five dimensions.

  17. An optimized method to identify RR Lyrae stars in the SDSS×Pan-STARRS1 overlapping area using a bayesian generative technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohamad; Grebel, Eva K.; Martin, N. F.; Kaiser, N.; Burgett, W. S.; Huber, M. E.; Waters, C.

    2014-07-01

    We present a method for selecting RR Lyrae (RRL) stars (or other types of variable stars) in the absence of a large number of multi-epoch data and light curve analyses. Our method uses color and variability selection cuts that are defined by applying a Gaussian Mixture Bayesian Generative Method (GMM) on 636 pre-identified RRL stars instead of applying the commonly used rectangular cuts. Specifically, our method selects 8115 RRL candidates (heliocentric distances < 70 kpc) using GMM color cuts from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and GMM variability cuts from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 3π survey (PS1). Comparing our method with the Stripe 82 catalog of RRL stars shows that the efficiency and completeness levels of our method are ∼77% and ∼52%, respectively. Most contaminants are either non-variable main-sequence stars or stars in eclipsing systems. The method described here efficiently recovers known stellar halo substructures. It is expected that the current completeness and efficiency levels will further improve with the additional PS1 epochs (∼3 epochs per filter) that will be observed before the conclusion of the survey. A comparison between our efficiency and completeness levels using the GMM method to the efficiency and completeness levels using rectangular cuts that are commonly used yielded a significant increase in the efficiency level from ∼13% to ∼77% and an insignificant change in the completeness levels. Hence, we favor using the GMM technique in future studies. Although we develop it over the SDSS×PS1 footprint, the technique presented here would work well on any multi-band, multi-epoch survey for which the number of epochs is limited.

  18. Constraints on the Distance Moduli, Helium and Metal Abundances, and Ages of Globular Clusters from their RR Lyrae and Non-variable Horizontal-branch Stars. I. M3, M15, and M92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Denissenkov, P. A.; Catelan, Márcio

    2016-08-01

    Up-to-date isochrones, zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci, and evolutionary tracks for core He-burning stars are applied to the color-magnitude diagrams of M3, M15, and M92, focusing in particular on their RR Lyrae populations. Periods for the ab- and c-type variables are calculated using the latest theoretical calibrations of {log} {P}{ab} and {log} {P}c as a function of luminosity, mass, effective temperature ({T}{{eff}}), and metallicity. Our models are generally able to reproduce the measured periods to well within the uncertainties implied by the stellar properties on which pulsation periods depend, as well as the mean periods and cluster-to-cluster differences in < {P}{ab}> and < {P}c> , on the assumption of well-supported values of E(B-V), {(m-M)}V, and [Fe/H]. While many of RR Lyrae in M3 lie close to the same ZAHB that fits the faintest horizontal-branch (HB) stars at bluer or redder colors, the M92 variables are all significantly evolved stars from ZAHB locations on the blue side of the instability strip. M15 appears to contain a similar population of HB stars as M92, along with additional helium-enhanced populations not present in the latter which comprise most of its RR Lyrae stars. The large number of variables in M15 and the similarity of the observed values of < {P}{ab}> and < {P}c> in M15 and M92 can be explained by HB models that allow for variations in Y. Similar ages (˜12.5 Gyr) are found for all three clusters, making them significantly younger than the field halo subgiant HD 140283. Our analysis suggests a preference for stellar models that take diffusive processes into account.

  19. Bias Properties of Extragalactic Distance Indicators. XI. Methods to Correct for Observational Selection Bias for RR Lyrae Absolute Magnitudes from Trigonometric Parallaxes Expected from the Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandage, Allan; Saha, A.

    2002-04-01

    A short history is given of the development of the correction for observation selection bias inherent in the calibration of absolute magnitudes using trigonometric parallaxes. The developments have been due to Eddington, Jeffreys, Trumpler & Weaver, Wallerstein, Ljunggren & Oja, West, Lutz & Kelker, after whom the bias is named, Turon Lacarrieu & Crézé, Hanson, Smith, and many others. As a tutorial to gain an intuitive understanding of several complicated trigonometric bias problems, we study a toy bias model of a parallax catalog that incorporates assumed parallax measuring errors of various severities. The two effects of bias errors on the derived absolute magnitudes are (1) the Lutz-Kelker correction itself, which depends on the relative parallax error δπ/π and the spatial distribution, and (2) a Malmquist-like ``incompleteness'' correction of opposite sign due to various apparent magnitude cutoffs as they are progressively imposed on the catalog. We calculate the bias properties using simulations involving 3×106 stars of fixed absolute magnitude using Mv=+0.6 to imitate RR Lyrae variables in the mean. These stars are spread over a spherical volume bounded by a radius 50,000 pc with different spatial density distributions. The bias is demonstrated by first using a fixed rms parallax uncertainty per star of 50 μas and then using a variable rms accuracy that ranges from 50 μas at apparent magnitude V=9 to 500 μas at V=15 according to the specifications for the Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) satellite to be launched in 2004. The effects of imposing magnitude limits and limits on the ``observer's'' error, δπ/π, are displayed. We contrast the method of calculating mean absolute magnitude directly from the parallaxes where bias corrections are mandatory, with an inverse method using maximum likelihood that is free of the Lutz-Kelker bias, although a Malmquist bias is present. Simulations show the power of the inverse method. Nevertheless, we

  20. ON THE DISTANCE OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M4 (NGC 6121) USING RR LYRAE STARS. I. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED PERIOD-LUMINOSITY AND PERIOD-WESENHEIT RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, V. F.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R.; Dall'Ora, M.; Coppola, G.; Marconi, M.; Stetson, P. B.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Marengo, M.; Neeley, J.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, W.; Madore, B. F.; Monson, A.; Rich, J.; Scowcroft, V.; Seibert, M.; Matsunaga, N.

    2015-02-01

    We present new distance determinations to the nearby globular M4 (NGC 6121) based on accurate optical and near-infrared (NIR) mean magnitudes for fundamental (FU) and first overtone (FO) RR Lyrae variables (RRLs), and new empirical optical and NIR period-luminosity (PL) and period-Wesenheit (PW) relations. We have found that optical-NIR and NIR PL and PW relations are affected by smaller standard deviations than optical relations. The difference is the consequence of a steady decrease in the intrinsic spread of cluster RRL apparent magnitudes at fixed period as longer wavelengths are considered. The weighted mean visual apparent magnitude of 44 cluster RRLs is =13.329 ± 0.001 (standard error of the mean) ±0.177 (weighted standard deviation) mag. Distances were estimated using RR Lyr itself to fix the zero-point of the empirical PL and PW relations. Using the entire sample (FU+FO) we found weighted mean true distance moduli of 11.35 ± 0.03 ± 0.05 mag and 11.32 ± 0.02 ± 0.07 mag. Distances were also evaluated using predicted metallicity dependent PLZ and PWZ relations. We found weighted mean true distance moduli of 11.283 ± 0.010 ± 0.018 mag (NIR PLZ) and 11.272 ± 0.005 ± 0.019 mag (optical-NIR and NIR PWZ). The above weighted mean true distance moduli agree within 1σ. The same result is found from distances based on PWZ relations in which the color index is independent of the adopted magnitude (11.272 ± 0.004 ± 0.013 mag). These distances agree quite well with the geometric distance provided by Kaluzny et al. based on three eclipsing binaries. The available evidence indicates that this approach can provide distances to globulars hosting RRLs with a precision better than 2%-3%.

  1. On the Distance of the Globular Cluster M4 (NGC 6121) Using RR Lyrae Stars. I. Optical and Near-infrared Period-Luminosity and Period-Wesenheit Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, V. F.; Dall'Ora, M.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Marengo, M.; Neeley, J.; Persson, S. E.; Buonanno, R.; Coppola, G.; Freedman, W.; Madore, B. F.; Marconi, M.; Matsunaga, N.; Monson, A.; Rich, J.; Scowcroft, V.; Seibert, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present new distance determinations to the nearby globular M4 (NGC 6121) based on accurate optical and near-infrared (NIR) mean magnitudes for fundamental (FU) and first overtone (FO) RR Lyrae variables (RRLs), and new empirical optical and NIR period-luminosity (PL) and period-Wesenheit (PW) relations. We have found that optical-NIR and NIR PL and PW relations are affected by smaller standard deviations than optical relations. The difference is the consequence of a steady decrease in the intrinsic spread of cluster RRL apparent magnitudes at fixed period as longer wavelengths are considered. The weighted mean visual apparent magnitude of 44 cluster RRLs is =13.329 ± 0.001 (standard error of the mean) ±0.177 (weighted standard deviation) mag. Distances were estimated using RR Lyr itself to fix the zero-point of the empirical PL and PW relations. Using the entire sample (FU+FO) we found weighted mean true distance moduli of 11.35 ± 0.03 ± 0.05 mag and 11.32 ± 0.02 ± 0.07 mag. Distances were also evaluated using predicted metallicity dependent PLZ and PWZ relations. We found weighted mean true distance moduli of 11.283 ± 0.010 ± 0.018 mag (NIR PLZ) and 11.272 ± 0.005 ± 0.019 mag (optical-NIR and NIR PWZ). The above weighted mean true distance moduli agree within 1σ. The same result is found from distances based on PWZ relations in which the color index is independent of the adopted magnitude (11.272 ± 0.004 ± 0.013 mag). These distances agree quite well with the geometric distance provided by Kaluzny et al. based on three eclipsing binaries. The available evidence indicates that this approach can provide distances to globulars hosting RRLs with a precision better than 2%-3%.

  2. VVV SURVEY NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF KNOWN BULGE RR LYRAE STARS: THE DISTANCE TO THE GALACTIC CENTER AND ABSENCE OF A BARRED DISTRIBUTION OF THE METAL-POOR POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dékány, I.; Minniti, D.; Catelan, M.; Zoccali, M.; Hempel, M.; Saito, R. K.

    2013-10-20

    We have combined optical and near-infrared data of known RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the bulge in order to study the spatial distribution of its metal-poor component by measuring precise reddening values and distances of 7663 fundamental-mode RRL stars with high-quality photometry. We obtain a distance to the Galactic center of R {sub 0} = 8.33 ± 0.05 ± 0.14 kpc. We find that the spatial distribution of the RRL stars differs from the structures traced by the predominantly metal-rich red clump (RC) stars. Unlike the RC stars, the RRL stars do not trace a strong bar, but have a more spheroidal, centrally concentrated distribution, showing only a slight elongation in its very center. We find a hint of bimodality in the density distribution at high southern latitudes (b < –5°), which needs to be confirmed by extending the areal coverage of the current census. The different spatial distributions of the metal-rich and metal-poor stellar populations suggest that the Milky Way has a composite bulge.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kinematics of RR Lyr and HB stars in NGP (Kinman+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T. D.; Cacciari, C.; Bragaglia, A.; Buzzoni, A.; Spagna, A.

    2007-11-01

    Radial velocities and proper motions (derived from the GSC-II data base) are given for 38 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars and 79 blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in a ~200deg2 area around the North Galactic Pole (NGP). Both heliocentric (UVW) and galactocentric (VR, Vphi, Vz) space motions are derived for these stars using a homogeneous distance scale consistent with (m-M)0=18.52 for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). (4 data files).

  4. The Distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Popowski, P

    2000-01-31

    The author demonstrates that the two unexpected results in the local Universe: anomalous intrinsic (V--I){sub 0} colors of RR Lyrae stars and clump giants in the Galactic center, and very short distances to Magellanic Clouds inferred from clump giants, can be at least partially resolved with a modified coefficient of selective extinction A{sub V}/E(V--I). With this modification, the author found a new clump-giant distance modulus to the Large Magellanic Cloud, {mu}{sub LMC} = 18.27 {+-} 0.07, which is 0.09 larger than the Udalski (1998b) result. When distance estimates from the red clump, RR Lyrae stars and the eclipsing binary HV2274 are combined, one obtains {mu}{sub LMC} = 18.31 {+-} 0.04 (internal).

  5. VARIABLE STARS IN LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. I. NGC 1466

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; De Lee, Nathan; Catelan, Marcio; Pritzl, Barton J.; Borissova, Jura E-mail: smith@pa.msu.edu E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl E-mail: jura.borissova@uv.cl

    2011-10-15

    This is the first in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to better understand how the RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to those in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series BV photometric study of NGC 1466. A total of 62 variables were identified in the cluster, of which 16 are new discoveries. The variables include 30 RRab stars, 11 RRc stars, 8 RRd stars, 1 candidate RR Lyrae, 2 long-period variables, 1 potential anomalous Cepheid, and 9 variables of undetermined classification. We present photometric parameters for these variables. For the RR Lyrae stars physical properties derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves are presented. The RR Lyrae stars were used to determine a reddening-corrected distance modulus of (m - M){sub 0} = 18.43 {+-} 0.15. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type and find NGC 1466 to be an Oosterhoff-intermediate object.

  6. Variables en la región central del cúmulo globular NGC 3201: descomposición de Fourier de las curvas de luz de las RR Lyrae y análisis de la relación período-luminosidad de las SX Phoenicis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, J. A.; Arellano Ferro, A.; Calderón, J. H.; Kains, N.

    2015-08-01

    We present CCD time-series observations of the central region of the globular cluster NGC 3201, collected from CASLEO in March 2013, with the aim of performing the Fourier decomposition of the light curves of the RR Lyrae variables. This procedure, applied to the RRab-type stars, gave a mean value [Fe/H], for the cluster metallicity, and 5.00 0.22 kpc, for the cluster distance. The values found from two RRc stars are consistent with those derived previously. Because of differential reddening across the cluster field, individual reddenings for the RRab stars were estimated from their curves, resulting in an average value . An investigation of the light curves of stars in the blue straggler region led to the discovery of three new SX Phoenicis variables. The period-luminosity relation of the SX Phoenicis was used for an independent determination of the distance to the cluster and of the individual reddenings of these variables.

  7. Clouds, Streams and Bridges. Redrawing the blueprint of the Magellanic System with Gaia DR1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokurov, Vasily; Erkal, Denis; Deason, Alis J.; Koposov, Sergey E.; De Angeli, Francesca; Wyn Evans, Dafydd; Fraternali, Filippo; Mackey, Dougal

    2016-12-01

    We present the discovery of stellar tidal tails around the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds in the Gaia DR1 data. In between the Clouds, their tidal arms are stretched towards each other to form an almost continuous stellar bridge. Our analysis relies on the exquisite quality of the Gaia's photometric catalogue to build detailed star-count maps of the Clouds. We demonstrate that the Gaia DR1 data can be used to detect variable stars across the whole sky, and in particular, RR Lyrae stars in and around the LMC and the SMC. Additionally, we use a combination of Gaia and Galex to follow the distribution of Young Main Sequence stars in the Magellanic System. Viewed by Gaia, the Clouds show unmistakable signs of interaction. Around the LMC, clumps of RR Lyrae are observable as far as ˜20°, in agreement with the most recent map of Mira-like stars reported in Deason et al. (2016). The SMC's outer stellar density contours show a characteristic S-shape, symptomatic of the on-set of tidal stripping. Beyond several degrees from the center of the dwarf, the Gaia RR Lyrae stars trace the Cloud's trailing arm, extending towards the LMC. This stellar tidal tail mapped with RR Lyrae is not aligned with the gaseous Magellanic Bridge, and is shifted by some ˜5° from the Young Main Sequence bridge. We use the offset between the bridges to put constraints on the density of the hot gaseous corona of the Milky Way.

  8. Variable stars in large Magellanic cloud globular clusters. III. Reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Dame, Kyra; Smith, Horace A.; De Lee, Nathan E-mail: damekyra@msu.edu E-mail: nathan.delee@vanderbilt.edu; and others

    2013-06-01

    This is the third in a series of papers studying the variable stars in old globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The primary goal of this series is to look at how the characteristics and behavior of RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to those of their counterparts in Oosterhoff-I/II systems. In this paper we present the results of our new time-series BVI photometric study of the globular cluster Reticulum. We found a total of 32 variables stars (22 RRab, 4 RRc, and 6 RRd stars) in our field of view. We present photometric parameters and light curves for these stars. We also present physical properties, derived from Fourier analysis of light curves, for some of the RR Lyrae stars. We discuss the Oosterhoff classification of Reticulum and use our results to re-derive the distance modulus and age of the cluster.

  9. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The OGLE-III Catalog of Variable Stars. IX. RR Lyr Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, J.; Pietrzyński, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.

    2010-09-01

    The ninth part of the OGLE-III Catalog of Variable Stars (OIII-CVS) comprises RR Lyr stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Our sample consists of 2475 variable stars, of which 1933 pulsate in the fundamental mode (RRab), 175 are the first overtone pulsators (RRc), 258 oscillate simultaneously in both modes (RRd) and 109 stars are suspected second-overtone pulsators (RRe). 30 objects are Galactic RR Lyr stars seen in the foreground of the SMC. We discuss some statistical features of the sample. Period distributions show distinct differences between SMC and LMC populations of RR Lyr variable stars, with the SMC stars having on average longer periods. The mean periods for RRab, RRc and RRe stars are 0.596, 0.366 and 0.293 days, respectively. The mean apparent magnitudes of RRab stars are equal to 19.70 mag in the V-band and 19.12 mag in the I-band. Spatial distribution of RRLyr stars shows that the halo of the SMC is roughly round in the sky, however the density map reveals two maxima near the center of the SMC. For each object the multi-epoch V- and I-band photometry collected over 8 or 13 years of observations and finding charts are available to the astronomical community from the OGLE Internet archive.

  10. VARIABLE STARS IN LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. NGC 1786

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; De Lee, Nathan; Catelan, Marcio; Pritzl, Barton J.; Borissova, Jura E-mail: smith@pa.msu.edu E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl E-mail: jura.borissova@uv.cl

    2012-12-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to study how RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to their counterparts in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series B-V photometric study of the globular cluster NGC 1786. A total of 65 variable stars were identified in our field of view. These variables include 53 RR Lyraes (27 RRab, 18 RRc, and 8 RRd), 3 classical Cepheids, 1 Type II Cepheid, 1 Anomalous Cepheid, 2 eclipsing binaries, 3 Delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables, and 2 variables of undetermined type. Photometric parameters for these variables are presented. We present physical properties for some of the RR Lyrae stars, derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type which indicate that the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 1786 is not as clear cut as what is seen in most globular clusters.

  11. Is the Large Magellanic Cloud Microlensing Due to an Intervening Dwarf Galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Minniti, D.; Peterson, B. A.; Pratt, M. R.; Quinn, P. J.; Rodgers, A. W.; Rorabeck, A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sutherland, W.; Tomaney, A. B.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D. L.

    1997-11-01

    The recent suggestion that the microlensing events observed toward the Large Magellanic Cloud are due to an intervening Sgr-like dwarf galaxy is examined. A search for foreground RR Lyrae in the MACHO photometry database yields 20 stars whose distance distribution follow the expected halo density profile. Cepheid and red giant branch clump stars in the MACHO database are consistent with membership in the LMC. There is also no evidence in the literature for a distinct kinematic population, for intervening gas, or for the turnoff of such a hypothetical galaxy. We conclude that if the lenses are in a foreground galaxy, it must be a particularly dark galaxy.

  12. The RR Lyrae variables in the globular cluster M68

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Christine M.; Ferance, Stephen; Simon, Norman R.

    1993-01-01

    New observations, made with the Helen Sawyer Hogg telescope at Las Campanas, have been analyzed in a search for double-mode pulsators (RRd stars) in the metal-poor globular cluster, Messier 68. Of the 30 stars studied, nine have been identified as RRd stars; V33, which exhibited the characteristics of an RRd star in 1950, now appears to be an RRc star. Reliable periods and period ratios have been determined for six of the RRd stars. Masses for these RRd stars, calculated from fitting formulas given by Kovacs et al. (1991), range from 0.75 to 0.90 solar mass, depending on the assumed luminosity and metal abundance. These masses are in the same range as those for the RRd stars in M 15, whose RRd sample resembles that of M68 very closely. Fourier parameters determined for the light curves of the M68 variables show that the RRc stars in the two clusters are also very similar. In particular, on the plot of phase parameter phi sub 31 with period, the M15 and M68 RRc samples are virtually indistinguishable. A comparison of the new M68 observations with observations made 40 yr ago shows that the periods of some of the stars have changed, but the 40 yr interval is too short for detecting period changes caused by evolutionary effects.

  13. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. III. Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Dame, Kyra; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Jeon, Young-Beom; Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair R.; Kunder, Andrea; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2013-06-01

    This is the third in a series of papers studying the variable stars in old globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The primary goal of this series is to look at how the characteristics and behavior of RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to those of their counterparts in Oosterhoff-I/II systems. In this paper we present the results of our new time-series BVI photometric study of the globular cluster Reticulum. We found a total of 32 variables stars (22 RRab, 4 RRc, and 6 RRd stars) in our field of view. We present photometric parameters and light curves for these stars. We also present physical properties, derived from Fourier analysis of light curves, for some of the RR Lyrae stars. We discuss the Oosterhoff classification of Reticulum and use our results to re-derive the distance modulus and age of the cluster. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  14. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. II. NGC 1786

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2012-12-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to study how RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to their counterparts in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series B-V photometric study of the globular cluster NGC 1786. A total of 65 variable stars were identified in our field of view. These variables include 53 RR Lyraes (27 RRab, 18 RRc, and 8 RRd), 3 classical Cepheids, 1 Type II Cepheid, 1 Anomalous Cepheid, 2 eclipsing binaries, 3 Delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables, and 2 variables of undetermined type. Photometric parameters for these variables are presented. We present physical properties for some of the RR Lyrae stars, derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type which indicate that the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 1786 is not as clear cut as what is seen in most globular clusters. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  15. PULSATION PERIOD VARIATIONS IN THE RRc LYRAE STAR KIC 5520878

    SciTech Connect

    Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Zee, A.; Edmondson, William H.; Lindner, John F.; Kia, Behnam; Ditto, William L.; Stevens, Ian R. E-mail: jgl@phys.hawaii.edu E-mail: w.h.edmondson@bham.ac.uk E-mail: wditto@hawaii.edu E-mail: irs@star.sr.bham.ac.uk

    2015-01-01

    Learned et al. proposed that a sufficiently advanced extra-terrestrial civilization may tickle Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable stars with a neutrino beam at the right time, thus causing them to trigger early and jogging the otherwise very regular phase of their expansion and contraction. This would turn these stars into beacons to transmit information throughout the galaxy and beyond. The idea is to search for signs of phase modulation (in the regime of short pulse duration) and patterns, which could be indicative of intentional, omnidirectional signaling. We have performed such a search among variable stars using photometric data from the Kepler space telescope. In the RRc Lyrae star KIC 5520878, we have found two such regimes of long and short pulse durations. The sequence of period lengths, expressed as time series data, is strongly autocorrelated, with correlation coefficients of prime numbers being significantly higher (p = 99.8%). Our analysis of this candidate star shows that the prime number oddity originates from two simultaneous pulsation periods and is likely of natural origin. Simple physical models elucidate the frequency content and asymmetries of the KIC 5520878 light curve. Despite this SETI null result, we encourage testing of other archival and future time-series photometry for signs of modulated stars. This can be done as a by-product to the standard analysis, and can even be partly automated.

  16. HADS in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Initial findings from the SuperMACHO project

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, A

    2009-07-14

    The SuperMACHO Project is a five-year survey toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) aimed at understanding the nature of the populations of lenses responsible for the excess microlensing rates observed by the MACHO project. Survey observations were completed in 2006. A rich side-product of this survey is a catalog of variable sources down to a depth of VR 23, including many classes of pulsating variables such as {delta}-Scuti and RR Lyrae. Through their position in the Period-Luminosity diagram and their light curve characteristics we have identified 2323 high amplitude {delta}-Scuti (HADS) having high quality light curves. sing Fourier decomposition of the HADS light curves, we find that the period-luminosity (PL) relation defined by the firt-overtone (FO) pulsators does not show a clear separation from the PL-relation defined by the fundamental (F) pulsators. This differs from other instability strip pulsators such as type c RR Lyrae. We also present evidence for a larger amplitude, subluminous population of HADS similar to that observed in Fornax.

  17. The Star Formation History of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebel, E. K.; Brandner, W.

    1997-05-01

    We present a movie of the star formation history of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on its stellar content. We use the present-day spatial distribution of blue and red supergiants, Cepheids, clusters and associations, and RR Lyrae stars to study the age structure and to identify areas of pronounced star formation as a function of time and position. Age estimates for different stellar populations are based on theoretical isochrones, evolutionary models, and recent calibrations of SWB types of clusters. De-reddening of the individual stars and clusters results in a large-scale extinction map for the LMC. We discuss our results in terms of internal/external trigger mechanisms of star formation and different star formation modes.

  18. High Amplitude (delta)-Scutis in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, A; Cook, K H; Nikolaev, S; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Becker, A C; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Miknaitis, G; Minniti, D; Morelli, L; Olsen, K; Prieto, J L; Suntzeff, N B; Welch, D L; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2010-01-25

    The authors present 2323 High-Amplitude {delta}-Scutis (HADS) candidates discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by the SuperMACHO survey (Rest et al. 2005). Frequency analyses of these candidates reveal that several are multimode pulsators, including 119 whose largest amplitude of pulsation is in the fundamental (F) mode and 19 whose largest amplitude of pulsation is in the first overtone (FO) mode. Using Fourier decomposition of the HADS light curves, they find that the period-luminosity (PL) relation defined by the FO pulsators does not show a clear separation from the PL-relation defined by the F pulsators. This differs from other instability strip pulsators such as type c RR Lyrae. They also present evidence for a larger amplitude, subluminous population of HADS similar to that observed in Fornax (Poretti et al. 2008).

  19. Multi-Filter Photometric Analysis of Three β Lyrae-type Eclipsing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, T.; Hahs, G.; Gokhale, V.

    2015-12-01

    We present light curve analysis of three variable stars, ASAS J105855+1722.2, NSVS 5066754, and NSVS 9091101. These objects are selected from a list of β- Lyrae candidates published by Hoffman et al. (2008). Light curves are generated using data collected at the the 31-inch NURO telescope at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona in three filters: Bessell B, V, and R. Additional observations were made using the 14-inch Meade telescope at the Truman State Observatory in Kirksville, Missouri using Baader R, G, and B filters. In this paper, we present the light curves for these three objects and generate a truncated eight-term Fourier fit to these light curves. We use the Fourier coefficients from this fit to confirm ASAS J105855+1722.2 and NSVS 5066754 as β Lyrae type systems, and NSVS 9091101 to possibly be a RR Lyrae-type system. We measure the O'Connell effect observed in two of these systems (ASAS J105855+1722.2 and NSVS 5066754), and quantify this effect by calculating the "Light Curve Asymmetry" (LCA) and the "O'Connell Effect Ratio" (OER).

  20. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. IV. Leavitt Laws for Type II Cepheid Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anupam; Macri, Lucas M.; Rejkuba, Marina; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Singh, Harinder P.

    2017-04-01

    We present time-series observations of Population II Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud at near-infrared (JHK s ) wavelengths. Our sample consists of 81 variables with accurate periods and optical (VI) magnitudes from the OGLE survey, covering various subtypes of pulsators (BL Herculis, W Virginis, and RV Tauri). We generate light-curve templates using high-quality I-band data in the LMC from OGLE and K s -band data in the Galactic bulge from VISTA Variables in Via Láctea survey and use them to obtain robust mean magnitudes. We derive period–luminosity (P–L) relations in the near-infrared and Period–Wesenheit (P–W) relations by combining optical and near-infrared data. Our P–L and P–W relations are consistent with published work when excluding long-period RV Tauris. We find that Pop II Cepheids and RR Lyraes follow the same P–L relations in the LMC. Therefore, we use trigonometric parallax from the Gaia DR1 for VY Pyx and the Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes for k Pav and 5 RR Lyrae variables to obtain an absolute calibration of the Galactic K s -band P–L relation, resulting in a distance modulus to the LMC of {μ }{LMC}=18.54+/- 0.08 mag. We update the mean magnitudes of Pop II Cepheids in Galactic globular clusters using our light-curve templates and obtain distance estimates to those systems, anchored to a precise late-type eclipsing binary distance to the LMC. We find that the distances to these globular clusters based on Pop II Cepheids are consistent (within 2σ ) with estimates based on the {M}V-[{Fe}/{{H}}] relation for horizontal branch stars.

  1. An unusually very bright dust light mass (?) observed in the vicinity (?) of á Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanopoulos, G.

    2009-04-01

    There are not many written worldwide references regarding unusual phenomena such as dust, unusual lights or unexplained objects orbiting the earth or the solar and extra solar systems. Regarding the external space few references exist . Regarding the a Lyrae many scientists were involve in the eighties with the possible existence of a planet next to this star. Structure in the Dusty Debris around Vega, D. J. Wilner et al 2002 ApJ 569.Near-infrared observations of Vega, at 2006 Philip M. Hinz et al. refers to possible companion planet round this star .In constellations Lyrae and Eridani,some authors refer to possible initial formation of planets and they mention the presence of dust formations orbiting around those stars.(A. N. Heinze, Philip M. Hinz, Deep L' and M-band Imaging for Planets Around Vega and epsilon Eridani,The Astrophysical Journal 688 (2008) 583. This paper is concerned with an unexplained or perhaps portion of dust, in the constellation of Lyrae, which appears and have been observed only in conventional photographic plaque.For this observation , simple equipment and amateur instruments are use.In the night of April the 2002, during an amatory observation in variable stars, in the RR Lyrae, pictures were taken in the mentioned deep space area as a normal weekly study procedure. The instruments used are, telescope Meade 10΄΄, illuminate reticle guiding, 12mm, photo camera Nikon F -100, and lenses,70mm, f =1,8.The film used was a Kodak X-pro,BW 400 ASA.The equatorial mount was motorized. A total of six pictures with an exposure 5-10 min were taken. While developing the film, on the fifth photogram, a bright (object?) - dust light appear which seems to be in adhesion with the Vega star . On consecutive months more pictures were taken, with conventional and digital exposures, without any repetition of the event. What is provoke illumination of this dust portion to have been present in a simple photographic film? This simple observation study is

  2. The Mystery of V523 Lyrae (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the course of vetting submissions to VSX, it was suggested by a user that V523 Lyrae might be a Z Cam star. Investigations led to quite a bit of confusion initially because V523 Lyr was addressed in two separate papers on Kepler observations of cataclysmic variables, with two different light curves and conclusions as to its nature and classification. Adding to the confusion was the fact that the principle author of one paper was also a co-author on the other paper.

  3. Ultraviolet light curves of beta Lyrae: Comparison of OAO A-2, IUE, and Voyager Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji; Mccluskey, George E.; Silvis, Jeffery M. S.; Polidan, Ronald S.; Mccluskey, Carolina P. S.; Eaton, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    The six-band ultraviolet light curves of beta Lyrae obtained with the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) A-2 in 1970 exhibited a very unusual behavior. The secondary minimum deepened at shorter wavelength, indicating that one was not observing light variations caused primarily by the eclipses of two stars having a roughly Planckian energy distribution. It was then suggested that the light variations were caused by a viewing angle effect of an optically thick, ellipsoidal circumbinary gas cloud. Since 1978 beta Lyrae has been observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. We have constructed ultraviolet light curves from the IUE archival data for comparison with the OAO A-2 results. We find that they are in substantial agreement with each other. The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer was also used to observe this binary during a period covered by IUE observations. The Voyager results agree with those of the two other satellite observatories at wavelengths longer than about 1350 A. However, in the wavelength region shorter than the Lyman-alpha line at 1216 A, the light curves at 1085 and 965 A show virtually no light variation except an apparent flaring near phase 0.7, which is also in evidence at longer wavelengths. We suggest that the optically thick circumbinary gas cloud, which envelops the two stars completely, assumes a roughly spherical shape when observed at these shorter wavelengths.

  4. Analysis of the IUE spectra of the strongly interacting binary beta Lyrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluskey, George E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The six-band ultraviolet light curves of beta Lyrae obtained with the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory A-2 in 1970 exhibited a very unusual behavior. The secondary minimum deepened at shorter wavelength, indicating that one was not observing light variations caused primarily by the eclipses of two stars having a roughly Planckian energy distribution. It was then suggested that the light variations were caused by a viewing angle effect of an optically-thick, ellipsoidal circumbinary gas cloud. Since 1978 beta Lyrae has been observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. We have constructed ultraviolet light curves from the IUE archival data for comparison with the OAO-A2 results. We find that they are in substantial agreement with each other. The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer was also used to observe this binary during a period covered by IUE observations. The Voyager results agree with those of the two other satellite observatories at wavelengths longer than about 1350 A. However, in the wavelength region shorter than the Lyman-alpha line at 1216 A, the light curves at 1085 A and 965 A show virtually no light variation except an apparent flaring near phase 0.7, which is also in evidence at longer wavelengths. We suggest that the optically-thick circumbinary gas cloud, which envelops the two stars completely, assumes a roughly spherical shape when observed at these shorter wavelengths.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RR Lyraes in NGC 6101 (Fitzgerald+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M.; Criss, J.; Lukaszewicz, T.; Frew, D. J.; Catelan, M.; Woodward, S.; Danaia, L.; McKinnon, D. H.

    2012-04-01

    V- and I-band observations of cluster NGC 6101 were taken over 31 nights between June 2010 and April 2011 using the Merope CCD camera attached to the robotically controlled 2-metre Faulkes Telescope South at Siding Spring Observatory, NSW, Australia. (2 data files).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RR Lyr pulsational model (Bono+ 1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, G.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, V.; Marconi, M.

    1996-06-01

    We present a theoretical investigation on periods and amplitudes of RR Lyrae pulsators by adopting stellar parameters which cover the range of theoretical evolutionary expectations. Extensive grids of nonlinear, nonlocal and time-dependent convective RR Lyrae envelope models have been computed to investigate the pulsational behavior in both fundamental and first overtone modes at selected luminosity levels and over an effective temperature range which covers the whole instability region. In order to avoid spurious evaluations of modal stability and pulsation amplitudes, the coupling between pulsation and convection was followed through a direct time integration of the leading equations until radial motions approached their limiting amplitude. Blue and red boundaries for pulsational instability into the HR diagram are presented for three different mass values M=0.75, 0.65 and 0.58M⊙, together with an atlas of full amplitude theoretical light curves for both fundamental and first overtone pulsators and for two different assumptions of stellar masses: M=0.75 and 0.65M⊙. (6 data files).

  7. LYRA, a webserver for lymphocyte receptor structural modeling.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Michael Schantz; Anderson, Mads Valdemar; Jespersen, Martin Closter; Nielsen, Morten; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    The accurate structural modeling of B- and T-cell receptors is fundamental to gain a detailed insight in the mechanisms underlying immunity and in developing new drugs and therapies. The LYRA (LYmphocyte Receptor Automated modeling) web server (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/LYRA/) implements a complete and automated method for building of B- and T-cell receptor structural models starting from their amino acid sequence alone. The webserver is freely available and easy to use for non-specialists. Upon submission, LYRA automatically generates alignments using ad hoc profiles, predicts the structural class of each hypervariable loop, selects the best templates in an automatic fashion, and provides within minutes a complete 3D model that can be downloaded or inspected online. Experienced users can manually select or exclude template structures according to case specific information. LYRA is based on the canonical structure method, that in the last 30 years has been successfully used to generate antibody models of high accuracy, and in our benchmarks this approach proves to achieve similarly good results on TCR modeling, with a benchmarked average RMSD accuracy of 1.29 and 1.48 Å for B- and T-cell receptors, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, LYRA is the first automated server for the prediction of TCR structure.

  8. Visual Astrometry Observations of the Binary Star Beta Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, S. Jananne; Berlin, Kyle; Cardoza, Clare; Jordano, Chris; Waymire, Tatum; Shore, Doug; Baxter, John; Johnson, Robert; Carro, Joseph; Genet, Russell M.

    2012-04-01

    Students from Arroyo Grande High School and Cuesta College observed the separation and position angle of the binary star Beta Lyrae (WDS 18501+3322 ). The separation and position angle were found to be 46.7 arc seconds and 149.6° respectively. These values compared favorably to past observations.

  9. Drosophila Lyra mutations are gain-of-function mutations of senseless

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolo, R.; Abbott, L. A.; Bellen, H. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Lyra mutation was first described by Jerry Coyne in 1935. Lyra causes recessive pupal lethality and adult heterozygous Lyra mutants exhibit a dominant loss of the anterior and posterior wing margins. Unlike many mutations that cause loss of wing tissue (e.g., scalloped, Beadex, cut, and apterous-Xasta), Lyra wing discs do not exhibit increased necrotic or apoptotic cell death, nor do they show altered BrdU incorporation. However, during wing disc eversion, loss of the anterior and posterior wing margins is apparent. We have previously shown that senseless, a gene that is necessary and sufficient for peripheral nervous system (PNS) development, is allelic to Lyra. Here we show by several genetic criteria that Lyra alleles are neomorphic alleles of senseless that cause ectopic expression of SENSELESS in the wing pouch. Similarly, overexpression of SENSELESS in the wing disc causes loss of wing margin tissue, thereby mimicking the Lyra phenotype. Lyra mutants display aberrant expression of DELTA, VESTIGIAL, WINGLESS, and CUT. As in Lyra mutants, overexpression of SENSELESS in some areas of the wing pouch also leads to loss of WINGLESS and CUT. In summary, our data indicate that overexpression of SENSELESS causes a severe reduction in NOTCH signaling that in turn may lead to decreased transcription of several key genes required for wing development, leading to a failure in cell proliferation and loss of wing margin tissue.

  10. The VMC Survey - XIII. Type II Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripepi, V.; Moretti, M. I.; Marconi, M.; Clementini, G.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; de Grijs, R.; Emerson, J. P.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Ivanov, V. D.; Muraveva, T.; Piatti, A. E.; Subramanian, S.

    2015-01-01

    The VISTA (Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) survey of the Magellanic Clouds System (VMC) is collecting deep Ks-band time-series photometry of the pulsating variable stars hosted in the system formed by the two Magellanic Clouds and the Bridge connecting them. In this paper, we have analysed a sample of 130 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Type II Cepheids (T2CEPs) found in tiles with complete or near-complete VMC observations for which identification and optical magnitudes were obtained from the OGLE III (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) survey. We present J and Ks light curves for all 130 pulsators, including 41 BL Her, 62 W Vir (12 pW Vir) and 27 RV Tau variables. We complement our near-infrared photometry with the V magnitudes from the OGLE III survey, allowing us to build a variety of period-luminosity (PL), period-luminosity-colour (PLC) and period-Wesenheit (PW) relationships, including any combination of the V, J, Ks filters and valid for BL Her and W Vir classes. These relationships were calibrated in terms of the LMC distance modulus, while an independent absolute calibration of the PL(Ks) and the PW(Ks, V) was derived on the basis of distances obtained from Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes and Baade-Wesselink technique. When applied to the LMC and to the Galactic globular clusters hosting T2CEPs, these relations seem to show that (1) the two Population II standard candles RR Lyrae and T2CEPs give results in excellent agreement with each other; (2) there is a discrepancy of ˜0.1 mag between Population II standard candles and classical Cepheids when the distances are gauged in a similar way for all the quoted pulsators. However, given the uncertainties, this discrepancy is within the formal 1σ uncertainties.

  11. Copernicus spectra of beta Lyrae. [in far UV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, M.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E.; Plavec, M.; Polidan, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    The observations reported were made in August and September 1973. The principal data were scans in the low resolution mode at phases nearly coincident with the two light minima. Shorter scans were obtained at the two quadrature phases. The data show that the secondary component of beta Lyrae is a hotter object than the visible B8 star. The velocity amplitude of the lines suggests that the secondary is the more massive object, by a factor of several times.

  12. Quantifying electrocardiogram RT-RR variability interactions.

    PubMed

    Porta, A; Baselli, G; Caiani, E; Malliani, A; Lombardi, F; Cerutti, S

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic linear parametric model is designed to quantify the dependence of ventricular repolarisation duration variability on heart period changes and other immeasurable factors. The model analyses the beat-to-beat series of the RR duration and of the interval between R- and T-wave apexes (RT period). Directly from these two signals, a parametric identification procedure and spectral decomposition techniques allow RT variability to be divided into RR-related and RR-unrelated parts and allow the RT-RR transfer function to be calculated. RT variability is driven by RR changes at low frequency (LF, around 0.1 Hz) and high frequency (HF, at the respiratory rate), whereas, at very low frequencies, the RR-unrelated contribution to the total RT variability is remarkable. During tilt at LF the RR-related RT percentage power increases (p < 0.02), the RR-unrelated RT percentage power remains unchanged, the gain of the RT-RR relationship largely increases (p < 0.001), and the phase is not significantly modified. Both the RR-related and the RR-unrelated RT percentage powers at LF are not affected by controlled respiration, and an increase in the RT-RR gain at HF is observed (p < 0.02). The proposed analysis may help to describe the regulation of the ventricular repolarisation process and to extract indexes quantifying the coupling between heart period and ventricular repolarisation interval changes.

  13. GEOMETRICAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE HOT SPOT IN BETA LYRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Elias II, Nicholas M.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Holenstein, Bruce D. E-mail: Jennifer.Hoffman@du.edu E-mail: fabienne.a.bastien@vanderbilt.edu

    2012-05-01

    We present results from six years of recalibrated and new spectropolarimetric data taken with the University of Wisconsin's Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter and six years of new data taken with the photoelastic modulating polarimeter at the Flower and Cook Observatory of beta Lyrae. Combining these data with polarimetric data from the literature allows us to characterize the intrinsic BVRI polarized light curves. A repeatable discrepancy of 0.245 days (approximately 6 hr) between the secondary minima in the total light curve and the polarization curve in the V band, with similar behavior in the other bands, may represent the first direct evidence for an accretion hot spot on the disk edge.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: QSOs and RR Lyrae in Pan-STARRS1 3π Data (Hernitschek+ 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernitschek, N.; Schlafly, E. F.; Sesar, B.; Rix, H.-W.; Hogg, D. W.; Ivezic, Z.; Grebel, E. K.; Bell, E. F.; Martin, N. F.; Burgett, W. S.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-04-01

    In area and depth, the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π survey is unique among many-epoch, multi-band surveys and has enormous potential for the all-sky identification of variable sources. PS1 has observed the sky typically seven times in each of its five bands (grizy) over 3.5 years, but unlike SDSS, not simultaneously across the bands. We developed a new approach for quantifying statistical properties of non-simultaneous, sparse, multi-color light curves through light curve structure functions, effectively turning PS1 into a {sim}35-epoch survey. We use this approach to estimate variability amplitudes and timescales for point sources brighter than rP1=21.5 mag in the survey. On this basis we provide a catalog of all likely variable point sources and likely QSOs in PS1. (2 data files).

  15. Lichtkurve und Periode des RR-Lyrae-Sterns TV Trianguli und GSC 02297-00060, ein neuer Veraenderlicher im Feld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groebel, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    Based on data from the SWASP database and on recent observations 21 maxima and 12 minima timings of the little studied star TV Tri could be derived. It is shown that since the discovery the period remains essentially constant. The light curve shows only slight variations with a hump in the ascending branch. An improved ephemeris HJD (max.) = 2447385.354(5) + 0.7057324(5) x E is given. It turned out that the nearby suspected variable NSV 15327 (GSC 2.3 NBXY006220, 1:33:24.96 +32:27:39.10) remained constant in the observation period. It could be shown that the star GSC 02297-00060 (1:32:54.08 +32:29:34.85) also present in the field, is a short period eclipsing variable with shallow eclipses of 0.1 mag amplitude with the ephemeris HJD (min.) = 2456220.5180(16) + 0.2556919(14) x E. Rainer Groebel is a member of the BAV.

  16. First detection of multi-shocks in RR Lyrae stars from Antarctica : A possible explanation of the Blazhko effect

    SciTech Connect

    Chadid, M.; Vernin, J.; Zalian, C.; Pouzenc, C.; Abe, L.; Agabi, A.; Aristidi, E.; Mékarnia, D.; Preston, G.; Liu, L.Y.; Trinquet, H.

    2014-11-01

    We present the first detection of multi-shocks propagating through the atmosphere of the Blazhko star S Arae using uninterrupted, accurate optical photometric data collected during one polar night, 150 days from Antarctica at Dome C, with the Photometer AntarctIca eXtinction (PAIX). We acquired 89,736 CCD frames during 323 pulsation cycles and 3 Blazhko cycles. We detected two new light curve properties in the PAIX light curve, jump and rump, which we associated with two new post-maximum shock waves Sh{sub PM1} and Sh{sub PM2}. jump, lump, rump, bump, and hump are induced by five shock waves, with different amplitudes and origins, Sh{sub PM1}, Sh{sub PM}, Sh{sub PM2}, Sh{sub PM3}, and the main shock Sh{sub H+He}. Correlations between the length of rise time and light amplitude and Sh{sub PM3} are monotonous during three Blazhko cycles, but the pulsation curve is double peaked. We discuss the physical mechanisms driving the modulation of these quantities. Finally, we hypothesize that the origin of the Blazhko effect is a dynamical interaction between a multi-shock structure and an outflowing wind in a coronal structure.

  17. On the interpretation of the Sandage period-shift effect among globular-cluster RR Lyrae variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.; Renzini, Alvio; Tornambe, Amedeo

    1987-01-01

    A new grid of canonical zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB) models is constructed to study the Sandage period-shift effect, and a number of possible explanations for the discrepancy between the observed and predicted period shifts are explored. Various factors which determine the period shift in ZAHB models are discussed in detail, showing that possible uncertainties in the input physics used for computing the preceding red-giant evolution are unlikely to resolve the discrepancy. Some test calculations for the ZAHB phase are presented which suggest than an increase in the metal opacity at temperatures around a million K might substantially increase the predicted period shift. It is found that a nonsolar CNO to Fe ratio is not a plausible explanation of the period-shift discrepancy, and the effects of evolution off the ZAHB in the period-effective temperature diagram are discussed. It is shown that evolution can increase the predicted period shift but not to the extent required by the Sandage effect. The possibility that rotation might explain the discrepancy is considered and rejected.

  18. Pre-flight calibration of LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmoussa, A.; Dammasch, I. E.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Schühle, U.; Koller, S.; Stockman, Y.; Scholze, F.; Richter, M.; Kroth, U.; Laubis, C.; Dominique, M.; Kretzschmar, M.; Mekaoui, S.; Gissot, S.; Theissen, A.; Giordanengo, B.; Bolsee, D.; Hermans, C.; Gillotay, D.; Defise, J.-M.; Schmutz, W.

    2009-12-01

    Aims. LYRA, the Large Yield Radiometer, is a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) solar radiometer, planned to be launched in November 2009 on the European Space Agency PROBA2, the Project for On-Board Autonomy spacecraft. Methods: The instrument was radiometrically calibrated in the radiometry laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the Berlin Electron Storage ring for SYnchroton radiation (BESSY II). The calibration was done using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at PTB's VUV and soft X-ray radiometry beamlines using reference detectors calibrated with the help of an electrical substitution radiometer as the primary detector standard. Results: A total relative uncertainty of the radiometric calibration of the LYRA instrument between 1% and 11% was achieved. LYRA will provide irradiance data of the Sun in four UV passbands and with high temporal resolution down to 10 ms. The present state of the LYRA pre-flight calibration is presented as well as the expected instrument performance.

  19. The Panchromatic View of the Magellanic Clouds from Classical Cepheids. I. Distance, Reddening, and Geometry of the Large Magellanic Cloud Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inno, L.; Bono, G.; Matsunaga, N.; Fiorentino, G.; Marconi, M.; Lemasle, B.; da Silva, R.; Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A.; Romaniello, M.; Rix, H.-W.

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) disk using classical Cepheids. Our analysis is based on optical (I, V OGLE-IV), near-infrared (NIR: J, H, {K}{{S}}) and mid-infrared (MIR: w1; WISE) mean magnitudes. By adopting new templates to estimate the NIR mean magnitudes from single-epoch measurements, we build the currently most accurate, largest, and homogeneous multi-band data set of LMC Cepheids. We determine Cepheid individual distances using optical and NIR Period-Wesenheit relations (PWRs), to measure the geometry of the LMC disk and its viewing angles. Cepheid distances based on optical PWRs are precise at 3%, but accurate to 7%, while the ones based on NIR PWRs are more accurate (to 3%), but less precise (2%-15%), given the higher photometric error on the observed magnitudes. We found an inclination of i = 25.05 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.55 (syst.) deg, and a position angle of the lines of nodes P.A. = 150.76 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.07 (syst.) deg. These values agree well with estimates based either on young (Red Supergiants) or on intermediate-age (Asymptotic Giant Branch, Red Clump) stellar tracers, but they significantly differ from evaluations based on old (RR Lyrae) stellar tracers. This indicates that young/intermediate and old stellar populations have different spatial distributions. Finally, by using the reddening-law fitting approach, we provide a reddening map of the LMC disk, which is 10 times more accurate and 2 times larger than similar maps in the literature. We also found an LMC true distance modulus of {μ }0,{LMC}=18.48+/- 0.10 (stat. and syst.) mag, in excellent agreement with the currently most accurate measurement.

  20. High temperature plasma in beta Lyrae, observed from Copernicus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Hack, M.; Hutchings, J. B.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.; Plavec, M.; Polidan, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    High-resolution UV spectrophotometry of the complex close binary system beta Lyrae was performed with a telescope spectrometer on board Copernicus. Observations were made at phases 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 with resolutions of 0.2 A (far-UV) and 0.4 A (mid-UV). The far-UV spectrum is completely dominated by emission lines indicating the existence of a high-temperature plasma in this binary. The spectrum of this object is unlike that of any other object observed from Copernicus. It is believed that this high-temperature plasma results from dynamic mass transfer taking place in the binary. The current results are compared with OAO-2 observations and other observational results. The possibility that the secondary component is a collapsed object is also discussed; the Copernicus observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the spectroscopically invisible secondary component is a black hole.

  1. Clustering of local group distances: publication bias or correlated measurements? I. The large Magellanic cloud

    SciTech Connect

    De Grijs, Richard; Wicker, James E.; Bono, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) represents a key local rung of the extragalactic distance ladder yet the galaxy's distance modulus has long been an issue of contention, in particular in view of claims that most newly determined distance moduli cluster tightly—and with a small spread—around the 'canonical' distance modulus, (m – M){sub 0} = 18.50 mag. We compiled 233 separate LMC distance determinations published between 1990 and 2013. Our analysis of the individual distance moduli, as well as of their two-year means and standard deviations resulting from this largest data set of LMC distance moduli available to date, focuses specifically on Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable-star tracer populations, as well as on distance estimates based on features in the observational Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We conclude that strong publication bias is unlikely to have been the main driver of the majority of published LMC distance moduli. However, for a given distance tracer, the body of publications leading to the tightly clustered distances is based on highly non-independent tracer samples and analysis methods, hence leading to significant correlations among the LMC distances reported in subsequent articles. Based on a careful, weighted combination, in a statistical sense, of the main stellar population tracers, we recommend that a slightly adjusted canonical distance modulus of (m – M){sub 0} = 18.49 ± 0.09 mag be used for all practical purposes that require a general distance scale without the need for accuracies of better than a few percent.

  2. Variations in EUV Irradiance: Comparison between LYRA, ESP, and SWAP Integrated Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalim, Mehmet Sarp; Poedts, Stefaan

    The Sun Watcher Using Active Pixel System Detector and Image Processing (SWAP) telescope and Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA) are the two Sun observation instruments on-board PROBA2. SWAP extreme ultraviolet images, if presented in terms of the integrated flux over solar disk, in general, correlate well with LYRA channel 2-4 (zirconium filter) and channels QD and 18 of EVE/ESP on-board SDO between 2010 and 2013. Hence, SWAP can be considered as an additional radiometric channel. We compare in detail LYRA channel 2-4 and SWAP integrated flux in July 2010 and in particular during the solar eclipse that occurred on July 11, 2010. During this eclipse, the discrepancy between the two data channels can be explained to be related to the occultation of active region 11087 by the Moon. In the second half of July 2010, LYRA channel 2-4 and SWAP integrated flux deviate from each other, but these differences can also be explained in terms of features appearing on the solar disk such as coronal holes and active regions. By additionally comparing with timeline of EVE/ESP, we can preliminarily interpret these differences in terms of the difference between the broad bandpass of LYRA channel 2-4 and the, relatively speaking, narrower bandpass of SWAP.

  3. Degradation assessment of LYRA after 5 years on orbit - Technology Demonstration -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenMoussa, A.; Giordanengo, B.; Gissot, S.; Dammasch, I. E.; Dominique, M.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Soltani, A.; Bourzgui, N.; Saito, T.; Schühle, U.; Gottwald, A.; Kroth, U.; Jones, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    We present a long-term assessment of the radiometric calibration and degradation of the Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA), which has been on orbit since 2009. LYRA is an ultraviolet (UV) solar radiometer and is the first space experiment using aboard a pioneering diamond detector technology. We show that LYRA has degraded after the commissioning phase but is still exploitable scientifically after almost 5 years on orbit thanks to its redundancy design and calibration strategy correcting for instrument degradation. We focus on the inflight detector's calibration and show that diamond photodetectors have not degraded while silicon reference photodiodes that are even less exposed to the Sun show an increase of their dark current and a decrease of their photoresponse.

  4. In situ detections of Space Weather by the LYRA radiometer on board the PROBA2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsiyannis, Athanassios; Kruglanski, Michel; De Donder, Erwin; Dammasch, Ingolf; Dominique, Marie; Ben Moussa, Ali

    The Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) is an ultraviolet irradiance radiometer on-board ESA's PROBA2 micro-satellite. Since it's launch in 2009 it observes the Sun in four different passbands, chosen for their relevance to solar physics, aeronomy and space weather. Flying on an altitude of 735km, LYRA proved to be an excellent flare monitor and is involved in the analysis the atmospheric composition of the Earth. One of the most peculiar and intriguing results of LYRA is the detection of short, strong, bursts that do not directly correlate with solar coronal events, nor with pointing of the instrument to Earth's upper atmosphere, but correlate well with high K_{p} index on Earth's surface. As LYRA has the ability to observe in four different UV bandpasses, the comparison between the filters that allow the detection of this activity versus those that do not, reveals very interesting results as to the nature of those detections. This contribution will focus on the investigation and identification of this phenomenon and it will include crucial comparisons to other space-born instruments that do not detect the same effect.

  5. Long-term irradiance observation and short-term flare prediction with LYRA on PROBA2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammasch, Ingolf; Dominique, Marie; West, Matthew; Katsiyannis, Thanassis; Ryan, Daniel; Wauters, Laurence

    The solar radiometer LYRA on board the ESA micro-satellite PROBA2 has observed the Sun continuously since January 2010 in various spectral band passes, and has gained a considerable data base. Two of the LYRA channels cover the irradiance between soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet. The variation of the sunspot number appears to show a strong similarity with the variation of these channels, when their long-range development is taken into account. The same holds for SXR levels observed by the GOES satellites. Due to LYRA's bandwidth and coverage of various active-region temperatures, its relatively smooth development may yield some information on the structure of the current solar cycle. On its websites, LYRA presents not only EUV and SXR time series in near real-time, but also information on flare parameters and long-term irradiance and sunspot levels. It will be demonstrated whether it is possible to aid space weather forecast with these statistical data, especially for the prediction of expected flare strength on a daily basis.

  6. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, ... chest pa and lateral Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  7. VARIABLE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 2257. I. RESULTS BASED ON 2007-2008 B, V PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair; Jeon, Young-Beom E-mail: awalker@ctio.edu

    2009-11-15

    The variable stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 2257 are reinvestigated using photometry (to {approx}20th mag) of over 400 new B, V CCD images taken with the CTIO 0.9 m telescope on 14 nights in 2007 December and 2008 January. New period searches have been made using two independent algorithms (CLEAN, Period04); the resultant periods of most of the stars are consistent with the pulsation periods derived previously, and where there are discrepancies these have been resolved. For the B and V light curves, accurate Fourier coefficients and parameters are given. Six new variable stars have been discovered (V45-50), including a bright candidate long-period variable star showing secondary oscillations (V45) and two anomalously bright RRc stars (V48 and V50), which are shown to be brightened and reddened by nearby red giant stars. Also discovered among the previously known variable stars are three double-mode RR Lyrae stars (V8, V16, and V34) and several Blazhko variables. Archival Hubble Space Telescope images and the photometry by Johnson et al. have been used to define better the properties of the most crowded variable stars. The total number of cluster variable stars now stands at forty-seven: 23 RRab stars, four of which show Blazhko amplitude variations; 20 RRc stars, one showing clear Blazhko variations and another showing possible Blazhko variations; the three RRd stars, all having the dominant period {approx}0.36 day and period ratios P {sub 1}/P {sub 0} {approx}0.7450; and an LPV star located near the tip of the red giant branch. A comparison of the RRd stars with those in other environments shows them to be most similar to those in IC4499.

  8. LYRA and SWAP, the two Solar Instruments on-board PROBA2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominique, M.; Berghmans, D.; Schmutz, W. K.; Dammasch, I.; De Groof, A.; Halain, J.; Hochedez, J.; Kretzschmar, M.; Seaton, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    PROBA2 (http://proba2.sidc.be) is an ESA micro-satellite that was launched in November 2009. Two instruments on-board, SWAP and LYRA, are devoted to solar observations. SWAP (PI: D. Berghmans) is an EUV imager observing the corona with a bandpass centered on 174 Å at a cadence of 1-2 min. Its high contrast images, large FOV and flexible off-pointing capabilities make SWAP particularly well suited for the study of coronal eruptions. LYRA (PI: M. Dominique) is a UV-EUV radiometer observing in four spectral channels, chosen for their relevance in solar physics and aeronomy. Its very fast acquisition cadence (up to 100 Hz) allows scientists to perform detailed analysis of solar flares. We discuss the characteristics of both instruments, review their performance and evolution, and highlight their complementarity to other missions. We also present the data products that can be downloaded from the mission website and give an overview of the various investigations for which SWAP and LYRA data are currently used (CMEs, flares, solar variability, and many others).

  9. Light-induced COP9 signalosome expression in the Indian false vampire bat Megaderma lyra.

    PubMed

    Rajan, K Emmanuvel; Rajkumar, R; Liao, Chen-Chug; Ganesh, A; Marimuthu, G

    2010-01-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a multi-subunit protein complex conserved in plants and animals. CSN subunits have been identified as light-mediated master regulators of eukaryotic circadian clocks from fungi to animals. The Indian false vampire bat Megaderma lyra is completely adapted to an anthropic biotope and behavioral studies have reported that M. lyra exhibits light-sampling behavior to assess environmental light. LC-MS-MS results for a 36 kDa protein were analyzed using the Sequest search engine, and COP9 signalosome subunit 5 (CSN5) was pinpointed as having the highest score with 6 matching peptides. To confirm the presence of CSN5, up-regulated cDNA was amplified, sequenced, and identified as CSN5. Furthermore, semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the level of induction of CSN5 was regulated by environmental light. We estimated the level of expression across a light-dark cycle and observed a higher level of expression at the end of the light phase. Similarly, when the animal was shifted from continuous dark to light, CSN5 expression was induced. Correspondingly, we detected the similar pattern of translated protein with JAB1 antibody. Knowledge about the circadian rhythm and its molecular mechanism in Chiroptera is very limited and this study suggests that CSN5 might be involved in the M. lyra light-signaling process.

  10. RR-Interval variance of electrocardiogram for atrial fibrillation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryani, N.; Solikhah, M.; Nugoho, A. S.; Afdala, A.; Anzihory, E.

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart problem originated from the upper chamber of the heart. The common indication of atrial fibrillation is irregularity of R peak-to-R-peak time interval, which is shortly called RR interval. The irregularity could be represented using variance or spread of RR interval. This article presents a system to detect atrial fibrillation using variances. Using clinical data of patients with atrial fibrillation attack, it is shown that the variance of electrocardiographic RR interval are higher during atrial fibrillation, compared to the normal one. Utilizing a simple detection technique and variances of RR intervals, we find a good performance of atrial fibrillation detection.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RR Lyrae variables in ESO294-G010 and ESO410-G005 (Yang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.-C.; Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Sarajedini, A.; Kim, S. C.; Kyeong, J.

    2016-08-01

    The science images of ESO294-G010 and ESO410-G005 used in this study were taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel (ACS/WFC) on board Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as a part of GO-10503 (PI: Da Costa). ESO294-G010 (R.A.=00:26:33.40 (J2000), Decl.=-41:51:19.0 (J2000)) was observed on the HJD (+2453000) range 859.27358-861.13659 with the F606W filter, and on the HJD (+2453000) range 859.40613-861.00342 with the F814W filter. ESO410-G005 (R.A.=00:15:31.40 (J2000), Decl.=-32:10:47.0 (J2000)) was observed on the HJD (+2453000) range 861.40425-863.21702 with the F606W filter, and on the HJD (+2453000) range 861.53711-866.08158 with the filter F814W. The central regions of each galaxy were placed on one of WFC chips so that the imaging covers almost the entire visual extent of the targets. ESO294-G010 was imaged 12 times in the F606W and 24 times in the F814W filter with an exposure time of 1160s during the observing baseline of ~1.86days. The same number of exposures were obtained for the observations of ESO410-G005 with an exposure time of 1120s over the observing baseline of 4.55days. The basic properties of each of these RRL candidates are summarized in Tables 2 and 3. We have also uncovered a significant number of Luminous Variable (LV) candidates in both transition-type dwarf galaxies (22 in ESO294-G010; 19 in ESO410-G005). Their photometric and pulsation properties are summarized in Table4. (4 data files).

  12. 20. BLUEPRINT, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY L.% MI. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BLUEPRINT, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY L.% MI. S of MS. 50 Proposed bridge, by Phoenis Bridge Co., Phoenixville, Pa. 218-foot turn span, with load bearing. 21 May 1914. Act. size: 16X35 in. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sept 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  13. 14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at Epes Alabama Great Southern RR bridge. View from S. Copy of photo taken in 1922 by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms., Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  14. 18. BLUEPRINT, RR BRIDGE Tombigbee R. MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. BLUEPRINT, RR BRIDGE Tombigbee R. MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS 50 Detail: 'Georgia Pacific Rwy. -- Tombigbee River Bridge Elevation' with river profile, May 16, 1888. Credit: Columbus and Greenville Rr, Columbus, Ms. DWG = S-3-342. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  15. Optical Algorithm for Cloud Shadow Detection Over Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    contextual information to detect cumulus clouds and cloud shadows in Landsat data," Int. J. Remote Sens., vol. 3, no. l.pp. 51-62,1982. [12] T...Betendes, S. K. Sengupta, R. M. Welch, B. A. Wielicki, and M. Navar, " Cumulus cloud base height estimation from high spatial resolution rr-r 740 IEEE...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 05-02-2013 2. REPORT TYPE Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From ■ To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optical Algorithm for Cloud

  16. The BUSS spectrum of Beta Lyrae. [Balloon-borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, M.; Sahade, J.; De Jager, C.; Kondo, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The spectrum of Beta Lyrae from about 1975 to 3010 A taken with the Balloon-borne ultraviolet Stellar Spectrograph experiment in May 1976 at phase 0.61 P is analyzed. Results show the presence of N II semi-forbidden emission and provide evidence for about the same location, in the outer envelope of the system, of the layers responsible for the resonance Mg II doublet emissions and for the "narrow" H-alpha emission. In addition, three sets of absorption lines, P Cygni profiles of Fe III and broad Beals Type III emissions of Mg II, are found to be present.

  17. Bianchi type-I universe in Lyra manifold with quadratic equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şen, R.; Aygün, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we have solved Einstein field equations for Bianchi type I universe model in Lyra manifold with quadratic equation of state (EoS) p = ap(t)2 - ρ(t). Where α ≠0 is an important constant. Cosmic pressure, density and displacement vector (β2) are related with α constant. In this study β2 is a decreasing function of time and behaves like a cosmological constant. These solutions agree with the studies of Halford, Pradhan and Singh, Aygün et al., Agarwal et al., Yadav and Haque as well as SN Ia observations.

  18. Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman and Ian Foster

    2009-12-04

    Chicago Matters: Beyond Burnham (WTTW). Chicago has become a world center of "cloud computing." Argonne experts Pete Beckman and Ian Foster explain what "cloud computing" is and how you probably already use it on a daily basis.

  19. Interaction between respiratory and RR interval oscillations at low frequencies.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A; Wodicka, G R; Maayan, C; Shannon, D C

    1990-03-01

    Oscillations in RR interval between 0.02 and 1.00 cycles per second (Hz) have been related to the action of the autonomic nervous system. Respiration has been shown to influence RR interval at normal breathing frequencies between approximately 0.16 and 0.5 Hz in children and adults--a phenomenon known as respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In this study we investigated the effect of respiration on RR interval in a lower frequency range between 0.02 and 0.12 Hz. Low frequency oscillations in respiration were induced in healthy sleeping adult subjects via the administration of a bolus of CO2 during inhalation. Power spectra of RR interval and respiration were obtained before and after the CO2 pulse, and the frequency content in the low frequency range was quantitatively compared. An increase in the spectral energy in both respiration and RR interval was observed for the group. However, this increase was accounted for by six of 29 epochs. We conclude that respiration (tidal volume) can influence RR interval at frequencies below those usually associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia. This influence may be mediated through a sympathetic reflex. This result is applicable to the measurement and interpretation of heart rate variability and to autonomic influences of low frequency fluctuations in RR interval.

  20. Proba2/Lyra: six years of EUV solar irradiance observation, from short to long timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominique, Marie; Dammasch, Ingolf; Wauters, Laurence; Katsiyannis, Athanassios

    2016-07-01

    With important questions such as the climate changes and the role of the Sun debated by the scientific community, it appears crucial to measure the evolution of the solar spectral irradiance. This is especially the case in the soft X-ray to UV range, which shows the highest variability and impacts the Earth's ionosphere on both long (background emission evolution) and short (e.g. flares) timescales. LYRA, the Large Yield Radiometer on-board PROBA2 has been observing the Sun for more than six years, making observations in four broadband channels in the EUV-to-MUV range, accumulating quasi-uninterrupted time series. However, maintaining instruments capable of high-quality measurements over years in the harsh space environment is an every-day challenge. We will provide an up-to-date overview of the instrument state and of its data products. We will then present how the LYRA data have been used to analyze the solar impact on the Earth upper atmosphere, addressing successively the effects on the long and short timescales.

  1. Drosophila cuticular proteins with the R&R Consensus: annotation and classification with a new tool for discriminating RR-1 and RR-2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Karouzou, Maria V; Spyropoulos, Yannis; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Cornman, R S; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Willis, Judith H

    2007-08-01

    The majority of cuticular protein sequences identified to date from a diversity of arthropods have a conserved region known as the Rebers and Riddiford Consensus (R&R Consensus). This consensus region has been used to query the whole genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster. One hundred one putative cuticular proteins have been annotated. Of these, 29 had been annotated previously, and for several their authenticity as cuticular proteins had been verified by protein sequence data from isolated cuticles or by localization of their transcripts in epidermis when cuticle synthesis was occurring. The original names have been retained, and the 72 newly annotated proteins have been given names beginning with Cpr followed by the chromosomal band in which the gene is located. Proteins with the R&R Consensus can be split into three groups RR-1, RR-2 and RR-3, with some correlation to the type or region of the cuticle in which they occur. Previous classification was manual and subjective. We now have developed a tool using profile hidden Markov models that allows more objective classification. We describe the development and verification of the validity of this tool that is available at the cuticleDB website http://bioinformatics2.biol.uoa.gr/cuticleDB/index.jsp.

  2. The Complex QT/RR Relationship in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Julien; Champeroux, Pascal; Roy, Jérôme; Richard, Sylvain; Fauconnier, Jérémy; Le Guennec, Jean-Yves; Thireau, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The QT interval reflects the time between the depolarization of ventricles until their repolarization and is usually used as a predictive marker for the occurrence of arrhythmias. This parameter varies with the heart rate, expressed as the RR interval (time between two successive ventricular depolarizations). To calculate the QT independently of the RR, correction formulae are currently used. In mice, the QT-RR relationship as such has never been studied in conscious animals, and correction formulas are mainly empirical. In the present paper we studied how QT varies when the RR changes physiologically (comparison of nocturnal and diurnal periods) or after dosing mice with tachycardic agents (norepinephrine or nitroprusside). Our results show that there is significant variability of QT and RR in a given condition, resulting in the need to average at least 200 consecutive complexes to accurately compare the QT. Even following this method, no obvious shortening of the QT was observed with increased heart rate, regardless of whether or not this change occurs abruptly. In conclusion, the relationship between QT and RR in mice is weak, which renders the use of correction formulae inappropriate and misleading in this species. PMID:27138175

  3. Cloud Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-12

    Eucalyptus Systems • Provides an open-source application that can be used to implement a cloud computing environment on a datacenter • Trying to establish an...Summary Cloud Computing is in essence an economic model • It is a different way to acquire and manage IT resources There are multiple cloud providers...edgeplatform.html • Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2): http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/ • Amazon Simple Storage Solution (S3): http://aws.amazon.com/s3/ • Eucalyptus

  4. Cloud Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical cloud models have been developed and applied extensively to study cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. The distinctive aspect of these cloud models is their ability to treat explicitly (or resolve) cloud-scale dynamics. This requires the cloud models to be formulated from the non-hydrostatic equations of motion that explicitly include the vertical acceleration terms since the vertical and horizontal scales of convection are similar. Such models are also necessary in order to allow gravity waves, such as those triggered by clouds, to be resolved explicitly. In contrast, the hydrostatic approximation, usually applied in global or regional models, does allow the presence of gravity waves. In addition, the availability of exponentially increasing computer capabilities has resulted in time integrations increasing from hours to days, domain grids boxes (points) increasing from less than 2000 to more than 2,500,000 grid points with 500 to 1000 m resolution, and 3-D models becoming increasingly prevalent. The cloud resolving model is now at a stage where it can provide reasonably accurate statistical information of the sub-grid, cloud-resolving processes poorly parameterized in climate models and numerical prediction models.

  5. Cloud Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Your learning curriculum needs a new technological platform, but you don't have the expertise or IT equipment to pull it off in-house. The answer is a learning system that exists online, "in the cloud," where learners can access it anywhere, anytime. For trainers, cloud-based coursework often means greater ease of instruction resulting in greater…

  6. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... corner, the edge of the Antarctic coastline and some sea ice can be seen through some thin, high cirrus clouds. The right-hand panel ...

  7. Cloud Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  8. Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  9. Arctic Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ...   View Larger Image Stratus clouds are common in the Arctic during the summer months, and are important modulators of ... from MISR's two most obliquely forward-viewing cameras. The cold, stable air causes the clouds to persist in stratified layers, and this ...

  10. Dynamics of Bianchi type-VI0 holographic dark energy models in general relativity and Lyra's geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katore, S. D.; Kapse, D. V.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have studied the anisotropic and homogeneous Bianchi type-VI 0 Universe filled with dark matter and holographic dark energy components in the framework of general relativity and Lyra's geometry. The Einstein's field equations have been solved exactly by taking the expansion scalar ( 𝜃) in the model is proportional to the shear scalar ( σ). Some physical and kinematical properties of the models are also discussed.

  11. Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Mark Talmage

    2004-05-01

    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  12. 12. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. New York Connecting RR: Hell Gate Bridge. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. (See HAER No. NY-88 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  13. 21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4119, mp 185.66 (See HAER no. RI-3 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  14. 4. WILMINGTON & NORTHERN RR: REPAIR SHOPS. WILMINGTON, NEWCASTLE CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WILMINGTON & NORTHERN RR: REPAIR SHOPS. WILMINGTON, NEWCASTLE CO., DE. Sec. 1201, MP 27.50. (See HAER NO. DE-13 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Maryland/Delaware & Delaware/Pennsylvania State Lines, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  15. 3. WILMINGTON & NORTHERN RR: REPAIR SHOPS. WILMINGTON, NEWCASTLE CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WILMINGTON & NORTHERN RR: REPAIR SHOPS. WILMINGTON, NEWCASTLE CO., DE. Sec. 1201, MP 27.50. (See HAER NO. DE-13 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Maryland/Delaware & Delaware/Pennsylvania State Lines, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  16. Control of MR to RR Transition by Pulsed Energy Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hong; Adelgren, Russell; Elliott, Gregory; Knight, Doyle

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of a single laser energy pulse on the transition from a Mach Reflection (MR) to a Regular Reflection (RR) in the Dual Solution Domain (DSD). The freestream Mach number is 3.45 and two oblique shock waves are formed by two symmetric 22 degree wedges. These conditions correspond to a point midway within the DSD. A steady MR was first obtained experimentally and numerically, then a single laser pulse was deposited above the horizontal center plane. For the steady MR, the simulation showed the variation of Mach stem height along the span due to side effects. The predicted spanwise averaged Mach stem height was 1.96 mm within 2 percent of the experimental value of 2 mm. The experiment showed that the Mach stem height decreased to 30 percent of its original height due to the interaction with the laser spot and then returned to its original height by 300 microsec. That the Mach stem returned to its original height was most likely due to freestream turbulence in the wind tunnel. The numerical simulation successfully predicted the reverse transition from a stable MR to a stable RR and the stable RR persisted across the span. This study showed the capability of a laser energy pulse to control the reverse transition of MR -> RR within the Dual Solution Domain.

  17. Eclipsing and density effects on the spectral behavior of Beta Lyrae binary system in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanad, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze both long and short high resolution ultraviolet spectrum of Beta Lyrae eclipsing binary system observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) between 1980 and 1989. The main spectral features are P Cygni profiles originating from different environments of Beta Lyrae. A set of 23 Mg II k&h spectral lines at 2800 Å, originating from the extended envelope [Hack, M., 1980. IAUS, 88, 271H], have been identified and measured to determine their fluxes and widths. We found that there is spectral variability for these physical parameters with phase, similar to that found for the light curve [Kondo, Y., McCluskey, G.E., Jeffery, M.M.S., Ronald, S.P., Carolina, P.S. McCluskey, Joel, A.E., 1994. ApJ, 421, 787], which we attribute to the eclipse effects [Ak, H., Chadima, P., Harmanec, P., Demircan, O., Yang, S., Koubský, P., Škoda, P., Šlechta, M., Wolf, M., Božić, H., 2007. A&A, 463, 233], in addition to the changes of density and temperature of the region from which these lines are coming, as a result of the variability of mass loss from the primary star to the secondary [Hoffman, J.L., Nordsieck, K.H., Fox, G.K., 1998. AJ, 115, 1576; Linnell, A.P., Hubeny, I., Harmanec, P., 1998. ApJ, 509, 379]. Also we present a study of Fe II spectral line at 2600 Å, originating from the atmosphere of the primary star [Hack, M., 1980. IAUS, 88, 271H]. We found spectral variability of line fluxes and line widths with phase similar to that found for Mg II k&h lines. Finally we present a study of Si IV spectral line at 1394 Å, originating from the extended envelope [Hack, M., 1980. IAUS, 88, 271H]. A set of 52 Si IV spectral line at 1394 Å have been identified and measured to determine their fluxes and widths. Also we found spectral variability of these physical parameters with phase similar to that found for Mg II k&h and Fe II spectral lines.

  18. CLOUD CHEMISTRY.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWARTZ,S.E.

    2001-03-01

    Clouds present substantial concentrations of liquid-phase water, which can potentially serve as a medium for dissolution and reaction of atmospheric gases. The important precursors of acid deposition, SO{sub 2} and nitrogen oxides NO and NO{sub 2} are only sparingly soluble in clouds without further oxidation to sulfuric and nitric acids. In the case of SO{sub 2} aqueous-phase reaction with hydrogen peroxide, and to lesser extent ozone, are identified as important processes leading to this oxidation, and methods have been described by which to evaluate the rates of these reactions. The limited solubility of the nitrogen oxides precludes significant aqueous-phase reaction of these species, but gas-phase reactions in clouds can be important especially at night.

  19. Neptune's clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The bright cirrus-like clouds of Neptune change rapidly, often forming and dissipating over periods of several to tens of hours. In this sequence Voyager 2 observed cloud evolution in the region around the Great Dark Spot (GDS). The surprisingly rapid changes which occur separating each panel shows that in this region Neptune's weather is perhaps as dynamic and variable as that of the Earth. However, the scale is immense by our standards -- the Earth and the GDS are of similar size -- and in Neptune's frigid atmosphere, where temperatures are as low as 55 degrees Kelvin (-360 F), the cirrus clouds are composed of frozen methane rather than Earth's crystals of water ice. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications

  20. Our World: Cool Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how clouds are formed and watch an experiment to make a cloud using liquid nitrogen. Find out how scientists classify clouds according to their altitude and how clouds reflect and absorb ligh...

  1. Total and partial cloud amount detection during summer 2005 at Westerland (Sylt, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, N. H.; Macke, A.; Sandmann, H.; Stick, C.

    2009-02-01

    The detection of cloudiness is investigated by means of partial and total cloud amount estimations from pyrgeometer radiation measurements and visible all-sky imager observations. The measurements have been performed in Westerland, a seaside resort on the North Sea island of Sylt, Germany, during summer 2005. An improvement to previous studies on this subject resulting in the first time partial cloud amounts (PCAs), defined as cloud amounts without high clouds calculated from longwave downward radiation (LDR) according to the APCADA algorithm (Dürr and Philipona, 2004), are validated against both human observations from the National Meteorological Servive DWD at the nearby airport of Sylt and digital all-sky imaging. The aim is to establish the APCADA scheme at a coastal midlatitude site for longterm observations of cloud cover and to quantify errors resulting from the different methods of detecting cloudiness. Differences between the resulting total cloud amounts (TCAs), defined as cloud amount for all-cloud situations, derived from the camera images and from human observations are within ±1 octa in 72% and within ±2 octa in 85% of the cases. Compared to human observations, PCA measurements, according to APCADA, underestimate the observed cloud cover in 47% of all cases and the differences are within ±1 octa in 60% and ±2 octa in 74% of all cases. Since high cirrus clouds can not be derived from LDR, separate comparisons for all cases without high clouds have been performed showing an agreement within ±1(2) octa in 73(90)% for PCA and also for camera-derived TCA. For this coastal mid-latitude site under investigation, we find similar though slightly smaller agreements to human observations as reported by Dürr and Philipona (2004). Though limited to daytime, the cloud cover retrievals from the sky imager are not really affected by cirrus clouds and provide a more reliable cloud climatology for all-cloud conditions than APCADA.

  2. Phenomenological Parameters of the Prototype Eclipsing Binaries Algol, β Lyrae and W UMa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Mariia G.; Andronov, Ivan L.; Chinarova, Lidia L.

    2016-12-01

    The phenomenological parameters of eclipsing binary stars, which are the prototypes of the EA, EB and EW systems are determined using the expert complex of computer programs, which realizes the NAV ("New Algol Variable") algorithm (Andronov 2010, 2012) and its possible modifications are discussed, as well as constrains for estimates of some physical parameters of the systems in a case of photometric observations only, such as the degree of eclipse, ratio of the mean surface brightnesses of the components. The half-duration of the eclipse is 0.0617(7), 0.1092(18) and 0.1015(7) for Algol, β Lyrae and W UMa, respectively. The brightness ratio is 6.8±1.0, 4.9±1.0 and 1.15±0.13. These results show that the eclipses have distinct begin and end not only in EA (as generally assumed), but also in EB and EW - type systems as well. The algorithm may be applied to classification and study of the newly discovered (or poorly studied) eclipsing variables based on own observations or that obtained using photometric surveys.

  3. Affect cues in vocalizations of the bat, Megaderma lyra, during agonistic interactions.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Anna; Schmidt, Sabine

    2008-07-01

    Some features of emotional prosody in human speech may be traced back to affect cues in mammalian vocalizations. The present study addresses the question whether affect intensity, as expressed by the intensity of behavioral displays, is encoded in vocal cues, i.e., changes in the structure of associated calls, in bats, a group evolutionarily remote from primates. A frame-by-frame video analysis of 109 dyadic agonistic interactions recorded in approach situations was performed to categorize displays into two intensity levels based on a cost-benefit estimate. M. lyra showed graded visual displays accompanied by specific calls and response calls of the second bat. A sound analysis revealed systematic changes of call sequence parameters with display level. At the high intensity level, total call duration, number of syllables within a call, and the number of calls within a sequence were increased, while intervals between call syllables were decreased for both call types. In addition, the latency of the response call was shorter, and its main syllable-type durations and fundamental frequency were increased. These systematic changes of vocal parameters with affect intensity correspond to prosodic changes in human speech, suggesting that emotion-related acoustic cues are a common feature of vocal communication in mammals.

  4. HST Snapshot Study of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters: Inner Region of NGC 6441

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Catelan, Marcio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Layden, Andrew C.; Rich, R. Michael

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope snapshot program to survey the inner region of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6441 for its variable stars. A total of 57 variable stars was found including 38 RR Lyrae stars, 6 Population II Cepheids, and 12 long period variables. Twenty-four of the RR Lyrae stars and all of the Population II Cepheids were previously undiscovered in ground-based surveys. Of the RR Lyrae stars observed in h s survey, 26 are pulsating in the fundamental mode with a mean period of 0.753 d and 12 are first-overtone mode pulsators with a mean period of 0.365 d. These values match up very well with those found in ground-based surveys. Combining all the available data for NGC 6441, we find mean periods of 0.759 d and 0.375 d for the RRab and RRc stars, respectively. We also find that the RR Lyrae in this survey are located in the same regions of a period-amplitude diagram as those found in ground-based surveys. The overall ratio of RRc to total RR Lyrae is 0.33. Although NGC 6441 is a metal-rich globular cluster and would, on that ground, be expected either to have few RR Lyrae stars, or to be an Oosterhoff type I system, its RR Lyrae more closely resemble those in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. However, even compared to typical Oosterhoff type II systems, the mean period of its RRab stars is unusually long. We also derived I-band period-luminosity relations for the RR Lyrae stars. Of the six Population II Cepheids, five are of W Virginis type and one is a BL Herculis variable star. This makes NGC 6441, along with NGC 6388, the most metal-rich globular cluster known to contain these types of variable stars. Another variable, V118, may also be a Population II Cepheid given its long period and its separation in magnitude from the RR Lyrae stars. We examine the period-luminosity relation for these Population II Cepheids and compare it to those in other globular clusters and in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We argue that there does

  5. Cloud Front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02171 Cloud Front

    These clouds formed in the south polar region. The faintness of the cloud system likely indicates that these are mainly ice clouds, with relatively little dust content.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -86.7N, Longitude 212.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Cloud Arcs

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... a sinking motion elsewhere, are very common, the degree of organization exhibited here is relatively rare, as the wind field at different altitudes usually disrupts such patterns. The degree of self organization of this cloud image, whereby three or four such circular events ...

  7. Thin Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... one of a new generation of instruments flying aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra satellite, views Earth with nine cameras ... of thin cirrus minutes after MISR imaged the cloud from space. At the same time, another NASA high-altitude jet, the WB-57, flew right ...

  8. 77 FR 27085 - R.R. Donnelley, Inc., Bloomsburg, PA; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration R.R. Donnelley, Inc., Bloomsburg, PA; Notice of Negative Determination... Regarding Application for Reconsideration for workers and former workers of R.R. Donnelley, Inc., Bloomsburg... assistance for workers and former workers of R.R. Donnelley, Inc., Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania. Accordingly,...

  9. Molecular Cloud Chemistry and the Importance of Dielectronic Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryans, P.; Kreckel, H.; Roueff, E.; Wakelam, V.; Savin, D. W.

    2009-03-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of singly charged ions is a reaction pathway that is commonly neglected in chemical models of molecular clouds. In this study we include state-of-the-art DR data for He+, C+, N+, O+, Na+, and Mg+ in chemical models used to simulate dense molecular clouds, protostars, and diffuse molecular clouds. We also update the radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficients for H+, He+, C+, N+, O+, Na+, and Mg+ to the current state-of-the-art values. The new RR data have little effect on the models. However, the inclusion of DR results in significant differences in gas-grain models of dense, cold molecular clouds for the evolution of a number of surface and gas-phase species. We find differences of a factor of 2 in the abundance for 74 of the 655 species at times of 104-106 yr in this model when we include DR. Of these 74 species, 16 have at least a factor of 10 difference in abundance. We find the largest differences for species formed on the surface of dust grains. These differences are due primarily to the addition of C+ DR, which increases the neutral C abundance, thereby enhancing the accretion of C onto dust. These results may be important for the warm-up phase of molecular clouds when surface species are desorbed into the gas phase. We also note that no reliable state-of-the-art RR or DR data exist for Si+, P+, S+, Cl+, and Fe+. Modern calculations for these ions are needed to better constrain molecular cloud models.

  10. Response of Haloalkaliphilic Archaeon Natronococcus Jeotgali RR17 to Hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombre, Rebecca S.; Bhalerao, Aniruddha R.; Shinde, Vinaya D.; Dhar, Sunil Kumar; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2017-01-01

    The survival of archaeabacteria in extreme inhabitable environments on earth that challenge organismic survival is ubiquitously known. However, the studies related to the effect of hypergravity on the growth and proliferation of archaea are unprecedented. The survival of organisms in hypergravity and rocks in addition to resistance to cosmic radiations, pressure and other extremities is imperative to study the possibilities of microbial travel between planets and endurance in hyperaccelerative forces faced during ejection of rocks from planets. The current investigation highlights the growth of an extremophilic archaeon isolated from a rocky substrate in hypergravity environment. The haloalkaliphilic archaeon, Natronococcus jeotgali RR17 was isolated from an Indian laterite rock, submerged in the Arabian sea lining Coastal Maharashtra, India. The endolithic haloarchaeon was subjected to hypergravity from 56 - 893 X gusing acceleration generated by centrifugal rotation. The cells of N. jeotgali RR17 proliferated and demonstrated good growth in hypergravity (223 X g). This is the first report on isolation of endolithic haloarchaeon N. jeotgali RR17 from an Indian laterite rock and its ability to proliferate in hypergravity. The present study demonstrates the ability of microbial life to survive and proliferate in hypergravity. Thus the inability of organismic growth in hypergravity may no longer be a limitation for astrobiology studies related to habitability of substellar objects, brown dwarfs and other planetary bodies in the universe besides planet earth.

  11. Total and partial cloud amount detection during summermonths 2005 at Westerland (Sylt, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, N. H.; Macke, A.; Sandmann, H.; Stick, C.

    2008-07-01

    The detection of cloudiness is investigated by means of partial and total cloud amount estimations from pyrgeometer radiation measurements and all-sky imager observations. The measurements have been performed in Westerland, a seaside resort on the North Sea island of Sylt, Germany, during summer 2005. An improvement to previous studies on this subject results from the fact that for the first time partial cloud amount (PCA), defined as total cloud amounts without high clouds, calculations from longwave downward radiation (LDR) according to the APCADA-Algorithm (Dürr and Philipona, 2004) are validated against both human observations from the German Weather Service DWD at the nearby airport of Sylt and digital all-sky imaging. Differences between the resulting total cloud amounts (TCA's), defined as total cloud amount for all-cloud situations, derived from the camera images and from human observations are within ±1 octa in 72% and within ±2 octa in 85% of the cases. Compared to human observations PCA measurements according to APCADA underestimate the observed cloud cover in 47% of all cases and the differences are within ±1 octa in 60% and ±2 octa in 74% of all cases. Since high cirrus clouds can not be derived from LDR, separate comparisons for all cases without high clouds have been performed showing an agreement within ±1(2) octa in 73(90)% for PCA and also for camera derived TCA. For this coastal mid-latitude site under investigation we find similar though slightly smaller agreements to human observations as reported in Dürr and Philipona (2004). Though limited to day-time the cloud cover retrievals from the sky imager are not much affected by cirrus clouds and provide a more reliable cloud climatology for all-cloud conditions than APCADA.

  12. Southern Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03026 Southern Clouds

    This image shows a system of clouds just off the margin of the South Polar cap. Taken during the summer season, these clouds contain both water-ice and dust.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.2S, Longitude 57.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Linear Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds

    These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Cloud Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 1 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 258.8 East (101.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration

  15. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  16. Evidence for an analytic perception of multiharmonic sounds in the bat, Megaderma lyra, and its possible role for echo spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, K; Schmidt, S

    2001-04-01

    For echolocation, the gleaning bat Megaderma lyra relies on short and broadband calls consisting of multiple harmonic components, each of which is downward frequency modulated. The harmonic components in M. lyra's calls have a relatively small frequency excursion and do not overlap spectrally. Broadband calls of other bat species, on the other hand, often consist of only a few harmonics which are modulated over broad and sometimes overlapping frequency ranges. A call consisting of narrow and nonoverlapping harmonic components may provide a less complete representation of target structure than a call which consists of broadly modulated components. However, a multiharmonic call may help the bats to perceive local spectral changes in the echo from shifts in the peak frequencies of single harmonics, and thereby to extract additional information about the target. To assess this hypothesis, the accuracy with which M. lyra can analyze frequency shifts of single partials in multiharmonic complex tones was investigated. A two-alternative, forced-choice behavioral task was used to measure M. lyra's frequency discrimination threshold for the third partial in complex tones whose spectral composition resembled that of the bat's sonar calls. The discrimination threshold for the third partial in a 21.5-kHz harmonic tone amounted to about 2% and was similar to the bat's pure-tone discrimination threshold at 64.5 kHz. Discrimination performance was essentially unaffected by random frequency changes of the other partials and by reducing stimulus duration from 50.5 to 1.5 ms. Both findings are in accordance with predictions made on the basis of the shape of M. Ivra's cochlear filters. The comparison between the observed frequency discrimination performance and a computational estimate of the expected frequency shift in the third harmonic of an echo reflected by a simple, two-front target showed that M. lyra's frequency resolution is sufficient for analyzing the target

  17. Martian Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during early spring near the North Pole. The linear 'ripples' are transparent water-ice clouds. This linear form is typical for polar clouds. The black regions on the margins of this image are areas of saturation caused by the build up of scattered light from the bright polar material during the long image exposure.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.1, Longitude 147.9 East (212.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS

  18. Crater Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06085 Crater Clouds

    The crater on the right side of this image is affecting the local wind regime. Note the bright line of clouds streaming off the north rim of the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -78.8N, Longitude 320.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Cloud-Top Entrainment in Stratocumulus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Cloud entrainment, the mixing between cloudy and clear air at the boundary of clouds, constitutes one paradigm for the relevance of small scales in the Earth system: By regulating cloud lifetimes, meter- and submeter-scale processes at cloud boundaries can influence planetary-scale properties. Understanding cloud entrainment is difficult given the complexity and diversity of the associated phenomena, which include turbulence entrainment within a stratified medium, convective instabilities driven by radiative and evaporative cooling, shear instabilities, and cloud microphysics. Obtaining accurate data at the required small scales is also challenging, for both simulations and measurements. During the past few decades, however, high-resolution simulations and measurements have greatly advanced our understanding of the main mechanisms controlling cloud entrainment. This article reviews some of these advances, focusing on stratocumulus clouds, and indicates remaining challenges.

  20. [Heart rate variability study based on a novel RdR RR Intervals Scatter Plot].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongwei; Lu, Xiuyun; Wang, Chunfang; Hua, Youyuan; Tian, Jiajia; Liu, Shihai

    2014-08-01

    On the basis of Poincare scatter plot and first order difference scatter plot, a novel heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method based on scatter plots of RR intervals and first order difference of RR intervals (namely, RdR) was proposed. The abscissa of the RdR scatter plot, the x-axis, is RR intervals and the ordinate, y-axis, is the difference between successive RR intervals. The RdR scatter plot includes the information of RR intervals and the difference between successive RR intervals, which captures more HRV information. By RdR scatter plot analysis of some records of MIT-BIH arrhythmias database, we found that the scatter plot of uncoupled premature ventricular contraction (PVC), coupled ventricular bigeminy and ventricular trigeminy PVC had specific graphic characteristics. The RdR scatter plot method has higher detecting performance than the Poincare scatter plot method, and simpler and more intuitive than the first order difference method.

  1. Automatic Cloud Bursting under FermiCloud

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao; Shangping, Ren; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Timm, Steven; Bernabeu, Gerard; Kim, Hyun Woo; Chadwick, Keith; Jang, Haengjin; Noh, Seo-Young

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing is changing the infrastructure upon which scientific computing depends from supercomputers and distributed computing clusters to a more elastic cloud-based structure. The service-oriented focus and elasticity of clouds can not only facilitate technology needs of emerging business but also shorten response time and reduce operational costs of traditional scientific applications. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is currently in the process of building its own private cloud, FermiCloud, which allows the existing grid infrastructure to use dynamically provisioned resources on FermiCloud to accommodate increased but dynamic computation demand from scientists in the domains of High Energy Physics (HEP) and other research areas. Cloud infrastructure also allows to increase a private cloud’s resource capacity through “bursting” by borrowing or renting resources from other community or commercial clouds when needed. This paper introduces a joint project on building a cloud federation to support HEP applications between Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Korea Institution of Science and Technology Information, with technical contributions from the Illinois Institute of Technology. In particular, this paper presents two recent accomplishments of the joint project: (a) cloud bursting automation and (b) load balancer. Automatic cloud bursting allows computer resources to be dynamically reconfigured to meet users’ demands. The load balance algorithm which the cloud bursting depends on decides when and where new resources need to be allocated. Our preliminary prototyping and experiments have shown promising success, yet, they also have opened new challenges to be studied

  2. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1RR irradiation test

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.H.; Lyon, W.F. III

    1992-10-14

    The thermal analysis of four unirradiated fuel pins to be tested in the FSP-1RR fuels irradiation experiment was completed. This test is a follow-on experiment in the series of fuel pin irradiation tests conducted by the SP-100 Program in the Fast Flux Test Facility. One of the pins contains several meltwire temperature monitors within the fuel and the Li annulus. A post-irradiation examination will verify the accuracy of the pre-irradiation thermal analysis. The purpose of the pre-irradiation analysis was to determine the appropriate insulating gap gas compositions required to provide the design goal cladding operating temperatures and to ensure that the meltwire temperature ranges in the temperature monitored pin bracket peak irradiation temperatures. This paper discusses the methodology and summarizes the results of the analysis.

  3. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1RR irradiation test

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.H.; Lyon, W.F. III )

    1993-01-10

    The thermal analysis of four unirradiated fuel pins to be tested in the FSP-1RR fuels irradiation experiment was completed. This test is a follow-on experiment in the series of fuel pin irradiation tests conducted by the SP-100 Program in the Fast Flux Test Facility. One of the pins contains several meltwire temperature monitors within the fuel and the Li annulus. A post-irradiation examination will verify the accuracy of the pre-irradiation thermal analysis. The purpose of the pre-irradiation analysis was to determine the appropriate insulating gap gas compositions required to provide the design goal cladding operating temperatures and to ensure that the meltwire temperature ranges in the temperature monitored pin bracket peak irradiation temperatures. This paper discusses the methodology and summarizes the results of the analysis.

  4. A Cosmological Model of the Early Universe Based on ECG with Variable Λ-Term in Lyra Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, H.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study interacting extended Chaplygin gas as dark matter and quintessence scalar field as dark energy with an effective Λ-term in Lyra manifold. As we know Chaplygin gas behaves as dark matter at the early universe while cosmological constant at the late time. Modified field equations are given and motivation of the phenomenological models discussed in details. Four different models based on the interaction term are investigated in this work. Then, we consider other models where Extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence field play role of dark matter and dark energy respectively with two different forms of interaction between the extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence scalar field for both constant and varying Λ. Concerning to the mathematical hardness of the problems we discuss results numerically and graphically. Obtained results give us hope that proposed models can work as good models for the early universe with later stage of evolution containing accelerated expansion.

  5. Yet Another Spectro-Interferometric Study of The Gas Distribution in The Enigmatic Semi-Detached Binary β Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemravová, J.; Mourard, D.; Harmanec, P.; Meilland, A.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of close binaries undergo episodes of mass transfer between their components, which completely change their further evolution. Simulations and observations agree that the mass transfer has two phases: i) short and rapid one, and ii) long and slow one. The bulk of the mass is likely exchanged during the rapid phase, but due to its shortness, systems undergoing this phase are rare, but they hold the key to understanding of the process. One system that is either undergoing the rapid mass transfer phase or is in a transient phase between the two phases is β Lyrae. Our goal is to map the distribution of circumstellar gas in the system. To achieve it, a series of spectro-interferometric observations acquired with the optical instrument VEGA/CHARA are investigated. Here we present our tools and preliminary results of our analysis.

  6. Jovian clouds and haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Robert A.; Baines, Kevin H.; Friedson, A. James; Banfield, Don; Ragent, Boris; Taylor, Fred W.

    Tropospheric clouds: thermochemical equilibrium theory and cloud microphysical theory, condensate cloud microphysics, tropospheric cloud and haze distribution - observations, results from the Galileo probe experiments, Galileo NIMS observations and results, Galileo SSE observations and results, recent analyses of ground-based and HST data; Tropospheric clouds and haze: optical and physical properties: partical composition, particle optical properties, size and shape, chromophores; Stratospheric haze: particle distribution, optical properties, size and shape, particle formation.

  7. The Oort cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marochnik, Leonid S.; Mukhin, Lev M.; Sagdeev, Roald Z.

    1991-01-01

    Views of the large-scale structure of the solar system, consisting of the Sun, the nine planets and their satellites, changed when Oort demonstrated that a gigantic cloud of comets (the Oort cloud) is located on the periphery of the solar system. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the Oort cloud's mass; (2) Hill's cloud mass; (3) angular momentum distribution in the solar system; and (4) the cometary cloud around other stars.

  8. Ice Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Heavy water ice clouds almost completely obscure the surface in Vastitas Borealis.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 69.5, Longitude 283.6 East (76.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  9. 22. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Proposed 218-foot turn span, submitted by the Wisconsin Bridge & Iron Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin 8 May 1914. Act size: approx. 23x34 in. Credit: Columbus & Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, MS. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  10. 19. BLUEPRINT, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. BLUEPRINT, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of Ms. 50 Map of Tombigbee River at Waverly, 'Proposed Crossing.' 12 May 1888. Credt: Columbus & Greenville, RR, Columbus, Ms. DWG S-3-343. Sarcone Photography, ColumbuS, Ms. Sept 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  11. 30. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Detail: Turn machinery. DWG S-3-325. Contr. #7236. Lower right quarter of sheet: Lateral elevation of turn table. July 1914. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, MS. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  12. 29. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5. mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5. mi. S of MS. 50 Detail: Turn machinery. DWG S-3-325. Contr. #7236. Lower right quarter of sheet: Lateral elevation of turn table. July 1914. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  13. 21. RAILROAD, RR. BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. RAILROAD, RR. BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of Ms. 50 Proposed 218-foot turn span, design #2339 of Virginia Bridge and Iron Co., Roanoke, Va. 13 May 1914. Act. size: 16x11 in. Credit: Columbus & Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  14. 31. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Detail: Turn machinery. DWG S-3-325. Contr. #7236. Upper left quarter of sheet: plan and longitudinal elevation of Wedges. July 1914. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978 - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  15. 27. RAILROAD, RR. BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO. WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. RAILROAD, RR. BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO. WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Stress Sheet of 1888 Bridge: Conroy & Sinks, Consulting Engineers, Chicago. July 21, 1910. DWG #978. Act. size around border: 18x11 in. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  16. Limits to Cloud Susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, James A., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    1-kilometer AVHRR observations of ship tracks in low-level clouds off the west coast of the U S. were used to determine limits for the degree to which clouds might be altered by increases in anthropogenic aerosols. Hundreds of tracks were analyzed to determine whether the changes in droplet radii, visible optical depths, and cloud top altitudes that result from the influx of particles from underlying ships were consistent with expectations based on simple models for the indirect effect of aerosols. The models predict substantial increases in sunlight reflected by polluted clouds due to the increases in droplet numbers and cloud liquid water that result from the elevated particle concentrations. Contrary to the model predictions, the analysis of ship tracks revealed a 15-20% reduction in liquid water for the polluted clouds. Studies performed with a large-eddy cloud simulation model suggested that the shortfall in cloud liquid water found in the satellite observations might be attributed to the restriction that the 1-kilometer pixels be completely covered by either polluted or unpolluted cloud. The simulation model revealed that a substantial fraction of the indirect effect is caused by a horizontal redistribution of cloud water in the polluted clouds. Cloud-free gaps in polluted clouds fill in with cloud water while the cloud-free gaps in the surrounding unpolluted clouds remain cloud-free. By limiting the analysis to only overcast pixels, the current study failed to account for the gap-filling predicted by the simulation model. This finding and an analysis of the spatial variability of marine stratus suggest new ways to analyze ship tracks to determine the limit to which particle pollution will alter the amount of sunlight reflected by clouds.

  17. CoRoT archive as a treasury of variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benko, Jozsef M.; Paparo, Margit

    2015-08-01

    The CoRoT satellite supported the scientific community by a huge data base of variable stars. The investigation of RR Lyrae stars (radially pulsating classical variable stars of high amplitude), especially benefit the continuous space data, due to long periodicity. The CoRoT RR Lyrae stars were intensively discussed in numerous papers in the last few years, but the latest runs have not been checked for finding RR Lyrae stars up to now. We found eight new RR Lyrae stars that we investigated for the lately localized characteristics of Blazhko RR Lyrae stars: the period doubling and additional modes. We present the preliminary results here.

  18. Cloud Processed CCN Affect Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.; Tabor, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in the bimodality/monomodality of CCN spectra (Hudson et al. 2015) exert opposite effects on cloud microphysics in two aircraft field projects. The figure shows two examples, droplet concentration, Nc, and drizzle liquid water content, Ld, against classification of CCN spectral modality. Low ratings go to balanced separated bimodal spectra, high ratings go to single mode spectra, strictly monomodal 8. Intermediate ratings go merged modes, e.g., one mode a shoulder of another. Bimodality is caused by mass or hygroscopicity increases that go only to CCN that made activated cloud droplets. In the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) small cumuli with lower Nc, greater droplet mean diameters, MD, effective radii, re, spectral widths, σ, cloud liquid water contents, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal (lower modal ratings) below cloud CCN spectra whereas clouds with higher Nc, smaller MD, re, σ, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN (higher modal ratings). In polluted stratus clouds of the MArine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) clouds that had greater Nc, and smaller MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal CCN spectra whereas clouds with lower Nc, and greater MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN. These relationships are opposite because the dominant ICE-T cloud processing was coalescence whereas chemical transformations (e.g., SO2 to SO4) were dominant in MASE. Coalescence reduces Nc and thus also CCN concentrations (NCCN) when droplets evaporate. In subsequent clouds the reduced competition increases MD and σ, which further enhance coalescence and drizzle. Chemical transformations do not change Nc but added sulfate enhances droplet and CCN solubility. Thus, lower critical supersaturation (S) CCN can produce more cloud droplets in subsequent cloud cycles, especially for the low W and effective S of stratus. The increased competition reduces MD, re, and σ, which inhibit coalescence and thus reduce drizzle

  19. Noctilucent Cloud Sightings

    NASA Video Gallery

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds form during each polar region's summer months in the coldest place in the atmosphere, 50 miles above Earth's surface. Noctilucent Clouds were first observed in 1885 by an a...

  20. Cloud Computing for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, Ss; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-07-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  1. Important influence of respiration on human R-R interval power spectra is largely ignored

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, T. E.; Beightol, L. A.; Koh, J.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Frequency-domain analyses of R-R intervals are used widely to estimate levels of autonomic neural traffic to the human heart. Because respiration modulates autonomic activity, we determined for nine healthy subjects the influence of breathing frequency and tidal volume on R-R interval power spectra (fast-Fourier transform method). We also surveyed published literature to determine current practices in this burgeoning field of scientific inquiry. Supine subjects breathed at rates of 6, 7.5, 10, 15, 17.1, 20, and 24 breaths/min and with nominal tidal volumes of 1,000 and 1,500 ml. R-R interval power at respiratory and low (0.06-0.14 Hz) frequencies declined significantly as breathing frequency increased. R-R interval power at respiratory frequencies was significantly greater at a tidal volume of 1,500 than 1,000 ml. Neither breathing frequency nor tidal volume influenced average R-R intervals significantly. Our review of studies reporting human R-R interval power spectra showed that 51% of the studies controlled respiratory rate, 11% controlled tidal volume, and 11% controlled both respiratory rate and tidal volume. The major implications of our analyses are that breathing parameters strongly influence low-frequency as well as respiratory frequency R-R interval power spectra and that this influence is largely ignored in published research.

  2. Computer animation of clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  3. Comparing Point Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    Point clouds are one of the most primitive and fundamental surface representations. A popular source of point clouds are three dimensional shape...acquisition devices such as laser range scanners. Another important field where point clouds are found is in the representation of high-dimensional...framework for comparing manifolds given by point clouds is presented in this paper. The underlying theory is based on Gromov-Hausdorff distances, leading

  4. 78 FR 65758 - Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2011-2012 BMW S1000RR Motorcycles Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...-2012 BMW S1000RR Motorcycles Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that 2011-2012 BMW S1000RR Motorcycles... decide whether non-U.S. certified 2011-2012 BMW S1000RR motorcycles are eligible for importation into...

  5. Cloud Computing Explained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Rosalyn

    2010-01-01

    While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses…

  6. Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice cyrstals suspended in the air. The study of clouds touches on many facets of armospheric science. The chemistry of clouds is tied to the chemistry of the surrounding atmosphere.

  7. Security in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Degaspari, John

    2011-08-01

    As more provider organizations look to the cloud computing model, they face a host of security-related questions. What are the appropriate applications for the cloud, what is the best cloud model, and what do they need to know to choose the best vendor? Hospital CIOs and security experts weigh in.

  8. Heart rate asymmetry by Poincaré plots of RR intervals.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Wysocki, Henryk

    2006-10-01

    The Poincaré plot is a widely used method for visualizing and calculating heart rate variability and for investigating the oscillatory nature of heart action. We show that the Poincaré plot produced using physiological data for RR intervals is asymmetric. This suggests that the processes of heart rate acceleration (shortening of consecutive RR intervals) and deceleration (prolongation of successive RR intervals) might be asymmetric. To investigate this phenomenon, we define descriptors quantifying the heart rate asymmetry and present the results of a study involving 5-min ECG recordings of 50 healthy subjects in which, despite of the shortness of the recordings, the asymmetry is clearly visible.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of RrNHX1 and RrVHA-c genes related to salt tolerance in wild Rosa rugosa

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liguo; Ding, Han; Wang, Jia; Wang, Meng; Xia, Wei; Zang, Shu; Sheng, Lixia

    2015-01-01

    Salt stress is one important factor influencing the growth and development of plants, and salt tolerance of plants is a result of combined action of multiple genes and mechanisms. Rosa rugosa is not only an important ornamental plant, but also the natural aromatic plant of high value. Wild R. rugosa which is naturally distributed on the coast and islands of China has a good salt tolerance due to the special living environment. Here, the vacuolar Na+/H+ reverse transporter gene (NHX1) and the vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit C gene (VHA-c) closely related to plant salt tolerance were isolated from wild R. rugosa, and the expression patterns in R. rugosa leaves of the two genes under NaCl stress were determined by real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR. The results showed that the RrNHX1 protein is a constitutive Na+/H+ reverse transporter, the expression of the RrNHX1 gene first increased and then decreased with the increasing salt concentration, and had a time-controlled effect. The RrVHA-c gene is suggestive of the housekeeping feature, its expression pattern showed a similar variation trend with the RrNHX1 gene under the stress of different concentrations of NaCl, and its temporal expression level under 200 mM NaCl stress presented bimodal change. These findings indicated that RrNHX1 and RrVHA-c genes are closely associated with the salt tolerance trait of wild R. rugosa. PMID:26150747

  10. Cloud microstructure studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blau, H. H., Jr.; Fowler, M. G.; Chang, D. T.; Ryan, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Over two thousand individual cloud droplet size distributions were measured with an optical cloud particle spectrometer flown on the NASA Convair 990 aircraft. Representative droplet spectra and liquid water content, L (gm/cu m) were obtained for oceanic stratiform and cumuliform clouds. For non-precipitating clouds, values of L range from 0.1 gm/cu m to 0.5 gm/cu m; with precipitation, L is often greater than 1 gm/cu m. Measurements were also made in a newly formed contrail and in cirrus clouds.

  11. Aerosol-Cloud-Drizzle-Turbulence Interactions in Boundary Layer Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    and cloud observations in trade wind cumulus clouds using the CIRPAS aircraft with the cloud radar was designed and carried out. The observational...gradients in cloud properties off the coast. Further from the South Florida area of fair-weather cumulus clouds (Jan. 2008) where clouds with both...marine and continental characteristics were observed. This was followed by a set of observations made in 2010 of cumulus clouds in off of Barbados

  12. Mid-Infrared Interferometric Monitoring of Evolved Stars: The Dust Shell Around the Mira Variable RR Aquilae at 13 Epochs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    subsequent paper. 2. Characteristics of RR Aql RR Aql is an oxygen-rich Mira variable with spectral type M6e- M9 ( Samus et al. 2004). RR Aql shows a...at maximum light to ∼1.0 mag at mini- mum light. RR Aql is pulsating with a period of P = 394.78 days ( Samus et al. 2004) and the Julian Date of the...The main sequence precursor mass of RR Aql is 1.2 ± 0.2 M/M (Wyatt & Cahn 1983), and its spectral type is M6e-M9 ( Samus et al. 2004), versus M5-M9

  13. [Detecting atrial fibrillation and normal sinus rhythm by R-R intervals].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongwei

    2010-02-01

    This paper aims to find a new method of detecting atrial fibrillation (AF) with fast responding speed and high detecting precision by R-R intervals. Probability density function (PDF) of distance between two points in the reconstructed phase space of R-R intervals of normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and AF is studied. It is found that the distribution of PDF between NSR and AF R-R intervals is significantly different; and based on this finding, a characteristic parameter k is defined. k is used for defection among 400 NSR and 400 AF R-R intervals. The results demonstrate that the new algorithm has fast responding speed and high detecting precision (average sensitivity 97.0%, average specificity 95.2%).

  14. Chicago, Burlington, & Quincy R.R car works aurora, ILL. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chicago, Burlington, & Quincy R.R car works aurora, ILL. Photocopy of an undated lithograph based on an ambrotype by D.C. Pratt, C. 1857 - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  15. Altered relationship between R-R interval and R-R interval variability in endurance athletes with overtraining syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Hautala, A J; Vanninen, E; Uusitalo, A L T

    2014-04-01

    Autonomic dysfunction decreases within-subject correlation between R-R interval length (RRi) and vagally mediated RRi variability in cardiac disease. We tested the hypothesis that overtraining syndrome (OTS) may also weaken this relationship. Nine OTS and 10 control endurance athletes underwent 24-h electrocardiogram monitoring, which was repeated in eight OTS and nine control athletes after 6 months, when two OTS athletes still had symptoms of OTS. The power of high-frequency (HF) oscillations of RRi was analyzed in 5-min epochs over the whole recording. Quadratic regression was performed between 5-min values of RRi and log-transformed (ln) HF to obtain R(2) for each recording. The relationship between RRi and HFln was higher in the OTS athletes than controls [R(2): 0.87 (90% confidence interval, CI: 0.84-0.89) vs 0.78 (90% CI: 0.72-0.84); P = 0.034; effect size = 1.22]. Large decrease in R(2) was observed in six recovered OTS athletes after 6 months follow-up [ΔR(2): -0.12 (90% CI: -0.25-0.01); P = 0.11; effect size = 1.44] with no changes in the controls. Mean values of RRi and its variability did not differ between the groups. The within-subject correlation between RRi and vagally mediated RRi variability was stronger in endurance athletes with OTS compared with controls. The present findings may improve the detection of OTS and recovery from OTS in endurance athletes.

  16. A study of the continuum flux and the line structure in the IUE spectrum of Beta Lyrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aydin, C.; Engin, S.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O. E.; Hack, M.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the available archival IUE images of Beta Lyrae has led to the following results: (1) for lambda in the range of 1250 - 1500 A, the eclipse depth at second conjunction is slightly larger than the eclipse depth at primary conjunction; they are equal at about 1670 A; (2) the profiles of the resonance lines of SiIV (and the same seems to be true for NV and CIV) can be described as composite, formed by the superposition of a stationary P Cygni profile that suggests a velocity of approach of -170 km/s and a broad, less strong, emission that seems to yield a velocity distribution in antiphase with the velocity curve of the B8 II component of the system; and (3) the emission lines of the intercombination doublet of semiforbidden N II at about 2140 A suggest a velocity of about -130 km/s. The interpretation of the latter composite profile appears similar to the one suggested by Sahade (1966) to describe H-alpha and He I 5876 and He I 6678, and by Batten and Sahade (1973) to describe H-alpha.

  17. Monitoring biomarkers in fish (Lepidorhombus boscii and Callionymus lyra) from the northern Iberian shelf after the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gómez, C; Campillo, J A; Benedicto, J; Fernández, B; Valdés, J; García, I; Sánchez, F

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic biomarker responses were measured in two demersal fish species (Lepidorhombus boscii and Callionymus lyra) from the northern Iberian shelf associated with the massive Prestige oil spill (POS), five months after the accident. The biomarkers selected were 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and DNA integrity. Interspecies differences and spatial variations in biomarker responses were observed along the shelf. GST, GR and CAT activities were significantly elevated in L. boscii in the most oil impacted area (Finisterre) and positively correlated (p<0.05) with POS tar aggregate densities. The lack of previous data from the area together with the existence of chronic background pollution of the shelf implies that the observed biomarker responses cannot be solely attributed to the petroleum hydrocarbon components of the spilled oil. This first biological effect assessment showed that L. boscii is a potentially suitable target species to be used in future biomonitoring programmes along the northern Iberian shelf.

  18. 24. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Southern R'wy; Co., in Ms. Present and proposed draw bridge over Tombigbee River.' Elevations and Plan, with falsework. Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Co., Milwaukee, Wisc., DWG #S. 3-303. Last Revision, Jan. 11 1915. Act. size: 23x34 in. Credit: Columbus and Greenville Rr, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, MS. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  19. 23. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Southern R'wy Co. in Ms. Repairs to Tombigbee River Bridge' gears and turn machinery. DWG # S. 30303. Scale: 1-1/2' = l'. July 21, 1913. Credit: Columbus & Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  20. 26. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Proposed 218-foot deck, plate-girder turn span, submitted by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Co., Milwaukee, Wisc. May 15 1914. Act size: approx. 23x34 in. Credit: columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  1. 25. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Proposed 218-foot turn span, submitted by the American Bridge Co., Pittsburg, Pa., 15 May 1914. Inquiry # P-19242. Act. size: approx: 23x24 in. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, columbus, MS. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  2. Mechanism of blood pressure and R-R variability: insights from ganglion blockade in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Rong; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Zuckerman, Julie H.; Behbehani, Khosrow; Crandall, Craig G.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous blood pressure (BP) and R-R variability are used frequently as 'windows' into cardiovascular control mechanisms. However, the origin of these rhythmic fluctuations is not completely understood. In this study, with ganglion blockade, we evaluated the role of autonomic neural activity versus other 'non-neural' factors in the origin of BP and R-R variability in humans. Beat-to-beat BP, R-R interval and respiratory excursions were recorded in ten healthy subjects (aged 30 +/- 6 years) before and after ganglion blockade with trimethaphan. The spectral power of these variables was calculated in the very low (0.0078-0.05 Hz), low (0.05-0.15 Hz) and high (0.15-0.35 Hz) frequency ranges. The relationship between systolic BP and R-R variability was examined by cross-spectral analysis. After blockade, R-R variability was virtually abolished at all frequencies; however, respiration and high frequency BP variability remained unchanged. Very low and low frequency BP variability was reduced substantially by 84 and 69 %, respectively, but still persisted. Transfer function gain between systolic BP and R-R interval variability decreased by 92 and 88 % at low and high frequencies, respectively, while the phase changed from negative to positive values at the high frequencies. These data suggest that under supine resting conditions with spontaneous breathing: (1) R-R variability at all measured frequencies is predominantly controlled by autonomic neural activity; (2) BP variability at high frequencies (> 0.15 Hz) is mediated largely, if not exclusively, by mechanical effects of respiration on intrathoracic pressure and/or cardiac filling; (3) BP variability at very low and low frequencies (< 0.15 Hz) is probably mediated by both sympathetic nerve activity and intrinsic vasomotor rhythmicity; and (4) the dynamic relationship between BP and R-R variability as quantified by transfer function analysis is determined predominantly by autonomic neural activity rather than other

  3. Microcystin-RR exposure results in growth impairment by disrupting thyroid endocrine in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Wei; Li, Jing; Yu, Liqin; Wang, Jianghua; Li, Guangyu; Chen, Nan; Steinman, Alan D

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that cyanobacteria-derived microcystins (MCs) have the potential to disrupt endocrine systems. However, the effects of microcystin-RR (MC-RR) and their underlying mechanisms are poorly resolved in fish. In this study, MC-RR exposure through submersion caused serious developmental toxicity, such as growth delay and depressed heart rates in zebrafish larvae. We also detected decreased levels of thyroid hormones (THs), suggesting that MC-RR-triggered thyroid endocrine disruption might contribute to the growth impairment observed in developing zebrafish. To further our understanding of mechanisms of MC-RR-induced endocrine toxicity, quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) analysis was performed on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis related genes, i.e., corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid receptors (TRα and TRβ) and iodothyronine deiodinases (Dio1 and Dio2), of developing zebrafish embryos exposed to 0, 0.3, 1.0 or 3.0mgL(-1) MC-RR until 96h post-fertilization. Our results showed that transcription pattern of HPT axis related genes were greatly changed by MC-RR exposure, except TG gene. Furthermore, western blot was used to validate the results of gene expression. The results showed protein synthesis of TG was not affected, while that of NIS was significantly up-regulated, which are in accordance with gene expression. The overall results indicated that exposure to MC-RR can induce developmental toxicity, which might be associated with thyroid endocrine disruption in developing zebrafish larvae.

  4. Removal of microcystin-LR and microcystin-RR by graphene oxide: adsorption and kinetic experiments.

    PubMed

    Pavagadhi, Shruti; Tang, Ai Ling Lena; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Loh, Kian Ping; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-09-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was employed in the present study for removal of two commonly occurring algal toxins, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and microcystin-RR (MC-RR), from water. The adsorption performance of GO was compared to that of commercially available activated carbon. Further, adsorption experiments were conducted in the presence of other environmental pollutants to understand the matrix effects of contaminated water on the selective adsorption of MC-LR and MC-RR onto GO. The environmental pollutants addressed in this study included different anions (nitrate NO3-, nitrite NO2-, sulphate SO4(2-), chloride (Cl(-)), phosphate PO4(3-) and fluoride (F(-))) and cations (sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)) and calcium (Ca(2+))). GO showed very a high adsorption capacity of 1700 μg/g for removal of MC-LR and 1878 μg/g for MC-RR while the maximum adsorption capacity obtained with the commercial activated carbon was 1481.7 μg/g and 1034.1 μg/g for MC-LR and MC-RR, respectively. The sorption kinetic experiments revealed that more than 90% removal of both MC-LR/RR was achieved within 5 min for all the doses studied (500, 700 and 900 μg/L). GO could be reused as an adsorbent following ten cycles of adsorption/desorption with no significant loss in its adsorption capacity.

  5. A probability density function method for detecting atrial fibrillation using R-R intervals.

    PubMed

    Hong-Wei, Lu; Ying, Sun; Min, Lin; Pi-Ding, Li; Zheng, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    A probability density function (PDF) method is proposed for investigating the structure of the reconstructed attractor of R-R intervals. By constructing the PDF of distance between two points in the reconstructed phase space of R-R intervals of normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and atrial fibrillation (AF), it is found that the distributions of PDF of NSR and AF R-R intervals have significant differences. By taking advantage of their differences, a characteristic parameter k(n), which represents the sum of n points slope in filtered PDF curve, is put forward to detect both 400 segments of NSR and AF R-R intervals from the MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation database. Parameters such as number of R-R intervals, number of embedding dimensions and slope are optimized for the best detection performance. Results demonstrate that the new algorithm has a fast response speed with R-R intervals as short as 40, and shows a sensitivity of 0.978, and a specificity of 0.990 in the best detecting performance.

  6. The mechanism of (R,R) ZX-5 on increasing NO release.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han-Mei; Wei, Jin; Pan, Li; Lin, Hongying; Wang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Yihua; Shen, Zilong

    2010-09-15

    (R,R) ZX-5 has been proven to have positive effects on choroidal blood flow without affecting the sclera and ciliary bodies in New Zealand white rabbits. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms of (R,R) ZX-5 on improving the choroidal blood flow and promoting NO production. HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) were used to determine the production of eNOS, p-eNOS, AKT and Erk1/2 by Western blot analysis. iNOS and eNOS mRNA levels were investigated by RT-PCR and the effect of (R,R) ZX-5 on NO production were determined by eNOS activity assay. We found (R,R) ZX-5 upregulated protein expression of eNOS and iNOS, increased NO production, and reduced ERK and Akt protein level. Therefore, (R,R) ZX-5 may promote the choroidal blood flow in New Zealand white rabbits without affecting the blood flow in the iris or ciliary bodies via increasing NO production. These results suggest that (R,R) ZX-5 may function to cure and prevent Age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

  7. Interpretation of MODIS Cloud Images by CloudSat/CALIPSO Cloud Vertical Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Fetzer, E. J.; Wong, S.; Yue, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds observed by passive remote-sensing imager (Aqua-MODIS) are collocated to cloud vertical profiles observed by active profiling sensors (CloudSat radar and CALIPSO lidar) at the pixel-scale. By comparing different layers of cloud types classified in the 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR product from CloudSat+CALIPSO to those cloud properties observed by MODIS, we evaluate the occurrence frequencies of cloud types and cloud-overlap in CloudSat+CALIPSO for each MODIS cloud regime defined by cloud optical depth (τ) and cloud-top pressure (P) histograms. We find that about 70% of MODIS clear sky agrees with the clear category in CloudSat+CALIPSO; whereas the remainder is either single layer (~25%) cirrus (Ci), low-level cumulus (Cu), stratocumulus (Sc), or multi-layer (<5%) clouds in CloudSat+CALIPSO. Under MODIS cloudy conditions, 60%, 28%, and 8% of the occurrences show single-, double-, and triple-layer clouds, respectively in CloudSat+CALIPSO. When MODIS identifies single-layer clouds, 50-60% of the MODIS low-level clouds are categorized as stratus (Sc) in CloudSat+CALIPSO. Over the tropics, ~70% of MODIS high and optically thin clouds (considered as cirrus in the histogram) is also identified as Ci in CloudSat+CALIPSO, and ~40% of MODIS high and optically thick clouds (considered as convective in the histogram) agrees with CloudSat+CALIPSO deep convections (DC). Over mid-latitudes these numbers drop to 45% and 10%, respectively. The best agreement occurs in tropical single-layer cloud regimes, where 90% of MODIS high-thin clouds are identified as Ci by CloudSat+CALIPSO and 60% of MODIS high-thick clouds are identified as DC. Worst agreement is found for multi-layer clouds, where cirrus on top of low- and mid-level clouds in MODIS are frequently categorized as high-thick clouds by passive imaging - among these only 5-12% are DC in CloudSat+CALIPSO. It is encouraging that both MODIS low-level clouds (regardless of optical thickness) and high-level thin clouds are consistently

  8. THE CALIFORNIA MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F. E-mail: mlombard@eso.or

    2009-09-20

    We present an analysis of wide-field infrared extinction maps of a region in Perseus just north of the Taurus-Auriga dark cloud complex. From this analysis we have identified a massive, nearby, but previously unrecognized, giant molecular cloud (GMC). Both a uniform foreground star density and measurements of the cloud's velocity field from CO observations indicate that this cloud is likely a coherent structure at a single distance. From comparison of foreground star counts with Galactic models, we derive a distance of 450 +- 23 pc to the cloud. At this distance the cloud extends over roughly 80 pc and has a mass of {approx} 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}, rivaling the Orion (A) molecular cloud as the largest and most massive GMC in the solar neighborhood. Although surprisingly similar in mass and size to the more famous Orion molecular cloud (OMC) the newly recognized cloud displays significantly less star formation activity with more than an order of magnitude fewer young stellar objects than found in the OMC, suggesting that both the level of star formation and perhaps the star formation rate in this cloud are an order of magnitude or more lower than in the OMC. Analysis of extinction maps of both clouds shows that the new cloud contains only 10% the amount of high extinction (A{sub K} > 1.0 mag) material as is found in the OMC. This, in turn, suggests that the level of star formation activity and perhaps the star formation rate in these two clouds may be directly proportional to the total amount of high extinction material and presumably high density gas within them and that there might be a density threshold for star formation on the order of n(H{sub 2}) {approx} a few x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}.

  9. Silicon photonics cloud (SiCloud)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Peter T. S.; Jiang, Yunshan; Lynch, Michael; Miyatake, Taira; Carmona, Christopher; Chan, Andrew C.; Muniam, Kuhan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-02-01

    We present SiCloud (Silicon Photonics Cloud), the first free, instructional web-based research and education tool for silicon photonics. SiCloud's vision is to provide a host of instructional and research web-based tools. Such interactive learning tools enhance traditional teaching methods by extending access to a very large audience, resulting in very high impact. Interactive tools engage the brain in a way different from merely reading, and so enhance and reinforce the learning experience. Understanding silicon photonics is challenging as the topic involves a wide range of disciplines, including material science, semiconductor physics, electronics and waveguide optics. This web-based calculator is an interactive analysis tool for optical properties of silicon and related material (SiO2, Si3N4, Al2O3, etc.). It is designed to be a one stop resource for students, researchers and design engineers. The first and most basic aspect of Silicon Photonics is the Material Parameters, which provides the foundation for the Device, Sub-System and System levels. SiCloud includes the common dielectrics and semiconductors for waveguide core, cladding, and photodetection, as well as metals for electrical contacts. SiCloud is a work in progress and its capability is being expanded. SiCloud is being developed at UCLA with funding from the National Science Foundation's Center for Integrated Access Networks (CIAN) Engineering Research Center.

  10. What is a Cloud?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. N.; Wu, W.

    2013-12-01

    There are multiple factors that cause disagreements between differing methods using differing instruments to infer cloud amounts. But along with these issues is a fundamental concern that has permeated all comparisons and supersedes such questions as what are the uncertainty estimates of a given retrieval. To wit: what is a cloud? How can uncertainty of a cloud amount measurement be determined when there is no absolute 'truth' on what defines a cloud, as opposed to cloud-free? Recent research comparing a decade of surface- and satellite-based retrievals of cloud amount for the ARM Southern Great Plains site shows significant disagreements. While Total Sky Imager 100-degree FOV, Shortwave (SW) Radiative Flux Analysis, GOES satellite and PATMOS-x satellite amounts agree relatively well, ISCCP satellite and ARSCL time-series cloud amounts are significantly greater, 15% (ISCCP) and 8% (ARSCL) larger in average diurnal variations. In both cases, it appears that optically thin high ice is counted as 'cloud' in ARSCL and ISCCP that is not categorized as cloud by all the others. Additionally, cloud amounts from three methods (ISCCP, ARSCL, and GOES) show an overall increase of 8%-10% in the annually averaged cloud fractions from 1998 to 2009, while those from the other three (TSI, SWFA, PATMOS-x) show little trend for this period. So one wonders: are cloud amounts increasing or not over this period? The SW Flux Analysis used sky imager retrievals as 'truth' in development of the methodology (Long et al, 2006a), where sky imagery itself used human observations as the model (Long et al., 2006b). Min et al. (2008) then used SW Flux Analysis retrievals as 'truth' to develop an MFRSR-based spectral SW retrieval method. Dupont et al. (2008) show that the SW-based retrievals allow up to a visible optical depth of 0.15 (95% of occurrences) under the 'clear-sky' category which primarily consists of sub-visual cirrus, which by ancestry applies to spectral SW, sky imager and human

  11. Cloud Forensics Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Cloud Forensics Issues William R. Simpson Coimbatore Chandersekaran 1 July 2014 IDA...252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Sep 2011]. Cloud Forensics Issues William R Simpson and Coimbatore Chandersekaran Abstract— Forensics is...offerings of cloud capabilities have not provided security, monitoring or attribution that would allow an effective forensics investigation. The high

  12. Cryptographic Cloud Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamara, Seny; Lauter, Kristin

    We consider the problem of building a secure cloud storage service on top of a public cloud infrastructure where the service provider is not completely trusted by the customer. We describe, at a high level, several architectures that combine recent and non-standard cryptographic primitives in order to achieve our goal. We survey the benefits such an architecture would provide to both customers and service providers and give an overview of recent advances in cryptography motivated specifically by cloud storage.

  13. Ammonia Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

    In this movie, put together from false-color images taken by the New Horizons Ralph instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in early 2007, show ammonia clouds (appearing as bright blue areas) as they form and disperse over five successive Jupiter 'days.' Scientists noted how the larger cloud travels along with a small, local deep hole.

  14. SparkClouds: visualizing trends in tag clouds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bongshin; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Karlson, Amy K; Carpendale, Sheelash

    2010-01-01

    Tag clouds have proliferated over the web over the last decade. They provide a visual summary of a collection of texts by visually depicting the tag frequency by font size. In use, tag clouds can evolve as the associated data source changes over time. Interesting discussions around tag clouds often include a series of tag clouds and consider how they evolve over time. However, since tag clouds do not explicitly represent trends or support comparisons, the cognitive demands placed on the person for perceiving trends in multiple tag clouds are high. In this paper, we introduce SparkClouds, which integrate sparklines into a tag cloud to convey trends between multiple tag clouds. We present results from a controlled study that compares SparkClouds with two traditional trend visualizations—multiple line graphs and stacked bar charts—as well as Parallel Tag Clouds. Results show that SparkClouds ability to show trends compares favourably to the alternative visualizations.

  15. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ling; Luo, Zhiguo; Du, Yujian; Guo, Leitao

    In order to support the maximum number of user and elastic service with the minimum resource, the Internet service provider invented the cloud computing. within a few years, emerging cloud computing has became the hottest technology. From the publication of core papers by Google since 2003 to the commercialization of Amazon EC2 in 2006, and to the service offering of AT&T Synaptic Hosting, the cloud computing has been evolved from internal IT system to public service, from cost-saving tools to revenue generator, and from ISP to telecom. This paper introduces the concept, history, pros and cons of cloud computing as well as the value chain and standardization effort.

  16. JINR cloud infrastructure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. V.; Balashov, N. A.; Kutovskiy, N. A.; Semenov, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    To fulfil JINR commitments in different national and international projects related to the use of modern information technologies such as cloud and grid computing as well as to provide a modern tool for JINR users for their scientific research a cloud infrastructure was deployed at Laboratory of Information Technologies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. OpenNebula software was chosen as a cloud platform. Initially it was set up in simple configuration with single front-end host and a few cloud nodes. Some custom development was done to tune JINR cloud installation to fit local needs: web form in the cloud web-interface for resources request, a menu item with cloud utilization statistics, user authentication via Kerberos, custom driver for OpenVZ containers. Because of high demand in that cloud service and its resources over-utilization it was re-designed to cover increasing users' needs in capacity, availability and reliability. Recently a new cloud instance has been deployed in high-availability configuration with distributed network file system and additional computing power.

  17. Assessment of the RR versus QT relation by a new symbolic dynamics method. Gender differences in repolarization dynamics.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Rafał; Zebrowski, Jan J

    2002-04-01

    A new method based on symbolic dynamics was applied to assess RR-QT dynamics and to compare gender differences. Segments of 10,000 RR and QT from the night were selected. The values of RR and QT were coded as follows. Each RR and QT interval was compared with their means in the last 50 beats [xRR, xQT]; when the interval was larger than x + delta then it was coded as a "2", where delta is the tolerance parameter; when it was less than x - delta-the code was a "0"; when it was larger than x-delta and and the less than x+delta-then it was coded as a "1." The tolerance parameter "delta" was equal to 10 ms for RR and 4 ms for QT. We obtained pairs of symbols representing the values of RR and QT-symbolic words. The results were presented in form of the probability density of the symbolic words. Mean RR, mean QT, SDRR, SDQT, QTc (Bazett formula) were also calculated. Electrocardiogram data of healthy individuals: 20 women and 20 men (mean age 39 +/- 12) were analyzed. There were significant gender differences in RR-QT dynamics. During heart rate acceleration the probability of QT shortening (the probability of the word "00") was higher in men than in women (P =.003). During heart rate deceleration QT lengthening (the word "22") was more frequently observed in men than in women (P =.003) as well. The QT reaction to RR interval changes is less complex in women than in men. In discriminant analysis, when QTc was ignored in the model, the RR-QT dynamics separated genders with 67% accuracy (chi(2) = 9.1, P <.003). RR-QT dynamics can be analyzed with symbolic dynamics methods. The gender differences in repolarization are not only due to QTc duration alone but also result from the dependence of the duration of QT on the RR duration.

  18. HI clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.

    We present HI and Halpha surveys of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Parkes multibeam receiver, and the 16 inch optical telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO). Using a Fourier-plane technique, we have merged both ATCA and Parkes observations, providing an accurate set of images of the LMC sensitive to structure on scales of 9 pc upward. The spatial dynamic range (2.8 orders of magnitude), velocity resolution (1.649 km/sec per channel) allow for studies of phenomena ranging from the galaxy-wide interaction of the LMC with its close neighbors to the small-scale injection of energy from supernovae and stellar associations into the ISM of the LMC. On the large scale, the HI disk appears to be remarkably symmetric and to have a well-organized and orderly, if somewhat complex, rotational field. The bulk of the HI resides in a disk of 7.3 kpc in diameter. The mass of disk component of the LMC is 2.5 x10^9 M[sun ]and the mass within a radius of 4 kpc is about 3.5 x 10^9 M[sun ]. The structure of the neutral atomic ISM in the LMC is dominated by HI filaments combined with numerous shell, holes, and HI clouds. 23 HI supergiant shells and 103 giant shells are catalogued. Supergiant shells are defined as those regions whose extent is much larger than the HI scale height. The size distribution of HI shells follows a crude power law, N(log R) =AR^-1.5 . The HI clouds have been identified by defining a cloud to be an object composed of all pixels in right ascension, declination, and velocity that are connected and that lie above the threshold brightness temperature. The size spectrum of HI clouds is similar to the typical size spectrum of holes and shells in the HI distribution. The relationship between the size and the velocity dispersion of HI cloud is found to have the power law relationship so called as Larson's scaling law. A slope of the power law varies from 1.2 to 1.6. The virial masses of HI clouds range from 10

  19. Lost in Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Shetye, Sandeep D.; Chilukuri, Sri; Sturken, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing can reduce cost significantly because businesses can share computing resources. In recent years Small and Medium Businesses (SMB) have used Cloud effectively for cost saving and for sharing IT expenses. With the success of SMBs, many perceive that the larger enterprises ought to move into Cloud environment as well. Government agency s stove-piped environments are being considered as candidates for potential use of Cloud either as an enterprise entity or pockets of small communities. Cloud Computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than as a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network. Underneath the offered services, there exists a modern infrastructure cost of which is often spread across its services or its investors. As NASA is considered as an Enterprise class organization, like other enterprises, a shift has been occurring in perceiving its IT services as candidates for Cloud services. This paper discusses market trends in cloud computing from an enterprise angle and then addresses the topic of Cloud Computing for NASA in two possible forms. First, in the form of a public Cloud to support it as an enterprise, as well as to share it with the commercial and public at large. Second, as a private Cloud wherein the infrastructure is operated solely for NASA, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The paper addresses the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms of public and private Clouds, in both internally and externally operated settings. The content of the paper is from a NASA perspective but is applicable to any large enterprise with thousands of employees and contractors.

  20. Semiautomatic validation of RR time series in an ECG stress test database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijos, Jairo; García, David; Astudillo, Darwin; Palacio-Baus, Kenneth; Medina, Rubén.; Wong, Sara

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports an automatic method for characterizing the quality of the RR-time series in the stress test database known as DICARDIA. The proposed methodology is simple and consists in subdividing the RR time series in a set of windows for estimating the quantity of artifacts based on a threshold value that depends on the standard deviation of RR-time series for each recorded lead. In a first stage, a manual annotation was performed considering four quality classes for the RR-time series (Reference lead, Good Lead, Low Quality Lead and Useless Lead). Automatic annotation was then performed varying the number of windows and threshold value for the standard deviation of the RR-time series. The metric used for evaluating the quality of the annotation was the Matching Ratio. The best results were obtained using a higher number of windows and considering only three classes (Good Lead, Low Quality Lead and Useless). The proposed methodology allows the utilization of the online available DICARDIA Stress Test database for different types of research.

  1. Solar active photocatalyst for effective degradation of RR 120 with dye sensitized mechanism.

    PubMed

    Subash, B; Senthilraja, A; Dhatshanamurthi, P; Swaminathan, M; Shanthi, M

    2013-11-01

    Solar active WO3 loaded Ag-ZnO (WO3-Ag-ZnO) was successfully synthesized by precipitation-decomposition method. XPS reveals that the presence of metallic silver in the catalyst. The photocatalytic activity of WO3-Ag-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Reactive Red 120 (RR 120) in aqueous solution using solar light. WO3-Ag-ZnO is found to be more efficient than Ag-ZnO, WO3-ZnO, Ag-WO3, commercial ZnO, prepared ZnO, Degussa TiO2-P25, pure WO3 and TiO2 (Merck) at pH 7 for the mineralization of RR 120. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization of RR 120 have been analyzed. The mineralization of RR 120 has been confirmed by COD measurements. A dual mechanism has been proposed for efficient degradation of RR 120 dye with WO3-Ag-ZnO under solar light at neutral pH. This catalyst is found to be reusable.

  2. Aerosol effects in different types of precipitating clouds in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Ramon; Albrecht, Rachel; Vila, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this research is focused on the influence of aerosol in the formation of different precipitant clouds (warm - wrc, stratiform - str and convective - cnv cloud). The analysis was carried out in the Amazon basin region, also known as 'green ocean' region, due to its low cloud condensation nuclei count over the forested regions, resembling the oceanic regions. The September to December period from 2000 to 2013 were selected for this research. The September to November period was chosen because it belongs to the dry-to-wet transition season (when from forest fires are still active at this region); while December is on wet season, when the 'green ocean' environment is observed. Daily data of atmospheric optical depth (AOD) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, on board AQUA and TERRA satellites, was used to discriminate enviroment as polluted or clean and forested or deforested areas. Cloud type, reflectivity profile, liquid water path (LWP), ice water path (IWP) and rain rate (RR) data were retrieved from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission-Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR) satellite. For wrc type the results suggest that the highest values of rain rate observed for higher AOD values is related to the enhancement of colision and coalescence processes. The explanation for this pattern could be related to cloud drops reaching precipitating drop size and growing in function of a high concentration of small droplets. The results suggests that the increase in Bowen ratio at deforested areas (lower NDVI values) showed lead to the enhancement of updrafts at clouds and more water vapor available for cloud drops generation. It is observed for deforested areas different distribution patterns of LWP and IWP. Lower values are observed for cnv clouds in comparison to forested areas, while the opposite is observed for str clouds. These results suggests that at polluted environments over deforested

  3. Learning in the Clouds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan W.

    2013-01-01

    Engaged learning--the type that happens outside textbooks and beyond the four walls of the classroom--moves beyond right and wrong answers to grappling with the uncertainties and contradictions of a complex world. iPhones back up to the "cloud." GoogleDocs is all about "cloud computing." Facebook is as ubiquitous as the sky.…

  4. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  5. On Cloud Nine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Bridget; Weil, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Across the U.S., innovative collaboration practices are happening in the cloud: Sixth-graders participate in literary salons. Fourth-graders mentor kindergarteners. And teachers use virtual Post-it notes to advise students as they create their own television shows. In other words, cloud computing is no longer just used to manage administrative…

  6. Cloud Resolving Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with cloud-resolving models (CRMs). CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (with sizes ranging from about 2-200 km). CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. This paper provides a brief discussion and review of the main characteristics of CRMs as well as some of their major applications. These include the use of CRMs to improve our understanding of: (1) convective organization, (2) cloud temperature and water vapor budgets, and convective momentum transport, (3) diurnal variation of precipitation processes, (4) radiative-convective quasi-equilibrium states, (5) cloud-chemistry interaction, (6) aerosol-precipitation interaction, and (7) improving moist processes in large-scale models. In addition, current and future developments and applications of CRMs will be presented.

  7. Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    What are clouds? The answer to that question is both obvious and subtle. In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice crystals suspended in the air. In the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Saturn's moon Titan, Uranus, Neptune, and possibly Pluto, they are composed of several other substances including sulfuric acid, ammonia, hydroge...

  8. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wu, W.; Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.

    2011-07-21

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surface-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. The analytical expression is then used to deduce a new approach for inferring cloud albedo from concurrent surface-based measurements of downwelling surface shortwave radiation and cloud fraction. High-resolution decade-long data on cloud albedos are obtained by use of this surface-based approach over the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiaton Measurement (ARM) Program at the Great Southern Plains (SGP) site. The surface-based cloud albedos are further compared against those derived from the coincident GOES satellite measurements. The three long-term (1997-2009) sets of hourly data on shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo collected over the SGP site are analyzed to explore the multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations. The analytical formulation is useful for diagnosing deficiencies of cloud-radiation parameterizations in climate models.

  9. Polarization of clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloub, Philippe; Herman, Maurice; Parol, Frederic

    1995-12-01

    This paper reports the main results concerning polarization by clouds derived from POLDER (polarization and directionality of earth's reflectances) airborne version. These results tend to confirm the high information content in the polarization (phase, altimetry). The preliminary results of EUCREX'94 (European Cloud Radiation Experiment) evidenced the drastically different polarized signatures for ice crystals and water droplets. Here we report systematic and statistically significative observations over the whole EUCREX data set. The results show that the cirrus exhibit their own signature. Preliminary observations performed during CLEOPATRA'91 (Cloud Experiment Ober Pfaffenhofen And Transport) and EUCREX'94 campaigns have shown the feasibility of cloud altimetry using spectral information (443 nm and 865 nm) of the polarized light over liquid water droplets clouds. Altimetry technique has been generalized on ASTEX-SOFIA'92 and EUCREX'94 data sets. All these results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  10. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Marshall, John; Shen, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The chemical evolution hypothesis of Woese (1979), according to which prebiotic reactions occurred rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns was criticized by Scherer (1985). This paper proposes a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that answers Scherer's concerns and supports Woese's hypothesis. According to this mechanism, rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by, or synthesized during entry of meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust, would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and would be polymerized within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and evaporation of cloud drops.

  11. Cloud computing security.

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dongwan; Claycomb, William R.; Urias, Vincent E.

    2010-10-01

    Cloud computing is a paradigm rapidly being embraced by government and industry as a solution for cost-savings, scalability, and collaboration. While a multitude of applications and services are available commercially for cloud-based solutions, research in this area has yet to fully embrace the full spectrum of potential challenges facing cloud computing. This tutorial aims to provide researchers with a fundamental understanding of cloud computing, with the goals of identifying a broad range of potential research topics, and inspiring a new surge in research to address current issues. We will also discuss real implementations of research-oriented cloud computing systems for both academia and government, including configuration options, hardware issues, challenges, and solutions.

  12. Mechanisms underlying very-low-frequency RR-interval oscillations in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. A.; Carr, D. L.; Myers, C. W.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survival of post-myocardial infarction patients is related inversely to their levels of very-low-frequency (0.003 to 0.03 Hz) RR-interval variability. The physiological basis for such oscillations is unclear. In our study, we used blocking drugs to evaluate potential contributions of sympathetic and vagal mechanisms and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to very-low-frequency RR-interval variability in 10 young healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recorded RR intervals and arterial pressures during three separate sessions, with the patient in supine and 40 degree upright tilt positions, during 20-minute frequency (0.25 Hz) and tidal volume-controlled breathing after intravenous injections: saline (control), atenolol (0.2 mg/kg, beta-adrenergic blockade), atropine sulfate (0.04 mg/kg, parasympathetic blockade), atenolol and atropine (complete autonomic blockade), and enalaprilat (0.02 mg/kg, ACE blockade). We integrated fast Fourier transform RR-interval spectral power at very low (0.003 to 0.03 Hz), low (0.05 to 0. 15 Hz), and respiratory (0.2 to 0.3 Hz) frequencies. Beta-adrenergic blockade had no significant effect on very-low- or low-frequency RR-interval power but increased respiratory frequency power 2-fold. ACE blockade had no significant effect on low or respiratory frequency RR-interval power but modestly (approximately 21%) increased very-low-frequency power in the supine (but not upright tilt) position (P<0.05). The most profound effects were exerted by parasympathetic blockade: Atropine, given alone or with atenolol, abolished nearly all RR-interval variability and decreased very-low-frequency variability by 92%. CONCLUSIONS: Although very-low-frequency heart period rhythms are influenced by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, as low and respiratory frequency RR-interval rhythms, they depend primarily on the presence of parasympathetic outflow. Therefore the prognostic value of very-low-frequency heart period oscillations may

  13. Community Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinos, Alexandros; Briscoe, Gerard

    Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenges, and with the need to retain control over our digital lives and the potential environmental consequences, it is a challenge we must pursue.

  14. Interstellar molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, J.

    1986-04-01

    The physical properties of the molecular phase of the interstellar medium are studied with regard to star formation and the structure of the Galaxy. Most observations of molecular clouds are made with single-dish, high-surface precision radio telescopes, with the best resolution attainable at 0.2 to 1 arcmin; the smallest structures that can be resolved are of order 10 to the 17th cm in diameter. It is now believed that: (1) most of the mass of the Galaxy is in the form of giant molecular clouds; (2) the largest clouds and those responsible for most massive star formation are concentrated in spiral arms; (3) the molecular clouds are the sites of perpetual star formation, and are significant in the chemical evolution of the Galaxy; (4) giant molecular clouds determine the evolution of the kinematic properties of galactic disk stars; (5) the total gas content is diminishing with time; and (6) most clouds have supersonic internal motions and do not form stars on a free-fall time scale. It is concluded that though progress has been made, more advanced instruments are needed to inspect the processes operating within stellar nurseries and to study the distribution of the molecular clouds in more distant galaxies. Instruments presently under construction which are designed to meet these ends are presented.

  15. Aerosol-Cloud-Drizzle-Turbulence Interactions in Boundary Layer Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    understanding of the effects of aerosol-cloud interactions and drizzle and entrainment processes in boundary layer clouds for the purpose of developing...thickness, cloud turbulence intensity, and aerosols on precipitation production; 4) study the processing of aerosols by cloud processes ; 5) explore mass...drizzle processes to the artificial introduction of CCN and giant nuclei under differing aerosol backgrounds. In addition, a set of aerosol and cloud

  16. Cloud computing basics for librarians.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    "Cloud computing" is the name for the recent trend of moving software and computing resources to an online, shared-service model. This article briefly defines cloud computing, discusses different models, explores the advantages and disadvantages, and describes some of the ways cloud computing can be used in libraries. Examples of cloud services are included at the end of the article.

  17. Cloud Distribution Statistics from LITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David M.

    1998-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission has demonstrated the utility of spaceborne lidar in observing multilayer clouds and has provided a dataset showing the distribution of tropospheric clouds and aerosols. These unambiguous observations of the vertical distribution of clouds will allow improved verification of current cloud climatologies and GCM cloud parameterizations. Although there is now great interest in cloud profiling radar, operating in the mm-wave region, for the spacebased observation of cloud heights the results of the LITE mission have shown that satellite lidars can also make significant contributions in this area.

  18. "D.L.&W. R.R. Profile for New Tunnel Through Bergen Hill" Plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "D.L.&W. R.R. Profile for New Tunnel Through Bergen Hill" Plan Sheet. December 1, 1905. On file at New Jersey Transit Corporation Headquarters, Newark, New Jersey - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, South Bergen Tunnel, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  19. Photometric study of two β Lyr-type binaries: DD Aqr and RR Lep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Öztürk, O.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents detailed analysis of photometric observations of two eclipsing binary systems, DD Aqr and RR Lep. The V light curve of the neglected binary star DD Aqr from the All Sky Automated Survey was solved for the first time. The 1982-1987 UBV light curves of RR Lep from Vyas and Abhyankar (1989) were re-analysed. The final solutions give these two β Lyr-type binary stars as having near contact configurations in which the secondary components almost fill their Roche limiting lobes. Using O-C residuals formed by the updated minima times, orbital period changes of the systems were analysed. The O-C diagram of DD Aqr displays a cyclic variation, while that of RR Lep shows a quasi-sinusoidal variation superimposed on a downward parabolic form. The parabolic variation, which suggests a secular orbital period decrease in RR Lep, was interpreted in terms of the combined effect of mass transfer and loss. The cyclic O-C variations were interpreted in terms of the light travel time effect due to unseen components in these two systems. The absolute parameters of the components of the systems were estimated, and their present evolutionary status is also discussed.

  20. 76 FR 52288 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR... plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom: telephone 44 (0) 1332 242424; fax 44 (0) 1332... Service Information Rolls-Royce plc has issued Alert Service Bulletin RB.211-73-AD685, Revision 5,...

  1. 15. 'Southern Pacific R.R., One 236'0' Bet. End Pins S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. 'Southern Pacific R.R., One 236'-0' Bet. End Pins S. Tr. Thro'. Draw Bridge over Sacramento River at Tehama, The Phoenix Bridge Co., Phoenixville, Pa., Jan'y 19th 98, Dwg. 585.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  2. Toxicological Review of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Microcystins Lr, Rr, Yr and La (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment has prepared the Toxicological Reviews of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a, Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystins (LR, RR, YR and LA) as a series of dose-response assessments to support the health assessment of unregulated contamina...

  3. My NASA Data Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson has two activities that help students develop a basic understanding of the relationship between cloud type and the form of precipitation and the relationship between the amount of water...

  4. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of methanol in cold dark clouds TMC 1, L 134 N, and B 335 is reported. In all three clouds, the relative abundance of methanol was found to be in the range of 10 to the -9th (i.e., almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde), with no observable variation between the clouds. Methanol emission showed a complex velocity structure; in TMC 1, clear indications of non-LTE were observed. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134 N; the upper limit of the column density of dimethyl ether in L 134 N was estimated to be 4 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, assuming 5 K rotation temperature and LTE. This limit makes the abundance ratio (CH3)2O/CH3OH not higher than 1/5, indicating that dimethyl ether is not overabundant in this dark cloud.

  5. Noctilucent Clouds in Motion

    NASA Video Gallery

    Swedish photographer Peter Rosén took this close-up, time-lapse movieof Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) over Stockholm, Sweden on the evening ofJuly 16, 2012. "What looked like a serene view from a di...

  6. GEOS-5 Modeled Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows clouds from a simulation using the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Verison 5 (GEOS-5). The global atmospheric simulation covers a period from Feb 3, 2010 through Feb ...

  7. Cloud Types and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hai; Ibrahim, Shadi; Bell, Tim; Gao, Wei; Huang, Dachuan; Wu, Song

    The increasing popularity of Internet services such as the Amazon Web Services, Google App Engine and Microsoft Azure have drawn a lot of attention to the Cloud Computing paradigm. Although the term "Cloud Computing" is new, the technology is an extension of the remarkable achievements of grid, virtualization, Web 2.0 and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) technologies, and the convergence of these technologies. Moreover, interest in Cloud Computing has been motivated by many factors such as the prevalence of multi-core processors and the low cost of system hardware, as well as the increasing cost of the energy needed to operate them. As a result, Cloud Computing, in just three years, has risen to the top of the IT revolutionary technologies, and has been announced as the top technology to watch in the year 2010.

  8. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  9. Electromagnetic scattering in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solakiewicz, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to explain the nature of the optical effects of clouds on the light produced by lightning include a Monte Carlo simulation, an equivalent medium approach, and methods based on Boltzmann transport theory. A cuboidal cloud has been considered using transform methods and a diffusion approximation. Many simplifying assumptions have been used by authors to make this problem tractable. In this report, the cloud will have a spherical shape and its interior will consist of a uniform distribution of identical spherical water droplets. The source will be modeled as a Hertz dipole, electric or magnetic, inside or outside the cloud. An impulsive source is used. Superposition may be employed to obtain a sinusoid within an envelope which describes a lightning event. The problem is investigated by transforming to the frequency domain, obtaining Green's functions, and then using the Cagniard-DeHoop method to symbolically recover the time domain solution.

  10. Reconfigurable Martian Data Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, D. J.; Moeller, R. C.; Pingree, P.; Lay, N.; Reeves, G.

    2012-06-01

    The objective is to develop a constellation of small satellites in orbit around Mars that would provide a highly scalable and dynamically allocatable high performance computing resource. Key is use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays for the cloud.

  11. Fundamental relations between short-term RR interval and arterial pressure oscillations in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the principal explanations for respiratory sinus arrhythmia is that it reflects arterial baroreflex buffering of respiration-induced arterial pressure fluctuations. If this explanation is correct, then elimination of RR interval fluctuations should increase respiratory arterial pressure fluctuations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured RR interval and arterial pressure fluctuations during normal sinus rhythm and fixed-rate atrial pacing at 17.2+/-1.8 (SEM) beats per minute greater than the sinus rate in 16 healthy men and 4 healthy women, 20 to 34 years of age. Measurements were made during controlled-frequency breathing (15 breaths per minute or 0.25 Hz) with subjects in the supine and 40 degree head-up tilt positions. We characterized RR interval and arterial pressure variabilities in low-frequency (0.05 to 0.15 Hz) and respiratory-frequency (0.20 to 0.30 Hz) ranges with fast Fourier transform power spectra and used cross-spectral analysis to determine the phase relation between the two signals. As expected, cardiac pacing eliminated beat-to-beat RR interval variability. Against expectations, however, cardiac pacing in the supine position significantly reduced arterial pressure oscillations in the respiratory frequency (systolic, 6.8+/-1.8 to 2.9 +/-0.6 mm Hg2/Hz, P=.017). In contrast, cardiac pacing in the 40 degree tilt position increased arterial pressure variability (systolic, 8.0+/-1.8 to 10.8 +/-2.6, P=.027). Cross-spectral analysis showed that 40 degree tilt shifted the phase relation between systolic pressure and RR interval at the respiratory frequency from positive to negative (9 +/-7 degrees versus -17+/-11 degrees, P=.04); that is, in the supine position, RR interval changes appeared to lead arterial pressure changes, and in the upright position, RR interval changes appeared to follow arterial pressure changes. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that respiratory sinus arrhythmia can actually contribute to respiratory arterial

  12. Role of editing of R-R intervals in the analysis of heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Mirja A

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods used for editing of the R-R interval time series and how this editing can influence the results of heart rate (HR) variability analyses. Measurement of HR variability from short and long-term electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings is a non-invasive method for evaluating cardiac autonomic regulation. HR variability provides information about the sympathetic-parasympathetic autonomic balance. One important clinical application is the measurement of HR variability in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction. However, HR variability signals extracted from R-R interval time series from ambulatory ECG recordings often contain different amounts of artifact. These false beats can be either of physiological or technical origin. For instance, technical artifact may result from poorly fastened electrodes or be due to motion of the subject. Ectopic beats and atrial fibrillation are examples of physiological artifact. Since ectopic and other false beats are common in the R-R interval time series, they complicate the reliable analysis of HR variability sometimes making it impossible. In conjunction with the increased usage of HR variability analyses, several studies have confirmed the need for different approaches for handling false beats present in the R-R interval time series. The editing process for the R-R interval time series has become an integral part of these analyses. However, the published literature does not contain detailed reviews of editing methods and their impact on HR variability analyses. Several different editing and HR variability signal pre-processing methods have been introduced and tested for the artifact correction. There are several approaches available, i.e., use of methods involving deletion, interpolation or filtering systems. However, these editing methods can have different effects on HR variability measures. The effects of editing are dependent on the study setting, editing method, parameters used to assess

  13. Analysis of the QT-RR variability interactions using the NARMAX model.

    PubMed

    Baakek, Y N; Bereksi Reguig, F; Hadj Slimane, Z E

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new approach is used in order to evaluate and quantify the interactions between the QT and RR intervals. This is achieved after the identification of the RR and QT series with a hybrid model (the non-linear autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (NARMAX)). This identification follows two steps: the first is a linear parametric identification corresponding to the MA model, whereas the second is a non-linear identification using the NARX model. The power spectral density PSD of RR and QT is computed by using the monovariate part of this model (MA model). The QT-related RR series is obtained by using the bivariate part corresponding to the NARX model and its PSD is determined by using the autoregressive method. Then a cross-spectral and the coherence function were determined in order to confirm the obtained results. Different heart pathology cases were selected to evaluate the approach: the normal case, the cases which represent long QT intervals and some other cases which represent short QT intervals. They were taken from the MIT BIH database. The results show that every case illustrates two frequencies; the first in the low frequency band LF and the second in the high frequency band HF. In the normal case and long QT interval cases, the LF was predominating in the QT, RR and in QT-related RR power spectral density PSD. In the short QT interval cases the HF was much larger in all cases. The obtained results were compared to the poincaré plot method which confirms it; however, the NARMAX model can distinguish between normal and pathologic cases with a great precision (p < 0.001). In addition, the QT variability index QTVI is computed and represented by a box plot which expresses the relationship between QT and RR intervals. The QTVI shows a large variability in the short QT interval cases, whereas it shows a small and a negative variability in the long QT interval case.

  14. Marine Cloud Brightening

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  15. Marine cloud brightening.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  16. Cloud Inhomogeneity from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Two full months (July 2003 and January 2004) of MODIS Atmosphere Level-3 data from the Terra and Aqua satellites are analyzed in order to characterize the horizontal variability of cloud optical thickness and water path at global scales. Various options to derive cloud variability parameters are discussed. The climatology of cloud inhomogeneity is built by first calculating daily parameter values at spatial scales of l degree x 1 degree, and then at zonal and global scales, followed by averaging over monthly time scales. Geographical, diurnal, and seasonal changes of inhomogeneity parameters are examined separately for the two cloud phases, and separately over land and ocean. We find that cloud inhomogeneity is weaker in summer than in winter, weaker over land than ocean for liquid clouds, weaker for local morning than local afternoon, about the same for liquid and ice clouds on a global scale, but with wider probability distribution functions (PDFs) and larger latitudinal variations for ice, and relatively insensitive to whether water path or optical thickness products are used. Typical mean values at hemispheric and global scales of the inhomogeneity parameter nu (roughly the mean over the standard deviation of water path or optical thickness), range from approximately 2.5 to 3, while for the inhomogeneity parameter chi (the ratio of the logarithmic to linear mean) from approximately 0.7 to 0.8. Values of chi for zonal averages can occasionally fall below 0.6 and for individual gridpoints below 0.5. Our results demonstrate that MODIS is capable of revealing significant fluctuations in cloud horizontal inhomogenity and stress the need to model their global radiative effect in future studies.

  17. Evaluation of the i3 Scale-up of Reading Recovery: Year One Report, 2011-12. RR-76

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry; Gray, Abigail; Gillespie, Jessica N.; Sirinides, Philip; Sam, Cecile; Goldsworthy, Heather; Armijo, Michael; Tognatta, Namrata

    2013-01-01

    Reading Recovery (RR) is a short-term early intervention designed to help the lowest-achieving readers in first grade reach average levels of classroom performance in literacy. Students identified to receive Reading Recovery meet individually with a specially trained Reading Recovery (RR) teacher every school day for 30-minute lessons over a…

  18. The 1910HK/RR two-component system is essential for the virulence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fangyan; Tan, Chen; Liu, Zewen; Yang, Keli; Zhou, Danna; Liu, Wei; Duan, Zhengying; Guo, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Tian, Yongxiang; Bei, Weicheng

    2017-03-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a major zoonotic pathogen, and the two-component system plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. The present study targeted the 1910HK/RR two-component system of S. suis 2. A 1910HK/RR deletion mutant (Δ1910HK/RR) and the corresponding complementation strain (CΔ1910HK/RR) were constructed in S. suis 2 strain 05ZYH33. 1910HK/RR deletion had no effect on S. suis 2 growth, but significantly inhibited the adherence and invasion of S. suis 2 to HEp-2 cells. Analysis of the role of 1910HK/RR in murine and pig infection models demonstrated that 1910HK/RR played a distinct role in the virulence of S. suis 2. In addition, deletion of 1910HK/RR significantly impaired the survival of 05ZYH33 in human blood. These data provided important insights into the pathogenesis of S. suis 2.

  19. 77 FR 10355 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ...-12-AD; Amendment 39-16956; AD 2012-04-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR...: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all RR RB211-Trent 800 series turbofan engines. That AD currently requires removal from service of certain...

  20. 75 FR 49368 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 900 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...-13-AD; Amendment 39-16384; AD 2010-16-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR... AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rolls-Royce plc has issued RB211 Trent 900 Series Propulsion... the following new AD: 2010-16-07 Rolls-Royce plc (RR): Amendment 39-16384.; Docket No....

  1. FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Fairall, C. W.; Garrett, T. J.; Hudson, J.; Intrieri, J. M.; Jakob, C.; Jensen, T.; Lawson, P.; Marcotte, D.; Nguyen, L.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

  2. Absorption in Extended Inhomogeneous Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Spurr, Robert; Bhartia, P. K.; Krotkov, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The launch of several different sensors, including CloudSat, into the A-train constellation of satellites allows us for the first time to compute absorption that can occur in realistic vertically inhomogeneous clouds including multiple cloud decks. CloudSat data show that these situations are common. Therefore, understanding vertically inhomogeneous clouds is important from both climate and satellite atmospheric composition remote sensing perspectives. Satellite passive sensors that operate from the near IR to the UV often rely on radiative cloud pressures derived from absorption in oxygen bands (A, B, gamma, or O2-O2 bands) or from rotational-Raman scattering in order to retrieve information about atmospheric trace gases. The radiative cloud pressure is distinct from the physical cloud top derived from thermal infrared measurements. Therefore, the combination of information from different passive sensors yields some information about the cloud vertical profile. When either or both the clouds or atmospheric absorbers (trace gases and aerosols) are vertically inhomogeneous, the use of an effective cloud pressure derived from these approaches may lead to errors. Here, we focus on several scenarios (deep convective clouds and distinct two layer clouds) based on realistic cloud optical depth vertical profiles derived from the CloudSatfMODIS combination. We focus on implications for trace-gas column amount retrievals (specifically ozone and NO2) and derived surface UV irradiance from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Atrain Aura platform.

  3. The Use of TaBoRR as a Heavy Oil Upgrader

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones

    2009-02-05

    Preliminary testing has shown that Western Research Institute's (WRI) Tank Bottom Recovery and Remediation (TaBoRR{reg_sign}) technology shows promise for heavy oil upgrading. Approximately 70 to 75 wt% of a Canadian Cold Lake bitumen feed was converted to a partially upgraded overhead product that could be transported directly by pipeline or blended with the parent bitumen to produce transportable crude. TaBoRR{reg_sign} was originally developed to remediate tank bottom wastes by producing a distillate product and solid waste. TaBoRR{reg_sign}'s processing steps include breaking a water-oil emulsion, recovering a light hydrocarbon fraction by distillation in a stripper unit, and pyrolyzing the residua reducing it to additional overhead and a benign coke for disposal. Cold Lake bitumen was tested in WRI's bench-scale equipment to evaluate the potential use of TaBoRR{reg_sign} technology for heavy oil upgrading to produce a stable, partially (or fully) upgraded product that will allow diluent-reduced or diluent-free transportation of bitumen or ultra-heavy crudes to market. Runs were conducted at temperatures of low, intermediate and high severity in the stripper to produce stripper overhead and bottoms. The bottoms from each of these runs were processed further in a 6-inch screw pyrolyzer to produce pyrolyzer overhead for blending with the corresponding stripper overheads. Proceeding in this fashion yielded three partially upgraded crudes. The products from TaBoRR{reg_sign} processing, the parent bitumen, and bitumen blends were subjected to stability and compatibility testing at the National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT). Chemical analyses of the overhead product blends have met pipeline specifications for viscosity and density; however the bromine number does not, which might indicate the need for mild hydrotreating. Storage stability tests showed the blends to be stable. The blends were also soluble and compatible with most other Alberta crudes.

  4. FORMATION OF MASSIVE MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES BY CLOUD-CLOUD COLLISION

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Yasuo

    2013-09-10

    Recent observations of molecular clouds around rich massive star clusters including NGC 3603, Westerlund 2, and M20 revealed that the formation of massive stars could be triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. By using three-dimensional, isothermal, magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity, we demonstrate that massive, gravitationally unstable, molecular cloud cores are formed behind the strong shock waves induced by cloud-cloud collision. We find that the massive molecular cloud cores have large effective Jeans mass owing to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength by shock compression and turbulence in the compressed layer. Our results predict that massive molecular cloud cores formed by the cloud-cloud collision are filamentary and threaded by magnetic fields perpendicular to the filament.

  5. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  6. Cardiac vagal outflow after aerobic training by analysis of high-frequency oscillation of the R-R interval.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Antti M; Hautala, Arto J; Mäkikallio, Timo H; Seppänen, Tapio; Huikuri, Heikki V; Tulppo, Mikko P

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of aerobic training on the dynamics between the R-R interval length and the high-frequency (HF) oscillation of the R-R interval. Seventeen healthy males (26+/-2 years) participated in an 8-week aerobic training intervention. The mean HF spectral power (0.15-0.4 Hz) of the R-R interval and the mean R-R interval length were analyzed from 24-h recordings. HF power was also analyzed in 5-min sequences and plotted as a function of the corresponding mean R-R interval length. The relationship between the R-R interval length and the HF power was analyzed by a quadratic regression model. The relationship was defined as saturated if the distinct deflection point of the model occurred before the maximum R-R interval. Otherwise, the relationship was defined as linear. Additionally, the mean HF power was calculated from the linear portion of the R-R interval versus the HF power regression curve (HF index). Before the training intervention, seven subjects had a saturated HF power. After the intervention, five new cases of saturated HF power were observed. The mean HF power of the 24-h recording did not change in the group with a saturated HF power before training (7.4+/-0.8 vs. 7.6+/-0.8 ms(2)), but the HF index increased (6.7+/-0.7 vs. 7.1+/-0.7 ms(2), P<0.05). We conclude that enhanced vagal activity due to aerobic training increases the prevalence of the saturation of the HF oscillation of the R-R interval variability in healthy subjects. HF power calculated from unsaturated area detects more accurately subtle changes in the vagally mediated beat-to-beat variability of the R-R interval after aerobic training than the mean 24-h HF power.

  7. Annotation and analysis of a large cuticular protein family with the R&R Consensus in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Cornman, R Scott; Togawa, Toru; Dunn, W Augustine; He, Ningjia; Emmons, Aaron C; Willis, Judith H

    2008-01-01

    Background The most abundant family of insect cuticular proteins, the CPR family, is recognized by the R&R Consensus, a domain of about 64 amino acids that binds to chitin and is present throughout arthropods. Several species have now been shown to have more than 100 CPR genes, inviting speculation as to the functional importance of this large number and diversity. Results We have identified 156 genes in Anopheles gambiae that code for putative cuticular proteins in this CPR family, over 1% of the total number of predicted genes in this species. Annotation was verified using several criteria including identification of TATA boxes, INRs, and DPEs plus support from proteomic and gene expression analyses. Two previously recognized CPR classes, RR-1 and RR-2, form separate, well-supported clades with the exception of a small set of genes with long branches whose relationships are poorly resolved. Several of these outliers have clear orthologs in other species. Although both clades are under purifying selection, the RR-1 variant of the R&R Consensus is evolving at twice the rate of the RR-2 variant and is structurally more labile. In contrast, the regions flanking the R&R Consensus have diversified in amino-acid composition to a much greater extent in RR-2 genes compared with RR-1 genes. Many genes are found in compact tandem arrays that may include similar or dissimilar genes but always include just one of the two classes. Tandem arrays of RR-2 genes frequently contain subsets of genes coding for highly similar proteins (sequence clusters). Properties of the proteins indicated that each cluster may serve a distinct function in the cuticle. Conclusion The complete annotation of this large gene family provides insight on the mechanisms of gene family evolution and clues about the need for so many CPR genes. These data also should assist annotation of other Anopheles genes. PMID:18205929

  8. GEWEX Cloud Systems Study (GCSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moncrieff, Mitch

    1993-01-01

    The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Systems Study (GCSS) program seeks to improve the physical understanding of sub-grid scale cloud processes and their representation in parameterization schemes. By improving the description and understanding of key cloud system processes, GCSS aims to develop the necessary parameterizations in climate and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. GCSS will address these issues mainly through the development and use of cloud-resolving or cumulus ensemble models to generate realizations of a set of archetypal cloud systems. The focus of GCSS is on mesoscale cloud systems, including precipitating convectively-driven cloud systems like MCS's and boundary layer clouds, rather than individual clouds, and on their large-scale effects. Some of the key scientific issues confronting GCSS that particularly relate to research activities in the central U.S. are presented.

  9. Marine cloud brightening

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  10. Stratocumulus cloud evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Rogers, D.P.; Norris, P.M.; Johnson, D.W.; Martin, G.M.

    1994-12-31

    The structure and evolution of the extra-tropical marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) depends largely on the variability of stratus and stratocumulus clouds. The typical boundary-layer is capped by a temperature inversion that limits exchange with the free atmosphere. Cloud-top is usually coincident with the base of the inversion. Stratus clouds are generally associated with a well-mixed MABL, whereas daytime observations of stratocumulus-topped boundary-layers indicate that the cloud and subcloud layers are often decoupled due to shortwave radiative heating of the cloud layer. In this case the surface-based mixed layer is separated from the base of the stratocumulus (Sc) by a layer that is stable to dry turbulent mixing. This is sometimes referred to as the transition layer. Often cumulus clouds (Cu) develop in the transition layer. The cumulus tops may remain below the Sc base or they may penetrate into the Sc layer and occasionally through the capping temperature inversion. While this cloud structure is characteristic of the daytime MABL, it may persist at night also. The Cu play an important role in connecting the mixed layer to the Sc layer. If the Cu are active they transport water vapor from the sea surface that maintains the Sc against the dissipating effects of shortwave heating. The Cu, however, are very sensitive to small changes in the heat and moisture in the boundary-layer and are transient features. Here the authors discuss the effect of these small Cu on the turbulent structure of the MABL.

  11. Drop rebound in clouds and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochs, H. T., III; Beard, K. V.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of rebound for colliding cloud drops was measured by determining the collection efficiency. The collection efficiency for 17 size pairs of relatively uncharged drops in over 500 experimental runs was measured using two techniques. The collection efficiencies fall in a narrow range of 0.60 to 0.70 even though the collection drop was varied between 63 and 326 microns and the size ratio from 0.05 to 0.33. In addition the measured values of collection efficiencies (Epsilon) were below the computed values of collision efficiencies (E) for rigid spheres. Therefore it was concluded that rebound was occurring for these sizes since inferred coalescence (epsilon = Epsilon/E) efficiencies are about 0.6 yo 0.8. At a very small size ratio (r/R = p = 0.05, R = 326 microns) the coalescence efficiency inferred is in good agreement with the experimental findings for a supported collector drop. At somewhat large size ratios the inferred values of epsilon are well above results of supported drop experiments, but show a slight correspondence in collected drop size dependency to two models of drop rebound. At a large size ratio (p = 0.73, R = 275) the inferred coalescence efficiency is significantly different from all previous results.

  12. A Flexible Cloud Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassi, A.; Deguy, S.; Szczap, F.

    2001-05-01

    In this work we propose a flexible cloud generating model as well as a software. This model depends upon 5 quantities: -the cloud fractional coverage -the spectral slope -the mean value -the variance -the internal heterogeneity (intermittency). All these quantities are independantly identifiable on the base of mathematical proofs. This model also depends on a given function, called "morphlet", and on the law of a random variables family. In order to get a positive water contain inside the cloud,we ask the morphlet and the random variables to be positives. The structure of the model is hierarchycal. The vertebral column of this model is a tree: the basic encoding tree of the space where the cloud lives. At each edge of the tree is attached: -a Bernoulli random variable,this for tuning the fractional cover and the intermittency, -a rate of energy loose,giving the spectral slope, -a dilated morphlet. The word flexible is justified by the fact that we can choose to modify some objets on the basic tree in order to adjust the caracteristics of the desired cloud.

  13. Microphysics of Pyrocumulonimbus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fridlind, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The intense heat from forest fires can generate explosive deep convective cloud systems that inject pollutants to high altitudes. Both satellite and high-altitude aircraft measurements have documented cases in which these pyrocumulonimbus clouds inject large amounts of smoke well into the stratosphere (Fromm and Servranckx 2003; Jost et al. 2004). This smoke can remain in the stratosphere, be transported large distances, and affect lower stratospheric chemistry. In addition recent in situ measurements in pyrocumulus updrafts have shown that the high concentrations of smoke particles have significant impacts on cloud microphysical properties. Very high droplet number densities result in delayed precipitation and may enhance lightning (Andrew et al. 2004). Presumably, the smoke particles will also lead to changes in the properties of anvil cirrus produces by the deep convection, with resulting influences on cloud radiative forcing. In situ sampling near the tops of mature pyrocumulonimbus is difficult due to the high altitude and violence of the storms. In this study, we use large eddy simulations (LES) with size-resolved microphysics to elucidate physical processes in pyrocumulonimbus clouds.

  14. Cloud top entrainment instability and cloud top distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, Reinout; Spinhirne, James D.

    1990-01-01

    Classical cloud-top entrainment instability condition formulation is discussed. A saturation point diagram is used to investigate the details of mixing in cases where the cloud-top entrainment instability criterion is satisfied.

  15. Cloud condensation nucleus-sulfate mass relationship and cloud albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegg, Dean A.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of previously published, simultaneous measurements of cloud condensation nucleus number concentration and sulfate mass concentration suggest a nonlinear relationship between the two variables. This nonlinearity reduces the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in the sulfur cycle.

  16. Dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31. I. Variable stars and stellar populations in Andromeda XIX

    SciTech Connect

    Cusano, Felice; Clementini, Gisella; Garofalo, Alessia; Federici, Luciana E-mail: gisella.clementini@oabo.inaf.it E-mail: alessia.garofalo@studio.unibo.it; and others

    2013-12-10

    We present B, V time-series photometry of Andromeda XIX (And XIX), the most extended (half-light radius of 6.'2) of Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal companions, which we observed with the Large Binocular Cameras at the Large Binocular Telescope. We surveyed a 23' × 23' area centered on And XIX and present the deepest color-magnitude diagram (CMD) ever obtained for this galaxy, reaching, at V ∼ 26.3 mag, about one magnitude below the horizontal branch (HB). The CMD shows a prominent and slightly widened red giant branch, along with a predominantly red HB, which extends to the blue to significantly populate the classical instability strip. We have identified 39 pulsating variable stars, of which 31 are of RR Lyrae type and 8 are Anomalous Cepheids (ACs). Twelve of the RR Lyrae variables and three of the ACs are located within And XIX's half light radius. The average period of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars ((P {sub ab}) = 0.62 days, σ = 0.03 days) and the period-amplitude diagram qualify And XIX as an Oosterhoff-Intermediate system. From the average luminosity of the RR Lyrae stars ((V(RR)) = 25.34 mag, σ = 0.10 mag), we determine a distance modulus of (m – M){sub 0} = 24.52 ± 0.23 mag in a scale where the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is 18.5 ± 0.1 mag. The ACs follow a well-defined Period-Wesenheit (PW) relation that appears to be in very good agreement with the PW relationship defined by the ACs in the LMC.

  17. Distinct Signal Transduction Pathways Downstream of the (P)RR Revealed by Microarray and ChIP-chip Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zaade, Daniela; Schmitz, Jennifer; Benke, Eileen; Klare, Sabrina; Seidel, Kerstin; Kirsch, Sebastian; Goldin-Lang, Petra; Zollmann, Frank S.; Unger, Thomas; Funke-Kaiser, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    The (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) signaling is involved in different pathophysiologies ranging from cardiorenal end-organ damage via diabetic retinopathy to tumorigenesis. We have previously shown that the transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is an adaptor protein of the (P)RR. Furthermore, recent publications suggest that major functions of the (P)RR are mediated ligand-independently by its transmembrane and intracellular part, which acts as an accessory protein of V-ATPases. The transcriptome and recruitmentome downstream of the V-ATPase function and PLZF in the context of the (P)RR are currently unknown. Therefore, we performed a set of microarray and chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip experiments using siRNA against the (P)RR, stable overexpression of PLZF, the PLZF translocation inhibitor genistein and the specific V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin to dissect transcriptional pathways downstream of the (P)RR. We were able to identify distinct and overlapping genetic signatures as well as novel real-time PCR-validated target genes of the different molecular functions of the (P)RR. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses of our data confirm the role of (P)RŔs signal transduction pathways in cardiovascular disease and tumorigenesis. PMID:23469216

  18. Reconstruction of cloud geometry using a scanning cloud radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, F.; Winkler, C.; Zinner, T.

    2015-06-01

    Clouds are one of the main reasons of uncertainties in the forecasts of weather and climate. In part, this is due to limitations of remote sensing of cloud microphysics. Present approaches often use passive spectral measurements for the remote sensing of cloud microphysical parameters. Large uncertainties are introduced by three-dimensional (3-D) radiative transfer effects and cloud inhomogeneities. Such effects are largely caused by unknown orientation of cloud sides or by shadowed areas on the cloud. Passive ground-based remote sensing of cloud properties at high spatial resolution could be crucially improved with this kind of additional knowledge of cloud geometry. To this end, a method for the accurate reconstruction of 3-D cloud geometry from cloud radar measurements is developed in this work. Using a radar simulator and simulated passive measurements of model clouds based on a large eddy simulation (LES), the effects of different radar scan resolutions and varying interpolation methods are evaluated. In reality, a trade-off between scan resolution and scan duration has to be found as clouds change quickly. A reasonable choice is a scan resolution of 1 to 2°. The most suitable interpolation procedure identified is the barycentric interpolation method. The 3-D reconstruction method is demonstrated using radar scans of convective cloud cases with the Munich miraMACS, a 35 GHz scanning cloud radar. As a successful proof of concept, camera imagery collected at the radar location is reproduced for the observed cloud cases via 3-D volume reconstruction and 3-D radiative transfer simulation. Data sets provided by the presented reconstruction method will aid passive spectral ground-based measurements of cloud sides to retrieve microphysical parameters.

  19. Making clouds in Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements in the accuracy of weather predictions and possibilities for changing the weather might depend on a better understanding of the microphysical processes which take place within clouds. A study of these processes on the surface of the earth is difficult in connection with gravitational disturbances. An Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL), which is currently being developed, is to be carried into space in the Spacelab in the early 1980's. This facility will provide scientists, for the first time, with the opportunity to study cloud physics without the disturbing gravitational effects. In the ACPL facility, a microscopic element can be suspended without support. The processes of freezing, thawing, collision, electric charging, and temperature changes can be observed and photographed as many times and for as long as necessary.

  20. Winter Clouds Over Mie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 March 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red wide angle image shows late winter clouds over the 104 km (65 mi) diameter crater, Mie. Cellular clouds occur in the lower martian atmosphere, surrounding Mie Crater. Their cloudtops are at an altitude that is below the crater rim. Higher than the crater rim occurs a series of lee wave clouds, indicating air circulation moving from west/northwest (left) toward the east/southeast (right). Mie Crater is located in Utopia Planitia, not too far from the Viking 2 landing site, near 48.5 N, 220.4 W. Sunlight illuminates this January 2004 scene from the lower left.

  1. Evaluation of repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Akira; Yoshioka, Ryozo; Sakabe, Masao

    2015-03-01

    QT-RR linear regression consists of two parameters, slope and intercept, and the aim of this study was to evaluate repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR linear regression slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG. This study included 466 healthy subjects (54.6 ± 14.6 years; 200 men and 266 women) and 17 patients with ventricular arrhythmias, consisted of 10 patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) and 7 patients with torsades de pointes (TDP). QT and RR intervals were measured from ECG waves based on a 15-s averaged ECG during 24-h Holter recording using an automatic QT analyzing system. The QT interval dependence on the RR interval was analyzed using a linear regression line for each subject ([QT] = A[RR] + B; where A is the slope and B is the y-intercept). The slope of the QT-RR regression line in healthy subjects was significantly greater in women than in men (0.185 ± 0.036 vs. 0.161 ± 0.033, p < 0.001) and the intercept was significantly smaller in women than in men (0.229 ± 0.028 vs. 0.240 ± 0.027, p < 0.001). A scatter diagram of the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept among healthy subjects demonstrated a statistically significant negative correlation (B = -0.62A + 0.34, r = -0.79). Distribution of both scatter diagrams of the slope and the intercept of the QT-RR regression line in patients with IVF and TDP was different from healthy subjects (left corner for IVF and upward shift for TDP). The slope and intercept relationship of the QT-RR linear regression line based on 24-h Holter ECG may become a simple useful marker for abnormality of ventricular repolarization dynamics.

  2. R-R interval variations influence the degree of mitral regurgitation in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Reimann, M J; Møller, J E; Häggström, J; Markussen, B; Holen, A E W; Falk, T; Olsen, L H

    2014-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) due to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is a frequent finding in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs). Sinus arrhythmia and atrial premature complexes leading to R-R interval variations occur in dogs. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the duration of the R-R interval immediately influences the degree of MR assessed by echocardiography in dogs. Clinical examination including echocardiography was performed in 103 privately-owned dogs: 16 control Beagles, 70 CKCSs with different degree of MR and 17 dogs of different breeds with clinical signs of congestive heart failure due to MMVD. The severity of MR was evaluated in apical four-chamber view using colour Doppler flow mapping (maximum % of the left atrium area) and colour Doppler M-mode (duration in ms). The influence of the ratio between present and preceding R-R interval on MR severity was evaluated in 10 consecutive R-R intervals using a linear mixed model for repeated measurements. MR severity was increased when a short R-R interval was followed by a long R-R interval in CKCSs with different degrees of MR (P<0.005 when adjusted for multiple testing). The relationship was not significant in control dogs with minimal MR and in dogs with severe MR and clinical signs of heart failure. In conclusion, MR severity increases in long R-R intervals when these follow a short R-R interval in CKCSs with different degrees of MR due to asymptomatic MMVD. Thus, R-R interval variations may affect the echocardiographic grading of MR in CKCSs.

  3. MISR Level 2 Cloud Product Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-04

      MISR Level 2 Cloud Product Versioning MISR Level 2 Cloud Product Processing Status ESDT Product File ... Quality Designations MIL2TCSP MISR_AM1_TC_CLOUD Stage 3 Validated:  Cloud Top Heights (Without Wind ...

  4. Real World: Global Cloud Observation Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about precipitation and how clouds are formed. Find out why scientists study clouds and how you can help NASA collect cloud observation data as part of the Students' Cloud Observation OnLine,...

  5. Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2014-05-15

    Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

  6. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  7. Mutual information detects a decreased interdependence between RR and SAP in orthostatic intolerance after microgravity condition.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, G; Chillemi, S; Michelassi, C; Di Garbo, A; Varanini, M; Legramante, J; Balocchi, R

    2002-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is the most serious symptom of cardiovascular deconditioning induced by microgravity. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these alterations have not been completely clarified. Several methods for studying the time series of systolic arterial pressure and RR interval have been proposed both in the time and in the frequency domain. However, these methods did not produce definitive results. In fact heart rate and arterial pressure show a complex pattern of global variability which is likely due to non linear feedback which involves the autonomic nervous system and to "stochastic" influences. Aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of interdependence between the mechanisms responsible for the variability of SAP and RR signals in subjects exposed to head down (HD). This quantification was achieved by using Mutual Information (MI).

  8. Intensive Observations of Cataclysmic, RR Lyr, and High Amplitude delta Scuti (HADS) Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.

    2012-06-01

    An intensive observing campaign is ongoing to study cataclysmic, RR Lyr (with and without Blazhko effect), and High Amplitude delta Scuti (HADS) variable stars. These observations are based on requests and in collaboration with different organisations (CBA, VSNET, GEOS) and individuals. Observations are taken from my private observatories in Belgium, Chile, and through shared use of an observatory belonging to the AAVSOnet in New Mexico. Examples of individual stars intensively followed-up on are: CD Ind and BW Scl, two cataclysmic variables; NU Aur, an RR Lyr star with strong Blazhko effect; and GSC0762-0110, a HADS star. Many publications in different journals including Astronomy and Astrophysics have already emerged from this research.

  9. Levels of agreement for RR intervals and short-term heart rate variability obtained from the Polar S810 and an alternative system.

    PubMed

    Nunan, David; Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Donovan, Gay; Hodges, Lynette D; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Brodie, David A

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between HRV measures derived from a time series of RR intervals recorded by a standard 12-lead ECG (CP) and a commercially available RR interval recorder (S810). Thirty-three participants (19 males) (median age 36, range 20-63) underwent simultaneous, 5-min, supine RR-interval recordings. Each RR interval time series was analysed using the software supplied with the recording equipment. Two comparisons were then made. First, a comparison of RR interval data recording and editing only was made. Second, comparisons were made for measures of HRV derived from edited RR interval data. Agreement between RR intervals and standard HRV measures were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient and limits of agreement. Agreement of HRV measures derived from RR intervals recorded and edited by individual systems was not acceptable. Agreement analyses for the number of RR intervals recorded and edited by each systems software showed excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC lower 95% CI > 0.75) and acceptably narrow limits of agreement (LoA). These data indicate that the number of RR intervals recorded by S810 can agree well those recorded from a standard 12-lead ECG. This is true even after application of system specific data editing procedures. Commercial RR-interval recorders may offer a simple, inexpensive alternative to full 12-lead ECG in the recording and editing of RR intervals for subsequent HRV analysis in healthy populations.

  10. Automatic cloud cover mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, J. P., III; Rosenfeld, A.

    1971-01-01

    A method of converting a picture into a 'cartoon' or 'map' whose regions correspond to differently textured regions is described. Texture edges in the picture are detected, and solid regions surrounded by these (usually broken) edges are 'colored in' using a propagation process. The resulting map is cleaned by comparing the region colors with the textures of the corresponding regions in the picture, and also by merging some regions with others according to criteria based on topology and size. The method has been applied to the construction of cloud cover maps from cloud cover pictures obtained by satellites.

  11. The Oort cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    1990-04-01

    Although the outermost planet, Pluto, is 6 x 10 to the 9th km from the sun, the sun's gravitational sphere of influence extends much further, out to about 2 x 10 to the 13th km. This space is occupied by the Oort cloud, comprising 10 to the 12th-10 to the 13th cometary nuclei, formed in the primordial solar nebula. Observations and computer modeling have contributed to a detailed understanding of the structure and dynamics of the cloud, which is thought to be the source of the long-period comets and possibly comet showers.

  12. The Oort cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessman, Paul R.

    1990-01-01

    Although the outermost planet, Pluto, is 6 x 10 to the 9th km from the sun, the sun's gravitational sphere of influence extends much further, out to about 2 x 10 to the 13th km. This space is occupied by the Oort cloud, comprising 10 to the 12th-10 to the 13th cometary nuclei, formed in the primordial solar nebula. Observations and computer modeling have contributed to a detailed understanding of the structure and dynamics of the cloud, which is thought to be the source of the long-period comets and possibly comet showers.

  13. Opaque cloud detection

    DOEpatents

    Roskovensky, John K.

    2009-01-20

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  14. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection. Vol. 47/No. RR-4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-17

    INTERNET DOCUMENT INFORMATION FORM A . Report Title: Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection B. DATE Report...No. RR-4 Recommendations and Reports MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV...Services, Atlanta, GA 30333. SUGGESTED CITATION Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for the use of antiretro- viral agents in

  15. Frequency of slow oscillations in arterial pressure and R-R intervals during muscle metaboreflex activation.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Antti M; Tiinanen, Suvi; Hautala, Arto J; Seppänen, Tapio; Mäkikallio, Timo H; Huikuri, Heikki V; Tulppo, Mikko P

    2010-01-15

    Altered frequency of slow (0.04-0.15Hz) arterial pressure and R-R interval oscillations has been observed in various diseases but the mechanisms for this frequency shift are unclear. The median (Med) frequencies of slow R-R interval and blood pressure (BP) oscillations were recorded in 11 healthy subjects with paced breathing (0.25Hz) during muscle metaboreflex and baroreflex mediated sympathetic stimuli: 1) handgrip exercise (HG) followed by post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO), 2) handgrip exercise during ischemia by circulatory occlusion (IHG) and 3) passive head-up tilt (TILT). Med(BP) shifted to the higher frequency during HG, PECO and IHG (from 0.070+/-0.009Hz to 0.088+/-0.013, 0.085+/-0.015 and 0.099+/-0.013Hz, respectively, p<0.01 for all) but not during TILT (0.078+/-0.012Hz). Similarly, Med(R-R) shifted to the higher frequency during HG, PECO and IHG (from 0.072+/-0.009Hz to 0.085+/-0.014, 0.085+/-0.016 and 0.095+/-0.015Hz, respectively, p<0.01 for all) but not during TILT (0.075+/-0.012Hz). Med(BP) and Med(R-R) were higher during IHG compared to HG and lower during TILT compared to both HG and IHG (p<0.01 for all). We conclude that the sympathetic stimulus induced by muscle metaboreflex is an important mechanism increasing the frequency of slow oscillations in arterial pressure and R-R intervals. The present results give new insight to understand the physiology underlying the frequency of slow arterial pressure and R-R interval oscillations.

  16. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  17. G2 Gas Cloud Simulation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This simulation shows the future behavior of the G2 gas cloud now approaching Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. X-ray emission from the cloud's tidal interaction w...

  18. Animated View of Noctilucent Cloud

    NASA Video Gallery

    Polar mesospheric clouds, as they are known to those who study them from satellite observations, are also often called "noctilucent," or night shining, clouds as seen by ground-based observers. Bec...

  19. Active Imaging through Cirrus Clouds.

    PubMed

    Landesman, B; Kindilien, P; Pierson, R; Matson, C; Mosley, D

    1997-11-24

    The presence of clouds of ice particles in the uplink and downlink path of an illumination beam can severely impede the performance of an active imaging system. Depending on the optical depth of the cloud, i.e., its density and depth, the beam can be completely scattered and extinguished, or the beam can pass through the cloud with some fraction attenuated, scattered, and depolarized. In particular, subvisual cirrus clouds, i.e., high, thin cirrus clouds that cannot be observed from the ground, can affect the properties and alignment of both uplink and downlink beams. This paper discusses the potential for active imaging in the presence of cirrus clouds. We document field data results from an active imaging experiment conducted several years ago, which the authors believe to show the effects of cirrus clouds on an active imaging system. To verify these conclusions, we include the results of a simulation of the interaction of a coherent illumination scheme with a cirrus cloud.

  20. Contributions of tidal lung inflation to human R-R interval and arterial pressure fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Koh, J; Brown, T E; Beightol, L A; Eckberg, D L

    1998-01-19

    We studied the effects of mechanical lung inflation on respiratory frequency R-R interval and arterial pressure fluctuations in nine healthy young adults undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. We conducted this research to define the contribution of pulmonary and thoracic stretch receptor input to respiratory sinus arrhythmia. We compared fast Fourier transform spectral power during three modes of ventilation: (1) spontaneous, frequency-controlled (0.25 Hz) breathing, (2) intermittent positive pressure ventilation (0.25 Hz, with a tidal volume of 8 ml/kg) and (3) high frequency jet ventilation (5.0 Hz, 2.5 kg/cm2), after sedation and vecuronium paralysis. Mean R-R intervals, arterial pressures and arterial blood gas levels were comparable during all three breathing conditions. Respiratory frequency systolic pressure spectral power was comparable during spontaneous breathing and conventional mechanical ventilation, but was significantly reduced during high frequency jet ventilation (P < 0.05). Respiratory frequency R-R interval spectral power (used as an index of respiratory sinus arrhythmia) declined dramatically with sedation and muscle paralysis (P < 0.05), but was greater during conventional mechanical, than high frequency jet ventilation (P < 0.05). These results suggest that although phasic inputs from pulmonary and thoracic stretch receptors make a statistically significant contribution to respiratory sinus arrhythmia, that contribution is small.

  1. Contributions of tidal lung inflation to human R-R interval and arterial pressure fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J.; Brown, T. E.; Beightol, L. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effects of mechanical lung inflation on respiratory frequency R-R interval and arterial pressure fluctuations in nine healthy young adults undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. We conducted this research to define the contribution of pulmonary and thoracic stretch receptor input to respiratory sinus arrhythmia. We compared fast Fourier transform spectral power during three modes of ventilation: (1) spontaneous, frequency-controlled (0.25 Hz) breathing, (2) intermittent positive pressure ventilation (0.25 Hz, with a tidal volume of 8 ml/kg) and (3) high frequency jet ventilation (5.0 Hz, 2.5 kg/cm2), after sedation and vecuronium paralysis. Mean R-R intervals, arterial pressures and arterial blood gas levels were comparable during all three breathing conditions. Respiratory frequency systolic pressure spectral power was comparable during spontaneous breathing and conventional mechanical ventilation, but was significantly reduced during high frequency jet ventilation (P < 0.05). Respiratory frequency R-R interval spectral power (used as an index of respiratory sinus arrhythmia) declined dramatically with sedation and muscle paralysis (P < 0.05), but was greater during conventional mechanical, than high frequency jet ventilation (P < 0.05). These results suggest that although phasic inputs from pulmonary and thoracic stretch receptors make a statistically significant contribution to respiratory sinus arrhythmia, that contribution is small.

  2. Alignment of R-R interval signals using the circadian heart rate rhythm.

    PubMed

    Gayraud, Nathalie T H; Manis, George

    2015-01-01

    R-R interval signals that come from different subjects are regularly aligned and averaged according to the horological starting time of the recordings. We argue that the horological time is a faulty alignment criterion and provide evidence in the form of a new alignment method. Our main motivation is that the human heart rate (HR) rhythm follows a circadian cycle, whose pattern can vary among different classes of people. We propose two novel alignment algorithms that consider the HR circadian rhythm, the Puzzle Piece Alignment Algorithm (PPA) and the Event Based Alignment Algorithm (EBA). First, we convert the R-R interval signal into a series of time windows and compute the mean HR per window. Then our algorithms search for matching circadian patterns to align the signals. We conduct experiments using R-R interval signals extracted from two databases in the Physionet Data Bank. Both algorithms are able to align the signals with respect to the circadian rhythmicity of HR. Furthermore, our findings confirm the presence of more than one pattern in the circadian HR rhythm. We suggest an automatic classification of signals according to the three most prominent patterns.

  3. Validity of the polar S810 to measure R-R intervals in children.

    PubMed

    Gamelin, F-X; Baquet, G; Berthoin, S; Bosquet, L

    2008-02-01

    Intervals between two consecutive cardiac beats (R-R intervals) and the subsequent analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) obtained simultaneously from the Polar S810 heart rate monitor (HRM) and an electrocardiogram (ECG) in a supine position were compared in twelve children (age 9.6 +/- 0.9 years) before and after protocol correction. R-R intervals were significantly different between the ECG and the HRM uncorrected and corrected signal (p < 0.001, effect size [ES] = 0.005, and 0.005, respectively). However, the bias (95 % confidence interval) was 0.80 (- 124.76 - 123.16) ms and 0.80 (- 12.76 - 11.16) ms, respectively. HRV parameters derived from both signals were not different (p > 0.05) and well correlated (r > 0.99, p < 0.05), except SD2 (p < 0.05, ES = 0.000; r = 0.99). These data support the validity of the Polar S810 HRM to measure R-R intervals and make the subsequent HRV analysis in a supine position in children.

  4. Automated detection of atrial fibrillation using R-R intervals and multivariate-based classification.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alan; Finlay, Dewar D; Guldenring, Daniel; Bond, Raymond R; Moran, Kieran; McLaughlin, James

    Automated detection of AF from the electrocardiogram (ECG) still remains a challenge. In this study, we investigated two multivariate-based classification techniques, Random Forests (RF) and k-nearest neighbor (k-nn), for improved automated detection of AF from the ECG. We have compiled a new database from ECG data taken from existing sources. R-R intervals were then analyzed using four previously described R-R irregularity measurements: (1) the coefficient of sample entropy (CoSEn), (2) the coefficient of variance (CV), (3) root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD), and (4) median absolute deviation (MAD). Using outputs from all four R-R irregularity measurements, RF and k-nn models were trained. RF classification improved AF detection over CoSEn with overall specificity of 80.1% vs. 98.3% and positive predictive value of 51.8% vs. 92.1% with a reduction in sensitivity, 97.6% vs. 92.8%. k-nn also improved specificity and PPV over CoSEn; however, the sensitivity of this approach was considerably reduced (68.0%).

  5. Discovery of Leonid Meteoric Cloud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    as a local enhancement in sky brightness during the meteor shower in 1998. The radius of the trail, deduced from the spatial extent of the cloud, is...A meteoric cloud is a faint glow of sunlight scattered by the small meteoroids in the trail along a parent comets orbit. Here we report the first...detection of the meteoric cloud associated with the Leonid meteor stream. Our photometric observations, performed on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, reveal the cloud

  6. Coherent Radiation of Electron Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.

    2004-11-02

    The electron cloud in positron storage rings is pinched when a bunch passes by. For short bunches, the radiation due to acceleration of electrons of the cloud is coherent. Detection of such radiation can be used to measure the density of the cloud. The estimate of the power and the time structure of the radiated signal is given in this paper.

  7. A View from the Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudnov, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is definitely a thing now, but it's not new and it's not even novel. Back when people were first learning about the Internet in the 1990s, every diagram that one saw showing how the Internet worked had a big cloud in the middle. That cloud represented the diverse links, routers, gateways, and protocols that passed traffic around in…

  8. The Basics of Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Most school business officials have heard the term "cloud computing" bandied about and may have some idea of what the term means. In fact, they likely already leverage a cloud-computing solution somewhere within their district. But what does cloud computing really mean? This brief article puts a bit of definition behind the term and helps one…

  9. AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.

    PubMed

    Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G

    2015-05-26

    We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.

  10. Cloud water chemistry and the production of sulfates in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegg, D. A.; Hobbs, P. V.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the pH and ionic content of water collected in clouds over western Washington and the Los Angeles Basin. Evidence for sulfate production in some of the clouds is presented. Not all of the sulfur in the cloud water was in the form of sulfate. However, the measurements indicate that the production of sulfate in clouds is of considerable significance in the atmosphere. Comparison of field measurements with model results show reasonable agreement and suggest that the production of sulfate in cloud water is a consequence of more than one conversion mechanism.

  11. Data Products on Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Vuong T.; Mandl, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation lays out the data processing products that exist and are planned for the Matsu cloud for Earth Observing 1. The presentation focuses on a new feature called co-registration of Earth Observing 1 with Landsat Global Land Survey chips.

  12. Jupiter Clouds in Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 619 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 727 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 890 nm

    Images from NASA's Cassini spacecraft using three different filters reveal cloud structures and movements at different depths in the atmosphere around Jupiter's south pole.

    Cassini's cameras come equipped with filters that sample three wavelengths where methane gas absorbs light. These are in the red at 619 nanometer (nm) wavelength and in the near-infrared at 727 nm and 890 nm. Absorption in the 619 nm filter is weak. It is stronger in the 727 nm band and very strong in the 890 nm band where 90 percent of the light is absorbed by methane gas. Light in the weakest band can penetrate the deepest into Jupiter's atmosphere. It is sensitive to the amount of cloud and haze down to the pressure of the water cloud, which lies at a depth where pressure is about 6 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level on the Earth). Light in the strongest methane band is absorbed at high altitude and is sensitive only to the ammonia cloud level and higher (pressures less than about one-half of Earth's atmospheric pressure) and the middle methane band is sensitive to the ammonia and ammonium hydrosulfide cloud layers as deep as two times Earth's atmospheric pressure.

    The images shown here demonstrate the power of these filters in studies of cloud stratigraphy. The images cover latitudes from about 15 degrees north at the top down to the southern polar region at the bottom. The left and middle images are ratios, the image in the methane filter divided by the image at a nearby wavelength outside the methane band. Using ratios emphasizes where contrast is due to methane absorption and not to other factors, such as the absorptive properties of the cloud particles, which influence contrast at all wavelengths.

    The most prominent feature seen in all three filters is the polar stratospheric haze that makes Jupiter

  13. Multiscale Cloud System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.

    2009-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is to describe how cloud system resolving models (CRMs) of grid spacing approximately 1 km have been applied to various important problems in atmospheric science across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and how these applications relate to other modeling approaches. A long-standing problem concerns the representation of organized precipitating convective cloud systems in weather and climate models. Since CRMs resolve the mesoscale to large scales of motion (i.e., 10 km to global) they explicitly address the cloud system problem. By explicitly representing organized convection, CRMs bypass restrictive assumptions associated with convective parameterization such as the scale gap between cumulus and large-scale motion. Dynamical models provide insight into the physical mechanisms involved with scale interaction and convective organization. Multiscale CRMs simulate convective cloud systems in computational domains up to global and have been applied in place of contemporary convective parameterizations in global models. Multiscale CRMs pose a new challenge for model validation, which is met in an integrated approach involving CRMs, operational prediction systems, observational measurements, and dynamical models in a new international project: the Year of Tropical Convection, which has an emphasis on organized tropical convection and its global effects.

  14. Living under a Cloud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursky, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the efforts of three high school teachers at Richland High School in Richland (Washington) to change the school logo from a mushroom cloud, the symbol for a nuclear explosion. Opposition to these teachers' efforts has come from school administrators and fellow teachers, students, alumnae, and community residents. (IAH)

  15. Optical Transmission through Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    radiative transfer in clouds is carried out by the .1,nte Carlo method. In a Monte Carlo computation one photon...has some advantages over other computational methods for radiative transfer , namely * any phase function can be used * can include polarization (with...APPENDIX A. Monte Carlo Simulation if Radiative Transfer APPENDIX B. Intensity Reference Method for Radiative Transfer APPENDIX C.

  16. Data in the Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Garofalo, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The ability to move from one representation of data to another is one of the key characteristics of expert mathematicians and scientists. Cloud computing will offer more opportunities to create and display multiple representations of data, making this skill even more important in the future. The advent of the Internet led to widespread…

  17. Seeding the Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2013-01-01

    For any institution looking to shift enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems to the cloud, big savings can be achieved--but only if the school has properly prepped "before" negotiations begin. These three steps can help: (1) Mop up the mess first; (2) Understand the true costs for services; and (3) Calculate the cost of transition.

  18. Invisible Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer's (MODIS') cloud detection capability is so sensitive that it can detect clouds that would be indistinguishable to the human eye. This pair of images highlights MODIS' ability to detect what scientists call 'sub-visible cirrus.' The image on top shows the scene using data collected in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum-the part our eyes can see. Clouds are apparent in the center and lower right of the image, while the rest of the image appears to be relatively clear. However, data collected at 1.38um (lower image) show that a thick layer of previously undetected cirrus clouds obscures the entire scene. These kinds of cirrus are called 'sub-visible' because they can't be detected using only visible light. MODIS' 1.38um channel detects electromagnetic radiation in the infrared region of the spectrum. These images were made from data collected on April 4, 2000. Image courtesy Mark Gray, MODIS Atmosphere Team

  19. Uranus - Discrete Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This false-color Voyager picture of Uranus shows a discrete cloud seen as a bright streak near the planet's limb. The picture is a highly processed composite of three images obtained Jan. 14, 1986, when the spacecraft was 12.9 million kilometers (8.0 million miles) from the planet. The cloud visible here is the most prominent feature seen in a series of Voyager images designed to track atmospheric motions. (The occasional donut-shaped features, including one at the bottom, are shadows cast by dust in the camera optics; the processing necessary to bring out the faint features on the planet also brings out these camera blemishes.) Three separate images were shuttered through violet, blue and orange filters. Each color image showed the cloud to a different degree; because they were not exposed at exactly the same time, the images were processed to provide a correction for a good spatial match. In a true-color image, the cloud would be barely discernible; the false color helps bring out additional details. The different colors imply variations in vertical structure, but as yet is not possible to be specific about such differences. One possibility is that the Uranian atmosphere contains smog-like constituents, in which case some color differences may represent differences in how these molecules are distributed. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  20. Computing in the Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Web-based applications offer teachers, students, and school districts a convenient way to accomplish a wide range of tasks, from accounting to word processing, for free. Cloud computing has the potential to offer staff and students better services at a lower cost than the technology deployment models they're using now. Saving money and improving…

  1. Interstellar molecular clouds.

    PubMed

    Bally, J

    1986-04-11

    The interstellar medium in our galaxy contains matter in a variety of states ranging from hot plasma to cold and dusty molecular gas. The molecular phase consists of giant clouds, which are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the galaxy, the primary reservoir of material for the ongoing birth of new stars, and the medium regulating the evolution of galactic disks.

  2. Training in the Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretlow, Cassi; Jayroe, Tina

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors share how cloud-based applications, such as Google Calendar, Wikidot, Google Docs, Google Sites, YouTube, and Craigslist, played a big part in the success of their plan of implementing a technology training program for customers and employees. A few years ago the Denver Public Library, where the authors work, developed…

  3. Model Cloud Relationships.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-30

    nucleation due tovi Brownian diffusion (NNUB .), thermophoresis (NNUC .) andVi Vi diffusiophoresis (NNUD .). Finally, production of specific Vi...Young (1974) referred to as model A. Young considers contact by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis and diffusiophoresis. Brownian- diftusion contact...nucleation results from the random collision of aerosol particles with cloud droplets. Thermophoresis contact nucleation occurs due to the attraction

  4. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds.

    PubMed

    Oberbeck, V R; Marshall, J; Shen, T

    1991-01-01

    In the traditional concept for the origin of life as proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s, prebiotic reactants became slowly concentrated in the primordial oceans and life evolved slowly from a series of highly protracted chemical reactions during the first billion years of Earth's history. However, chemical evolution may not have occurred continuously because planetesimals and asteroids impacted the Earth many times during the first billion years, may have sterilized the Earth, and required the process to start over. A rapid process of chemical evolution may have been required in order that life appeared at or before 3.5 billion years ago. Thus, a setting favoring rapid chemical evolution may be required. A chemical evolution hypothesis set forth by Woese in 1979 accomplished prebiotic reactions rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns. However, in 1985 Scherer raised a number of objections to Woese's hypothesis and concluded that it was not valid. We propose a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that satisfies Scherer's concerns regarding the Woese hypothesis and includes advantageous droplet chemistry. Prebiotic reactants were supplied to the atmosphere by comets, meteorites, and interplanetary dust or synthesized in the atmosphere from simple compounds using energy sources such as ultraviolet light, corona discharge, or lightning. These prebiotic monomers would have first encountered moisture in cloud drops and precipitation. We propose that rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial Earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by , or synthesized during entry of, meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei. Polymerization would have occurred within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and

  5. Uranus Cloud Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Time-lapse Voyager 2 images of Uranus show the movement of two small, bright, streaky clouds -- the first such features ever seen on the planet. The clouds were detected in this series of orange-filtered images taken Jan. 14, 1986, over a 4.6-hour interval (from top to bottom). At the time, the spacecraft was about 12.9 million kilometers (8.0 million miles) from the planet, whose pole of rotation is near the center of each disk. Uranus, which is tipped on its side with respect to the other planets, is rotating in a counterclockwise direction, as are the two clouds seen here as bright streaks. (The occasional donut-shaped features that show up are shadows cast by dust in the camera optics. The processing necessary to bring out the faint features on the planet also brings out these camera blemishes.) The larger of the two clouds is at a latitude of 33 degrees; the smaller cloud, seen faintly in the three lower images, lies at 26 degrees (a lower latitude and hence closer to the limb). Their counterclockwise periods of rotation are 16.2 and 16.9 hours, respectively. This difference implies that the lower-latitude feature is lagging behind the higher-latitude feature at a speed of almost 100 meters per second (220 mph). Latitudinal bands are also visible in these images. The faint bands, more numerous now than in previous Voyager images from longer range, are concentric with the pole of rotation -- that is, they circle the planet in lines of constant latitude. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  6. Overlap Properties of Clouds Generated by a Cloud Resolving Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Khairoutdinov, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order for General Circulation Models (GCMs), one of our most important tools to predict future climate, to correctly describe the propagation of solar and thermal radiation through the cloudy atmosphere a realistic description of the vertical distribution of cloud amount is needed. Actually, one needs not only the cloud amounts at different levels of the atmosphere, but also how these cloud amounts are related, in other words, how they overlap. Currently GCMs make some idealized assumptions about cloud overlap, for example that contiguous cloud layers overlap maximally and non-contiguous cloud layers overlap in a random fashion. Since there are difficulties in obtaining the vertical profile of cloud amount from observations, the realism of the overlap assumptions made in GCMs has not been yet rigorously investigated. Recently however, cloud observations from a relatively new type of ground radar have been used to examine the vertical distribution of cloudiness. These observations suggest that the GCM overlap assumptions are dubious. Our study uses cloud fields from sophisticated models dedicated to simulate cloud formation, maintenance, and dissipation called Cloud Resolving Models . These models are generally considered capable of producing realistic three-dimensional representation of cloudiness. Using numerous cloud fields produced by such a CRM we show that the degree of overlap between cloud layers is a function of their separation distance, and is in general described by a combination of the maximum and random overlap assumption, with random overlap dominating as separation distances increase. We show that it is possible to parameterize this behavior in a way that can eventually be incorporated in GCMs. Our results seem to have a significant resemblance to the results from the radar observations despite the completely different nature of the datasets. This consistency is encouraging and will promote development of new radiative transfer codes that will

  7. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE PAGES

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore » and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  8. Cloud Computing Security Issue: Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Shailza; Kaur, Rajpreet

    2011-12-01

    Cloud computing is the growing field in IT industry since 2007 proposed by IBM. Another company like Google, Amazon, and Microsoft provides further products to cloud computing. The cloud computing is the internet based computing that shared recourses, information on demand. It provides the services like SaaS, IaaS and PaaS. The services and recourses are shared by virtualization that run multiple operation applications on cloud computing. This discussion gives the survey on the challenges on security issues during cloud computing and describes some standards and protocols that presents how security can be managed.

  9. Formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures: The role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. W., Jr.; Stewart, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    The different roles played by orbital dynamics and dissipative cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in a global spiral structure are investigated. The interstellar medium (ISM) is simulated by a system of particles, representing clouds, which orbit in a spiral-perturbed, galactic gravitational field. The overall magnitude and width of the global cloud density distribution in spiral arms is very similar in the collisional and collisionless simulations. The results suggest that the assumed number density and size distribution of clouds and the details of individual cloud-cloud collisions have relatively little effect on these features. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions play an important steadying role for the cloud system's global spiral structure. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions also damp the relative velocity dispersion of clouds in massive associations and thereby aid in the effective assembling of GMC-like complexes.

  10. A non-pathogenic and optically high concentrated (R,R)-2,3-butanediol biosynthesizing Klebsiella strain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soojin; Kim, Borim; Yang, Jeongmo; Jeong, Daun; Park, Soohyun; Lee, Jinwon

    2015-09-10

    The objective of this work was to construct a non-pathogenic Klebsiella pneumonia strain that can produce optically high concentrated (R,R)-2,3-BDO. A K. pneumonia mutant lacking the pathogenic factor was used as the host strain. In order to construct a K. pneumonia strain that would biosynthesize high concentrated (R,R)-2,3-BDO, gene deletion and over-expression methods were combined; firstly, the 2,3-BDO dehydrogenase (budC) gene was deleted to re-direct utilization of the carbon source to (R,R)-2,3-BDO biosynthesis; secondly, the two glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes in K. pneumonia (DhaD and GldA) were over-expressed to maximize (R,R)-2,3-BDO biosynthesis; and thirdly, the lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) gene was deleted to minimize the accumulation of lactate. SGSB112, a non-pathogenic strain of K. pneumonia that can produce optically high concentrated (R,R)-2,3-BDO, was constructed as above. Approximately 36% of the carbon source was converted to (R,R)-2,3-BDO by SGSB112, achieving a production of 61gL(-1) (R,R)-2,3-BDO in a fed-batch fermentation. On the other hand, meso-2,3-BDO was produced 1.4gL(-1) and (S,S)-2,3-BDO was not detected. This study provides an insight into 2,3-BDO biosynthesis in K. pneumonia and demonstrates the achievement of high-yield production of optically high concentrated (R,R)-2,3-BDO through constructing a strain by genetic modification and metabolic engineering.

  11. Cloud boundaries during FIRE 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uttal, Taneil; Shaver, Scott M.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1993-01-01

    To our knowledge, previous observations of cloud boundaries have been limited to studies of cloud bases with ceilometers, cloud tops with satellites, and intermittent reports by aircraft pilots. Comprehensive studies that simultaneously record information of cloud top and cloud base, especially in multiple layer cases, have been difficult, and require the use of active remote sensors with range-gated information. In this study, we examined a 4-week period during which the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) 8-mm radar and the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) 3-mm radar operated quasi-continuously, side by side. By quasi-continuously, we mean that both radars operated during all periods when cloud was present, during both daytime and nighttime hours. Using this data, we develop a summary of cloud boundaries for the month of November for a single location in the mid-continental United States.

  12. Sahara Dust Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Particles Click on the image for Quicktime movie from 7/15-7/24

    A continent-sized cloud of hot air and dust originating from the Sahara Desert crossed the Atlantic Ocean and headed towards Florida and the Caribbean. A Saharan Air Layer, or SAL, forms when dry air and dust rise from Africa's west coast and ride the trade winds above the Atlantic Ocean.

    These dust clouds are not uncommon, especially during the months of July and August. They start when weather patterns called tropical waves pick up dust from the desert in North Africa, carry it a couple of miles into the atmosphere and drift westward.

    In a sequence of images created by data acquired by the Earth-orbiting Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ranging from July 15 through July 24, we see the distribution of the cloud in the atmosphere as it swirls off of Africa and heads across the ocean to the west. Using the unique silicate spectral signatures of dust in the thermal infrared, AIRS can detect the presence of dust in the atmosphere day or night. This detection works best if there are no clouds present on top of the dust; when clouds are present, they can interfere with the signal, making it much harder to detect dust as in the case of July 24, 2005.

    In the Quicktime movie, the scale at the bottom of the images shows +1 for dust definitely detected, and ranges down to -1 for no dust detected. The plots are averaged over a number of AIRS observations falling within grid boxes, and so it is possible to obtain fractional numbers. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Total Water Vapor in the Atmosphere Around the Dust Cloud Click on the image for Quicktime movie

    The dust cloud is contained within a dry adiabatic layer which originates over the Sahara Desert. This Saharan Air Layer (SAL) advances Westward over the Atlantic Ocean, overriding the cool, moist air nearer the surface. This burst of very dry air is visible in the

  13. Cloud Radiative Effect in dependence on Cloud Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aebi, Christine; Gröbner, Julian; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Vuilleumier, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Radiative transfer of energy in the atmosphere and the influence of clouds on the radiation budget remain the greatest sources of uncertainty in the simulation of climate change. Small changes in cloudiness and radiation can have large impacts on the Earth's climate. In order to assess the opposing effects of clouds on the radiation budget and the corresponding changes, frequent and more precise radiation and cloud observations are necessary. The role of clouds on the surface radiation budget is studied in order to quantify the longwave, shortwave and the total cloud radiative forcing in dependence on the atmospheric composition and cloud type. The study is performed for three different sites in Switzerland at three different altitude levels: Payerne (490 m asl), Davos (1'560 m asl) and Jungfraujoch (3'580 m asl). On the basis of data of visible all-sky camera systems at the three aforementioned stations in Switzerland, up to six different cloud types are distinguished (Cirrus-Cirrostratus, Cirrocumulus-Altocumulus, Stratus-Altostratus, Cumulus, Stratocumulus and Cumulonimbus-Nimbostratus). These cloud types are classified with a modified algorithm of Heinle et al. (2010). This cloud type classifying algorithm is based on a set of statistical features describing the color (spectral features) and the texture of an image (textural features) (Wacker et al. (2015)). The calculation of the fractional cloud cover information is based on spectral information of the all-sky camera data. The radiation data are taken from measurements with pyranometers and pyrgeometers at the different stations. A climatology of a whole year of the shortwave, longwave and total cloud radiative effect and its sensitivity to integrated water vapor, cloud cover and cloud type will be calculated for the three above-mentioned stations in Switzerland. For the calculation of the shortwave and longwave cloud radiative effect the corresponding cloud-free reference models developed at PMOD/WRC will be

  14. Jupiter Clouds in Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 619 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 727 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 890 nm

    Images from NASA's Cassini spacecraft using three different filters reveal cloud structures and movements at different depths in the atmosphere around Jupiter's south pole.

    Cassini's cameras come equipped with filters that sample three wavelengths where methane gas absorbs light. These are in the red at 619 nanometer (nm) wavelength and in the near-infrared at 727 nm and 890 nm. Absorption in the 619 nm filter is weak. It is stronger in the 727 nm band and very strong in the 890 nm band where 90 percent of the light is absorbed by methane gas. Light in the weakest band can penetrate the deepest into Jupiter's atmosphere. It is sensitive to the amount of cloud and haze down to the pressure of the water cloud, which lies at a depth where pressure is about 6 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level on the Earth). Light in the strongest methane band is absorbed at high altitude and is sensitive only to the ammonia cloud level and higher (pressures less than about one-half of Earth's atmospheric pressure) and the middle methane band is sensitive to the ammonia and ammonium hydrosulfide cloud layers as deep as two times Earth's atmospheric pressure.

    The images shown here demonstrate the power of these filters in studies of cloud stratigraphy. The images cover latitudes from about 15 degrees north at the top down to the southern polar region at the bottom. The left and middle images are ratios, the image in the methane filter divided by the image at a nearby wavelength outside the methane band. Using ratios emphasizes where contrast is due to methane absorption and not to other factors, such as the absorptive properties of the cloud particles, which influence contrast at all wavelengths.

    The most prominent feature seen in all three filters is the polar stratospheric haze that makes Jupiter

  15. High Resolution Cloud Microphysics and Radiation Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-16

    characteristics of mid level altocumulus clouds and upper level visible and subvisual cirrus clouds The MPL lidar provided information about the temporal...balloon, lidar, and radar study of cirrus and altocumulus clouds to further investigate the presence of multi- cloud and nearly cloud -free layers...data set of the clouds and thermodynanuc structure to build a mesoscale and LF.S test-bed for cirrus and altocumulus cloud layers. The project was

  16. Cloud-Vegetation Interaction: Use of Normalized Difference Cloud Index for Estimation of Cloud Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhint, Y.; Davis, A.; Wiscombe, W.; Pilewskie, P.

    1999-01-01

    A new technique to retrieve cloud optical depth for broken clouds above green vegetation using ground-based zenith radiance measurements is developed. By analogy with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI), the Normalized Difference Cloud Index (NDCI) is defined as a ratio between the difference and the sum of two zenith radiances measured for two narrow spectral bands in the visible and near-IR regions. The very different spectral behavior of cloud liquid water drops and green vegetation is the key physics behind the NDCI. It provides extra tools to remove the radiative effects of the 3D cloud structure. Numerical calculations based on fractal clouds and real measurements of NDCI and cloud liquid water path confirm the improvements.

  17. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth in Vicinity of Broken Clouds from Reflectance Ratios: Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris A.; Alexandrov, Mikhail

    2010-10-06

    A recently developed reflectance ratio (RR) method for the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) is evaluated using extensive airborne and ground-based data sets collected during the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) and the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS), which took place in June 2007 over the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site. A detailed case study is performed for a field of single-layer shallow cumuli observed on June 12, 2007. The RR method is applied to retrieve the spectral values of AOD from the reflectance ratios measured by the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) for two pairs of wavelengths (660 and 470 nm and 870 and 470 nm) collected at a spatial resolution of 0.05 km. The retrieval is compared with an independent AOD estimate from three ground-based Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). The interpolation algorithm that is used to project MFRSR point measurements onto the aircraft flight tracks is tested using AOD derived from NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The RR AOD estimates are in a good agreement (within 5%) with the MFRSR-derived AOD values for the 660-nm wavelength. The AODs obtained from MAS reflectance ratios overestimate those derived from MFRSR measurements by 15-30% for the 470-nm wavelength and underestimate the 870-nm AOD by the same amount.

  18. Cloud Computing Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    the use of  available cloud and  shared   services .”     Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP):  FedRAMP (See  Appendix B...governance processes will promote and enable the use of standardized SLAs  that facilitate the adoption of  shared   services  and virtual computing...Services,  shared   services  (cloud services offered by other  Components, the Federal Government, mission partners) and commercial vendors that meet

  19. The Clouds of Isidore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These views of Hurricane Isidore were acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on September 20, 2002. After bringing large-scale flooding to western Cuba, Isidore was upgraded (on September 21) from a tropical storm to a category 3hurricane. Sweeping westward to Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, the hurricane caused major destruction and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Although weakened after passing over the Yucatan landmass, Isidore regained strength as it moved northward over the Gulf of Mexico.

    At left is a colorful visualization of cloud extent that superimposes MISR's radiometric camera-by-camera cloud mask (RCCM) over natural-color radiance imagery, both derived from data acquired with the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Using brightness and statistical metrics, the RCCM is one of several techniques MISR uses to determine whether an area is clear or cloudy. In this rendition, the RCCM has been color-coded, and purple = cloudy with high confidence, blue = cloudy with low confidence, green = clear with low confidence, and red = clear with high confidence.

    In addition to providing information on meteorological events, MISR's data products are designed to help improve our understanding of the influences of clouds on climate. Cloud heights and albedos are among the variables that govern these influences. (Albedo is the amount of sunlight reflected back to space divided by the amount of incident sunlight.) The center panel is the cloud-top height field retrieved using automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray. In some areas, such as the southern portion of the image, the stereo retrieval was able to detect thin, high clouds that were not picked up by the RCCM's nadir view. Retrieved local albedo values for Isidore are shown at right. Generation of the albedo product is dependent upon observed cloud radiances as a function

  20. Point clouds in BIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antova, Gergana; Kunchev, Ivan; Mickrenska-Cherneva, Christina

    2016-10-01

    The representation of physical buildings in Building Information Models (BIM) has been a subject of research since four decades in the fields of Construction Informatics and GeoInformatics. The early digital representations of buildings mainly appeared as 3D drawings constructed by CAD software, and the 3D representation of the buildings was only geometric, while semantics and topology were out of modelling focus. On the other hand, less detailed building representations, with often focus on ‘outside’ representations were also found in form of 2D /2,5D GeoInformation models. Point clouds from 3D laser scanning data give a full and exact representation of the building geometry. The article presents different aspects and the benefits of using point clouds in BIM in the different stages of a lifecycle of a building.

  1. Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The larger of two nearby companions of the Milky Way Galaxy that can be seen with the naked eye in the southern hemisphere sky and which are named after the Portuguese navigator, Ferdinand Magellan, who observed them in 1519 during his circumnavigation of the world. Located in the constellation of Dorado, at a distance of about 170 000 light-years, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has an overall ...

  2. Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The smaller of two nearby companions of the Milky Way Galaxy that can be seen with the naked eye in the southern hemisphere sky and which are named after the Portuguese navigator, Ferdinand Magellan. Located in the constellation of Tucana, at a distance of about 190 000 light-years, the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) has an angular diameter of about three degrees, about half the apparent diameter o...

  3. Enhanced production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol by metabolically engineered Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Myoung; Rathnasingh, Chelladurai; Song, Hyohak

    2015-10-01

    Microbial fermentation produces a racemic mixture of 2,3-butanediol ((R,R)-BD, (S,S)-BD, and meso-BD), and the compositions and physiochemical properties vary from microorganism to microorganism. Although the meso form is much more difficult to transport and store because of its higher freezing point than those of the optically active forms, most microorganisms capable of producing 2,3-BD mainly yield meso-2,3-BD. Thus, we developed a metabolically engineered (R,R)-2,3-BD overproducing strain using a Klebsiella oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB strain, which shows an outstanding 2,3-BD production performance with more than 90 % of the meso form. A budC gene encoding 2,3-BD dehydrogenase in the K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB strain was replaced with an exogenous gene encoding (R,R)-2,3-BD dehydrogenase from Paenibacillus polymyxa (K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB ΔbudC::PBDH strain), and then its expression level was further amplified with using a pBBR1MCS plasmid. The fed-batch fermentation of the K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB ΔbudC::PBDH (pBBR-PBDH) strain with intermittent glucose feeding allowed the production of 106.7 g/L of (R,R)-2,3-BD [meso-2,3-BD, 9.3 g/L], with a yield of 0.40 g/g and a productivity of 3.1 g/L/h, which should be useful for the industrial application of 2,3-BD.

  4. Chemistry and microphysics of polar stratospheric clouds and cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Zondlo, M A; Hudson, P K; Prenni, A J; Tolbert, M A

    2000-01-01

    Ice particles found within polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and upper tropospheric cirrus clouds can dramatically impact the chemistry and climate of the Earth's atmosphere. The formation of PSCs and the subsequent chemical reactions that occur on their surfaces are key components of the massive ozone hole observed each spring over Antarctica. Cirrus clouds also provide surfaces for heterogeneous reactions and significantly modify the Earth's climate by changing the visible and infrared radiation fluxes. Although the role of ice particles in climate and chemistry is well recognized, the exact mechanisms of cloud formation are still unknown, and thus it is difficult to predict how anthropogenic activities will change cloud abundances in the future. This article focuses on the nucleation, chemistry, and microphysical properties of ice particles composing PSCs and cirrus clouds. A general overview of the current state of research is presented along with some unresolved issues facing scientists in the future.

  5. Cumulus cloud formulations for longwave radiation calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1999-03-15

    Longwave radiative transfer under broken cloud conditions is often treated as a problem in cloud bulk geometry, especially for cumulus clouds, because individual clouds are nearly black. However, climate models ignore cloud geometry and estimate the effects of broken cumulus clouds as the cloud amount weighted average of clear and black cloud overcast conditions. To overcome the simplicity of the black plate approximation, the authors developed a more generalized form of cloud geometrical effects on the effective cloud fraction. Following previous work, this form includes parameters that allow a more precise specification of cloud size and spatial distributions. The sensitivity of the generalized form to the variation in cloud bulk geometrical shapes, aspect ratio, size distribution, and side inclination angle are the primary factors significantly affecting the effective cloud fraction. These parameters are important at all cloud amounts with greatest sensitivity when the cloud amount is between 0.2 and 0.8. On the other hand, cloud spatial distributions do not significantly influence the effective cloud fraction when absolute cloud amount is less than 0.2 and/or when the cloud aspect ratio is less than 0.5. However, in the range of greatest sensitivity with large aspect ratio and absolute amount, model comparisons show large intermodel differences. The model discussed herein is cloud size dependent and applies most directly to small cumulus clouds.

  6. Clouds over Mars!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the first color image ever taken from the surface of Mars of an overcast sky. Featured are pink stratus clouds coming from the northeast at about 15 miles per hour (6.7 meters/second) at an approximate height of ten miles (16 kilometers) above the surface. The clouds consist of water ice condensed on reddish dust particles suspended in the atmosphere. Clouds on Mars are sometimes localized and can sometimes cover entire regions, but have not yet been observed to cover the entire planet. The image was taken about an hour and forty minutes before sunrise by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 16 at about ten degrees up from the eastern Martian horizon.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages and Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  7. 4-D Cloud Water Content Fields Derived from Operational Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L., Jr.; Minnis, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve operational safety and efficiency, the transportation industry, including aviation, has an urgent need for accurate diagnoses and predictions of clouds and associated weather conditions. Adverse weather accounts for 70% of all air traffic delays within the U.S. National Airspace System. The Federal Aviation Administration has determined that as much as two thirds of weather-related delays are potentially avoidable with better weather information and roughly 20% of all aviation accidents are weather related. Thus, it is recognized that an important factor in meeting the goals of the Next Generation Transportation System (NexGen) vision is the improved integration of weather information. The concept of a 4-D weather cube is being developed to address that need by integrating observed and forecasted weather information into a shared 4-D database, providing an integrated and nationally consistent weather picture for a variety of users and to support operational decision support systems. Weather analyses and forecasts derived using Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models are a critical tool that forecasters rely on for guidance and also an important element in current and future decision support systems. For example, the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) and the recently implemented Rapid Refresh (RR) Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) models provide high frequency forecasts and are key elements of the FAA Aviation Weather Research Program. Because clouds play a crucial role in the dynamics and thermodynamics of the atmosphere, they must be adequately accounted for in NWP models. The RUC, for example, cycles at full resolution five cloud microphysical species (cloud water, cloud ice, rain, snow, and graupel) and has the capability of updating these fields from observations. In order to improve the models initial state and subsequent forecasts, cloud top altitude (or temperature, T(sub c)) derived from operational satellite data, surface observations of

  8. Automatic identification of fetal breathing movements in fetal RR interval time series.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Voss, Anna; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2012-03-01

    Fetal breathing movements are associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We present an algorithm which processes RR interval time series in the time and frequency domain, identifying spectral peaks with characteristics consistent with fetal RSA. Tested on 50 data sets from the second and third trimester, the algorithm had a sensitivity of 96.1%, false positive rate 35.7%, false negative rate 3.9%. The characteristics of automatically and visually identified episodes were very similar and corresponded the expected changes over gestation. The method is suited for easy and reliable identification of fetal breathing movements.

  9. TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao

    2015-02-01

    The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation.

  10. CLOUD PARAMETERIZATIONS, CLOUD PHYSICS, AND THEIR CONNECTIONS: AN OVERVIEW.

    SciTech Connect

    LIU,Y.; DAUM,P.H.; CHAI,S.K.; LIU,F.

    2002-02-12

    This paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned with the parameterization of cloud microphysics in climate models. We demonstrate the crucial importance of spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution in determining radiative properties of clouds (e.g., effective radius), and underline the necessity of specifying spectral dispersion in the parameterization of cloud microphysics. It is argued that the inclusion of spectral dispersion makes the issue of cloud parameterization essentially equivalent to that of the droplet size distribution function, bringing cloud parameterization to the forefront of cloud physics. The second part is concerned with theoretical investigations into the spectral shape of droplet size distributions in cloud physics. After briefly reviewing the mainstream theories (including entrainment and mixing theories, and stochastic theories), we discuss their deficiencies and the need for a paradigm shift from reductionist approaches to systems approaches. A systems theory that has recently been formulated by utilizing ideas from statistical physics and information theory is discussed, along with the major results derived from it. It is shown that the systems formalism not only easily explains many puzzles that have been frustrating the mainstream theories, but also reveals such new phenomena as scale-dependence of cloud droplet size distributions. The third part is concerned with the potential applications of the systems theory to the specification of spectral dispersion in terms of predictable variables and scale-dependence under different fluctuating environments.

  11. Clouds and Dust Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 2 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 180 East (180 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with

  12. NF-κB plays a key role in microcystin-RR-induced HeLa cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Xuezhen; Fan, Huihui; Li, Shangchun; Xie, Ping

    2014-09-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are well-known cyanobacterial toxins produced in eutrophic waters and can act as potential carcinogens and have caused serious risk to human health. However, pleiotropic even paradoxical actions of cells exposure to MCs have been reported, and the mechanisms of MC-induced tumorigenesis and apoptosis are still unknown. In this study, we performed the first comprehensive in vitro investigation on carcinogenesis associated with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and its downstream genes in HeLa cells (Human cervix adenocarcinoma cell line from epithelial cells) exposure to MC-RR. HeLa cells were treated with 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 µg/mL MC-RR for 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. HeLa cells presented dualistic responses to different doses of MCs. CCK8 assay showed that MC-RR exposure evidently enhanced cell viability of HeLa cells at lower MCs doses. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that lower MCs doses promoted G1/S transition and cell proliferation while higher doses of MCs induced apoptosis, with a dose-dependent manner. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that MC-RR could increase/decrease NF-κB activity at lower/higher MC-RR doses, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of NF-κB downstream target genes including c-FLIP, cyclinD1, c-myc, and c-IAP2 showed the same variation trend as NF-κB activity both at mRNA and protein levels, which were induced by lower doses of MC-RR and suppressed by higher doses. Our data verified for the first time that NF-κB pathway may mediate MC-induced cell proliferation and apoptosis and provided a better understanding of the molecular mechanism for potential carcinogenicity of MC-RR.

  13. Exoplanet Clouds in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Alexandria; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Seager, Sara; Charbonneau, David; Bauer, Amy J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of strong spectral features of some exoplanet atmospheres may suggest the presence of a cloud layer and poses great challenges for atmospheric characterization. We aim to address these observations and the challenges by leveraging lab-based terrestrial cloud particle instrumentation as a means of investigating how particles representative of those in exoplanet atmospheres interact with incoming radiation. In the end we hope to achieve two goals - First, to better understand the observable properties of cloud particles in exoplanet atmospheres. Second, to determine how these clouds might directly limit our ability to observe and characterize the atmosphere below.In this presentation I will discuss the cloud chamber used for this work, how we leverage terrestrial based cloud knowledge, our initial investigation of the light scattered by ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) across temperature and relative humidity dependent phase changes, and future work with suspected exoplanet atmospheric condensates under various atmospheric compositions, pressures, and temperatures.

  14. Evaluation of Passive Multilayer Cloud Detection Using Preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO Cloud Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chang, F.; Huang, J.; Nguyen, L.; Ayers, J. K.; Spangenberg, D. A.; Yi, Y.; Trepte, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    During the last few years, several algorithms have been developed to detect and retrieve multilayered clouds using passive satellite data. Assessing these techniques has been difficult due to the need for active sensors such as cloud radars and lidars that can "see" through different layers of clouds. Such sensors have been available only at a few surface sites and on aircraft during field programs. With the launch of the CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites on April 28, 2006, it is now possible to observe multilayered systems all over the globe using collocated cloud radar and lidar data. As part of the A- Train, these new active sensors are also matched in time ad space with passive measurements from the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E). The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) has been developing and testing algorithms to detect ice-over-water overlapping cloud systems and to retrieve the cloud liquid path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) for those systems. One technique uses a combination of the CERES cloud retrieval algorithm applied to MODIS data and a microwave retrieval method applied to AMSR-E data. The combination of a CO2-slicing cloud retireval technique with the CERES algorithms applied to MODIS data (Chang et al., 2005) is used to detect and analyze such overlapped systems that contain thin ice clouds. A third technique uses brightness temperature differences and the CERES algorithms to detect similar overlapped methods. This paper uses preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO data to begin a global scale assessment of these different methods. The long-term goals are to assess and refine the algorithms to aid the development of an optimal combination of the techniques to better monitor ice 9and liquid water clouds in overlapped conditions.

  15. Particle cloud mixing in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.; Facca, L.; Tangirala, V.; Berlad, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    Quasi-steady flame propagation through clouds of combustible particles requires quasi-steady transport properties and quasi-steady particle number density. Microgravity conditions may be employed to help achieve the conditions of quiescent, uniform clouds needed for such combustion studies. Joint experimental and theoretical NASA-UCSD studies were concerned with the use of acoustic, electrostatic, and other methods of dispersion of fuel particulates. Results of these studies are presented for particle clouds in long cylindrical tubes.

  16. Shape of fair weather clouds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2010-03-19

    We introduce a model which accounts for the shape of cumulus clouds exclusively in terms of thermal plumes or thermals. The plumes are explicitly represented by a simple potential flow generated by singularities (sources and sinks) and are thus laminar, but with their motion create a field which supports the cloud. We compare this model with actual clouds by means of various shape descriptors including the fractal dimension, and find agreement.

  17. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein XI: structure of the gene in the greater false vampire bat (Megaderma lyra) compared with human and domestic pig.

    PubMed

    Porter, Calvin A; Hewett-Emmett, David; Tashian, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrase-related protein XI (CA-RP XI) is a member of the α-carbonic anhydrase family (encoded by the gene CA-11), which has lost features of the active site required for enzymatic activity. Using PCR, we amplified CA-11 from genomic DNA of the bat Megaderma lyra. To elucidate the gene structure, we sequenced PCR products and compared their sequences with genomic and mRNA sequences known from human and domestic pig. We identified and sequenced eight introns in the bat CA-11. Five introns (introns 3-7) are located in identical or similar positions in other members of the vertebrate α-carbonic anhydrase gene family. Two 5' introns and one 3' intron are located in the regions of little or no sequence similarity with other members of the gene family. The low sequence similarity and additional introns suggest a separate evolutionary origin for the 5' and 3' portions of the CA-RP XI gene.

  18. Ectoparasite Raymondia lobulata infestation in relation to the reproductive cycle of its host--the greater false vampire bat Megaderma lyra.

    PubMed

    Sundari, Arasamuthu Arul; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Varman, Durairaj Ragu; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-02-01

    To study variation of infestations by the bat fly Raymondia lobulata (Diptera: Streblidae) on the greater false vampire bat Megaderma lyra (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae), we captured individual bats at their day roost in the south of India and recorded their rate of infestation continuously for a year. All examined bats (n = 72 individuals, 202 captures) were infested with parasites (n = 3,008). However, the recorded intensity of infestation (range 1-33) was gender-related and statistically higher in females than in males (F(1, 200) = 304.45, P < 0.001). Furthermore, pregnant and lactating females had greater parasite loads than non-reproductive females and males (F(1, 63) = 23.34, P < 0.001 and F(1, 37) = 78.07, P < 0.001, respectively). No significant differences were observed between males either during mating and non-mating periods or breeding and non-breeding seasons. Analysis of the relationship between parasite infestation and the reproductive status of bats revealed that pregnant and lactating females with pups were more vulnerable hosts for parasites. Our results also suggest a well-developed coevolutionary strategy for synchronized reproduction within the host-parasite relationship and add to our understanding of how host sex and reproductive status shape the dynamics of parasitism.

  19. Aging and cardiovascular complexity: effect of the length of RR tachograms

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Nithin

    2016-01-01

    As we age, our hearts undergo changes that result in a reduction in complexity of physiological interactions between different control mechanisms. This results in a potential risk of cardiovascular diseases which are the number one cause of death globally. Since cardiac signals are nonstationary and nonlinear in nature, complexity measures are better suited to handle such data. In this study, three complexity measures are used, namely Lempel–Ziv complexity (LZ), Sample Entropy (SampEn) and Effort-To-Compress (ETC). We determined the minimum length of RR tachogram required for characterizing complexity of healthy young and healthy old hearts. All the three measures indicated significantly lower complexity values for older subjects than younger ones. However, the minimum length of heart-beat interval data needed differs for the three measures, with LZ and ETC needing as low as 10 samples, whereas SampEn requires at least 80 samples. Our study indicates that complexity measures such as LZ and ETC are good candidates for the analysis of cardiovascular dynamics since they are able to work with very short RR tachograms. PMID:27957395

  20. Dysregulated Homeostasis of Acetylcholine Levels in Immune Cells of RR-Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Di Bari, Maria; Reale, Marcella; Di Nicola, Marta; Orlando, Viviana; Galizia, Sabrina; Porfilio, Italo; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Ruggieri, Serena; Biagioni, Stefano; Gasperini, Claudio; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-11-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to the modulation of central and peripheral inflammation. We studied the homeostasis of the cholinergic system in relation to cytokine levels in immune cells and sera of relapsing remitting-MS (RR-MS) patients. We demonstrated that lower ACh levels in serum of RR-MS patients were inversely correlated with the increased activity of the hydrolyzing enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Interestingly, the expression of the ACh biosynthetic enzyme and the protein carriers involved in non-vesicular ACh release were found overexpressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. The inflammatory state of the MS patients was confirmed by increased levels of TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-18. The lower circulating ACh levels in sera of MS patients are dependent on the higher activity of cholinergic hydrolyzing enzymes. The smaller ratio of ACh to TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40 and IL-18 in MS patients, with respect to healthy donors (HD), is indicative of an inflammatory environment probably related to the alteration of cholinergic system homeostasis.

  1. The Orbital Ephemeris of the Classical Nova RR Pictoris: Presence of a Third Body?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, N.; Schreiber, M. R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Retamales, G.; Tappert, C.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Fuentes-Morales, I.

    2017-01-01

    The ex-nova RR Pic presents a periodic hump in its light curve which is considered to refer to its orbital period. By analyzing all available epochs of these hump maxima in the literature and then combining them with those from new light curves obtained in 2013 and 2014, we establish an unique cycle count scheme valid during the past 50 years and derive an ephemeris with the orbital period 0.145025959(15) days. The O—C diagram of this linear ephemeris reveals systematic deviations that could have different causes. One of them could be a light-travel-time effect caused by the presence of a hypothetical third body near the star/brown dwarf mass limit, with an orbital period of the order of 70 years. We also examine the difficulty of the problematic of detecting substellar or planetary companions of close red-dwarf white-dwarf binaries (including cataclysmic variables) and discuss other possible mechanisms responsible for the observed deviations in O—C. For RR Pic, we propose strategies to solve this question by new observations.

  2. Optimization of Exopolysaccharide Production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus RR Grown in a Semidefined Medium

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Stacy A.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.

    1998-01-01

    The optimal fermentation temperature, pH, and Bacto-casitone (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) concentration for production of exopolysaccharide by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus RR in a semidefined medium were determined by using response surface methods. The design consisted of 20 experiments, 15 unique combinations, and five replications. All fermentations were conducted in a fermentor with a 2.5-liter working volume and were terminated when 90% of the glucose in the medium had been consumed. The population of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus RR and exopolysaccharide content were measured at the end of each fermentation. The optimum temperature, pH, and Bacto-casitone concentration for exopolysaccharide production were 38°C, 5, and 30 g/liter, respectively, with a predicted yield of 295 mg of exopolysaccharide/liter. The actual yield under these conditions was 354 mg of exopolysaccharide/liter, which was within the 95% confidence interval (217 to 374 mg of exopolysaccharide/liter). An additional experiment conducted under optimum conditions showed that exopolysaccharide production was growth associated, with a specific production at the endpoint of 101.4 mg/g of dry cells. Finally, to obtain material for further characterization, a 100-liter fermentation was conducted under optimum conditions. Twenty-nine grams of exopolysaccharide was isolated from centrifuged, ultrafiltered fermentation broth by ethanol precipitation. PMID:9464404

  3. Dysregulated Homeostasis of Acetylcholine Levels in Immune Cells of RR-Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Di Bari, Maria; Reale, Marcella; Di Nicola, Marta; Orlando, Viviana; Galizia, Sabrina; Porfilio, Italo; Costantini, Erica; D’Angelo, Chiara; Ruggieri, Serena; Biagioni, Stefano; Gasperini, Claudio; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to the modulation of central and peripheral inflammation. We studied the homeostasis of the cholinergic system in relation to cytokine levels in immune cells and sera of relapsing remitting-MS (RR-MS) patients. We demonstrated that lower ACh levels in serum of RR-MS patients were inversely correlated with the increased activity of the hydrolyzing enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Interestingly, the expression of the ACh biosynthetic enzyme and the protein carriers involved in non-vesicular ACh release were found overexpressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. The inflammatory state of the MS patients was confirmed by increased levels of TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-18. The lower circulating ACh levels in sera of MS patients are dependent on the higher activity of cholinergic hydrolyzing enzymes. The smaller ratio of ACh to TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40 and IL-18 in MS patients, with respect to healthy donors (HD), is indicative of an inflammatory environment probably related to the alteration of cholinergic system homeostasis. PMID:27916909

  4. Multifractal estimates of monofractality in RR-heart series in power spectrum ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowiec, Danuta; Dudkowska, Aleksandra; Gałaşka, Rafał; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej

    2009-09-01

    Two popular estimators of multifractal properties: the Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima method and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis are applied to investigate signals consisting of normal RR-series in 39 healthy subjects and 90 patients suffering from systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. However, differently from standards for multifractal analysis the scaling is performed separately in intervals corresponding to standard power spectral bands: low (LF), very low (VLF) and ultra low frequencies (ULF). Tests on fractional Brownian motions (fBm) are done to quantify properties of the estimators as detectors of monofractality in LF, VLF and ULF bands. Arguments are given that multifractal analysis of RR-series performed in these bands has a physiological meaning. The increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system caused by heart disease is detected evidently only by analysis in LF. The transition in multifractal characteristics between diurnal and nocturnal activity takes place when the analysis moves from LF and VLF to ULF. Only in ULF, the diurnal heart rate variability can be approximated by fBm with a self-similarity index of H=0.20.

  5. Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, N.L.; Verlinde, J.; Clothiaux, E.E.

    2000-01-15

    A database of stratus cloud droplet size distribution parameters, derived from in situ data reported in the existing literature, was created, facilitating intercomparison among datasets and quantifying typical values and their variability. From the datasets, which were divided into marine and continental groups, several parameters are presented, including the total number concentration, effective diameter, mean diameter, standard deviation of the droplet diameters about the mean diameter, and liquid water content, as well as the parameters of modified gamma and lognormal distributions. In light of these results, the appropriateness of common assumptions used in remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions is discussed. For example, vertical profiles of mean diameter, effective diameter, and liquid water content agreed qualitatively with expectations based on the current paradigm of cloud formation. Whereas parcel theory predicts that the standard deviation about the mean diameter should decrease with height, the results illustrated that the standard deviation generally increases with height. A feature common to all marine clouds was their approximately constant total number concentration profiles; however, the total number concentration profiles of continental clouds were highly variable. Without cloud condensation nuclei spectra, classification of clouds into marine and continental groups is based on indirect methods. After reclassification of four sets of measurements in the database, there was a fairly clear dichotomy between marine and continental clouds, but a great deal of variability within each classification. The relevant applications of this study lie in radiative transfer and climate issues, rather than in cloud formation and dynamics. Techniques that invert remotely sensed measurements into cloud droplet size distributions frequently rely on a priori assumptions, such as constant number concentration profiles and constant spectral width. The

  6. Cloud/climate sensitivity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, J. O.; Vallis, G. K.; Remer, L.

    1982-01-01

    A study of the relationships between large-scale cloud fields and large scale circulation patterns is presented. The basic tool is a multi-level numerical model comprising conservation equations for temperature, water vapor and cloud water and appropriate parameterizations for evaporation, condensation, precipitation and radiative feedbacks. Incorporating an equation for cloud water in a large-scale model is somewhat novel and allows the formation and advection of clouds to be treated explicitly. The model is run on a two-dimensional, vertical-horizontal grid with constant winds. It is shown that cloud cover increases with decreased eddy vertical velocity, decreased horizontal advection, decreased atmospheric temperature, increased surface temperature, and decreased precipitation efficiency. The cloud field is found to be well correlated with the relative humidity field except at the highest levels. When radiative feedbacks are incorporated and the temperature increased by increasing CO2 content, cloud amounts decrease at upper-levels or equivalently cloud top height falls. This reduces the temperature response, especially at upper levels, compared with an experiment in which cloud cover is fixed.

  7. Empirical data from Oort's cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desemme, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical evidence on the size and origin of the Oort cloud of comets is compared with theories on the origin of the Oort cloud. Data on the binding energy of the very long period comets indicate that the Oort cloud is five times smaller than previously thought and that the mean velocity perturbation introduced by stellar passages is smaller than Oort believed. The bimodal brightness distribution of 'new' comets indicates that their formation mechanism is straightforward accretion without later fragmentation. Data on retrograde versus prograde orbits and their relevance to the rotation of the Oort cloud are examined. Models of the solar nebula are discussed in the light of the foregoing evidence.

  8. Cloud formation in substellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helling, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    Clouds seem like an every-day experience. But-do we know how clouds form on brown dwarfs and extra-solar planets? How do they look like? Can we see them? What are they composed of? Cloud formation is an old-fashioned but still outstanding problem for the Earth atmosphere, and it has turned into a challenge for the modelling of brown dwarf and exo-planetary atmospheres. Cloud formation imposes strong feedbacks on the atmospheric structure, not only due to the clouds own opacity, but also due to the depletion of the gas phase, possibly leaving behind a dynamic and still supersaturated atmosphere. I summarise the different approaches taken to model cloud formation in substellar atmospheres and workout their differences. Focusing on the phase-non-equilibrium approach to cloud formation, I demonstrate the inside we gain from detailed microphysical modelling on for instance the material composition and grain size distribution inside the cloud layer on a Brown Dwarf atmosphere. A comparison study on four different cloud approaches in Brown Dwarf atmosphere simulations demonstrates possible uncertainties in interpretation of observational data.

  9. The Ethics of Cloud Computing.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Boudewijn; Floridi, Luciano

    2017-02-01

    Cloud computing is rapidly gaining traction in business. It offers businesses online services on demand (such as Gmail, iCloud and Salesforce) and allows them to cut costs on hardware and IT support. This is the first paper in business ethics dealing with this new technology. It analyzes the informational duties of hosting companies that own and operate cloud computing datacentres (e.g., Amazon). It considers the cloud services providers leasing 'space in the cloud' from hosting companies (e.g., Dropbox, Salesforce). And it examines the business and private 'clouders' using these services. The first part of the paper argues that hosting companies, services providers and clouders have mutual informational (epistemic) obligations to provide and seek information about relevant issues such as consumer privacy, reliability of services, data mining and data ownership. The concept of interlucency is developed as an epistemic virtue governing ethically effective communication. The second part considers potential forms of government restrictions on or proscriptions against the development and use of cloud computing technology. Referring to the concept of technology neutrality, it argues that interference with hosting companies and cloud services providers is hardly ever necessary or justified. It is argued, too, however, that businesses using cloud services (e.g., banks, law firms, hospitals etc. storing client data in the cloud) will have to follow rather more stringent regulations.

  10. Relationship between the Initial Systolic Time Interval and RR-interval during an exercise stimulus measured with Impedance Cardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Habers, Esther; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Meijer, Jan H.

    2010-04-01

    The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI), obtained from the electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram, is considered to be a measure for the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and reflects an active period of the heart cycle. The relationship between ISTI and the total heart cycle (RR-interval) was studied in three groups of young, healthy volunteers: low, moderately and highly trained subjects. The three groups were exposed to an exercise stimulus on a cycle ergometer with an increasing work load to increase the heart rate. ISTI was decreased with decreasing RR-interval. However, the relative proportion of ISTI, ISTI/RR, was found to increase with decreasing RR-interval. This relationship was found to be inversely proportional. The rate of this increase in ISTI/RR was significantly higher in highly trained subjects. Also, over the whole range of heart rates ISTI was longer in these subjects. It is concluded that ISTI can be used to evaluate cardiac performance during physical exercise non-invasively and in an extramural setting.

  11. A preprocessing tool for removing artifact from cardiac RR interval recordings using three-dimensional spatial distribution mapping.

    PubMed

    Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; McConnell, Harry; Hamilton-Craig, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Artifact is common in cardiac RR interval data that is recorded for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. A novel algorithm for artifact detection and interpolation in RR interval data is described. It is based on spatial distribution mapping of RR interval magnitude and relationships to adjacent values in three dimensions. The characteristics of normal physiological RR intervals and artifact intervals were established using 24-h recordings from 20 technician-assessed human cardiac recordings. The algorithm was incorporated into a preprocessing tool and validated using 30 artificial RR (ARR) interval data files, to which known quantities of artifact (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%) were added. The impact of preprocessing ARR files with 1% added artifact was also assessed using 10 time domain and frequency domain HRV metrics. The preprocessing tool was also used to preprocess 69 24-h human cardiac recordings. The tool was able to remove artifact from technician-assessed human cardiac recordings (sensitivity 0.84, SD = 0.09, specificity of 1.00, SD = 0.01) and artificial data files. The removal of artifact had a low impact on time domain and frequency domain HRV metrics (ranging from 0% to 2.5% change in values). This novel preprocessing tool can be used with human 24-h cardiac recordings to remove artifact while minimally affecting physiological data and therefore having a low impact on HRV measures of that data.

  12. Using cloud computing infrastructure with CloudBioLinux, CloudMan, and Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Afgan, Enis; Chapman, Brad; Jadan, Margita; Franke, Vedran; Taylor, James

    2012-06-01

    Cloud computing has revolutionized availability and access to computing and storage resources, making it possible to provision a large computational infrastructure with only a few clicks in a Web browser. However, those resources are typically provided in the form of low-level infrastructure components that need to be procured and configured before use. In this unit, we demonstrate how to utilize cloud computing resources to perform open-ended bioinformatic analyses, with fully automated management of the underlying cloud infrastructure. By combining three projects, CloudBioLinux, CloudMan, and Galaxy, into a cohesive unit, we have enabled researchers to gain access to more than 100 preconfigured bioinformatics tools and gigabytes of reference genomes on top of the flexible cloud computing infrastructure. The protocol demonstrates how to set up the available infrastructure and how to use the tools via a graphical desktop interface, a parallel command-line interface, and the Web-based Galaxy interface.

  13. Martian Clouds Data Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Steven (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The major topics covered were a discussion of the structure of relational data base systems and features of the Britton Lee Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS); a discussion of the workshop's objectives, approach, and research scenarios; and an overview of the Atmospheres Node User's Guide, which details the datasets stored on the Britton Lee, the structure of the query and data analysis system, and examples of the exact menu screens encountered. Also discussed were experience with the system, review of the system performance, and a strategy to produce queries and performance data retrievals of mutual interest. The goals were defined as examining correlations between cloud occurrence, water vapor abundance, and surface properties.

  14. Alterations of Cloud Microphysics Due to Cloud Processed CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Tabor, S. S.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution CCN spectra have revealed bimodality (Hudson et al. 2015) similar to aerosol size spectra (e.g., Hoppel et al. 1985). Bimodality is caused by chemical and physical cloud processes that increase mass or hygroscopicity of only CCN that produced activated cloud droplets. Bimodality is categorized by relative CCN concentrations (NCCN) within the two modes, Nu-Np; i.e., NCCN within the higher critical supersaturation, Sc, mode that did not undergo cloud processing minus NCCN within the lower Sc mode that was cloud processed. Lower, especially negative, Nu-Np designates greater processing. The table shows regressions between Nu-Np and characteristics of clouds nearest the CCN measurements. ICE-T MASE parameter R SL R SL Nc 0.17 93.24 -0.26 98.65 MD -0.31 99.69 0.33 99.78 σ -0.27 99.04 0.48 100.00 Ld -0.31 99.61 0.38 99.96 Table. Correlation coefficients, R, and one-tailed significance levels in percent, SL, for Nu-Np with microphysics of the clouds closest to each CCN measurement, 75 ICE-T and 74 MASE cases. Nc is cloud droplet concentration, MD is cloud droplet mean diameter, σ is standard deviation of cloud droplet spectra, Ldis drizzle drop LWC. Two aircraft field campaigns, Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) and Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) show opposite R signs because coalescence dominated cloud processing in low altitude ICE-T cumuli whereas chemical transformations predominated in MASE low altitude polluted stratus. Coalescence reduces Nc and NCCN, which thus increases MD, and σ, which promote Ld. Chemical transformations, e.g., SO2 to SO4, increase CCN hygroscopicity, thus reducing Sc, but not affecting Nc or NCCN. Lower Sc CCN are capable of producing greater Nc in subsequent cloud cycles, which leads to lower MD and σ which reduce Ld (figure). These observations are consistent with cloud droplet growth models for the higher vertical wind (W) of cumuli and lower W of stratus. Coalescence thus reduces the indirect

  15. CloudSat View of Flossie

    NASA Video Gallery

    CloudSat passed directly over Tropical Storm Flossie on July 29 and showed cumulus and stratocumulus clouds in northern Hawaii and cumulonimbus clouds over the southern part. Large amounts of liqui...

  16. Cloud-free resolution element statistics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liley, B.; Martin, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    Computer program computes number of cloud-free elements in field-of-view and percentage of total field-of-view occupied by clouds. Human error is eliminated by using visual estimation to compute cloud statistics from aerial photographs.

  17. Degradation of Microcystin-LR and RR by a Stenotrophomonas sp. Strain EMS Isolated from Lake Taihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Hu, Liang Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Shao Hua; Yang, Jing Dong; Xue, Yan Feng; Shi, Zhi Qi

    2010-01-01

    A bacterial strain EMS with the capability of degrading microcystins (MCs) was isolated from Lake Taihu, China. The bacterium was tentatively identified as a Stenotrophomonas sp. The bacterium could completely consume MC-LR and MC-RR within 24 hours at a concentration of 0.7 μg/mL and 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR by EMS occurred preferentially in an alkaline environment. In addition, mlrA gene involved in the degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR was detected in EMS. Due to the limited literature this gene has rare homologues. Sequencing analysis of the translated protein from mlrA suggested that MlrA might be a transmembrane protein, which suggests a possible new protease family having unique function. PMID:20479990

  18. Evidence for a link between locus R-R sequence type and outcome of infection with Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ali, I K M; Haque, R; Alam, F; Kabir, M; Siddique, A; Petri, W A

    2012-07-01

    The results of Entamoeba histolytica infections range from asymptomatic colonization to variable disease outcomes. However, markers that may predict infection outcomes are not known. Here, we investigated sequence types of a non-coding tRNA-linked locus R-R to identify surrogate markers that may show association with infection outcomes. Among 112 clinical samples--21 asymptomatic, 20 diarrhoea/dysentery and 71 liver abscesses--we identified 11 sequence types. Sequence type 5RR was mostly associated with asymptomatic samples, and sequence type 10RR was predominantly associated with the symptomatic (diarrhoea/dysentery and liver abscess) samples. This is the first report that identifies markers that may predict disease outcomes in E. histolytica infection.

  19. Storm and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Yesterday's storm front was moving westward, today's moves eastward. Note the thick cloud cover and beautifully delineated cloud tops.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 72.1, Longitude 308.3 East (51.7 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Architectural Implications of Cloud Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-24

    Mellon University Final Thoughts 1 Cloud Computing is in essence an economic model • It is a different way to acquire and manage IT resources...Cloud (EC2): http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/ • Amazon Simple Storage Solution (S3): http://aws.amazon.com/s3/ • Eucalyptus Systems: http