Science.gov

Sample records for cloudy days estimated

  1. Estimation of the influence of cloudiness on the Earth observation from space through a gap in a cloudy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, V. V.; Kirnos, I. V.; Tarasenkov, M. V.

    2015-11-01

    For atmospheric correction of satellite images, the problem is formulated to estimate the distance from a cloud at which its influence on the satellite image of the Earth surface can be neglected. The Monte Carlo method of conjugate trajectories is used. The gap radius in the field of continuous cloudiness at which the influence of the cloudy medium on the received signal intensity does not exceed 10 % is obtained. It is revealed that for the Lambert law of radiation reflection from the Earth surface, the curve of the dependence of the received signal intensity on the gap radius has a maximum caused by the opposite influence of light scattering by the cloudy medium and radiation reflection by the surface (adjacency effect). To further generalize the examined problem to a stochastic cloud field, the method of direct simulation of photon trajectories in a stochastic medium is compared with G. A. Titov's method of closed equations in the gap vicinity. A comparison is carried out with the model of the stochastic medium in the form of a cloud field of constant geometric thickness consisting of rectangular clouds whose boundaries are determined by the stationary Poisson flow of points. It is demonstrated that results of calculations can differ at most by 20‒30 %; however, in some cases (for some sets of initial data), the difference for the entire region of cloud cover indices is within 7 %.

  2. Cloudy Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds).

  3. Cloudy Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds). Read more here: 1.usa.gov/1P6lbMU Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. Using Microwave Observations to Estimate Land Surface Temperature during Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, T. R.; Crow, W. T.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), a key ingredient for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes, remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observations and passive microwave observations (MW). TIR is the most commonly used approach and the method of choice to provide standard LST products for various satellite missions. MW-based LST retrievals on the other hand are not as widely adopted for land applications; currently their principle use is in soil moisture retrieval algorithms. MW and TIR technologies present two highly complementary and independent means of measuring LST. MW observations have a high tolerance to clouds but a low spatial resolution, and TIR has a high spatial resolution with temporal sampling restricted to clear skies. The nature of the temperature at the very surface layer of the land makes it difficult to combine temperature estimates between different methods. The skin temperature is characterized by a strong diurnal cycle that is dependant in timing and amplitude on the exact sensing depth and thermal properties of the vegetation. This paper builds on recent progress in characterizing the main structural components of the DTC that explain differences in TIR and MW estimates of LST. Spatial patterns in DTC timing (phase lag with solar noon) and DTC amplitude have been calculated for TIR, MW and compared to weather prediction estimates. Based on these comparisons MW LST can be matched to the TIR record. This paper will compare in situ measurements of LST with satellite estimates from (downscaled) TIR and (reconciled) MW products. By contrasting the validation results of clear sky days with those of cloudy days the expected tolerance to clouds of the MW observations will be tested. The goal of this study is to determine the weather conditions in which MW can supplement the TIR LST record.

  5. Estimation of the amount of tropospheric ozone in a cloudy sky by ground-based Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spänkuch, D; Döhler, W; Güldner, J; Schulz, E

    1998-05-20

    The problem of retrieving minor concentrations of constituents by ground-based Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy is addressed by means of the concept of differential optical emission spectroscopy in analogy to the concept of differential optical absorption spectroscopy. Using the prominent nu3 ozone feature at 1043 cm(-1), we show that the strength of the spectral signature depends not only on the amount of ozone but also on the atmospheric thermal structure. This dependence can be described by a rather accurate approximation, which was used to construct a simple diagram to estimate the amount of column ozone between the instrument site and a cloud deck as well as to determine the detection limit. The detection limit is shown to depend on cloud base height. For a given thermal lapse rate it was found that the lower the detection limit, the higher the cloud base altitude. However, as shown in a case study with variable cloud base height, the concept fails for semitransparent clouds. Multiple scattering of the emitted radiation within the clouds yielded a path enhancement that simulated an enhanced amount of constituent. The path enhancement was estimated to be 2.4-4 km at 1000 cm(-1) for low-level clouds, equivalent to an enhancement factor of 6-21. The multiple scattering effect has considerable consequences for ground-based as well as for nadir satellite retrieval techniques in cloudy skies.

  6. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system.

    The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles.

    Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone.

    This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged

  7. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system.

    The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles.

    Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone.

    This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged

  8. The 2017 Release Cloudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, G. J.; Chatzikos, M.; Guzmán, F.; Lykins, M. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.; Abel, N. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the 2017 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, summarizing the many improvements to the scope and accuracy of the physics which have been made since the previous release. Exporting the atomic data into external data files has enabled many new large datasets to be incorporated into the code. The use of the complete datasets is not realistic for most calculations, so we describe the limited subset of data used by default, which predicts significantly more lines than the previous release of Cloudy. This version is nevertheless faster than the previous release, as a result of code optimizations. We give examples of the accuracy limits using small models, and the performance requirements of large complete models. We summarize several advances in the H- and He-like iso-electronic sequences and use our complete collisional-radiative models to establish the densities where the coronal and local thermodynamic equilibrium approximations work.

  9. Empirical Estimates and Observations of 0Day Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Miles A. McQueen; Trevor A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; May R. Chaffin

    2009-01-01

    We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, that has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to a system from exploit of vulnerabilities which are not generally known to the public or, most importantly, to the owners of the system. Using the 0Day definition given above, we analyzed the 0Day lifespans of 491 vulnerabilities and conservatively estimated that in the worst year there were on average 2500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Then using a small but intriguing set of 15 0Day vulnerability lifespans representing the time from actual discovery to public disclosure, we made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day.

  10. Empirical Estimates of 0Day Vulnerabilities in Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Sean M. McBride; Trevor A. McQueen

    2009-01-01

    We define a 0Day vulnerability to be any vulnerability, in deployed software, which has been discovered by at least one person but has not yet been publicly announced or patched. These 0Day vulnerabilities are of particular interest when assessing the risk to well managed control systems which have already effectively mitigated the publicly known vulnerabilities. In these well managed systems the risk contribution from 0Days will have proportionally increased. To aid understanding of how great a risk 0Days may pose to control systems, an estimate of how many are in existence is needed. Consequently, using the 0Day definition given above, we developed and applied a method for estimating how many 0Day vulnerabilities are in existence on any given day. The estimate is made by: empirically characterizing the distribution of the lifespans, measured in days, of 0Day vulnerabilities; determining the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day; and applying a novel method for estimating the number of 0Day vulnerabilities in existence on any given day using the number of vulnerabilities publicly announced each day and the previously derived distribution of 0Day lifespans. The method was first applied to a general set of software applications by analyzing the 0Day lifespans of 491 software vulnerabilities and using the daily rate of vulnerability announcements in the National Vulnerability Database. This led to a conservative estimate that in the worst year there were, on average, 2500 0Day software related vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. Using a smaller but intriguing set of 15 0Day software vulnerability lifespans representing the actual time from discovery to public disclosure, we then made a more aggressive estimate. In this case, we estimated that in the worst year there were, on average, 4500 0Day software vulnerabilities in existence on any given day. We then proceeded to identify the subset of software applications likely to be used in some

  11. Common Day Care Safety Renovations: Descriptions, Explanations and Cost Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spack, Stan

    This booklet explains some of the day care safety features specified by the new Massachusetts State Building Code (January 1, 1975) which must be met before a new day care center can be licensed. The safety features described are those which most often require renovation to meet the building code standards. Best estimates of the costs involved in…

  12. Common Day Care Safety Renovations: Descriptions, Explanations and Cost Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spack, Stan

    This booklet explains some of the day care safety features specified by the new Massachusetts State Building Code (January 1, 1975) which must be met before a new day care center can be licensed. The safety features described are those which most often require renovation to meet the building code standards. Best estimates of the costs involved in…

  13. A CLOUDY/XSPEC Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. L.; Ferland, G. J.; Kraemer, S. B.; Armentrout, B. K.; Arnaud, K. A.; Turner, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss new functionality of the spectral simulation code CLOUDY which allows the user to calculate grids with one or more initial parameters varied and formats the predicted spectra in the standard FITS format. These files can then be imported into the x-ray spectral analysis software XSPEC and used as theoretical models for observations. We present and verify a test case. Finally, we consider a few observations and discuss our results.

  14. Total gaseous mercury exchange between water and air during cloudy weather conditions over Hongfeng Reservoir, Guizhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xinbin; Wang, Shaofeng; Qiu, Guangle; He, Tianrong; Li, Guanghui; Li, Zhonggen; Shang, Lihai

    2008-08-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) exchange fluxes between air and water surface were measured using a dynamic flux chamber (DFC) coupled with a gaseous mercury analyzer at two sampling sites of Hongfeng reservoir in cloudy and rainy weather conditions. The concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in water were also measured and indicated that DGM was supersaturated at most time during the sampling periods, which implied that the water body acted primarily as a source of mercury to the atmosphere. In general, TGM fluxes displayed a consistent diurnal pattern with peak fluxes at noon and minimum levels at early morning or night. However, this diurnal pattern was not clear when the weather was heavily cloudy and rainy with the maximum solar radiation of less than 140 W m-2. At this specific weather condition, a significantly positive correlation between TGM flux and relative humidity was observed. The behaviors of TGM flux over Hongfeng reservoir observed at cloudy weather conditions were some what different from those observed during mostly sunny weather conditions in Northern America and Europe. The empirical model developed based on the correlation between TGM flux and solar radiation during sunny days in Northern America was not applicable for estimation of TGM flux at cloudy and rainy weather conditions.

  15. A novel method to improve MODIS AOD retrievals in cloudy pixels using an analog ensemble approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Raman, A.; Delle Monache, L.; Alessandrini, S.; Cheng, W. Y. Y.; Gaubert, B.; Arellano, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) concentrations are one of the fundamental indicators of air quality. Earth orbiting satellite platforms acquire column aerosol abundance that can in turn provide information about the PM concentrations. One of the serious limitations of column aerosol retrievals from low earth orbiting satellites is that these algorithms are based on clear sky assumptions. They do not retrieve AOD in cloudy pixels. After filtering cloudy pixels, these algorithms also arbitrarily remove brightest and darkest 25% of remaining pixels over ocean and brightest and darkest 50% pixels over land to filter any residual contamination from clouds. This becomes a critical issue especially in regions that experience monsoon, like Asia and North America. In case of North America, monsoon season experiences wide variety of extreme air quality events such as fires in California and dust storms in Arizona. Assessment of these episodic events warrants frequent monitoring of aerosol observations from remote sensing retrievals. In this study, we demonstrate a method to fill in cloudy pixels in Moderate Imaging Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD retrievals based on ensembles generated using an analog-based approach (AnEn). It provides a probabilistic distribution of AOD in cloudy pixels using historical records of model simulations of meteorological predictors such as AOD, relative humidity, and wind speed, and past observational records of MODIS AOD at a given target site. We use simulations from a coupled community weather forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) run at a resolution comparable to MODIS AOD. Analogs selected from summer months (June, July) of 2011-2013 from model and corresponding observations are used as a training dataset. Then, missing AOD retrievals in cloudy pixels in the last 31 days of the selected period are estimated. Here, we use AERONET stations as target sites to facilitate comparison against in-situ measurements. We use two approaches to

  16. Effects of cloudiness on carbon dioxide exchange over an irrigated maize cropland in northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B. C.; Cao, J. J.; Bai, Y. F.; Yang, S. J.; Hu, L.; Ning, Z. G.

    2011-02-01

    Clouds can strongly influence solar radiation and affects other microclimatic factors (such as air temperature and vapour pressure deficit), and those changed environmental conditions may exert strong effects on carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we analyzed how canopy photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration respond to changes in cloudy conditions, based on two years of eddy-covariance and meteorological data from an irrigated maize cropland in Yingke oasis of northwestern China. The results showed that net carbon uptake was more negative under cloudy than under clear conditions, it indicates that net carbon uptake increased under cloudy days. The rate of ecosystem respiration (Re) decreased under cloudy conditions due to decreased air temperature. However, photosynthesis was suppressed by the decreasing air temperature and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) under cloudy skies. Thus, the enhancement of net carbon uptake under cloudy skies mainly contributed from increasing photosynthesis with diffuse radiation. Those results improve our understanding of the effects of cloud cover on carbon exchange process in maize (C4) cropland, and improve our understanding of the driver improving net carbon uptake under cloudy conditions.

  17. The cloudiness effect on UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, D.; de Miguel, A.; Bilbao, J.

    2009-04-01

    Ultraviolet total solar irradiation, 290-385 nm, at ground level in Valladolid, Spain (lat. 41° 40'N, long. 4°50'W and 840 m a.m.s.l.), has been recorded from February 2001 to June 2008 with an Eppley TUVR radiometer. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of clouds on the ultraviolet total irradiation (UV). To this end, two parameters have been calculated to quantify the effect of clouds on this radiation: clearness index or hemispherical transmittance and cloud modification factor (CMF). The global hemispherical transmittance is defined as the ratio between the global measured irradiation and the global extraterrestrial irradiation. The global cloud modification factor is defined as the ratio between the global measured irradiation and the estimated in a clear sky model. By analogy, these parameters are defined for ultraviolet range. The dependence of UV and global hemispherical transmittances on cloudiness (in octas) have been analyzed. It can be seen that, for high solar elevation angles, the global hemispherical transmittance falls 60% from cloudless to overcast skies, whereas UV hemispherical transmittance decreases only 50%. Linear and potential fits have been found like the best relationships between these transmittances. Moreover, the dependence of UV/G ratio and the clearness index on the cloudiness (in octas) have been studied. Both variables show different behaviours, while the UV/G ratio increases with cloud cover, the clearness index decreases. For example, for high solar elevation, the clearness index falls 50% from cloudless to overcast skies, while the UV/G ratio rises almost 1%. The relationships between global and UV cloud modification factor have been found. The best ones obtained have been with the exponential or potential functions. It can be shown that these relationships move away from the linearity. Therefore, the clouds do not transmit the UV irradiation and the global solar irradiation in the same way. UV-CMF and global

  18. Trade-Wind Cloudiness and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Closed Mesoscale Cellular Convection (MCC) consists of mesoscale cloud patches separated by narrow clear regions. Strong radiative cooling occurs at the cloud top. A dry two-dimensional Bousinesq model is used to study the effects of cloud-top cooling on convection. Wide updrafts and narrow downdrafts are used to indicate the asymmetric circulations associated with the mesoscale cloud patches. Based on the numerical results, a conceptual model was constructed to suggest a mechanism for the formation of closed MCC over cool ocean surfaces. A new method to estimate the radioative and evaporative cooling in the entrainment layer of a stratocumulus-topped boundary layer has been developed. The method was applied to a set of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) results and to a set of tethered-balloon data obtained during FIRE. We developed a statocumulus-capped marine mixed layer model which includes a parameterization of drizzle based on the use of a predicted Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) number concentration. We have developed, implemented, and tested a very elaborate new stratiform cloudiness parameterization for use in GCMs. Finally, we have developed a new, mechanistic parameterization of the effects of cloud-top cooling on the entrainment rate.

  19. Bioactive compounds and quality parameters of natural cloudy lemon juices.

    PubMed

    Uçan, Filiz; Ağçam, Erdal; Akyildiz, Asiye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, bioactive compounds (phenolic and carotenoid) and some quality parameters (color, browning index and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) of natural cloudy lemon juice, pasteurized (90 °C/15 s) and storage stability of concentrated lemon juice (-25 °C/180 days) were carried out. Fifteen phenolic compounds were determined in the lemon juice and the most abounded phenolic compounds were hesperidin, eriocitrin, chlorogenic acid and neoeriocitrin. In generally, phenolic compound concentrations of lemon juice samples increased after the pasteurization treatment. Four carotenoid compounds (β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin) were detected in natural cloudy lemon juice. Lutein and β-cryptoxanthin were the most abounded carotenoid compounds in the lemon juice. Color values of the lemon juices were not affected by processing and storage periods. HMF and browning index of the lemon juices increased with concentration and storage. According to the results, storing at -25 °C was considered as sufficient for acceptable quality limits of natural cloudy lemon juice.

  20. Retrieval of Intensive Aerosol Properties from MFRSR observations: Partly Cloudy Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-09-30

    An approach for the obtaining column intensive aerosol properties, namely the single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (ASP), from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) spectral observations under partly cloudy conditions is described. The approach involves the MFRSR-based aerosol retrieval for clear-sky periods and an interpolation of the retrieved column aerosol properties for cloudy periods. The observed weak diurnal variability of SSA and ASP at the surface and the close association of the surface intensive aerosol properties with their column counterparts form the basis of such interpolation. The approach is evaluated by calculating the corresponding clear-sky total, direct and diffuse fluxes at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870 nm) and compare them with the observed fluxes. The aerosol properties provided by this approach are applied for (i) an examination of the statistical relationship between spectral (visible spectral range) and broadband values of the total normalized cloud radiative forcing and (ii) an estimation of the fractional sky cover. Data collected during 13 days with single-layer cumulus clouds observed at U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during summer 2007 are applied to illustrate the performance and application of this approach.

  1. Systematic and day-to-day effects of chemical-derived population estimates on wastewater-based drug epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; Anuj, Shalona; Bruno, Raimondo; Carter, Steve; Gartner, Coral; Hall, Wayne; Kirkbride, K Paul; Mueller, Jochen F; O'Brien, Jake W; Prichard, Jeremy; Thai, Phong K; Ort, Christoph

    2015-01-20

    Population size is crucial when estimating population-normalized drug consumption (PNDC) from wastewater-based drug epidemiology (WBDE). Three conceptually different population estimates can be used: de jure (common census, residence), de facto (all persons within a sewer catchment), and chemical loads (contributors to the sampled wastewater). De facto and chemical loads will be the same where all households contribute to a central sewer system without wastewater loss. This study explored the feasibility of determining a de facto population and its effect on estimating PNDC in an urban community over an extended period. Drugs and other chemicals were analyzed in 311 daily composite wastewater samples. The daily estimated de facto population (using chemical loads) was on average 32% higher than the de jure population. Consequently, using the latter would systemically overestimate PNDC by 22%. However, the relative day-to-day pattern of drug consumption was similar regardless of the type of normalization as daily illicit drug loads appeared to vary substantially more than the population. Using chemical loads population, we objectively quantified the total methodological uncertainty of PNDC and reduced it by a factor of 2. Our study illustrated the potential benefits of using chemical loads population for obtaining more robust PNDC data in WBDE.

  2. RECAL: A Computer Program for Selecting Sample Days for Recreation Use Estimation

    Treesearch

    D.L. Erickson; C.J. Liu; H. Ken Cordell; W.L. Chen

    1980-01-01

    Recreation Calendar (RECAL) is a computer program in PL/I for drawing a sample of days for estimating recreation use. With RECAL, a sampling period of any length may be chosen; simple random, stratified random, and factorial designs can be accommodated. The program randomly allocates days to strata and locations.

  3. An evaluation of study design for estimating a time-of-day noise weighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The relative importance of daytime and nighttime noise of the same noise level is represented by a time-of-day weight in noise annoyance models. The high correlations between daytime and nighttime noise were regarded as a major reason that previous social surveys of noise annoyance could not accurately estimate the value of the time-of-day weight. Study designs which would reduce the correlation between daytime and nighttime noise are described. It is concluded that designs based on short term variations in nighttime noise levels would not be able to provide valid measures of response to nighttime noise. The accuracy of the estimate of the time-of-day weight is predicted for designs which are based on long term variations in nighttime noise levels. For these designs it is predicted that it is not possible to form satisfactorily precise estimates of the time-of-day weighting.

  4. A cloudiness transition in a marine boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Alan K.; Boers, Reinout

    1990-01-01

    Boundary layer cloudiness plays several important roles in the energy budget of the earth. Low level stratocumulus are highly reflective clouds which reduce the net incoming shortwave radiation at the earth's surface. Climatically, the transition to a small area fraction of scattered cumulus clouds occurs as the air flows over warmer water. Although these clouds reflect less sunlight, they still play an important role in the boundary layer equilibrium by transporting water vapor upwards, and enhancing the surface evaporation. The First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE) included a marine stratocumulus experiment off the southern California coast from June 29 to July 19, 1987. The objectives of this experiment were to study the controls on fractional cloudiness, and to assess the role of cloud-top entrainment instability (CTEI) and mesoscale structure in determining cloud type. The focus is one research day, July 7, 1987, when coordinated aircraft missions were flown by four research aircraft, centered on a LANDSAT scene at 1830 UTC. The remarkable feature of this LANDSAT scene is the transition from a clear sky in the west through broken cumulus to solid stratocumulus in the east. The dynamic and thermodynamic structure of this transition in cloudiness is analyzed using data from the NCAR Electra. By averaging the aircraft data, the internal structure of the different cloud regimes is documented, and it is shown that the transition between broken cumulus and stratocumulus is associated with a change in structure with respect to the CTEI condition. However, this results not from sea surface temperature changes, but mostly from a transition in the air above the inversion, and the breakup appears to be at a structure on the unstable side of the wet virtual adiabat.

  5. Stochastic Radiative transfer and real cloudiness

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, F.

    1995-09-01

    Plane-parallel radiative transfer modeling of clouds in GCMs is thought to be an inadequate representation of the effects of real cloudiness. A promising new approach for studying the effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity is stochastic radiative transfer, which computes the radiative effects of ensembles of cloud structures described by probability distributions. This approach is appropriate because cloud information is inherently statistical, and it is the mean radiative effect of complex 3D cloud structure that is desired. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  6. A New Algorithm for Detection of Cloudiness and Moon Affect Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dindar, Murat; Helhel, Selcuk; Ünal Akdemir, Kemal

    2016-07-01

    Cloud detection is a crucial issue for observatories already operating and during phase of the site selection. Sky Quality Meter (SQM) devices mostly use to determine parameters of the quality of sky such as cloudiness, light flux. But, those parameters do not give us exact information about the cloudiness and moon affects. In this study we improved a new cloudiness and moon affects area detection algorithm. The algorithm is based on image processing methods and different approaches applied to both day time and night time images to calculate the sky coverage. The new algorithm also implemented with Matlab by using the images taken by all sky camera located at TÜBİTAK National Observatory and results were given.

  7. The performance of a simple degree-day estimate of snow accumulation to an alpine watershed

    Treesearch

    R. A. Sommerfeld; R. C. Musselman; G. L. Wooldridge; M. A. Conrad

    1991-01-01

    We estimated the yearly snow accumulation to the Glacier Lakes Ecosystems Experiments Site (GLEES) for the winters of 1987-88, 1988-89, and 1989-90, using a simple degree-day model developed by J. Martinec and A. Rango. Comparisons with other data indicate that the estimates are accurate. In particular, a calibration with an intensive snow core-probe survey in 1989-90...

  8. View-angle-dependent AIRS Cloudiness and Radiance Variance: Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.

    2013-01-01

    Upper tropospheric clouds play an important role in the global energy budget and hydrological cycle. Significant view-angle asymmetry has been observed in upper-level tropical clouds derived from eight years of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) 15 um radiances. Here, we find that the asymmetry also exists in the extra-tropics. It is larger during day than that during night, more prominent near elevated terrain, and closely associated with deep convection and wind shear. The cloud radiance variance, a proxy for cloud inhomogeneity, has consistent characteristics of the asymmetry to those in the AIRS cloudiness. The leading causes of the view-dependent cloudiness asymmetry are the local time difference and small-scale organized cloud structures. The local time difference (1-1.5 hr) of upper-level (UL) clouds between two AIRS outermost views can create parts of the observed asymmetry. On the other hand, small-scale tilted and banded structures of the UL clouds can induce about half of the observed view-angle dependent differences in the AIRS cloud radiances and their variances. This estimate is inferred from analogous study using Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) radiances observed during the period of time when there were simultaneous measurements at two different view-angles from NOAA-18 and -19 satellites. The existence of tilted cloud structures and asymmetric 15 um and 6.7 um cloud radiances implies that cloud statistics would be view-angle dependent, and should be taken into account in radiative transfer calculations, measurement uncertainty evaluations and cloud climatology investigations. In addition, the momentum forcing in the upper troposphere from tilted clouds is also likely asymmetric, which can affect atmospheric circulation anisotropically.

  9. Diary days needed to estimate activity among older African-American and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Eason, Karen E; Masse, Louise C; Kelder, Steven H; Tortolero, Susan R

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate variation in energy expenditure among older African-American and Hispanic female workers and nonworkers, and identify the number of days of diary self-report necessary to reliably estimate activity. 227 women (111 African-American, 116 Hispanic) from the Women On The Move study completed a 7-d diary and were used in the analysis for this study (mean age 49.3 yr, SD = 7.0; mean weight 77.0 kg, SD = 17.6 kg; mean BMI 30, SD = 6.5). Kcal per day for total activity and specific types of activity were calculated for each subject and used in generalizability analyses. Results indicated that 11 d of activity are needed to reliably estimate total activity for African-American nonworkers and 8 d for Hispanic nonworkers. For workers, 12 d of activity are needed to reliably estimate total activity for African-Americans and 14 d are required for Hispanics. Days of diary self-report required by activity type for African-Americans range from 6 to 48 for nonworkers and from 6 to 30 for workers. For Hispanics, days of diary self-report required by activity type range from 8 to 111 for nonworkers and 7 to 42 for workers. The results of this study indicate the need for more than 7 d of diary self-report to achieve reliable estimates of total activity in older African-American and Hispanic women. The study also found that certain types of activity could be reliably estimated in less than 7 d. However, when there is less variability in the measure/behavior, the reliability is expected to be less and more measurement days are needed to achieve a desired level of reliability.

  10. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  11. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Avtar; Singh, Manvendra; Prakash, Ved; Ambhore, G S; Sahoo, S K; Dash, Soumya

    2016-06-01

    A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM) considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order) and the permanent environmental effect (5th order). Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11) to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5). The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields.

  12. Metallographic Observation of the Cloudy Zone in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. W.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1993-07-01

    The cloudy zone in the retained taenite of meteoritic metal is composed of two phases, the high-Ni island phase and the low-Ni honeycomb phase [1,2]. There is a concentration gradient through the cloudy zone and the size of the island phase varies with local Ni concentration. We propose that this size variation can be used to estimate the low-temperature cooling rate of the meteorite since the island phase width is controlled by the cooling rate and Ni concentration. The purpose of this study is to develop a relationship between the size of the island phase in the microstructure, the composition of the cloudy zone in the retained taenite of iron, stony-iron, and stony meteorites, and the cooling rate of meteorites obtained by metallographic techniques. A JEOL 6300F high-resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM) and a JEOL 733 electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) were employed to study the microstructure. The island phase size variation was measured using a Micro-Plan II image analysis system (DonSanto Co.). Five meteorites including one mesosiderite, Estherville (ES), one iron meteorite, Tazewell (TA), and three chondrites, Saint Severin (SS), Guarena (GU), and Kernouve (KE),were investigated. The island phase width was measured using high-magnification (50,000X) HRSEM images taken across the cloudy zone of the five meteorites and the local Ni concentration was measured for each image using EPMA. For all the meteorites, the size of the island phase increases with increasing Ni concentration. The Ni concentration of the cloudy zone, which abuts the clear taenite (tetrataenite) rim phase, has the highest Ni, and has the biggest island phases, is almost constant (~42 wt% Ni). The size of the biggest island phase in a meteorite can be used as a measure of the cooling rate. Figure 1 shows the variation of the island phase vs. cooling rate. The metallographic cooling rate data were taken from previous measurements (Estherville [3], Saint Severin [4,5], Guarena [5

  13. Influences of the day-night differences of ionosphere on the GPS DCB estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Donghe; Zhang, Shunrong; Coster, Anthea; Hao, Yongqiang; Xiao, Zuo

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of differential code bias (DCB) of GPS system is one of the necessary steps for total electron content (TEC) derivation from GPS measurements. Usually, the method for estimating the GPS DCBs follows the assumption of the gentle temporal and spatial variation of the ionosphere, but this assumption is just an approximation because of the ionosphere's inherent variability. It has been indicated that the estimated GPS satellite DCBs are sometimes influenced by the ionospheric conditions. Here, we demonstrate a possible influence of ionospheric condition that differs between day and night on the estimated DCBs from measurements of a single GPS station. It is found that the average standard deviations (STDs) of the satellite DCBs estimated with daytime data are higher than that with the nighttime data. To reduce this day-night difference effect on GPS DCB determination, we use an improved estimation method based on the primary features of the ionospheric variability with local time. A local time dependent weighting function was introduced into the original least-squared DCBs estimation algorithm. A test with data for BJFS station (39.60°N, 115.89°E) in 2001 indicates that the STD of the DCBs decreases from 2.533 TECU to 2.308 TECU, or by 8.9%, after the improved method was applied. For comparison, another test for the same station in 2009 indicates that the STD decreases from 1.344TECU to 1.295 TECU. Reference Li, LX. DH. Zhang., SR. Zhang., et al. Influences of the day-night differences of ionospheric variability on the estimation of GPS differential code bias, Radio Science, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/2014RS005565 Zhang D H, Shi H, Jin Y Q, et al. The variation of the estimated GPS instrumental bias and its possible connection with ionospheric variability. Sci China Tech Sci, 2014, 57: 67-79, doi: 10.1007/s11431-013-5419-7 Zhang D H, Zhang W,Li Q., Accuracy analysis of the GPS instrumental bias estimated from observations in middle and low latitudes

  14. Estimates of 7-day, 10-year minimum flows at selected stream sites in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobb, Ernest D.

    1978-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year minimum flow of streams is used as an index for determining the capacity of streams to receive waste effluents. This index of flow was computed from streamflow records for 31 stream sites in Puerto Rico. In addition, there was a need for the 7-day, 10-year minimum flow at an additional 15 stream sites for which adequate streamflow data were not available. The flow index was estimated at these sites on the basis of available record, records at nearby sites, and comparisons with drainage areas. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Estimates of genetic parameters for Holstein cows for test-day yield traits with a random regression cubic spline model.

    PubMed

    DeGroot, B J; Keown, J F; Van Vleck, L D; Kachman, S D

    2007-06-30

    Genetic parameters were estimated with restricted maximum likelihood for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields and somatic cell scores with a random regression cubic spline model. Test-day records of Holstein cows that calved from 1994 through early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems in Raleigh, North Carolina, for the analysis. Estimates of heritability for individual test-days and estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations between test-days were obtained from estimates of variances and covariances from the cubic spline analysis. Estimates were calculated of genetic parameters for the averages of the test days within each of the ten 30-day test intervals. The model included herd test-day, age at first calving, and bovine somatropin treatment as fixed factors. Cubic splines were fitted for the overall lactation curve and for random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, with five predetermined knots or four intervals between days 0, 50, 135, 220, and 305. Estimates of heritability for lactation one ranged from 0.10 to 0.15, 0.06 to 0.10, 0.09 to 0.15, and 0.02 to 0.06 for test-day one to test-day 10 for milk, fat, and protein yields and somatic cell scores, respectively. Estimates of heritability were greater in lactations two and three. Estimates of heritability increased over the course of the lactation. Estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations were smaller for test-days further apart.

  16. Building Proteins in a Day: Efficient 3D Molecular Structure Estimation with Electron Cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Punjani, Ali; Brubaker, Marcus A; Fleet, David J

    2017-04-01

    Discovering the 3D atomic-resolution structure of molecules such as proteins and viruses is one of the foremost research problems in biology and medicine. Electron Cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is a promising vision-based technique for structure estimation which attempts to reconstruct 3D atomic structures from a large set of 2D transmission electron microscope images. This paper presents a new Bayesian framework for cryo-EM structure estimation that builds on modern stochastic optimization techniques to allow one to scale to very large datasets. We also introduce a novel Monte-Carlo technique that reduces the cost of evaluating the objective function during optimization by over five orders of magnitude. The net result is an approach capable of estimating 3D molecular structure from large-scale datasets in about a day on a single CPU workstation.

  17. The cloudy state of interstellar matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    The expression 'cloudy state' is used to describe the state of the diffuse interstellar matter, with emphasis on its denser and more opaque regions. Questions of morphology with respect to the Galaxy are examined, taking into account neutral hydrogen, molecular regions, H II regions, infrared sources and masers, coronal gas in the Galaxy, and the major components of the interstellar medium. Aspects of dynamics are also considered, giving attention to the two-phase interstellar medium, the three-phase interstellar medium, the density-wave compression of clouds, and problems related to the concept of collapsing clouds. Developments concerning chemistry are explored. Radioactive chronologies are discussed along with isotopic anomalies and aspects of interstellar chemistry.

  18. Gauge invariance in the cloudy bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Koepf, W.; Henley, E.M.

    1993-10-01

    We investigate the question, whether the conventional analysis of the electromagnetic form factors, calculated in the frame-work of the cloudy bag model (CBM), is gauge invariant. In order to address that point, we first formulate the model in a way that resembles the technique of loop integrals. Evaluating the self energy and the electromagnetic form factors in that manner and comparing with the standard analysis where non-relativistic perturbation theory is used, allows us to show, that our approach is appropriate, and to point out, what approximations are made in the usual derivation of the CBM. From the form of the loop integrals, we then show whether a seagull correction is needed to preserve gauge invariance, and we discuss corresponding corrections for various models.

  19. Variations in daylight as a contextual cue for estimating season, time of day, and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Valsecchi, Matteo

    2014-01-24

    Experience and experiments on human color constancy (i.e., Arend & Reeves, 1986; Craven & Foster, 1992) tell us that we are capable of judging the illumination. However, when asked to make a match of the illuminant's color and brightness, human observers seem to be quite poor (Granzier, Brenner, & Smeets, 2009a). Here we investigate whether human observers use (rather than match) daylight for estimating ecologically important dimensions: time of year, time of day, and outdoor temperature. In the first three experiments we had our observers evaluate calibrated color images of an outdoor urban scene acquired throughout a year. Although some observers could estimate the month and the temperature, overall they were quite poor at judging the time of day. In particular, observers were not able to discriminate between morning and afternoon pictures even when they were allowed to compare multiple images captured on the same day (Experiment 3). However, observers could distinguish between midday and sunset and sunrise daylight. Classification analysis showed that, given a perfect knowledge of its variation, an ideal observer could have performed the task over chance only considering the average chromatic variation in the picture. Instead, our observers reported using shadows to detect the position of the sun in order to estimate the time of day. However, this information is highly unreliable without knowledge of the orientation of the scene. In Experiment 4 we used an LED chamber in order to present our observers with lights whose chromaticity and illuminance varied along the daylight locus, thus isolating the light cues from the sun position cue. We conclude that discriminating the slight variations in chromaticity and brightness, which potentially distinguish morning and afternoon illuminations, lies beyond the ability of human observers.

  20. Aerosol optical depth increase in partly cloudy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Duli; Wood, Robert; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Rasch, Philip J.; Miller, Steven; Schichtel, Bret; Moore, Tom

    2012-09-01

    Remote sensing observations of aerosol from surface and satellite instruments are extensively used for atmospheric and climate research. From passive sensors, the apparent cloud-free atmosphere in the vicinity of clouds often appears to be brighter than further away from the clouds, leading to an increase in the retrieved aerosol optical depth (τ). Mechanisms contributing to this enhancement or increase, including contamination by undetected clouds, hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles, and meteorological conditions, have been debated in recent literature, but the extent to which each of these factors influence the observed enhancement (Δτ) is poorly known. Here we used 11 years of daily global observations at 10 × 10 km2 resolution from the MODIS on the NASA Terra satellite to quantify τ as a function of cloud fraction (CF). Our analysis reveals that, averaged over the globe, the clear sky τ is enhanced by Δτ = 0.05 in cloudy conditions (CF = 0.8-0.9). This enhancement in Δτ corresponds to relative enhancement of 25% in cloudy conditions (CF = 0.8-0.9) compared with relatively clear conditions (CF = 0.1-0.2). Unlike the absolute enhancement Δτ, the relative increase in τis rather consistent in all seasons and is 25-35% in the subtropics and 15-25% at mid and higher latitudes. Using a simple Gaussian probability density function model to connect cloud cover and the distribution of relative humidity, we argue that much of the enhancement is consistent with aerosol hygroscopic growth in the humid environment surrounding clouds. Consideration of these cloud-dependentτeffects will facilitate understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and reduce the uncertainty in estimates of aerosol radiative forcing by global climate models.

  1. Estimation of duration and mental workload at differing times of day by males and females

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, P. A.; Rodenburg, G. J.; Mathews, W. D.; Vercruyssen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigated whether male and female operator duration estimation and subjective workload followed conventional circadian fluctuation. In the first experiment, twenty-four subjects performed a filled time-estimation task in a constant blacked-out, noise-reduced environment at 0800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 h. In the second experiment, twelve subjects performed an unfilled time estimation task in similar conditions at 0900, 1400, and 1900 h. At the termination of all experimental sessions, participants completed the NASA TLX workload assessment questionnaire as a measure of perceived mental workload. Results indicated that while physiological response followed an expected pattern, estimations of duration and subjective perception of workload showed no significant effects for time-of-day. In each of the experiments, however, there were significant differences in durational estimates and mental workload response depending upon the gender of the participant. Results are taken to support the assertion that subjective workload is responsive largely to task-related factors and indicates the important differences that may be expected due to operator gender.

  2. Estimation of duration and mental workload at differing times of day by males and females

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, P. A.; Rodenburg, G. J.; Mathews, W. D.; Vercruyssen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigated whether male and female operator duration estimation and subjective workload followed conventional circadian fluctuation. In the first experiment, twenty-four subjects performed a filled time-estimation task in a constant blacked-out, noise-reduced environment at 0800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 h. In the second experiment, twelve subjects performed an unfilled time estimation task in similar conditions at 0900, 1400, and 1900 h. At the termination of all experimental sessions, participants completed the NASA TLX workload assessment questionnaire as a measure of perceived mental workload. Results indicated that while physiological response followed an expected pattern, estimations of duration and subjective perception of workload showed no significant effects for time-of-day. In each of the experiments, however, there were significant differences in durational estimates and mental workload response depending upon the gender of the participant. Results are taken to support the assertion that subjective workload is responsive largely to task-related factors and indicates the important differences that may be expected due to operator gender.

  3. One-day rate measurements for estimating net nitrification potential in humid forest soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.S.; Fredriksen, G.; Jamison, A.E.; Wemple, B.C.; Bailey, S.W.; Shanley, J.B.; Lawrence, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of net nitrification rates in forest soils have usually been performed by extended sample incubation (2-8 weeks), either in the field or in the lab. Because of disturbance effects, these measurements are only estimates of nitrification potential and shorter incubations may suffice. In three separate studies of northeastern USA forest soil surface horizons, we found that laboratory nitrification rates measured over 1 day related well to those measured over 4 weeks. Soil samples of Oa or A horizons were mixed by hand and the initial extraction of subsamples, using 2 mol L-1 KCl, occurred in the field as soon as feasible after sampling. Soils were kept near field temperature and subsampled again the following day in the laboratory. Rates measured by this method were about three times higher than the 4-week rates. Variability in measured rates was similar over either incubation period. Because NO3- concentrations were usually quite low in the field, average rates from 10 research watersheds could be estimated with only a single, 1-day extraction. Methodological studies showed that the concentration of NH4+ increased slowly during contact time with the KCl extractant and, thus, this contact time should be kept similar during the procedure. This method allows a large number of samples to be rapidly assessed. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Concurrent validation of estimated activity energy expenditure using a 3-day diary and accelerometry in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado-Rodrigues, A M; Figueiredo, A J; Mota, J; Cumming, S P; Eisenmann, J C; Malina, R M; Coelho-E-Silva, M J

    2012-04-01

    Estimates of daily energy expenditure are important to studies of physical activity and energy balance. Objective measures are not always feasible and further research is needed to validate survey instruments and diaries. The study validates estimated activity energy expenditure (AEE) based on a 3-day diary protocol relative to AEE derived from uniaxial accelerometry in adolescents, 265 girls and 227 boys (12.5-16.4 years). Participants completed the diary and wore a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer on the same days. Height and weight were measured. Correlations between protocols were significant (P<0.001) but moderate, r=0.65 in males and r=0.69 in females. The highest correlation occurred among males on Friday, r=0.74 (P<0.01). Controlling for body mass, partial correlations between protocols decreased to 0.44 and 0.35 in males and females, respectively. About 97% of the cases fell within the limits of agreement in a Bland-Altman plot. The criterion of inclusion for the accelerometer excluded 18% of the initial sample. In summary, the 3-day diary was completed without any major problems and provided a reasonably valid alternative for assessing AEE. Concordance between methods was slightly lower for individuals with higher values of AEE. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Estimation of the total saliva volume produced per day in five-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Ohnishi, M; Imai, K; Kawano, E; Igarashi, S

    1995-08-01

    Fifteen boys and 15 girls were asked to record for 2 days the time spent awake, eating meals or snacks, and sleeping. The salivary flow rates elicited by chewing foods were also determined. The mean flow rate (+/- SD) of unstimulated saliva was 0.26 +/- 0.16 ml/min and that of saliva while chewing six different foods was 3.6 +/- 0.8 ml/min. The mean times spent eating, and awake but not eating, were 80.8 +/- 27.3 and 820 +/- 59 min, respectively, and the volumes of saliva produced during those periods would average about 288 and 208 ml, respectively. If the flow rate is virtually zero during sleep, the estimated total salivary volume produced per day is calculated to be about 500 ml.

  6. Laboratory estimation of degree-day developmental requirements of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Alten, Bulent

    2005-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most important vector-borne endemic diseases in Turkey. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature on the developmental rates of one important vector of leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli, 1786) (Diptera: Psychodidae). Eggs from laboratory-reared colonies of Phlebotomus papatasi were exposed to six constant temperature regimes from 15 to 32 degrees C with a daylength of 14 h and relative humidity of 65-75%. No adult emergence was observed at 15 degrees C. Complete egg to adult development ranged from 27.89 +/- 1.88 days at 32 degrees C to 246.43 +/- 13.83 days at 18 degrees C. The developmental zero values were estimated to vary from 11.6 degrees C to 20.25 degrees C depending on life stages, and egg to adult development required 440.55 DD above 20.25 degrees C.

  7. A GIS tool to estimate West Nile virus risk based on a degree-day model.

    PubMed

    Zou, Li; Miller, Scott N; Schmidtmann, Edward T

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) is a serious infectious disease that recently spread across the North America continent. A spatial analysis tool was developed on the ArcMap 9.x platform to estimate potential West Nile virus activity using a spatially explicit degree-day model. The model identifies when the virus Extrinsic Incubation Period (EIP) is completed within the vector longevity during mid-summer months. The EIP is treated as a threshold indicator of the potential for virus emergence and activity. Comparing the number of West Nile virus cases in Wyoming reported from 2003 to 2005 with model results, actual cases and predicted events of West Nile virus activity match relatively well. The model represents a useful method for estimating potential West Nile virus activity in a large spatial scale.

  8. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration for clear sky days over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y.; Stisen, S.; Sandholt, I.; Jensen, K. H.

    2009-04-01

    The triangle method combined with thermal inertia for estimation of regional evapotranspiration based on Feng Yun-2C(FY-2C) satellite data and MODIS products over the North China Plain is presented. FY-2C, China's first operational geostationary meteorological satellite which features 5 spectral bands (1 VIS and 4 IR), can acquire one full disc image of China (60° N - 60° S ,45° E - 165° E) per hour every day. Two thermal red channels (IR1: 10.3-11.3 μm) and (IR2:11.5-12.5 μm) were used for surface temperature estimation using a split window algorithm originally proposed for the MSG-SEVIRI sensor assuming the channel response function range of the two split-window channels for MSG SEVIRI and FY-2C are similar and that the center of channels are the same. For application of the improved triangle method taking thermal inertia into account, the surface-air temperature gradient in the Ts-NDVI space, was replaced by the surface temperature temporal change estimated from the Land Surface Temperature at hours 8:00 and 12:00 in local time (ΔTs). Combined with the 16 days composite MODIS Vegetation Indices product (MOD 13) at spatial resolution of 5 km, evaporative fraction was estimated by interpolation in the ΔTs-NDVI triangular-shaped parameter space. Subsequently, regional actual evapotranspiration was estimated based on the derived evaporative fraction and available energy estimated from satellite data. In the piedmont plain with high NDVI and low ΔTs, evapotranspiration rate is high because of irrigation of winter wheat. In the coastal plain NDVI is low and also ΔTs is low as high evapotranspiration rates are sustained water supply from shallow water table. Ground-based measurements of evapotranspiration were retrieved from a lysimeter at the Luancheng eco-agricultural station of China Academy of Sciences. These data are representative for evapotranspiration in the piedmont plain and were used for validation of the actual evapotranspiration retrievals from

  9. Analysis of global cloudiness comparison of meteor, Nimbus 7, and international satellite cloud climatology project (ISCCP) satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, I.I.; Schlesinger, M.E.

    1993-07-20

    In this first paper of a three-part series on cloudienss we intercompare the simultaneous cloudiness data obtained from Meteor satellites, Nimbus 7, and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for the one-year period, July 1983 to June 1984. Four versions of ISCCP cloudiness are obtained from analyses of the ISCCP-C1 data. These versions differ in their requirements for temporal and spectral sampling. ISCCPs 1 and 2 require for each 2.5{degree} x 2.5{degree} latitude-longitude cell that there be observations at least (N{sub d} = ) 20 of the 28-31 possible days per month and at least (N{sub h} = ) 5 of the 8 possible 3 hourly times each such day; ISCCPs 3 and 4 require only N{sub d} = 1 and N{sub h} = 1. The ISCCP 1-4 intercomparison shows that (1) the cloudiness differences due to the above temporal sampling are smaller than those due to the above spectral sampling; (2) both spectral and temporal sampling effects are larger for the northern hemisphere than for the southern hemisphere; and (3) the difference between zonal mean cloudiness with and without visible information generally increases with latitude from polar night to about 60{degree} latitude in the summer hemisphere. A special observational program in both the Arctic and the Antarctic is proposed to resolve the discrepancies among the satellite and ground-based cloudiness observations in polar latitudes.

  10. Earthquake slip vectors and estimates of present-day plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demets, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Two alternative models for present-day global plate motions are derived from subsets of the NUVEL-1 data in order to investigate the degree to which earthquake slip vectors affect the NUVEL-1 model and to provide estimates of present-day plate velocities that are independent of earthquake slip vectors. The data set used to derive the first model excludes subduction zone slip vectors. The primary purpose of this model is to demonstrate that the 240 subduction zone slip vectors in the NUVEL-1 data set do not greatly affect the plate velocities predicted by NUVEL-1. A data set that excludes all of the 724 earthquake slip vectors used to derive NUVEL-1 is used to derive the second model. This model is suitable as a reference model for kinematic studies that require plate velocity estimates unaffected by earthquake slip vectors. The slip-dependent slip vector bias along transform faults is investigated using the second model, and evidence is sought for biases in slip directions along spreading centers.

  11. A pragmatic approach to estimate the number of days in exceedance of PM10 limit value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Maxime; Malherbe, Laure; de Fouquet, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    European legislation on ambient air quality requests that Member States report the annual number of exceedances of short-term concentration regulatory thresholds for PM10 and delimit the concerned areas. Measurements at the monitoring stations do not allow to fully describe those areas. We present a methodology to estimate the number of exceedances of the daily limit value over a year, that can be extended to any similar issue. This methodology is applied to PM10 concentrations in France for which the daily limit value is 50 μg m-3, not to be exceeded more that 35 days. A probabilistic model is built using preliminary mapping of daily mean concentrations. First, daily atmospheric concentration fields are estimated at 1 km resolution by external drift kriging, combining surface monitoring observations and outputs from the CHIMERE chemistry transport model. Setting a conventional Gaussian hypothesis for the estimation error, the kriging variance is used to compute the probability of exceeding the daily limit value and to identify three areas: those where we can suppose as certain that the concentrations exceed or not the daily limit value and those where the situation is indeterminate because of the estimation uncertainty. Then, from the set of 365 daily mappings of the probability to exceed the daily limit value, the parameters of a translated Poisson distribution is fitted on the annual number of exceedances of the daily limit value at each grid cell, which enables to compute the probability for this number to exceed 35. The methodology is tested for three years (2007, 2009 and 2011) which present numerous exceedances of the daily limit concentration at some monitoring stations. A cross-validation analysis is carried out to check the efficiency of the methodology. The way to interpret probability maps is discussed. A comparison is made with simpler kriging approaches using indicator kriging of exceedances. Lastly, estimation of the population exposed to PM10

  12. Maximum one-day point rainfall estimation for North Indian plains using district average rainfall ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, O. N.; Kulkarni, A. K.; Rakhecha, P. R.

    1980-09-01

    A quick and simple procedure has been developed for evaluating maximum point rainfall for different return periods for any location in the plains of north India. According to this procedure, 2-year one-day rainfall of a location is estimated from the 2-year generalized chart of the region. Average district rainfall ratios for higher return periods of 5, 10, 25 and 50 years to 2-year return period are obtained with the help of (i) district average ratio map of 100/2 and (ii) frequency interpolation nomogram. The magnitudes of 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100-year rainfall are then obtained by multiplying the 2-year value by the corresponding district average ratios pertaining to different return periods. The estimates of point rainfall obtained by this procedure are quite comparable with those obtained directly by the Gumbel method. By using the procedure given in this study, a design engineer or a hydrologist can estimate point rainfall of different return periods for any station in north Indian plains without undertaking elaborate statistical calculations.

  13. On optimizing solar collectors orientation under daily nonrandom cloudiness conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R.A.; Ookouchi, Y.

    1988-11-01

    Seasonal daily nonrandom cloudiness is typical in many geographical locations. Optimization of flat-plate solar collectors orientation in such situations requires azimuth and tilt modifications from those when daily cloudiness is random. The present study evaluates the significance of optimizing solar radiation gains, while considerating an illustrative case of nonrandom afternoon-morning cloudiness. Results suggest that for fixed flat-plate collectors the related gain in solar energy is practically insignificant. For nonfixed collectors the solar energy gains can be improved on a monthly basis by up to --6 percent.

  14. Observed and modeled patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the structure of the trade-wind layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuijens, Louise; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; Ahlgrimm, Maike

    2015-12-01

    We present patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the trade-wind boundary layer structure using long-term measurements at a site representative of dynamical regimes with moderate subsidence or weak ascent. We compare these with ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System and 10 CMIP5 models. By using single-time step output at a single location, we find that models can produce a fairly realistic trade-wind layer structure in long-term means, but with unrealistic variability at shorter-time scales. The unrealistic variability in modeled cloudiness near the lifting condensation level (LCL) is due to stronger than observed relationships with mixed-layer relative humidity (RH) and temperature stratification at the mixed-layer top. Those relationships are weak in observations, or even of opposite sign, which can be explained by a negative feedback of convection on cloudiness. Cloudiness near cumulus tops at the trade-wind inversion instead varies more pronouncedly in observations on monthly time scales, whereby larger cloudiness relates to larger surface winds and stronger trade-wind inversions. However, these parameters appear to be a prerequisite, rather than strong controlling factors on cloudiness, because they do not explain submonthly variations in cloudiness. Models underestimate the strength of these relationships and diverge in particular in their responses to large-scale vertical motion. No model stands out by reproducing the observed behavior in all respects. These findings suggest that climate models do not realistically represent the physical processes that underlie the coupling between trade-wind clouds and their environments in present-day climate, which is relevant for how we interpret modeled cloud feedbacks.

  15. Observed and modeled patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the structure of the trade-wind layer

    SciTech Connect

    Nuijens, Louise; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; Ahlgrimm, Maike

    2015-11-06

    We present patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the trade-wind boundary layer structure using long-term measurements at a site representative of dynamical regimes with moderate subsidence or weak ascent. We compare these with ECMWF’s Integrated Forecast System and 10 CMIP5 models. By using single-time step output at a single location, we find that models can produce a fairly realistic trade-wind layer structure in long-term means, but with unrealistic variability at shorter-time scales. The unrealistic variability in modeled cloudiness near the lifting condensation level (LCL) is due to stronger than observed relationships with mixed-layer relative humidity (RH) and temperature stratification at the mixed-layer top. Those relationships are weak in observations, or even of opposite sign, which can be explained by a negative feedback of convection on cloudiness. Cloudiness near cumulus tops at the tradewind inversion instead varies more pronouncedly in observations on monthly time scales, whereby larger cloudiness relates to larger surface winds and stronger trade-wind inversions. However, these parameters appear to be a prerequisite, rather than strong controlling factors on cloudiness, because they do not explain submonthly variations in cloudiness. Models underestimate the strength of these relationships and diverge in particular in their responses to large-scale vertical motion. No model stands out by reproducing the observed behavior in all respects. As a result, these findings suggest that climate models do not realistically represent the physical processes that underlie the coupling between trade-wind clouds and their environments in present-day climate, which is relevant for how we interpret modeled cloud feedbacks.

  16. Observed and modeled patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the structure of the trade-wind layer

    DOE PAGES

    Nuijens, Louise; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; ...

    2015-11-06

    We present patterns of covariability between low-level cloudiness and the trade-wind boundary layer structure using long-term measurements at a site representative of dynamical regimes with moderate subsidence or weak ascent. We compare these with ECMWF’s Integrated Forecast System and 10 CMIP5 models. By using single-time step output at a single location, we find that models can produce a fairly realistic trade-wind layer structure in long-term means, but with unrealistic variability at shorter-time scales. The unrealistic variability in modeled cloudiness near the lifting condensation level (LCL) is due to stronger than observed relationships with mixed-layer relative humidity (RH) and temperature stratificationmore » at the mixed-layer top. Those relationships are weak in observations, or even of opposite sign, which can be explained by a negative feedback of convection on cloudiness. Cloudiness near cumulus tops at the tradewind inversion instead varies more pronouncedly in observations on monthly time scales, whereby larger cloudiness relates to larger surface winds and stronger trade-wind inversions. However, these parameters appear to be a prerequisite, rather than strong controlling factors on cloudiness, because they do not explain submonthly variations in cloudiness. Models underestimate the strength of these relationships and diverge in particular in their responses to large-scale vertical motion. No model stands out by reproducing the observed behavior in all respects. As a result, these findings suggest that climate models do not realistically represent the physical processes that underlie the coupling between trade-wind clouds and their environments in present-day climate, which is relevant for how we interpret modeled cloud feedbacks.« less

  17. Estimating daily global solar radiation by day of the year in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoun, Nouar; Bouchouicha, Kada

    2017-05-01

    This study presents six empirical models based on the day-of-the-year number for estimating global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. For this case study, 21 years of experimental data sets for 21 cities over the whole Algerian territory are utilized to develop these models for each city and for all of Algeria. In this study, the territory of Algeria was divided into four different climatic zones, i.e., Arid, Semi-arid, Highlands and Mediterranean. The accuracy of the all-Algeria model was tested for each city and for each climate zone. To evaluate the accuracy of the models, the RMSE, rRMSE, MABE, MAPE, and R, which are the most commonly applied statistical parameters, were utilized. The results show that the six developed models provide excellent predictions for global solar radiation for each city and for all-Algeria. Furthermore, the model showing the greatest accuracy is the sine and cosine wave trigonometric model.

  18. An observational study: associations between nurse-reported hospital characteristics and estimated 30-day survival probabilities

    PubMed Central

    Tvedt, Christine; Sjetne, Ingeborg Strømseng; Helgeland, Jon; Bukholm, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence for associations between the work environment and patient outcomes. A good work environment may maximise healthcare workers’ efforts to avoid failures and to facilitate quality care that is focused on patient safety. Several studies use nurse-reported quality measures, but it is uncertain whether these outcomes are correlated with clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between hospital-aggregated, nurse-assessed quality and safety, and estimated probabilities for 30-day survival in and out of hospital. Methods In a multicentre study involving almost all Norwegian hospitals with more than 85 beds (sample size=30, information about nurses’ perceptions of organisational characteristics were collected. Subscales from this survey were used to describe properties of the organisations: quality system, patient safety management, nurse–physician relationship, staffing adequacy, quality of nursing and patient safety. The average scores for these organisational characteristics were aggregated to hospital level, and merged with estimated probabilities for 30-day survival in and out of hospital (survival probabilities) from a national database. In this observational, ecological study, the relationships between the organisational characteristics (independent variables) and clinical outcomes (survival probabilities) were examined. Results Survival probabilities were correlated with nurse-assessed quality of nursing. Furthermore, the subjective perception of staffing adequacy was correlated with overall survival. Conclusions This study showed that perceived staffing adequacy and nurses’ assessments of quality of nursing were correlated with survival probabilities. It is suggested that the way nurses characterise the microsystems they belong to, also reflects the general performance of hospitals. PMID:24728887

  19. Advantages of Using Estimated Depression-Free Days for Evaluating Treatment Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Vannoy, Steven D.; Arean, Patricia; Unützer, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Objective Several common methods for measuring treatment response present a snapshot of depression symptoms. The construct of estimated depression-free days (DFDs) simultaneously captures treatment outcome and estimates the patient's experience of depression over time. The study compared this measure with traditional measures used in depression treatment research. Methods This secondary data analysis was based on data from the Improving Mood—Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment trial, a multisite depression treatment study conducted in 18 primary care clinics in five states and representing eight health care systems. The sample of older adults (N=906) had been randomly assigned to receive collaborative care for depression. Participants were aged 60 or older and met criteria for major depressive disorder, dysthymia, or both. Exclusion criteria included severe cognitive impairment, active substance abuse, active suicidal behavior, severe mental illness, and active treatment from a psychiatrist. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-20) were used as outcome measures at four assessment points (baseline, three months, six months, and 12 months). Outcomes were computed for relative change, standardized differences, the proportion of improvement in depression, and DFDs. Results Using four assessment points improved the agreement between DFDs and the course of symptom change between pre- and posttest measures. Conclusions The DFD is a valid measure for estimating treatment outcomes that reflects the course of symptom change over time. When multiple assessments were conducted between the pre- and posttest periods, DFDs incorporated additional data yet remained easily interpreted. The DFD should be considered for reporting outcomes in depression research. PMID:20123821

  20. Effects of stage of pregnancy on variance components, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield in Holstein cows, as estimated by using a test-day model.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, T; Hagiya, K; Takeda, H; Osawa, T; Yamaguchi, S; Nagamine, Y

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy and calving are elements indispensable for dairy production, but the daily milk yield of cows decline as pregnancy progresses, especially during the late stages. Therefore, the effect of stage of pregnancy on daily milk yield must be clarified to accurately estimate the breeding values and lifetime productivity of cows. To improve the genetic evaluation model for daily milk yield and determine the effect of the timing of pregnancy on productivity, we used a test-day model to assess the effects of stage of pregnancy on variance component estimates, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Data were 10 646 333 test-day records for the first lactation; 8 222 661 records for the second; and 5 513 039 records for the third. The data were analyzed within each lactation by using three single-trait random regression animal models: one model that did not account for the stage of pregnancy effect and two models that did. The effect of stage of pregnancy on test-day milk yield was included in the model by applying a regression on days pregnant or fitting a separate lactation curve for each days open (days from calving to pregnancy) class (eight levels). Stage of pregnancy did not affect the heritability estimates of daily milk yield, although the additive genetic and permanent environmental variances in late lactation were decreased by accounting for the stage of pregnancy effect. The effects of days pregnant on daily milk yield during late lactation were larger in the second and third lactations than in the first lactation. The rates of reduction of the 305-day milk yield of cows that conceived fewer than 90 days after the second or third calving were significantly (P<0.05) greater than that after the first calving. Therefore, we conclude that differences between the negative effects of early pregnancy in the first, compared with later, lactations should be included when determining the optimal number of days open

  1. Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU

  2. Assessment of clear and cloudy sky parameterizations for daily downwelling longwave radiation over different land surfaces in Florida, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clear sky downwelling longwave radiation and cloudy sky downwelling longwave radiation formulas were tested across eleven sites in Florida. The Sellers equation, using air vapor pressure and temperature measurements, provides the best estimates of clear sky downwelling longwave radiation with a roo...

  3. Evaluating the accuracy of sampling to estimate central line-days: simplification of the National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance methods.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nicola D; Edwards, Jonathan R; Bamberg, Wendy; Beldavs, Zintars G; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Godine, Deborah; Maloney, Meghan; Kainer, Marion; Ray, Susan; Thompson, Deborah; Wilson, Lucy; Magill, Shelley S

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of weekly sampling of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) denominator data to estimate central line-days (CLDs). Obtained CLABSI denominator logs showing daily counts of patient-days and CLD for 6-12 consecutive months from participants and CLABSI numerators and facility and location characteristics from the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Convenience sample of 119 inpatient locations in 63 acute care facilities within 9 states participating in the Emerging Infections Program. Actual CLD and estimated CLD obtained from sampling denominator data on all single-day and 2-day (day-pair) samples were compared by assessing the distributions of the CLD percentage error. Facility and location characteristics associated with increased precision of estimated CLD were assessed. The impact of using estimated CLD to calculate CLABSI rates was evaluated by measuring the change in CLABSI decile ranking. The distribution of CLD percentage error varied by the day and number of days sampled. On average, day-pair samples provided more accurate estimates than did single-day samples. For several day-pair samples, approximately 90% of locations had CLD percentage error of less than or equal to ±5%. A lower number of CLD per month was most significantly associated with poor precision in estimated CLD. Most locations experienced no change in CLABSI decile ranking, and no location's CLABSI ranking changed by more than 2 deciles. Sampling to obtain estimated CLD is a valid alternative to daily data collection for a large proportion of locations. Development of a sampling guideline for NHSN users is underway.

  4. An estimate of the cost of administering intravenous biological agents in Spanish day hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nolla, Joan Miquel; Martín, Esperanza; Llamas, Pilar; Manero, Javier; Rodríguez de la Serna, Arturo; Fernández-Miera, Manuel Francisco; Rodríguez, Mercedes; López, José Manuel; Ivanova, Alexandra; Aragón, Belén

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the unit costs of administering intravenous (IV) biological agents in day hospitals (DHs) in the Spanish National Health System. Data were obtained from 188 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, collected from nine DHs, receiving one of the following IV therapies: infliximab (n=48), rituximab (n=38), abatacept (n=41), or tocilizumab (n=61). The fieldwork was carried out between March 2013 and March 2014. The following three groups of costs were considered: 1) structural costs, 2) material costs, and 3) staff costs. Staff costs were considered a fixed cost and were estimated according to the DH theoretical level of activity, which includes, as well as personal care of each patient, the DH general activities (complete imputation method, CIM). In addition, an alternative calculation was performed, in which the staff costs were considered a variable cost imputed according to the time spent on direct care (partial imputation method, PIM). All costs were expressed in euros for the reference year 2014. The average total cost was €146.12 per infusion (standard deviation [SD] ±87.11; CIM) and €29.70 per infusion (SD ±11.42; PIM). The structure-related costs per infusion varied between €2.23 and €62.35 per patient and DH; the cost of consumables oscillated between €3.48 and €20.34 per patient and DH. In terms of the care process, the average difference between the shortest and the longest time taken by different hospitals to administer an IV biological therapy was 113 minutes. The average total cost of infusion was less than that normally used in models of economic evaluation coming from secondary sources. This cost is even less when the staff costs are imputed according to the PIM. A high degree of variability was observed between different DHs in the cost of the consumables, in the structure-related costs, and in those of the care process.

  5. An updated length-scale formulation for turbulent mixing in clear and cloudy boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenderink, G.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2004-10-01

    A new mixing-length scale is presented for turbulence-closure schemes, with special emphasis on neutral-to-convective conditions in clear and cloudy boundary layers. The length scale is intended for a prognostic turbulent-kinetic-energy closure. It is argued that present-day length-scale formulations may easily fail in one of two limiting situations. Schemes based on a local stability measure (e.g.the Richardson number) display unrealistic behaviour and instabilities in the convective limit. This strongly limits the representation of mixing in cloudy boundary layers. On the other hand, it is shown that non-local parcel methods may misrepresent mixing near the surface. The new length-scale formulation combines local and non-local stability in a new way; it uses vertical integrals over the stability (the Richardson number) in a simple 'parcel' framework. The length scale matches with surface-layer similarity for near-neutral conditions and displays a realistic convective limit. The use of the length-scale formulation can be extended easily to cloudy boundary layers. The scheme is numerically stable and computationally cheap. The behaviour of the length scale is evaluated in a single-column model (SCM) and in a high-resolution limited-area model (LAM). The SCM shows good behaviour in three cases with and without boundary-layer clouds. The prediction of the near-surface wind and temperature in the LAM compares favourably with tower measurements at Cabauw (the Netherlands).

  6. A Neural Network Based Intelligent Predictive Sensor for Cloudiness, Solar Radiation and Air Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Pedro M.; Gomes, João M.; Martins, Igor A. C.; Ruano, António E.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation and atmospheric temperature, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight and portable sensor was developed, using artificial neural network models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. These have been identified with the aid of a procedure based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. As cloudiness is the most significant factor affecting the solar radiation reaching a particular location on the Earth surface, it has great impact on the performance of predictive solar radiation models for that location. This work also represents one step towards the improvement of such models by using ground-to-sky hemispherical colour digital images as a means to estimate cloudiness by the fraction of visible sky corresponding to clouds and to clear sky. The implementation of predictive models in the prototype has been validated and the system is able to function reliably, providing measurements and four-hour forecasts of cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature. PMID:23202230

  7. The role of sulfate aerosol in the formation of cloudiness over the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloyan, A. E.; Yermakov, A. N.; Arutyunyan, V. O.

    2016-07-01

    We estimate the impact of sulfate aerosols on cloudiness formation over the sea in the middle troposphere and the involvement of these particles in the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the lower stratosphere. The first of these problems is solved using a combined model of moist convection and the formation of cloudiness and sulfate aerosols in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over the sea, incorporating natural emissions of sulfur-containing compounds. We have found that a significant source of condensation nuclei in the troposphere is the photochemical transformation of biogenic dimethyl sulfide (in addition to NaCl). The results of numerical experiments indicate that the absence of sulfate aerosols hinders the cloudiness formation over the sea in the middle and upper troposphere. The problem of sulfate aerosol involvement in the formation of supercooled ternary solutions (STSs) (PSC Type Ib) in the lower stratosphere is solved using a mathematical model of global transport of multicomponent gas pollutants and aerosols in the atmosphere. Using the combined model, numerical experiments were performed for the winter season in both hemispheres. Sulfate aerosols were found to really participate in the formation of STS particles. Without their participation, the formation of STS particles in the lower stratosphere would be hindered. We present the results of numerical calculations and discuss the distribution of concentrations of gaseous nitric and sulfuric acids, as well as mass concentrations of these components in STS particles.

  8. A neural network based intelligent predictive sensor for cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro M; Gomes, João M; Martins, Igor A C; Ruano, António E

    2012-11-12

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation and atmospheric temperature,as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight and portable sensor was developed, using artificial neural network models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. These have been identified with the aid of a procedure based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. As cloudiness is the most significant factor affecting the solar radiation reaching a particular location on the Earth surface, it has great impact on the performance of predictive solar radiation models for that location. This work also represents one step towards the improvement of such models by using ground-to-sky hemispherical colour digital images as a means to estimate cloudiness by the fraction of visible sky corresponding to clouds and to clear sky. The implementation of predictive models in the prototype has been validated and the system is able to function reliably, providing measurements and four-hour forecasts of cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature.

  9. Evaluation of total cloudiness and its variability in the atmospheric model intercomparison project

    SciTech Connect

    Weare, B.C.; Mokhov, I.I.

    1995-09-01

    Total cloudiness of 29 models participating in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project is compared with the ISCCP C2 as well as the Nimbus-7 and Meteor observational estimates. The root-mean-square differences between the annual means of the model calculations and the C2 observations vary from about twice to nearly four times the difference between the C2 and Meteor observations. The large differences are in some cases due to the fact that although a model qualitatively has patterns of spatial variations similar to those of the observations, the magnitude of those variations is much too small. In other cases the models have produced the approximate magnitude of the spatial variability of the observations but display sizable errors in the pattern of that variability. Deficiencies with respect to the model simulations of the mean seasonal cycle are also pronounced. For instance, the differences between the zonal averages of total cloudiness for contrasting seasons suggest that near 60{degrees} most models predict minima in cloudiness in summer, whereas observations strongly suggest the opposite. Smoothed seasonal cycle analyses suggest that a portion of these deficiencies in some models is the result of a simulated seasonal cycle that lead that of the observations by about two months. However, some models, which appear to have the proper phase of the seasonal cycle, still show large root-mean-squared differences and small correlations when compared with the smoothed seasonal cycle of the C2 observations. The C2 and Meteor observations show a modest signal in total cloudiness for the only important interannual variation during the July 1983 through June 1988 observation period-the 1986/87 ENSO event. A few models reproduce this event about as well as do the Meteor observations, whereas many models fail to show any evidence of it. Overall, models that better reproduce the ENSO results also tend to do well with seasonal variations. 32 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Retrieval of atmospheric properties of cloudy L dwarfs

    DOE PAGES

    Burningham, Ben; Marley, Mark S.; Line, Michael R.; ...

    2017-05-20

    Here, we present the first results from applying the spectral inversion technique in the cloudy L dwarf regime. This new framework provides a flexible approach to modelling cloud opacity which can be built incrementally as the data require and improves upon previous retrieval experiments in the brown dwarf regime by allowing for scattering in two-stream radiative transfer. Our first application of the tool to two mid-L dwarfs is able to reproduce their near-infrared spectra far more closely than grid models. Our retrieved thermal, chemical and cloud profiles allow us to estimate Teff = 1796more » $$+23\\atop{-25}$$ K and logg = 5.21$$+0.05\\atop{-0.08}$$ for 2MASS J05002100+0330501, and for 2MASSW J2224438-015852 we find Teff = 1723 $$+18\\atop{-19}$$ K and log g = 5.31 $$+0.04\\atop{-0.08}$$, in close agreement with previous empirical estimates. Our best model for both objects includes an optically thick cloud deck which passes τcloud ≥ 1 (looking down) at a pressure of around 5 bar. The temperature at this pressure is too high for silicate species to condense, and we argue that corundum and/or iron clouds are responsible for this cloud opacity. Our retrieved profiles are cooler at depth and warmer at altitude than the forward grid models that we compare, and we argue that some form of heating mechanism may be at work in the upper atmospheres of these L dwarfs. We also identify anomalously high CO abundance in both targets, which does not correlate with the warmth of our upper atmospheres or our choice of cloud model, and find similarly anomalous alkali abundance for one of our targets. For these anomalies they may reflect unrecognized shortcomings in our retrieval model or inaccuracies in our gas phase opacities.« less

  11. Retrieval of atmospheric properties of cloudy L dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burningham, Ben; Marley, M. S.; Line, M. R.; Lupu, R.; Visscher, C.; Morley, C. V.; Saumon, D.; Freedman, R.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first results from applying the spectral inversion technique in the cloudy L dwarf regime. Our new framework provides a flexible approach to modelling cloud opacity which can be built incrementally as the data require and improves upon previous retrieval experiments in the brown dwarf regime by allowing for scattering in two-stream radiative transfer. Our first application of the tool to two mid-L dwarfs is able to reproduce their near-infrared spectra far more closely than grid models. Our retrieved thermal, chemical and cloud profiles allow us to estimate T_eff = 1796^{+23}_{-25} K and log g = 5.21^{+0.05}_{-0.08} for 2MASS J05002100+0330501, and for 2MASSW J2224438-015852 we find T_eff = 1723^{+18}_{-19} K and log g = 5.31^{+0.04}_{-0.08}, in close agreement with previous empirical estimates. Our best model for both objects includes an optically thick cloud deck which passes τcloud ≥ 1 (looking down) at a pressure of around 5 bar. The temperature at this pressure is too high for silicate species to condense, and we argue that corundum and/or iron clouds are responsible for this cloud opacity. Our retrieved profiles are cooler at depth and warmer at altitude than the forward grid models that we compare, and we argue that some form of heating mechanism may be at work in the upper atmospheres of these L dwarfs. We also identify anomalously high CO abundance in both targets, which does not correlate with the warmth of our upper atmospheres or our choice of cloud model, and find similarly anomalous alkali abundance for one of our targets. These anomalies may reflect unrecognized shortcomings in our retrieval model or inaccuracies in our gas phase opacities.

  12. An estimate of the cost of administering intravenous biological agents in Spanish day hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Nolla, Joan Miquel; Martín, Esperanza; Llamas, Pilar; Manero, Javier; Rodríguez de la Serna, Arturo; Fernández-Miera, Manuel Francisco; Rodríguez, Mercedes; López, José Manuel; Ivanova, Alexandra; Aragón, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the unit costs of administering intravenous (IV) biological agents in day hospitals (DHs) in the Spanish National Health System. Patients and methods Data were obtained from 188 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, collected from nine DHs, receiving one of the following IV therapies: infliximab (n=48), rituximab (n=38), abatacept (n=41), or tocilizumab (n=61). The fieldwork was carried out between March 2013 and March 2014. The following three groups of costs were considered: 1) structural costs, 2) material costs, and 3) staff costs. Staff costs were considered a fixed cost and were estimated according to the DH theoretical level of activity, which includes, as well as personal care of each patient, the DH general activities (complete imputation method, CIM). In addition, an alternative calculation was performed, in which the staff costs were considered a variable cost imputed according to the time spent on direct care (partial imputation method, PIM). All costs were expressed in euros for the reference year 2014. Results The average total cost was €146.12 per infusion (standard deviation [SD] ±87.11; CIM) and €29.70 per infusion (SD ±11.42; PIM). The structure-related costs per infusion varied between €2.23 and €62.35 per patient and DH; the cost of consumables oscillated between €3.48 and €20.34 per patient and DH. In terms of the care process, the average difference between the shortest and the longest time taken by different hospitals to administer an IV biological therapy was 113 minutes. Conclusion The average total cost of infusion was less than that normally used in models of economic evaluation coming from secondary sources. This cost is even less when the staff costs are imputed according to the PIM. A high degree of variability was observed between different DHs in the cost of the consumables, in the structure-related costs, and in those of the care process. PMID:28356746

  13. Monte Carlo Simulation of Solar Reflectances for Cloudy Atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, H. W.; Goldstein, R. K.; Stevens, D. E.

    2003-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of solar radiative transfer were performed for a well-resolved, large, three-dimensional (3D) domain of boundary layer cloud simulated by a cloud-resolving model. In order to represent 3D distributions of optical properties for 2 × 106 cloudy cells, attenuation by droplets was handled by assigning each cell a cumulative distribution of extinction derived from either a model or an assumed discrete droplet size spectrum. This minimizes the required number of detailed phase functions. Likewise, to simulate statistically significant, high-resolution imagery, it was necessary to apply variance reduction techniques. Three techniques were developed for use with the local estimation method of computing reflectance . First, small fractions of come from numerous, small contributions of computed at each scattering event. Terminating calculation of when it falls below min 103 was found to impact estimates of minimally but reduced computation time by 10%. Second, large fractions of come from infrequent realizations of large . When sampled poorly, they boost Monte Carlo noise significantly. Removing max, storing them in a domainwide reservoir, adding max to local estimates of , and, at simulation's end, distributing the reservoir across the domain in proportion to local , tends to reduce variance much. This regionalization technique works well when the number of photons per unit area is small (nominally 50 000). A value of max 100 reduces variance of greatly with little impact on estimates of . Third, if

  14. OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION IN MITOCHONDRIA FROM LIVERS SHOWING CLOUDY SWELLING

    PubMed Central

    Fonnesu, Alberto; Severi, Clara

    1956-01-01

    Using succinate and α-ketoglutarate as substrates, oxidative phosphorylation has been measured in mitochondria isolated from livers showing cloudy swelling. This cellular change was obtained by injecting rats with S. typhi murium toxin and guinea pigs with diphtheria toxin. It has been found that phosphorylation associated with the oxidation of either of these substrates was partially inhibited in mitochondria from livers showing cloudy swelling, while the oxygen consumption was unchanged. Thus, the P:O ratios for both succinate and α-ketoglutarate were lower in mitochondria from treated animals than they were in normal mitochondria. Dephosphorylation of ATP was not significantly modified in mitochondria from livers showing cloudy swelling as compared with normal controls. No dephosphorylation of AMP and G-6-P was observed either in normal mitochondria or in mitochondria from treated animals. PMID:13331961

  15. Thirty-Day Postoperative Mortality Risk Estimates and 1-Year Survival in Veterans Health Administration Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracy; Li, Xinli; Nylander, William; Gunnar, William

    2016-05-01

    For more than 2 decades, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has relied on risk-adjusted, postoperative, 30-day mortality data as a measure of surgical quality of care. Recently, the use of 30-day mortality data has been criticized based on a theory that health care professionals manage patient care to meet the metric and that other outcome metrics are available. To determine whether postoperative mortality data identify a delay in care to meet a 30-day mortality metric and to evaluate whether 30-day mortality risk score groups stratify survival patterns up to 365 days after surgery in surgical procedures assessed by the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). Patients undergoing VASQIP-assessed surgical procedures within the VHA from October 1, 2011, to September 30, 2013, were evaluated. Data on 365-day survival follow-up of 212 733 surgical cases using VHA Vital Status and admission records were obtained with 10 947 mortality events. Data analysis was conducted from September 3, 2014, to November 9, 2015. Survival up to 365 days after surgery for the overall cohort divided into 10 equal groups (deciles). There were 10 947 mortality events identified in a cohort of 212 733 surgical patients. The mean probability of death was 1.03% (95% CI, 1.01%-1.04%). Risk estimate groups in the 212 733 surgical cases analyzed showed significantly different postoperative survival, with consistency beyond the time frame for which they were developed. The lowest risk decile had the highest 365-day survival probability (99.74%; 95% CI, 99.66%-99.80%); the highest risk decile had the lowest 365-day survival probability (72.04%; 95% CI, 71.43%-72.64%). The 9 lowest risk deciles had linear survival curves from 0 to 365 postoperative days, with the highest risk decile having early survival risk and becoming more linear after the first 180 days. Survival curves between 25 and 35 days were consistent for all risk deciles and showed no evidence that

  16. Ultrafast High Accuracy PCRTM_SOLAR Model for Cloudy Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Qiguang; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Yang, Ping; Wang, Chenxi

    2015-01-01

    An ultrafast high accuracy PCRTM_SOLAR model is developed based on PCA compression and principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM). A fast algorithm for simulation of multi-scattering properties of cloud and/or aerosols is integrated into the fast infrared PCRTM. We completed radiance simulation and training for instruments, such as IASI, AIRS, CrIS, NASTI and SHIS, under diverse conditions. The new model is 5 orders faster than 52-stream DISORT with very high accuracy for cloudy sky radiative transfer simulation. It is suitable for hyperspectral remote data assimilation and cloudy sky retrievals.

  17. Laser experiments in light cloudiness with the geostationary satellite ARTEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzkov, V.; Kuzkov, S.; Sodnik, Z.

    2016-08-01

    The geostationary satellite ARTEMIS was launched in July 2001. The satellite is equipped with a laser communication terminal, which was used for the world's first inter-satellite laser communication link between ARTEMIS and the low earth orbit satellite SPOT-4. Ground-to-space laser communication experiments were also conducted under various atmospheric conditions involving ESA's optical ground station. With a rapidly increasing volume of information transferred by geostationary satellites, there is a rising demand for high-speed data links between ground stations and satellites. For ground-to-space laser communications there are a number of important design parameters that need to be addressed, among them, the influence of atmospheric turbulence in different atmospheric conditions and link geometries. The Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine developed a precise computer tracking system for its 0.7 m AZT-2 telescope and a compact laser communication package LACES (Laser Atmosphere and Communication experiments with Satellites) for laser communication experiments with geostationary satellites. The specially developed software allows computerized tracking of the satellites using their orbital data. A number of laser experiments between MAO and ARTEMIS were conducted in partial cloudiness with some amount of laser light observed through clouds. Such conditions caused high break-up (splitting) of images from the laser beacon of ARTEMIS. One possible explanation is Raman scattering of photons on molecules of a water vapor in the atmosphere. Raman scattering causes a shift in a wavelength of the photons.In addition, a different value for the refraction index appears in the direction of the meridian for the wavelength-shifted photons. This is similar to the anomalous atmospheric refraction that appears at low angular altitudes above the horizon. We have also estimated the atmospheric attenuation and the influence of atmospheric turbulence on observed results

  18. Aerosol optical depth increase in partly cloudy conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, Duli; Wood, R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Rasch, Philip J.; Miller, Steven D.; Schichtel, Bret; Moore, Tom

    2012-09-14

    Remote sensing observations of aerosol from surface and satellite instruments are extensively used for atmospheric and climate research. From passive sensors, the apparent cloud-free atmosphere in the vicinity of clouds often appears to be brighter then further away from the clouds, leading to an enhancement in the retrieved aerosol optical depth. Mechanisms contributing to this enhancement, including contamination by undetected clouds, hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles, and meteorological conditions, have been debated in recent literature, but an extent to which each of these factors influence the observed enhancement is poorly known. Here we used 11 years of daily global observations at 10x10 km2 resolution from the MODIS on the NASA Terra satellite to quantify as a function of cloud fraction (CF). Our analysis reveals that, averaged over the globe, the clear sky is enhanced by ? = 0.05 which corresponds to relative enhancements of 25% in cloudy conditions (CF=0.8-0.9) compared with relatively clear conditions (CF=0.1-0.2). Unlike the absolute enhancement ?, the relative increase in ? is rather consistent in all seasons and is 25-35% in the subtropics and 15-25% at mid and higher latitudes. Using a simple Gaussian probability density function model to connect cloud cover and the distribution of relative humidity, we argue that much of the enhancement is consistent with aerosol hygroscopic growth in the humid environment surrounding clouds. Consideration of these cloud-dependent effects will facilitate understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and reduce the uncertainty in estimates of aerosol radiative forcing by global climate models.

  19. Outlook for Fund Raisers: Not so Cloudy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Last week, the biggest annual gathering of college fund raisers was held in New York as some of the rockiest business news of the year unfolded. The three-day event, organized by the Council for Advancement and Support of Education, was bookended by the federal government's announcement that it would step in to bail out the beleaguered mortgage…

  20. Outlook for Fund Raisers: Not so Cloudy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Last week, the biggest annual gathering of college fund raisers was held in New York as some of the rockiest business news of the year unfolded. The three-day event, organized by the Council for Advancement and Support of Education, was bookended by the federal government's announcement that it would step in to bail out the beleaguered mortgage…

  1. Cloudy's Journey from FORTRAN to C, Why and How

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, G. J.

    Cloudy is a large-scale plasma simulation code that is widely used across the astronomical community as an aid in the interpretation of spectroscopic data. The cover of the ADAS VI book featured predictions of the code. The FORTRAN 77 source code has always been freely available on the Internet, contributing to its widespread use. The coming of PCs and Linux has fundamentally changed the computing environment. Modern Fortran compilers (F90 and F95) are not freely available. A common-use code must be written in either FORTRAN 77 or C to be Open Source/GNU/Linux friendly. F77 has serious drawbacks - modern language constructs cannot be used, students do not have skills in this language, and it does not contribute to their future employability. It became clear that the code would have to be ported to C to have a viable future. I describe the approach I used to convert Cloudy from FORTRAN 77 with MILSPEC extensions to ANSI/ISO 89 C. Cloudy is now openly available as a C code, and will evolve to C++ as gcc and standard C++ mature. Cloudy looks to a bright future with a modern language.

  2. Present-day groundwater recharge estimation in parts of the Indian Sub-Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanja, S. N.; Mukherjee, A.; Wada, Y.; Scanlon, B. R.; Taylor, R. G.; Rodell, M.; Malakar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Large part of global population has been dependent on groundwater as a source of fresh water. The demand would further increase with increasing population and stress associated with climate change. We tried to provide regional-scale groundwater recharge estimates in a large part of Indian Sub-Continent. A combination of ground-based, satellite-based and numerical model simulated recharge estimates were presented in the densely populated region. Three different methods: an intense network of observational wells (n>13,000 wells), a satellite (TRMM) and global land-surface model (CLM) outputs, and a global-scale hydrological model (PCR GLOBWB) were employed to calculate recharge estimates. Groundwater recharge values exhibit large spatial variations over the entire region on the basis of aquifer hydrogeology, precipitation and groundwater withdrawal patterns. Groundwater recharge estimates from all three estimation techniques were found to be higher (>300 mm/year) in fertile planes of Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra (IGB) river basins. A combination of favorable hydrogeologic conditions (porosity, permeability etc.), comparatively higher rates of precipitation, and return flow from rapidly withdrawn irrigation water might influence occurrence of high recharge rates. However, central and southern study area experiences lower recharge rates (<200 mm/year), might be associated with unfavorable hydrogeologic conditions associated with cratonic provinces. Statistical analysis of inter-comparison between the three different recharge estimates show good matches in some of the areas. Recharge estimates indicate dynamic nature of groundwater recharge as a function of precipitation, land use pattern, and hydrogeologic parameters. On a first hand basis, the estimates will help policy makers to understand groundwater recharge process over the densely populated region and finally would facilitate to implement sustainable policy for securing water security.

  3. A methodology to estimate the potential to move inpatient to one day surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gilliard, Nicolas; Eggli, Yves; Halfon, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Background The proportion of surgery performed as a day case varies greatly between countries. Low rates suggest a large growth potential in many countries. Measuring the potential development of one day surgery should be grounded on a comprehensive list of eligible procedures, based on a priori criteria, independent of local practices. We propose an algorithmic method, using only routinely available hospital data to identify surgical hospitalizations that could have been performed as one day treatment. Methods Moving inpatient surgery to one day surgery was considered feasible if at least one surgical intervention was eligible for one day surgery and if none of the following criteria were present: intervention or affection requiring an inpatient stay, patient transferred or died, and length of stay greater than four days. The eligibility of a procedure to be treated as a day case was mainly established on three a priori criteria: surgical access (endoscopic or not), the invasiveness of the procedure and the size of the operated organ. Few overrides of these criteria occurred when procedures were associated with risk of immediate complications, slow physiological recovery or pain treatment requiring hospital infrastructure. The algorithm was applied to a random sample of one million inpatient US stays and more than 600 thousand Swiss inpatient stays, in the year 2002. Results The validity of our method was demonstrated by the few discrepancies between the a priori criteria based list of eligible procedures, and a state list used for reimbursement purposes, the low proportion of hospitalizations eligible for one day care found in the US sample (4.9 versus 19.4% in the Swiss sample), and the distribution of the elective procedures found eligible in Swiss hospitals, well supported by the literature. There were large variations of the proportion of candidates for one day surgery among elective surgical hospitalizations between Swiss hospitals (3 to 45.3%). Conclusion

  4. National estimates of 30-day readmissions among children hospitalized for asthma in the United States.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Ohabughiro, Michael U; Moran, Jacob; Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Ameredes, Bill T; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Calhoun, William J

    2017-08-24

    Objective Previous single-center studies have reported that up to 40% of children hospitalized for asthma will be readmitted. The study objectives are to investigate the prevalence and timing of 30-day readmissions in children hospitalized with asthma, and to identify factors associated with 30-day readmissions. Methods Data (n = 12,842) for children aged 6-18 years hospitalized for asthma were obtained from the 2013 Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD). The primary study outcome was time to readmission within 30 days after discharge attributable to any cause. Several predictors associated with risk of admission were included: patient (age, sex, median household income, insurance type, county location, pediatric chronic complex condition), admission (type, day, emergency services utilization, length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition) and hospital (ownership, bed size, teaching status). Cox's Proportional Hazards model was used to identify predictors. Results Of 12,842 asthma-related index hospitalizations, 2.5% were readmitted within 30 days post discharge. Time to event models identified significantly higher risk of readmission among asthmatic children aged 12-18 years, those who resided in in micropolitan counties, those with >4 days LOS during index hospitalization, those who were hospitalized in urban hospital, who had unfavorable discharge (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.33-4.79), and those who were diagnosed with PCCC, respectively than children in respective referent categories. Conclusion A multi-dimensional approach including effective asthma discharge action plans and follow-up processes, home-based asthma education, and neighborhood/community-level efforts to address disparities should be integrated into routine clinical care of asthma children.

  5. Diurnal heating and cloudiness in the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2)

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, R.S.; Leovy, C.B. ); Boville, B.A.; Briegleb, B.P. )

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, the authors assess the suitability of the heating fields in the latest version of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2) for modeling the thermal forcing of atmospheric tides. Accordingly, diurnal variations of the surface pressure, outgoing longwave radiation, cloudiness, and precipitation are examined in the CCM2. The fields of radiative, sensible, and latent heating are similarly analyzed. These results are subjectively compared with available data. Equatorial diurnal surface pressure tides are fairly well simulated by CCM2. The model successfully reproduces the semidiurnal surface pressure tides; however, this may result in part from reflection of wave energy at the upper boundary. The CCM2 large-scale diurnal OLR is generally consistent with observations. The moist-convective scheme in the model is able to reproduce the diurnally varying cloudiness and precipitation patterns associated with land-sea contrasts; however, the amplitudes of CCM2 diurnal continental convective cloudiness are weaker than observations. The CCM2 boundary-layer sensible heating is consistent with a very limited set of observations, and with estimates obtained from simple models of diffusive heating. Although the CCM2 tropospheric solar radiative heating is similar in magnitude to previous estimates, there are substantial differences in the vertical structures. A definitive assessment of the validity of the CCM2 diurnal cycle is precluded by the lack of detailed observations and the limitations of our CCM2 sample. Nevertheless, the authors conclude that the global-scale components of the CCM2 diurnal heating are useful proxies for the true diurnal forcing of the tides. 45 refs., 18 figs.

  6. Methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of 1-, 3-, 7-, 15-, and 30-day flood-duration flows in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2014-01-01

    Regression equations, which allow predictions of n-day flood-duration flows for selected annual exceedance probabilities at ungaged sites, were developed using generalized least-squares regression and flood-duration flow frequency estimates at 56 streamgaging stations within a single, relatively uniform physiographic region in the central part of Arizona, between the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range Province, called the Transition Zone. Drainage area explained most of the variation in the n-day flood-duration annual exceedance probabilities, but mean annual precipitation and mean elevation were also significant variables in the regression models. Standard error of prediction for the regression equations varies from 28 to 53 percent and generally decreases with increasing n-day duration. Outside the Transition Zone there are insufficient streamgaging stations to develop regression equations, but flood-duration flow frequency estimates are presented at select streamgaging stations.

  7. Estimating Criminal Justice System Costs and Cost-Savings Benefits of Day Reporting Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddock, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the net cost-savings benefits (loss) to the criminal justice system of one rural and one urban day reporting center, both of which serve high risk/high need probationers. It also discusses issues of conducting criminal justice system cost studies of community corrections programs. The average DRC participant in the rural…

  8. Estimating Criminal Justice System Costs and Cost-Savings Benefits of Day Reporting Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddock, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the net cost-savings benefits (loss) to the criminal justice system of one rural and one urban day reporting center, both of which serve high risk/high need probationers. It also discusses issues of conducting criminal justice system cost studies of community corrections programs. The average DRC participant in the rural…

  9. National Estimates of 30-Day Unplanned Readmissions of Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lili; Chauhan, Kinsuk; Poojary, Priti; Saha, Aparna; Hammer, Elizabeth; Vassalotti, Joseph A; Jubelt, Lindsay; Ferket, Bart; Coca, Steven G; Nadkarni, Girish N

    2017-10-06

    Patients on hemodialysis have high 30-day unplanned readmission rates. Using a national all-payer administrative database, we describe the epidemiology of 30-day unplanned readmissions in patients on hemodialysis, determine concordance of reasons for initial admission and readmission, and identify predictors for readmission. This is a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Readmission Database from the year 2013 to identify index admissions and readmission in patients with ESRD on hemodialysis. The Clinical Classification Software was used to categorize admission diagnosis into mutually exclusive clinically meaningful categories and determine concordance of reasons for admission on index hospitalizations and readmissions. Survey logistic regression was used to identify predictors of at least one readmission. During 2013, there were 87,302 (22%) index admissions with at least one 30-day unplanned readmission. Although patient and hospital characteristics were statistically different between those with and without readmissions, there were small absolute differences. The highest readmission rate was for acute myocardial infarction (25%), whereas the lowest readmission rate was for hypertension (20%). The primary reasons for initial hospitalization and subsequent 30-day readmission were discordant in 80% of admissions. Comorbidities that were associated with readmissions included depression (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05 to 1.15; P<0.001), drug abuse (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.31 to 1.51; P<0.001), and discharge against medical advice (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.70; P<0.001). A group of high utilizers, which constituted 2% of the population, was responsible for 20% of all readmissions. In patients with ESRD on hemodialysis, nearly one quarter of admissions were followed by a 30-day unplanned readmission. Most readmissions were for primary diagnoses that were different from initial hospitalization. A small proportion of

  10. Boundary Layer Cloudiness Parameterizations Using ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Albrecht

    2004-09-15

    This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: (1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, (2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the processes responsible for the formation of boundary layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and (3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of boundary layer clouds and precipitation to: (1) develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in boundary layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using current and past MMCR data for boundary layer cloud studies, (2) evaluate the capability and limitations of the current MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low- signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak no n-precipitating clouds, (3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of boundary layer clouds, and (4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.

  11. Estimating West Nile virus transmission period in Pennsylvania using an optimized degree-day model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Blanford, Justine I; Fleischer, Shelby J; Hutchinson, Michael; Saunders, Michael C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-07-01

    Abstract We provide calibrated degree-day models to predict potential West Nile virus (WNV) transmission periods in Pennsylvania. We begin by following the standard approach of treating the degree-days necessary for the virus to complete the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), and mosquito longevity as constants. This approach failed to adequately explain virus transmission periods based on mosquito surveillance data from 4 locations (Harrisburg, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Williamsport) in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. Allowing the EIP and adult longevity to vary across time and space improved model fit substantially. The calibrated models increase the ability to successfully predict the WNV transmission period in Pennsylvania to 70-80% compared to less than 30% in the uncalibrated model. Model validation showed the optimized models to be robust in 3 of the locations, although still showing errors for Philadelphia. These models and methods could provide useful tools to predict WNV transmission period from surveillance datasets, assess potential WNV risk, and make informed mosquito surveillance strategies.

  12. Estimating West Nile Virus Transmission Period in Pennsylvania Using an Optimized Degree-Day Model

    PubMed Central

    Blanford, Justine I.; Fleischer, Shelby J.; Hutchinson, Michael; Saunders, Michael C.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide calibrated degree-day models to predict potential West Nile virus (WNV) transmission periods in Pennsylvania. We begin by following the standard approach of treating the degree-days necessary for the virus to complete the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), and mosquito longevity as constants. This approach failed to adequately explain virus transmission periods based on mosquito surveillance data from 4 locations (Harrisburg, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Williamsport) in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. Allowing the EIP and adult longevity to vary across time and space improved model fit substantially. The calibrated models increase the ability to successfully predict the WNV transmission period in Pennsylvania to 70–80% compared to less than 30% in the uncalibrated model. Model validation showed the optimized models to be robust in 3 of the locations, although still showing errors for Philadelphia. These models and methods could provide useful tools to predict WNV transmission period from surveillance datasets, assess potential WNV risk, and make informed mosquito surveillance strategies. PMID:23590317

  13. Aerosol Retrievals under Partly Cloudy Conditions: Challenges and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.

    2011-06-01

    There are lots of interesting and intriguing features of aerosols near clouds – many of which can be quite engaging, as well being useful and climate-related. Exploring aerosol with the aid of the remote sensing, in situ observations and numerical modeling has piqued our curiosity and led to improve insights into the nature of aerosol and clouds and their complex relationship. This chapter conveys the outstanding issues of cloudy-sky aerosol retrievals of important climate properties and outlines their fruitful connections to other research areas such as in situ measurements and model simulations. The chapter focuses mostly on treating the inverse problems in the context of the passive satellite remote sensing and how they can improve our understanding of the cloud-aerosol interactions. The presentation includes a basis in the inverse problem theory, reviews available approaches and discusses their applications to partly cloudy situations. Potential synergy of observations and model simulations is described as well.

  14. Influences of the day-night differences of ionospheric variability on the estimation of GPS differential code bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. X.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, S. R.; Coster, A. J.; Hao, Y. Q.; Xiao, Z.

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of differential code bias (DCB) of GPS system is one of the necessary steps for total electron content (TEC) derivation from GPS measurements. Usually, the method for estimating the GPS DCBs follows the assumption of the gentle temporal and spatial variation of the ionosphere, but this assumption is just an approximation because of the ionosphere's inherent variability. It has been indicated that the estimated GPS satellite DCBs are sometimes influenced by the ionospheric conditions. In this paper, we demonstrate a possible influence of ionospheric variability that differs between day and night on the estimated DCBs from measurements of a single GPS station. It is found that the average standard deviations (STDs) of the satellite DCBs estimated with daytime data are higher than that with the nighttime data. To reduce this day-night difference effect on GPS DCB determination, we use an improved estimation method based on the primary features of the ionospheric variability with local time. A local time dependent weighting function was introduced into the original least squares DCBs estimation algorithm. A test with data for BJFS station (39.60°N, 115.89°E) in 2001 indicates that the STD of the DCBs decreases from 2.533 TECU (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) to 2.308 TECU, or by 8.9%, after the improved method was applied. For comparison, another test for the same station in 2009 indicates that the STD decreases from 1.344 TECU to 1.295 TECU. The amplitude of the 2009 improvement is very limited, only about 3.6%. The difference of the percentage improvements can probably be attributed to the different ionospheric conditions between 2001 and 2009.

  15. Quark-meson coupling model with the cloudy bag

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, S.; Miyatsu, T.; Saito, Kenji; Tsushima, Kazuo

    2008-07-01

    Using the volume coupling version of the cloudy bag model, the quark-meson coupling model is extended to study the role of pion field and the properties of nuclear matter. The extended model includes the effect of gluon exchange as well as the pion-cloud effect, and provides a good description of the nuclear matter properties. The relationship between the extended model and the EFT approach to nuclear matter is also discussed.

  16. Interannual variability in stratiform cloudiness and sea surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.R.; Leovy, C.B.

    1994-12-01

    Marine stratiform cloudiness (MSC)(stratus, stratocumulus, and fog) is widespread over subtropical oceans west of the continents and over midlatitude oceans during summer, the season when MSC has maximum influence on surface downward radiation and is most influenced by boundary-layer processes. Long-term datasets of cloudiness and sea surface teperature (SST) from surface observations from 1952 to 1981 are used to examine interannual variations in MSC and SST. Linear correlations of anomalies in seasonal MSC amount with seasonal SST anomalies are negative and significant in midlatitude and eastern subtropical oceans, especially during summer. Significant negative correlations between SST and nimbostratus and nonprecipitating midlevel cloudiness are also observed at midlatitudes during summer, suggesting that summer storm tracks shift from year to year following year-to-year meridional shifts in the SST gradient. Over the 30-yr period, there are significant upward trends in MSC amount over the northern midlatitude oceans and a significant downward trend off the coast of California. The highest correlations and trends occur where gradients in MSC and SST are strongest. During summer, correlations between SST and MSC anomalies peak at zero lag in midlatitudes where warm advection prevails, but SST lags MSC in subtropical regions where cold advection predominates. This difference is attributed to a tendency for anomalies in latent heat flux to compensate anomalies in surface downward radiation in warm advection regions but not in cold advection regions.

  17. Changes in Extratropical Storm Track Cloudiness 1983-2008: Observational Support for a Poleward Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Frida A-M.; Rananathan, V.; Tselioudis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Climate model simulations suggest that the extratropical storm tracks will shift poleward as a consequence of global warming. In this study the northern and southern hemisphere storm tracks over the Pacific and Atlantic ocean basins are studied using observational data, primarily from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, ISCCP. Potential shifts in the storm tracks are examined using the observed cloud structures as proxies for cyclone activity. Different data analysis methods are employed, with the objective to address difficulties and uncertainties in using ISCCP data for regional trend analysis. In particular, three data filtering techniques are explored; excluding specific problematic regions from the analysis, regressing out a spurious viewing geometry effect, and excluding specific cloud types from the analysis. These adjustments all, to varying degree, moderate the cloud trends in the original data but leave the qualitative aspects of those trends largely unaffected. Therefore, our analysis suggests that ISCCP data can be used to interpret regional trends in cloudiness, provided that data and instrumental artefacts are recognized and accounted for. The variation in magnitude between trends emerging from application of different data correction methods, allows us to estimate possible ranges for the observational changes. It is found that the storm tracks, here represented by the extent of the midlatitude-centered band of maximum cloud cover over the studied ocean basins, experience a poleward shift as well as a narrowing over the 25 year period covered by ISCCP. The observed magnitudes of these effects are larger than in current generation climate models (CMIP3). The magnitude of the shift is particularly large in the northern hemisphere Atlantic. This is also the one of the four regions in which imperfect data primarily prevents us from drawing firm conclusions. The shifted path and reduced extent of the storm track cloudiness is accompanied

  18. Performance assessment of different day-of-the-year-based models for estimating global solar radiation - Case study: Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Gasser E.; Youssef, M. Elsayed; Ali, Mohamed A.; Mohamed, Zahraa E.; Shehata, Ali I.

    2016-11-01

    Different models are introduced to predict the daily global solar radiation in different locations but there is no specific model based on the day of the year is proposed for many locations around the world. In this study, more than 20 years of measured data for daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface are used to develop and validate seven models to estimate the daily global solar radiation by day of the year for ten cities around Egypt as a case study. Moreover, the generalization capability for the best models is examined all over the country. The regression analysis is employed to calculate the coefficients of different suggested models. The statistical indicators namely, RMSE, MABE, MAPE, r and R2 are calculated to evaluate the performance of the developed models. Based on the validation with the available data, the results show that the hybrid sine and cosine wave model and 4th order polynomial model have the best performance among other suggested models. Consequently, these two models coupled with suitable coefficients can be used for estimating the daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for each city, and also for all the locations around the studied region. It is believed that the established models in this work are applicable and significant for quick estimation for the average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface with higher accuracy. The values of global solar radiation generated by this approach can be utilized in the design and estimation of the performance of different solar applications.

  19. Estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) using accumulated degree-days (ADD) in a temperate region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Jolandie; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Steyn, Maryna; Becker, Piet J

    2013-06-10

    The validity of the method in which total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree-days (ADD) are used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) is examined. TBS and ADD were recorded for 232 days in northern South Africa, which has temperatures between 17 and 28 °C in summer and 6 and 20 °C in winter. Winter temperatures rarely go below 0°C. Thirty pig carcasses, which weighed between 38 and 91 kg, were used. TBS was scored using the modified method of Megyesi et al. [1]. Temperature was acquired from an on site data logger and the weather station bureau; differences between these two sources were not statistically significant. Using loglinear random-effects maximum likelihood regression, an r(2) value for ADD (0.6227) was produced and linear regression formulae to estimate PMI from ADD with a 95% prediction interval were developed. The data of 16 additional pigs that were placed a year later were then used to validate the accuracy of this method. The actual PMI and ADD were compared to the estimated PMI and ADD produced by the developed formulae as well as the estimated PMIs within the 95% prediction interval. A validation of the study produced poor results as only one pig of 16 fell within the 95% interval when using the formulae, showing that ADD has limited use in the prediction of PMI in a South African setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Computation of Solar Radiative Fluxes by 1D and 3D Methods Using Cloudy Atmospheres Inferred from A-train Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Howard W.; Kato, Serji; Wehr, T.

    2012-01-01

    The main point of this study was to use realistic representations of cloudy atmospheres to assess errors in solar flux estimates associated with 1D radiative transfer models. A scene construction algorithm, developed for the EarthCARE satellite mission, was applied to CloudSat, CALIPSO, and MODIS satellite data thus producing 3D cloudy atmospheres measuring 60 km wide by 13,000 km long at 1 km grid-spacing. Broadband solar fluxes and radiances for each (1 km)2 column where then produced by a Monte Carlo photon transfer model run in both full 3D and independent column approximation mode (i.e., a 1D model).

  1. Estimating hypothetical present-day insured losses for past intense hurricanes in the French Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, James; Desarthe, Jérémy; Naulin, Jean-Philippe; Garnier, Emmanuel; Liu, Ye; Moncoulon, David

    2015-04-01

    On the islands of the French Antilles, the period for which systematic meteorological measurements and historic event loss data are available is short relative to the recurrence intervals of very intense, damaging hurricanes. Additionally, the value of property at risk changes through time. As such, the recent past can only provide limited insight into potential losses from extreme storms in coming years. Here we present some research that seeks to overcome, as far as is possible, the limitations of record length in assessing the possible impacts of near-future hurricanes on insured properties. First, using the archives of the French overseas departments (which included administrative and weather reports, inventories of damage to houses, crops and trees, as well as some meteorological observations after 1950) we reconstructed the spatial patterns of hazard intensity associated with three historical events. They are: i) the 1928 Hurricane (Guadeloupe), ii) Hurricane Betsy (1956, Guadeloupe) and iii) Hurricane David (1979, Martinique). These events were selected because all were damaging, and the information available on each is rich. Then, using a recently developed catastrophe model for hurricanes affecting Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, we simulated the hypothetical losses to insured properties that the reconstructed events might cause if they were to reoccur today. The model simulated damage due to wind, rainfall-induced flooding and storm surge flooding. These 'what if' scenarios provided an initial indication of the potential present-day exposure of the insurance industry to intense hurricanes. However, we acknowledge that historical events are unlikely to repeat exactly. We therefore extended the study by producing a stochastic event catalogue containing a large number of synthetic but plausible hurricane events. Instrumental data were used as a basis for event generation, but importantly the statistical methods we applied permit

  2. Comparing a 7-day diary vs. 24 h-recall for estimating fluid consumption in overweight and obese Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Barquera-Cervera, Simón; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan; Popkin, Barry

    2015-10-07

    High intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to increased weight, energy intake, and diabetes. Even though the increasing interest on beverages and water intake, there are few dietary tools carefully validated. The purpose of this paper is to compare a fluid intake 7-day diary against a 24-h recall questionnaire to estimate the fluid consumption in overweight and obese women participating in a randomized controlled trial in Mexico. This cross-sectional study explored the correlation of reported fluid consumption between two methods: 3-day 24-hr recalls and 7-day diary beverage registry in overweight and obese Mexican women aged 18-45 y (n = 190). There was no difference on median estimated volume (mL/d), nor the median estimated energy (kcal/d) from total beverage consumption registered by the two dietary tools. The crude and rank correlation among the two dietary instruments was high for total fluid consumption in mL/d r = 0.7, p < 0.001 (crude and rank correlation) and for fluid consumption measured as energy intake: r = 0.7; p < 0.001 crude, and r = 0.5; p < 0.001 rank correlation. By type of beverage, the more meaningful rank correlations were for fluid intake in: mL/d, water, alcohol beverages, and SSB; and in kcal/d, alcohol beverages and SSBs (rank correlation ≥ 0.6). Overall, the 7-day diary showed high and strong rank correlations with that reported in the 24-h recall, suggesting that the diary method is a valid dietary tool to evaluate total fluid, water and SSB intake in this population.

  3. Analysis of AIRS and IASI System Performance Under Clear and Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Strow, L. Larrabee

    2010-01-01

    The radiometric and spectral system performance of space-borne infrared radiometers is generally specified and analyzed under strictly cloud-free, spatially uniform and warm conditions, with the assumption that the observed performance applies to the full dynamic range under clear and cloudy conditions and that random noise cancels for the evaluation of the radiometric accuracy. Such clear conditions are found in only one percent of the data. Ninety nine percent of the data include clouds, which produce spatially highly non-uniform scenes with 11 micrometers window brightness temperatures as low as 200K. We use AIRS and IASI radiance spectra to compare system performance under clear and a wide range of cloudy conditions. Although the two instruments are in polar orbits, with the ascending nodes separated by four hours, daily averages already reveal surprisingly similar measurements. The AIRS and IASI radiometric performance based on the mean of large numbers of observation is comparable and agrees within 200 mK over a wide range of temperatures. There are also some unexpected differences at the 200 -500 mK level, which are of significance for climate applications. The results were verified with data from July 2007 through January 2010, but many can already be gleaned from the analysis of a single day of data.

  4. Evaluation of cloudy data as stable references for climate research using AIRS and IRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Jiang, Yibo; Elliott, Denis A.

    2011-10-01

    We explore the use cloudy data, including Deep Convective Clouds (DCC) in the tropical oceans for the evaluation of the absolute calibration accuracy and stability of infrared radiometers. For the evaluation of cloudy data we use random nadir samples. We illustrate the method with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data and data from the Infrared Interferometric Spectrometer (IRIS) in the tropical oceans. AIRS is on the EOS Aqua satellite, which was launched in May 2002 and is expected to continue to produce high quality data until 2015. Two copies of IRIS flew on Nimbus satellites between April 1970 and January 1971. Based on inconsistencies between AIRS and IRIS data, the absolute accuracy of the IRIS data is about 1K, including a significant day/night bias. Part of the observed radiometric bias may have been introduced by quality control, which senses a temperature and spatial uniformity dependent degradation of instrument performance. The observed biases are larger than the 0.5K accuracy claimed in the literature. This absolute calibration uncertainty has to be taken into account in the analysis of changes in the more than 30 year time span between IRIS and AIRS, before they can be attributed to changes in the clouds or the climate. The method described in this paper can be applied retrospectively to any infrared radiometer like HIRS, AVHRR and GOES. It has the capability to exposes instrument artifacts, which are not apparent from the routine quality control of the data.

  5. Analysis of AIRS and IASI System Performance Under Clear and Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Strow, L. Larrabee

    2010-01-01

    The radiometric and spectral system performance of space-borne infrared radiometers is generally specified and analyzed under strictly cloud-free, spatially uniform and warm conditions, with the assumption that the observed performance applies to the full dynamic range under clear and cloudy conditions and that random noise cancels for the evaluation of the radiometric accuracy. Such clear conditions are found in only one percent of the data. Ninety nine percent of the data include clouds, which produce spatially highly non-uniform scenes with 11 micrometers window brightness temperatures as low as 200K. We use AIRS and IASI radiance spectra to compare system performance under clear and a wide range of cloudy conditions. Although the two instruments are in polar orbits, with the ascending nodes separated by four hours, daily averages already reveal surprisingly similar measurements. The AIRS and IASI radiometric performance based on the mean of large numbers of observation is comparable and agrees within 200 mK over a wide range of temperatures. There are also some unexpected differences at the 200 -500 mK level, which are of significance for climate applications. The results were verified with data from July 2007 through January 2010, but many can already be gleaned from the analysis of a single day of data.

  6. On the Detection of a 40 to 50 Day Oscillation in Sea Surface Temperature along the Central California Coast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    1972). Yasunari (1979; 1980) observed fluctuations in cloudiness over the tropical Indian Ocean with -: periods ranging from 30 to 40 days. A peak in...hemisphere winter, Mon. Idea. Rev., 111, 1838-1858, 1983. Yasunari , T., Cloudiness fluctuations associated with the northen hemisphere summer monsoon...J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 57, 227-242, 1979. Yasunari , T., A quasi-stationary appearance of 30 to 40 day period in the cloudiness fluctuations during the

  7. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune; Andersen, Lene F

    2011-05-16

    Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR). The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5), and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the intakes of culinary spices and herbs.

  8. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR). The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5), and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the

  9. Effects of Cloudiness on the Daily and Annual Radiation Balance: Elaboration on the Shartwave and Longwave Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, E.

    2007-12-01

    Clouds are visible masses of condensed droplets and frozen crystals of water in the atmosphere above the Earth. They make changes in the energy balance at local, regional, and planetary scales. They affect the climate by positive and negative feedback. To study these effects at local scale, we set up a radiation station which uses two CM21 Kipp & Zonen pyranometers (one inverted), and two CG1 Kipp & Zonen pyrgeometers (one inverted) in a semi-arid mountainous valley in Logan, Utah, U.S.A. The pyranometers and pyrgeometers were ventilated using four CV2 Kipp & Zonen ventilation systems. Ventilation of pyranometers and pyrgeometers prevents dew and frost and snow accumulation which otherwise would disturb the measurement. All sensors were installed at about 3 m above the ground, which is covered with natural vegetation during the growing season (May - September). The incoming (Rsi) and outgoing (Rso) solar or shortwave radiation, the incoming (Rli, atmospheric) and outgoing (Rlo, terrestrial) longwave radiation, along with the 2-m air temperature, humidity, and pressure have been continuously measured since 1995. We also measured the 3-m wind speed and direction, the surface temperature (using an IR thermometer) and precipitation (using a heated rain gauge). These parameters have been measured every 2 seconds and averaged into 20 minutes. For this study we chose three days: 6 April (a partially cloudy day), 29 July (a cloudless day), and 29 November (an overcast day), 2005, along with continuous study throughout the year 2005. We developed an algorithm for evaluation of cloudless-sky incoming (atmospheric) longwave radiation. Equations for cloudless-sky incoming shortwave and atmospheric longwave radiation were applied to compare the cloud-free measurements with the actual ones. Cloudless - measured incoming shortwave (solar) radiation is an indication of how much less radiation was received due to cloudiness (if any). Measured - cloudless incoming longwave

  10. Lactation curves of Valle del Belice dairy ewes for yields of milk, fat, and protein estimated with test day models.

    PubMed

    Cappio-Borlino, A; Portolano, B; Todaro, M; Macciotta, N P; Giaccone, P; Pulina, G

    1997-11-01

    Test day models were used to estimate the lactation curves for Valle del Belice ewes and to study the main environmental effects on milk yield and on percentage of fat and protein. Environmental effects were treated as fixed. A random effect was associated with each lactation to evaluate the mean correlation among all test day records of an individual ewe. Lactation curves were constructed by adding solutions for classes of either days in milk nested within parity or days in milk nested within season of lambing to appropriate general means. Parity primarily affected the lactation curve for milk yield, which was lower and flatter for first lambing ewes; effects on fat and protein were smaller. Season of lambing affected all traits. Seasonal productivity had the greatest effect on milk composition, resulting in an imbalance between fat and protein percentages. Flock and feed supplementation affected only the lactation curve for milk yield. The lactation curve of Valle del Belice ewes stood at a relatively high level. However, the presence of notable, perturbative effects (environmental and random variation) on milk yield and composition suggests that management is unable to meet the requirements of ewes consistently.

  11. Random regression test day models to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield and milk components in Philippine dairy buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Flores, E B; van der Werf, J

    2015-08-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations for milk production traits were estimated from first-parity test day records on 1022 Philippine dairy buffalo cows. Traits analysed included milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein (PY) yields, and fat (Fat%) and protein (Prot%) concentrations. Varying orders of Legendre polynomials (Leg(m)) as well as the Wilmink function (Wil) were used in random regression models. These various models were compared based on log likelihood, Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and genetic variance estimates. Six residual variance classes were sufficient for MY, FY, PY and Fat%, while seven residual classes for Prot%. Multivariate analysis gave higher estimates of genetic variance and heritability compared with univariate analysis for all traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.25 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.31 and 0.21 to 0.36 for MY, FY and PY, respectively. Wilmink's function was the better fitting function for additive genetic effects for all traits. It was also the preferred function for permanent environment effects for Fat% and Prot%, but for MY, FY and PY, the Legm was the appropriate function. Genetic correlations of MY with FY and PY were high and they were moderately negative with Fat% and Prot%. To prevent deterioration in Fat% and Prot% and improve milk quality, more weight should be applied to milk component traits.

  12. Cloudy 94 and Applications to Quasar Emission Line Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    2000-01-01

    This review discusses the most recent developments of the plasma simulation code Cloudy and its application to the, emission-line regions of quasars. The longterm goal is to develop the tools needed to determine the chemical composition of the emitting gas and the luminosity of the central engine for any emission line source. Emission lines and the underlying thermal continuum are formed in plasmas that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Their thermal and ionization states are the result of a balance of a vast set of microphysical processes. Once produced, radiation must, propagate out of the (usually) optically thick source. No analytic solutions are possible, and recourse to numerical simulations is necessary. I am developing the large-scale plasma simulation code Cloudy as an investigative tool for this work, much as an observer might build a spectrometer. This review describes the current version of Cloudy, version 94. It describes improvements made since the, release of the previous version, C90. The major recent, application has been the development of the "Locally Optimally-Emitting Cloud" (LOC) model of AGN emission line regions. Powerful selection effects, introduced by the atomic physics and line formation process, permit individual lines to form most efficiently only near certain selected parameters. These selection effects, together with the presence of gas with a wide range of conditions, are enough to reproduce the spectrum of a typical quasar with little dependence on details. The spectrum actually carries little information to the identity of the emitters. I view this as a major step forward since it provides a method to handle accidental details at the source, so that we can concentrate on essential information such as the luminosity or chemical composition of the quasar.

  13. Cloudy 94 and Applications to Quasar Emission Line Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    2000-01-01

    This review discusses the most recent developments of the plasma simulation code Cloudy and its application to the, emission-line regions of quasars. The longterm goal is to develop the tools needed to determine the chemical composition of the emitting gas and the luminosity of the central engine for any emission line source. Emission lines and the underlying thermal continuum are formed in plasmas that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Their thermal and ionization states are the result of a balance of a vast set of microphysical processes. Once produced, radiation must, propagate out of the (usually) optically thick source. No analytic solutions are possible, and recourse to numerical simulations is necessary. I am developing the large-scale plasma simulation code Cloudy as an investigative tool for this work, much as an observer might build a spectrometer. This review describes the current version of Cloudy, version 94. It describes improvements made since the, release of the previous version, C90. The major recent, application has been the development of the "Locally Optimally-Emitting Cloud" (LOC) model of AGN emission line regions. Powerful selection effects, introduced by the atomic physics and line formation process, permit individual lines to form most efficiently only near certain selected parameters. These selection effects, together with the presence of gas with a wide range of conditions, are enough to reproduce the spectrum of a typical quasar with little dependence on details. The spectrum actually carries little information to the identity of the emitters. I view this as a major step forward since it provides a method to handle accidental details at the source, so that we can concentrate on essential information such as the luminosity or chemical composition of the quasar.

  14. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.

  15. Penetration of visible solar radiation in waters of the Barents Sea depending on cloudiness and coccolithophore blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelevich, O. V.; Vazyulya, S. V.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Khrapko, A. N.; Sheberstov, S. V.; Sahling, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    Based on satellite and in situ data, we quantitatively estimated the penetration of PAR (photosynthetically available solar radiation in the visible spectral range of 400-700 nm) into waters of the central Barents Sea in the summer seasons of 2014-2016. The effects of cloudiness and coccolithophore blooms on the incidence and penetration of PAR was examined. These blooms occur in the Barents Sea almost every year. We estimated the impact of visible solar radiation on the SST against a background of incoming warmer waters of the Norwegian Current and established that the PAR impact is the most pronounced under clear sky conditions in July and August.

  16. Spring and fall bloom evolutions estimated from 8 day composite satellite chlorophyll data in the East/Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Cho, Y.; Kim, S.; Kim, K.

    2012-12-01

    Bong-Guk Kim1, Yang-Ki Cho1, Sangil Kim2, Kwang-Yul, Kim1 1 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea 2 College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA To understand the ocean carbon cycle, estimating the ocean biomass is necessary and it has been done by various methods. Satellite observation is one of beneficial methods to investigate ocean biomass. Satellite data enable us to monitor chlorophyll-a for wide area with high resolution and frequency. The East/Japan Sea, which called as 'miniature ocean' due to its rapid turnover circulation, is one of the most productive ocean. With the concerning global warming, a number of studies on temporal and spatial distribution of satellite chlorophyll in the East/Japan Sea have been processed. However, most of these studies have used monthly data set which can not resolve detail evolution of chlorophyll-a. In this study, detail evolutions of spring and fall bloom are investigated by the CSEOF (Cyclo-Stationary EOF) analysis of 8-day composite MODIS chlorophyll data from July 2002 to February 2012. For the CSEOF analysis, optimal interpolation (OI) method was applied to fill the blank data which is critical problem in satellite data. Spring bloom started at western Japanese coast on 57th day of the year. And it gradually moves eastern coast of Korean and then moves to northern Primorye coast. Spring bloom spreads entire the East/Japan Sea on 113th day of the year and then, it disappears from the southern East/Japan Sea. Spring bloom ends in the northern East/Japan Sea. In the case of fall bloom, it starts at Korean coast on 265th day of the year, and it moves to the north along the Korean coast by 329th day of the year. After that day, fall bloom ends near the northern coast of Korea on 353rd day of the year.

  17. Climatic change by cloudiness linked to the spatial variability of sea surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.

    1975-01-01

    An active role in modifying the earth's climate is suggested for low cloudiness over the circumarctic oceans. Such cloudiness, linked to the spatial differences in ocean surface temperatures, was studied. The temporal variations from year to year of ocean temperature patterns can be pronounced and therefore, the low cloudiness over this region should also show strong temporal variations, affecting the albedo of the earth and therefore the climate. Photographs are included.

  18. Estimating present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tropical cyclone-induced storm surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, Ivan D.; MacPherson, Leigh R.; Mason, Matthew S.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Crompton, Ryan P.; George, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of major storm surges in the last decade have dramatically emphasized the immense destructive capabilities of extreme water level events, particularly when driven by severe tropical cyclones. Given this risk, it is vitally important that the exceedance probabilities of extreme water levels are accurately evaluated to inform risk-based flood and erosion management, engineering and for future land-use planning and to ensure the risk of catastrophic structural failures due to under-design or expensive wastes due to over-design are minimised. Australia has a long history of coastal flooding from tropical cyclones. Using a novel integration of two modeling techniques, this paper provides the first estimates of present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the whole coastline of Australia, and the first estimates that combine the influence of astronomical tides, storm surges generated by both extra-tropical and tropical cyclones, and seasonal and inter-annual variations in mean sea level. Initially, an analysis of tide gauge records has been used to assess the characteristics of tropical cyclone-induced surges around Australia. However, given the dearth (temporal and spatial) of information around much of the coastline, and therefore the inability of these gauge records to adequately describe the regional climatology, an observationally based stochastic tropical cyclone model has been developed to synthetically extend the tropical cyclone record to 10,000 years. Wind and pressure fields derived for these synthetically generated events have then been used to drive a hydrodynamic model of the Australian continental shelf region with annual maximum water levels extracted to estimate exceedance probabilities around the coastline. To validate this methodology, selected historic storm surge events have been simulated and resultant storm surges compared with gauge records. Tropical cyclone induced exceedance probabilities have been combined with

  19. Cloudiness over the Amazon rainforest: Meteorology and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collow, Allison B. Marquardt; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive meteorological observations collected during GOAmazon2014/15 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility no. 1 and assimilated observations from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 are used to document the seasonal cycle of cloudiness, thermodynamics, and precipitation above the Amazon rainforest. The reversal of synoptic-scale vertical motions modulates the transition between the wet and dry seasons. Ascending moist air during the wet season originates near the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and is advected into the Amazon rainforest, where it experiences convergence and, ultimately, precipitates. The dry season is characterized by weaker winds and synoptic-scale subsidence with little or no moisture convergence accompanying moisture advection. This combination results in the drying of the midtroposphere during June through October as indicated by a decrease in liquid water path, integrated water, and the vertical profile of water vapor mixing ratio. The vertical profile of cloud fraction exhibits a relatively consistent decline in cloud fraction from the lifting condensation level (LCL) to the freezing level where a minimum is observed, unlike many other tropical regions. Coefficients of determination between the LCL and cloud fractional coverage suggest a relatively robust relationship between the LCL and cloudiness beneath 5 km during the dry season (R2 = 0.42) but a weak relationship during the wet season (0.12).

  20. Aerospace laser sensing of cloudiness: numerical statistical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargin, A. B.; Kargin, B. A.; Lavrov, M. V.

    2013-08-01

    In the numerical modeling of laser radiation transfer in optically dense cloudy media it is necessary to take into account multiple scattering effects, which alter the spatiotemporal structure of light pulses. The Monte Carlo method makes it possible to achieve the most complete account of these effects in the solution of direct problems of laser sensing of scattering media. This work considers two problems. The first is connected with construction of an adequate optical model of crystalline clouds which takes account their optical anisotropy. The second touches on questions of Monte Carlo modeling of laser radiation transfer in optically anisotropic media. A number of results of numerical experiments are presented which establish a quantitative connection between some cloud parameters and the magnitude and shape of the time convolution of a non-stationary laser return signal reflected by a single-layer continuous crystalline or liquid-droplet cloud and by two-level continuous cloudiness, when the crystalline cloud is located above the liquid-droplet cloud.

  1. Recent development of the photoionization / PDR code Cloudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, P. A. M.; Porter, R. L.; Ferland, G. J.

    2011-05-01

    Cloudy is a widely used open-source modeling tool for photoionized and PDR/XDR environments. It was the first code that could produce a unified and fully self-consistent model of both the ionized region and the PDR surrounding a central source. Such an environment can e.g. be found in massive star forming regions, in planetary nebulae or around AGN. The code is also capable of producing "classical" PDR models that do not include an ionized region. The emphasis of the code is on detailed and state-of-the-art treatment of micro-physical processes. Cloudy is continually being updated to improve this treatment and to add more and newer atomic and molecular data. On this poster we will discuss some of these developments, including the addition of the LAMDA, CDMS and JPL molecular line databases. These will allow us to make NLTE predictions for the molecular line emission, but the accuracy of those predictions will be limited by the quality (or even absence) of collision strength data. We will discuss the impact this has on the accuracy of the predicted spectra in typical ISM conditions.

  2. Regime-based evaluation of cloudiness in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Daeho; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin

    2017-01-01

    The concept of cloud regimes (CRs) is used to develop a framework for evaluating the cloudiness of 12 fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. Reference CRs come from existing global International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) weather states. The evaluation is made possible by the implementation in several CMIP5 models of the ISCCP simulator generating in each grid cell daily joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure. Model performance is assessed with several metrics such as CR global cloud fraction (CF), CR relative frequency of occurrence (RFO), their product [long-term average total cloud amount (TCA)], cross-correlations of CR RFO maps, and a metric of resemblance between model and ISCCP CRs. In terms of CR global RFO, arguably the most fundamental metric, the models perform unsatisfactorily overall, except for CRs representing thick storm clouds. Because model CR CF is internally constrained by our method, RFO discrepancies yield also substantial TCA errors. Our results support previous findings that CMIP5 models underestimate cloudiness. The multi-model mean performs well in matching observed RFO maps for many CRs, but is still not the best for this or other metrics. When overall performance across all CRs is assessed, some models, despite shortcomings, apparently outperform Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cloud observations evaluated against ISCCP like another model output. Lastly, contrasting cloud simulation performance against each model's equilibrium climate sensitivity in order to gain insight on whether good cloud simulation pairs with particular values of this parameter, yields no clear conclusions.

  3. Impact of Wetlands on Titan's Mid-Latitude Cloudiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, J. M.; Mitchell, J.

    2014-12-01

    Neish and Lorenz [Icarus 228 (2014), 27-34] suggested that Titan's lowest elevations are extensive wetlands based on crater distributions. With a Titan general circulation model (GCM), we examine whether low-lying wetlands at mid-latitudes provide sufficient surface-level moisture to trigger convective cloud formation there, as well as investigate the dynamical processes responsible for different cloud morphologies. GCMs of Titan have shown that the atmospheric circulation transports methane away from low latitudes and into the polar regions on average. Several of these models simulate moist and cloudy conditions over the summer pole, in agreement with observations of convective clouds over the south pole during its summer. However, observations of cloudiness over Titan's southern mid-latitudes that occurred around solstice and persisted until after autumnal equinox are perplexing. GCMs tend to only simulate mid-latitude clouds around equinox, and only when imposing very wet surface conditions. In GCMs where surface moisture is allowed to vary self-consistently, the mid-latitudes are dry and cloud formation is inhibited. However, these models ignore topography. The GCM in this study is three-dimensional and fully simulates Titan's methane cycle, including variable surface moisture, as well as Titan's temperatures and atmospheric superrotation. Comparison of model results to recent obsrvations of the latitudinal humidity distribution of the troposphere will help discriminate between surface distributions. These simulations can therefore begin to constrain the distribution of surface methane, beyond Titan's distinctive lakes and seas, available to the atmosphere.

  4. Determination of the Absorption Coefficient and Cloudiness Multiplicity Attenuation During the Gamma-Radiation Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, K. N.; Borovikov, I. F.; Gaidamak, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents background value equivalent dose of gamma-radiation investigation in different weather: clear cloudy and overcast. The change of the dose rate of gamma radiation, depending on the weather and the ability cloudiness to shield gamma rays is shown. A new method for eliminating the consequences of accidents at nuclear power plants or plants using radioactive elements is proposed. A calculation method of cloudiness coefficient absorption and cloudiness gamma-radiation multiplicity attenuation is developed. The gamma- radiation multiplicity attenuation and the absorption coefficient of gamma radiation were calculated.

  5. Cardiovascular responses to noise: Effects of self-estimated sensitivity to noise, sex, and time of the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Nisi, J.; Muzet, A.; Weber, L. D.

    1987-04-01

    Eighty subjects of both sexes were selected according to their self-estimated high or low sensitivity to noise. Noise exposure took place during a mental task ("sound" condition) or during a video film illustrating the noises ("sound and video" condition). The experiments were conducted between 0900 and 1100 hours or between 1500 and 1700 hours. Heart rate response and finger pulse response amplitudes were averaged separately for "sound" and "sound and video" conditions. In the "sound" condition, the average amplitude of the heart rate response differed significantly between noise-sensitivity groups: the low sensitivity group showed a lower average amplitude of heart rate response than the high sensitivity group. A significant interaction between sex and time of the day (morning or afternoon) was observed in both "sound" and "sound and video" conditions. In the "sound" condition, the percentage of noises inducing a finger pulse response appeared higher in female than in male subjects.

  6. Dust temperature maps of the Galactic plane: The Herschel spectral energy distribution fitting with Cloudy predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiali; Huang, Maohai

    2014-04-01

    Context. Dust grains absorb the interstellar far ultra-violet and visible photons and re-emit them in far-infrared (FIR) wavebands. The dust FIR continuum can be predicted by a grid of models using various values of the interstellar radiation field. Aims: We analyze the dust continuum emission in two Hi-GAL science-demonstration phase (SDP) fields using both the radiative transfer code, Cloudy, and the DustEM dust model, to explore the effect of radiative transfer on dust temperature. The 500 μm sub-millimeter excess emission and the very small grain (VSG) contribution to the 70 μm intensity are investigated by spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting using the Cloudy model. Methods: By comparing the observation with the model prediction, we derive dust temperature maps of the two SDP fields by fitting the dust SED with 4-band data (SPIRE bands plus PACS 160 μm) using both Cloudy and DustEM models. Considering radiative transfer and grain physics simultaneously, we investigate the existence of a 500 μm excess and estimate the VSG contribution to the 70 μm intensity by fitting the dust SED with 3-band data (160, 250, and 350 μm) and 5-band data (SPIRE and PACS bands), respectively. Results: We confirm that the field with star formation activities have a higher temperature (18.7 ± 0.9 K) than the quiescent region (15.2 ± 0.6 K). We find that the radiative transfer affects the FIR SED of the SDP fields and results in a higher temperature distribution than the dust-only model fit. There is no significant detection of a 500 μm excess in the two SDP fields. The relative contribution from the VSGs to the 70 μm intensity can be up to 50%. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Reduced Herschel maps (FITS) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  7. Estimating children's eating habits. Validity of a questionnaire measuring food frequency compared to a 7-day record.

    PubMed

    Blom, L; Lundmark, K; Dahlquist, G; Persson, L A

    1989-11-01

    A questionnaire measuring food frequency was validated against 7-day records of food intake in a group of 30 children, 2-16 years of age. Special emphasis was given to the ability of the questionnaire to estimate frequency of intake of foods of particular interest in diabetes mellitus. Fifteen children had insulin-dependent diabetes; 15 were healthy. Comparison of the two methods regarding frequency of foods with high content of sucrose, protein, fat, fibres, nitrite or vitamin C showed a correlation of 0.52-0.76. The frequency of intake of some staple foods was often overestimated by the questionnaire, while the frequency of meat, sausage and some sweet snacks was underestimated. The use of the questionnaire to identify high or low consumers of the mentioned nutrients showed a rather low sensitivity (0.38-0.50), but a high specificity (0.86-1.0) when compared with results of the 7-day record. In our limited sample of subjects no systematic differences were found comparing sexes or diabetic and healthy children. A food frequency questionnaire may, in spite of some important reservations, be a useful tool for screening purposes when more time-consuming and resource-demanding methods cannot be used.

  8. A novel GIS-based tool for estimating present-day ocean reference depth using automatically processed gridded bathymetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurecka, Mirosława; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Migoń, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computing the present-day value of the reference depth (dr) which is an essential input information for assessment of past sea-level changes. The method applies a novel automatic geoprocessing tool developed using Python script and ArcGIS, and uses recent data about ocean floor depth, sediment thickness, and age of oceanic crust. The procedure is multi-step and involves creation of a bathymetric dataset corrected for sediment loading and isostasy, delineation of subduction zones, computation of perpendicular sea-floor profiles, and statistical analysis of these profiles versus crust age. The analysis of site-specific situations near the subduction zones all around the world shows a number of instances where the depth of the oceanic crust stabilizes at a certain level before reaching the subduction zone, and this occurs at depths much lower than proposed in previous approaches to the reference depth issue. An analysis of Jurassic and Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere shows that the most probable interval at which the reference depth occurs is 5300-5800 m. This interval is broadly consistent with dr estimates determined using the Global Depth-Heatflow model (GDH1), but is significantly lower than dr estimates calculated on a basis of the Parsons-Sclater Model (PSM).

  9. Improving present day and future estimates of anthropogenic sectoral emissions and the resulting air quality impacts in Africa.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Forrest G; Marais, Eloise A; Henze, Daven K; Lee, Colin J; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Hannigan, Michael P; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2017-08-24

    The African continent is undergoing immense social and economic change, particularly regarding population growth and urbanization, where the urban population in Africa is anticipated to increase by a factor of 3 over the next 40 years. To understand the potential health impacts from this demographical shift and design efficient emission mitigation strategies, we used improved Africa-specific emissions that account for inefficient combustion sources for a number of sectors such as transportation, household energy generation, waste burning, and home heating and cooking. When these underrepresented emissions sources are combined with the current estimates of emissions in Africa, ambient particulate matter concentrations from present-day anthropogenic activity contribute to 13 210 annual premature deaths, with the largest contributions (38%) coming from residential emissions. By scaling both the population and the emissions for projected national-scale levels of growth, the predicted health impact grows to approximately 78 986 annual premature deaths by 2030 with 45% now resulting from emissions related to energy combustion. In order to mitigate this resulting increase in premature deaths, three scenarios have been developed which reduce sector-specific future emissions based on prior targets for technological improvements and emission controls in transportation, energy production and residential activities. These targeted potential mitigation strategies can avoid up to 37% of the estimated annual premature deaths by 2030 with the largest opportunity being a reduction of 10 868 annual deaths from switching half of the energy generation in South Africa to renewable technologies.

  10. Evaluation of methods to estimate missing days' supply within pharmacy data of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and The Health Improvement Network (THIN).

    PubMed

    Lum, Kirsten J; Newcomb, Craig W; Roy, Jason A; Carbonari, Dena M; Saine, M Elle; Cardillo, Serena; Bhullar, Harshvinder; Gallagher, Arlene M; Lo Re, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which days' supply data are missing in pharmacoepidemiologic databases and effective methods for estimation is unknown. We determined the percentage of missing days' supply on prescription and patient levels for oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) and evaluated three methods for estimating days' supply within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and The Health Improvement Network (THIN). We estimated the percentage of OAD prescriptions and patients with missing days' supply in each database from 2009 to 2013. Within a random sample of prescriptions with known days' supply, we measured the accuracy of three methods to estimate missing days' supply by imputing the following: (1) 28 days' supply, (2) mode number of tablets/day by drug strength and number of tablets/prescription, and (3) number of tablets/day via a machine learning algorithm. We determined incidence rates (IRs) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using each method to evaluate the impact on ascertainment of exposure time and outcomes. Days' supply was missing for 24 % of OAD prescriptions in CPRD and 33 % in THIN (affecting 48 and 57 % of patients, respectively). Methods 2 and 3 were very accurate in estimating days' supply for OADs prescribed at a consistent number of tablets/day. Method 3 was more accurate for OADs prescribed at varying number of tablets/day. IRs of AMI were similar across methods for most OADs. Missing days' supply is a substantial problem in both databases. Method 2 is easy and very accurate for most OADs and results in IRs comparable to those from method 3.

  11. Cloudy corneas as an initial presentation of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Madi, Haifa A; Bonshek, Richard; Morgan, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report a case of previously unsuspected myeloma, presenting with cornea verticillata due to intracorneal paraprotein deposition. History An 85-year-old female presented via her optician with a 4-month history of cloudy vision. She had undergone an uneventful bilateral phacoemulsification surgery 7 years earlier. Extensive spiraling corneal epithelial opacification was noted on slit-lamp examination. On further investigation, she was found to have a previously unsuspected low-grade multiple myeloma. We established the nature of the corneal deposits with corneal epithelial biopsy histopathology and electron microscopy. It is very rare for multiple myeloma to present in this fashion. Ophthalmologists should be aware that such a presentation may rarely be due to systemic multiple myeloma. PMID:24812487

  12. Evaluation of the Impact of AlRS Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradely; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Parallel experiments using AIRS L1B and L2 retrieved profiles were run for 29 case study days for early Winter 2011. Forecasts over and downstream regions of low, opaque cloudy regions yield improved T and Z anomaly correlations when non-thinned set of profiles is assimilated instead of radiances. Initial results indicate that GSI does a good job on the whole of determining cloud-free radiances there are some areas coincident with areas of larger profile impact that are misrepresented (compared to MODIS) that may result in reduced analysis impact.

  13. On the assimilation of satellite sounder data in cloudy skies in numerical weather prediction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Pei; Han, Hyojin; Li, Jinlong; Zheng, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Satellite measurements are an important source of global observations in support of numerical weather prediction (NWP). The assimilation of satellite radiances under clear skies has greatly improved NWP forecast scores. However, the application of radiances in cloudy skies remains a significant challenge. In order to better assimilate radiances in cloudy skies, it is very important to detect any clear field-of-view (FOV) accurately and assimilate cloudy radiances appropriately. Research progress on both clear FOV detection methodologies and cloudy radiance assimilation techniques are reviewed in this paper. Overview on approaches being implemented in the operational centers and studied by the satellite data assimilation research community is presented. Challenges and future directions for satellite sounder radiance assimilation in cloudy skies in NWP models are also discussed.

  14. The Depth of the Cryosphere and the Presence of Groundwater on Present-Day Mars: Revised Estimates and Implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, S. M.; Heggy, E.; Boisson, J.; McGovern, P.; Max, M. D.; Marsis Team

    2009-04-01

    It has been estimated that, at the time of peak outflow channel activity, ~2-3 Gya, Mars possess a planetary inventory of water equivalent to a global ocean 0.5-1 km deep (M. Carr, Icarus. 68, 187, 1986). Because this peak post-dates the period when the most efficient mechanisms of planetary water loss (impact erosion and hydrodynamic escape) are thought to be active (>4 Gya), the bulk of this water is likely to still suvive as in the PLD and in the subsurface, as ground ice and groundwater. How much groundwater survives on Mars today depends on the relative size of the planetary inventory of H2O vs. the pore volume of the cryosphere (that region of the crust where the temperature remains below freezing). If the planetary inventory exceeds what can be stored as ice within the cryosphere, then the excess will exist as a groundwater, saturating the lowermost porous regions of the crust. Previous best estimates of mean global heat flow, crustal thermal conductivity, and freezing-point depression, suggested that the nominal depth of the cryosphere varied from ~2.5 km at the equator to ~6.5 km at the poles, with the natural heteorgenity of the crust expected to give rise to significant (±50%) local variations (Clifford (JGR 98, 10973, 1993). Here we revisit these previousr estimates, examining the potential consequences and implications of our evolving understanding of crustal heat flow, thermal conductivity and the effects of groundwater composition on freezing-point depression -- as deduced from recent Mars' surface, orbital, and Earth-based investigations. We conclude that the present day cryosphere may be up to twice as deep as previously thought, raising questions about the continued survival of subpermafrost groundwater -- as a once large inventory may have been cold-trapped into the thickening cryosphere, as the planet's internal heat flow declined with time. If groundwater does continue to persist on Mars, the locations that are likely to provide the best

  15. TOMS Ozone Anomalies and Ozone Retrieval Errors Over Cloudy Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.; Kim, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Loughman, R.

    2003-12-01

    This study characterizes TOMS Ozone Retrieval Errors (OREs) associated with incorrect Cloud-Top Pressures (CTPs) and with assuming opaque Lambertian clouds, investigates these errors' effects on tropospheric ozone derivation, and analyzes ozone anomalies over TOMS data. Large errors occurring in TOMS assumed CTPs and inaccurate CTP-caused OREs are most significantly from inappropriately added ozone below clouds. Because OREs are usually within the TOMS retrieval precision when Cloud Optical Depth (COD)>20, assuming Lambertian surface is good. Because of In-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large positive OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a 2-12 km water cloud of COD 40 with 20.8 DU ozone inside the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU at nadir. The ICOAEN effect depends strongly on viewing geometry and inter-cloud ozone amount and distribution; it is typically 5-13 DU over the tropical Atlantic and Africa and 1-7 DU over the tropical Pacific for deep convective clouds. The negative errors from using the TOMS Partial Cloud Model (PCM) partly cancel other positive errors. At COD < 5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20-40, negative PCM effect decreases to almost zero, and the overall positive ORE increases and is dominated by ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect can largely underestimate tropospheric ozone derived from cloudy/clear difference techniques. The convective cloud differential and cloud-clear pair methods use minimum ozone above clouds to cancel positive errors. A Positive or Negative Ozone Anomaly (POA/NOA) is defined to occur if the ozone/reflectivity correlation coefficient in a region is >0.5 or <-0.5. Average fractions of OA occurrence are 31.8% and 35.8% in Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data, respectively. Most tropical NOAs result from large cloud-height errors; corrections lead to 50-70% POAs in the tropics because of

  16. Direct radiative forcing of aerosols in cloudy condition using CALIPSO satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, E.; Nakajima, T.; Winker, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The aerosol direct effect occurs by direct scattering and absorption of solar and thermal radiation. Shortwave direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) under clear-sky condition is estimated about 5 Wm-2 from satellite retrievals and model simulations [Yu et al., 2006ACP]. Simultaneous observations of aerosols and clouds are very limited, thus it is difficult to validate the estimation of DARF under cloudy-sky condition. In 2006, the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite was launched with the space-borne lidar, CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization). This enabled us to get data of the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds all over the world. Oikawa et al. [2013JGR] estimated DARF under clear-sky, cloudy-sky, and all-sky conditions using CALIPSO and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) data. Over Atlantic Ocean off southwest Africa, biomass burning aerosols are transported above low-level clouds and cause large positive DARF [Oikawa et al., 2013JGR; Chand et al., 2009Nat. Geosci.; De Graaf et al., 2012JGR; Takemura et al., 2005JGR]. We calculate DARF using CALIOP Level 2 Cloud and Aerosol Layer Products Version 3 and the method of Oikawa et al. [2013]. In this study, we focus on the case that aerosols exist above clouds (above-cloud case) in 2007. Over Atlantic Ocean off southwest Africa, DARF caused by smoke aerosols is +7.1 Wm-2 in September. On the other hand, aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of smoke is small as close to 0 Wm-2 in spring season. Over North Pacific, yellow sand and industrial smoke are transported from Asia and DARF is +5.2 Wm-2 in May. Dust AOT at 532 nm is 0.014 and polluted dust AOT at 532 nm is 0.052; in other words, a large part of dust emitted from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts are mixed with the industrial smoke and transported to the Pacific Ocean according to the CALIPSO algorithms.

  17. Psychophysical study of the visual sun location in pictures of cloudy and twilight skies inspired by Viking navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Benno Meyer-Rochow, Victor

    2005-06-01

    In the late 1960s it was hypothesized that Vikings had been able to navigate the open seas, even when the sun was occluded by clouds or below the sea horizon, by using the angle of polarization of skylight. To detect the direction of skylight polarization, they were thought to have made use of birefringent crystals, called "sunstones," and a large part of the scientific community still firmly believe that Vikings were capable of polarimetric navigation. However, there are some critics who treat the usefulness of skylight polarization for orientation under partly cloudy or twilight conditions with extreme skepticism. One of their counterarguments has been the assumption that solar positions or solar azimuth directions could be estimated quite accurately by the naked eye, even if the sun was behind clouds or below the sea horizon. Thus under partly cloudy or twilight conditions there might have been no serious need for a polarimetric method to determine the position of the sun. The aim of our study was to test quantitatively the validity of this qualitative counterargument. In our psychophysical laboratory experiments, test subjects were confronted with numerous 180° field-of-view color photographs of partly cloudy skies with the sun occluded by clouds or of twilight skies with the sun below the horizon. The task of the subjects was to guess the position or the azimuth direction of the invisible sun with the naked eye. We calculated means and standard deviations of the estimated solar positions and azimuth angles to characterize the accuracy of the visual sun location. Our data do not support the common belief that the invisible sun can be located quite accurately from the celestial brightness and/or color patterns under cloudy or twilight conditions. Although our results underestimate the accuracy of visual sun location by experienced Viking navigators, the mentioned counterargument cannot be taken seriously as a valid criticism of the theory of the alleged

  18. Psychophysical study of the visual sun location in pictures of cloudy and twilight skies inspired by Viking navigation.

    PubMed

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2005-06-01

    In the late 1960s it was hypothesized that Vikings had been able to navigate the open seas, even when the sun was occluded by clouds or below the sea horizon, by using the angle of polarization of skylight. To detect the direction of skylight polarization, they were thought to have made use of birefringent crystals, called "sun-stones," and a large part of the scientific community still firmly believe that Vikings were capable of polarimetric navigation. However, there are some critics who treat the usefulness of skylight polarization for orientation under partly cloudy or twilight conditions with extreme skepticism. One of their counterarguments has been the assumption that solar positions or solar azimuth directions could be estimated quite accurately by the naked eye, even if the sun was behind clouds or below the sea horizon. Thus under partly cloudy or twilight conditions there might have been no serious need for a polarimetric method to determine the position of the sun. The aim of our study was to test quantitatively the validity of this qualitative counterargument. In our psychophysical laboratory experiments, test subjects were confronted with numerous 180 degrees field-of-view color photographs of partly cloudy skies with the sun occluded by clouds or of twilight skies with the sun below the horizon. The task of the subjects was to guess the position or the azimuth direction of the invisible sun with the naked eye. We calculated means and standard deviations of the estimated solar positions and azimuth angles to characterize the accuracy of the visual sun location. Our data do not support the common belief that the invisible sun can be located quite accurately from the celestial brightness and/or color patterns under cloudy or twilight conditions. Although our results underestimate the accuracy of visual sun location by experienced Viking navigators, the mentioned counterargument cannot be taken seriously as a valid criticism of the theory of the alleged

  19. Digital all-sky polarization imaging of partly cloudy skies.

    PubMed

    Pust, Nathan J; Shaw, Joseph A

    2008-12-01

    Clouds reduce the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of skylight relative to that of a clear sky. Even thin subvisual clouds in the "twilight zone" between clouds and aerosols produce a drop in skylight DOLP long before clouds become visible in the sky. In contrast, the angle of polarization (AOP) of light scattered by a cloud in a partly cloudy sky remains the same as in the clear sky for most cases. In unique instances, though, select clouds display AOP signatures that are oriented 90 degrees from the clear-sky AOP. For these clouds, scattered light oriented parallel to the scattering plane dominates the perpendicularly polarized Rayleigh-scattered light between the instrument and the cloud. For liquid clouds, this effect may assist cloud particle size identification because it occurs only over a relatively limited range of particle radii that will scatter parallel polarized light. Images are shown from a digital all-sky-polarization imager to illustrate these effects. Images are also shown that provide validation of previously published theories for weak (approximately 2%) polarization parallel to the scattering plane for a 22 degrees halo.

  20. Efficient vector radiative transfer calculations in vertically inhomogeneous cloudy atmospheres.

    PubMed

    van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Hasekamp, Otto P; Landgraf, Jochen

    2006-08-10

    Accurate radiative transfer calculations in cloudy atmospheres are generally time consuming, limiting their practical use in satellite remote sensing applications. We present a model to efficiently calculate the radiative transfer of polarized light in atmospheres that contain homogeneous cloud layers. This model combines the Gauss-Seidel method, which is efficient for inhomogeneous cloudless atmospheres, with the doubling method, which is efficient for homogeneous cloud layers. Additionally to reduce the computational effort for radiative transfer calculations in absorption bands, the cloud reflection and transmission matrices are interpolated over the absorption and scattering optical thicknesses within the cloud layer. We demonstrate that the proposed radiative transfer model in combination with this interpolation technique is efficient for the simulation of satellite measurements for inhomogeneous atmospheres containing one homogeneous cloud layer. For example, the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) measurements in the oxygen A band (758-773 nm) and the Hartley-Huggins ozone band (295-335 nm) with a spectral resolution of 0.4 nm can be simulated for these atmospheres within 1 min on a 2.8 GHz PC with an accuracy better than 0.1%.

  1. Efficient vector radiative transfer calculations in vertically inhomogeneous cloudy atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Landgraf, Jochen

    2006-08-01

    Accurate radiative transfer calculations in cloudy atmospheres are generally time consuming, limiting their practical use in satellite remote sensing applications. We present a model to efficiently calculate the radiative transfer of polarized light in atmospheres that contain homogeneous cloud layers. This model combines the Gauss-Seidel method, which is efficient for inhomogeneous cloudless atmospheres, with the doubling method, which is efficient for homogeneous cloud layers. Additionally to reduce the computational effort for radiative transfer calculations in absorption bands, the cloud reflection and transmission matrices are interpolated over the absorption and scattering optical thicknesses within the cloud layer. We demonstrate that the proposed radiative transfer model in combination with this interpolation technique is efficient for the simulation of satellite measurements for inhomogeneous atmospheres containing one homogeneous cloud layer. For example, the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) measurements in the oxygen A band (758-773 nm) and the Hartley-Huggins ozone band (295-335 nm) with a spectral resolution of 0.4 nm can be simulated for these atmospheres within 1 min on a 2.8 GHz PC with an accuracy better than 0.1%.

  2. A parameterized model for global insolation under partially cloudy skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B.

    1982-01-01

    A simple and efficient parameterization of insolation under partially cloudy skies is discussed and compared with a set of exact radiative transfer results for clear skies, an empirical equation and observations. The parameterization is physically based and requires, as input variables, the ozone path length, precipitable water, Angstrom turbidity, surface air pressure and albedo, fractional cloud-cover and cloud thickness. Multiple reflection between the surface and the overlying atmosphere, and clouds are considered. The albedo of the earth-atmosphere system is also formulated and compared with a set of exact radiative transfer results. As compared to the exact radiative transfer results, the errors in the insolations are generally less than 1 percent, and in the albedo of the earth-atmosphere system less than 10 percent. The errors in the calculated insolations using climatological data are 2-3 percent when compared with many years averaged observations at Maudheim (Antarctica) and at Rockville (U.S.A.). A parametric equation for calculating directly the daily total insolation is also given.

  3. A parameterized model for global insolation under partially cloudy skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B.

    1982-01-01

    A simple and efficient parameterization of insolation under partially cloudy skies is discussed and compared with a set of exact radiative transfer results for clear skies, an empirical equation and observations. The parameterization is physically based and requires, as input variables, the ozone path length, precipitable water, Angstrom turbidity, surface air pressure and albedo, fractional cloud-cover and cloud thickness. Multiple reflection between the surface and the overlying atmosphere, and clouds are considered. The albedo of the earth-atmosphere system is also formulated and compared with a set of exact radiative transfer results. As compared to the exact radiative transfer results, the errors in the insolations are generally less than 1 percent, and in the albedo of the earth-atmosphere system less than 10 percent. The errors in the calculated insolations using climatological data are 2-3 percent when compared with many years averaged observations at Maudheim (Antarctica) and at Rockville (U.S.A.). A parametric equation for calculating directly the daily total insolation is also given.

  4. Low-frequency variations of circulation and high cloudiness in the northern extratropics - Spatial and temporal relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Charlock, T.P.; Rose, F.G. Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Co., Hampton, VA )

    1992-11-01

    The spatial and temporal relationships between fluctuations in geopotential height and high-cloud fractional area in low-pass (periods greater than 10 days) and intermediate-pass (10-30 days) time scales are investigated and compared with spatial and temporal relationships in the fast-pass (2.5-6 days) time scale, using NMC 500-hPa height and Nimbus-7 THIR-TOMS high-cloud data for October-March winter months of 1979-1985. It was found that, when moving from the low-pass and intermediate-pass time scales to the fast-pass regime, the temporal variance of the height field decreases, but the temporal variance of the high cloudiness increases. The spatial phase relationships between the height and the cloud fields in the low-pass and the fast-pass regimes were found to be different. 47 refs.

  5. Retrieving Aerosol in a Cloudy Environment: Aerosol Availability as a Function of Spatial and Temporal Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Mattoo, Shana; Levy, Robert C.; Heidinger, Andrew; Pierce, R. Bradley; Chin, Mian

    2011-01-01

    The challenge of using satellite observations to retrieve aerosol properties in a cloudy environment is to prevent contamination of the aerosol signal from clouds, while maintaining sufficient aerosol product yield to satisfy specific applications. We investigate aerosol retrieval availability at different instrument pixel resolutions, using the standard MODIS aerosol cloud mask applied to MODIS data and a new GOES-R cloud mask applied to GOES data for a domain covering North America and surrounding oceans. Aerosol availability is not the same as the cloud free fraction and takes into account the technqiues used in the MODIS algorithm to avoid clouds, reduce noise and maintain sufficient numbers of aerosol retrievals. The inherent spatial resolution of each instrument, 0.5x0.5 km for MODIS and 1x1 km for GOES, is systematically degraded to 1x1 km, 2x2 km, 4x4 km and 8x8 km resolutions and then analyzed as to how that degradation would affect the availability of an aerosol retrieval, assuming an aerosol product resolution at 8x8 km. The results show that as pixel size increases, availability decreases until at 8x8 km 70% to 85% of the retrievals available at 0.5 km have been lost. The diurnal pattern of aerosol retrieval availability examined for one day in the summer suggests that coarse resolution sensors (i.e., 4x4 km or 8x8 km) may be able to retrieve aerosol early in the morning that would otherwise be missed at the time of current polar orbiting satellites, but not the diurnal aerosol properties due to cloud cover developed during the day. In contrast finer resolution sensors (i.e., 1x1 km or 2x2 km) have much better opportunity to retrieve aerosols in the partly cloudy scenes and better chance of returning the diurnal aerosol properties. Large differences in the results of the two cloud masks designed for MODIS aerosol and GOES cloud products strongly reinforce that cloud masks must be developed with specific purposes in mind and that a generic cloud mask

  6. Daily variability of California coastal low cloudiness: A balancing act between stability and subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemesha, Rachel E. S.; Gershunov, Alexander; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2017-04-01

    We examine mechanisms driving daily variability of summer coastal low cloudiness (CLC) along the California coast. Daily CLC is derived from a satellite record from 1996 to 2014. Atmospheric rather than oceanic processes are mostly responsible for daily fluctuations in vertical stability that dictate short-period variation in CLC structure. Daily CLC anomalies are most strongly correlated to lower tropospheric stability anomalies to the north. The spatially offset nature of the cloud-stability relationship is a result of the balancing act that affects low cloudiness wherein subsidence drives increased stability, which promotes cloudiness, but too much subsidence limits cloudiness. Lay explanations claim that high inland temperatures "pull in" CLC, but such a process presumably would have the high temperatures directly inland. Rather, we find that the spatially offset associations between CLC and atmospheric circulation result in positive correlations between CLC and inland surface temperature anomalies to the north.

  7. Absorption of Sunlight in Clear and Cloudy Atmospheres: A Solution to the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    To identify the origin of this mission absorption, a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) multiple scattering model was used to derive solar radiances, fluxes, and heating rates for realistic clear and cloudy atmospheres.

  8. Minimum number of days required for a reliable estimate of daily step count and energy expenditure, in people with MS who walk unaided.

    PubMed

    Norris, Michelle; Anderson, Ross; Motl, Robert W; Hayes, Sara; Coote, Susan

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the minimum number of days needed to reliably estimate daily step count and energy expenditure (EE), in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) who walked unaided. Seven days of activity monitor data were collected for 26 participants with MS (age=44.5±11.9years; time since diagnosis=6.5±6.2years; Patient Determined Disease Steps=≤3). Mean daily step count and mean daily EE (kcal) were calculated for all combinations of days (127 combinations), and compared to the respective 7-day mean daily step count or mean daily EE using intra-class correlations (ICC), the Generalizability Theory and Bland-Altman. For step count, ICC values of 0.94-0.98 and a G-coefficient of 0.81 indicate a minimum of any random 2-day combination is required to reliably calculate mean daily step count. For EE, ICC values of 0.96-0.99 and a G-coefficient of 0.83 indicate a minimum of any random 4-day combination is required to reliably calculate mean daily EE. For Bland-Altman analyses all combinations of days, bar single day combinations, resulted in a mean bias within ±10%, when expressed as a percentage of the 7-day mean daily step count or mean daily EE. A minimum of 2days for step count and 4days for EE, regardless of day type, is needed to reliably estimate daily step count and daily EE, in people with MS who walk unaided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN CLOUDY, HAZY, AND CLEAR SKY EXOPLANETS USING REFRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Amit K.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a method to distinguish between cloudy, hazy, and clear sky (free of clouds and hazes) exoplanet atmospheres that could be applicable to upcoming large aperture space- and ground-based telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These facilities will be powerful tools for characterizing transiting exoplanets, but only after a considerable amount of telescope time is devoted to a single planet. A technique that could provide a relatively rapid means of identifying haze-free targets (which may be more valuable targets for characterization) could potentially increase the science return for these telescopes. Our proposed method utilizes broadband observations of refracted light in the out-of-transit spectrum. Light refracted through an exoplanet atmosphere can lead to an increase of flux prior to ingress and subsequent to egress. Because this light is transmitted at pressures greater than those for typical cloud and haze layers, the detection of refracted light could indicate a cloud- or haze-free atmosphere. A detection of refracted light could be accomplished in <10 hr for Jovian exoplanets with JWST and <5 hr for super-Earths/mini-Neptunes with E-ELT. We find that this technique is most effective for planets with equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 500 K, which may include potentially habitable planets. A detection of refracted light for a potentially habitable planet would strongly suggest the planet was free of a global cloud or haze layer, and therefore a promising candidate for follow-up observations.

  10. It takes nine days to iron a shirt: the development of cognitive estimation skills in school age children.

    PubMed

    Harel, Brian T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Fein, Deborah A; Bullard, Sarah E; Aviv, Alyson

    2007-07-01

    Data are presented for 315 elementary school-aged children (K-11) who took the Biber Cognitive Estimation Test, a 20-item test with five estimation questions in each of four domains: quantity, time/duration, weight, and distance/length. Performance showed significant development yearly until around the age of nine years, with much slower development subsequently. No gender effects were found. Age and fund of knowledge correlated with overall test performance. Fund of information accounted for a large proportion of the variance in estimation skills for children 8 years and under, but not for children 9 years and older. Since estimation skills require retrieval and manipulation of relevant knowledge and inhibition of impulsive responding and are necessary in many everyday tasks, it was anticipated that this test may provide a useful measure of judgment and estimations and may correlate with other executive skills in school-aged children.

  11. Drivers of Intra-Summer Seasonality and Daily Variability of Coastal Low Cloudiness in California Subregions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Iacobellis, S.; Gershunov, A.; Williams, P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Summertime low cloud intrusion into the terrestrial west coast of North America impacts human, ecological, and logistical systems. Over a broad region of the West Coast, summer (May - September) coastal low cloudiness (CLC) varies coherently on interannual to interdecadal timescales and has been found to be organized by North Pacific sea surface temperature. Broad-scale studies of low stratiform cloudiness over ocean basins also find that the season of maximum low stratus corresponds to the season of maximum lower tropospheric stability (LTS) or estimated inversion strength. We utilize a 18-summer record of CLC derived from NASA/NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 4km resolution over California (CA) to make a more nuanced spatial and temporal examination of intra-summer variability in CLC and its drivers. We find that uniform spatial coherency over CA is not apparent for intra-summer variability in CLC. On monthly to daily timescales, at least two distinct subregions of coastal California (CA) can be identified, where relationships between meteorology and stratus variability appear to change throughout summer in each subregion. While north of Point Conception and offshore the timing of maximum CLC is closely coincident with maximum LTS, in the Southern CA Bight and northern Baja region, maximum CLC occurs up to about a month before maximum LTS. It appears that summertime CLC in this southern region is not as strongly related as in the northern region to LTS. In particular, although the relationship is strong in May and June, starting in July the daily relationship between LTS and CLC in the south begins to deteriorate. Preliminary results indicate a moderate association between decreased CLC in the south and increased precipitable water content above 850 hPa on daily time scales beginning in July. Relationships between daily CLC variability and meteorological variables including winds, inland temperatures, relative humidity, and

  12. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Estimating Ratios of Two Dietary Components that are Consumed Nearly Every Day

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a bivariate distribution of usual intake of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day and to calculate percentiles of the population distribution of the ratio of usual intakes.

  13. Relative Influence of Ozone, Albedo and Cloudiness On The Long-term Uv Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arola, A.; Lakkala, K.; Bais, A.; Kaurola, J.; Meleti, C.; Taalas, P.

    There have been only few studies that have attempted to separate the effects of total column ozone, surface albedo and cloudiness on the and long-term changes of UV ra- diation. To study what part of this variability, as measured by spectral UV instrument of few selected European sites, is explained by ozone, clouds and albedo, we used ra- diative transfer modeling and measured time series of input parameters. The influence of inter-annual variability of atmospheric conditions hampers the detection of change in UV irradiance caused by a single factor, such as ozone. Our analysis allows one to evaluate and remove the effect of inter-annual variability of other factors than that of concern. Long-term irradiance changes at different wavelengths and contributions of each UV affecting factor are estimated for different seasons. It is also demonstrated that it is crucial to check and remove even small wavelength shifts, when the changes of irradiance at single wavelength are studied.

  14. A Cloudiness Index for Transiting Exoplanets Based on the Sodium and Potassium Lines: Tentative Evidence for Hotter Atmospheres Being Less Cloudy at Visible Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    We present a dimensionless index that quantifies the degree of cloudiness of the atmosphere of a transiting exoplanet. Our cloudiness index is based on measuring the transit radii associated with the line center and wing of the sodium or potassium line. In deriving this index, we revisited the algebraic formulae for inferring the isothermal pressure scale height from transit measurements. We demonstrate that the formulae of Lecavelier et al. and Benneke & Seager are identical: the former is inferring the temperature while assuming a value for the mean molecular mass and the latter is inferring the mean molecular mass while assuming a value for the temperature. More importantly, these formulae cannot be used to distinguish between cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres. We derive values of our cloudiness index for a small sample of seven hot Saturns/Jupiters taken from Sing et al. We show that WASP-17b, WASP-31b, and HAT-P-1b are nearly cloud-free at visible wavelengths. We find the tentative trend that more irradiated atmospheres tend to have fewer clouds consisting of sub-micron-sized particles. We also derive absolute sodium and/or potassium abundances ˜102 cm-3 for WASP-17b, WASP-31b, and HAT-P-1b (and upper limits for the other objects). Higher-resolution measurements of both the sodium and potassium lines, for a larger sample of exoplanetary atmospheres, are needed to confirm or refute this trend.

  15. The age estimation of blood stains up to 30 days old using visible wavelength hyperspectral image analysis and linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Beveridge, Peter; O'Hare, William T; Islam, Meez

    2013-09-01

    A novel application of visible wavelength hyperspectral image analysis has been applied to determine the age of blood stains up to 30 days old. Reflectance spectra from selected locations within the hyperspectral image, obtained from a portable instrument, were subjected to spectral pre-processing. This was followed by the application of a linear discriminant classification model, making estimations possible with an average error of ±0.27days for the first 7 days and an overall average error of ±1.17days up to 30 days. This is also the first reported study of the determination of the age of fresh blood stains (less than one day old) with an error of ±0.09h. The studies have been made under controlled conditions and represent, at this stage, proof of concept results but also are the most accurate age estimation results for measurements between 0 and 30 days reported to date. The results are consistent with well-established kinetic processes suggesting that the pre-processing stages described are revealing spectroscopic changes which are reliably following the time dependent oxidation of HbO2. The potential for parameterisation of environmental factors to make the method generally applicable at crime scenes is discussed, along with the developments required to further improve classification and to make the instrument genuinely portable.

  16. An investigation into the minimum accelerometry wear time for reliable estimates of habitual physical activity and definition of a standard measurement day in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Hislop, Jane; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Grainger, Andrew; Bulley, Cathy; Reilly, John J; Mercer, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number of hours and days of accelerometry data necessary to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity in pre-school children. The impact of a weekend day on reliability estimates was also determined and standard measurement days were defined for weekend and weekdays.Accelerometry data were collected from 112 children (60 males, 52 females, mean (SD) 3.7 (0.7)yr) over 7 d. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula (S-B prophecy formula) was used to predict the number of days and hours of data required to achieve an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.7. The impact of including a weekend day was evaluated by comparing the reliability coefficient (r) for any 4 d of data with data for 4 d including one weekend day.Our observations indicate that 3 d of accelerometry monitoring, regardless of whether it includes a weekend day, for at least 7 h  d(-1) offers sufficient reliability to characterise total physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school children. These findings offer an approach that addresses the underlying tension in epidemiologic surveillance studies between the need to maintain acceptable measurement rigour and retention of a representatively meaningful sample size.

  17. Impacts of the land-lake breeze of the Volta reservoir on the diurnal cycle of cloudiness and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Marcel; Fink, Andreas H.; Knippertz, Peter; Yorke, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Lake Volta in Ghana is the artificial lake on Earth with the largest surface area (8502 km2). It has been constructed in the early 1960s, with the lake being filled around 1966. Land-lake breezes and their effects on the diurnal cycle of local wind systems, cloudiness, and precipitation have been studied for several tropical lakes, among which studies on the effects of Lake Victoria in East Africa are one of the most perceived ones. To date, no studies on the strengths and effects of the land-lake breeze of the Volta reservoir are known to the authors. Using surface station data, a variety of satellite data on clouds and precipitation, and a convection-resolving regional model, the land-lake breeze and its impacts were studied for Lake Volta between 1998 and 2015. The observational data sets confirm a significant land-lake circulation. The only manned weather station operated by the Ghana Meteorological Service that is situated at the lake is Kete Krachi. Hourly observations for 2006 and 2014 show on several days a clearing of skies in the afternoon associated with a shift in the surface winds from southwest to southeast, the latter potentially indicating a lake breeze effect. Cloud occurrence frequency derived from the CLARA-A2, MODIS, and CLAAS2 cloud masks and the cloud physical properties from CLAAS2 clearly show the development of clouds at the lake breeze front in the course of the morning and around mid-day. This effect is most pronounced in March when also the difference between the surface temperatures of the lake and the desiccated land surface is strongest. During the peak of the wet season in July, the lake breeze cloudiness is masked by a high background cloudiness and likely also weaker due to the strong southwesterly monsoon flow that tends to weaken the land-lake circulation. However, the precipitation signal was found to be strongest in July, most probably due to the fact that in boreal fall, winter and spring, the lake breeze cloudiness often

  18. Comparison of day snorkeling, night snorkeling, and electrofishing to estimate bull trout abundance and size structure in a second-order Idaho stream

    Treesearch

    Russell F. Thurow; Daniel J. Schill

    1996-01-01

    Biologists lack sufficient information to develop protocols for sampling the abundance and size structure of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. We compared summer estimates of the abundance and size structure of bull trout in a second-order central Idaho stream, derived by day snorkeling, night snorkeling, and electrofishing. We also examined the influence of water...

  19. Utility and validation of day and night snorkel counts for estimating bull trout abundance in first-to-third order streams

    Treesearch

    Russell F. Thurow; James T. Peterson; John W. Guzevich

    2006-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of underwater observation to census stream-dwelling fishes, the accuracy of snorkeling methods has rarely been validated. We evaluated the efficiency of day and night snorkel counts for estimating the abundance of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 215 sites within first- to third-order streams. We used a dual-gear...

  20. Random Regression Models Using Legendre Polynomials to Estimate Genetic Parameters for Test-day Milk Protein Yields in Iranian Holstein Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Naserkheil, Masoumeh; Miraie-Ashtiani, Seyed Reza; Nejati-Javaremi, Ardeshir; Son, Jihyun; Lee, Deukhwan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of milk protein yields in Iranian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 1,112,082 test-day milk protein yield records of 167,269 first lactation Holstein cows, calved from 1990 to 2010, were analyzed. Estimates of the variance components, heritability, and genetic correlations for milk protein yields were obtained using a random regression test-day model. Milking times, herd, age of recording, year, and month of recording were included as fixed effects in the model. Additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects for the lactation curve were taken into account by applying orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the fourth order in the model. The lowest and highest additive genetic variances were estimated at the beginning and end of lactation, respectively. Permanent environmental variance was higher at both extremes. Residual variance was lowest at the middle of the lactation and contrarily, heritability increased during this period. Maximum heritability was found during the 12th lactation stage (0.213±0.007). Genetic, permanent, and phenotypic correlations among test-days decreased as the interval between consecutive test-days increased. A relatively large data set was used in this study; therefore, the estimated (co)variance components for random regression coefficients could be used for national genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Iran. PMID:26954192

  1. Audiograms estimated from brainstem tone-evoked potentials in dogs from 10 days to 1.5 months of age.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, Luc C; Coppens, Angélique G; Deltenre, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build audiograms from thresholds of brainstem tone-evoked potentials in dogs and to evaluate age-related change of the audiogram in puppies. Results were obtained from 9 Beagle puppies 10-47 days of age. Vertex to mastoid brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in response to 5.1-millisecond Hanning-gated sine waves with frequencies octave-spaced from 0.5 to 32 kHz were recorded. Three dogs were examined at 10, 13, 19, 25, and 45 days. Four other dogs were examined at 16 days. Data from 7 dogs between 42 and 47 days of age were pooled to obtain audiogram reference values in 1.5-month-old puppies. The best auditory threshold lowered from above 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL) to values close to 0 dB SPL between 13 and 25 days of age and then stabilized. The audible frequency range widened, including 32 kHz in all tested dogs from the 19th day. In the 7 1.5-month-old puppies, the mean auditory threshold decreased by 11 dB per octave from 0.5 to 2 kHz. The auditory threshold was lowest and held the same value from 2 to 8 kHz. The mean auditory threshold increased by 20 dB per octave from 8 to 32 kHz. Near threshold, click-evoked potentials test only a small part of the audible frequency range in dogs. Use of tone-evoked potentials may become a powerful tool in investigating dogs with possible partial hearing loss, including during the auditory system maturation period.

  2. Estimation of ground heat flux from soil temperature over a bare soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Kedong; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Zhoufeng; Zhao, Yaqian; Yang, Zeyuan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zaiyong; Duan, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Ground soil heat flux, G 0, is a difficult-to-measure but important component of the surface energy budget. Over the past years, many methods were proposed to estimate G 0; however, the application of these methods was seldom validated and assessed under different weather conditions. In this study, three popular models (force-restore, conduction-convection, and harmonic) and one widely used method (plate calorimetric), which had well performance in publications, were investigated using field data to estimate daily G 0 on clear, cloudy, and rainy days, while the gradient calorimetric method was regarded as the reference for assessing the accuracy. The results showed that harmonic model was well reproducing the G 0 curve for clear days, but it yielded large errors on cloudy and rainy days. The force-restore model worked well only under rainfall condition, but it was poor to estimate G 0 under rain-free conditions. On the contrary, the conduction-convection model was acceptable to determine G 0 under rain-free conditions, but it generated large errors on rainfall days. More importantly, the plate calorimetric method was the best to estimate G 0 under different weather conditions compared with the three models, but the performance of this method is affected by the placement depth of the heat flux plate. As a result, the heat flux plate was recommended to be buried as close as possible to the surface under clear condition. But under cloudy and rainy conditions, the plate placed at depth of around 0.075 m yielded G 0 well. Overall, the findings of this paper provide guidelines to acquire more accurate estimation of G 0 under different weather conditions, which could improve the surface energy balance in field.

  3. Estimations of historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from mercury refining and present-day soil concentrations of total mercury in Huancavelica, Peru.

    PubMed

    Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole; Halabi, Susan; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Gonzales, Ruben Dario Espinoza; Morris, Mark; Woodall, George; Richter, Daniel deB; Heine, Paul; Zhang, Tong; Bacon, Allan; Vandenberg, John

    2012-06-01

    Detailed Spanish records of cinnabar mining and mercury production during the colonial period in Huancavelica, Peru were examined to estimate historical health risks to the community from exposure to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor resulting from cinnabar refining operations. Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of Hg were released to the atmosphere in Huancavelica from Hg production. AERMOD was used with estimated emissions and source characteristics to approximate historic atmospheric concentrations of mercury vapor. Modeled 1-hour and long-term concentrations were compared with present-day inhalation reference values for elemental Hg. Estimated 1-hour maximum concentrations for the entire community exceeded present-day occupational inhalation reference values, while some areas closest to the smelters exceeded present-day emergency response guideline levels. Estimated long-term maximum concentrations for the entire community exceeded the EPA Reference Concentration (RfC) by a factor of 30 to 100, with areas closest to the smelters exceeding the RfC by a factor of 300 to 1000. Based on the estimated historical concentrations of Hg vapor in the community, the study also measured the extent of present-day contamination throughout the community through soil sampling and analysis. Total Hg in soils sampled from 20 locations ranged from 1.75 to 698 mg/kg and three adobe brick samples ranging from 47.4 to 284 mg/kg, consistent with other sites of mercury mining and use. The results of the soil sampling indicate that the present-day population of Huancavelica is exposed to levels of mercury from legacy contamination which is currently among the highest worldwide, consequently placing them at potential risk of adverse health outcomes.

  4. DayCent model simulations for estimating soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    DayCent is a biogeochemical model of intermediate complexity used to simulate carbon, nutrient, and greenhouse gas fluxes for crop, grassland, forest, and savanna ecosystems. Model inputs include: soil texture and hydraulic properties, current and historical land use, vegetation cover, daily maximum...

  5. Determinants of consumption-day amounts applicable for the estimation of usual dietary intake with a short 24-h food list.

    PubMed

    Freese, Johanna; Pricop-Jeckstadt, Mihaela; Heuer, Thorsten; Clemens, Matthias; Boeing, Heiner; Knüppel, Sven; Nöthlings, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Next to the information on frequency of food consumption, information on consumption-day amounts is important to estimate usual dietary intake in epidemiological studies. Our objective was to identify determinants of consumption-day amounts to derive person-specific standard consumption-day amounts applicable for the estimation of usual dietary intake using separate sources to assesss information on consumption probability and amount consumed. 24-h Dietary recall data from the German National Nutrition Survey II (n = 8522; aged 20-80 years) conducted between 2005 and 2007 were analysed for determinants of consumption-day amounts of thirty-eight food and beverage groups using LASSO variable selection for linear mixed-effects models. Determinants included sex, age, BMI, smoking status, years of education, household net income, living status and employment status. Most often, sex, age and smoking status were selected as predictors for consumption-day amounts across thirty-eight food groups. In contrast, living with a partner, employment status and household net income were less frequently chosen. Overall, different determinants were of relevance for different food groups. The number of selected determinants ranged from eight for coffee and juice to zero for cabbage, tea, root vegetables, leafy vegetables, fruit vegetables, legumes, offal, vegetable oils, and other fats. For the estimation of usual dietary intake in a combined approach with a 24-h food list, person-specific standard consumption-day amounts could be used. Sex, age and smoking status were shown to be the most relevant predictors in our analysis. Their impact on the estimation of usual dietary intake needs to be evaluated in future studies.

  6. Estimation of Trans Fatty Acid Intake in Japanese Adults Using 16-Day Diet Records Based on a Food Composition Database Developed for the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-01-01

    Background The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan do not include information on trans fatty acids. Previous studies estimating trans fatty acid intake among Japanese have limitations regarding the databases utilized and diet assessment methodologies. We developed a comprehensive database of trans fatty acid food composition, and used this database to estimate intake among a Japanese population. Methods The database was developed using analytic values from the literature and nutrient analysis software encompassing foods in the US, as well as values estimated from recipes or nutrient compositions. We collected 16-day diet records from 225 adults aged 30 to 69 years living in 4 areas of Japan. Trans fatty acid intake was estimated based on the database and the 16-day diet records. Results Mean total fat and trans fatty acid intake was 56.9 g/day (27.7% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.8% total energy), respectively, for women and 66.8 g/day (25.5% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.7% total energy) for men. Trans fatty acid intake accounted for greater than 1% of total energy intake, which is the maximum recommended according to the World Health Organization, in 24.4% of women and 5.7% of men, and was particularly high among women living in urban areas and those aged 30–49 years. The largest contributors to trans fatty acid intake were confectionaries in women and fats and oils in men. Conclusions Although mean trans fatty acid intake was below the maximum recommended intake of the World Health Organization, intake among subgroups was of concern. Further public health efforts to reduce trans fatty acid intake should be encouraged. PMID:20037259

  7. Cloudy - simulating the non-equilibrium microphysics of gas and dust, and its observed spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Cloudy is an open-source plasma/spectral simulation code, last described in the open-access journal Revista Mexicana (Ferland et al. 2013, 2013RMxAA..49..137F). The project goal is a complete simulation of the microphysics of gas and dust over the full range of density, temperature, and ionization that we encounter in astrophysics, together with a prediction of the observed spectrum. Cloudy is one of the more widely used theory codes in astrophysics with roughly 200 papers citing its documentation each year. It is developed by graduate students, postdocs, and an international network of collaborators. Cloudy is freely available on the web at trac.nublado.org, the user community can post questions on http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/cloudy_simulations/info, and summer schools are organized to learn more about Cloudy and its use (http://cloud9.pa.uky.edu gary/cloudy/CloudySummerSchool/). The code’s widespread use is possible because of extensive automatic testing. It is exercised over its full range of applicability whenever the source is changed. Changes in predicted quantities are automatically detected along with any newly introduced problems. The code is designed to be autonomous and self-aware. It generates a report at the end of a calculation that summarizes any problems encountered along with suggestions of potentially incorrect boundary conditions. This self-monitoring is a core feature since the code is now often used to generate large MPI grids of simulations, making it impossible for a user to verify each calculation by hand. I will describe some challenges in developing a large physics code, with its many interconnected physical processes, many at the frontier of research in atomic or molecular physics, all in an open environment.

  8. What a Difference a Day Makes: Estimating Daily Learning Gains during Kindergarten and First Grade Using a Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Grissmer, David; Hastedt, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Knowing whether time spent in formal schooling increases student achievement, and by how much, is important for policymakers interested in determining efficient use of resources. Using the ECLS-K, we exploit quasi-randomness in the timing of assessment dates to examine this question. Conservative estimates suggest a year of school results in gains…

  9. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  10. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  11. Observations of the variability of shallow trade wind cumulus cloudiness and mass flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamer, K.; Kollias, P.; Nuijens, L.

    2015-06-01

    Two years of ground-based remote sensing observations are used to study the vertical structure of marine cumulus near the island of Barbados, including their cloud fraction and mass flux profile. Daily radar derived cloud fraction profiles peak at different height levels depending on the depth of the cumuli and thus the extent to which they precipitate. Nonprecipitating cumuli have a peak cloud fraction of about 5% near mean cloud base (700 m), whereas precipitating cumuli tend to have a peak of only 2% near cloud base. Nineteen percent of the precipitating cumuli are accompanied by large cloud fractions near the detrainment level of cumulus tops (~1700 m). Day-to-day variations in cloud fraction near cloud base are modest (~3%). Nonprecipitating cumuli have their largest reflectivities near cloud top and an ascending core surrounded by a subsiding shell. Precipitating cumuli with enhanced elevated cloudiness (stratiform outflow) are deeper and contain larger vertical gradients in reflectivity and Doppler velocity than precipitating cumuli without such outflow. Bulk (3 h) statistics reveal that nonprecipitating shallow cumuli are active and organized. They contain on average 79% in-cloud updrafts with 86% of them being organized in large coherent structures contributing to a maximum updraft mass flux of 8-36 gm-2 s-1 just above cloud base. Alternatively, downdrafts contribute insignificantly to the mass flux and show little vertical and temporal variability (0-7 gm-2 s-1). Complementary Raman lidar information suggests that updraft mass flux profile slope is inversely related to environmental relative humidity.

  12. Comparability of methods assigning monetary costs to diets: derivation from household till receipts versus cost database estimation using 4-day food diaries.

    PubMed

    Timmins, K A; Morris, M A; Hulme, C; Edwards, K L; Clarke, G P; Cade, J E

    2013-10-01

    Diet cost could influence dietary patterns, with potential health consequences. Assigning a monetary cost to diet is challenging, and there are contrasting methods in the literature. This study compares two methods-a food cost database linked to 4-day diet diaries and an individual cost calculated from household till receipts. The Diet and Nutrition Tool for Evaluation (DANTE) had supermarket prices (cost per 100 g) added to its food composition table. Agreement between diet costs calculated using DANTE from food diaries and expenditure recorded using food purchase till receipts for 325 individuals was assessed using correlation and Bland Altman (BA) plots. The mean difference between the methods' estimates was £0.10. The BA showed 95% limits of agreement of £2.88 and -£3.08. Excluding the highest 5% of diet cost values from each collection method reduced the mean difference to £0.02, with limits of agreement ranging from £2.31 to -£2.35. Agreement between the methods was stronger for males and for adults. Diet cost estimates using a food price database with 4-day food diaries are comparable to recorded expenditure from household till receipts at the population or group level. At the individual level, however, estimates differed by as much as £3.00 per day. The methods agreed less when estimating diet costs of children, females or those with more expensive diets.

  13. Analysis of global cloudiness. 2: Comparison of ground-based and satellite-based cloud climatologies

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, I.I.; Schlesinger, M.E. |

    1994-08-01

    Cloud climatologies are developed and intercompared for International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCO) (1983-1988), Meteor I (1971-1980), Meteor II (1979-1988), and Nimbus 7 (1979-1985) satellite observations, and for Berlyand and Strokina (1975, 1980) and Warren et al. (1986, 1988) ground-based observations. The satellite annual-mean, global- mean cloudiness, 0.57 +/- 0.05, is less than the ground-based value, 0.61 +/- 0.01, predominantly because of the low value for Nimbus 7. There is agreement between the satellite means of ISCCP, 0.62, and Meteor II, 0.61, and the ground-based means of Warren et al., 0.62, and Berlyand and Strokina, 0.60. Each satellite- and ground-based climatology shows that the hemispheric- mean cloudiness is larger in summer than that in winter in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Excluding Nimbus 7 observations, the zonal- mean cloudiness distributions for January, July, and July minus January display reasonably good agreement between 60 deg S and 60 deg N. In polar latitudes there is significant disagreement among the different climatologies, even in the sign of cloudiness changes from winter to summer. This evinces the need for special cloudiness experiments in polar regions, particularly in winter and summer.

  14. 3D Radiative Transfer models of Planetary Nebulae with CRONOS and CLOUDY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederwanger, F.; Öttl, Silvia; Kimeswenger, S.; Kissmann, R.; Reitberger, K.

    2014-04-01

    We present our ideas about a new setup for a full 3D radiative transfer hydrodynamic (RT-HD) computation for planetary nebulae (PNe). The setup is based on the 3D MHD code CRONOS, using low dissipative conservation numerical schemes for hydrodynamics and MHD (Kissmann et al. 2009), and on CLOUDY (Ferland et al. 2013). New to our ideas is the implementation of CLOUDY for the radiative terms. While in previous works internal cooling was calculated using analytical cooling curves from Dalgarno&McCray (1972) for the lower temperatures and from Gerritsen&Icke (1997) for the high temperature regime, we intend to use the sophisticated physics of CLOUDY in a similar way as for CLOUDY 3D (Morisset, 2011). The hydrodynamic calculations provide the density and velocity structure. Repeatedly, a CLOUDY model is calculated to derive cooling, absorption and radiative pressure acceleration terms for the hydro code. We show the feasibility of this setup for symmetric and asymmetric geometries of PNe. Euclidean grids are used to avoid imprinting. We present first tests for this setup and first results on the numerical stability. These simulations were run using different geometries, like e.g. disks. Another group is working on 3D models of particle acceleration in radiatively driven colliding winds of massive star binary systems. Although this is a completely different energy regime, binary systems are of great interest for asymmetric PNe as well. The setup allows us simulations using any arbitrary geometry.

  15. Estimation of daily risk of neonatal death, including the day of birth, in 186 countries in 2013: a vital-registration and modelling-based study.

    PubMed

    Oza, Shefali; Cousens, Simon N; Lawn, Joy E

    2014-11-01

    The days immediately after birth are the most risky for human survival, yet neonatal mortality risks are generally not reported by day. Early neonatal deaths are sometimes under-reported or might be misclassified by day of death or as stillbirths. We modelled daily neonatal mortality risk and estimated the proportion of deaths on the day of birth and in week 1 for 186 countries in 2013. We reviewed data from vital registration (VR) and demographic and health surveys for information on the timing of neonatal deaths. For countries with high-quality VR we used the data as reported. For countries without high-quality VR data, we applied an exponential model to data from 206 surveys in 79 countries (n=50,396 deaths) to estimate the proportions of neonatal deaths per day and used bootstrap sampling to develop uncertainty estimates. 57 countries (n=122,757 deaths) had high-quality VR, and modelled data were used for 129 countries. The proportion of deaths on the day of birth (day 0) and within week 1 varied little by neonatal mortality rate, income, or region. 1·00 million (36.3%) of all neonatal deaths occurred on day 0 (uncertainty range 0·94 million to 1·05 million), and 2·02 million (73.2%) in the first week (uncertainty range 1·99 million to 2·05 million). Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest risk of neonatal death and, therefore, had the highest risk of death on day 0 (11·2 per 1000 livebirths); the highest number of deaths on day 0 was seen in southern Asia (n=392,300). The risk of early neonatal death is very high across a range of countries and contexts. Cost-effective and feasible interventions to improve neonatal and maternity care could save many lives. Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme. Copyright © 2014 Oza et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary Estimates of Loss of Juvenile Anadromous Salmonids to Predators in John Day Reservoir and Development of a Predation Model : Interim Report, 1986.

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, Bruce E.

    1986-03-01

    We made preliminary estimates of the loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, in John Day Reservoir in 1984 and 1985 using estimates of predator abundance and daily prey consumption rates. Preliminary estimates may be biased and may be adjusted as much as 30%, but indications are that predation could account for the majority of unexplained loss of juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Total loss was estimated at 4.1 million in 1984 and 3.3 million in 1985. Northern squawfish consumed 76% and 92% of these totals, respectively. The majority of loss occurred in mid reservoir areas, but loss in a small area, the boat-restricted zone immediately below McNary Dam, was disproportionately large. Peaks in loss in May and July corresponded with peaks in availability of salmonids. Estimated mortality from predation for April through June in 1984 and 1985 was 9% and 7% respectively, for chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and 10% and 15% for steelhead, Salmogairdneri. Mortality was variable with time but tended to increase over the period of migration. Mortality of chinook was estimated at 26% to 55% during July and August. A model of predation in John Day Reservoir is outlined. The model includes a predation submodel that can calculate loss from predator number and consumption rate; a population submodel that can relate predator abundance and population structure to recruitment, exploitation, natural mortality and growth; and a distribution submodel that can apportion predators among areas of the reservoir over time. Applications of the model are discussed for projecting expected changes in predation over time and identifying management alternatives that might limit the impact of predation.

  17. Viewing zenith angle dependence of cloudiness determined from coincident GOES East and GOES West data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the viewing zenith angle (VZA) on the cloudiness values observed by a satellite was investigated using a combination of two cloud-amount data sets derived from nearly simultaneous collocated GOES-E and GOES-W radiance measurements over the Pacific Ocean during May 1979 and July 1983. A hybrid bispectral threshold method was used to analyze data for single-layer and total cloudiness. It was found that the cloud fraction values increased with increasing VZA for almost all cases. Low clouds exhibited the greatest increases with a VZA increase for cloud amounts in the 0.1 range, whereas high clouds showed greatest increases for cloud amounts around 0.5. Midlevel clouds showed only a slight dependence on VZA. Total cloudiness increased the most, reflecting its predominantly low-cloud composition.

  18. Earth radiation budget and cloudiness simulations with a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HARSHVARDHAN; Randall, David A.; Corsetti, Thomas G.; Dazlich, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    A GCM with new parameterizations of solar and terrestrial radiation, parameterized cloud optical properties, and a simple representation of the cloud liquid water feedback is used with several observational data sets to analyze the effects of cloudiness on the earth's radiation budget. The January and July results from the model are in reasonable agreement with data from Nimbus-7. It is found that the simulated cloudiness overpredicts subtropical and midlatitude cloudiness. The simulated atmospheric cloud radiative forcing is examined. The clear-sky radiation fields obtained by two methods of Cess and Potter (1987) are compared. Also, a numerical experiment was performed to determine the effects of the water vapor continuum on the model results.

  19. Dynamic Trip Attraction Estimation with Location Based Social Network Data Balancing Between Time of Day Variations and Zonal Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, N. W.; Jin, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of location based social network (LBSN) services make it accessible and affordable to study individuals' mobility patterns in a fine-grained level. Via mobile devices, LBSN enables the availability of large-scale location-sensitive data with spatial and temporal context dimensions, which is capable of the potential to provide traffic patterns with significantly higher spatial and temporal resolution at a much lower cost than can be achieved by traditional methods. In this paper, the Foursquare LBSN data was applied to analyze the trip attraction for the urban area in Austin, Texas, USA. We explore one time-dependent function to validate the LBSN's data with the origin-destination matrix regarded as the ground truth data. The objective of this paper is to investigate one new validation method for trip distribution. The results illustrate the promising potential of studying the dynamic trip attraction estimation with LBSN data for urban trip pattern analysis and monitoring.

  20. Parameterization of cloudiness as a function of temperature for use in a thermodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Garduno, R.; Adem, J.

    1993-06-01

    Based on a parameterization by Adem (1967), the authors developed a formula of balance among the horizontal fraction of cloudiness and the vertical profiles of temperature and relative humidity, in which the authors now apply the usual hypothesis that the atmospheric relative humidity remains fixed in a climate change. The result is a negative correlation between the increments of cloudiness and temperature. The authors have incorporated this negative feedback mechanism in the Adem thermodynamic model and used it in the computation of climate change due to the atmospheric CO[sub 2] increase.

  1. A numerical investigation of the effects of cloudiness on mesoscale atmospheric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, V. C.; Zack, J. W.; Kaplan, M. L.; Chuang, S. L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive scheme for computing radiative transfer in a cloudy, stratified atmosphere is described, and the interactions of radiation, clouds, surface heating, and frictional processes are investigated utilizing a three-dimensional numerical weather prediction model. This model is described along with the design of a reliable radiative transfer scheme which allows any vertical moisture and temperature stratifications occurring within a numerical weather prediction model to be taken into account. Some preliminary results of sensitivity tests for three 24-hour simulations are depicted in order to identify the forecast fields which respond to change in atmospheric radiation induced by cloudiness.

  2. A longitudinal modelling study estimates acute symptoms of community acquired pneumonia recover to baseline by 10 days.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Daniel G; Dickinson, Laura; Pertinez, Henry; Court, Joanne; Eneje, Odiri; Keogan, Lynne; Macfarlane, Laura; Wilks, Sarah; Gallagher, Jane; Woodhead, Mark; Gordon, Stephen B; Diggle, Peter J

    2017-06-01

    Our aims were to address three fundamental questions relating to the symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): Do patients completely recover from pneumonia symptoms? How long does this recovery take? Which factors influence symptomatic recovery?We prospectively recruited patients at two hospitals in Liverpool, UK, into a longitudinal, observational cohort study and modelled symptom recovery from CAP. We excluded patients with cancer, immunosuppression or advanced dementia, and those who were intubated or palliated from admission. We derived a statistical model to describe symptom patterns.We recruited 169 (52% male) adults. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the time taken to recover to baseline was determined by the initial severity of symptoms. Severity of symptoms was associated with comorbidity and was inversely related to age. The pattern of symptom recovery was exponential and most patients' symptoms returned to baseline by 10 days.These results will inform the advice given to patients regarding the resolution of their symptoms. The recovery model described here will facilitate the use of symptom recovery as an outcome measure in future clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  3. A preliminary study of incisor exfoliation as an estimator of the postmortem interval using accumulated degree days.

    PubMed

    Granrud, Michelle A; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2012-07-10

    This research shows the exfoliation of the anterior dentition has significant potential to aid in establishing the minimum length of the post-mortem interval. Accumulated degree days (ADD) were used to quantify the decomposition of the periodontal ligament, represented by post-mortem exfoliation of the incisors. After subjects were removed subsequent to disturbance by scavengers and time limitations on the study, the final sample size was 36 incisors from the maxillae and mandibles of seven pigs (Sus scrofa). Average daily temperature was calculated using hourly temperature data recorded using DS1921G thermochrons for the duration of the project (June 14-December 17, 2008). During this period, six teeth (16.7%) were exfoliated. ADD for these six teeth ranged from 1539.7 °C to 2006.7 °C. The average ADD required for exfoliation was 1788.0 °C (SD=198.1 °C). No differences in ADD required for exfoliation were observed between the maxillary and mandibular teeth (t=2.085; p=0.128).

  4. Prediction of high spatio-temporal resolution land surface temperature under cloudy conditions using microwave vegetation index and ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwetha, H. R.; Kumar, D. Nagesh

    2016-07-01

    limits. Under cloudy conditions, results of microwave derived LST were evaluated with air temperature (Ta) and indicate that the approach performed well with RMSE values lesser than the results obtained under clear sky conditions for land cover classes for both day and nighttimes.

  5. Reconstructing daily clear-sky land surface temperature for cloudy regions from MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liang; Chen, Zhongxin; Gao, Feng; Anderson, Martha; Song, Lisheng; Wang, Limin; Hu, Bo; Yang, Yun

    2017-08-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a critical parameter in environmental studies and resource management. The MODIS LST data product has been widely used in various studies, such as drought monitoring, evapotranspiration mapping, soil moisture estimation and forest fire detection. However, cloud contamination affects thermal band observations and will lead to inconsistent LST results. In this study, we present a new Remotely Sensed DAily land Surface Temperature reconstruction (RSDAST) model that recovers clear sky LST for pixels covered by cloud using only clear-sky neighboring pixels from nearby dates. The reconstructed LST was validated using the original LST pixels. Model shows high accuracy for reconstructing one masked pixel with R2 of 0.995, bias of -0.02 K and RMSE of 0.51 K. Extended spatial reconstruction results show a better accuracy for flat areas with R2 of 0.72‒0.89, bias of -0.02-0.21 K, and RMSE of 0.92-1.16 K, and for mountain areas with R2 of 0.81-0.89, bias of -0.35-1.52 K, and RMSE of 1.42‒2.24 K. The reconstructed areas show spatial and temporal patterns that are consistent with the clear neighbor areas. In the reconstructed LST and NDVI triangle feature space which is controlled by soil moisture, LST values distributed reasonably and correspond well to the real soil moisture conditions. Our approach shows great potential for reconstructing clear sky LST under cloudy conditions and provides consistent daily LST which are critical for daily drought monitoring.

  6. Radiative Susceptibility of Cloudy Atmospheres to Droplet Number Perturbations: 1. Theoretical Analysis and Examples from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Oreopoulos, Lazaros

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical and satellite-based assessments of the sensitivity of broadband shortwave radiative fluxes in cloudy atmospheres to small perturbations in the cloud droplet number concentration (N) of liquid water clouds under constant water conditions are performed. Two approaches to study this sensitivity are adopted: absolute increases in N, for which the radiative response is referred to as absolute cloud susceptibility, and relative increases in N or relative cloud susceptibility. Estimating the former is more challenging as it requires an assumed value for either cloud liquid water content or geometrical thickness; both susceptibilities require an assumed relationship between the droplet volume and effective radius. Expanding upon previous susceptibility studies, present radiative calculations include the effect of AN perturbations on droplet asymmetry parameter and single-scattering albedo, in addition to extinction. Absolute cloud susceptibility has a strong nonlinear dependence on the droplet effective radius as expected, while relative cloud susceptibility is primarily dependent on optical thickness. Molecular absorption and reflecting surfaces both reduce the relative contribution of the cloud to the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux and therefore also reduce the TOA albedo susceptibility. Transmittance susceptibilities are negative with absolute values similar to albedo susceptibility, while atmospheric absorptance susceptibilities are about an order of magnitude smaller than albedo susceptibilities and can be either positive or negative. Observation-based susceptibility calculations are derived from MODIS pixel-level retrievals of liquid water cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and cloud top temperature; two data granule examples are shown. Susceptibility quantifies the aerosol indirect effect sensitivity in a way that can be easily computed from model fields. As such, susceptibilities derived from MODIS observations provide a higher-order test of model

  7. Radiative Susceptibility of Cloudy Atmospheres to Droplet Number Perturbations: 1. Theoretical Analysis and Examples from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Oreopoulos, Lazaros

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical and satellite-based assessments of the sensitivity of broadband shortwave radiative fluxes in cloudy atmospheres to small perturbations in the cloud droplet number concentration (N) of liquid water clouds under constant water conditions are performed. Two approaches to study this sensitivity are adopted: absolute increases in N, for which the radiative response is referred to as absolute cloud susceptibility, and relative increases in N or relative cloud susceptibility. Estimating the former is more challenging as it requires an assumed value for either cloud liquid water content or geometrical thickness; both susceptibilities require an assumed relationship between the droplet volume and effective radius. Expanding upon previous susceptibility studies, present radiative calculations include the effect of AN perturbations on droplet asymmetry parameter and single-scattering albedo, in addition to extinction. Absolute cloud susceptibility has a strong nonlinear dependence on the droplet effective radius as expected, while relative cloud susceptibility is primarily dependent on optical thickness. Molecular absorption and reflecting surfaces both reduce the relative contribution of the cloud to the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux and therefore also reduce the TOA albedo susceptibility. Transmittance susceptibilities are negative with absolute values similar to albedo susceptibility, while atmospheric absorptance susceptibilities are about an order of magnitude smaller than albedo susceptibilities and can be either positive or negative. Observation-based susceptibility calculations are derived from MODIS pixel-level retrievals of liquid water cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and cloud top temperature; two data granule examples are shown. Susceptibility quantifies the aerosol indirect effect sensitivity in a way that can be easily computed from model fields. As such, susceptibilities derived from MODIS observations provide a higher-order test of model

  8. The behavior of trade-wind cloudiness in observations and models: The major cloud components and their variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuijens, Louise; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; Ahlgrimm, Maike

    2015-06-01

    Guided by ground-based radar and lidar profiling at the Barbados Cloud Observatory (BCO), this study evaluates trade-wind cloudiness in ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System (IFS) and nine CMIP5 models using their single-timestep output at selected grid points. The observed profile of cloudiness is relatively evenly distributed between two important height levels: the lifting condensation level (LCL) and the tops of the deepest cumuli near the trade-wind inversion (2-3 km). Cloudiness at the LCL dominates the total cloud cover, but is relatively invariant. Variance in cloudiness instead peaks at the inversion. The IFS reproduces the depth of the cloud field and its variability, but underestimates cloudiness at the LCL and the inversion. A few CMIP5 models produce a single stratocumulus-like layer near the LCL, but more than half of the CMIP5 models reproduce the observed cloud layer depth in long-term mean profiles. At single-time steps, however, half of the models do not produce cloudiness near cloud tops along with the (almost ever-present) cloudiness near the LCL. In seven models, cloudiness is zero at both levels 10 to 65% of the time, compared to 3% in the observations. Models therefore tend to overestimate variance in cloudiness near the LCL. This variance is associated with longer time scales than in observations, which suggests that modeled cloudiness is too sensitive to large-scale processes. To conclude, many models do not appear to capture the processes that underlie changes in cloudiness, which is relevant for cloud feedbacks and climate prediction.

  9. Estimating historical atmospheric mercury concentrations from silver mining and their legacies in present-day surface soil in Potosí, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Morris, Mark; Woodall, George; Zhang, Tong; Bacon, Allan; Richter, Daniel De B.; Vandenberg, John

    2011-12-01

    Detailed Spanish records of mercury use and silver production during the colonial period in Potosí, Bolivia were evaluated to estimate atmospheric emissions of mercury from silver smelting. Mercury was used in the silver production process in Potosí and nearly 32,000 metric tons of mercury were released to the environment. AERMOD was used in combination with the estimated emissions to approximate historical air concentrations of mercury from colonial mining operations during 1715, a year of relatively low silver production. Source characteristics were selected from archival documents, colonial maps and images of silver smelters in Potosí and a base case of input parameters was selected. Input parameters were varied to understand the sensitivity of the model to each parameter. Modeled maximum 1-h concentrations were most sensitive to stack height and diameter, whereas an index of community exposure was relatively insensitive to uncertainty in input parameters. Modeled 1-h and long-term concentrations were compared to inhalation reference values for elemental mercury vapor. Estimated 1-h maximum concentrations within 500 m of the silver smelters consistently exceeded present-day occupational inhalation reference values. Additionally, the entire community was estimated to have been exposed to levels of mercury vapor that exceed present-day acute inhalation reference values for the general public. Estimated long-term maximum concentrations of mercury were predicted to substantially exceed the EPA Reference Concentration for areas within 600 m of the silver smelters. A concentration gradient predicted by AERMOD was used to select soil sampling locations along transects in Potosí. Total mercury in soils ranged from 0.105 to 155 mg kg-1, among the highest levels reported for surface soils in the scientific literature. The correlation between estimated air concentrations and measured soil concentrations will guide future research to determine the extent to which the

  10. Improved regional sea-level estimates from present day mass fluxes from Ice Sheets, Glaciers and land water using GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, C. W.; Velicogna, I.

    2016-02-01

    Changes in ice sheets, glaciers and ice caps (GIC) and land water mass cause regional sea level variations that differ significantly from a uniform sea level, with a decrease in sea level near the sources of mass added to the ocean and an increase up to 30% larger than the global mean sea level in the far field. This effect called sea level fingerprints (SLF) are difficult to separate from the variation from ocean dynamics on short time and spatial scales. Most studies removed the uniform sea level to avoid this additional mass flux from atmosphere and land. However, as ice continues to melt, the SLF signal will become significantly different from uniform sea level. This makes removal of uniform mass flux to introduce additional error in the studies of ocean dynamic variation. Here, we employ observations of time variable gravity from GRACE over land, including the mass change of ice sheets, GIC, and land water storage to precisely calculate the SLF for the time period 2002-2015. We compare the results with sea level change from satellite radar altimetry (AVISO) corrected for the steric signal of the ocean from Argo measurements. We find an excellent agreement at the global scale in trend for the entire period between GRACE-derived SLF and AVISO minus Argo estimates. The agreement extends at the spatial scale of oceanic regions. Locally, the GRACE-derived SLF also agrees with in situ ocean bottom pressure recorder. The agreement demonstrates for the first time that SLF are reliable in terms of amplitude (intensity of mass loss), phase (spatial distribution of sources), and trends (increase in mass loss with time) using GRACE. During our observation period, we find that changes in land water mass dominate the seasonal variability of SLF. Greenland controls 42% of the total trend and 39% along the western and eastern US. Antarctica contributes 16% of the total trend and 21% in the western and eastern US. This work was performed at UC Irvine and at Caltech's Jet

  11. Analysis of the magnitude and frequency of the 4-day annual low flow and regression equations for estimating the 4-day, 3-year low-flow frequency at ungaged sites on unregulated streams in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waltemeyer, Scott D.

    2002-01-01

    Two regression equations were developed for estimating the 4- day, 3-year (4Q3) low-flow frequency at ungaged sites on unregulated streams in New Mexico. The first, a statewide equation for estimating the 4Q3 low-flow frequency from drainage area and average basin mean winter precipitation, was developed from the data for 50 streamflow-gaging stations that had non-zero 4Q3 low-flow frequency. The 4Q3 low-flow frequency for the 50 gaging stations ranged from 0.08 to 18.7 cubic feet per second. For this statewide equation, the average standard error of estimate was 126 percent and the coefficient of determination was 0.48. The second, an equation for estimating the 4Q3 low-flow frequency in mountainous regions from drainage area, average basin mean winter precipitation, and average basin slope, was developed from the data for 40 gaging stations located above 7,500 feet in elevation. For this regression equation, the average standard error of estimate was 94 percent and the coefficient of determination was 0.66. A U.S. Geological Survey computer-program interface for a geographical information system (GIS), called the GIS Weasel, was used to determine basin and climatic characteristics for 84 gaging stations that were not affected by regulation. Mean monthly precipitation estimates from 1961 to 1990 were used in the GIS Weasel to compute the climatic characteristics of average basin winter precipitation and annual mean precipitation. The U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset, which currently consists of the 7.5-minute, 30-meter digital elevation model for each State, was used in the GIS Weasel to compute the basin characteristics of drainage area, average basin slope, average basin elevation, and average basin aspect. Basin and climatic characteristics that were statistically significant in the regression equation with the 4Q3 low-flow frequency were drainage area, which ranged from 1.62 to 5,900 square miles; average basin mean winter precipitation, which

  12. A new database of cloudiness for Italy from instrumental time series since the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, Veronica; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Italy has a very important role in the development of meteorological observations. Consequently, a heritage of data of enormous value has been accumulated in Italy over the last three centuries. However, only a small fraction of Italian data is available in computer readable form and the available records mainly concern temperature, precipitation and pressure. Within this context, we set up a project to recover as much as possible cloudiness Italian records. The goal is to consider total cloud cover (TCC), low and middle cloud cover, and cloud types. The data source we are using include the former national central office for meteorology (now CRA-CMA), the national air force meteorological and climatological service and some of the oldest Italian observatories as Milan, Rome, Turin and Venice. The database contains sub-daily (from 3 to 8 observations per day for each station) information about TCC but also about the amount and the type of low, middle and high cloud in the sky. The oldest records start at about 1858 and about 30 records start in the 1880s. Currently quality check and test for temporal homogeneity is in progress. Then the monthly records will be completed by means of the neighboring records and averaged in order to get national and regional records for Italy and its main climatic areas. This new dataset will be presented and the results of the first analyses will be discussed. The study of cloudiness records for Italy is important also to better understand the behavior of sunshine duration, which shows a rather peculiar behaviour, especially in northern Italy. In this area, in fact, we observe a statistically significant increasing tendency during the period 1936-2103, that most publications do not report, as a consequence of a strong increase starting from the 1980 and a less evident decrease in the previous period.

  13. Changes in Cirrus Cloudiness and their Relationship to Contrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. Kirk; Palikonda, Rabindra; Doelling, David R.; Schumann, Ulrich; Gierens, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Condensation trails, or contrails, formed in the wake of high-altitude aircraft have long been suspected of causing the formation of additional cirrus cloud cover. More cirrus is possible because 10 - 20% of the atmosphere at typical commercial flight altitudes is clear but ice-saturated. Since they can affect the radiation budget like natural cirrus clouds of equivalent optical depth and microphysical properties, contrail -generated cirrus clouds are another potential source of anthropogenic influence on climate. Initial estimates of contrail radiative forcing (CRF) were based on linear contrail coverage and optical depths derived from a limited number of satellite observations. Assuming that such estimates are accurate, they can be considered as the minimum possible CRF because contrails often develop into cirrus clouds unrecognizable as contrails. These anthropogenic cirrus are not likely to be identified as contrails from satellites and would, therefore, not contribute to estimates of contrail coverage. The mean lifetime and coverage of spreading contrails relative to linear contrails are needed to fully assess the climatic effect of contrails, but are difficult to measure directly. However, the maximum possible impact can be estimated using the relative trends in cirrus coverage over regions with and without air traffic. In this paper, the upper bound of CRF is derived by first computing the change in cirrus coverage over areas with heavy air traffic relative to that over the remainder of the globe assuming that the difference between the two trends is due solely to contrails. This difference is normalized to the corresponding linear contrail coverage for the same regions to obtain an average spreading factor. The maximum contrail-cirrus coverage, estimated as the product of the spreading factor and the linear contrail coverage, is then used in the radiative model to estimate the maximum potential CRF for current air traffic.

  14. Evaluation of the vertical structure of zonally averaged cloudiness and its variability in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project

    SciTech Connect

    Weare, B.C.

    1996-12-01

    Estimates of zonally averaged cloudiness at each pressure level in 24 models participating in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project are compared with the ISCCP C2 as well as the Nimbus 7 (N7) and Warren et al. (hereafter WH) observations. The global means of model high cloudiness are about two to five times greater than the C2 satellite observations. The large differences are probably related to excessive high, thin cloud in most models. Nearly all of the models have the observed maximum in high cloud at the equator, but also maxima near 60{degrees}N and 60{degrees}S, which are not observed. The globally averaged annual mean low cloud in most models is generally 15%-20% less than the WH observations and 10%-15% less than the C2 observations. The meridional structure of model annual mean low cloud both as observed from below and as observed from above show excesses north of about 50{degrees}N and deficits south of about 40{degrees}S when compared with WH and C2 observations, respectively. The amplitude of the model seasonal cycle of high cloud in most cases is comparable to that of the C2 observations. However, nearly all models have tropical peaks in seasonal variability that are poleward of those in the observations. In most models the variation of the seasonal cycle of low cloud as observed from above differs considerably in both temporal phase and spatial pattern from that of the C2 observations. 24 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Effects of variation in cloudiness and stratospheric aerosol scattering upon tropospheric UV flux, photolysis rates, and the ozone urban plume.

    PubMed

    Matloff, G L

    1981-11-15

    Using a radiative transfer model, the sensitivity of tropospheric UV flux and photolysis rates for NO(2) and HNO(2) to variations in cloudiness and stratospheric aerosol scattering are evaluated. A lumped parameter ozone plume model combining photochemistry and diffusion is then utilized to investigate variations in downwind ozone concentrations caused by variations in cloudiness.

  16. Methods for Cloud Cover Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glackin, D. L.; Huning, J. R.; Smith, J. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for cloud cover estimation are described relevant to assessing the performance of a ground-based network of solar observatories. The methods rely on ground and satellite data sources and provide meteorological or climatological information. One means of acquiring long-term observations of solar oscillations is the establishment of a ground-based network of solar observatories. Criteria for station site selection are: gross cloudiness, accurate transparency information, and seeing. Alternative methods for computing this duty cycle are discussed. The cycle, or alternatively a time history of solar visibility from the network, can then be input to a model to determine the effect of duty cycle on derived solar seismology parameters. Cloudiness from space is studied to examine various means by which the duty cycle might be computed. Cloudiness, and to some extent transparency, can potentially be estimated from satellite data.

  17. Methods for Cloud Cover Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glackin, D. L.; Huning, J. R.; Smith, J. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for cloud cover estimation are described relevant to assessing the performance of a ground-based network of solar observatories. The methods rely on ground and satellite data sources and provide meteorological or climatological information. One means of acquiring long-term observations of solar oscillations is the establishment of a ground-based network of solar observatories. Criteria for station site selection are: gross cloudiness, accurate transparency information, and seeing. Alternative methods for computing this duty cycle are discussed. The cycle, or alternatively a time history of solar visibility from the network, can then be input to a model to determine the effect of duty cycle on derived solar seismology parameters. Cloudiness from space is studied to examine various means by which the duty cycle might be computed. Cloudiness, and to some extent transparency, can potentially be estimated from satellite data.

  18. Effects of cloudy/clear air mixing and droplet pH on sulfate aerosol formation in a coupled chemistry/climate global model

    SciTech Connect

    Molenkamp, C.R.; Atherton, C.A.; Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    In this paper we will briefly describe our coupled ECHAM/GRANTOUR model, provide a detailed description of our atmospheric chemistry parameterizations, and discuss a couple of numerical experiments in which we explore the influence of assumed pH and rate of mixing between cloudy and clear air on aqueous sulfate formation and concentration. We have used our tropospheric chemistry and transport model, GRANTOUR, to estimate the life cycle and global distributions of many trace species. Recently, we have coupled GRANTOUR with the ECHAM global climate model, which provides several enhanced capabilities in the representation of aerosol interactions.

  19. Employment from Solar Energy: A Bright but Partly Cloudy Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeltzer, K. K.; Santini, D. J.

    A comparison of quantitative and qualitative employment effects of solar and conventional systems can prove the increased employment postulated as one of the significant secondary benefits of a shift from conventional to solar energy use. Current quantitative employment estimates show solar technology-induced employment to be generally greater…

  20. Operational data fusion framework for building frequent Landsat-like imagery in a cloudy region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An operational data fusion framework is built to generate dense time-series Landsat-like images for a cloudy region by fusing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data products and Landsat imagery. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) is integrated in ...

  1. On the Analysis of the Climatology of Cloudiness of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, L. A.; Temimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine the climatology of cloudiness over the Arabian Peninsula. The determined climatology will assist solar energy resource assessment in the region. The seasonality of cloudiness and its spatial variability will also help guide several cloud seeding operational experiments in the region. Cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database covering the time period from 1983 through 2009 are analyzed. Time series of low, medium, high, and total cloud amounts are investigated, in addition to cloud optical depth and total column water vapor. Initial results show significant decreasing trends in the total and middle cloud amounts, both annually and seasonally, at a 95% confidence interval. The relationship between cloud amounts and climate oscillations known to affect the region is explored. Climate indices exhibiting significant correlations with the total cloud amounts include the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The study also includes a focus on the United Arab Emirates (UAE), comparing the inferred cloudiness data to in situ rainfall measurements taken from rain gauges across the UAE. To assess the impact of cloudiness on solar power resources in the country, time series of cloud amounts and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), obtained from the UAE Solar Atlas, are compared.

  2. Enhanced stabilization of cloudy emulsions with gum Arabic and whey protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Klein, Miri; Aserin, Abraham; Svitov, Inna; Garti, Nissim

    2010-05-01

    Cloudy emulsions are oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions normally prepared as concentrates, further diluted, per request, into the final beverage. The cloudy emulsion provides flavor, color, and cloud (turbidity) to the soft drink. These systems are stabilized by emulsifiers and/or amphiphilic polysaccharides. Cloudy emulsions based on naturally occurring food grade emulsifiers were studied in the present work. Two charged natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum Arabic (GA), are interacted in aqueous solution to form charge-charge interactions improving the emulsion stability. The emulsions were high sheared (Microfluidizer) and characterized by particle size distribution analysis (DLS), optical centrifugation (LUMiFuge), optical microscopy observations, and turbidity measurements. Emulsions obtained from 10wt% of 3:1wt. ratio WPI:GA, at pH 7 (10wt% canola oil) show better stability than emulsions stabilized by GA or WPI alone. The droplet sizes were smaller than 1microm and did not grow significantly during 1 month of incubation at 25 degrees C. The D-limonene-based emulsion droplets were larger (> 2microm) than those made with vegetable oils immediately after preparation and underwent significant droplet size increase (coalescence) within 1 month (>8 microm). The emulsion with turbidity suitable as a cloudy emulsion was composed of 3wt% WPI:GA (3:1) and 20wt% canola oil.

  3. Local effects of partly cloudy skies on solar and emitted radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, D. A.; Venable, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Solar radiation measurements are made on a routine basis. Global solar, atmospheric emitted, downwelled diffuse solar, and direct solar radiation measurement systems are fully operational with the first two in continuous operation. Fractional cloud cover measurements are made from GOES imagery or from ground based whole sky photographs. Normalized global solar irradiance values for partly cloudy skies were correlated to fractional cloud cover.

  4. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  5. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  6. Towards the automatic identification of cloudiness condition by means of solar global irradiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, G.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the design of an automatic algorithm for classification of the cloudiness condition based only on global irradiance measurements. Clouds are a major modulating factor for the Earth radiation budget. They attenuate the solar radiation and control the terrestrial radiation participating in the energy balance. Generally, cloudiness is a limiting factor for the solar radiation reaching the ground, highly contributing to the Earth albedo. Additionally it is the main responsible for the high variability shown by the downward irradiance measured at ground level. Being a major source for the attenuation and high-frequency variability of the solar radiation available for energy purposes in solar power plants, the characterization of the cloudiness condition is of great interest. This importance is even higher in Southern Europe, where very high irradiation values are reached during long periods within the year. Thus, several indexes have been proposed in the literature for the characterization of the cloudiness condition of the sky. Among these indexes, those exclusively involving global irradiance are of special interest since this variable is the most widely available measurement in most radiometric stations. Taking this into account, this study proposes an automatic algorithm for classifying the cloudiness condition of the sky into three categories: cloud-free, partially cloudy and overcast. For that aim, solar global irradiance was measured by Kipp&Zonen CMP11 pyranometer installed on the terrace of the Physics building in the Campus of Badajoz (Spain) of the University of Extremadura. Measurements were recorded at one-minute basis for a period of study extending from 23 November 2009 to 31 March 2010. The algorithm is based on the clearness index kt, which is calculated as the ratio between the solar global downward irradiance measured at ground and the solar downward irradiance at the top of the atmosphere. Since partially cloudy conditions

  7. Carbon monoxide column retrieval for clear-sky and cloudy atmospheres: a full-mission data set from SCIAMACHY 2.3 µm reflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsdorff, Tobias; aan de Brugh, Joost; Hu, Haili; Nédélec, Philippe; Aben, Ilse; Landgraf, Jochen

    2017-05-01

    We discuss the retrieval of carbon monoxide (CO) vertical column densities from clear-sky and cloud contaminated 2311-2338 nm reflectance spectra measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) from January 2003 until the end of the mission in April 2012. These data were processed with the Shortwave Infrared CO Retrieval algorithm (SICOR) that we developed for the operational data processing of the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) that will be launched on ESA's Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) mission. This study complements previous work that was limited to clear-sky observations over land. Over the oceans, CO is estimated from cloudy-sky measurements only, which is an important addition to the SCIAMACHY clear-sky CO data set as shown by NDACC and TCCON measurements at coastal sites. For Ny-Ålesund, Lauder, Mauna Loa and Reunion, a validation of SCIAMACHY clear-sky retrievals is not meaningful because of the high retrieval noise and the few collocations at these sites. The situation improves significantly when considering cloudy-sky observations, where we find a low mean bias b = ±6. 0 ppb and a strong correlation between the validation and the SCIAMACHY results with a mean Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0. 7. Also for land observations, cloudy-sky CO retrievals present an interesting complement to the clear-sky data set. For example, at the cities Tehran and Beijing the agreement of SCIAMACHY clear-sky CO observations with MOZAIC/IAGOS airborne measurements is poor with a mean bias of b = 171. 2 ppb and 57.9 ppb because of local CO pollution, which cannot be captured by SCIAMACHY. For cloudy-sky retrievals, the validation improves significantly. Here the retrieved column is mainly sensitive to CO above the cloud and so not affected by the strong local surface emissions. Adjusting the MOZAIC/IAGOS measurements to the

  8. Thermal histories of IVA iron meteorites from transmission electron microscopy of the cloudy zone microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Yang, J.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2009-04-01

    We have measured the size of the high-Ni particles in the cloudy zone and the width of the outer taenite rim in eight low shocked and eight moderately to heavily shocked IVA irons using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Thin sections for TEM analysis were produced by a focused ion beam instrument. Use of the TEM allowed us to avoid potential artifacts which may be introduced during specimen preparation for SEM analysis of high Ni particles <30 nm in size and to identify microchemical and microstructural changes due to the effects of shock induced reheating. No cloudy zone was observed in five of the eight moderately to highly shocked <13 GPa) IVA irons that were examined in the TEM. Shock induced reheating has allowed for diffusion from 20 nm to 400 nm across kamacite/taenite boundaries, recrystallization of kamacite, and the formation, in Jamestown, of taenite grain boundaries. In the eleven IVA irons with cloudy zone microstructures, the size of the high-Ni particles in the cloudy zone increases directly with increasing bulk Ni content. Our data and the inverse correlation between cooling rate and high-Ni particle size for irons and stony-irons show that IVA cooling rates at 350-200 deg. C are inversely correlated with bulk Ni concentration and vary by a factor of about 15. This cooling rate variation is incompatible with cooling in a metallic core that was insulated with a silicate mantle, but is compatible with cooling in a metallic body of radius 150 +/- 50 km. The widths of the tetrataenite regions next to the cloudy zone correlate directly with high-Ni particle size providing another method to measure low temperature cooling rates.

  9. National Practitioner Data Bank--incomplete and future cloudy.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, J

    1992-01-01

    Nearly six years after the National Practitioner Data Bank was authorized by Congress in the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986, and more than a year after its actual creation, the device is still only partially operational. What is more, the success of even those limited efforts is being questioned, and the timetable for future developments remains to be firmed up. Also, the costs are much higher than estimated.

  10. Estimating the incidence and 30-day all-cause mortality rate of Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England by 2020/21.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Alex; Nsonwu, Olisaeloka; Johnson, Alan P; Hope, Russell; England, Public Health; Infections, Healthcare Associated; Resistance, Antimicrobial

    2017-09-30

    Escherichia coli bacteraemia rates have been increasing in England. Using the national mandatory surveillance data for E. coli bacteraemia from 2012/13 to 2016/17, we aimed to estimate the incidence of E.coli bacteraemia and 30-day all-cause case fatality rate (CFR) by 2020/21 in the absence of new interventions to reduce infection rates. After controlling for age, sex, and hospital versus community-onset of infection, it is estimated that the incidence of E. coli bacteraemia will be 90.5 (95% PI: 89.8-91.3) per 100 000 population (n=50 663), with an associated CFR of 11.5 (95% PI: 11.2-11.8) per 100 000 population (n=6554) by 2020/21. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Validation of Nutrient Intake Estimates Derived Using a Semi-Quantitative FFQ against 3 Day Diet Records in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Talegawkar, S A; Tanaka, T; Maras, J E; Ferrucci, L; Tucker, K L

    2015-12-01

    To examine the relative validity of a multicultural FFQ used to derive nutrient intake estimates in a community dwelling cohort of younger and older men and women compared with those derived from 3 day (3d) diet records during the same time-frame. Cross-sectional analyses. The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) conducted in the Baltimore, MD and District of Columbia areas. A subset (n=468, aged 26 to 95 years (y), 47% female, 65% non-Hispanic white) from the BLSA, with complete data for nutrient estimates from a FFQ and 3d diet records. Pearson's correlation coefficients (energy adjusted and de-attenuated) for intakes of energy and 26 nutrients estimated from the FFQ and the mean of 3d diet records were calculated in a cross-sectional analysis. Rankings of individuals based on FFQ for various nutrient intakes were compared to corresponding rankings based on the average of the 3d diet records. Bland Altman plots were examined for a visual representation of agreement between both assessment methods. All analyses were stratified by sex and age (above and below 65 y). Median nutrient intake estimates tended to be higher from the FFQ compared to average 3d diet records. Energy adjusted and de-attenuated correlations between FFQ intake estimates and records ranged from 0.23 (sodium intake in men) to 0.81 (alcohol intake in women). The FFQ classified more than 70 percent of participants in either the same or adjacent quartile categories for all nutrients examined. Bland Altman plots demonstrated good agreement between the assessment methods for most nutrients. This FFQ provides reasonably valid estimates of dietary intakes of younger and older participants of the BLSA.

  12. Living Day by Day

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Rachel L.; Khoury, Cynthia El; Field, Emily R. S.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We examined the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in Lebanon. Ten women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) described their experiences via semistructured in-depth interviews. They navigated a process of HIV diagnosis acceptance that incorporated six overlapping elements: receiving the news, accessing care, starting treatment, navigating disclosure decisions, negotiating stigma, and maintaining stability. Through these elements, we provide a framework for understanding three major themes that were constructed during data analysis: Stand by my side: Decisions of disclosure; Being “sick” and feeling “normal”: Interacting with self, others, and society; and Living day by day: focusing on the present. We contribute to the existing literature by providing a theoretical framework for understanding the process of diagnosis and sero-status acceptance among WLWHA. This was the first study of its kind to examine the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in a Middle Eastern country. PMID:28462340

  13. Using microwave observations to estimate land surface temperature during cloudy conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land surface temperature (LST), a key ingredient for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes, remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observations and...

  14. Radiative properties of humidified aerosols in cloudy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Or, R. Z.; Koren, I.; Altaratz, O.; Fredj, E.

    2012-11-01

    The remotely sensed aerosol retrievals in the transition zone between clouds and clear sky (“the twilight zone”) are affected by aerosol humidification, undetectable clouds, and complex cloud radiative 3D effects. Recent studies that have estimated this total effect, found a strong exponential dependence of the aerosol retrievals on the distance from the nearest cloud, up to 30 km. In this study, we estimate the net effect of aerosol humidification on the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol fine-mode fraction (FMF). For this purpose, a new parameterization of the relative humidity (RH) as a function of the distance from the nearest cloud is presented, and calculated for shallow warm Cumulus cloud fields, based on large eddy simulation results. The results show an exponential increase in the relative humidity near clouds, from its background values (far from clouds), with an e-fold exponential distance scale of 90-300 m from the cloud edge. This finding suggests that at least for warm Cumulus cloud fields, the variations of the mean RH values are negligible at distances larger than ~ 0.5 km from clouds, when taking into account humidification effects and therefore, the total effect of the twilight zone on aerosol retrievals is not dominated by aerosol humidification at distances of 0.5-30 km from clouds. Closer examination of the aerosol humidification effect on aerosol retrievals near clouds is then presented, using a radiative transfer model (SHDOM). We estimate the sensitivity of humidified aerosol retrievals to the physical aerosol properties. We show that the humidified aerosol optical depth (AOD) is constantly increasing near clouds, for all aerosol types and size distributions, due to aerosol hygroscopic growth. On the contrary, the humidified aerosol fine-mode fraction (FMF) is found to be sensitive to the aerosol physical properties, showing variant shapes near clouds.

  15. Estimating present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tides, extra-tropical storm surges and mean sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigh, Ivan D.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; MacPherson, Leigh R.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Mason, Matthew S.; Crompton, Ryan P.; George, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of extreme water levels along low-lying, highly populated and/or developed coastlines can lead to considerable loss of life and billions of dollars of damage to coastal infrastructure. Therefore it is vitally important that the exceedance probabilities of extreme water levels are accurately evaluated to inform risk-based flood management, engineering and future land-use planning. This ensures the risk of catastrophic structural failures due to under-design or expensive wastes due to over-design are minimised. This paper estimates for the first time present day extreme water level exceedence probabilities around the whole coastline of Australia. A high-resolution depth averaged hydrodynamic model has been configured for the Australian continental shelf region and has been forced with tidal levels from a global tidal model and meteorological fields from a global reanalysis to generate a 61-year hindcast of water levels. Output from this model has been successfully validated against measurements from 30 tide gauge sites. At each numeric coastal grid point, extreme value distributions have been fitted to the derived time series of annual maxima and the several largest water levels each year to estimate exceedence probabilities. This provides a reliable estimate of water level probabilities around southern Australia; a region mainly impacted by extra-tropical cyclones. However, as the meteorological forcing used only weakly includes the effects of tropical cyclones, extreme water level probabilities are underestimated around the western, northern and north-eastern Australian coastline. In a companion paper we build on the work presented here and more accurately include tropical cyclone-induced surges in the estimation of extreme water level. The multi-decadal hindcast generated here has been used primarily to estimate extreme water level exceedance probabilities but could be used more widely in the future for a variety of other research and practical

  16. Cloudy Skies over AGN: Observations with Simbol-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, M.; Risaliti, G.

    2009-05-01

    Recent time-resolved spectroscopic X-ray studies of bright obscured AGN show that column density variability on time scales of hours/days may be common, at least for sources with NH>1023 cm-2. This opens new oppurtunities in the analysis of the structure of the circumnuclear medium and of the X-ray source: resolving the variations due to single clouds covering/uncovering the X-ray source provides tight constraints on the source size, the clouds' size and distance, and their average number, density and column density. We show how Simbol-X will provide a breakthrough in this field, thanks to its broad band coverage, allowing (a) to precisely disentangle the continuum and NH variations, and (2) to extend the NH variability analysis to column densities >1023 cm-2.

  17. Estimating heat stress from climate-based indicators: present-day biases and future spreads in the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ducharne, A.; Sultan, B.; Braconnot, P.; Vautard, R.

    2015-08-01

    The increased exposure of human populations to heat stress is one of the likely consequences of global warming, and it has detrimental effects on health and labor capacity. Here, we consider the evolution of heat stress under climate change using 21 general circulation models (GCMs). Three heat stress indicators, based on both temperature and humidity conditions, are used to investigate present-day model biases and spreads in future climate projections. Present day estimates of heat stress indicators from observational data shows that humid tropical areas tend to experience more frequent heat stress than other regions do, with a total frequency of heat stress 250-300 d yr-1. The most severe heat stress is found in the Sahel and south India. Present-day GCM simulations tend to underestimate heat stress over the tropics due to dry and cold model biases. The model based estimates are in better agreement with observation in mid to high latitudes, but this is due to compensating errors in humidity and temperature. The severity of heat stress is projected to increase by the end of the century under climate change scenario RCP8.5, reaching unprecedented levels in some regions compared with observations. An analysis of the different factors contributing to the total spread of projected heat stress shows that spread is primarily driven by the choice of GCMs rather than the choice of indicators, even when the simulated indicators are bias-corrected. This supports the utility of the multi-model ensemble approach to assess the impacts of climate change on heat stress.

  18. Analysis of a resistance-energy balance method for estimating daily evaporation from wheat plots using one-time-of-day infrared temperature observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Idso, S. B.; Reginato, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate estimates of evaporation over field-scale or larger areas are needed in hydrologic studies, irrigation scheduling, and meteorology. Remotely sensed surface temperature might be used in a model to calculate evaporation. A resistance-energy balance model, which combines an energy balance equation, the Penman-Monteith (1981) evaporation equation, and van den Honert's (1948) equation for water extraction by plant roots, is analyzed for estimating daily evaporation from wheat using postnoon canopy temperature measurements. Additional data requirements are half-hourly averages of solar radiation, air and dew point temperatures, and wind speed, along with reasonable estimates of canopy emissivity, albedo, height, and leaf area index. Evaporation fluxes were measured in the field by precision weighing lysimeters for well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Errors in computed daily evaporation were generally less than 10 percent, while errors in cumulative evaporation for 10 clear sky days were less than 5 percent for both well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Some results from sensitivity analysis of the model are also given.

  19. Attenuation of KBrO3-induced renal and hepatic toxicity by cloudy apple juice in rat.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Adamska, Teresa; Markowski, Jarosław; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a protective effect of apple juice on KBrO3-induced oxidative stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered apple juice per os, 10 ml/kg b.w. for 28 days. On 27 day of the experiment, some rats were given i.p. a single 125 mg/kg b.w. dose of KBrO3 . Markers of oxidative damage and clinical chemistry parameters were determined. Treatment with apple juice prior to KBrO3 challenge prevented an increase in hepatic and renal microsomal lipid peroxidation by 25 and 44%, respectively, increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver by 29 - 59% and decreased the plasma content of carbonyl groups by 19%. Aminotransferases activity in plasma was reduced by 19% and 36%, concentrations of plasma bilirubin, cholesterol and creatinine were suppressed by 21%, 16% and 26%, respectively, in rats supplemented with juice before KBrO3 injection. No protective effect of apple juice on nuclear DNA was observed. Supplementation with cloudy apple juice to some extent attenuated oxidative damage induced by KBrO3 in the liver and kidney of rats as evidenced by alterations of certain oxidative stress markers and clinical chemistry parameters. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Various growth environments of cloudy diamonds from the Malobotuobia kimberlite field (Siberian craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuzovatov, Sergei; Zedgenizov, Dmitry; Howell, Daniel; Griffin, William L.

    2016-11-01

    Microinclusions of high-density fluids (HDF's) occur in cloudy diamonds from the Mir and Internatsionalnaya kimberlite pipes (Malobotuobia kimberlite field, Siberian platform). These HDFs are of typical high-Mg carbonatitic composition; a few diamonds contain microinclusions that define a low-Mg carbonatitic to silicic trend. The observed variations are interpreted as resulted from mixing of two contrasting fluids derived from the partial melting mainly of carbonated peridotite (the high-Mg carbonatitic HDFs) and eclogite (silica-rich HDFs and HDFs with high Ca/(Ca + Mg + Fe)). Immiscibility of carbonatitic and silica-rich fluids provides a possible mechanism for the co-existence of the observed HDFs but needs further proof. The uniform carbon isotope composition of cloudy diamonds with high-Mg carbonatitic microinclusions from both kimberlite pipes implies a single peridotitic source.

  1. North American west coast summer low cloudiness: Broadscale variability associated with sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Iacobellis, S.; Cayan, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Six decades of observations at 20 coastal airports, from Alaska to southern California, reveal coherent interannual to interdecadal variation of coastal low cloudiness (CLC) from summer to summer over this broad region. The leading mode of CLC variability represents coherent variation, accounting for nearly 40% of the total CLC variance spanning 1950-2012. This leading mode and the majority of individual airports exhibit decreased low cloudiness from the earlier to the later part of the record. Exploring climatic controls on CLC, we identify North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature anomalies, largely in the form of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) as well correlated with, and evidently helping to organize, the coherent patterns of summer coastal cloud variability. Links from the PDO to summer CLC appear a few months in advance of the summer. These associations hold up consistently in interannual and interdecadal frequencies.

  2. North American west coast summer low cloudiness: Broadscale variability associated with sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Rachel E.; Gershunov, Alexander; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2014-05-01

    Six decades of observations at 20 coastal airports, from Alaska to southern California, reveal coherent interannual to interdecadal variation of coastal low cloudiness (CLC) from summer to summer over this broad region. The leading mode of CLC variability represents coherent variation, accounting for nearly 40% of the total CLC variance spanning 1950-2012. This leading mode and the majority of individual airports exhibit decreased low cloudiness from the earlier to the later part of the record. Exploring climatic controls on CLC, we identify North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature anomalies, largely in the form of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) as well correlated with, and evidently helping to organize, the coherent patterns of summer coastal cloud variability. Links from the PDO to summer CLC appear a few months in advance of the summer. These associations hold up consistently in interannual and interdecadal frequencies.

  3. Online Dietary Intake Estimation: Reproducibility and Validity of the Food4Me Food Frequency Questionnaire Against a 4-Day Weighed Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. Objective The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Methods Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into “exact agreement plus adjacent” was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts

  4. Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Kyle, H. L.; Hoyt, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent.

  5. Evolution of a storm-driven cloudy boundary layer in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, J; Kosovic, B; Curry, J A

    2003-10-24

    The cloudy boundary layer under stormy conditions during the summertime Arctic has been studied using observation from the SHEBA experiment and large-eddy simulations (LES). On 29 July 1998, a stable Arctic cloudy boundary layer event was observed after passage of a synoptic low. The local dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer was determined from aircraft measurement including analysis of turbulence, cloud microphysics and radiative properties. After the upper cloud layer advected over the existing cloud layer, the turbulent kinetic energy budget indicated that the cloud layer below 200 m was maintained predominantly by shear production. Observations of longwave radiation showed that cloud top cooling at the lower cloud top has been suppressed by radiative effects of the upper cloud layer. Our LES results demonstrate the importance of the combination of shear mixing near the surface and radiative cooling at the cloud top in the storm-driven cloudy boundary layer. Once the low-level cloud reaches a certain height, depending on the amount of cloud-top cooling, the two sources of TKE production begin to separate in space under continuous stormy conditions, suggesting one possible mechanism for the cloud layering. The sensitivity tests suggest that the storm-driven cloudy boundary layer is flexibly switched to the shear-driven system due to the advection of upper clouds or the buoyantly driven system due to the lack of the wind shear. A comparison is made of this storm-driven boundary layer with the buoyantly driven boundary layer previously described in the literature.

  6. Limb Correction of Infrared Imagery in Cloudy Regions for the Improved Interpretation of RGB Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Nicholas J.; Berndt, Emily; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composites (EUMETSAT User Services 2009) combine information from several channels into a single composite image. RGB composites contain the same information as the original channels, but presents the information in a more efficient manner. However, RGB composites derived from infrared imagery of both polar-orbiting and geostationary sensors are adversely affected by the limb effect, which interferes with the qualitative interpretation of RGB composites at large viewing zenith angles. The limb effect, or limb-cooling, is a result of an increase in optical path length of the absorbing atmosphere as viewing zenith angle increases (Goldberg et al. 2001; Joyce et al. 2001; Liu and Weng 2007). As a result, greater atmospheric absorption occurs at the limb, causing the sensor to observe anomalously cooler brightness temperatures. Figure 1 illustrates this effect. In general, limb-cooling results in a 4-11 K decrease in measured brightness temperature (Liu and Weng 2007) depending on the infrared band. For example, water vapor and ozone absorption channels display much larger limb-cooling than infrared window channels. Consequently, RGB composites created from infrared imagery not corrected for limb effects can only be reliably interpreted close to nadir, which reduces the spatial coverage of the available imagery. Elmer (2015) developed a reliable, operational limb correction technique for clear regions. However, many RGB composites are intended to be used and interpreted in cloudy regions, so a limb correction methodology valid for both clear and cloudy regions is needed. This paper presents a limb correction technique valid for both clear and cloudy regions, which is described in Section 2. Section 3 presents several RGB case studies demonstrating the improved functionality of limb-corrected RGBs in both clear and cloudy regions, and Section 4 summarizes and presents the key conclusions of this work.

  7. Remote sensing of PM2.5 during cloudy and nighttime periods using ceilometer backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Siwei; Joseph, Everette; Min, Qilong; Yin, Bangsheng; Sakai, Ricardo; Payne, Megan K.

    2017-06-01

    Monitoring PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter d ≤ 2.5 µm) mass concentration has become of more importance recently because of the negative impacts of fine particles on human health. However, monitoring PM2.5 during cloudy and nighttime periods is difficult since nearly all the passive instruments used for aerosol remote sensing are not able to measure aerosol optical depth (AOD) under either cloudy or nighttime conditions. In this study, an empirical model based on the regression between PM2.5 and the near-surface backscatter measured by ceilometers was developed and tested using 6 years of data (2006 to 2011) from the Howard University Beltsville Campus (HUBC) site. The empirical model can explain ˜ 56, ˜ 34 and ˜ 42 % of the variability in the hourly average PM2.5 during daytime clear, daytime cloudy and nighttime periods, respectively. Meteorological conditions and seasons were found to influence the relationship between PM2.5 mass concentration and the surface backscatter. Overall the model can explain ˜ 48 % of the variability in the hourly average PM2.5 at the HUBC site when considering the seasonal variation. The model also was tested using 4 years of data (2012 to 2015) from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was geographically and climatologically different from the HUBC site. The results show that the empirical model can explain ˜ 66 and ˜ 82 % of the variability in the daily average PM2.5 at the ARM SGP site and HUBC site, respectively. The findings of this study illustrate the strong need for ceilometer data in air quality monitoring under cloudy and nighttime conditions. Since ceilometers are used broadly over the world, they may provide an important supplemental source of information of aerosols to determine surface PM2.5 concentrations.

  8. Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ardanuy, P.E.; Kyle, H.L.; Hoyt, D. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD )

    1992-10-01

    Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent. 41 refs.

  9. Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Kyle, H. L.; Hoyt, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent.

  10. Application of remote sensing in estimating evapotranspiration in the Platte river basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, B. L.; Rosenberg, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A 'resistance model' and a mass transport model for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) were tested on large fields of naturally subirrigated alfalfa. Both models make use of crop canopy temperature data. Temperature data were obtained with an IR thermometer and with leaf thermocouples. A Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB) model, adjusted to account for underestimation of ET during periods of strong sensible heat advection, was used as the standard against which the resistance and mass transport models were compared. Daily estimates by the resistance model were within 10% of estimates made by the BREB model. Daily estimates by the mass transport model did not agree quite as well. Performance was good on clear and cloudy days and also during periods of non-advection and strong advection of sensible heat. The performance of the mass transport and resistance models was less satisfactory for estimation of fluxes of latent heat for short term periods. Both models tended to overestimate at low LE fluxes.

  11. A Quality Control study of the distribution of NOAA MIRS Cloudy retrievals during Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Cloudy radiance present a difficult challenge to data assimilation (DA) systems, through both the radiative transfer system as well the hydrometers required to resolve the cloud and precipitation. In most DA systems the hydrometers are not control variables due to many limitations. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) is producing products from the NPP-ATMS satellite where the scene is cloud and precipitation affected. The test case that we present here is the life time of Hurricane and then Superstorm Sandy in October 2012. As a quality control study we shall compare the retrieved water vapor content during the lifetime of Sandy with the first guess and the analysis from the NOAA Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system. The assessment involves the gross error check system against the first guess with different values for the observational error's variance to see if the difference is within three standard deviations. We shall also compare against the final analysis at the relevant cycles to see if the products which have been retrieved through a cloudy radiance are similar, given that the DA system does not assimilate cloudy radiances yet.

  12. TPCI: the PLUTO-CLOUDY Interface . A versatile coupled photoionization hydrodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salz, M.; Banerjee, R.; Mignone, A.; Schneider, P. C.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-04-01

    We present an interface between the (magneto-) hydrodynamics code PLUTO and the plasma simulation and spectral synthesis code CLOUDY. By combining these codes, we constructed a new photoionization hydrodynamics solver: the PLUTO-CLOUDY Interface (TPCI), which is well suited to simulate photoevaporative flows under strong irradiation. The code includes the electromagnetic spectrum from X-rays to the radio range and solves the photoionization and chemical network of the 30 lightest elements. TPCI follows an iterative numerical scheme: first, the equilibrium state of the medium is solved for a given radiation field by CLOUDY, resulting in a net radiative heating or cooling. In the second step, the latter influences the (magneto-) hydrodynamic evolution calculated by PLUTO. Here, we validated the one-dimensional version of the code on the basis of four test problems: photoevaporation of a cool hydrogen cloud, cooling of coronal plasma, formation of a Strömgren sphere, and the evaporating atmosphere of a hot Jupiter. This combination of an equilibrium photoionization solver with a general MHD code provides an advanced simulation tool applicable to a variety of astrophysical problems. A copy of the code is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/576/A21

  13. A new estimate for present-day Cocos-Caribbean Plate motion: Implications for slip along the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, Charles

    Velocities from 153 continuously-operating GPS sites on the Caribbean, North American, and Pacific plates are combined with 61 newly estimated Pacific-Cocos seafloor spreading rates and additional marine geophysical data to derive a new estimate of present-day Cocos-Caribbean plate motion. A comparison of the predicted Cocos-Caribbean direction to slip directions of numerous shallow-thrust subduction earthquakes from the Middle America trench between Costa Rica and Guatemala shows the slip directions to be deflected 10° clockwise from the plate convergence direction, supporting the hypothesis that frequent dextral strike-slip earthquakes along the Central American volcanic arc result from partitioning of oblique Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence. Linear velocity analysis for forearc locations in Nicaragua and Guatemala predicts 14±2 mm yr-1 of northwestward trench-parallel slip of the forearc relative to the Caribbean plate, possibly decreasing in magnitude in El Salvador and Guatemala, where extension east of the volcanic arc complicates the tectonic setting.

  14. Performance of greenhouse gas profiling by infrared-laser and microwave occultation in cloudy air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.; Emde, C.; Schweitzer, S.

    2012-12-01

    ACCURATE is a proposed future satellite mission enabling simultaneous measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs), wind and thermodynamic variables from Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The measurement principle is a combination of LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO) and microwave occultation (LMO), the LMIO method, where the LIO signals are very sensitive to clouds. The GHG retrieval will therefore be strongly influenced by clouds in parts of the troposphere. The IR-laser signals, at wavelengths within 2--2.5μ m, are chosen to measure six GHGs (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO; incl.~key isotopes 13CO2, C18OO, HDO). The LMO signals enable to co-measure the thermodynamic variables. In this presentation we introduce the algorithm to retrieve GHG profiles under cloudy-air conditions by using quasi-realistic forward simulations, including also influence of Rayleigh scattering, scintillations and aerosols. Data from CALIPSO--Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations--with highest vertical resolution of about 60 m and horizontal resolution of about 330 m were used for simulation of clouds. The IR-laser signals consist for each GHG of a GHG-sensitive and a close-by reference signal. The key process, ``differencing'' of these two signals, removes the atmospheric ``broadband'' effects, resulting in a pure GHG transmission profile. Very thin ice clouds, like sub-visible cirrus, are fairly transparent to the IR-laser signals, thicker and liquid water clouds block the signals. The reference signal is used to produce a cloud layering profile from zero to blocking clouds and is smoothed in a preprocess to suppress scintillations. Sufficiently small gaps, of width <2 km in the cloud layering profile, are found to enable a decent retrieval of entire GHG profiles over the UTLS under broken cloudiness and are therefore bridged by interpolation. Otherwise in case of essentially continuous cloudiness the profiles are found to terminate at cloud top level. The accuracy of

  15. Indicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance.

    PubMed

    Bandegan, Arash; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Rafii, Mahroukh; Pencharz, Paul B; Lemon, Peter Wr

    2017-02-08

    Background: Despite a number of studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in bodybuilders with the use of the nitrogen balance technique, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based in part on methodologic concerns, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise."Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary protein requirement of healthy young male bodybuilders ( with ≥3 y training experience) on a nontraining day by measuring the oxidation of ingested l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO2 in response to graded intakes of protein [indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique].Methods: Eight men (means ± SDs: age, 22.5 ± 1.7 y; weight, 83.9 ± 11.6 kg; 13.0% ± 6.3% body fat) were studied at rest on a nontraining day, on several occasions (4-8 times) each with protein intakes ranging from 0.1 to 3.5 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1), for a total of 42 experiments. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times each individual's measured resting energy expenditure and were isoenergetic across all treatments. Protein was fed as an amino acid mixture based on the protein pattern in egg, except for phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained at constant amounts across all protein intakes. For 2 d before the study, all participants consumed 1.5 g protein ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) On the study day, the protein requirement was determined by identifying the breakpoint in the F(13)CO2 with graded amounts of dietary protein [mixed-effects change-point regression analysis of F(13)CO2 (labeled tracer oxidation in breath)].Results: The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of protein and the upper 95% CI RDA for these young male bodybuilders were 1.7 and 2.2 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1), respectively.Conclusion: These IAAO data suggest that the protein EAR and recommended intake for male bodybuilders at rest on a nontraining day exceed the current recommendations of the Institute of Medicine by ∼2

  16. Modeling SOFIA/FORCAST spectra of the classical nova V5568 Sgr with 3D pyCloudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvén, Emilia; Helton, L. Andrew; Sankrit, Ravi

    2017-06-01

    We present our first results modelling Nova V5668 Sgr using the pseudo-3D photoionization code pyCloudy (Morisset 2013). V5668 Sgr is a classical nova of the FeII class (Williams et al. 2015; Seach 2015) showing signs of a bipolar flow (Banerjee et al. 2015). We construct a grid of models, which use hour-glass morphologies and a range of C, N, O and Ne abundances, to fit a suite of spectroscopic data in the near and mid-IR obtained between 82 to 556 days after outburst. The spectra were obtained using the FORCAST mid-IR instrument onboard the NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the 1.2m near-IR telescope of the Mount Abu Infrared Observatory. Additional photometric data from FORCAST, The STONY BROOK/SMARTS Atlas of (mostly) Southern Novae (Walter et al., 2012) and the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) were used to supplement the spectral data to obtain the SED of the nova at different times during its evolution. The work presented here is the initial step towards developing a large database of 1D and 3D models that may be used to derive the elemental abundances and dust properties of classical novae.

  17. Cloudy cornea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injury to the eye, including chemical burns and welding injury Scarring Clouding may affect all or part ... examine your eyes and ask about your medical history. The two main questions will be if your ...

  18. A New Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth under Partly Cloudy Conditions with Multi-Spectral Measurements of Reflectance

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flynn, Connor J.

    2009-02-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) radiative effects may cause large uncertainties of satellite aerosol retrievals under partly cloudy conditions [1,2]. For example, analysis of multi-year aerosol statistics derived from the MODerate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in clear patches of cloud fields suggests that aerosol product may be in a large error (up to 140%) as a result of 3D cloud-induced enhancement of clear sky reflectance [3]. Retrievals of AOD τa from satellite observations consist of two basic steps: (1) sampling, which includes detection of clear pixels and (2) and application of an algorithm, which estimates AOD in these pixels. The quality of the final product depends on both steps [4]. The largest errors occur for pixels located within areas of sunlight and shadows where the 3D radiative effects have the greatest impacts on the AOD retrievals [2]. To reduce the 3D radiative effects, clear pixels have to be selected far away (~1-2 km) from clouds and their shadows [3]. For selected clear pixels, the independent pixel approximation approach (IPA) [5] is used to estimate the AOD. Since the IPA ignores the 3D cloud-induced enhancement, the IPA-based retrievals can substantially overestimate AOD even for these clear pixels. To take into account such enhancement, a simple parameterization has been suggested [6]. Here we introduce an approach [7], that provides an effective way to avoid the 3D cloud effects, and illustrate with a model-output inverse problem its capability to detect clear pixels (outside of shadows) and estimate their AOD.

  19. Risk of lens cloudiness during colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection and ability of a novel lens cleaner to maintain and restore endoscopic view.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naohisa; Naito, Yuji; Hirose, Ryohei; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Inada, Yutaka; Dohi, Osamu; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Katada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Handa, Osamu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Konishi, Hideyuki; Yagi, Nobuaki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-07-01

    Generally, colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) cannot be carried out with severe lens cloudiness. We examined the occurrence of lens cloudiness during ESD as well as the efficacy of a novel cleaner for it. This study was a prospective study compared to historical control. First, we analyzed 103 ESD cases using standard cleaner at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine in 2012. Relationship between lens cloudiness and clinical characteristics of lesions was analyzed. Lens cloudiness was recorded as grade 0 (clear) to grade 2 (very unclear). Then, we recruited 92 consecutive patients who underwent colorectal ESD using the novel cleaner from August 2013 to July 2014. The cleaner was applied on top of the lens before procedure and ability to prevent lens cloudiness was tested. Additionally, the novel cleaner was injected from endoscopic channel into a space created by endoscopic hood and colonic wall in seven cases with grade 1 or 2 of lens cloudiness and the ability to clean lens cloudiness inside the colon was tested. Rate of severe lens cloudiness was 8.7%. Multivariate analysis showed that severe lens cloudiness was related with severe submucosal fatty tissue (P < 0.001). The novel cleaner had significantly less cloudiness cases compared to the standard cleaner (14.1% vs 33.0%, P = 0.002). Additionally, the novel cleaner enabled us to clean lens cloudiness in all seven cases. Lens cloudiness during ESD was associated with submucosal fatty tissue. Effective lens cleaner should be used to prevent and clean lens cloudiness. © 2015 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  20. A reduced-order adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model as a software sensor for rapid estimation of five-day biochemical oxygen demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, Roohollah; Safavi, Salman; Nateghi Shahrokni, Seyyed Afshin

    2013-07-01

    The five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) is one of the key parameters in water quality management. In this study, a novel approach, i.e., reduced-order adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ROANFIS) model was developed for rapid estimation of BOD5. In addition, an uncertainty analysis of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and ROANFIS models was carried out based on Monte-Carlo simulation. Accuracy analysis of ANFIS and ROANFIS models based on both developed discrepancy ratio and threshold statistics revealed that the selected ROANFIS model was superior. Pearson correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error for the best fitted ROANFIS model were 0.96 and 7.12, respectively. Furthermore, uncertainty analysis of the developed models indicated that the selected ROANFIS had less uncertainty than the ANFIS model and accurately forecasted BOD5 in the Sefidrood River Basin. Besides, the uncertainty analysis also showed that bracketed predictions by 95% confidence bound and d-factor in the testing steps for the selected ROANFIS model were 94% and 0.83, respectively.

  1. Inter-Calibration and Concatenation of Climate Quality Infrared Cloudy Radiances from Multiple Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Aumann, Hartmut H.

    2013-01-01

    A change in climate is not likely captured from any single instrument, since no single instrument can span decades of time. Therefore, to detect signals of global climate change, observations from many instruments on different platforms have to be concatenated. This requires careful and detailed consideration of instrumental differences such as footprint size, diurnal cycle of observations, and relative biases in the spectral brightness temperatures. Furthermore, a common basic assumption is that the data quality is independent of the observed scene and therefore can be determined using clear scene data. However, as will be demonstrated, this is not necessarily a valid assumption as the globe is mostly cloudy. In this study we highlight challenges in inter-calibration and concatenation of infrared radiances from multiple instruments by focusing on the analysis of deep convective or anvil clouds. TRMM/VIRS is potentially useful instrument to make correction for observational differences in the local time and foot print sizes, and thus could be applied retroactively to vintage instruments such as AIRS, IASI, IRIS, AVHRR, and HIRS. As the first step, in this study, we investigate and discuss to what extent AIRS and VIRS agree in capturing deep cloudy radiances at the same local time. The analysis also includes comparisons with one year observations from CrIS. It was found that the instruments show calibration differences of about 1K under deep cloudy scenes that can vary as a function of land type and local time of observation. The sensitivity of footprint size, view angle, and spectral band-pass differences cannot fully explain the observed differences. The observed discrepancies can be considered as a measure of the magnitude of issues which will arise in the comparison of legacy data with current data.

  2. Inter-Calibration and Concatenation of Climate Quality Infrared Cloudy Radiances from Multiple Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Aumann, Hartmut H.

    2013-01-01

    A change in climate is not likely captured from any single instrument, since no single instrument can span decades of time. Therefore, to detect signals of global climate change, observations from many instruments on different platforms have to be concatenated. This requires careful and detailed consideration of instrumental differences such as footprint size, diurnal cycle of observations, and relative biases in the spectral brightness temperatures. Furthermore, a common basic assumption is that the data quality is independent of the observed scene and therefore can be determined using clear scene data. However, as will be demonstrated, this is not necessarily a valid assumption as the globe is mostly cloudy. In this study we highlight challenges in inter-calibration and concatenation of infrared radiances from multiple instruments by focusing on the analysis of deep convective or anvil clouds. TRMM/VIRS is potentially useful instrument to make correction for observational differences in the local time and foot print sizes, and thus could be applied retroactively to vintage instruments such as AIRS, IASI, IRIS, AVHRR, and HIRS. As the first step, in this study, we investigate and discuss to what extent AIRS and VIRS agree in capturing deep cloudy radiances at the same local time. The analysis also includes comparisons with one year observations from CrIS. It was found that the instruments show calibration differences of about 1K under deep cloudy scenes that can vary as a function of land type and local time of observation. The sensitivity of footprint size, view angle, and spectral band-pass differences cannot fully explain the observed differences. The observed discrepancies can be considered as a measure of the magnitude of issues which will arise in the comparison of legacy data with current data.

  3. Evaluation of GCM Column Radiation Models Under Cloudy Conditions with The Arm BBHRP Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Norris, Peter M.

    2010-03-14

    The overarching goal of the project was to improve the transfer of solar and thermal radiation in the most sophisticated computer tools that are currently available for climate studies, namely Global Climate Models (GCMs). This transfer can be conceptually separated into propagation of radiation under cloudy and under cloudless conditions. For cloudless conditions, the factors that affect radiation propagation are gaseous absorption and scattering, aerosol particle absorption and scattering and surface albedo and emissivity. For cloudy atmospheres the factors are the various cloud properties such as cloud fraction, amount of cloud condensate, the size of the cloud particles, and morphological cloud features such as cloud vertical location, cloud horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity and cloud shape and size. The project addressed various aspects of the influence of the above contributors to atmospheric radiative transfer variability. In particular, it examined: (a) the quality of radiative transfer for cloudless and non-complex cloudy conditions for a substantial number of radiation algorithms used in current GCMs; (b) the errors in radiative fluxes from neglecting the horizontal variabiity of cloud extinction; (c) the statistical properties of cloud horizontal and vertical cloud inhomogeneity that can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes; (d) the potential albedo effects of changes in the particle size of liquid clouds; (e) the gaseous radiative forcing in the presence of clouds; and (f) the relative contribution of clouds of different sizes to the reflectance of a cloud field. To conduct the research in the various facets of the project, data from both the DOE ARM project and other sources were used. The outcomes of the project will have tangible effects on how the calculation of radiative energy will be approached in future editions of GCMs. With better calculations of radiative energy in GCMs more reliable predictions of future climate states will be

  4. Evaluation of 20-min and Annual Radiation Budget Components and Cloudiness in a Mountainous Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, E.

    2007-05-01

    Logan, Utah (USA) is among cities located in the mountainous valley in the western portion of Rocky Mountains in North America. It is the county seat of Cache Valley, a metropolitan area with a population of about 100,000. The valley had the polluted air in the USA during January 2004. To evaluate the daily and annual radiation budget and cloudiness in this mountainous valley, we set up a radiation station in the middle of the valley to measure the 20- min radiation budget components namely: incoming (Rso) and outgoing (Rso) solar or shortwave radiation, using to CM21 Kipp and Zonen (one inverted) and incoming (Rli) (or atmospheric) and outgoing (Rlo) or terrestrial) longwave radiation using two CG1 Kipp and Zonen Pyrgeometers (one inverted) during the year of 2003. All pyranometers and Pyrgeometers were ventilated with four CV2 Kipp and Zonen ventilation systems throughout the year to prevent deposition of dew, frost and snow, which otherwise would disturb the measurements. We also measured the 2-m air temperature and relative humidity along with surface temperature. All measurements were taken every 2 s, averaged to 20 min, continuously throughout the year 2000. A Met One heated rain gauge measured precipitation. Comparison of the annual radiation budget components indicates that about 25% of the annual Rsi (5848.6 MJ/ (squared m-y)) was reflected back to sky as Rso. Rli and Rlo amounted to 9968.7 and 13303.5 MJ/ (squared m-y)), respectively. This yielded about 1364.9 MJ/ (squared m- y)) available energy (Rn). Having the 2-m air temperature and moisture data and comparison between the theoretical and the measured longwave radiation, we evaluated the 20-m cloudy conditions throughout the year of 2003. The average cloud base height was 587 m (ranged from zero for foggy conditions to about 3000 m). Annual cloudiness contributed about 139.1 MJ/ (squared m-y)) more energy in this valley.

  5. Regression equations to estimate seasonal flow duration, n-day high-flow frequency, and n-day low-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara; Gross, Tara A.

    2016-02-09

    Seasonal mean daily flow data from 119 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota; the surrounding states of Montana, Minnesota, and South Dakota; and the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan with 10 or more years of unregulated flow record were used to develop regression equations for flow duration, n-day high flow and n-day low flow using ordinary least-squares and Tobit regression techniques. Regression equations were developed for seasonal flow durations at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percent exceedances; the 1-, 7-, and 30-day seasonal mean high flows for the 10-, 25-, and 50-year recurrence intervals; and the 1-, 7-, and 30-day seasonal mean low flows for the 2-, 5-, and 10-year recurrence intervals. Basin and climatic characteristics determined to be significant explanatory variables in one or more regression equations included drainage area, percentage of basin drainage area that drains to isolated lakes and ponds, ruggedness number, stream length, basin compactness ratio, minimum basin elevation, precipitation, slope ratio, stream slope, and soil permeability. The adjusted coefficient of determination for the n-day high-flow regression equations ranged from 55.87 to 94.53 percent. The Chi2 values for the duration regression equations ranged from 13.49 to 117.94, whereas the Chi2 values for the n-day low-flow regression equations ranged from 4.20 to 49.68.

  6. Polarized deep inelastic scattering from the cloudy bag model - A failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoodbhoy, Pervez

    1986-12-01

    In an attempt to test the assumptions of the convolution model deeply inelastic scattering is considered of polarized leptons from a polarized nucleon, the nucleon being modelled as a core plus pion cloud, as in the cloudy bag model. Application of the Bjorken sum rule shows that the calculated value of gA/gV is far below the physical value, thus indicating a breakdown of either the convolution approximation or the nucleon model. On leave from Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

  7. An efficient routine for infrared radiative transfer in a cloudy atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M. D.; Kouvaris, L.

    1981-01-01

    A FORTRAN program that calculates the atmospheric cooling rate and infrared fluxes for partly cloudy atmospheres is documented. The IR fluxes in the water bands and the 9.6 and 15 micron bands are calculated at 15 levels ranging from 1.39 mb to the surface. The program is generalized to accept any arbitrary atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles and clouds as input and return the cooling rate and fluxes as output. Sample calculations for various atmospheric profiles and cloud situations are demonstrated.

  8. Structure of marine atmospheric boundary layer under contrasting conditions of tropospheric dynamics, convection and cloudiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosh, M.; Rajeev, Kunjukrishnapillai

    Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) processes play a pivotal role in the exchange of energy and minor constituents between the surface and free-troposphere. Temporal variations of the marine ABL (MABL) are mainly controlled by large-scale circulation and surface conditions. Diurnal variation of mixing height over the oceanic regions is significantly smaller than that over the continental regions. This study investigates the MABL characteristics under contrasting conditions of large-scale circulation, sea surface temperature (SST), convection and cloudiness based on the altitude profiles of atmospheric thermo-dynamic variables observed using balloon-borne GPS Radiosondes launched during three ship based campaigns in the tropical Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These observations were carried out during July-November period and the ship tracks transacted through the ITCZ, regions of deep convection and the descending limb of Hadley cell. The prevailing cloud conditions corresponding to the time of radiosonde observations were obtained using collocated data from geostationary satellite Kalpana-1-VHRR, which were used to classify the data into highly cloudy and clear sky categories. The mixing height at the descending limb of the Hadley cell typically extends up to an altitude of ˜1200 m, which is capped by a region of thin cloud that is sandwiched between the top of MABL and the strong trade wind inversion at ˜2 km altitude. The moist static energy in the surface layer at the deep convective regions is significantly larger than that at the descending limb of Hadley cell. Notwithstanding this, the mixing height in the deep convective cases is rather shallow, though significantly humid. Remarkably, the MABL over these deep convective regions are generally capped by a relatively cloud-free altitude band marked by a distinct inversion in virtual potential temperature, which is followed by a deep convective cloud layer in the altitude band of ˜2-13 km

  9. Estimating risks of heat strain by age and sex: a population-level simulation model.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Dear, Keith

    2015-05-18

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan's man model "MANMO") to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions.

  10. Estimating Risks of Heat Strain by Age and Sex: A Population-Level Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W.; Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Dear, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan’s man model “MANMO”) to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions. PMID:25993102

  11. Estimation of daily global solar irradiation under different sky conditions in central and southern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didari, Shohreh; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh

    2017-02-01

    Daily global solar irradiation ( R s) is one of the main inputs in environmental modeling. Because of the lack of its measuring facilities, high-quality and long-term data are limited. In this research, R s values were estimated based on measured sunshine duration and cloud cover of our synoptic meteorological stations in central and southern Iran during 2008, 2009, and 2011. Clear sky solar irradiation was estimated from linear regression using extraterrestrial solar irradiation as the independent variable with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 4.69 %. Daily R s was calibrated using measured sunshine duration and cloud cover data under different sky conditions during 2008 and 2009. The 2011 data were used for model validation. According to the results, in the presence of clouds, the R s model using sunshine duration data was more accurate when compared with the model using cloud cover data (NRMSE = 11. 69 %). In both models, with increasing sky cloudiness, the accuracy decreased. In the study region, more than 92 % of sunshine durations were clear or partly cloudy, which received close to 95 % of total solar irradiation. Hence, it was possible to estimate solar irradiation with a good accuracy in most days with the measurements of sunshine duration.

  12. Midday values of gross CO2 flux and light use efficiency during satellite overpasses can be used to directly estimate eight-day mean flux

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Sims; Abdullah F. Rahman; Vicente D. Cordova; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Allen H. Goldstein; David Y. Hollinger; Laurent Misson; Russell K. Monson; Hans P. Schmid; Steven C. Wofsy; Liukang Xu

    2005-01-01

    Most satellites provide, at best, a single daily snapshot of vegetation and, at worst, these snapshots may be separated by periods of many days when the ground was obscured by cloud cover. Since vegetation carbon exchange can be very dynamic on diurnal and day-to-day timescales, the limited temporal resolution of satellite data is a potential limitation in the use of...

  13. Characteristics of a persistent "pool of inhibited cloudiness" and its genesis over the Bay of Bengal associated with the Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Anish Kumar M.; Rajeev, K.; Sijikumar, S.; Meenu, S.

    2011-07-01

    Using spatial and vertical distributions of clouds derived from multi-year spaceborne observations, this paper presents the characteristics of a significant "pool of inhibited cloudiness" covering an area of >106 km2 between 3-13° N and 77-90° E over the Bay of Bengal (BoB), persisting throughout the Asian summer monsoon season (ASM). Seasonal mean precipitation rate over the "pool" is <3 mm day-1 while that over the surrounding regions is mostly in the range of 6-14 mm day-1. Frequency of occurrence of clouds in this "pool" is ~20-40 % less than that over the surrounding deep convective regions. Zonal and meridional cross sections of the altitude distribution of clouds derived from CloudSat data reveal a vault-like structure at the "pool" with little cloudiness below ~7 km, indicating that this "pool" is almost fully contributed by the substantially reduced or near-absence of low- and middle-level clouds. This suggest the absence of convection in the "pool" region. Spaceborne scatterometer observations show divergence of surface wind at the "pool" and convergence at its surroundings, suggesting the existence of a mini-circulation embedded in the large-scale monsoon circulation. Reanalysis data shows a mini-circulation extending between the surface and ~3 km altitude, but its spatial structure does not match well with that inferred from the above observations. Sea surface at the south BoB during ASM is sufficiently warm to trigger convection, but is inhibited by the subsidence associated with the mini-circulation, resulting in the "pool". This mini-circulation might be a dynamical response of the atmosphere to the substantial spatial gradient of latent heating by large-scale cloudiness and precipitation at the vast and geographically fixed convective zones surrounding the "pool". Subsidence at the "pool" might contribute to the maintenance of convection at the above zones and be an important component of ASM that is overlooked hitherto.

  14. High-Resolution Rainfall From Radar Reflectivity and Terrestrial Rain Gages for use in Estimating Debris-Flow Susceptibility in the Day Fire, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshaw, M. N.; Schmidt, K. M.; Jorgensen, D. P.; Stock, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Constraining the distribution of rainfall is essential to evaluating the post-fire mass-wasting response of steep soil-mantled landscapes. As part of a pilot early-warning project for flash floods and debris flows, NOAA deployed a portable truck-mounted Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research and Teaching Radar (SMART-R) to the 2006 Day fire in the Transverse Ranges of Southern California. In conjunction with a dense array of ground- based instruments, including 8 tipping-bucket rain gages located within an area of 170 km2, this C-band mobile Doppler radar provided 200-m grid cell estimates of precipitation data at fine temporal and spatial scales in burned steeplands at risk from hazardous flash floods and debris flows. To assess the utility of using this data in process models for flood and debris flow initiation, we converted grids of radar reflectivity to hourly time-steps of precipitation using an empirical relationship for convective storms, sampling the radar data at the locations of each rain gage as determined by GPS. The SMART-R was located 14 km from the farthest rain gage, but <10 km away from our intensive research area, where 5 gages are located within <1-2 km of each other. Analyses of the nine storms imaged by radar throughout the 2006/2007 winter produced similar cumulative rainfall totals between the gages and their SMART-R grid location over the entire season which correlate well on the high side, with gages recording the most precipitation agreeing to within 11% of the SMART-R. In contrast, on the low rainfall side, totals between the two recording systems are more variable, with a 62% variance between the minimums. In addition, at the scale of individual storms, a correlation between ground-based rainfall measurements and radar-based rainfall estimates is less evident, with storm totals between the gages and the SMART-R varying between 7 and 88%, a possible result of these being relatively small, fast-moving storms in an unusually dry winter. The

  15. Assimilation of thermodynamic information from advanced infrared sounders under partially cloudy skies for regional NWP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Li, Jun; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Schmit, Timothy J.; Lim, Agnes H. N.; Li, Zhenglong; Han, Hyojin; Li, Jinlong; Ackerman, Steve A.

    2015-06-01

    Generally, only clear-infrared spectral radiances (not affected by clouds) are assimilated in weather analysis systems. This is due to difficulties in modeling cloudy radiances as well as in observing their vertical structure from space. To take full advantage of the thermodynamic information in advanced infrared (IR) sounder observations requires assimilating radiances from cloud-contaminated regions. An optimal imager/sounder cloud-clearing technique has been developed by the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This technique can be used to retrieve clear column radiances through combining collocated multiband imager IR clear radiances and the sounder cloudy radiances; no background information is needed in this method. The imager/sounder cloud-clearing technique is similar to that of the microwave/IR cloud clearing in the derivation of the clear-sky equivalent radiances. However, it retains the original IR sounder resolution, which is critical for regional numerical weather prediction applications. In this study, we have investigated the assimilation of cloud-cleared IR sounder radiances using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for three hurricanes, Sandy (2012), Irene (2011), and Ike (2008). Results show that assimilating additional cloud-cleared AIRS radiances reduces the 48 and 72 h temperature forecast root-mean-square error by 0.1-0.3 K between 300 and 850 hPa. Substantial improvement in reducing track forecasts errors in the range of 10 km to 50 km was achieved.

  16. A Fast Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Simulator for Cloudy Atmopheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chao; Yang, Ping; Nasiri, Shaima L.; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry G.; Wang, Chen Xi; Ding, Shouguo

    2015-01-01

    A fast instrument simulator is developed to simulate the observations made in cloudy atmospheres by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The correlated k-distribution (CKD) technique is used to compute the transmissivity of absorbing atmospheric gases. The bulk scattering properties of ice clouds used in this study are based on the ice model used for the MODIS Collection 6 ice cloud products. Two fast radiative transfer models based on pre-computed ice cloud look-up-tables are used for the VIIRS solar and infrared channels. The accuracy and efficiency of the fast simulator are quantify in comparison with a combination of the rigorous line-by-line (LBLRTM) and discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) models. Relative errors are less than 2 for simulated TOA reflectances for the solar channels and the brightness temperature differences for the infrared channels are less than 0.2 K. The simulator is over three orders of magnitude faster than the benchmark LBLRTM+DISORT model. Furthermore, the cloudy atmosphere reflectances and brightness temperatures from the fast VIIRS simulator compare favorably with those from VIIRS observations.

  17. Infrared Cloudy Radiative Transfer Validation Using Coincident AIRS and MODIS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishbein, E.; Schreier, M. M.; Wilson, R. C.; Yue, Q.; Kahn, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling observed cloudy radiances of satellite-based infrared sounders is challenging because of scene heterogeneity. Comparisons of observed and calculated AIRS radiances are conditioned against cloud statistics from the MODIS cloud products to characterize the accuracy of the radiative transfer and its dependence of scene complexity. Radiances are calculated with the SARTA fast radiative transfer algorithm using atmospheric temperature, water vapor and ozone profiles from the ECMWF operational forecast, but cloud fields from the ECMWF forecasts, and AIRS L2 and MODIS L2 observational products. The error arising from differences in cloud representations and their translations to input to the radiative transfer models is discussed in the first half of the presentation, while the latter half deals with the treatment of scene heterogeneity and the error this adds to the modeled radiances. Calculated radiances smoothed over an AIRS footprint from high spatial atmospheric states are compared with radiances from smoothed states and observed radiances. The goal of this study is to quantify the improvement in cloudy radiative transfer modeling when external information about scene complexity is applied.

  18. A generalized algorithm for retrieving cloudy sky skin temperature from satellite thermal infrared radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Menglin; Dickinson, Robert E.

    2000-11-01

    A physical algorithm for calculating cloudy pixel skin temperature from its neighboring clear pixels is proposed generalizing that of Jin [2000]. Two neighboring pixels over the same land cover have a difference in temperature largely explained by surface insolation. Hence this algorithm starts from the surface energy balance equation (SEB) and expresses each energy term of SEB as a function of skin temperature. Then SEB is solved to derive cloudy pixel skin temperature from neighboring clear skin temperature plus a correction term determined by surface insolation, air temperature, and wind speed. This algorithm can be used for nights and winter hemisphere high latitudes where there is no surface insolation and is applicable to any surface where the principle of SEB is applicable. The algorithm is evaluated by using FIFE and BOREAS field experiments. Its global application has been examined through simulations with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) coupled with the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) simulations. The accuracy of the algorithm is encouraging: the rms error at a monthly pixel level is 1-2 K. Observed errors are greater when there is precipitation.

  19. Effect of mash maceration on the polyphenolic content and visual quality attributes of cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Mihalev, Kiril; Schieber, Andreas; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2004-12-01

    The effects of enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Using HPLC-ESI-MS, cryptochlorogenic acid was identified in cv. Brettacher cloudy apple juice for the first time. Commercial pectolytic enzyme preparations with different levels of secondary protease activity were tested under both oxidative and nonoxidative conditions. Without the addition of ascorbic acid, oxidation substantially decreased chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 contents due to enzymatic browning. The content of chlorogenic acid as the major polyphenolic compound was also influenced by the composition of pectolytic enzyme preparations because the presence of secondary protease activity resulted in a rise of chlorogenic acid. The latter effect was probably due to the inhibited protein-polyphenol interactions, which prevented binding of polyphenolic compounds to the matrix, thus increasing their antioxidative potential. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the advantage of the nonoxidative mash maceration for the production of cloud-stable apple juice with a high polyphenolic content, particularly in a premature processing campaign.

  20. Numerical Simulations of Supernova Remnant Evolution in a Cloudy Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam; Winter, Henry D.; Raymond, John C.; Slane, Patrick O.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    2017-09-01

    The mixed morphology class of supernova remnants has centrally peaked X-ray emission along with a shell-like morphology in radio emission. White & Long proposed that these remnants are evolving in a cloudy medium wherein the clouds are evaporated via thermal conduction once being overrun by the expanding shock. Their analytical model made detailed predictions regarding temperature, density, and emission profiles as well as shock evolution. We present numerical hydrodynamical models in 2D and 3D including thermal conduction, testing the White & Long model and presenting results for the evolution and emission from remnants evolving in a cloudy medium. We find that, while certain general results of the White & Long model hold, such as the way the remnants expand and the flattening of the X-ray surface brightness distribution, in detail there are substantial differences. In particular we find that the X-ray luminosity is dominated by emission from shocked cloud gas early on, leading to a bright peak, which then declines and flattens as evaporation becomes more important. In addition, the effects of thermal conduction on the intercloud gas, which is not included in the White & Long model, are important and lead to further flattening of the X-ray brightness profile as well as lower X-ray emission temperatures.

  1. Wind Profile Retrieval Method for Incoherent Doppler LIDAR in Partly Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Changzhong; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-11-01

    After the launch of ESA's spaceborne Doppler lidar ALADIN, Ocean University of China is going to perform the ground validation using a ground based Doppler wind lidar which utilizes an iodine absorption filter as frequency discriminator to derive Doppler frequency shift of atmospheric wind from combined molecular and aerosol backscatter. Under circumstance of non-uniform aerosol horizontal distribution, such as partly cloudy conditions, the accuracy of wind measurements is seriously influenced. Therefore, an improved VAD (Velocity-Azimuth Display) method for retrieving wind profiles is developed, which significantly increases the accuracy. With the atmospheric return signal obtained from the line-of- sight velocity PPI (Plan Position Indicator) measurements, the spatial distribution of aerosol optical parameters can be derived and considered as a reference for the quality control of line-of-sight velocity. Consequently, the wind profile in partly cloudy conditions can be retrieved by using the quality controlled line-of-sight velocity. As a result, the applicability of the ground based Doppler lidar is improved.

  2. Wind Profile Retrieval Method for Incoherent Doppler LIDAR in Partly Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Changzhong; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-11-01

    After the launch of ESA’s spaceborne Doppler lidar ALADIN, Ocean University of China is going to perform the ground validation using a ground based Doppler wind lidar which utilizes an iodine absorption filter as frequency discriminator to derive Doppler frequency shift of atmospheric wind from combined molecular and aerosol backscatter. Under circumstance of non-uniform aerosol horizontal distribution, such as partly cloudy conditions, the accuracy of wind measurements is seriously influenced. Therefore, an improved VAD (Velocity-Azimuth Display) method for retrieving wind profiles is developed, which significantly increases the accuracy. With the atmospheric return signal obtained from the line-of-sight velocity PPI (Plan Position Indicator) measurements, the spatial distribution of aerosol optical parameters can be derived and considered as a reference for the quality control of line-of-sight velocity. Consequently, the wind profile in partly cloudy conditions can be retrieved by using the quality controlled line-of-sight velocity. As a result, the applicability of the ground based Doppler lidar is improved.

  3. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Yu, G.-R.; Zhang, L.-M.; Sun, X.-M.; Wen, X.-F.; Han, S.-J.; Yan, J.-H.

    2009-08-01

    Clouds can significantly affect carbon uptake of forest ecosystems by affecting incoming solar radiation on the ground, temperature and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) of a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS) and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS) of ChinaFLUX, based on the flux data obtained during June-August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of the NEE of forest ecosystem to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was different under clear sky and cloudy sky conditions, and this difference was not consistent between CBS and DHS. Compared with clear skies, light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max) of CBS during mid-growing season (from June to August) was respectively enhanced by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% on cloudy skies in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006; however, Pec,max of DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. NEE of forests at CBS reached its maximum when the clearness index (kt) was between 0.4 and 0.6, and the NEE decreased obviously when kt exceeded 0.6. Compare with CBS, although NEE of forest at DHS tended to the maximum when kt varied between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE did not decrease noticeably when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicated that cloudy sky conditions were more beneficial to carbon uptake for the temperate forest ecosystem rather than for the subtropical forest ecosystem. This is due to the fact that the non-saturating light conditions and increase of diffuse radiation were more beneficial to photosynthesis, and the reduced temperature was more conducive to decreasing the ecosystem respiration in temperate forest ecosystems under cloudy sky conditions. This phenomenon is important to evaluate carbon uptake of temperate forests under climate change conditions.

  4. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Yu, G.-R.; Zhang, L.-M.; Sun, X.-M.; Wen, X.-F.; Han, S.-J.; Yan, J.-H.

    2010-02-01

    Clouds can significantly affect carbon exchange process between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing the quantity and quality of solar radiation received by ecosystem's surface and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) in a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS) and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS), based on the flux data obtained during June-August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of NEE of forest ecosystems to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) differed under clear skies and cloudy skies. Compared with clear skies, the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max) at CBS under cloudy skies during mid-growing season (from June to August) increased by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. In contrast, Pec,max of the forest ecosystem at DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. When the clearness index (kt) ranged between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE reached its maximum at both CBS and DHS. However, the NEE decreased more dramatically at CBS than at DHS when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicate that cloudy sky conditions are beneficial to net carbon uptake in the temperate forest ecosystem and the subtropical forest ecosystem. Under clear skies, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and air temperature increased due to strong light. These environmental conditions led to greater decrease in gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and greater increase in ecosystem respiration (Re) at CBS than at DHS. As a result, clear sky conditions caused more reduction of NEE in the temperate forest ecosystem than in the subtropical forest ecosystem. The response of NEE of different forest ecosystems to the changes in cloudiness is an important factor that should be included in evaluating regional carbon budgets under climate change

  5. Estimating Locations of Perennial Streams in Idaho Using a Generalized Least-Squares Regression Model of 7-Day, 2-Year Low Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Hortness, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Many State and Federal agencies use information regarding the locations of streams having intermittent or perennial flow when making management and regulatory decisions. For example, the application of some Idaho water quality standards depends on whether streams are intermittent. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 ft3/s. However, there is a general recognition that the cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not as accurate or consistent as desirable from one map to another, which makes broad management and regulatory assessments difficult and inconsistent. To help resolve this problem, the USGS has developed a methodology for predicting the locations of perennial streams based on regional generalized least-squares (GLS) regression equations for Idaho streams for the 7Q2 low-flow statistic. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams in most areas in Idaho. The use of these equations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along stream reaches. The USGS has developed a GIS-based map of the locations of streams in Idaho with perennial flow based on a 7Q2 of 0.1 ft3/s and a transition zone of plus or minus 1 standard error. Idaho State cooperators plan to use this information to make regulatory and water-quality management decisions. Originally, 7Q2 equations were developed for eight regions of similar hydrologic characteristics in the study area, using long-term data from 234 streamflow-gaging stations. Equations in five of the regions were revised based on spatial patterns observed in the initial perennial streams map and unrealistic behavior of the equations in extrapolation. The standard errors of

  6. Energy Gleaning to Increase the Efficiency of 2-Axis Time-Position Tracking Photovoltaic Arrays Under Variably Cloudy Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Stephanie White

    Positioning a photovoltaic (PV) array in the optimal orientation increases the collection of solar radiation and the production of electricity. Many methods for determining the optimal tilt angle of a fixed PV array have been reported in the literature; however, few methods have been proposed for finding the optimal tilt angle of a 2-axis time-position tracking PV array. This dissertation derives and validates a simple formula for directly calculating the optimal tilt angle of a 2-axis time-position tracking PV array under varying sky conditions. By modifying the conventional tilt angle as the sky conditions change, the tracking PV array can glean the additional small amounts of irradiation that are overlooked and unused on cloudy days. The validity of this formula was verified using 36 months of weather data from an installation in the northeastern United States where clear skies occur about 40% of the time. Simulations indicated that modifying the conventional tracking angles in response to changing cloud cover results in 2.26% increase in collected insolation and 2.33% increase in AC energy over a 36-month period when compared with conventional 2-axis time-position tracking. During hourly and sub-hourly intervals with cloud cover, the increase in energy collection can reach up to 50% more than for conventional 2-axis tracking. The ability to modify the conventional tracking angles in response to changing cloud cover allows the PV array to glean the previously uncollected energy, thereby capturing more of the total available irradiation and increasing electrical power production.

  7. Atmospheric Circulation Anomalies during Episodes of Enhanced and Reduced Convective Cloudiness over Uruguay.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Alvaro; Aceituno, Patricio

    2003-10-01

    Regional and large-scale circulation anomalies associated with periods of enhanced and reduced convective cloudiness over Uruguay are studied for austral spring and summer, when rainfall associated with deep convection is more frequent in this region. The analysis was performed at a submonthly timescale, considering that the essential nature of the mechanisms producing rainfall is not well captured by anomalies calculated on a monthly or seasonal basis in regions where precipitation is highly episodic.Periods of enhanced and reduced convective cloudiness over Uruguay are characterized by a marked dipolar structure in the outgoing longwave radiation anomaly field along eastern South America from 10° to 40°S, with the centers of the dipole located over the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and over a broad region including Uruguay, southern Brazil, and northeastern Argentina. This dipole, which corresponds to one of the key factors of climate dynamics in South America during spring and summer, seems to be part of a much larger wavelike quasi-barotropic structure that includes alternating centers of negative and positive geopotential height and temperature anomalies in the southern portion of the continent, and farther upstream in the southern Pacific. At the regional scale, periods of enhanced convection and rainfall over Uruguay are associated with the following features: a warm-core anticyclonic circulation anomaly in the middle and upper troposphere, centered on 34°S, 45°W, approximately; an intensified Chaco low in northwestern Argentina that favors a reinforced northwesterly flow of warm and moist air from the Amazon basin; and an anomalously strong subtropical jet along eastern South America. Periods with reduced convective cloudiness over Uruguay are characterized by circulation anomalies that are broadly opposite to those described before, although some significant asymmetries in their intensity are documented. No major differences were detected in

  8. Absorption of Solar Radiation by the Cloudy Atmosphere Interpretations of Collocated Aircraft Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Minghua; Pope, Shelly K.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bush, Brett; Vitko, John, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE), we have obtained and analyzed measurements made from collocated aircraft of the absorption of solar radiation within the atmospheric column between the two aircraft. The measurements were taken during October 1995 at the ARM site in Oklahoma. Relative to a theoretical radiative transfer model, we find no evidence for excess solar absorption in the clear atmosphere and significant evidence for its existence in the cloudy atmosphere. This excess cloud solar absorption appears to occur in both visible (0.224-0.68 microns) and near-infrared (0.68-3.30 microns) spectral regions, although not at 0.5 microns for the visible contribution, and it is shown to be true absorption rather than an artifact of sampling errors caused by measuring three-dimensional clouds.

  9. Representation of Clear and Cloudy Boundary Layers in Climate Models. Chapter 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, D. A.; Shao, Q.; Branson, M.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric general circulation models which are being used as components of climate models rely on their boundary layer parameterizations to produce realistic simulations of the surface turbulent fluxes of sensible heat. moisture. and momentum: of the boundary-layer depth over which these fluxes converge: of boundary layer cloudiness: and of the interactions of the boundary layer with the deep convective clouds that grow upwards from it. Two current atmospheric general circulation models are used as examples to show how these requirements are being addressed: these are version 3 of the Community Climate Model. which has been developed at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research. and the Colorado State University atmospheric general circulation model. The formulations and results of both models are discussed. Finally, areas for future research are suggested.

  10. Three-body unitarity, the cloudy bag model, and the Roper resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, B. C.; Afnan, I. R.

    1989-07-01

    We present the details and results of a Faddeev calculation of πN scattering in the P11 channel in the region of the Roper resonance. Our equations respect two- and three-body unitarity, treat the nucleon and delta on an equal footing, and have a pole with correct residue at the nucleon mass. The input is from the cloudy bag model. Resonance behavior is exhibited without the inclusion of a bare Roper bag, although not in detailed agreement with experiment. If a bare Roper bag is included, the phase shifts vary far too rapidly in the resonance region, implying that identifying the lowest radial bag excitations with the Roper leads to a physical Roper that is much too narrow.

  11. Validation and Improvement of CERES Surface Radiation Budget Algorithms: Extension of Dusty and Cloudy Scenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Inamdar, Anand K.

    2005-01-01

    Our main task was to validate and improve the generation of surface long wave fluxes from the CERES TOA window channel flux measurements. We completed this task successfully for the clear sky fluxes in the presence of aerosols including dust during the first year of the project. The algorithm we developed for CERES was remarkably successful for clear sky fluxes and we have no further tasks that need to be performed past the requested termination date of December 31, 2004. We found that the information contained in the TOA fluxes was not sufficient to improve upon the current CERES algorithm for cloudy sky fluxes. Given this development and given our success in clear sky fluxes, we do not see any reason to continue our validation work beyond what we have completed. Specific details are given.

  12. The northward march of summer low cloudiness along the California coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemesha, Rachel E. S.; Gershunov, Alexander; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Williams, A. Park; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2016-02-01

    A new satellite-derived low cloud retrieval reveals rich spatial texture and coherent space-time propagation in summertime California coastal low cloudiness (CLC). Throughout the region, CLC is greatest during May-September but has considerable monthly variability within this summer season. On average, June is cloudiest along the coast of southern California and northern Baja, Mexico, while July is cloudiest along northern California's coast. Over the course of the summer, the core of peak CLC migrates northward along coastal California, reaching its northernmost extent in late July/early August, then recedes while weakening. The timing and movement of the CLC climatological structure is related to the summer evolution of lower tropospheric stability and both its component parts, sea surface temperature and potential temperature at 700 hPa. The roughly coincident seasonal timing of peak CLC with peak summertime temperatures translates into the strongest heat-modulating capacity of CLC along California's north coast.

  13. Formation of spectral lines in planetary atmospheres. I - Theory for cloudy atmospheres: Application to Venus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of the formation of spectral lines in a cloudy planetary atmosphere is studied in detail. It is shown that models based upon homogeneous, isotropically scattering atmospheres cannot be used to reproduce observed spectroscopic features of phase effect and the shape of spectral lines for weak and strong bands. The theory must, therefore, be developed using an inhomogeneous (gravitational) model of a planetary atmosphere, accurately incorporating all the physical processes of radiative transfer. Such a model of the lower Venus atmosphere, consistent with our present knowledge, is constructed. The results discussed in this article demonstrate the effects of the parameters that describe the atmospheric model on the spectroscopic features of spectral line profile and phase effect, at visible and near infrared wavelengths. This information enables us to develop a comprehensive theory of line formation in a Venus atmosphere.

  14. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  15. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  16. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  17. Green tea extract as an anti-browning agent for cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Klimczak, Inga; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and their products is an important factor worsening their quality. The influence of five green tea extracts at the concentrations of 1 g L(-1) , 2 g L(-1) and 3 g L(-1) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fresh cloudy apple juice was investigated. Moreover, PPO inhibition by tea extract and colour stability of juice during short-time refrigerated storage was studied. The changes of juice colour during storage was expressed as the total colour differences (ΔE*), browning index (BI), yellowness index (YI), and the absorbance at 420 nm (A420 ). All extracts inhibited PPO activity in fresh apple juice in concentration-dependent manner. PPO activity in pure apple juice decreased by 7% after 48 h, whereas PPO activity in samples with 1 g L(-1) , 2 g L(-1) and 3 g L(-1) tea extract decreased by 53%, 74%, and 96%, respectively. Browning of apple juice during storage decreased with increased concentration of green tea extract. After 48 h, extract at 1 g L(-1) , 2 g L(-1) and 3 g L(-1) inhibited browning of juice expressed as BI by 48%, 60%, and 86%, respectively, comparing to pure apple juice. Green tea extract may be an effective anti-browning agent for short-time stored cloudy apple juices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Dynamics, thermodynamics, radiation, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The overall goal of this project was to improve the understanding of marine boundary clouds by using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites, so that they can be better represented in global climate models (GCMs). Marine boundary clouds are observed regularly over the tropical and subtropical oceans. They are an important element of the Earth’s climate system because they have substantial impact on the radiation budget together with the boundary layer moisture, and energy transports. These clouds also have an impact on large-scale precipitation features like the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Because these clouds occur at temporal and spatial scales much smaller than those relevant to GCMs, their effects and the associated processes need to be parameterized in GCM simulations aimed at predicting future climate and energy needs. Specifically, this project’s objectives were to (1) characterize the surface turbulent fluxes, boundary layer thermodynamics, radiation field, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers; (2) explore the similarities and differences in cloudiness and boundary layer conditions observed in the tropical and trade-wind regions; and (3) understand similarities and differences by using a simple bulk boundary layer model. In addition to working toward achieving the project’s three objectives, we also worked on understanding the role played by different forcing mechanisms in maintaining turbulence within cloud-topped boundary layers We focused our research on stratocumulus clouds during the first phase of the project, and cumulus clouds during the rest of the project. Below is a brief description of manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals that describe results from our analyses.

  19. VLT FORS2 comparative transmission spectral survey of clear and cloudy exoplanet atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sing, David; Gibson, Neale; Evans, Thomas; Barstow, Joanna Katy; Kataria, Tiffany; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-10-01

    Transmission spectroscopy is a key to unlocking the secrets of close-in exoplanet atmospheres. Observations have started to unveil a vast diversity of irradiated giant planet atmospheres with clouds and hazes playing a definitive role across the entire mass and temperature regime. We have initiated a ground-based, multi-object transmission spectroscopy of a hand full of hot Jupiters, covering the wavelength range 360-850nm using the recently upgraded FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS2) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). These targets were selected for comparative follow-up as their transmission spectra showed evidence for alkali metal absorption, based on the results of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. This talk will discuss the first results from the programme, demonstrating excellent agreement between the transmission spectra measured from VLT and HST and further reinforce the findings of clear, cloudy and hazy atmospheres. More details will be discussed on the narrow alkali features obtained with FORS2 at higher resolution, revealing its high potential in securing optical transmission spectra. These FORS2 observations are the first ground-based detections of clear, cloudy and hazy hot-Jupiter atmosphere with a simultaneous detections of Na, K, and H2 Rayleigh scattering. Our program demonstrates the large potential of the instrument for optical transmission spectroscopy, capable of obtaining HST-quality light curves from the ground. Compared to HST, the larger aperture of VLT will allow for fainter targets to be observed and higher spectral resolution, which can greatly aid comparative exoplanet studies. This is important for further exploring the diversity of exoplanet atmospheres and is particularly complementary to the near- and mid-IR regime, to be covered by the upcoming James-Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and is readily applicable to less massive planets down to super-Earths.

  20. Investigation of the environment around close-in transiting exoplanets using CLOUDY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jake D.; Christie, Duncan; Arras, Phil; Johnson, Robert E.; Schmidt, Carl

    2016-06-01

    It has been suggested that hot stellar wind gas in a bow shock around an exoplanet is sufficiently opaque to absorb stellar photons and give rise to an observable transit depth at optical and UV wavelengths. In the first part of this paper, we use the CLOUDY plasma simulation code to model the absorption from X-ray to radio wavelengths by 1D slabs of gas in coronal equilibrium with varying densities (104-108 cm-3) and temperatures (2000-106 K) illuminated by a solar spectrum. For slabs at coronal temperatures (106 K) and densities even orders of magnitude larger than expected for the compressed stellar wind (104-105 cm-3), we find optical depths orders of magnitude too small (>3 × 10-7) to explain the ˜3 per cent UV transit depths seen with Hubble. Using this result and our modelling of slabs with lower temperatures (2000-104K), the conclusion is that the UV transits of WASP-12b and HD 189733b are likely due to atoms originating in the planet, as the stellar wind is too highly ionized. A corollary of this result is that transport of neutral atoms from the denser planetary atmosphere outward must be a primary consideration when constructing physical models. In the second part of this paper, additional calculations using CLOUDY are carried out to model a slab of planetary gas in radiative and thermal equilibrium with the stellar radiation field. Promising sources of opacity from the X-ray to radio wavelengths are discussed, some of which are not yet observed.

  1. Assessment of contribution of greenhouse gases, water vapour and cloudiness to global surface air temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Maria; Karlin, Lev N.

    2013-04-01

    A contribution of the basic greenhouse effect components to the changes of global surface air temperature (SAT) has been assessed. The Earth's energy budget and the longwave energy transformation, in particular, were considered to investigate the mechanism of the influence of greenhouse effect (GHE) on global SAT. As is known, some part of the outgoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2, CH4, N2O, water vapour (WV) and cloudiness. The analysis of the changes in global SAT, GHGs and WV concentrations for the period 1984 - 2010 has shown that these parameters have a trend to increase. The research into global cloudiness and the vertical distribution of cloud layers made it possible to trace both positive and negative trends, namely the increase of availability of middle and high clouds has a positive trend while the increase of availability of global clouds and low clouds have a negative trend. Making use of the regression analysis relationships between global SAT and the components of greenhouse effect were obtained. It is shown, that the availability of total clouds and low clouds result in climate cooling, while the availability of middle and high clouds cause the increase of global SAT. The analysis of these parameters made it possible to carry out parameterization of GHE. To identify non-anthropogenic possible reasons of global SAT changes the influence of GHE on global SAT has been analyzed, with El-Nino phenomenon being one of the possible reasons. It has been shown that the GHGs role in global SAT changes is not dominant.

  2. Disagreement of energy and macronutrient intakes estimated from a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day diet record in girls 4 to 9 years of age.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alissa M R; Lewis, Richard D

    2004-03-01

    The Block98 food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) has been validated for dietary assessment of usual intakes in adults, but not in children. To assess the agreement of the Block98 FFQ and 3-day diet records for measuring dietary intakes in young girls. Healthy 4- to 9-year-old girls (N=61; 6.5+/-1.6 years) were recruited from the Athens/Clarke county area in Georgia. Dietary intakes were measured using the Block98 FFQ and 3-day diet records, with nutrient analysis of the 3-day diet records conducted using the Food Processor computer program (ESHA; version 7.21, 1998, ESHA Research, Salem, OR). The Block98 FFQ was completed by a trained interviewer and parent, with input from the child, if able. Food models and portion size pictures were used to increase reporting accuracy. Paired sample t tests and simple regression were conducted to determine whether the two diet instruments reported similar values for energy and macronutrients. Block98 FFQ overestimated intakes from 3-day diet records for energy (2,180+/-692 vs 1,749+/-328 kcal), protein (68.3+/-25.9 vs 57.9+/-14.8 g/day), carbohydrate (298.7+/-97.0 vs 244.7+/-46.1 g/day) and fat (83.6+/-30.5 vs 62.3+/-14.7 g/day) (P<.05). Furthermore, the nutrients assessed using the two different methods were only moderately correlated (range: r=0.40 to 0.55). The Block98 FFQ agreed weakly to moderately with the 3-day diet records, and resulted in consistently higher intakes of all nutrients. These findings suggest that additional work is needed to develop a FFQ that reflects young children's energy and macronutrient intakes.

  3. STS-113 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) crew during flight day 9. Also seen are the outgoing Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and incoming Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). Flight day 9 is a relatively inactive day, with some off-time scheduled for crew bonding and enjoying views. Seven of the joint crew members, including Lopez-Alegria, Wetherbee, Herrington, and Whitsun, pose together and answer questions. Footage shows ISS Science Officers Whitsun and Pettit troubleshooting equipment. The video also contains a clear view of southern South America, a cloudy view of the South Pacific, and external footage of the ISS including the Canadarm robotic arm. The payload bay of the shuttle Endeavour is also shown.

  4. STS-113 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-113 (Jim Wetherbee, Commander; Paul Lockhart, Pilot; Michael Lopez-Alegria, John Herrington, Mission Specialists) crew during flight day 9. Also seen are the outgoing Expedition 5 (Valeri Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitsun, ISS Science Officer/Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) and incoming Expedition 6 (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin, Flight Engineers) crews of the ISS (International Space Station). Flight day 9 is a relatively inactive day, with some off-time scheduled for crew bonding and enjoying views. Seven of the joint crew members, including Lopez-Alegria, Wetherbee, Herrington, and Whitsun, pose together and answer questions. Footage shows ISS Science Officers Whitsun and Pettit troubleshooting equipment. The video also contains a clear view of southern South America, a cloudy view of the South Pacific, and external footage of the ISS including the Canadarm robotic arm. The payload bay of the shuttle Endeavour is also shown.

  5. Observed Spectral Invariant Behavior of Zenith Radiance in the Transition Zone Between Cloud-Free and Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Chiu, C.; Wiscombe, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) new Shortwave Spectrometer (SWS) looks straight up and measures zenith radiance at 418 wavelengths between 350 and 2200 nm. Because of its 1-sec sampling resolution, the SWS provides a unique capability to study the transition zone between cloudy and clear sky areas. A surprising spectral invariant behavior is found between ratios of zenith radiance spectra during the transition from cloudy to cloud-free atmosphere. This behavior suggests that the spectral signature of the transition zone is a linear mixture between the two extremes (definitely cloudy and definitely clear). The weighting function of the linear mixture is found to be a wavelength-independent characteristic of the transition zone. It is shown that the transition zone spectrum is fully determined by this function and zenith radiance spectra of clear and cloudy regions. This new finding may help us to better understand and quantify such physical phenomena as humidification of aerosols in the relatively moist cloud environment and evaporation and activation of cloud droplets.

  6. Thermal Histories of H3-6 Chondrites and Their Parent Asteroid from Metallographic Cooling Rates and Cloudy Taenite Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, T. V.; Goldstein, J. I.; Scott, E. R. D.; Wakita, S.

    2012-09-01

    Metallographic cooling rates and cloudy taenite dimensions for 17 and 23 H3-6 chondrites show that the H parent body did not retain an onion-shell structure as it cooled. Impacts excavated and mixed material and may have heated surficial material.

  7. Absorption of Sunlight by Water Vapor in Cloudy Conditions: A Partial Explaination for the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    1996-01-01

    The atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms used in most global general circulation models underestimate the globally-averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25 Wm(sup -2)...Here, a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model was used to provide a more comprehensive description of the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by the Earth's atmosphere.

  8. Nanopaleomagnetism of Meteoritic Fe-Ni: the Potential for Time-Resolved Remanence Records within the Cloudy Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. J.; Bryson, J. F.; Kasama, T.; Church, N. S.; Herrero Albillos, J.; Kronast, F.; Ghidini, M.; Redfern, S. A.; van der Laan, G.; Tyliszczak, T.

    2013-12-01

    Paleomagnetic signals recorded by meteorites provide compelling evidence that the liquid cores of differentiated asteroids generated magnetic dynamo fields. Here we argue that magnetic nanostructures unique to meteoritic Fe-Ni metal are capable of carrying a time-resolved record of asteroid dynamo activity, a prospect that could revolutionise our understanding of the thermochemical conditions of differentiated bodies in the early solar system. Using a combination of high-resolution magnetic imaging techniques (including electron holography, magnetic force microscopy, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy) we reveal the origins of the dramatic changes in magnetic properties that are associated with the transition from kamacite - tetrataenite rim - cloudy zone - plessite, typical of Fe-Ni intergrowths. The cloudy zone is comprised of nanoscale islands of tetrataenite (FeNi) coherently intergrown with a hitherto unobserved soft magnetic phase (Fe3Ni). The tetrataenite island diameter decreases with increasing lateral distance from the tetrataenite rim. Exchange coupling between the hard tetrataenite islands and the soft matrix phase leads to an exchange spring effect that lowers the tetrataenite switching field and causes a systematic variation in microcoercivity throughout the cloudy zone. The cloudy zone displays a complex interlocking magnetic domain pattern caused by uniaxial single domain tetrataenite islands with easy axes distributed along all three of the possible <100> crystallographic orientations. The coarse and intermediate cloudy zones contain a random distribution of all three easy axes. The fine cloudy zone, on the other hand, contains one dominant easy axis direction. This easy axis distribution suggests that strong interaction fields (either magnetic or stress) were present in this region at the time of tetrataenite formation, which likely originated from the neighbouring plessite. The easy axis

  9. Career Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  10. Zoo Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Zoo Day was one of the culminating activities of Art Extravaganza, a pilot summer art program for high ability first-and second-graders. Field trips, art history lessons, box sculpture, and a study of cavemen were included. (SJL)

  11. Pi Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldner, Bruce C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a day of activities to encourage students to participate in mathematics. Five contests include poster; model; mathematics puzzle; mathematics problem challenge; and essay. Some student entries and the rules for each contest are described. (MKR)

  12. Remotely Sensed Potential Evaporation Estimates for Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Hogue, T.

    2006-12-01

    This study explores a methodology solely dependent on remote sensing information to capture both the current climate signal and the spatial variability of daily potential evaporation (PE) by taking advantage of the new generation of Earth Observation satellites (i.e., MODIS sensor). PE, a required input for most hydrologic models, is typically obtained from pan evaporation estimates, or in some cases, from ground-based meteorological measurements at limited point locations. We focus our efforts on development of a "stand-alone" method to derive daily estimates of PE without the need for ground-based observations. The procedure is based on the Priestley-Taylor equation, incorporating a previously developed daily net radiation model during cloudless days. We then apply a simple algorithm using theoretical clear-sky net radiation and potential evaporation (linearly interpolated values during clear days), along with a daily cloud fraction to estimate net radiation and potential evaporation under cloudy conditions. For initial validation, point scale comparisons are undertaken using the single pixel value from MODIS corresponding to four ground-based observation sites covering a range of hydroclimatic conditions and biomes: Bondville (IL), Goodwin Creek (MS), Audubon (AZ) and Westville (OK). Preliminary results over a several year period (2001-2004) at three of the sites (Bondville, Goodwin Creek and Westville) show good correlation (R=0.875) and bias (0.227mm/day) at the daily time step. Results are further improved when aggregated to the monthly timescale (R=0.953, bias=0.197 mm/day). Performance at the Audubon site (semi-arid biome) is less satisfactory (R=0.820 and bias=2.025 mm/day at the daily time step). However, results are extremely promising and show the potential for application to hydrologic modeling and water-balance studies in both gauged and un-gauged basins. Further work is on-going to investigate deficiencies in semi-arid regions and to improve

  13. First Complete Day from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular, full-color image of the Earth is a composite of the first full day of data gathered by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. MODIS collected the data for each wavelength of red, green, and blue light as Terra passed over the daylit side of the Earth on April 19, 2000. Terra is orbiting close enough to the Earth so that it cannot quite see the entire surface in a day, resulting in the narrow gaps around the equator. Although the sensor's visible channels were combined to form this true-color picture, MODIS collects data in a total of 36 wavelengths, ranging from visible to thermal infrared energy. Scientists use these data to measure regional and global-scale changes in marine and land-based plant life, sea and land surface temperatures, cloud properties, aerosols, fires, and land surface properties. Notice how cloudy the Earth is, and the large differences in brightness between clouds, deserts, oceans, and forests. The Antarctic, surrounded by clockwise swirls of cloud, is shrouded in darkness because the sun is north of the equator at this time of year. The tropical forests of Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America are shrouded by clouds. The bright Sahara and Arabian deserts stand out clearly. Green vegetation is apparent in the southeast United States, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Madagascar. Image by Mark Gray, MODIS Atmosphere Team, NASA GSFC

  14. Estimated loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by northern squawfish, walleyes, and smallmouth bass in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River. [Oncorhynchus spp. ; Ptychocheilus oregonensis; Stizostedion vitreum; Micropterus dolomieu; O. tshawytscha

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, B.E.; Beamesderfer, R.C. ); Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors estimated the loss of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. to predation by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in John Day Reservoir during 1983-1986. Their estimates were based on measures of daily prey consumption, predator numbers, and numbers of juvenile salmonids entering the reservoir during the April-August period of migration. They estimated the mean annual loss was 2.7 million juvenile salmonids. Northern squawfish were responsible for 78% of the total loss; walleyes accounted for 13% and smallmouth bass for 9%. Twenty-one percent of the loss occurred in a small area immediately below McNary Dam at the head of John Day Reservoir. The authors estimated that the three predator species consumed 14% of all juvenile salmonids that entered the reservoir. Mortality changed by month and increased late in the migration season. Monthly mortality estimates ranged from 7% in June and 61% in August. Mortality from predation was highest for chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, which migrated in July and August. Despite uncertainties in the estimates, it is clear that predation by resident fish predators can easily account for previously explained mortality of out-migrating juvenile salmonids. Alteration of the Columbia River by dams and a decline in the number of salmonids could have increased the fraction of mortality caused by predation over what is was in the past.

  15. Solar activity cloudiness effect on NH warming for 1980-2095

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Víctor M.; Mendoza, Blanca; Garduño, René; Villanueva, Elba E.; Adem, Julián

    2016-03-01

    We use a Thermodynamic Climate Model (TCM) to compute the Northern Hemisphere temperature anomaly for the period 1980-2095, corresponding to the global warming (GW) by the increase of the atmospheric CO2; the GW is in turn diminished as a consequence of the negative anomaly of the solar activity (SA), giving a warming reduction (WR). So the CO2 and the SA represent external climate forcings. The total solar irradiance (TSI) is the main manifestation of the SA and of course is the climate driver; the SA produces besides the solar wind that modulates the flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which in turn modifies the low cloud cover, that by itself influences inversely the mid cloud cover; the combination of both cloudiness yields the so called relevant cloud cover. The GCR-cloudiness effect has a delay of ∼1 yr with respect to TSI effect, which is the time for a SA change to reach the heliopause carried by the solar wind. In order to incorporate this climate mechanism, the TCM now includes the warming due to the vapor condensation by GCR, which causes a decrease in the magnitude of the WR. The TCM was improved by incorporating it new parameterizations of three mechanisms, which are activated by the GW: the atmospheric lapse rate changes; the water vapor emissivity between 8 and 12.5μ is computed with the E-Trans/HITRAN calculator; and changes in this emissivity band according to the relative humidity changes. The 11-yr variability of the TSI time series is filtered to get the trend along 21st century. Two IPCC (2001, 2007) CO2 emission scenarios are used: the high A1FI and the low A1T. Emphasis is made on the results for two particular years: one corresponding to the deepest part of the TSI grand solar minimum in the year 2029, and the other to the end of the century, 2095. The main thermal feedbacks included in TCM are those due to the atmospheric greenhouse effect by water vapor, to the cryosphere-albedo and to cloudiness-albedo. By 2100 the GW from the TCM is 5

  16. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business day...

  17. Seasonal size distribution of airborne culturable bacteria and fungi and preliminary estimation of their deposition in human lungs during non-haze and haze days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Jia, Ruizhi; Qiu, Tianlei; Han, Meilin; Song, Yuan; Wang, Xuming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, haze events in Beijing have significantly increased in frequency. On haze days, airborne microorganisms are considered to be a potential risk factor for various health concerns. However, limited information on bioaerosols has prevented our proper understanding of the possible threat to human health due to these bioaerosols. In this study, we used a six-stage impactor for sampling culturable bioaerosols and the LUDEP 2.07 computer-based model for calculating their deposition on human lungs to investigate seasonal concentration, size distribution, and corresponding deposition efficiency and flux in the human respiratory tract during different haze-level events. The current results of the analysis of 398 samples over four seasons indicate that the concentration of culturable airborne bacteria decreased with increasing haze severity. The bioaerosol concentration ratio was skewed towards larger particle sizes on heavy haze days leading to larger bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters than on non-haze days. During nasal breathing by an adult male engaged in light exercise in an outdoor environment, the total deposition efficiency of culturable bioaerosols is 80-90% including approximately 70% in the upper respiratory tract, 5-7% in the alveoli, and about 3% in the bronchial couple with bronchiolar regions. Although the difference in culturable bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters at different haze levels was not large enough to cause obvious differences in lung deposition efficiency, the deposition fluxes clearly varied with the degree of haze owing to the varied concentration of culturable airborne bacteria and fungi. The results here could improve our understanding of the seasonal health threat due to culturable bioaerosols during non-haze and haze days.

  18. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  19. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  20. Capitol Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman visits with Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour during NASA Day at the Capitol activities on Feb. 19. During the visit, Goldman presented the governor with a model of the J-2X rocket engine currently in development. Stennis engineers did early component testing for the new engine.

  1. Capitol Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman visits with Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour during NASA Day at the Capitol activities on Feb. 19. During the visit, Goldman presented the governor with a model of the J-2X rocket engine currently in development. Stennis engineers did early component testing for the new engine.

  2. Assimilation of hyperspectral infrared sounder radiances under cloudy skies in a regional NWP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei

    Satellite measurements are an important source of global observations in support of numerical weather prediction (NWP). The assimilation of satellite radiances under clear skies has greatly improved NWP forecast scores. Since most of the data assimilation models are used for the clear radiances assimilation, an important step for satellite radiances assimilation is the clear location detection. Good clear detection could effectively remove the cloud contamination and keep the clear observations for assimilation. In this dissertation, a new detection method uses collocated high spatial resolution imager data onboard the same platform as the satellite sounders to help IR sounders subpixel cloud detection, such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The MODIS cloud mask provides a level of confidence for the observed skies to help AIRS Field-of-View (FOVs) cloud detection. By reducing the cloud contamination, a cold bias in the temperature field and a wet bias in the moisture field are corrected for the atmospheric analysis fields. These less cloud affected analysis fields further improve hurricane track and intensity forecast. The availability of satellite observations that can be assimilated in the model is limited if only the clear radiances are assimilation. An effective way to use the thermodynamic information under partially cloudy regions is to assimilate the "cloud-cleared" radiances (CCRs); CCRs are also called clear equivalent radiances. Because the CCRs are the equivalent clear radiances from the partially cloudy FOVs, they can be directly assimilated into the current data assimilation models without modifications. The AIRS CCRs are assimilated and compared with the AIRS using stand-alone cloud detection and collocated cloud detection. The assimilation of AIRS cloud-cleared radiances directly affects

  3. Fast and accurate techniques of treating the radiative transfer problem under cloudy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremenko, Dmitry; Doicu, Adrian; Trautmann, Thomas; Loyola, Diego

    As a massive amount of spectral information is expected from the new generation of European atmospheric sensors Sentinel 5 Precursor, Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5, a fast processing of the data in the UV-VIS spectral domain, is required. Trace gas retrievals from nadir sounding instruments are hindered by the presence of clouds. Our research is focused on the developing of a robust and accurate algorithm for treating clouds in the radiative transfer models (RTM). For this reason we have implemented an acceleration technique based on dimensionality reduction algorithms. We obtained the speed improvement of about 8 times. For operational reasons clouds can be considered as an optically homogeneous layer. In the independent pixel approximation, radiative transfer computations involving cloudy scenes require two separate calls to the RTM, one call for a clear sky scenario, the other for an atmosphere containing clouds. We present two novel methods for RTM performance enhancement with particular application to trace gas retrievals under cloudy conditions. Both methods are based on reusing results from clear-sky RTM calculations to speed up corresponding calculations for the cloud-filled scenario. Also, for satellite instruments with a high spatial resolution, it is important to account for the sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneities, or at least, to assess their effect on the radiances at the top of the atmosphere, and in particular, on the retrieval results. This assessment is probabilistic since the detailed structure of the clouds is unknown and only a small number of statistical properties are given. In this regard, we have designed a stochastic model for the solar radiation problem and a molecular atmosphere with its underlying surface. The model allows the computation of the mean radiance at the top of the atmosphere as it is intended to be used for trace gas retrievals. The efficiency of the stochastic model is lower, because we have to solve a two-dimensional problem

  4. How to distinguish between cloudy mini-Neptunes and water/volatile-dominated super-Earths

    SciTech Connect

    Benneke, Björn; Seager, Sara

    2013-12-01

    One of the most profound questions about the newly discovered class of low-density super-Earths is whether these exoplanets are predominately H{sub 2}-dominated mini-Neptunes or volatile-rich worlds with gas envelopes dominated by H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, or N{sub 2}. Transit observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b rule out cloud-free H{sub 2}-dominated scenarios, but are not able to determine whether the lack of deep spectral features is due to high-altitude clouds or the presence of a high mean molecular mass atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that one can unambiguously distinguish between cloudy mini-Neptunes and volatile-dominated worlds based on wing steepness and relative depths of absorption features in moderate-resolution near-infrared transmission spectra (R ∼ 100). In a numerical retrieval study, we show for GJ 1214b that an unambiguous distinction between a cloudy H{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere and cloud-free H{sub 2}O atmosphere will be possible if the uncertainties in the spectral transit depth measurements can be reduced by a factor of ∼3 compared to the published Hubble Space Telescope Wide-Field Camera 3 and Very Large Telescope transit observations by Berta et al. and Bean et al. We argue that the required precision for the distinction may be achievable with currently available instrumentation by stacking 10-15 repeated transit observations. We provide a scaling law that scales our quantitative results to other transiting super-Earths and Neptunes such as HD 97658b, 55 Cnc e, GJ 3470b and GJ 436b. The analysis in this work is performed using an improved version of our Bayesian atmospheric retrieval framework. The new framework not only constrains the gas composition and cloud/haze parameters, but also determines our confidence in having detected molecules and cloud/haze species through Bayesian model comparison. Using the Bayesian tool, we demonstrate quantitatively that the subtle transit depth variation in the Berta et al. data is

  5. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, Hailong; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-01-02

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the horizontal spatial structure of the closed-cell state determines, by entrainment of dry free tropospheric air, the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The synchronized dynamics of the the open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux, the open-cell state creates conditions by which it is maintained. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol, and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, it also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. In aerosol-depleted conditions, this enhancement may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation, and hence contribute to the perpetuation of the open-cell state as well. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have

  6. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M. J.; Kim, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7) and Earth-Probe (EP) TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA) or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA) if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is ≥0.5 or ≥- 0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8+/-7.7% and 35.8+-7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by 200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure ≤ 200 hPa) for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by 150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure ≥750 hPa). Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30-60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more ozone production because of

  7. Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy areas in TOMS version-7 level-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M. J.; Kim, J. H.

    2003-08-01

    This study investigates anomalous ozone distributions over cloudy areas in Nimbus-7 (N7) and Earth-Probe (EP) TOMS version-7 data and analyzes the causes for ozone anomaly formation. A 5°-longitude by 5°-latitude region is defined to contain a Positive Ozone Anomaly (POA) or Negative Ozone Anomaly (NOA) if the correlation coefficient between total ozone and reflectivity is > 0.5 or < -0.5. The average fractions of ozone anomalies among all cloud fields are 31.8 ± 7.7% and 35.8 ± 7.7% in the N7 and EP TOMS data, respectively. Some ozone anomalies are caused by ozone retrieval errors, and others are caused by actual geophysical phenomena. Large cloud-height errors are found in the TOMS version-7 algorithm in comparison to the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) cloud data. On average, cloud-top pressures are overestimated by ~200 hPa (THIR cloud-top pressure < 200 hPa) for high-altitude clouds and underestimated by ~150 hPa for low-altitude clouds (THIR cloud-top pressure > 750 hPa). Most tropical NOAs result from negative errors induced by large cloud-height errors, and most tropical POAs are caused by positive errors due to intra-cloud ozone absorption enhancement. However, positive and negative errors offset each other, reducing the ozone anomaly occurrence in TOMS data. Large ozone/reflectivity slopes for mid-latitude POAs show seasonal variation consistent with total ozone fluctuation, indicating that they result mainly from synoptic and planetary wave disturbances. POAs with an occurrence fraction of 30--60% occur in regions of marine stratocumulus off the west coast of South Africa and off the west coast of South America. Both fractions and ozone/reflectivity slopes of these POAs show seasonal variations consistent with that in the tropospheric ozone. About half the ozone/reflectivity slope can be explained by ozone retrieval errors over clear and cloudy areas. The remaining slope may result from there being more

  8. Coherent Cloudiness Variability from Sierra Nevada to the Sea in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumargo, E.; Cayan, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud variability serves as the principal modulator of incoming solar radiation. These cloud effects are particularly important in mountain settings such as the Sierra Nevada in California, because the solar irradiance is a primary input to the snowpack energy balance. An important, unanswered question is whether the mountain clouds over the Sierra Nevada are only one part of a larger-scale system or whether they vary distinctly from cloud patterns upstream over the Central Valley and coastal areas. To address this question we investigate cloud variability over California using 19 years (1996-2014) of GOES visible albedo product with 4-km spatial and 30-minute temporal resolutions. Two domains are considered: high elevations in which only higher (>800m) elevations are included, thus excluding the coast and valley clouds, and all elevations which includes all elevations from the offshore North Pacific to Nevada. Our focus is on the spring and early summer period, which is crucial because it includes much of the snowmelt runoff from the Sierra Nevada. Inter-annual variation of cloudiness, represented by the coefficient of variation of cloud albedo, reveals the highest relative variability from California coasts and lowlands in the winter and spring to highlands and mountains in the summer and autumn. This pattern also occurs across shorter to longer time-scales, with coefficient of variation ranging from 30-180% on daily scale to 5-40% on seasonal scale. Considering the spatial structure of anomalous cloudiness, rotated EOF (REOF) analyses of de-seasonalized daily cloud albedo in the high elevation domain yields patterns and temporal variations that are well correlated with those from the all elevation domain. This indicates that, to a large degree, the mountain clouds co-vary with those over the Central Valley and the California coast, even though the valley and coastal clouds include low stratus clouds. The monthly standard deviations of the amplitudes of the time

  9. Water ice clouds on Mars: a study of partial cloudiness with a global climate model and MARCI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, Alizée; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, François; Wolff, Mike; Navarro, Thomas; Millour, Ehouarn; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Spiga, Aymeric; Bertrand, Tanguy

    2015-04-01

    There is a large reservoir of water ice on Mars in the polar caps, that sublimates in summer and releases water vapor. Water is then advected in the atmospheric circulation that evolves seasonally. This vapor forms clouds, frost, and can also be adsorbed in the soil. In a global study of the water cycle, water ice clouds play a key part in the martian climate. There is a need to understand better their distribution and radiative effect. The tool used in this study is the global climate model (GCM) of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique. It is made up of a core that computes fluid dynamics, and a physical part that gathers a number of parametrised processes. It includes tracers and the condensation and sublimation of water in the atmosphere and on the ground, allowing a study of the complete water cycle. To improve the representation of water ice clouds in the model, a new parametrisation of partial cloudiness has been implemented and will be presented. Indeed, model cells are hundreds of kilometers wide, and it is quite unrealistic to suppose that cloud coverage is always uniform in them. Furthermore, the model was quite unstable since the implementation of the radiative effect of clouds, and partial cloudiness had the effect of reducing this instability. In practice, a subgrid temperature distribution is supposed, and the temperature computed in the model is interpreted as its mean. The subgrid scale temperature distribution is simple, and its width is a free parameter. Using this distribution, the fraction of the grid cells under the water vapor condensation temperature is interpreted as the fraction of the cell in which clouds form (or cloud fraction). From these fractions at each height a total partial cloudiness (the clouds as seen from the orbit) is deduced. The radiative transfer is computed twice, for the clear area and for the cloudy one. Observing the water cycle with this new parametrisation, some differences are seen with standard runs. These

  10. Estimating the net effect of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG on live birth rates after IVF: a cohort analysis of 3296 IVF cycles.

    PubMed

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2015-03-01

    What is the proper way of assessing the effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG on live birth in women undergoing fresh embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization (IVF) using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins? This study indicates that a multivariable approach, where the effect of the most important confounders is controlled for, can lead to markedly different results regarding the association between PE on the day of hCG and live birth rates after IVF when compared with the bivariate analysis that has been typically used in the relevant literature up to date. PE on the day of hCG is associated with decreased pregnancy rates in fresh IVF cycles. Evidence for this comes from observational studies that mostly failed to control for potential confounders. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of fresh IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (n = 3296) performed in a single IVF centre during the period 2001-2013. Patients in whom ovarian stimulation was performed with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Natural cycles and cycles where stimulation involved the administration of clomiphene were excluded. In order to reflect routine clinical practice, no other exclusion criteria were imposed on this dataset. The primary outcome measure for this study was live birth defined as the delivery of a live infant after 24 weeks of gestation. We compared the association between PE on the day of hCG (defined as P > 1.5 ng/ml) and live birth rates calculated by simple bivariate analyses with that derived from multivariable logistic regression. The multivariable analysis controlled for female age, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, developmental stage of embryos at transfer (cleavage versus blastocyst), whether at least one good-quality embryo was transferred, the woman's body mass index, the total dose of FSH administered during ovarian stimulation and the type of GnRH analogues used (agonists versus antagonists) during ovarian

  11. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  12. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  13. [The specific features of present-day children's physical development in the estimation of the functional sizes of furniture for pupils].

    PubMed

    Khramtsov, P I; Strokina, A N; Sotnikova, E N; Butareva, I I; Moldovanov, V V

    2009-01-01

    The authors made mass anthropometric surveys in 923 first-to-fourth-form pupils and determined the values of 5 variables for height groups 2, 3, and 4, used to justify the functional sizes of furniture for pupils: the length of a shoulder slope above the seat, that of an elbow slope above the seat, that of a popliteal space slope above the floor, the distance from the chair hack to the popliteal space, and the highest pelvic width. Differences were found in the anthropometric values in the present-day junior pupils and the equals in age of the early 1970s. The present-day children are characterized by changes in body proportions (a decrease in height and an increase in the length of the shin and femur), which should be kept in mind on optimizing the working place of pupils. It is suggested that popliteal space length rather than the currently applied height should be used as a fitting ratio of anthropometric characteristics to the functional sizes of furniture for pupils.

  14. The SunCloud project: worldwide compilation of long-term series of sunshine duration and cloudiness observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Pallé, Enric; Wild, Martin; Calbó, Josep; Brunetti, Michelle; Stanhill, Gerald; Brázdil, Rudolf; Barriendos, Mariano; Pereira, Paulo; Azorin-Molina, César

    2010-05-01

    homogenized sunshine series will be studied in order to reconstruct global and regional solar irradiance at the Earth's surface since the late 19th century. Equally, we plan to calibrate sunshine duration measurements against planetary albedo estimations from the Earthshine measurements and other satellite radiation data. Since clouds are the main cause of interannual and decadal variability of radiation reaching the Earth's surface, as a complement to the long-term sunshine series we will also compile worldwide surface cloudiness observations. With this abstract we seek to encourage the climate community to contribute with their own local datasets to the SunCloud project. In the near future we will create a webpage with the main details of this project.

  15. An Operational Forecast Perspective on Marine Low Cloudiness and Fog along the Central Coast of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blier, W.

    2016-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), a component of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. Department of Commerce, has been providing the nation with timely and reliable weather and climate information for more than 140 years. For the San Francisco Bay Area/Monterey NWS Weather Forecast Office (WFO), marine low cloudiness and fog are of critical importance. Impacts range from low-ceiling restrictions on take-offs and landings at the San Francisco International Airport (and consequent adverse effects on the national aviation airspace), to reductions in visibility on traffic flow and small-scale variations in boundary layer properties on wildfire risk and spread. Marine stratus, and associated drizzle and fog-drip, are also of critical importance to the ecology of the coastal environment, and in particular the hydration of the redwood forests. This presentation will provide an overview of related operational weather forecast activities and products, along with information on their real-time access. Particular high-impact scenarios will be considered, along with discussion of key current challenges and the continuing integration of technological and scientific advances to improve forecasts.

  16. Longwave radiative exchange analysis of cloudy atmospheres with a net exchange formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymet, V.; Blanco, S.; Dufresne, J.-L.; Fournier, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Next Exchange Formulation (NEF) is an alternative to the usual radiative transfer equation. It was proposed in 1967 by Green for atmospheric sciences and by Hottel for engineering sciences. Until now, the NEF has been used only in a very few cases for atmospheric studies. Recently we have developed a longwave radiative code based on this formulation for a GCM of the Mars planet. Here, we will present results for the Earth atmosphere, obtained with a Monte Carlo Method based on the NEF. In this method, the fluxes are no more considered. The basic variables are the net exchange rates (NER) between each pair of atmospheric layer {i,j}, i.e. the radiative power emitted by i and absorbed by j minus the radiative power emitted by j and absorbed by i. The graphical representation of the NER matrix highlight the radiative exchanges which dominate the radiative budget of the atmosphere and allows one to have a very good insight of the radiative exchanges. Results will be shown for clear sky atmosphere, cloudy atmosphere and atmosphere with dust aerosols. The role of scattering in the longwave radiative exchanges will also be analyzed. The calculation of sensitivity parameter being automatically implemented in the Monte Carlo Method, a complementary sensitivity analysis will be presented that examines how radiative exchanges depend on concentrations profiles of main absorbing and scattering species.

  17. Safety and quality assessment during the ozonation of cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Patil, S; Torres, B; Tiwari, B K; Wijngaard, Hilde H; Bourke, P; Cullen, P J; O'Donnell, C P; Valdramidis, V P

    2010-09-01

    Traditionally, ozone processing within the food industry has focused on solid foods by either gaseous treatment or washing with ozonized water. However, with the FDA's approval of ozone as a direct additive to food, the potential for liquid applications has emerged. This study investigates the effect of ozone processing on microbial inactivation (E. coli ATCC 25922 and NCTC 12900) and quality parameters (color, phenolic content) of cloudy apple juice. Apple juice samples were ozonated at room temperature (20 ± 1.5 °C) with a generated ozone concentration of 0.048 mg O(3) at a constant flow rate of 0.12 L/min and treatment time of 0 to 10 min. E. coli inactivation kinetics in apple juice were described quantitatively by using the Shoulder log-linear and the Weibull model. Ozone treatment of E. coli in apple juice demonstrate that a desired 5 log reduction can be achieved within 5 min. Apple juice color (L*, a*, and b*) and total phenols were significantly affected by ozone concentration and treatment time.

  18. Development of a Fast Radiative Transfer Model for Simulating MODIS Solar Channels Under Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, J.; Yang, P.; Huang, H.; Baum, B.; Hu, Y.

    2006-12-01

    A solar-band fast radiative transfer model (SFRTM-1, appropriate for application to a single-layered cloudy condition, has been developed for simulating outgoing bidirectional reflectance at the top of the atmosphere for MODIS solar channels. Cloud parameters such as the bi-directional reflectance function (BDRF), downward spherical reflectance, and cloud transmittance are pre-computed using DISORT model and tabulated into lookup tables for each MODIS channel. Cloud reflectance and transmittance parameters for a specific condition can be derived from a multi-dimensional interpolation technique. The total reflectance at the top of the atmosphere is evaluated using adding method with the gaseous atmospheric transmittances above and below the cloud layer, which are computed by a newly developed MODIS clear sky fast radiative transfer model (MODCSFRT). The MODCSFRT is based on the rigorous line-by-line computation and interpolation technique. The transmittances for individual atmospheric gaseous have been computed as a function of pressure, temperature, and column amount with high spectral resolution. After convolution with the MODIS instrument response function, channel transmittance functions have been tabulated into a four-dimensional lookup table. The practical transmittance at any layer of a user designed atmospheric model can be derived by a polynomial interpolation technique. In this paper, the SFRTM-1 and its related model MODCSFRT will be briefly described. The accuracy of the model and its preliminary application will be demonstrated.

  19. Acceleration of pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    PubMed

    Lam Quoc, A; Lamarche, F; Makhlouf, J

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to accelerate pH variation in cloudy apple juice using electrodialysis (ED). The testing was conducted using two ED configurations. The bipolar and cationic membrane configuration showed that reducing the spacing from 8 to 0.75 mm had little effect on treatment time, whereas stacking eight bipolar membranes reduced acidification time by 30%, although the treatment still took too long (21 min). Furthermore, it was not possible to acidify apple juice to a pH of 2.0 to completely inhibit enzymatic browning. The bipolar and anionic membrane configuration helped to accelerate the acidification step by a factor of 3, increasing the yield from 3.3 to 10 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. Moreover, treatment time was inversely proportional to the size of the membrane stack. The speed at which the pH of acidified juice returned to its initial value was, however, 4 times slower than the speed of acidification, giving a yield of 2.5 L of juice/m(2) membrane/min. By accelerating the acidification step, ED treatment with bipolar and anionic membranes results in more effective polyphenol oxidase activity and more rapid control of juice browning at pH 2.0. Also, the treatment has very little effect on the chemical composition and organoleptic quality of apple juice.

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of AIRS Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) are run to examine the impact AIRS radiances and retrieved profiles. Statistical evaluation of a long-term series of forecast runs will be compared along with preliminary results of in-depth investigations for select case comparing the analysis increments in partly cloudy regions and short-term forecast impacts.

  1. Profiling the Cloudy Boundary Layer from GPS Radio Occultation and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, F.; Ao, C. O.; Mannucci, A. J.; Turk, F. J.; Syndergaard, S.; Kursinski, R.; Wu, D. L.; Adhikari, L.

    2013-12-01

    Over the subtropical eastern oceans, the strong subsidence in the free troposphere and the cool sea surface temperature often lead to a shallow cloudy boundary layer (CBL). It is extremely difficult to profile the vertical structure of such shallow CBL (0.5-2 km) from the space. The sharp moisture gradient underneath the strong inversion leads to large refractivity gradient and often causes ducting across the boundary layer top. The presence of duct results in systematically negative biases in the GPS radio occultation (RO) refractivity (i.e., N-bias) inside the CBL due to a non-unique retrieval problem. An independent physical constraint is required to extract a unique and bias-free solution. In this study, several cases of RO soundings from COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere & Climate) along with the near-coincident MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) lidar measurements are analyzed. The MODIS cloud-top-temperature (CTT) is used as an independent constraint to correct the systematic bias in the RO refractivity. The sensitivity analysis on the reconstruction technique and the comparison between the reconstructed (bias-free) RO profile and the ECMWF analysis will be presented. The synergy of GPS RO and MODIS CTT measurements provides model-independent observation of CBL thermodynamic structures that are crucial for understanding the complex boundary layer and low cloud dynamic processes in global weather and climate model simulations.

  2. HST PanCET program: A Cloudy Atmosphere for the Promising JWST Target WASP-101b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeford, H. R.; Stevenson, K. B.; Lewis, N. K.; Sing, D. K.; López-Morales, M.; Marley, M.; Kataria, T.; Mandell, A.; Ballester, G. E.; Barstow, J.; Ben-Jaffel, L.; Bourrier, V.; Buchhave, L. A.; Ehrenreich, D.; Evans, T.; García Muñoz, A.; Henry, G.; Knutson, H.; Lavvas, P.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Nikolov, N.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present results from the first observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Panchromatic Comparative Exoplanet Treasury program for WASP-101b, a highly inflated hot Jupiter and one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. From a single HST Wide Field Camera 3 observation, we find that the near-infrared transmission spectrum of WASP-101b contains no significant H2O absorption features and we rule out a clear atmosphere at 13σ. Therefore, WASP-101b is not an optimum target for a JWST ERS program aimed at observing strong molecular transmission features. We compare WASP-101b to the well-studied and nearly identical hot Jupiter WASP-31b. These twin planets show similar temperature-pressure profiles and atmospheric features in the near-infrared. We suggest exoplanets in the same parameter space as WASP-101b and WASP-31b will also exhibit cloudy transmission spectral features. For future HST exoplanet studies, our analysis also suggests that a lower count limit needs to be exceeded per pixel on the detector in order to avoid unwanted instrumental systematics.

  3. A comparative study between spiral-filter press and belt press implemented in a cloudy apple juice production process.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, advantages and disadvantages of the innovative, low-oxygen spiral-filter press system were studied in comparison with the belt press, commonly applied in small and medium size enterprises for the production of cloudy apple juice. On the basis of equivalent throughput, a higher juice yield could be achieved with spiral-filter press. Also a more turbid juice with a higher content of suspended solids could be produced. The avoidance of enzymatic browning during juice extraction led to an attractive yellowish juice with an elevated phenolic content. Moreover, it was found that juice produced with spiral-filter press demonstrates a higher retention of phenolic compounds during the downstream processing steps and storage. The results demonstrates the advantage of the use of a spiral-filter press in comparison with belt press in the production of a high quality cloudy apple juice rich in phenolic compounds, without the use of oxidation inhibiting additives.

  4. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition.

  5. Computation of Solar Radiative Fluxes by 1D and 3D Methods Using Cloudy Atmospheres Inferred from A-train Satellite Data.

    PubMed

    Barker, H W; Kato, S; Wehr, T

    This study used realistic representations of cloudy atmospheres to assess errors in solar flux estimates associated with 1D radiative transfer models. A scene construction algorithm, developed for the EarthCARE mission, was applied to CloudSat, CALIPSO and MODIS satellite data thus producing 3D cloudy atmospheres measuring 61 km wide by 14,000 km long at 1 km grid-spacing. Broadband solar fluxes and radiances were then computed by a Monte Carlo photon transfer model run in both full 3D and 1D independent column approximation modes. Results were averaged into 1,303 (50 km)(2) domains. For domains with total cloud fractions Ac  < 0.7 top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedos tend to be largest for 3D transfer with differences increasing with solar zenith angle. Differences are largest for Ac  > 0.7 and characterized by small bias yet large random errors. Regardless of Ac , differences between 3D and 1D transfer rarely exceed ±30 W m(-2) for net TOA and surface fluxes and ±10 W m(-2) for atmospheric absorption. Horizontal fluxes through domain sides depend on Ac with ∼20% of cases exceeding ±30 W m(-2); the largest values occur for Ac  > 0.7. Conversely, heating rate differences rarely exceed ±20%. As a cursory test of TOA radiative closure, fluxes produced by the 3D model were averaged up to (20 km)(2) and compared to values measured by CERES. While relatively little attention was paid to optical properties of ice crystals and surfaces, and aerosols were neglected entirely, ∼30% of the differences between 3D model estimates and measurements fall within ±10 W m(-2); this is the target agreement set for EarthCARE. This, coupled with the aforementioned comparison between 3D and 1D transfer, leads to the recommendation that EarthCARE employ a 3D transport model when attempting TOA radiative closure.

  6. Effect of enzymatic mash treatment and storage on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and turbidity of cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdylo, Aneta; Kolniak, Joanna

    2009-08-12

    The effects of different commercial enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic and sediment of procyanidins content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Addition of pectolytic enzymes to mash treatment had positive effect on the production of cloud apple juices by improving polyphenolic contents, especially procyanidins and juice yields (68.3% in control samples to 77% after Pectinex Yield Mash). As summary of the effect of enzymatic mash treatment, polyphenol contents in cloudy apple juices significantly increased after Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL maceration were applied but no effect was observed after Pectinex Ultra-SPL I Panzym XXL use, compared to the control samples. The content of polymeric procyanidins represented 50-70% of total polyphenols, but in the present study, polymeric procyanidins were significantly lower in juices than in fruits and also affected by enzymatic treatment (Pectinex AFP L-4 and Panzym Yield Mash) compared to the control samples. The enzymatic treatment decreased procyanidin content in most sediment with the exception of Pectinex Smash XXL and Pectinex AFP L-4. Generally in samples that were treated by pectinase, radical scavenging activity of cloudy apple juices was increased compared to the untreated reference samples. The highest radical scavenging activity was associated with Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL enzyme and the lowest activity with Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Pectinex APFL-4. However, in the case of enzymatic mash treatment cloudy apple juices showed instability of turbidity and low viscosity. These results must be ascribed to the much higher hydrolysis of pectin by enzymatic preparation which is responsible for viscosity. During 6 months of storage at 4 degrees C small changes in analyzed parameters of apple juices were observed.

  7. Observation of the spectrally invariant properties of clouds in cloudy-to-clear transition zones during the MAGIC field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-12-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness τ and droplet effective radius reff in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, characterize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness τ while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative correlation with the cloud drop effective radius reff even without the exact knowledge of τ; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measurements from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band decrease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results support the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  8. Studies in the parameterization of cloudiness in climate models and the analysis of radiation fields in general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HARSHVARDHAN

    1990-01-01

    Broad-band parameterizations for atmospheric radiative transfer were developed for clear and cloudy skies. These were in the shortwave and longwave regions of the spectrum. These models were compared with other models in an international effort called ICRCCM (Intercomparison of Radiation Codes for Climate Models). The radiation package developed was used for simulations of a General Circulation Model (GCM). A synopsis is provided of the research accomplishments in the two areas separately. Details are available in the published literature.

  9. Observation of the spectrally invariant properties of clouds in cloudy-to-clear transition zones during the MAGIC field campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-08-11

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness τ and droplet effective radius reff in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, characterize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness τ while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative correlation with the cloud drop effective radius reff even without the exact knowledge of τ; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measurements from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band decrease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  10. Observation of the spectrally invariant properties of clouds in cloudy-to-clear transition zones during the MAGIC field campaign

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick J.; ...

    2016-08-11

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness τ and droplet effective radius reff in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear andmore » cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, characterize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness τ while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative correlation with the cloud drop effective radius reff even without the exact knowledge of τ; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measurements from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band decrease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.« less

  11. Observation of the Spectrally Invariant Properties of Clouds in Cloudy-to-Clear Transition Zones During the MAGIC Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-01-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness tau and droplet effective radius r(sub eff) in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, characterize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness t while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative correlation with the cloud drop effective radius r(sub eff)even without the exact knowledge of tau; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measurements from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band decrease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results support the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  12. Observation of the Spectrally Invariant Properties of Clouds in Cloudy-to-Clear Transition Zones During the MAGIC Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-01-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness tau and droplet effective radius r(sub eff) in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, characterize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness t while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative correlation with the cloud drop effective radius r(sub eff)even without the exact knowledge of tau; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measurements from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band decrease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results support the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  13. Observation of the spectrally invariant properties of clouds in cloudy-to-clear transition zones during the MAGIC field campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-12-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness τ and droplet effective radius reff in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, character-ize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness τ while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative cor-relation with the cloud drop effective radius reff even without the exact knowledge of τ; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measure-ments from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band de-crease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results sup-port the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  14. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Validation Testing Demonstrates Efficacy of a 7-Day Fluid Record to Estimate Daily Water Intake in Adult Men and Women When Compared with Total Body Water Turnover Measurement.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Evan C; Péronnet, François; Jansen, Lisa T; Capitan-Jiménez, Catalina; Adams, J D; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Jiménez, Liliana; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Kavouras, Stavros A

    2017-10-01

    Background: Mean daily water intake from fluids (WATER-FL) has proven to be difficult to measure because of a range of nonvalidated data collection techniques. Few questionnaires have been validated to estimate WATER-FL against self-reported diaries or urinary hydration markers, which may limit their objectivity.Objectives: The goals of this investigation were 1) to assess the validity of a 7-d fluid record (7dFLR) to measure WATER-FL (WATER-FL-7dFLR) through comparison with WATER-FL as calculated by measuring deuterium oxide (D2O) disappearance (WATER-FL-D2O), and 2) to evaluate the reliability of the 7dFLR in measuring WATER-FL.Methods: Participants [n = 96; 51% female; mean ± SD age: 41 ± 14 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 26.2 ± 5.1] completed body water turnover analysis over 3 consecutive weeks. They completed the 7dFLR and food diaries during weeks 2 and 4 of the observation. The records were entered into nutritional software to determine the water content of all foods and fluids consumed. WATER-FL-D2O was calculated from water turnover (via the D2O dilution method), minus water from food and metabolic water. The agreement between the 2 methods of determining WATER-FL were compared according to a Bland-Altman plot at week 2. The test-retest reliability of 7dFLR between weeks 2 and 4 was assessed via intraclass correlation (ICC).Results: The mean ± SD difference between WATER-FL-7dFLR and WATER-FL-D2O was -131 ± 845 mL/d. In addition, no bias was observed (F[1,94] = 0.484; R(2) = 0.006; P = 0.488). When comparing WATER-FL-7dFLR from weeks 2 and 4, no significant difference (mean ± SD difference: 71 ± 75 mL/d; t[79] = 0.954; P = 0.343) and an ICC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.90) was observed.Conclusions: The main findings of this study were that the use of the 7dFLR is an effective and reliable method to estimate WATER-FL in adults. This style of questionnaire may be extremely helpful for collecting water intake data for large

  16. Analyzing Multidecadal Trends in Cloudiness Over the Subtropical Andes Mountains of South America Using a Regional Climate Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Russell, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite-based products indicate that many parts of South America have been experiencing increases in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and corresponding decreases in cloudiness over the last few decades, with the strongest trends occurring in the subtropical Andes Mountains - an area that is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its reliance on glacial melt for dry-season runoff. Changes in cloudiness may be contributing to increases in atmospheric temperature, thereby raising the freezing level height (FLH) - a critical geophysical parameter. Yet these trends are only partially captured in reanalysis products, while AMIP climate models generally show no significant trend in OLR over this timeframe, making it difficult to determine the underlying drivers. Therefore, controlled numerical experiments with a regional climate model are performed in order to investigate drivers of the observed OLR and cloudiness trends. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used here because it offers several advantages over global models, including higher resolution - a critical asset in areas of complex topography - as well as flexible physics, parameterization, and data assimilation capabilities. It is likely that changes in the mean states and meridional gradients of SSTs in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans are driving regional trends in clouds. A series of lower boundary manipulations are performed with WRF to determine to what extent changes in SSTs influence regional OLR.

  17. Cloudy and starry milia-like cysts: how well do they distinguish seborrheic keratoses from malignant melanomas?

    PubMed Central

    Stricklin, S.M.; Stoecker, W.V.; Oliviero, M.C.; Rabinovitz, H.S.; Mahajan, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Seborrheic keratoses are the most common skin lesions known to contain small white or yellow structures called milia-like cysts (MLCs). Varied appearances can sometimes make it difficult to differentiate benign lesions from malignant lesions such as melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer found in humans. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the statistical occurrence of MLCs in benign vs. malignant lesions. Methods A medical student with 10 months experience in examining approximately 1000 dermoscopy images and a dermoscopy-naïve observer analysed contact non-polarized dermoscopy images of 221 malignant melanomas and 175 seborrheic keratoses for presence of MLCs. Results The observers found two different types of MLCs present: large ones described as cloudy and smaller ones described as starry. Starry MLCs were found to be prevalent in both seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Cloudy MLCs, however, were found to have 99.1% specificity for seborrheic keratoses among this group of seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Conclusion Cloudy MLCs can be a useful tool for differentiating between seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Received: 18 June 2010; Accepted: 27 October 2010 PMID:21923811

  18. Cloudy and starry milia-like cysts: how well do they distinguish seborrheic keratoses from malignant melanomas?

    PubMed

    Stricklin, S M; Stoecker, W V; Oliviero, M C; Rabinovitz, H S; Mahajan, S K

    2011-10-01

    Seborrheic keratoses are the most common skin lesions known to contain small white or yellow structures called milia-like cysts (MLCs). Varied appearances can sometimes make it difficult to differentiate benign lesions from malignant lesions such as melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer found in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the statistical occurrence of MLCs in benign vs. malignant lesions. A medical student with 10 months experience in examining approximately 1000 dermoscopy images and a dermoscopy-naïve observer analysed contact non-polarized dermoscopy images of 221 malignant melanomas and 175 seborrheic keratoses for presence of MLCs. The observers found two different types of MLCs present: large ones described as cloudy and smaller ones described as starry. Starry MLCs were found to be prevalent in both seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Cloudy MLCs, however, were found to have 99.1% specificity for seborrheic keratoses among this group of seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Cloudy MLCs can be a useful tool for differentiating between seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Estimation of acute oral toxicity using the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) from the 28 day repeated dose toxicity studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulgheroni, Anna; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-02-01

    Acute systemic toxicity is one of the areas of particular concern due to the 2009 deadline set by the 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (76/768/EEC), which introduces a testing and marketing ban of cosmetic products with ingredients tested on animals. The scientific community is putting considerable effort into developing and validating non-animal alternatives in this area. However, it is unlikely that validated and regulatory accepted alternative methods and/or strategies will be available in March 2009. Following the initiatives undertaken in the pharmaceutical industry to waive the acute oral toxicity testing before going to clinical studies by using information from other in vivo studies, we proposed an approach to identify non-toxic compounds (LD50>2000mg/kg) using information from 28 days repeated dose toxicity studies. Taking into account the high prevalence of non-toxic substances (87%) in the New Chemicals Database, it was possible to set a NOAEL threshold of 200mg/kg that allowed the correct identification of 63% of non-toxic compounds, while <1% of harmful compounds were misclassified as non-toxic. Since repeated dose toxicity studies can be performed in vivo until 2013, the proposed approach could have an immediate impact for the testing of cosmetic ingredients.

  20. Effective sample size estimation for a mechanical ventilation trial through Monte-Carlo simulation: Length of mechanical ventilation and Ventilator Free Days.

    PubMed

    Morton, S E; Chiew, Y S; Pretty, C; Moltchanova, E; Scarrott, C; Redmond, D; Shaw, G M; Chase, J G

    2017-02-01

    Randomised control trials have sought to seek to improve mechanical ventilation treatment. However, few trials to date have shown clinical significance. It is hypothesised that aside from effective treatment, the outcome metrics and sample sizes of the trial also affect the significance, and thus impact trial design. In this study, a Monte-Carlo simulation method was developed and used to investigate several outcome metrics of ventilation treatment, including 1) length of mechanical ventilation (LoMV); 2) Ventilator Free Days (VFD); and 3) LoMV-28, a combination of the other metrics. As these metrics have highly skewed distributions, it also investigated the impact of imposing clinically relevant exclusion criteria on study power to enable better design for significance. Data from invasively ventilated patients from a single intensive care unit were used in this analysis to demonstrate the method. Use of LoMV as an outcome metric required 160 patients/arm to reach 80% power with a clinically expected intervention difference of 25% LoMV if clinically relevant exclusion criteria were applied to the cohort, but 400 patients/arm if they were not. However, only 130 patients/arm would be required for the same statistical significance at the same intervention difference if VFD was used. A Monte-Carlo simulation approach using local cohort data combined with objective patient selection criteria can yield better design of ventilation studies to desired power and significance, with fewer patients per arm than traditional trial design methods, which in turn reduces patient risk. Outcome metrics, such as VFD, should be used when a difference in mortality is also expected between the two cohorts. Finally, the non-parametric approach taken is readily generalisable to a range of trial types where outcome data is similarly skewed.

  1. A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion.

    PubMed

    Sing, David K; Fortney, Jonathan J; Nikolov, Nikolay; Wakeford, Hannah R; Kataria, Tiffany; Evans, Thomas M; Aigrain, Suzanne; Ballester, Gilda E; Burrows, Adam S; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Gibson, Neale P; Henry, Gregory W; Huitson, Catherine M; Knutson, Heather A; des Etangs, Alain Lecavelier; Pont, Frederic; Showman, Adam P; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Williamson, Michael H; Wilson, Paul A

    2016-01-07

    Thousands of transiting exoplanets have been discovered, but spectral analysis of their atmospheres has so far been dominated by a small number of exoplanets and data spanning relatively narrow wavelength ranges (such as 1.1-1.7 micrometres). Recent studies show that some hot-Jupiter exoplanets have much weaker water absorption features in their near-infrared spectra than predicted. The low amplitude of water signatures could be explained by very low water abundances, which may be a sign that water was depleted in the protoplanetary disk at the planet's formation location, but it is unclear whether this level of depletion can actually occur. Alternatively, these weak signals could be the result of obscuration by clouds or hazes, as found in some optical spectra. Here we report results from a comparative study of ten hot Jupiters covering the wavelength range 0.3-5 micrometres, which allows us to resolve both the optical scattering and infrared molecular absorption spectroscopically. Our results reveal a diverse group of hot Jupiters that exhibit a continuum from clear to cloudy atmospheres. We find that the difference between the planetary radius measured at optical and infrared wavelengths is an effective metric for distinguishing different atmosphere types. The difference correlates with the spectral strength of water, so that strong water absorption lines are seen in clear-atmosphere planets and the weakest features are associated with clouds and hazes. This result strongly suggests that primordial water depletion during formation is unlikely and that clouds and hazes are the cause of weaker spectral signatures.

  2. Characterization of vitellogenin and its derived yolk proteins in cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame).

    PubMed

    Yamane, Kodai; Yagai, Tomoki; Nishimiya, Osamu; Sugawara, Rieko; Amano, Haruna; Fujita, Toshiaki; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Todo, Takashi; Matsubara, Takahiro; Hara, Akihiko

    2013-04-01

    Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) exhibit unique reproductive characteristics and, in contrast to the situation in teleosts, very little is known about the identity, structure and physical characteristics of their egg yolk proteins. The aims of this study were to (1) detect and purify the vitellogenin (Vtg; egg yolk precursor) and yolk proteins (YPs) of the cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame), (2) examine the relationships between Vtg and YPs and (3) characterize and classify the deduced primary structure of the Vtg transcript (vtg). The apparent molecular weights of purified Vtg and putative Vtg-related YPs (lipovitellin: Lv, phosvitin: Pv) were determined by gel filtration and were ~560, >669 and ~58 kDa, respectively. Following SDS-PAGE, these purified products (i.e., Vtg, Lv and Pv) appeared as bands of ~210, ~110 and ~22 kDa, respectively. On Western blots, antisera against purified Vtg, Lv and Pv recognized the ~210 kDa Vtg band. Catshark Pv, in contrast to teleost Pvs, had a very low serine content. The catshark Vtg cDNA sequence (vtg) appeared to contain an open-reading frame consisting of domains encoding Lv, Pv and β'-component (β'-c). A phylogenetic analysis, with a consideration of genome duplication events, placed catshark vtg into the 'vtgAB type.' It is concluded that at least a single major type of Vtg protein, which is transcribed and translated from catshark vtgAB gene, is the precursor of three egg yolk proteins (Lv, Pv and β'-c) in catshark.

  3. Towards Improved Radiative Transfer Simulations of Hyperspectral Measurements for Cloudy Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natraj, V.; Li, C.; Aumann, H. H.; Yung, Y. L.

    2016-12-01

    Usage of hyperspectral measurements in the infrared for weather forecasting requires radiative transfer (RT) models that can accurately compute radiances given the atmospheric state. On the other hand, it is necessary for the RT models to be fast enough to meet operational processing processing requirements. Until recently, this has proven to be a very hard challenge. In the last decade, however, significant progress has been made in this regard, due to computer speed increases, and improved and optimized RT models. This presentation will introduce a new technique, based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the inherent optical properties (such as profiles of trace gas absorption and single scattering albedo), to perform fast and accurate hyperspectral RT calculations in clear or cloudy atmospheres. PCA is a technique to compress data while capturing most of the variability in the data. By performing PCA on the optical properties, we limit the number of computationally expensive multiple scattering RT calculations to the PCA-reduced data set, and develop a series of PC-based correction factors to obtain the hyperspectral radiances. This technique has been showed to deliver accuracies of 0.1% of better with respect to brute force, line-by-line (LBL) models such as LBLRTM and DISORT, but is orders of magnitude faster than the LBL models. We will compare the performance of this method against other models on a large atmospheric state data set (7377 profiles) that includes a wide range of thermodynamic and cloud profiles, along with viewing geometry and surface emissivity information. 2016. All rights reserved.

  4. Variation between Hospitals with Regard to Diagnostic Practice, Coding Accuracy, and Case-Mix. A Retrospective Validation Study of Administrative Data versus Medical Records for Estimating 30-Day Mortality after Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Skyrud, Katrine Damgaard; Lindman, Anja Schou

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of patient administrative data (PAS) for calculating 30-day mortality after hip fracture as a quality indicator, by a retrospective study of medical records. Methods We used PAS data from all Norwegian hospitals (2005–2009), merged with vital status from the National Registry, to calculate 30-day case-mix adjusted mortality for each hospital (n = 51). We used stratified sampling to establish a representative sample of both hospitals and cases. The hospitals were stratified according to high, low and medium mortality of which 4, 3, and 5 hospitals were sampled, respectively. Within hospitals, cases were sampled stratified according to year of admission, age, length of stay, and vital 30-day status (alive/dead). The final study sample included 1043 cases from 11 hospitals. Clinical information was abstracted from the medical records. Diagnostic and clinical information from the medical records and PAS were used to define definite and probable hip fracture. We used logistic regression analysis in order to estimate systematic between-hospital variation in unmeasured confounding. Finally, to study the consequences of unmeasured confounding for identifying mortality outlier hospitals, a sensitivity analysis was performed. Results The estimated overall positive predictive value was 95.9% for definite and 99.7% for definite or probable hip fracture, with no statistically significant differences between hospitals. The standard deviation of the additional, systematic hospital bias in mortality estimates was 0.044 on the logistic scale. The effect of unmeasured confounding on outlier detection was small to moderate, noticeable only for large hospital volumes. Conclusions This study showed that PAS data are adequate for identifying cases of hip fracture, and the effect of unmeasured case mix variation was small. In conclusion, PAS data are adequate for calculating 30-day mortality after hip-fracture as a quality

  5. Validation of Nimbus-7 temperature-humidity infrared radiometer estimates of cloud type and amount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates of clear and low, middle and high cloud amount in fixed geographical regions approximately (160 km) squared are being made routinely from 11.5 micron radiance measurements of the Nimbus-7 Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR). The purpose of validation is to determine the accuracy of the THIR cloud estimates. Validation requires that a comparison be made between the THIR estimates of cloudiness and the 'true' cloudiness. The validation results reported in this paper use human analysis of concurrent but independent satellite images with surface meteorological and radiosonde observations to approximate the 'true' cloudiness. Regression and error analyses are used to estimate the systematic and random errors of THIR derived clear amount.

  6. Potential of Satellite-Based Models for Land Surface Evapotranspiration Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Islam, S.; Bisht, G.; Venturini, V.; Carlson, T. N.; Guo, W.; Tarpley, D.

    2005-05-01

    Use of satellite remote sensing data for the estimation of surface evapotranspiration (ET) is emerging as a promising approach with a range of application potentials. Unlike traditional point-based approaches, some of these satellite-based approaches have been shown to have bounded error. This is a significant advantage of such ET estimation approaches compared to ground-based or hybrid (i.e. combining ground and remote sensing data) approaches, particularly over large heterogeneous domain where representation of key distributed parameters from ground-based observations are questionable. For clear days, main components relevant to surface ET estimation such as evaporative fraction (EF) and net radiation (Rn) can be derived using data from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors. Use of temporal stability of EF and a mathematically convenient and physically realistic, at least for clear sky days, diurnal model for Rn may allow us to get a reasonably accurate estimates of daily ET over large heterogeneous areas. Extension of these results for cloudy days and related challenges will be discussed with particular examples from South Florida and Southern Great Plains using data from MODIS and AVHRR.

  7. CU AMAX-DOAS applications in cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres: innovative Scattered Sun Light observations of trace gases and aerosol extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkamer, R.; Baidar, S.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B. K.; Oetjen, H.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Atmospeclab

    2011-12-01

    An innovative airborne scanning multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument has been developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The instrument collects scattered sunlight spectra in a sequence of discrete viewing angles, and employs the DOAS method (inherently calibrated, and selective) to simultaneously retrieve multiple trace gases, e.g., nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous acid (HONO), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), bromine oxide (BrO), iodine oxide (IO), chlorine dioxide (OClO), water vapor (H2O), and oxygen dimers (O4, at 360nm, 477nm, and 632nm) differential slant column densities (dSCD). Vertical profiles of these gases and multi-spectral aerosol extinction are inferred by combining Monte-Carlo Radiative Transfer Modelling (RTM) and optimal estimation techniques to construct a model atmosphere that can in principle represent 3D clouds and aerosols. The atmospheric state of this model atmosphere is constrained by observations of O4 dSCDs, Raman Scattering Probability (RSP), and intensity ratios, i.e., quantities that depend solely on relative intensity changes, without need for a direct sun view, or absolute radiance calibration. We show results from ongoing validation efforts (NOAA TwinOtter aircraft during CalNex and CARES), and demonstrate vertical profile retrievals (NSF/NCAR GV over the tropical Pacific Ocean) in both cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres.

  8. Characterizing 51 Eri b from 1 to 5 μm: A Partly Cloudy Exoplanet

    DOE PAGES

    Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Rosa, Robert J. De; ...

    2017-06-16

    Here, we present spectrophotometry spanning 1–5 μm of 51 Eridani b, a 2–10more » $${M}_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$$ planet discovered by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. In this study, we present new K1 (1.90–2.19 μm) and K2 (2.10–2.40 μm) spectra taken with the Gemini Planet Imager as well as an updated L P (3.76 μm) and new M S (4.67 μm) photometry from the NIRC2 Narrow camera. The new data were combined with J (1.13–1.35 μm) and H (1.50–1.80 μm) spectra from the discovery epoch with the goal of better characterizing the planet properties. The 51 Eri b photometry is redder than field brown dwarfs as well as known young T-dwarfs with similar spectral type (between T4 and T8), and we propose that 51 Eri b might be in the process of undergoing the transition from L-type to T-type. We used two complementary atmosphere model grids including either deep iron/silicate clouds or sulfide/salt clouds in the photosphere, spanning a range of cloud properties, including fully cloudy, cloud-free, and patchy/intermediate-opacity clouds. The model fits suggest that 51 Eri b has an effective temperature ranging between 605 and 737 K, a solar metallicity, and a surface gravity of log(g) = 3.5–4.0 dex, and the atmosphere requires a patchy cloud atmosphere to model the spectral energy distribution (SED). From the model atmospheres, we infer a luminosity for the planet of –5.83 to –5.93 ($$\\mathrm{log}L/{L}_{\\odot }$$), leaving 51 Eri b in the unique position of being one of the only directly imaged planets consistent with having formed via a cold-start scenario. Comparisons of the planet SED against warm-start models indicate that the planet luminosity is best reproduced by a planet formed via core accretion with a core mass between 15 and 127 $${M}_{\\oplus }$$.« less

  9. A study on radiative transfer effects in 3-D cloudy atmosphere using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Suzuki, K.; Inoue, T.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Okamoto, H.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates 3-D cloud effects on the radiation budget with a combined use of active sensor cloud profiling radar/CloudSat and imager Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Aqua data on the A-train. An algorithm is devised for constructing 3-D cloud fields based on satellite-observed cloud information. The 3-D cloud fields thus constructed are used to calculate the broadband solar and thermal radiative fluxes with a 3-D radiative transfer code developed by the authors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cloud morphology on solar radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere. For this purpose, 3-D cloud fields are constructed with the new satellite-based method, to which full 3D-RT (radiative transfer) simulations are applied. The simulated 3-D radiation fields are then used to examine and quantify errors of existing typical plane-parallel approximations, i.e., Plane-Parallel Approximation, Independent Pixel Approximation and Tilted Independent Pixel Approximation. Such 3D-RT simulations also serve to address another objective of this study, i.e., to devise an accurate approximation and to characterize the observed specific 3D-RT effects by the cloud morphology based on knowledge of idealized 3D-RT effects. We introduce a modified approach based on an optimum value of diffusivity factor to better approximate the radiative fluxes for arbitrary solar zenith angle determined from the results of 3-D radiative transfer simulations to redeem the overcorrections of these approximations for large solar zenith angles (SZAs). This new approach, called Slant path Independent Pixel Approximation, is found to be better than other approximations when SZA is large for some cloud cases. Based on the SZA dependence of the errors of these approximations relative to 3-D computations, satellite-observed real cloud cases are found to fall into either of three types of different morphologies, i.e., isolated cloud type, upper cloud-roughened type and lower

  10. Characterizing 51 Eri b from 1 to 5 μm: A Partly Cloudy Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; De Rosa, Robert J.; Marley, Mark S.; Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian; Morley, Caroline; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Saumon, Didier; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Ammons, S. Mark; Arriaga, Pauline; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis; Bulger, Joanna; Burrows, Adam S.; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Cotten, Tara; Czekala, Ian; Doyon, Rene; Duchêne, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Katherine B.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Johnson-Groh, Mara; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Lafrenière, David; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Metchev, Stanimir; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patel, Rahul I.; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Rémi; Thomas, Sandrine; Vasisht, Gautam; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2017-07-01

    We present spectrophotometry spanning 1-5 μm of 51 Eridani b, a 2-10 {M}{Jup} planet discovered by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. In this study, we present new K1 (1.90-2.19 μm) and K2 (2.10-2.40 μm) spectra taken with the Gemini Planet Imager as well as an updated L P (3.76 μm) and new M S (4.67 μm) photometry from the NIRC2 Narrow camera. The new data were combined with J (1.13-1.35 μm) and H (1.50-1.80 μm) spectra from the discovery epoch with the goal of better characterizing the planet properties. The 51 Eri b photometry is redder than field brown dwarfs as well as known young T-dwarfs with similar spectral type (between T4 and T8), and we propose that 51 Eri b might be in the process of undergoing the transition from L-type to T-type. We used two complementary atmosphere model grids including either deep iron/silicate clouds or sulfide/salt clouds in the photosphere, spanning a range of cloud properties, including fully cloudy, cloud-free, and patchy/intermediate-opacity clouds. The model fits suggest that 51 Eri b has an effective temperature ranging between 605 and 737 K, a solar metallicity, and a surface gravity of log(g) = 3.5-4.0 dex, and the atmosphere requires a patchy cloud atmosphere to model the spectral energy distribution (SED). From the model atmospheres, we infer a luminosity for the planet of -5.83 to -5.93 ({log}L/{L}⊙ ), leaving 51 Eri b in the unique position of being one of the only directly imaged planets consistent with having formed via a cold-start scenario. Comparisons of the planet SED against warm-start models indicate that the planet luminosity is best reproduced by a planet formed via core accretion with a core mass between 15 and 127 {M}\\oplus .

  11. A Fast Radiative Transfer Parameterization Under Cloudy Condition in Solar Spectral Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Liu, X.; Yang, P.; Wang, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) system, which is proposed and developed by NASA, will directly measure the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (IR), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (RS), and radio occultation (RO). IR, RS, and RO measurements provide information on the most critical but least understood climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks associated with the vertical distribution of atmospheric temperature and water vapor, broadband reflected and emitted radiative fluxes, cloud properties, surface albedo, and surface skin temperature. To perform Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for long term climate observations, accurate and fast radiative transfer models are needed. The principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM) is one of the efforts devoted to the development of fast radiative transfer models for simulating radiances and reflecatance observed by various hyperspectral instruments. Retrieval algorithm based on PCRTM forward model has been developed for AIRS, NAST, IASI, and CrIS. It is very fast and very accurate relative to the training radiative transfer model. In this work, we are extending PCRTM to UV-VIS-near IR spectral region. To implement faster cloudy radiative transfer calculations, we carefully investigated the radiative transfer process under cloud condition. The cloud bidirectional reflectance was parameterized based on off-line 36-stream multiple scattering calculations while few other lookup tables were generated to describe the effective transmittance and reflectance of the cloud-clear-sky coupling system in solar spectral region. The bidirectional reflectance or the irradiance measured by satellite may be calculated using a simple fast radiative transfer model providing the type of cloud (ice or water), optical depth of the cloud, optical depth of both atmospheric trace gases above and below clouds, particle size of the cloud, as well

  12. Methane and carbon dioxide total column retrievals from cloudy GOSAT soundings over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepers, D.; Butz, A.; Hu, H.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Arnold, S. G.; Schneider, M.; Feist, D. G.; Morino, I.; Pollard, D.; Aben, I.; Landgraf, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel physics-based retrieval method to infer total column mixing ratios of methane (XCH4) and carbon dioxide (XCO2) from space-borne short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) Earth radiance observations over the cloud-covered ocean. In nadir observing geometry in the SWIR spectral range, backscattering at the ocean surface is negligible. Hence, space-borne radiance measurements of ocean scenes generally do not provide sufficient level to retrieve XCO2 and XCH4. Our approach specifically targets cloudy GOSAT ocean soundings to provide sufficient radiance signal in nadir soundings in ocean areas. Currently, exploiting space-borne SWIR soundings over oceans relies on soundings in Sun glint geometry, observing the specular solar reflection at the ocean surface. The glint observation mode requires cloud-free conditions and a suitable observation geometry, severely limiting their number and geographical coverage. The proposed method is based on the existing RemoTeC algorithm that is extensively used to retrieve CH4 and CO2 columns from GOSAT SWIR measurements over land. For ocean pixels, we describe light scattering by clouds and aerosols by a single-layer water cloud with Gaussian height distribution. We infer the height and the geometrical thickness of the cloud layer jointly with the droplet size and the number density and the column abundances of CO2, CH4, and H2O. The CO2 and CH4 column product is validated with ground-based total column measurements performed at eight stations from the TCCON network that are geographically close to an ocean coastline. For the TCCON site with the most robust statistics (Lauder, New Zealand), we find a retrieval bias of 0.36% for XCH4 combined with a standard deviation of retrieval errors of 1.12%. For XCO2, the bias is 0.51% combined with a standard deviation of 1.03%. Averaged over all TCCON sites, our retrievals are biased -0.01% for XCO2 and -0.32% for XCH4. The standard deviation of station biases amounts to 0.45% for XCO2

  13. A Cloudy Quark Bag Model of S, P, and D wave interactions for the coupled channel antikaon-nucleon system

    SciTech Connect

    He, Guangliang.

    1992-05-15

    The Cloudy Quark Bag Model is extended from S-wave to P- and D-wave. The parameters of the model are determined by K{sup {minus}}p scattering cross section data, K{sup {minus}}p {yields}{Sigma}{pi}{pi}{pi} production data, K{sup {minus}}p threshold branching ratio data, and K{sup {minus}}p {yields}{Lambda}{pi}{pi}{pi} production data. The resonance structure of the {Lambda}(1405), {Sigma}(1385), and {Lambda}(1520) are studied in the model. The shift and width of kaonic hydrogen are calculated using the model.

  14. A Cloudy Quark Bag Model of S, P, and D wave interactions for the coupled channel antikaon-nucleon system

    SciTech Connect

    He, Guangliang

    1992-05-15

    The Cloudy Quark Bag Model is extended from S-wave to P- and D-wave. The parameters of the model are determined by K-p scattering cross section data, K-p →Σπππ production data, K-p threshold branching ratio data, and K-p →Λπππ production data. The resonance structure of the Λ(1405), Σ(1385), and Λ(1520) are studied in the model. The shift and width of kaonic hydrogen are calculated using the model.

  15. Consistency of ARESE II Cloud Absorption Estimates and Sampling Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Marshak, A.; Cahalan, R. F.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Data from three cloudy days (March 3, 21, 29, 2000) of the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment II (ARESE II) were analyzed. Grand averages of broadband absorptance among three sets of instruments were compared. Fractional solar absorptances were approx. 0.21-0.22 with the exception of March 3 when two sets of instruments gave values smaller by approx. 0.03-0.04. The robustness of these values was investigated by looking into possible sampling problems with the aid of 500 nm spectral fluxes. Grand averages of 500 nm apparent absorptance cover a wide range of values for these three days, namely from a large positive (approx. 0.011) average for March 3, to a small negative (approximately -0.03) for March 21, to near zero (approx. 0.01) for March 29. We present evidence suggesting that a large part of the discrepancies among the three days is due to the different nature of clouds and their non-uniform sampling. Hence, corrections to the grand average broadband absorptance values may be necessary. However, application of the known correction techniques may be precarious due to the sparsity of collocated flux measurements above and below the clouds. Our analysis leads to the conclusion that only March 29 fulfills all requirements for reliable estimates of cloud absorption, that is, the presence of thick, overcast, homogeneous clouds.

  16. Extent of Night Warming and Spatially Heterogeneous Cloudiness Differentiate Temporal Trend of Greenness in Mountainous Tropics in the New Century

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mei; Gao, Qiong; Gao, Chunxiao; Wang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests have essential functions in global C dynamics but vulnerable to changes in land cover land use (LCLUC) and climate. The tropics of Caribbean are experiencing warming and drying climate and diverse LCLUC. However, large-scale studies to detect long-term trends of C and mechanisms behind are still rare. Using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), we investigated greenness trend in the Greater Antilles Caribbean during 2000–2015, and analyzed trend of vegetation patches without LCLUC to give prominence to climate impacts. We hypothesized that night warming and heavy cloudiness would reduce EVI in this mountainous tropical region. Over the 15 years, EVI decreased significantly in Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, but increased in Cuba partly due to its strong reforestation. Haiti had the largest decreasing trend because of continuous deforestation for charcoals. After LCLUC was excluded, EVI trend still varied greatly, decreasing in the windward but increasing in the leeward of Puerto Rico. Nighttime warming reinforced by spatially heterogeneous cloudiness was found to significantly and negatively correlate with EVI trend, and explained the spatial pattern of the latter. Although cooled daytime and increased rainfall might enhance EVI, nighttime warming dominated the climate impacts and differentiated the EVI trend. PMID:28120949

  17. Extent of Night Warming and Spatially Heterogeneous Cloudiness Differentiate Temporal Trend of Greenness in Mountainous Tropics in the New Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mei; Gao, Qiong; Gao, Chunxiao; Wang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests have essential functions in global C dynamics but vulnerable to changes in land cover land use (LCLUC) and climate. The tropics of Caribbean are experiencing warming and drying climate and diverse LCLUC. However, large-scale studies to detect long-term trends of C and mechanisms behind are still rare. Using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), we investigated greenness trend in the Greater Antilles Caribbean during 2000-2015, and analyzed trend of vegetation patches without LCLUC to give prominence to climate impacts. We hypothesized that night warming and heavy cloudiness would reduce EVI in this mountainous tropical region. Over the 15 years, EVI decreased significantly in Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, but increased in Cuba partly due to its strong reforestation. Haiti had the largest decreasing trend because of continuous deforestation for charcoals. After LCLUC was excluded, EVI trend still varied greatly, decreasing in the windward but increasing in the leeward of Puerto Rico. Nighttime warming reinforced by spatially heterogeneous cloudiness was found to significantly and negatively correlate with EVI trend, and explained the spatial pattern of the latter. Although cooled daytime and increased rainfall might enhance EVI, nighttime warming dominated the climate impacts and differentiated the EVI trend.

  18. Absorption of Sunlight by Water Vapor in Cloudy Conditions: A Partial Explanation for the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms used in most global general circulation models underestimate the globally-averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25 W/sq m. The origin of this anomalous absorption is not yet known, but it has been attributed to a variety of sources including oversimplified or missing physical processes in these models, uncertainties in the input data, and even measurement errors. Here, a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model was used to provide a more comprehensive description of the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by the Earth's atmosphere. We found that the amount of sunlight absorbed by a cloudy atmosphere is inversely proportional to the solar zenith angle and the cloud top height, and directly proportional to the cloud optical depth and the water vapor concentration within the clouds. Atmospheres with saturated, optically-thick, low clouds absorbed about 12 W/sq m more than clear atmospheres. This accounts for about 1/2 to 1/3 of the anomalous ab- sorption. Atmospheres with optically thick middle and high clouds usually absorb less than clear atmospheres. Because water vapor is concentrated within and below the cloud tops, this absorber is most effective at small solar zenith angles. An additional absorber that is distributed at or above the cloud tops is needed to produce the amplitude and zenith angle dependence of the observed anomalous absorption.

  19. Extent of Night Warming and Spatially Heterogeneous Cloudiness Differentiate Temporal Trend of Greenness in Mountainous Tropics in the New Century.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mei; Gao, Qiong; Gao, Chunxiao; Wang, Chao

    2017-01-25

    Tropical forests have essential functions in global C dynamics but vulnerable to changes in land cover land use (LCLUC) and climate. The tropics of Caribbean are experiencing warming and drying climate and diverse LCLUC. However, large-scale studies to detect long-term trends of C and mechanisms behind are still rare. Using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), we investigated greenness trend in the Greater Antilles Caribbean during 2000-2015, and analyzed trend of vegetation patches without LCLUC to give prominence to climate impacts. We hypothesized that night warming and heavy cloudiness would reduce EVI in this mountainous tropical region. Over the 15 years, EVI decreased significantly in Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, but increased in Cuba partly due to its strong reforestation. Haiti had the largest decreasing trend because of continuous deforestation for charcoals. After LCLUC was excluded, EVI trend still varied greatly, decreasing in the windward but increasing in the leeward of Puerto Rico. Nighttime warming reinforced by spatially heterogeneous cloudiness was found to significantly and negatively correlate with EVI trend, and explained the spatial pattern of the latter. Although cooled daytime and increased rainfall might enhance EVI, nighttime warming dominated the climate impacts and differentiated the EVI trend.

  20. Absorption of Sunlight by Water Vapor in Cloudy Conditions: A Partial Explanation for the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms used in most global general circulation models underestimate the globally-averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25 W/sq m. The origin of this anomalous absorption is not yet known, but it has been attributed to a variety of sources including oversimplified or missing physical processes in these models, uncertainties in the input data, and even measurement errors. Here, a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model was used to provide a more comprehensive description of the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by the Earth's atmosphere. We found that the amount of sunlight absorbed by a cloudy atmosphere is inversely proportional to the solar zenith angle and the cloud top height, and directly proportional to the cloud optical depth and the water vapor concentration within the clouds. Atmospheres with saturated, optically-thick, low clouds absorbed about 12 W/sq m more than clear atmospheres. This accounts for about 1/2 to 1/3 of the anomalous ab- sorption. Atmospheres with optically thick middle and high clouds usually absorb less than clear atmospheres. Because water vapor is concentrated within and below the cloud tops, this absorber is most effective at small solar zenith angles. An additional absorber that is distributed at or above the cloud tops is needed to produce the amplitude and zenith angle dependence of the observed anomalous absorption.

  1. Development of Techniques to Specify Cloudiness and Rainfall Rate Using GOES Imagery Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-26

    and Sikdar , D.N. (1976) Rainfall Estimation from Geosynchronous Satellite Imagery During Daylight Hours, NOAA Technical Report ERL-356-WMP07, 106. 10...W.L., Browner, S., Teirjeiro, J., Maier, M., Martin, D.W., Stout, J., and Sikdar , D.N. (1976) Rainfall Estimation from Geosynchronous Satellite Imagery

  2. Earth Day at Union Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    A participant at NASA's Earth Day Science Gallery Exhibit calculates his carbon footprint at the Carbon Footprint Estimator, Monday, April 22, 2013 at Union Station in Washington. The NASA Science Gallery exhibits are being sponsored by NASA in honor of Earth Day. (Photo Credit: NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. A parameterization for land-atmosphere-cloud-exchange (PLACE): Documentation and testing of a detailed process model of the partly cloudy boundary layer over heterogeneous land

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, P.J.; Boone, A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a general description of, and demonstrates the capabilities of, the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE). The PLACE model is a detailed process model of the partly cloudy atmospheric boundary layer and underlying heterogeneous land surfaces. In its development, particular attention has been given to three of the model`s subprocesses: the prediction of boundary layer cloud amount, the treatment of surface and soil subgrid heterogeneity, and the liquid water budget. The model includes a three-parameter nonprecipitating cumulus model that feeds back to the surface and boundary layer though radiative effects. Surface heterogeneity in the PLACE model is treated both statistically and by resolving explicit subgrid patches. The model maintains a vertical column of liquid water that is divided into seven reservoirs, from the surface interception store down to bedrock. Five single-day demonstration cases are presented, in which the PLACE model was initialized, run, and compared to field observations from four diverse sites. The model is shown to predict cloud amount well in these cases while predicting the surface fluxes with similar accuracy. A slight tendency to underpredict boundary layer depth is noted in all cases. Sensitivity tests were also run using anemometer-level forcing provided by the Project for Inter-comparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS). The purpose is to demonstrate the relative impact of heterogeneity of surface parameters on the predicted annual mean surface fluxes. Significant sensitivity to subgrid variability of certain parameters is demonstrated, particularly to parameters related to soil moisture. A major result is that the PLACE-computed impact of total (homogeneous) deforestation of a rain forest is comparable in magnitude to the effect of imposing heterogeneity of certain surface variables. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Changes of cloudiness over tropical land during the past few decades and its link to global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, P.; Fu, R.; Li, W.

    2007-12-01

    Tropical forests play a key role in determining the global carbon-climate feedback in the 21st century. Changes in rainforest growth and mortality rates, especially in the deep and least perturbed forest areas, have been consistently observed across global tropics in recent years. Understanding the underlying causes of these changes, especially their links to the global climate change, is especially important in determining the future of the tropical rainforests in the 21st century. Previous studies have mostly focus on the potential influences from elevated atmospheric CO2 and increasing surface temperature. Because the rainforests in wet tropical region is often light limited, we explore whether cloudiness have changed, if so, whether it is consistent with that expected from changes in forest growth rate. We will report our observational analysis examining the trends in annual average shortwave (SW) downwelling radiation, total cloud cover, and cumulus cover over the tropical land regions and to link them with trends in convective available potencial energy (CAPE). ISCCP data and radiosonde records available from the Department of Atmospheric Sciences of the University of Wyoming (http://www.weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/sounding.html) are used to study the trends. The period for the trend analysis is 1984-2004 for the ISCCP data and 1980-2006 for the radiosondes. The results for the Amazon rainforest region suggest a decreasing trend in total cloud and convective cloud covers, which results in an increase in downwelling SW radiation at the surface. These changes of total and convective clouds are consistent with a trend of decreasing CAPE and an elevated Level of Free Convection (LFC) height, as obtained from the radiosondes. All the above mentioned trends are statistically significant based on the Mann-Kendall test with 95% of confidence. These results consistently suggest the downward surface solar radiation has been increasing since 1984, result from a decrease

  5. Development of sun compensation by honeybees: how partially experienced bees estimate the sun's course.

    PubMed

    Dyer, F C; Dickinson, J A

    1994-05-10

    Honeybees and some other insects, in learning the sun's course, behave as if they can estimate the sun's position at times of day when they have never seen it, but there are competing ideas about the computational mechanisms underlying this ability. In an approach to this problem, we provided incubator-reared bees with opportunities to fly and see the sun only during the late afternoon. Then, on a cloudy day, we allowed bees to fly for the first time during the morning and early afternoon, and we observed how they oriented their waggle dances to indicate their direction of flight relative to the sun's position. The clouds denied the bees a direct view of celestial orientation cues and thus forced them to estimate the sun's position on the basis of their experience on previous evenings. During the test days, experience-restricted bees behaved during the entire morning as if they expected the sun to be in an approximately stationary position about 180 degrees from the average solar azimuth that they had experienced on previous evenings; then from about local noon onward they used the evening azimuth. This pattern suggests that honeybees are innately informed of the general pattern of solar movement, such that they can generate an internal representation that incorporates spatial and temporal features of the sun's course that they have never directly seen.

  6. Development of sun compensation by honeybees: how partially experienced bees estimate the sun's course.

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, F C; Dickinson, J A

    1994-01-01

    Honeybees and some other insects, in learning the sun's course, behave as if they can estimate the sun's position at times of day when they have never seen it, but there are competing ideas about the computational mechanisms underlying this ability. In an approach to this problem, we provided incubator-reared bees with opportunities to fly and see the sun only during the late afternoon. Then, on a cloudy day, we allowed bees to fly for the first time during the morning and early afternoon, and we observed how they oriented their waggle dances to indicate their direction of flight relative to the sun's position. The clouds denied the bees a direct view of celestial orientation cues and thus forced them to estimate the sun's position on the basis of their experience on previous evenings. During the test days, experience-restricted bees behaved during the entire morning as if they expected the sun to be in an approximately stationary position about 180 degrees from the average solar azimuth that they had experienced on previous evenings; then from about local noon onward they used the evening azimuth. This pattern suggests that honeybees are innately informed of the general pattern of solar movement, such that they can generate an internal representation that incorporates spatial and temporal features of the sun's course that they have never directly seen. Images PMID:11607474

  7. Cloudy Sounding and Cloud-Top Height Retrieval From AIRS Alone Single Field-of-View Radiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisz, Elisabeth; Li, Jun; Li, Jinlong; Zhou, Daniel K.; Huang, Hung-Lung; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Yang, Ping

    2007-01-01

    High-spectral resolution measurements from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard the EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua satellite provide unique information about atmospheric state, surface and cloud properties. This paper presents an AIRS alone single field-of-view (SFOV) retrieval algorithm to simultaneously retrieve temperature, humidity and ozone profiles under all weather conditions, as well as cloud top pressure (CTP) and cloud optical thickness (COT) under cloudy skies. For optically thick cloud conditions the above-cloud soundings are derived, whereas for clear skies and optically thin cloud conditions the profiles are retrieved from 0.005 hPa down to the earth's surface. Initial validation has been conducted by using the operational MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) product, ECMWF (European Center of Medium range Weather Forecasts) analysis fields and radiosonde observations (RAOBs). These inter-comparisons clearly demonstrate the potential of this algorithm to process data from 38 high-spectral infrared (IR) sounder instruments.

  8. Renormalized πNN coupling constant and the P-wave phase shifts in the cloudy bag model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, B. C.; Afnan, I. R.

    1986-09-01

    Most applications of the cloudy bag model to πN scattering involve unitarizing the bare diagrams arising from the Lagrangian by iterating in a Lippmann-Schwinger equation. However, analyses of the renormalization of the coupling constant proceed by iterating the Lagrangian to a given order in the bare coupling constant. These two different approaches means there is an inconsistency between the calculation of phase shifts and the calculation of renormalization. A remedy to this problem is presented that has the added advantage of improving the fit to the phase shifts in the P11 channel. This is achieved by using physical values of the coupling constant in the crossed diagram which reduces the repulsion rather than adds attraction. This approach can be justified by examining equations for the ππN system that incorporate three-body unitarity.

  9. Physical Interpretation of the Spectral Radiative Signature in the Transition Zone Between Cloud-Free and Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Pilewski, P.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    One-second-resolution zenith radiance measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's new shortwave spectrometer (SWS) provide a unique opportunity to analyze the transition zone between cloudy and cloud-free air, which has considerable bearing on the aerosol indirect effect. In the transition zone, we find a remarkable linear relationship between the sum and difference of radiances at 870 and 1640 nm wavelengths. The intercept of the relationship is determined primarily by aerosol properties, and the slope by cloud properties. We then show that this linearity can be predicted from simple theoretical considerations and furthermore that it supports the hypothesis of inhomogeneous mixing, whereby optical depth increases as a cloud is approached but the effective drop size remains unchanged.

  10. A cloudy planetary boundary layer oscillation arising from the coupling of turbulence with precipitation in climate simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, X.; Klein, S. A.; Ma, H. -Y.; ...

    2017-08-24

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) adopts Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) scheme and an updated microphysics (MG2) scheme for a more unified treatment of cloud processes. This makes interactions between parameterizations tighter and more explicit. In this study, a cloudy planetary boundary layer (PBL) oscillation related to interaction between CLUBB and MG2 is identified in CAM. This highlights the need for consistency between the coupled subgrid processes in climate model development. This oscillation occurs most often in the marine cumulus cloud regime. The oscillation occurs only if the modeled PBL is strongly decoupled and precipitation evaporates below the cloud.more » Two aspects of the parameterized coupling assumptions between CLUBB and MG2 schemes cause the oscillation: (1) a parameterized relationship between rain evaporation and CLUBB's subgrid spatial variance of moisture and heat that induces an extra cooling in the lower PBL and (2) rain evaporation which happens at a too low an altitude because of the precipitation fraction parameterization in MG2. Either one of these two conditions can overly stabilize the PBL and reduce the upward moisture transport to the cloud layer so that the PBL collapses. Global simulations prove that turning off the evaporation-variance coupling and improving the precipitation fraction parameterization effectively reduces the cloudy PBL oscillation in marine cumulus clouds. By evaluating the causes of the oscillation in CAM, we have identified the PBL processes that should be examined in models having similar oscillations. This study may draw the attention of the modeling and observational communities to the issue of coupling between parameterized physical processes.« less

  11. Antimicrobial efficacy of emulsified essential oil components against weak acid-adapted spoilage yeasts in clear and cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Myriam; Beiser, Sophia; Suriyarak, Sarisa; Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of oil-in-water emulsions containing dual combinations of the essential oil components cinnamaldehyde, perillaldehyde, and citral was examined against two acid-resistant yeast strains (Zygosaccharomyces bailii) in beverage systems composed of diluted clear or cloudy apple juice and in a Sabouraud dextrose broth model. Antimicrobial properties of an encapsulated oil-in-water emulsion and of essential oil components dissolved in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide were compared using plate counts and turbidity measurements. Growth curves were modulated to qualitatively assess differences in antimicrobial efficacy. The impact of the presence of a beverage emulsion without essential oils (unloaded; 5% oil and 1% modified starch, pH 3.0) on the antimicrobial efficacy also was investigated. Dual combinations of essential oil components were sufficient to completely inhibit and/or kill yeast cells in diluted apple juice and Sabouraud dextrose broth systems at very low concentrations (100 to 200 μg/ml). However, the combination of perillaldehyde and citral had the weakest antimicrobial effect; a concentration of 400 μg/ml was necessary to prevent yeast growth in beverages, and up to 800 μg/ml was required in systems to which an unloaded emulsion had been added. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil components did not differ in diluted clear and cloudy apple juices and was not affected by being added in emulsified form or dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide as long as there was no unloaded emulsion also present. These results indicate that formulations of essential oil combinations encapsulated together in emulsions are highly effective for inhibiting and/or killing microorganisms in real beverage systems.

  12. Greenhouse gas profiling by infrared-laser and microwave occultation in cloudy air: Results from end-to-end simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.; Emde, C.; Schweitzer, S.

    2014-11-01

    The new mission concept of microwave and infrared-laser occultation between Low Earth Orbit satellites (LMIO) is capable to provide accurate, consistent, and long-term stable measurements of many essential climate variables. These include temperature, humidity, key greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide and methane, and line of sight wind speed, all with focus on profiling the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The GHG retrieval performance from LMIO data was so far analyzed under clear-air conditions only, without clouds and scintillations from turbulence. Here we present and evaluate an algorithm, built into an already published clear-air algorithm, which copes with cloud and scintillation influences on the infrared-laser transmission profiles used for GHG retrieval. We find that very thin ice clouds fractionally extinct the infrared-laser signals, thicker but broken ice clouds block them over limited altitude ranges, and liquid water clouds generally block them so that their cloud top altitudes typically constitute the limit to tropospheric penetration of profiles. The advanced algorithm penetrates through broken cloudiness. It achieves this by producing a cloud flagging profile from cloud-perturbed infrared-laser signals, which then enables bridging of transmission profile gaps via interpolation. Evaluating the retrieval performance with quasi-realistic end-to-end simulations, including high-resolution cloud data and scintillations from turbulence, we find a small increase only of GHG retrieval RMS errors due to broken-cloud scenes and the profiles remain essentially unbiased as in clear air. These results are encouraging for future LMIO implementation, indicating that GHG profiles can be retrieved through broken cloudiness, maximizing upper troposphere coverage.

  13. Interannual variability of cloudiness in the Norwegian, Barents and Kara Seas from the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernokulsky, Alexander V.; Esau, Igor; Bulygina, Olga N.; Davy, Richard; Mokhov, Igor I.; Outten, Stephen; Semenov, Vladimir A.

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic is a highly sensitive region where numerous processes combine to generate the so-called Arctic amplification. One of the important climate feedbacks is related to the role of clouds. The limited observational record is one of the major challenges in the assessment of Arctic clouds. Here, a long-term climatology of cloudiness over the Norwegian, Barents and Kara Seas (NBK) based on visual surface observations is presented. Annual mean total cloud cover (TCC) over the NBK is almost equal over solid-ice (SI) and open-water (OW) parts of NBK (73±3% and 76±2% respectively). In general, TCC has higher intra- and inter-annual variability over SI than over OW. A decrease of TCC in the middle of the 20th century and an increase in the last few decades was found at individual stations and for the NBK as a whole. In most cases these changes are statistically significant with magnitudes exceeding the data uncertainty that is associated with the surface observations. The most pronounced trends are observed in autumn when the largest changes to the sea-ice concentration (SIC) occur. TCC over SI correlates significantly with SIC in the Barents Sea, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient between annual TCC and SIC of -0.38 for the period 1936-2013. Cloudiness over OW shows non-significant correlation with SIC. An overall increase in the frequency of broken and scattered cloud conditions, and a decrease in the frequency of overcast and cloudless conditions were found over OW. These changes are statistically significant and likely to be connected with the long-term changes of morphological types (an increase of convective and a decrease of stratiform cloud amounts).

  14. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  15. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  16. Exploiting UV lambertian equivalent reflectivity data to infer changes in cloudiness and sea-ice in southern middle and high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (LER) ultraviolet (UV) data are routinely retrieved from many satellite-based instruments. Besides their original primarily function related to the retrieval of the ozone data, they also demonstrated to be useful as a cloudiness proxy comparable with data recorded from ground-based instruments, as well as for tracking ice/snow changes at high latitudes. LER time series spanning more than three decades can be retrieved from TOMS/OMI instruments although concerns related to the EP TOMS scan mirror degradation exist. Therefore, recently additional multi-satellite-based LER datasets have been created from SBUV instruments in the frame of the NASA MEaSUREs Program (Herman et al. 2013). In this presentation we report some recent applications of both datasets over southern middle and high latitudes focusing on cloudiness, surface UV and sea-ice. LER data have been analyzed over eight locations spanning from about 18° (north of Chile) to 62° S (Antarctic peninsula) covering years 1978-2011. Generally the distribution of the reflectivity of both TOMS datasets is similar. On the other hand, OMI LER data differ from TOMS ones in almost all locations. Daily CMF values from ground-based global solar irradiance measurements have been compared with OMI LER-based CMF data. The northernmost and southernmost locations characterized by prevalent clear sky and winter snow conditions, respectively, showed the worse agreement while the other stations showed a better correlation. For one location clear sky ground UV index values for have been estimated for years 1979-2011 by means of an empirical reconstruction model based on data recorded by a multichannel radiometer. Then, we exploit satellite LER data for computing actual surface UV by correcting clear sky UV with LER-based CMF data. Besides we also evaluated the cloud cover and the sea ice influence on the reflectivity in the Southern Ocean by comparing the MEaSUREs LER dataset with satellite

  17. STS-107 Flight Day 8 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists, Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 8 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The primary activities of flight day 8 are spaceborne experiments. Some background information is given on the SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number) microgravity experiment as footage of the flame balls is shown. The video also shows the MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) calibrating on the Moon. The six STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) international student experiments are profiled, including experiments on carpenter bees (Liechtenstein), spiders (Australia), silkworms (China), ants (United States), crystal growth (Israel), and fish embryos (Japan). A commercial experiment on roses is also profiled. Astronaut Clark gives a tour of the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module), in the space shuttle's payload bay. Astronauts McCool and Ramon take turns on an exercise machine. The video includes a partly cloudy view of the Pacific Ocean.

  18. STS-107 Flight Day 8 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists, Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 8 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The primary activities of flight day 8 are spaceborne experiments. Some background information is given on the SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number) microgravity experiment as footage of the flame balls is shown. The video also shows the MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) calibrating on the Moon. The six STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) international student experiments are profiled, including experiments on carpenter bees (Liechtenstein), spiders (Australia), silkworms (China), ants (United States), crystal growth (Israel), and fish embryos (Japan). A commercial experiment on roses is also profiled. Astronaut Clark gives a tour of the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module), in the space shuttle's payload bay. Astronauts McCool and Ramon take turns on an exercise machine. The video includes a partly cloudy view of the Pacific Ocean.

  19. Study on aerosol optical properties and radiative effect in cloudy weather in the Guangzhou region.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tao; Deng, XueJiao; Li, Fei; Wang, ShiQiang; Wang, Gang

    2016-10-15

    Currently, Guangzhou region was facing the problem of severe air pollution. Large amount of aerosols in the polluted air dramatically attenuated solar radiation. This study investigated the vertical optical properties of aerosols and inverted the height of boundary layer in the Guangzhou region using the lidar. Simultaneously, evaluated the impact of different types of clouds on aerosol radiation effects using the SBDART. The results showed that the height of the boundary layer and the surface visibility changed consistently, the average height of the boundary layer on the hazy days was only 61% of that on clear days. At the height of 2km or lower, the aerosol extinction coefficient profile distribution decreased linearly along with height on clear days, but the haze days saw an exponential decrease. When there was haze, the changing of heating rate of atmosphere caused by the aerosol decreased from 3.72K/d to 0.9K/d below the height of 2km, and the attenuation of net radiation flux at the ground surface was 97.7W/m(2), and the attenuation amplitude was 11.4%; when there were high clouds, the attenuation was 125.2W/m(2) and the attenuation amplitude was 14.6%; where there were medium cloud, the attenuation was 286.4W/m(2) and the attenuation amplitude was 33.4%. Aerosol affected mainly shortwave radiation, and affected long wave radiation very slightly.

  20. Reconstructing daily clear-sky land surface temperature for cloudy regions from MODIS data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a critical parameter in environmental studies and resource management. The MODIS LST data product has been widely used in various studies, such as drought monitoring, evapotranspiration mapping, soil moisture estimation and forest fire detection. However, cloud cont...

  1. Cloudy with a Chance of Sarcasm or Sunny with High Expectations: Using Best Practice Language to Strengthen Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloman, Hal; Yates, Peggy H.

    2013-01-01

    What's the forecast in your classroom? Are you forecasting cloudy with a chance of sarcasm or sunny with high expectations? A teacher's Language of Practice holds the key to creating a climate of mutual respect in our schools. This article will explore the power and promise of "teacher language," and how it can be used to…

  2. Cloudy with a Chance of Sarcasm or Sunny with High Expectations: Using Best Practice Language to Strengthen Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloman, Hal; Yates, Peggy H.

    2013-01-01

    What's the forecast in your classroom? Are you forecasting cloudy with a chance of sarcasm or sunny with high expectations? A teacher's Language of Practice holds the key to creating a climate of mutual respect in our schools. This article will explore the power and promise of "teacher language," and how it can be used to…

  3. Estimation of Spatially Distributed Evapotranspiration Using Remote Sensing and a Relevance Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslova, I.; Bachour, R.; Walker, W. R.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    With the development of surface energy balance analyses, remote sensing has become a spatially explicit and quantitative methodology for understanding evapotranspiration (ET), a critical requirement for water resources planning and management. Limited temporal resolution of satellite images and cloudy skies present major limitations that impede continuous estimates of ET. This study introduces a practical approach that overcomes (in part) the previous limitations by implementing machine learning techniques that are accurate and robust. The analysis was applied to the Canal B service area of the Delta Canal Company in central Utah using data from the 2009-2011 growing seasons. Actual ET was calculated by an algorithm using data from satellite images. A relevance vector machine (RVM), which is a sparse Bayesian regression, was used to build a spatial model for ET. The RVM was trained with a set of inputs consisting of vegetation indexes, crops, and weather data. ET estimated via the algorithm was used as an output. The developed RVM model provided an accurate estimation of spatial ET based on a Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (E) of 0.84 and a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.5 mmday-1. This methodology lays the groundwork for estimating ET at a spatial scale for the days when a satellite image is not available. It could also be used to forecast daily spatial ET if the vegetation indexes model inputs are extrapolated in time and the reference ET is forecasted accurately.

  4. Seeking Clarity within Cloudy Effluents: Differentiating Fungal from Bacterial Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chavada, Ruchir; Kok, Jen; van Hal, Sebastiaan; Chen, Sharon C-A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fungal peritonitis is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy with the majority of patients ceasing PD permanently. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors and clinical associations that may discriminate between fungal from bacterial peritonitis. Methods We retrospectively identified episodes of fungal peritonitis from 2001–2010 in PD patients at Liverpool and Westmead Hospitals (Australia). Fungal peritonitis cases were matched in a 1∶2 ratio with patients with bacterial peritonitis from each institution's dialysis registry, occurring closest in time to the fungal episode. Patient demographic, clinical and outcome data were obtained from the medical records. Results Thirty-nine episodes of fungal peritonitis (rate of 0.02 episodes per patient-year of dialysis) were matched with 78 episodes of bacterial peritonitis. Candida species were the commonest pathogens (35/39; 90% episodes) with Candida albicans (37%), Candida parapsilosis (32%) and Candida glabrata (13%) the most frequently isolated species. Compared to bacterial peritonitis, fungal peritonitis patients had received PD for significantly longer (1133 vs. 775 catheter-days; p = 0.016), were more likely to have had previous episodes of bacterial peritonitis (51% vs. 10%; p = 0.01), and to have received prior antibacterial therapy (51% vs. 10%; p = 0.01). Patients with fungal peritonitis were less likely to have fever and abdominal pain on presentation, but had higher rates of PD catheter removal (79% vs. 22%; p<0.005), and permanent transfer to haemodialysis (87% vs. 24%; p<0.005). Hospital length of stay was significantly longer in patients with fungal peritonitis (26.1 days vs. 12.6 days; p = 0.017), but the all-cause 30-day mortality rate was similar in both groups. Fluconazole was a suitable empiric antifungal agent; with no Candida resistance detected. Conclusion Prompt recognition of clinical risk factors, initiation of antifungal therapy

  5. When Every Day Is Professional Development Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

    2007-01-01

    In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with…

  6. Estimating photosynthetically available radiation at the ocean surface for primary production (3P Project): modeling, evaluation, and application to global MERIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, Didier; Jolivet, Dominique; Tan, Jing; Frouin, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The goal of the Photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) for Primary Production (3P) project is to provide robust, complete, and user-friendly satellite radiation products for ecosystem modeling, carbon cycle investigations, and climate change monitoring. A specific objective is to design and distribute a daily PAR product from MERIS and potentially the recent OLCI. In view of this, a PAR algorithm, based on the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) operational algorithm, has been developed. The algorithm takes into account statistical diurnal variability of clouds using 3-hourly International Satellite Cloud Climatology (ISCCP) data. The PAR modeling, simplified to accommodate the information available, is evaluated using a Monte Carlo tool that simulates the satellite radiance and corresponding daily PAR. The daily PAR estimates obtained from reduced resolution (i.e., 1 km) MERIS data are evaluated against in situ measurements routinely collected from fixed buoys and platforms, namely BOUSSOLE in the Mediterranean Sea, CCE- 1 and -2 off the West coast of the United States, and COVE in the coastal Atlantic Ocean. The agreement between estimated and measured values is good on a daily time scale and substantially improved on a monthly time scale, with a bias of 2.7 (7.7%) E/m2/day and RMS errors of 8.5 (24.9%) and 4.5 (12.9%) E/m2/day. The bias is reduced significantly (by 1.8%) when using diurnal cloud climatology. Overestimation in cloudy conditions is partly explained by decoupling the clear atmosphere from the cloud/surface layer. Large gaps in regions affected by sun glint (not processed because incorrectly interpreted as cloudy) are adequately filled in the monthly PAR imagery. The statistical performance is satisfactory for long-term studies of aquatic primary production, especially in view of the much larger uncertainties on the fraction of PAR absorbed by live algae and the quantum yield of carbon fixation.

  7. Shortwave absorptance in a tropical cloudy atmosphere: Reconciling calculations and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Parding, Kajsa; Hinkelman, Laura M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2011-10-04

    The absorption of shortwave (SW) by clouds is a topic surrounded by contradictory reports and controversy. Some studies have shown large discrepancies between observed SW absorption and absorption predicted by models, while others have found no significant dfference. In this study, values of column SW absorptance obtained by combining collocated top-of atmosphere (TOA) and surface observations at an island site in the Tropical Western Pacific are compared to radiative transfer model (RTM) output. To compensate for the field of view difference between satellite and surface instruments, the surface data are averaged over time. Scatterplots and statistical measures show that there is a signficant discrepancy between models and observations with the RTMs apparently underestimating SW absorptance. In previous observational studies showing highly enhanced absorption compared to models, the slope of a linear fit to d*TOA/dT (the derivative of TOA albedo with respect to transmittance) was used to quantify cloud SW absorption while non-linearity of d*TOA/dT was interpreted as a sign of sampling issues. Here, the models produce a steeper slope (about -0.9) than observations (-0.6 to -0.8), indicating that models predict too little cloud SW absorption. However, when the surface observations are averaged over a longer period, their slope grows steeper and the root mean square di*erence between linear and quadratic fits to d*TOA/dT is reduced. This implies that insufficient averaging of surface data contributes to the observed SW absorption discrepancy. Reexamination of the observational data using the difference between cloud fraction estimated from satellite and surface measurements as an estimate of field of view mismatch supports this hypothesis. High mea sured absorptance values are shown to correspond to occasions of large field of view mismatch. When such data are excluded, the difference between the linear and quadratic fits is reduced and the slope of the best fit line

  8. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Quality-controlled AIRS Temperature Retrievals under Partially Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Riishojgaard, L.; Liu, E.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite has been long recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by AIRS is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only AIRS data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding AIRS channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the AIRS-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate temperature profiles from AIRS observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of AIRS observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating AIRS temperature profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This temperature difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The AIRS-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.

  9. Improving forecast skill by assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals under partially cloudy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Liu, E.; Riishojgaard, L. P.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.

    2008-04-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite is now recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by AIRS is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only AIRS data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding AIRS channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the AIRS-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate temperature profiles from AIRS observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of AIRS observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating AIRS temperature profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This temperature difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The AIRS-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.

  10. Deep-space to ground laser communications in a cloudy world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Gary S.; Szymczak, Heather L.; Alliss, Randall J.; Link, Robert P.; Craddock, Mary Ellen; Mason, Michael L.

    2005-08-01

    Future deep-space communications will require the collection and transmission of data from high-bandwidth links. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is investigating the utility of laser communications for future missions to Mars and for future communication stations on the moon. Cloud cover impacts the availability of space to ground optical communications. Mitigating these impacts requires a geographically diverse network of ground communication. Selecting the number and location of stations for a network requires an optimization algorithm that can distinguish and rank site availability based on multi-year cloud climatologies for many locations around the globe. The optimization algorithm must also consider the movement and location of a space-borne probe. In this JPL-funded study, the TASC Lasercom Network Optimization Tool (LNOT) is used to determine optimal networks of receiving stations by analyzing cloud mask data from the continental United States, Hawaii, South America, Europe, northern and southern Africa, the Middle East, central and eastern Asia, and Australia. To generate cloud masks, raw visible and infrared radiance data from GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) and Meteosat satellites are compared to predicted clear sky background values. Several threshold tests in the Cloud Mask Generator (CMG) involving radiance-derived cloud identification tools (e.g., fog product, albedo product) are used to estimate the probability of cloud cover for a given pixel of a satellite image. When stations are chosen from a list of sites of interest, six stations are needed to achieve a network availability of 90 % or better.

  11. Evaluation of the Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) are run to examine the impact AIRS radiances and retrieved profiles. Statistical evaluation of 6 weeks of forecast runs will be compared along with preliminary results of in-depth investigations for select case comparing the analysis increments in partly cloudy regions and short-term forecast impacts.

  12. Failure to Target RANKL Signaling Through p38-MAPK Results in Defective Osteoclastogenesis in the Microphthalmia Cloudy-Eyed Mutant.

    PubMed

    Carey, Heather A; Bronisz, Agnieszka; Cabrera, Jennifer; Hildreth, Blake E; Cuitiño, Maria; Fu, Qi; Ahmad, Asrar; Toribio, Ramiro E; Ostrowski, Michael C; Sharma, Sudarshana M

    2016-03-01

    The Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family factor that is essential for terminal osteoclast differentiation. Previous work demonstrates that phosphorylation of MITF by p38 MAPK downstream of Receptor Activator of NFkB Ligand (RANKL) signaling is necessary for MITF activation in osteoclasts. The spontaneous Mitf cloudy eyed (ce) allele results in production of a truncated MITF protein that lacks the leucine zipper and C-terminal end. Here we show that the Mitf(ce) allele leads to a dense bone phenotype in neonatal mice due to defective osteoclast differentiation. In response to RANKL stimulation, in vitro osteoclast differentiation was impaired in myeloid precursors derived from neonatal or adult Mitf(ce/ce) mice. The loss of the leucine zipper domain in Mitf(ce/ce) mice does not interfere with the recruitment of MITF/PU.1 complexes to target promoters. Further, we have mapped the p38 MAPK docking site within the region deleted in Mitf(ce). This interaction is necessary for the phosphorylation of MITF by p38 MAPK. Site-directed mutations in the docking site interfered with the interaction between MITF and its co-factors FUS and BRG1. MITF-ce fails to recruit FUS and BRG1 to target genes, resulting in decreased expression of target genes and impaired osteoclast function. These results highlight the crucial role of signaling dependent MITF/p38 MAPK interactions in osteoclast differentiation.

  13. A novel hybrid scattering order-dependent variance reduction method for Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Cui, Shengcheng; Yang, Jun; Gao, Haiyang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Zhibo

    2017-03-01

    We present a novel hybrid scattering order-dependent variance reduction method to accelerate the convergence rate in both forward and backward Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations involving highly forward-peaked scattering phase function. This method is built upon a newly developed theoretical framework that not only unifies both forward and backward radiative transfer in scattering-order-dependent integral equation, but also generalizes the variance reduction formalism in a wide range of simulation scenarios. In previous studies, variance reduction is achieved either by using the scattering phase function forward truncation technique or the target directional importance sampling technique. Our method combines both of them. A novel feature of our method is that all the tuning parameters used for phase function truncation and importance sampling techniques at each order of scattering are automatically optimized by the scattering order-dependent numerical evaluation experiments. To make such experiments feasible, we present a new scattering order sampling algorithm by remodeling integral radiative transfer kernel for the phase function truncation method. The presented method has been implemented in our Multiple-Scaling-based Cloudy Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (MSCART) model for validation and evaluation. The main advantage of the method is that it greatly improves the trade-off between numerical efficiency and accuracy order by order.

  14. THE YOUNG PLANET-MASS OBJECT 2M1207b: A COOL, CLOUDY, AND METHANE-POOR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Barman, Travis S.; Macintosh, Bruce; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marois, Christian

    2011-07-10

    The properties of 2M1207b, a young ({approx}8 Myr) planet-mass companion, have lacked a satisfactory explanation for some time. The combination of low luminosity, red near-IR colors, and L-type near-IR spectrum (previously consistent with T{sub eff} {approx} 1600 K) implies an abnormally small radius. Early explanations for the apparent underluminosity of 2M1207b invoked an edge-on disk or the remnant of a recent protoplanetary collision. The discovery of a second planet-mass object (HR8799b) with similar luminosity and colors as 2M1207b indicates that a third explanation, one of a purely atmospheric nature, is more likely. By including clouds, non-equilibrium chemistry, and low gravity, an atmosphere with effective temperature consistent with evolution cooling-track predictions is revealed. Consequently, 2M1207b, and others like it, requires no new physics to explain nor do they belong to a new class of objects. Instead they most likely represent the natural extension of cloudy substellar atmospheres down to low T{sub eff} and log (g). If this atmosphere only explanation for 2M1207b is correct, then very young planet-mass objects with near-IR spectra similar to field T dwarfs may be rare.

  15. Cloning and functional characterization of Chondrichthyes, cloudy catshark, Scyliorhinus torazame and whale shark, Rhincodon typus estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Kohno, Satomi; Narita, Haruka; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Yamane, Koudai; Hara, Akihiko; Clauss, Tonya M; Walsh, Michael T; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2010-09-15

    Sex-steroid hormones are essential for normal reproductive activity in both sexes in all vertebrates. Estrogens are required for ovarian differentiation during a critical developmental stage and promote the growth and differentiation of the female reproductive system following puberty. Recent studies have shown that environmental estrogens influence the developing reproductive system as well as gametogenesis, especially in males. To understand the molecular mechanisms of estrogen actions and to evaluate estrogen receptor-ligand interactions in Elasmobranchii, we cloned a single estrogen receptor (ESR) from two shark species, the cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame) and whale shark (Rhincodon typus) and used an ERE-luciferase reporter assay system to characterize the interaction of these receptors with steroidal and other environmental estrogens. In the transient transfection ERE-luciferase reporter assay system, both shark ESR proteins displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription, and shark ESRs were more sensitive to 17beta-estradiol compared with other natural and synthetic estrogens. Further, the environmental chemicals, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol and DDT could activate both shark ESRs. The assay system provides a tool for future studies examining the receptor-ligand interactions and estrogen disrupting mechanisms in Elasmobranchii. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuropeptide Y immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure of developing chromaffin tissue in the cloudy dogfish, Scyliorhinus torazame (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii).

    PubMed

    Chiba, A

    2001-02-01

    Ontogenetic changes in neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) were studied in chromaffin tissue of the cloudy dogfish, Scyliorhinus torazame. In adults and post-hatching juveniles, NPY-LI was demonstrated in chromaffin cells, but not in ganglion cells and supporting cells. Immunoreactive fibers were also found in the axillary body (the major chromaffin tissue) of the adult fish. During the embryonic period, NPY-LI was found at first in chromaffin tissue in the 34-mm stage. In this stage, cells in the periphery of the tissue were positive for NPY. Afterwards, changes were not observed in the topography and relative dominance of labelled cells in the tissue. Transmission electron microscopy of chromaffin tissue of the 26-mm stage showed an early phase of histogenesis in rudimental cell clusters composed of agranular cells and a few granular cells, i.e. pheochromoblasts. In the 43-mm stage, differentiation of the chromaffin tissue enabled ultrastructural classification of adrenalin-producing cells, noradrenalin-producing cells, ganglion cells, supporting cells, and unmyelinated nerve fibers. These results suggest that in the dogfish the appearance of NPY-LI in the developing sympathoadrenal system is related to differentiation of chromaffin cells.

  17. Forward Model Studies of Water Vapor Using Scanning Microwave Radiometers, Global Positioning System, and Radiosondes during the Cloudiness Intercomparison Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mattioli, Vinia; Westwater, Ed R.; Gutman, S.; Morris, Victor R.

    2005-05-01

    Brightness temperatures computed from five absorption models and radiosonde observations were analyzed by comparing them with measurements from three microwave radiometers at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz. Data were obtained during the Cloudiness Inter-Comparison experiment at the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) site in North-Central Oklahoma in 2003. The radiometers were calibrated using two procedures, the so-called instantaneous ?tipcal? method and an automatic self-calibration algorithm. Measurements from the radiometers were in agreement, with less than a 0.4-K difference during clear skies, when the instantaneous method was applied. Brightness temperatures from the radiometer and the radiosonde showed an agreement of less than 0.55 K when the most recent absorption models were considered. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) computed from the radiometers were also compared to the PWV derived from a Global Positioning System station that operates at the ARM site. The instruments agree to within 0.1 cm in PWV retrieval.

  18. Multi-Sensor Investigation of a Regional High-Arctic Cloudy Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanescu, L.; O'Neill, N. T.; Blanchet, J. P.; Baibakov, K.; Chaubey, J. P.; Perro, C. W.; Duck, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    A regional high-Arctic cloud event observed in March, 2011 at the PEARL Observatory, near the Eureka Weather Station (80°N, 86°W), was investigated with a view to better understanding cloud formation mechanisms during the Polar night. We analysed the temporal cloud evolution with a suite of nighttime, ground-based remote sensing (RS) instruments, supplemented by radiosonde profiles and surface weather measurements. The RS suite included Raman lidar, cloud radar, a star-photometer and microwave-radiometers. In order to estimate the spatial extent and vertical variability of the cloud mass, we employed satellite-based lidar (CALIPSO) and radar (CloudSat) profiles in the regional neighbourhood of Eureka (at a latitude of 80°N, Eureka benefits from a high frequency of CALIPSO and CloudSat overpasses). The ground-based and satellite-based observations provide quantitative measurements of extensive (bulk) properties (cloud and aerosol optical depths), and intensive (per particle properties) such as aerosol and cloud particle size as well as shape, density and aggregation phase of the cloud particulates. All observations were then compared with the upper atmosphere NCEP/NCAR reanalyses in order to understand better the synoptic context of the cloud mass dynamics as a function of key meteorological parameters such as upper air temperature and water vapor circulation. Preliminary results indicated the presence of a particular type of thin ice cloud (TIC-2) associated with a deep and stable atmospheric low. A classification into small and large ice crystal size (< 40 μm and > 40 μm, respectively), identifies the clouds as TIC-1 or TIC-2. This classification is hypothesized to be associated with the nature of the aerosols (non-anthropogenic versus anthropogenic) serving as ice nuclei in their formation. Such a distinction has important implications on the initiation of precipitation, removal rate of the cloud particles and, in consequence, the radiative forcing

  19. A study of the 3D radiative transfer effect in cloudy atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okata, M.; Teruyuki, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of the effect of clouds in the atmosphere is a significant problem in the Earth's radiation budget study with their large uncertainties of microphysics and the optical properties. In this situation, we still need more investigations of 3D cloud radiative transer problems using not only models but also satellite observational data.For this purpose, we have developed a 3D-Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code that is implemented with various functions compatible with the OpenCLASTR R-Star radiation code for radiance and flux computation, i.e. forward and backward tracing routines, non-linear k-distribution parameterization (Sekiguchi and Nakajima, 2008) for broad band solar flux calculation, and DM-method for flux and TMS-method for upward radiance (Nakajima and Tnaka 1998). We also developed a Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as a method for a construction of 3D cloud field with MODIS/AQUA and CPR/CloudSat data. We then selected a best-matched radar reflectivity factor profile from the library for each of off-nadir pixels of MODIS where CPR profile is not available, by minimizing the deviation between library MODIS parameters and those at the pixel. In this study, we have used three cloud microphysical parameters as key parameters for the MIDPM, i.e. effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and top of cloud temperature, and estimated 3D cloud radiation budget. We examined the discrepancies between satellite observed and mode-simulated radiances and three cloud microphysical parameter's pattern for studying the effects of cloud optical and microphysical properties on the radiation budget of the cloud-laden atmospheres.

  20. Schoolwide Literacy Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polder, Darlene D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes 10 "literacy day" activities that one California elementary school has used successfully schoolwide, typically one such day per month, to make reading fun and purposeful, while developing a sense of community. Includes: spread-a-quilt day; teacher exchange day; turn off the TV; Dr. Seuss day; community readers; schoolwide…

  1. Schoolwide Literacy Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polder, Darlene D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes 10 "literacy day" activities that one California elementary school has used successfully schoolwide, typically one such day per month, to make reading fun and purposeful, while developing a sense of community. Includes: spread-a-quilt day; teacher exchange day; turn off the TV; Dr. Seuss day; community readers; schoolwide…

  2. Formation of spectral lines in planetary atmospheres. III - The use of analytic scattering diagrams in computations of synthetic spectra for cloudy atmospheres.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results of some comparisons that have been made of line profiles and equivalent widths computed from atmospheric models where the scattering has been represented by the Mie theory and a simple analytic expression, the Heyney-Greenstein function. These results show that the spectroscopic features for these models are indistinguishable and demonstrate the value of using this simple analytic function in terms of the great saving in computer time when computing synthetic spectra for any cloudy planetary atmosphere.

  3. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Adult Day Care Adult Day Care Centers are designed to provide care and ... adults who need assistance or supervision during the day. Programs offer relief to family members and caregivers, ...

  4. Hubble's Look at Mars Shows Canyon Dust Storm, Cloudy Conditions for Pathfinder Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope images of Mars, taken on June 27, 1997, reveal a significant dust storm which fills much of the Valles Marineris canyon system and extends into Xanthe Terra, about 600 miles (1000 kilometers) south of the landing site.

    It is difficult to predict the evolution of this storm and whether it will affect the Pathfinder observations.

    The pictures were taken in order to monitor the site in Ares Vallis where the Pathfinder spacecraft will land on July 4.

    The two images of Mars at the top of the figure are Hubble observations from June 27 (right) and May 17 (left). Visual comparison of these two images clearly shows the dust storm between 5 and 7 o'clock and about 2/3 of the way from the center of the planet's disk to the southern edge of the June image.

    The digital data were projected to form the map of the equatorial portion of the planet which is shown in the bottom portion of the figure. The green cross marks the location of the Pathfinder landing site, and the yellowish ribbon of dust which runs horizontally across the bottom of the map traces the location of Valles Marineris, a system of canyons which would stretch from Los Angeles to New York if placed on Earth.

    Most of the dust is confined within the canyons, which are up to 5-8 kilometers deep. The thickness of the dust cloud near the eastern end of the storm is similar to that observed by Viking lander 1 during the first of the two 1977 global dust storms which it studied.

    Other interesting features appear in this image. The northwestern portions of the planet are enveloped in unusually thick water ice clouds, similar to cirrus clouds on Earth; some clouds extend as far as Lunae Planum, the slightly darker region about halfway from the center to the left side of the map. The dark spot near the terminator (boundary between day and night) at about 9:00 in the June 27 planet image is Ascraeus Mons, a 27 kilometer high volcano, protruding through the clouds.

    The remnant

  5. Cost Implications of the FIDCR: The Derivation of the Estimates in the Report to the Congress Entitled "The Appropriateness of the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements..." and an Analysis of Alternative Assumptions. Technical Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conly, Sonia Rempel

    This volume contains the technical paper prepared by DHEW to give additional data and a more detailed analysis of materials used to study the cost implications of the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements (FIDCR). This study was part of a larger project to investigate two questions: is the Federal regulation of day care financed under Title XX…

  6. CGH Supports World Cancer Day Every Day

    Cancer.gov

    We celebrate World Cancer Day every year on February 4th. This year the theme “We can. I can.” invites us to think not only about how we can work with one another to reduce the global burden of cancer, but how we as individuals can make a difference. Every day the staff at CGH work to establish and build upon programs that are aimed at improving the lives of people affected by cancer.

  7. The use of polar-orbiting satellite sounding data to estimate rural maximum and minimum temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gregory L.; Davis, Jerry M.; Karl, Thomas R.; Mcnab, Alan L.; Tarpley, J. D.; Bloomfield, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric sounding products from NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites were used to derive and test predictive equations of rural shelter-level maximum and minimum temperatures. Sounding data from both winter and summer months were combined with surface data from over 5300 cooperative weather stations in the continental United States to develop multiple linear regression equations. Separate equations were developed for both maximum and minimum temperature, using the three types of sounding retrievals (clear, partly cloudy, and cloudy). Clear retrieval models outperformed others, and maximum temperatures were more accurately predicted than minimums. Average standard deviations of observed rural shelter temperatures within sounding search areas were of similar magnitude to root-mean-square errors from satellite estimates for most clear and partly cloudy cases, but were significantly less for cloudy retrieval cases. Model validation for surrogate polar and tropical climatic regions showed success in application of the four clear retrieval models (maximum and minimum temperature, for both winter and summer). This indicates the potential adaptability of these models to estimates of rural shelter temperature in areas outside of the United States.

  8. The use of polar-orbiting satellite sounding data to estimate rural maximum and minimum temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gregory L.; Davis, Jerry M.; Karl, Thomas R.; Mcnab, Alan L.; Tarpley, J. D.; Bloomfield, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric sounding products from NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites were used to derive and test predictive equations of rural shelter-level maximum and minimum temperatures. Sounding data from both winter and summer months were combined with surface data from over 5300 cooperative weather stations in the continental United States to develop multiple linear regression equations. Separate equations were developed for both maximum and minimum temperature, using the three types of sounding retrievals (clear, partly cloudy, and cloudy). Clear retrieval models outperformed others, and maximum temperatures were more accurately predicted than minimums. Average standard deviations of observed rural shelter temperatures within sounding search areas were of similar magnitude to root-mean-square errors from satellite estimates for most clear and partly cloudy cases, but were significantly less for cloudy retrieval cases. Model validation for surrogate polar and tropical climatic regions showed success in application of the four clear retrieval models (maximum and minimum temperature, for both winter and summer). This indicates the potential adaptability of these models to estimates of rural shelter temperature in areas outside of the United States.

  9. Simple approximations for estimating quickly the motion and timing of salt diapir rise, overhang development, and associated thermal anomalies using present-day observations: Case history from the Gulf of Mexico and Danish North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, I. ); Thomsen, R.O. )

    1993-09-01

    Estimates of the upward motion of salt, due solely to buoyancy forces, through deposited and depositing sedimentary cover can be split into several parts: the critical thickness of sedimentary cover necessary to cause an underlying salt to become buoyant; the critical thickness of sedimentary cover necessary for a salt diapir to reach the sediment mudline in the absence of an impeding pressure of competent sediments opposing salt rise and in the absence of significant overpressure (both differential impedance and differential overpressure will slow the rise of the salt to the mudline); the effective speed of motion of the salt through the nonimpeding sediments during the salt's buoyant-ascent phase; current observed salt-top depth below mudline versus nonimpeded predicted salt-top depth leading to (a) minimum estimate of mechanical strength of competent resistive layers, and (b) an approximate estimate of buoyancy pressure of salt attempting to penetrate the resistive cover layer; uplift estimate of the overlying competent sediments because of the buoyancy pressure, in relation to observed uplift, leading to an estimate of salt-diapir rise speed since reaching the impeding formation; timing estimates of [open quotes]mushroom cap[close quotes] development of salt since emplacement of the resistive overlying layer and an estimate of the lateral competence of sedimentary beds ahead of the mushroom-salt sheet cap as a consequence of the observed mushroom extent; an estimate of evolving thermal anomalies around the dynamic salt/sediment system as a consequence of high-salt thermal conductivity. Such simple rough estimation methods are important in assessing the local and regional factors influencing the dynamic, thermal, and hydrocarbon retention factors in basinal sediments influenced by salt. Examples from the Gulf of Mexico and the Danish North Sea illustrate how to use both seismic and/or downhole data to perform the simple estimates.

  10. Accuracy of the hypothetical sky-polarimetric Viking navigation versus sky conditions: revealing solar elevations and cloudinesses favourable for this navigation method.

    PubMed

    Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András; Kretzer, Balázs; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Ádám; Szabó, Gyula; Horváth, Gábor

    2017-09-01

    According to Thorkild Ramskou's theory proposed in 1967, under overcast and foggy skies, Viking seafarers might have used skylight polarization analysed with special crystals called sunstones to determine the position of the invisible Sun. After finding the occluded Sun with sunstones, its elevation angle had to be measured and its shadow had to be projected onto the horizontal surface of a sun compass. According to Ramskou's theory, these sunstones might have been birefringent calcite or dichroic cordierite or tourmaline crystals working as polarizers. It has frequently been claimed that this method might have been suitable for navigation even in cloudy weather. This hypothesis has been accepted and frequently cited for decades without any experimental support. In this work, we determined the accuracy of this hypothetical sky-polarimetric Viking navigation for 1080 different sky situations characterized by solar elevation θ and cloudiness ρ, the sky polarization patterns of which were measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry. We used the earlier measured uncertainty functions of the navigation steps 1, 2 and 3 for calcite, cordierite and tourmaline sunstone crystals, respectively, and the newly measured uncertainty function of step 4 presented here. As a result, we revealed the meteorological conditions under which Vikings could have used this hypothetical navigation method. We determined the solar elevations at which the navigation uncertainties are minimal at summer solstice and spring equinox for all three sunstone types. On average, calcite sunstone ensures a more accurate sky-polarimetric navigation than tourmaline and cordierite. However, in some special cases (generally at 35° ≤ θ ≤ 40°, 1 okta ≤ ρ ≤ 6 oktas for summer solstice, and at 20° ≤ θ ≤ 25°, 0 okta ≤ ρ ≤ 4 oktas for spring equinox), the use of tourmaline and cordierite results in smaller navigation uncertainties than that of calcite

  11. Consultation in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiester, Dorothy J.

    This handbook clarifies the responsibility, role and functions of the day care consultant. A chapter on the philosophy of day care is intended to stimulate thoughtful consideration of how existing patterns of day care affect children, parents, and the family. A variety of methods and strategies for translating day care philosophy into practice are…

  12. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  13. Modulation of aerosol radiative forcing due to mixing state in clear and cloudy-sky: A case study from Delhi National Capital Region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul K.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh; Agarwal, Poornima

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol properties change with the change in mixing state of aerosols and therefore it is a source of uncertainty in estimated aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) from observations or by models assuming a specific mixing state. The problem is important in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Northern India, where various aerosol types mix and show strong seasonal variations. Quantifying the modulation of ARF by mixing state is hindered by lack of knowledge about proper aerosol composition. Hence, first a detailed chemical composition analysis of aerosols for Delhi National capital region (NCR) is carried out. Aerosol composition is arranged quantitatively into five major aerosol types - accumulation dust, coarse dust, water soluble (WS), water insoluble (WINS), and black carbon (BC) (directly measured by Athelometer). Eight different mixing cases - external mixing, internal mixing, and six combinations of core- shell mixing (BC over dust, WS over dust, WS over BC, BC over WS, WS over WINS, and BC over WINS; each of the combinations externally mixed with other species) have been considered. The spectral aerosol optical properties - extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g) for each of the mixing cases are calculated and finally 'clear-sky' and 'cloudy-sky' ARF at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface are estimated using a radiative transfer model. Comparison of surface-reaching flux for each of the cases with MERRA downward shortwave surface flux reveals the most likely mixing state. 'BC-WINS+WS+Dust' show least deviation relative to MERRA during the pre-monsoon (MAMJ) and monsoon (JAS) seasons and hence is the most probable mixing states. During the winter season (DJF), 'BC-Dust+WS+WINS' case shows the closest match with MERRA, while external mixing is the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon season (ON). Lowest values for both TOA and surface 'clear-sky' ARF is observed for 'BC-WINS+WS+ Dust' mixing case. TOA ARF is 0.28±2

  14. Partly Cloudy on Pluto?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-18

    Pluto's present, hazy atmosphere is almost entirely free of clouds, though scientists from NASA's New Horizons mission have identified some cloud candidates after examining images taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager and Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera, during the spacecraft's July 2015 flight through the Pluto system. All are low-lying, isolated small features -- no broad cloud decks or fields -- and while none of the features can be confirmed with stereo imaging, scientists say they are suggestive of possible, rare condensation clouds. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21127

  15. Cloudy Waves (False Color)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-14

    Clouds on Saturn take on the appearance of strokes from a cosmic brush thanks to the wavy way that fluids interact in Saturn's atmosphere. Neighboring bands of clouds move at different speeds and directions depending on their latitudes. This generates turbulence where bands meet and leads to the wavy structure along the interfaces. Saturn's upper atmosphere generates the faint haze seen along the limb of the planet in this image. This false color view is centered on 46 degrees north latitude on Saturn. The images were taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on May 18, 2017 using a combination of spectral filters which preferentially admit wavelengths of near-infrared light. The image filter centered at 727 nanometers was used for red in this image; the filter centered at 750 nanometers was used for blue. (The green color channel was simulated using an average of the two filters.) The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 750,000 miles (1.2 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is about 4 miles (7 kilometers) per pixel. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21341

  16. Every Day Is National Lab Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen

    2010-01-01

    President Barack Obama recently issued a call for increased hands-on learning in U.S. schools in an address at the National Academy of Sciences. Obama concluded that the future of the United States depends on one's ability to encourage young people to "create, and build, and invent." In this article, the author discusses National Lab Day (NLD)…

  17. Short-term light and leaf photosynthetic dynamics affect estimates of daily understory photosynthesis in four tree species.

    PubMed

    Naumburg, Elke; Ellsworth, David S

    2002-04-01

    Instantaneous measurements of photosynthesis are often implicitly or explicitly scaled to longer time frames to provide an understanding of plant performance in a given environment. For plants growing in a forest understory, results from photosynthetic light response curves in conjunction with diurnal light data are frequently extrapolated to daily photosynthesis (A(day)), ignoring dynamic photosynthetic responses to light. In this study, we evaluated the importance of two factors on A(day) estimates: dynamic physiological responses to photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD); and time-resolution of the PPFD data used for modeling. We used a dynamic photosynthesis model to investigate how these factors interact with species-specific photosynthetic traits, forest type, and sky conditions to affect the accuracy of A(day) predictions. Increasing time-averaging of PPFD significantly increased the relative overestimation of A(day) similarly for all study species because of the nonlinear response of photosynthesis to PPFD (15% with 5-min PPFD means). Depending on the light environment characteristics and species-specific dynamic responses to PPFD, understory tree A(day) can be overestimated by 6-42% for the study species by ignoring these dynamics. Although these overestimates decrease under cloudy conditions where direct sunlight and consequently understory sunfleck radiation is reduced, they are still significant. Within a species, overestimation of A(day) as a result of ignoring dynamic responses was highly dependent on daily sunfleck PPFD and the frequency and irradiance of sunflecks. Overall, large overestimates of A(day) in understory trees may cause misleading inferences concerning species growth and competition in forest understories with < 2% full sunlight. We conclude that comparisons of A(day) among co-occurring understory species in deep shade will be enhanced by consideration of sunflecks by using high-resolution PPFD data and understanding the

  18. 2012 Diversity Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-31

    John C. Stennis Space Center employees enjoyed 2012 Diversity Day activities Oct. 31. During the day, Stennis employees were able to visit exhibits highlighting different cultures and participate in a range of activities.

  19. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale.

  20. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T a) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T a estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T a based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T a, minimum T a, GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001–2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale. PMID:23365013

  1. Day Care Evaluation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Community Services in Metropolitan Chicago, IL.

    This manual presents instruments for evaluating the program and facilities of day care centers and family day care homes serving nonhandicapped children aged 3-5. Chapter 1 discusses child care evaluation in general and outlines the rationale underlying this evaluation system (including the principle that day care evaluation should assess program…

  2. Growing degree day calculator

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  3. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  4. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  5. Day Care: Everybody's Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This document reports on statistics regarding the need for day care facilities for children under the age of six. It also gives suggestions for making better use of local day care resources. Statistics show that: (1) There are more than 5 million children in this country under the age of 6 whose mothers work; (2) There are licensed day care…

  6. Clear and cloudy sky investigations using Raman lidar and airborne interferometric measures from the European AQUA Thermodynamic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiziano, Maestri; Paolo, Di Girolamo; Donato, Summa; Rolando, Rizzi

    2010-07-01

    A dataset of ground, airborne and satellite data was measured during the comprehensive 2004 EAQUATE (European AQUA Thermodynamic Experiment) Italian campaign. We have used ground based and airborne data to evaluate the consistency of Raman lidar temperature and humidity profiles with NAST-I (The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer) spectral radiance measurements in clear conditions, and the consistency of total cloud optical depth measured by the Raman lidar with the same quantity retrieved from NAST-I measurements. Lidar measurement of temperature and humidity profiles can resolve short time changes in mixing ratio due to its high time resolution. Brightness temperature simulations of clear sky, performed using lidar-derived profiles, are within 1 K difference with respect to data when averages over 25 cm -1 and emission from layers below 7 km are considered. High spectral resolution simulations agree with NAST-I measurements with a mean percentage difference less than 0.5% in the whole ν2 water vapour band. The simulations in cloudy conditions are based on crystal properties obtained assuming either an appropriate mixture of crystal habits (that for the first time is tested against high spectral resolution measurements) or pristine solid columns. Lidar-derived cloud base and top altitudes and lidar temperature and humidity profiles are exploited, for the first time, as inputs in a recently developed infrared cloud properties retrieval procedure. Total cloud optical depths, retrieved from 800 to 980 cm -1 NAST-I radiances, have values that, when converted to short-wave wavelengths, are in the range 0.05-2.2 and agree with lidar measurements to within experimental errors. A closer agreement is obtained with the mixture of habits. Simulated high resolution brightness temperatures based on retrieved cloud parameters (optical depths and effective dimensions) are compared with measured values in

  7. The feasibility of water vapor sounding of the cloudy boundary layer using a differential absorption radar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebsock, M. D.; Suzuki, K.; Millan, L. F.; Kalmus, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    The feasibility of Differential Absorption Radar (DAR) for the spaceborne remote profiling of water vapor within the cloudy boundary layer is assessed by applying a radar instrument simulator to Large Eddy Simulations (LES). Frequencies near the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line attenuate too strongly to penetrate the large vapor concentrations that are ubiquitous in the boundary layer. However it is shown that lower frequencies between 140 and 170 GHz in the water vapor absorption continuum and on the wings of the absorption line, which are attenuated less efficiently than those near the line center, still have sufficient spectral variation of gaseous attenuation to perform sounding. The high resolution LES allow for assessment of the potential uncertainty in the method due to natural variability in thermodynamic and dynamic variables on scales smaller than the instrument field of view. The (160, 170) GHz frequency pair is suggested to best maximize signal for vapor profiling while minimizing noise due to undesired spectral variation in the target extinction properties. Precision in the derived water vapor is quantified as a function of the range resolution and the instrument precision. Assuming an observational spatial scale of 500 m vertical and 750 m Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) horizontal, measurement precision better that 1 g m-3 is achievable for stratocumulus scenes and 3 g m-3 for cumulus scenes given precision in radar reflectivity of 0.16 dBZ. Expected precision in the Column Water Vapor (CWV) is achievable between 0.5 and 2 kg m-2 on these same spatial scales. Sampling efficiency is quantified as a function of radar sensitivity. Mean biases in CWV due to natural variability in the target extinction properties do not exceed 0.25 kg m-2. Potential biases due to uncertainty in the temperature and pressure profile are negligible relative to those resulting from natural variability. Assuming a -35 dBZ minimum detectable signal, 40 % (21.9 %) of

  8. The feasibility of water vapor sounding of the cloudy boundary layer using a differential absorption radar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebsock, M. D.; Suzuki, K.; Millán, L. F.; Kalmus, P. M.

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility of differential absorption radar (DAR) for the spaceborne remote profiling of water vapor within the cloudy boundary layer is assessed by applying a radar instrument simulator to large eddy simulations (LES). Frequencies near the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line attenuate too strongly to penetrate the large vapor concentrations that are ubiquitous in the boundary layer. However it is shown that lower frequencies between 140 and 170 GHz in the water vapor absorption continuum and on the wings of the absorption line, which are attenuated less efficiently than those near the line center, still have sufficient spectral variation of gaseous attenuation to perform sounding. The high resolution LES allow for assessment of the potential uncertainty in the method due to natural variability in thermodynamic and dynamic variables on scales smaller than the instrument field of view. The (160, 170) GHz frequency pair is suggested to best maximize signal for vapor profiling while minimizing noise due to undesired spectral variation in the target extinction properties. Precision in the derived water vapor is quantified as a function of the range resolution and the instrument precision. Assuming an observational spatial scale of 500 m vertical and 750 m full width at half maximum (FWHM) horizontal, measurement precision better that 1 g m-3 is achievable for stratocumulus scenes and 3 g m-3 for cumulus scenes given precision in radar reflectivity of 0.16 dBZ. Expected precision in the column water vapor (CWV) is achievable between 0.5 and 2 kg m-2 on these same spatial scales. Sampling efficiency is quantified as a function of radar sensitivity. Mean biases in CWV due to natural variability in the target extinction properties do not exceed 0.25 kg m-2. Potential biases due to uncertainty in the temperature and pressure profile are negligible relative to those resulting from natural variability. Assuming a -35 dBZ minimum detectable signal, 40 %(21.9 %) of

  9. An assessment of models which use satellite data to estimate solar irradiance at the earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, C.; Hay, J. E.

    1984-05-01

    The performances of three models which use satellite data to estimate solar irradiance at the earth's surface are assessed using measured radiation data from a midlatitude location. Assessment of the models is made possible through the accurate earth location of the satellite imagery (to within + or - 2 pixels). Evaluations of the models for a variety of conditions reveal the need for revised coefficients for the Hay and Hanson (1978) model and Tarpley (1979) model and demonstrate the superior performance of the pysically-based Gautier et al. (1980) model on an hourly basis for partly cloudy and overcast conditions. However, compared to the clear-sky case all three models give poor results under partly cloudy and overcast conditions. An increase in the averaging period leads to marked decreases in the rms errors observed for the three models under all conditions, with the greatest improvement occuring for the Hay and Hanson model. Suggestions for improvements include a more accurate and explicit treatment of cloud absorption in all three models and the inclusion of the effects of aerosols under clear skies and the accurate and objective specification of a cloud threshold separating clear from partly cloudy and partly cloudy from overcast conditions in the Gautier et al. and Tarpley models.

  10. Links between extreme UV-radiation, total ozone, surface albedo and cloudiness: An analysis of 30 years of data from Switzerland and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Weihs, P.; Vuilleumier, L.; Blumthaler, M.; Holawe, F.; Lindfors, A.; Maeder, J. A.; Simic, S.; Wagner, J. E.; Walker, D.; Ribatet, M.

    2009-04-01

    Since the discovery of anthropogenic ozone depletion in the early 1970s (e.g. Molina and Rowland, 1974; Farman et al., 1985) the interest in stratospheric ozone trends and solar UV-B increased within the scientific community and the general public because of the link between reduced total column ozone and increased UV-radiation doses. Stratospheric ozone (e.g. Koch et al., 2005) and erythemal UV-radiation (e.g. Rieder et al., 2008) in the northern mid-latitudes are characterized by strong temporal variability. Long-term measurements of UV-B radiation are rare and datasets are only available for few locations and most of these measurements do not provide spectral information on the UV part of the spectra. During strong efforts in the reconstruction of erythemal UV, datasets of past UV-radiation doses became available for several measurement sites all over the globe. For Switzerland and Austria reconstructed UV datasets are available for 3 measurement sites (Davos, Sonnblick and Vienna) (Lindfors and Vuilleumier, 2005; Rieder et al., 2008). The world's longest ozone time series dating back to 1926 is available from Arosa, Switzerland, and is discussed in detail by Staehelin et al. (1998a,b). Recently new tools from extreme value theory have been applied to the Arosa time series to describe extreme events in low and high total ozone (Rieder et al., 2009). In our study we address the question of how much of the extremes in UV-radiation can be attributed to extremes in total ozone, high surface albedo and cloudiness. An analysis of the frequency distributions of such extreme events for the last decades is presented to gain a better understanding of the links between extreme erythemal UV-radiation, total ozone, surface albedo and clouds. References: Farman, J. C., Gardiner, B. G., and Shanklin, J. D.: Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction, Nature, 315, 207-210, 1985. Koch, G., Wernli, H., Schwierz, C., Staehelin, J., and Peter, T

  11. With a cloudy horizon scene as a backdrop, the Spartan 207 free-flyer is held in the grasp of the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- With a cloudy horizon scene as a backdrop, the Spartan 207 free-flyer is held in the grasp of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) following its re-capture on May 21, 1996. The view was captured with an onboard Electronic Still Camera (ESC). The six-member crew has spent a portion of the early stages of the mission in various activities involving the Spartan 207 and the related Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE). The Spartan project is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. GMT: 09:39:35.

  12. Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column in Cloudy Weather Conditions using An IM-CW Lidar at 1.57 Micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Obland, Michael; Harrison, F. Wallace; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Campbell, Joel; Dobler, Jeremy; Meadows, Bryon; Fan, Tai-Fang; Kooi, Susan; hide

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the capability of atmospheric CO2 column measurements under cloudy conditions using an airborne intensity-modulated continuous-wave integrated-path-differential-absorption lidar operating in the 1.57-m CO2 absorption band. The atmospheric CO2 column amounts from the aircraft to the tops of optically thick cumulus clouds and to the surface in the presence of optically thin clouds are retrieved from lidar data obtained during the summer 2011 and spring 2013 flight campaigns, respectively.

  13. Comparison of two intelligent models to estimate the instantaneous global solar radiation in semi-arid climate conditions: Application in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani Mohiabadi, Mostafa; Mirzaei, Mohsen

    2017-07-01

    Solar radiation incident on the earth's surface is a fundamental input for many aspects of climatology, hydrology, biology, and architecture. In addition, it is an important parameter in solar energy applications. Due to the high cost of the measuring instruments of solar radiation, many researchers have suggested different empirical methods to estimate this essential parameter. In this study, with the help of fuzzy systems and neural networks, two models have been designed to estimate the instantaneous global solar radiation in Rafsanjan city which has a typical climatic conditions of semi-arid region of middle eastern countries. In fuzzy and neural network model, the inputs are the number of the given day in the year, time, ambient temperature and cloudiness, The comparison between the results of the models and the measurements, shows that the estimated global radiation is similar to the measurement; for fuzzy model, statistical indicators RMSE, MBE and t-test are 103.4367 (w/m2), 4.1169 (w/m2) and 9.1318, respectively and for ANN, they are 85.46 (w/m2), 3.08 (w/m2) and 5.41, respectively. As the results indicate, both models are able to estimate the amount of radiation well, while the neural network has a higher accuracy. The output of the modes for six other cities of Iran, with similar climate conditions, also proves the ability of the proposed models.

  14. Open Day at SHMI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosova, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the World Meteorological Day there has been preparing "Open Day" at Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. This event has more than 10 years traditions. "Open Day" is one of a lot of possibilities to give more information about meteorology, climatology, hydrology too to public. This "Day" is executed in whole Slovakia. People can visit the laboratories, the forecasting room....and meteo and clima measuring points. The most popular is visiting forecasting room. Visitors are interested in e.g. climatologic change in Slovakia territory, preparing weather forecasting, dangerous phenomena.... Every year we have more than 500 visitors.

  15. Day case laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Abboudi, Hamid; Doyle, Patrick; Winkler, Mathias

    2017-10-03

    To evaluate the feasibility of performing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) as a day case procedure while maintaining patient satisfaction and safety. Herein we report our experience, selection criteria, and discharge criteria for day case LRP. We performed a prospective study with 32 patients undergoing extraperitoneal LRP. These patients were counselled before the procedure that they would go home the same evening of the procedure. Pain scores and quality of life data were recorded day 1 postoperatively via a telephone consultation. The patients underwent routine blood tests on day 2 and an outpatient review on day 7 and regularly thereafter via an assigned key worker. Socio-demographic data, comorbidities, and outcomes were collected for analysis. All patients were successfully discharged the same day of surgery. Mean patient age was 62 years with a mean body mass index of 25. Mean operative time was 147 minutes, and estimated blood loss was 101 ml. Three patients were treated for post operative urinary tract infections; two patients developed infected lymphoceles which required percutaneous drainage and one patient required re-catheterisation due to a burst catheter balloon. Of these six complications four patients required re-admission. Post-operative pain, nausea and vomiting were low whilst patient satisfaction scores were unanimously high in all patients surveyed. The early experience with extraperitoneal LRP as a same day surgery is promising although patients who are at high risk of lymphocele should be excluded. Preoperative patient counselling and selection is paramount. Patient satisfaction is not adversely affected by the shortened stay. Surgeon experience, a well-motivated patient, meticulous attention to detail through an integrated pathway, a multidisciplinary team and adequate postoperative assessment are essential.

  16. How Many Days Are Enough? A Study of 365 Days of Pedometer Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Bassett, David R.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ainsworth, Barbara; Reis, Jared P.; Strath, Scott; Swartz, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the number of days of pedometer monitoring necessary to achieve reliable and valid estimates of a 1-year average of step counts in adults based on either consecutive days (CD) or random days (RD) of data collection. Twenty-three participants (16 women; M age = 38 years, SD = 9.9) wore a Yamax SW 200 pedometer…

  17. How Many Days Are Enough? A Study of 365 Days of Pedometer Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Bassett, David R.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ainsworth, Barbara; Reis, Jared P.; Strath, Scott; Swartz, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the number of days of pedometer monitoring necessary to achieve reliable and valid estimates of a 1-year average of step counts in adults based on either consecutive days (CD) or random days (RD) of data collection. Twenty-three participants (16 women; M age = 38 years, SD = 9.9) wore a Yamax SW 200 pedometer…

  18. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  19. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  20. 2011 Earth Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-21

    Pat Drackett of the Crosby Arboretum in Picayune (l) speaks with Helen Robinson and Arlene Brown, both employees of the Naval Oceanographic Office at Stennis Space Center, during Earth Day 2011 activities April 21. During the day, Stennis employees were able to visit various exhibits featuring environmentally friendly and energy-conscious items and information. The activities were coordinated by the Stennis Environmental Office.

  1. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  2. Day of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  3. National Day of Service

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-19

    Former first daughter Chelsea Clinton kicks off the National Day of Service on the National Mall, Saturday, January 19, 2013, in Washington. She urged Americans to get involved in service projects in their communities. Clinton will serve as honorary chair of the 2013 National Day of Service. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. [Infants in Day Care].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue looks at infant day care models including those emphasizing early intervention with special needs infants. The lead article, "Infants in Day Care: Reflections on Experiences, Expectations and Relationships," by Jeree H. Pawl, stresses the importance of understanding infants' and toddlers' capacities and needs in…

  5. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  6. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  7. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  8. The Presidents' Day Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his…

  9. Day of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  10. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  11. 2012 Diversity Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-31

    John C. Stennis Space Center employees enjoyed 2012 Diversity Day activities Oct. 31. During the day, Stennis employees were able to visit cultural exhibits and participate such events as an employee talent showcase, a car/motorcycle show, Stennis 'Family Feud' contests and a cultural dress parade.

  12. 2012 Diversity Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-31

    John C. Stennis Space Center employees enjoyed 2012 Diversity Day activities Oct. 31. The day's color-filled schedule included an employee talent showcase, a car/motorcycle show, Stennis 'Family Feud' contests, a cultural dress parade, food vendors and various cultural exhibits.

  13. School Building Day, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ.

    This document presents information and development materials about "School Building Day" (an event spotlighting the school facility and developing support and pride in the community's schools) to help local school districts conduct their own "School Building Day" to be held on April 20th of 2001. Included are lists of suggested…

  14. The Presidents' Day Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his…

  15. [Infants in Day Care].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue looks at infant day care models including those emphasizing early intervention with special needs infants. The lead article, "Infants in Day Care: Reflections on Experiences, Expectations and Relationships," by Jeree H. Pawl, stresses the importance of understanding infants' and toddlers' capacities and needs in…

  16. The SunCloud project: An initiative for a development of a worldwide sunshine duration and cloudiness observations dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

    2010-09-01

    One problem encountered when establishing the causes of global dimming and brightening is the limited number of long-term solar radiation series with accurate and calibrated measurements. For this reason, the analysis is often supported and extended with the use of other climatic variables such as sunshine duration and cloud cover. Specifically, sunshine duration is defined as the amount of time usually expressed in hours that direct solar radiation exceeds a certain threshold (usually taken at 120 W m-2). Consequently, this variable can be considered as an excellent proxy measure of solar radiation at interannual and decadal time scales, with the advantage that measurements of this variable were initiated in the late 19th century in different, worldwide, main meteorological stations. Nevertheless, detailed and up-to-date analysis of sunshine duration behavior on global or hemispheric scales are still missing. Thus, starting on September 2010 in the framework of different research projects, we will engage a worldwide compilation of the longest daily or monthly sunshine duration series from the late 19th century until present. Several quality control checks and homogenization methods will be applied to the generated sunshine dataset. The relationship between the more precise downward solar radiation series from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and the homogenized sunshine series will be studied in order to reconstruct global and regional solar irradiance at the Earth's surface since the late 19th century. Since clouds are the main cause of interannual and decadal variability of radiation reaching the Earth's surface, as a complement to the long-term sunshine series we will also compile worldwide surface cloudiness observations. With this presentation we seek to encourage the climate community to contribute with their own local datasets to the SunCloud project. The SunCloud Team: M. Wild, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland

  17. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Computers, monitors, vacuum cleaners and other electronics have been donated by employees at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  18. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    A sign points the way to the electronic waste collection site, where NASA Kennedy Space Center employees donated computers, monitors, vacuum cleaners and other electronics in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  19. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    A sign tells NASA Kennedy Space Center employees they have come to the right place to donate items for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  20. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida set up giveaway items and sort through donations for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  1. Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from a multiple channel Raman-scatter lidar using an optimal estimation method.

    PubMed

    Sica, R J; Haefele, A

    2016-02-01

    Lidar measurements of the atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio provide an excellent complement to radiosoundings and passive, ground-based remote sensors. Lidars are now routinely used that can make high spatial-temporal resolution measurements of water vapor from the surface to the stratosphere. Many of these systems can operate during the day and night, with operation only limited by clouds thick enough to significantly attenuate the laser beam. To enhance the value of these measurements for weather and climate studies, this paper presents an optimal estimation method (OEM) to retrieve the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol optical depth profile, Ångstrom exponent, lidar constants, detector dead times, and measurement backgrounds from multichannel vibrational Raman-scatter lidars. The OEM retrieval provides the systematic uncertainties due to the overlap function, calibration factor, air density and Rayleigh-scatter cross sections, in addition to the random uncertainties of the retrieval due to measurement noise. The OEM also gives the vertical resolution of the retrieval as a function of height, as well as the height to which the contribution of the a priori is small. The OEM is applied to measurements made by the Meteoswiss Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations (RALMO) in the day and night for clear and cloudy conditions. The retrieved water vapor mixing ratio is in excellent agreement with both the traditional lidar retrieval method and coincident radiosoundings.

  2. NASA Earth Day 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-22

    Students listen intently while NASA's Director, Earth Science Division, Mike Freilich, speaks at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. Disability Mentoring Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-07

    A student from the Maryland School For the Blind explores an object while learning about Meteorites, Asteroids and Comets during NASA's Disability Mentoring Day, Thursday, April 7, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washignton. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  4. Disability Mentoring Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-07

    A student from the Maryland School For the Blind asks a question while learning about Meteorites, Asteroids and Comets during NASA's Disability Mentoring Day, Thursday, April 7, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washignton. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  5. Disability Mentoring Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-07

    A student from the Maryland School For the Blind explores a braille map during NASA's Disability Mentoring Day, Thursday, April 7, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washignton. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  6. Disability Mentoring Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-07

    Students from the Maryland School for the Blind learn about space food from NASA Public Affairs specialist Nora Normandy, right, during Disability Mentoring Day, Thursday, April 7, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  7. Disability Mentoring Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-07

    Students from the Maryland School for the Blind learn about astronauts during NASA's Disability Mentoring Day, Thursday, April 7, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washignton. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. NASA Earth Day 2014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-22

    NASA's Administrator, Charles Bolden, conducts an experiment using circuits at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  9. Old Timers' Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-18

    Former Stennis Space Center employees enjoyed a return to the test facility for Old Timers' Day activities May 18, 2012. The annual fellowship was attended by about 150 retirees, guests and employees.

  10. Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    MedlinePlus

    ... between days 7 and 20 of a woman's menstrual cycle. In order to become pregnant, having sex every ... hours of ovulation. If you have an irregular menstrual cycle, an ovulation predictor kit can help you know ...

  11. Career Day 2012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    More than 200 high school juniors and seniors with interests in science, technology, engineering and math met one-on-one with professionals at NASA's Langley Research Center during Career Day 2012,...

  12. Space Day 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Joyce

    2000-01-01

    Introduces three design challenges for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students created by the Challenger Center for Space Science Education. Presents information on Space Day and the National Classroom and provides Internet site addresses. (YDS)

  13. Stennis Day Camper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Sara Beth Casey, 5, proudly displays her artwork, 'Planets.' Sara Beth created the art as a student of Stennis Day Camp, a free camp for Stennis Space Center employees' children whose schools have not resumed since Hurricane Katrina hit the region on Aug. 29. The camp has registered nearly 200 children and averages 100 children each day. The camp will continue until all schools are back in session.

  14. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida shred a disposed hard drive in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  15. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida accept items donated by employees in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  16. Stennis Day Camper

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-05

    Sara Beth Casey, 5, proudly displays her artwork, 'Planets.' Sara Beth created the art as a student of Stennis Day Camp, a free camp for Stennis Space Center employees' children whose schools have not resumed since Hurricane Katrina hit the region on Aug. 29. The camp has registered nearly 200 children and averages 100 children each day. The camp will continue until all schools are back in session.

  17. Sun-Earth Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  18. 2016 SPD: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    advances in simulating sunspot formation. He and his collaborators have used high-performance computing to build a model that successfully reproduces many of the key properties of sunspots that are observed.In particular, these simulations track the motions of the magnetic field starting within the interior of the Sun (8000 km below the surface!). The magnetic field is generated and intensified by convection deep within the solar interior. Bundles of magnetic field then rise through the convection zone, eventually breaking through the solar surface and giving rise to sunspots.This process of tracking the flow as it travels from the convective layer all the way through the solar surface has resulted in what may be some of the highest fidelity simulations of sunspots thus far. The structures produced in these simulations compares very favorably with actual observations of sunspots including the asymmetry seen in most sunspots.Counting Spots on the SunContinuing the discussion of sunspots, Leif Svalgaard (Stanford University) next took us on a historical journey from the 1600s through the present. For the last 400 years starting with Galileo people have kept records of the number of sunspots visible on the Suns disk.One of Galileos drawings of his sunspot observations from 1612. [The Galileo Project]This turns out to be a very useful practice! Total solar irradiance, a measure used as input into climate models, is reconstructed from sunspot numbers. Therefore, the historical record of sunspots over the last 400 years impacts our estimates of the long-term trends in solar activity.Based on raw sunspot counts, studies have argued that solar activity has been steadily increasing over time. But could this be a misinterpretation resulting from the fact that our technology and therefore our ability to detect sunspots has improved over time? Svalgaard believes so.By studying and reconstructing 18th century telescopes, he demonstrates that modern-day sunspot counts are able to detect

  19. Cloud cover estimation using bispectral satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M.-D.; Childs, J.; Dorian, P.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for cloud cover estimation using bispectral satellite measurements. Based on the distribution of pixels in albedo-brightness temperature space, a number of threshold values are applied to identify those pixels which are most likely totally cloud filled. Mean cloudy-column albedo in a region much larger than a single pixel is then estimated and cloud cover computed. The algorithm has been applied to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Geostationary Meteorological Satellite B2 data. Locations of tropical convective cells and the passage of fronts in higher latitudes are identified. Since these features represent the states of large-scale atmospheric circulations, it is concluded that the algorithm can yield consistent cloud data sets useful for climate studies.

  20. Liquid and Ice Cloud Microphysics in the CSU General Circulation Model. Part II: Impact on Cloudiness, the Earth's Radiation Budget, and the General Circulation of the Atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Laura D.; Randall, David A.

    1996-03-01

    A prognostic equation for the mass of condensate associated with large-scale cloudiness introduces a direct coupling between the atmospheric moisture budget and the radiation budget through interactive cloud amounts and cloud optical properties. We have compared the cloudiness, the top-of-the-atmosphere and surface radiation budgets, the radiative forcing of clouds, and the atmospheric general circulation simulated with the Colorado State University general circulation model with and without such a prognostic cloud parameterization. In the EAULIQ run, the radiative effects of cloud water, cloud ice, and snow are considered; those of rain are omitted. The cloud optical depth and cloud infrared emissivity depend on the cloud water, cloud ice, and snow paths predicted by a bulk cloud microphysics parameterization. In the CONTROL run, a conventional large-scale condensation scheme is used. Cloud optical properties depend on the mean cloud temperatures. Results are presented in terms of January and July means.Comparisons with data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment show that EAULIQ yields improved simulations of the geographical distributions of the simulated cloudiness, the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation budget, and the longwave and shortwave cloud radiative forcings. Differences between EAULIQ and CONTROL are largest in the Tropics and are mostly due to a decrease, in the EAULIQ run, in the amount and optical thickness of upper-tropospheric clouds. In particular, the cold bias in the outgoing longwave radiation and the overestimation of the planetary albedo obtained in the CONTROL run over the tropical convective regions are substantially reduced. Differences in the radiative and latent heating rates between EAULIQ and CONTROL lead to some improvements in the atmospheric general circulation simulated by EAULIQ when compared against statistics on the observed circulation assembled by the European Centre

  1. Jupiter Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Day and night side narrow angle images taken on January 1, 2001 illustrating storms visible on the day side which are the sources of visible lightning when viewed on the night side. The images have been enhanced in contrast. Note the two day-side occurrences of high clouds, in the upper and lower parts of the image, are coincident with lightning storms seen on the darkside. The storms occur at 34.5 degrees and 23.5 degrees North latitude, within one degree of the latitudes at which similar lightning features were detected by the Galileo spacecraft. The images were taken at different times. The storms' longitudinal separation changes from one image to the next because the winds carrying them blow at different speeds at the two latitudes.

  2. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida look over appliances donated for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  3. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida take a bin of disposed hard drives to be shredded in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  4. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Computers, monitors, vacuum cleaners and other electronics have been donated by employees at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  5. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida sort through items donated for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  6. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  7. Disability Mentoring Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-07

    A student from the Maryland School For the Blind touches a piece of moon rock while learning about Meteorites, Asteroids and Comets during NASA's Disability Mentoring Day, Thursday, April 7, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washignton. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. Dog Day Afternoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipczak, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the problem faced by trainers who are "on stage" for eight hours a day. Offers tips to relieve the stress caused by continuous training, including maintaining personal space, taking a lunch break, keeping physically energized, and avoiding burnout when teaching the same thing over and over. (JOW)

  9. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson performs the traditional door signing Friday, April 2, 2010 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Caldwell Dyson was launched onboard the Soyuz rocket later that day with Expedition 23 Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko on a mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. 2012 Earth Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-24

    Bonnie Humphrey of NASA (l to r), Van Ward of NASA, Kim Maddox of the Naval Oceanographic Office, and Al Bryden of the NASA Shared Services Center learn about the Crosby Arboretum in Picayune, Miss., during the Earth Day celebration at Stennis Space Center on April 24, 2012.

  11. 2012 Day of Remembrance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-25

    Stennis Space Center Director Patrick Scheuermann (left) and Associate Director Ken Human place a wreath in the Roy S. Estess Building on Jan. 25, 2012, in memory of the NASA family who lost their lives while furthering the cause of exploration and discovery. The wreath was placed during NASA's 2012 Day of Remembrance, which is observed each January.

  12. First Day of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article, the author, a science teacher at F. C. Hammond Middle School in Alexandria, Virginia, describes how the setting up of a simple science experiment on the first day of school can get students excited about learning science. The experiment involves heating a small amount of water in a flask, then covering the opening of the…

  13. Day Of Remembrance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-31

    NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, left, and other NASA senior management participate in a wreath laying ceremony as part of NASA's Day of Remembrance, Thursday, Jan. 31 2008, at Arlington National Cemetery. The wreaths were laid in the memory of those men and women who lost their lives in the quest of space exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Day of Remembrance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-31

    The Space Shuttle Challenger Memorial is seen after a wreath laying ceremony that was part of NASA's Day of Remembrance, Friday, Jan. 31, 2014, at Arlington National Cemetery. Wreaths were laid in memory of those men and women who lost their lives in the quest for space exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Day of Remembrance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-31

    Remembrances are seen left at the base of the Space Shuttle Challenger Crew Memorial during NASA's Day of Remembrance, Friday, Jan. 31, 2014, at Arlington National Cemetery. Wreaths were also laid in memory of those men and women who lost their lives in the quest for space exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Day of Remembrance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-28

    The Space Shuttle Columbia and Space Shuttle Challenger memorials are seen after a wreath laying ceremony that was part of NASA's Day of Remembrance, Wednesday, Jan. 28, 2015, at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Va. The wreaths were laid in memory of those men and women who lost their lives in the quest for space exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  17. Day of Remembrance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-31

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and his wife Alexis lay a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknowns as part of NASA's Day of Remembrance, Friday, Jan. 31, 2014, at Arlington National Cemetery. The wreaths were laid in memory of those men and women who lost their lives in the quest for space exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Day of Remembrance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-27

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and other NASA personnel participate in a wreath laying ceremony as part of NASA's Day of Remembrance, Thursday, Jan. 27, 2011, at Arlington National Cemetery. Wreathes were laid in memory of those men and women who lost their lives in the quest for space exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Day of Remembrance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-31

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden participates in a wreath laying ceremony as part of NASA's Day of Remembrance, Friday, Jan. 31, 2014, at Arlington National Cemetery. The wreaths were laid in memory of those men and women who lost their lives in the quest for space exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Day of Remembrance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-31

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to NASA personnel and others during a wreath laying ceremony as part of NASA's Day of Remembrance, Friday, Jan. 31, 2014, at Arlington National Cemetery. The wreaths were laid in memory of those men and women who lost their lives in the quest for space exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)