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Sample records for clove caryophyllus aromaticus

  1. A preliminary study of the acaricidal activity of clove oil, Eugenia caryophyllus.

    PubMed

    Mahakittikun, Vanna; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Foongladda, Sooporn; Boitano, John Joseph; Wangapai, Teerapong; Ninsanit, Prapakorn

    2014-03-01

    The search for more eco-friendly acaricides has prompted testing of medicinal plants from botanical sources. To evaluate the eradication of house dust mites (HDM), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, by direct contact using the essential clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus). A pilot study was initiated to determine the killing power of clove oil. Synthetic fibers were immersed in 2% clove oil for 30 min, dried in a hot air oven at 60°C for 2 hrs after which 0.5 gm of HDMs were exposed to these coated fibers placed in the Siriraj Chamber (SC). Two additional long-term methods were employed. Ten mites were placed in the SC and 10 μl of clove oil was pipetted or sprayed onto them. These latter two procedures were each carried out for 3 consecutive days at 0, 1, 3 and 6 months. The solutions antimicrobial and antifungal properties were evaluated by exposing common bacteria and fungi to sterile filter disks impregnated with the mixture, and after overnight incubation, the disc diffusion method on nutrient agar was used. Ethyl alcohol served as the placebo. 99% and 81%, respectively, while the placebo mortality was <5%. The zone of inhibition indicated significant clearance for all the bacteria and fungi indicating greater biocidal activity when compared to the controls. SEMs revealed dead mites on the fibers. The effectiveness of pipetting and spraying was 99% and 81%, respectively, while the placebo mortality was <5%. The zone of inhibition indicated significant clearance for all the bacteria and fungi indicating greater biocidal activity when compared to the controls. Clove oil is a promising agent for killing dust mites with a potential use in dust-mite laden mattresses. Spraying diminishes in efficiency after 3 months.

  2. Scavenger Activity Evaluation of the Clove Bud Essential Oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) and Eugenol Derivatives Employing ABTS+• Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Merchán Arenas, Diego R.; Acevedo, Amner Muñoz; Vargas Méndez, Leonor Y.; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V.

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil (EO) of clove bud dried fruits from Eugenia caryophyllus was obtained by a conventional hydrodistillation process in an excellent yield (11.7 %). Its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS, identifying eugenol as a main constituent (60.5%). Four eugenol-like molecules, γ-diisoeugenol, hydroxymethyleugenol, dihydroeugenol and 1,3-dioxanylphenol, were synthesized using eugenol or isoeugenol as initial precursors under green chemistry protocols. To evaluate the possible antioxidant capacity of eugenol compounds including the clove bud EO, the Trolox® Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity value, obtained by the ABTS+• radical-cation discoloration method, was employed. The methodology was performed in a UV-Vis reader of 96-well microplates (dilution methodology), using well-known antioxidant agents (BHA, BHT and vitamin E) as reference compounds. It was found that the prepared eugenol derivatives had a more potent free radical scavenger activity than the reference compounds. In particular, the most active molecules, γ-diisoeugenol and 1,3-dioxanylphenol, were ca. 3-fold more potent than vitamin E. PMID:22145105

  3. Scavenger Activity Evaluation of the Clove Bud Essential Oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) and Eugenol Derivatives Employing ABTS Decolorization.

    PubMed

    Merchán Arenas, Diego R; Acevedo, Amner Muñoz; Vargas Méndez, Leonor Y; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil (EO) of clove bud dried fruits from Eugenia caryophyllus was obtained by a conventional hydrodistillation process in an excellent yield (11.7 %). Its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS, identifying eugenol as a main constituent (60.5%). Four eugenol-like molecules, γ-diisoeugenol, hydroxymethyleugenol, dihydroeugenol and 1,3-dioxanylphenol, were synthesized using eugenol or isoeugenol as initial precursors under green chemistry protocols. To evaluate the possible antioxidant capacity of eugenol compounds including the clove bud EO, the Trolox® Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity value, obtained by the ABTS(+•) radical-cation discoloration method, was employed. The methodology was performed in a UV-Vis reader of 96-well microplates (dilution methodology), using well-known antioxidant agents (BHA, BHT and vitamin E) as reference compounds. It was found that the prepared eugenol derivatives had a more potent free radical scavenger activity than the reference compounds. In particular, the most active molecules, γ-diisoeugenol and 1,3-dioxanylphenol, were ca. 3-fold more potent than vitamin E.

  4. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils from lemon, grapefruit, coriander, clove, and their mixtures].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Samusenko, A L

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of individual essential oils from lemon (Citrus limon L.), pink grapefruit (Citrus paradise L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) buds and their mixtures were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was assessed by oxidation of the aliphatic aldehyde hexanal to the carboxylic acid. The lowest and highest antioxidant activities were exhibited by grapefruit and clove bud essential oils, respectively. Mixtures containing clove bud essential oil also strongly inhibited oxidation of hexanal. Changes in the composition of essential oils and their mixtures in the course of long-term storage in the light were studied. The stability of components of lemon and coriander essential oils in mixtures increased compared to individual essential oils.

  5. Clove

    MedlinePlus

    ... ingredient product used to keep men from reaching orgasm too early (premature ejaculation). In foods and beverages, clove is used as ... THE SKIN: In men, to keep from reaching orgasm too early (premature ejaculation): A multi-ingredient cream preparation containing clove flower ...

  6. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Stoilova, Ivanka; Stoyanova, Albena; Krastanov, Albert; Schmidt, Erich

    2006-08-23

    The antioxidant activity of a commercial rectified clove leaf essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) and its main constituent eugenol was tested. This essential oil comprises in total 23 identified constituents, among them eugenol (76.8%), followed by beta-caryophyllene (17.4%), alpha-humulene (2.1%), and eugenyl acetate (1.2%) as the main components. The essential oil from clove demonstrated scavenging activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydracyl (DPPH) radical at concentrations lower than the concentrations of eugenol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This essential oil also showed a significant inhibitory effect against hydroxyl radicals and acted as an iron chelator. With respect to the lipid peroxidation, the inhibitory activity of clove oil determined using a linoleic acid emulsion system indicated a higher antioxidant activity than the standard BHT.

  7. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Rojas, Diego Francisco; de Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandes; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications. PMID:25182278

  8. Investigation of the Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action of Thymus vulgaris, Citrus limonum, Pelargonium graveolens, Cinnamomum cassia, Ocimum basilicum, and Eugenia caryophyllus Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Gucwa, Katarzyna; Milewski, Sławomir; Dymerski, Tomasz; Szweda, Piotr

    2018-05-08

    The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. In this study the activity of Thymus vulgaris , Citrus limonum , Pelargonium graveolens , Cinnamomum cassia , Ocimum basilicum , and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils (EOs) distributed by Pollena Aroma (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki, Poland) was investigated against a group of 183 clinical isolates of C. albicans and 76 isolates of C. glabrata . All of the oils exhibited both fungistatic and fungicidal activity toward C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. The highest activity was observed for cinnamon oil, with MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) values in the range 0.002⁻0.125% ( v / v ). The MIC values of the rest of the oils were in the range 0.005% (or less) to 2.5% ( v / v ). In most cases MFC (Minimum Fungicidal Concentration) values were equal to MIC or twice as high. Additionally, we examined the mode of action of selected EOs. The effect on cell wall components could not be clearly proved. Three of the tested EOs (thyme, lemon, and clove) affected cell membranes. At the same time, thyme, cinnamon, and clove oil influenced potassium ion efflux, which was not seen in the case of lemon oil. All of the tested oils demonstrated the ability to inhibit the transition of yeast to mycelium form, but the effect was the lowest in the case of cinnamon oil.

  9. Characterization of arginine decarboxylase from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    PubMed

    Ha, Byung Hak; Cho, Ki Joon; Choi, Yu Jin; Park, Ky Young; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2004-04-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.9) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines in higher plants, whereas ornithine decarboxylase represents the sole pathway of polyamine biosynthesis in animals. Previously, we characterized a genomic clone from Dianthus caryophyllus, in which the deduced polypeptide of ADC was 725 amino acids with a molecular mass of 78 kDa. In the present study, the ADC gene was subcloned into the pGEX4T1 expression vector in combination with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The fusion protein GST-ADC was water-soluble and thus was purified by sequential GSTrap-arginine affinity chromatography. A thrombin-mediated on-column cleavage reaction was employed to release free ADC from GST. Hiload superdex gel filtration FPLC was then used to obtain a highly purified ADC. The identity of the ADC was confirmed by immunoblot analysis, and its specific activity with respect to (14)C-arginine decarboxylation reaction was determined to be 0.9 CO(2) pkat mg(-1) protein. K(m) and V(max) of the reaction between ADC and the substrate were 0.077 +/- 0.001 mM and 6.0 +/- 0.6 pkat mg(-1) protein, respectively. ADC activity was reduced by 70% in the presence of 0.1 mM Cu(2+) or CO(2+), but was only marginally affected by Mg(2+), or Ca(2+) at the same concentration. Moreover, spermine at 1 mM significantly reduced its activity by 30%.

  10. In vitro propagation of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    PubMed

    Casas, Jose L; Olmos, Enrique; Piqueras, Abel

    2010-01-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most popular ornamental plants worldwide and also among the most studied ones, mainly in cut flower postharvest physiology. Several protocols for the in vitro propagation of this species including nodal segment culture, somatic embryogenesis, and adventitious shoot induction are described in this chapter. The presence of hyperhydricity as an abnormality during micropropagation of carnation plants has also been the object of research for many years and different strategies to overcome this problem are also included in this study.

  11. Clove cigarette smoking: biochemical, physiological, and subjective effects.

    PubMed

    Malson, Jennifer L; Lee, Eun M; Murty, Ram; Moolchan, Eric T; Pickworth, Wallace B

    2003-02-01

    Alternative tobacco products such as clove (kreteks) and bidi cigarettes have become increasingly popular among US smokers. The nicotine content of a popular clove cigarette (Djarum Special) filler averaged 7.4 mg; conventional cigarettes contained 13.0 mg. However, smoke yields from standardized machine-smoking analysis indicated it delivered more nicotine, carbon monoxide (CO), and tar than conventional cigarettes. In a clinical study, nicotine delivery, physiologic, and subjective effects of the clove cigarette were compared to their own brand of cigarette in 10 adult smokers (7 males). Average time to smoke the clove cigarette (549 s) and number of puffs (15.1) were significantly greater than own brand (314 s and 9.4 puffs). Increases in venous plasma nicotine and exhaled CO after smoking the clove cigarette (17.4 ng/ml; 6 ppm) were similar to those after own brand (17.6 ng/ml; 4.5 ppm). Maximal changes in heart rate (HR), systolic, and diastolic blood pressures (BP) did not differ significantly between the clove and own brand of cigarette. Compared to their own brand of cigarette, the clove cigarette was rated as better tasting and being distinctly different. Our findings indicate that clove cigarettes deliver significant quantities of nicotine, CO, and presumably other toxic components of tobacco smoke. Taste satisfaction, aromatic odor, and novelty may contribute to their appeal to young smokers.

  12. Antimicrobial Activities of Clove and Thyme Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nzeako, B C; Al-Kharousi, Zahra S N; Al-Mahrooqui, Zahra

    2006-01-01

    Objective: It has been postulated that geographical locations of the herbs affect the constituents of their essential oils and thus the degree of their antimicrobial action. This study examine two samples of clove obtained from Sri Lanka and Zanzibar and two samples of thyme from Iran and Oman to determine the antimicrobial potential of their extracted oils. Method: The active agents in each plant were extracted by steam distillation and by boiling. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined at neat and by two-fold dilutions in well agar diffusion technique using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium species, Salmonella species, Bacteroides fragilis and Candida albicans. Results: All oil extracts possessed antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and yeast tested. Their water extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, though thyme aqueous extract was active only against S. aureus. The lowest concentration of antimicrobial activity (0.1% i.e., 1:1024) was obtained with thyme oil extract using Candida albicans. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial activity between clove obtained from Sri Lanka or Zanzibar or thyme obtained from Iran or Oman. Conclusion: Our experiment showed that the country of origin of the herbs has no effect on their antimicrobial activity. However, further work is necessary to ascertain why Candida albicans displayed remarkable degree of sensitivity with the extracts than all the other organisms test. PMID:21748125

  13. Effect of anaesthesia with clove oil in fish (review).

    PubMed

    Javahery, Susan; Nekoubin, Hamed; Moradlu, Abdolmajid Haji

    2012-12-01

    Clove oil is an effective, local and natural anaesthetic. Many hatcheries and research studies use clove oil to immobilize fish for handling, sorting, tagging, artificial reproduction procedures and surgery and to suppress sensory systems during invasive procedures. Clove oil may be more appropriate for use in commercial aquaculture situations. Improper clove oil use can decrease fish viability, distort physiological data or result in mortalities. Because animals may be anaesthetized by unskilled labourers and released in natural water bodies, training in the proper use of clove oil may decrease variability in recovery and experimental results and increase fish survival. Here, we briefly describe many aspects of clove oil, including the legal uses of it, anaesthesia mechanism and what is currently known about the preparation and behavioural and pathologic effects of the anaesthetic. We outline methods and precautions for administration and changes in fish behaviour during progressively deeper anaesthesia and discuss the physiological effects of clove oil, its potential for compromising fish health and effectiveness of water quality parameters.

  14. Unequivocal Identification of 1-Phenylethyl Acetate in Clove Buds (syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) and Clove Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Gassenmeier, Klaus; Schwager, Hugo; Houben, Eric; Clery, Robin

    2017-06-27

    The natural occurrence of 1-phenylethyl acetate (styrallyl acetate) was confirmed in commercially available dried clove buds and also in the hydrodistilled oil from clove buds. This confirms previous reports and other anecdotal evidence for its occurrence in nature.

  15. Breeding of carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) for long vase life

    PubMed Central

    Onozaki, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the main floricultural crops in Japan and worldwide. The vase life of cut ornamental flowers, including carnations, is important in determining their quality and consumers’ preference. To improve the vase life of carnation flowers, my group started a breeding research program in 1992 using conventional cross-breeding techniques. We repeatedly crossed and selected promising offspring with long vase life for seven generations, from 1992 to 2008. In 2005, we developed two cultivars, ‘Miracle Rouge’ and ‘Miracle Symphony’, with genetically determined long vase lives of 17.7 to 20.7 days (3.2 to 3.6 times that of ‘White Sim’) under standard conditions (23°C, 70% RH, 12-h photoperiod). Line 532-6 showed an ultra-long vase life averaging 27.8 to 32.7 days (4.6 to 5.4 times that of ‘White Sim’). We evaluated changes in ethylene sensitivity with flower senescence simply and accurately using a time-lapse video recorder. In 2010, we selected line 806-46b with both ultra-long vase life (27.1 days, 4.4 times that of ‘White Sim’) and ethylene resistance. Analyses using six cultivars and 123 selected lines from the 1st to the 7th generations revealed that the long vase life was strongly associated with a decrease in ethylene production. PMID:29681743

  16. Breeding of carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) for long vase life.

    PubMed

    Onozaki, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the main floricultural crops in Japan and worldwide. The vase life of cut ornamental flowers, including carnations, is important in determining their quality and consumers' preference. To improve the vase life of carnation flowers, my group started a breeding research program in 1992 using conventional cross-breeding techniques. We repeatedly crossed and selected promising offspring with long vase life for seven generations, from 1992 to 2008. In 2005, we developed two cultivars, 'Miracle Rouge' and 'Miracle Symphony', with genetically determined long vase lives of 17.7 to 20.7 days (3.2 to 3.6 times that of 'White Sim') under standard conditions (23°C, 70% RH, 12-h photoperiod). Line 532-6 showed an ultra-long vase life averaging 27.8 to 32.7 days (4.6 to 5.4 times that of 'White Sim'). We evaluated changes in ethylene sensitivity with flower senescence simply and accurately using a time-lapse video recorder. In 2010, we selected line 806-46b with both ultra-long vase life (27.1 days, 4.4 times that of 'White Sim') and ethylene resistance. Analyses using six cultivars and 123 selected lines from the 1st to the 7th generations revealed that the long vase life was strongly associated with a decrease in ethylene production.

  17. Sequence Analysis of the Genome of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Masafumi; Kosugi, Shunichi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ohmiya, Akemi; Tanase, Koji; Harada, Taro; Kishimoto, Kyutaro; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ichimura, Kazuo; Onozaki, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Miyahara, Taira; Nishizaki, Yuzo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Noriko; Suzuki, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Shusei; Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Akiko; Nakayama, Shinobu; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Tabata, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. ‘Francesco’ was determined using a combination of different new-generation multiplex sequencing platforms. The total length of the non-redundant sequences was 568 887 315 bp, consisting of 45 088 scaffolds, which covered 91% of the 622 Mb carnation genome estimated by k-mer analysis. The N50 values of contigs and scaffolds were 16 644 bp and 60 737 bp, respectively, and the longest scaffold was 1 287 144 bp. The average GC content of the contig sequences was 36%. A total of 1050, 13, 92 and 143 genes for tRNAs, rRNAs, snoRNA and miRNA, respectively, were identified in the assembled genomic sequences. For protein-encoding genes, 43 266 complete and partial gene structures excluding those in transposable elements were deduced. Gene coverage was ∼98%, as deduced from the coverage of the core eukaryotic genes. Intensive characterization of the assigned carnation genes and comparison with those of other plant species revealed characteristic features of the carnation genome. The results of this study will serve as a valuable resource for fundamental and applied research of carnation, especially for breeding new carnation varieties. Further information on the genomic sequences is available at http://carnation.kazusa.or.jp. PMID:24344172

  18. Sequence analysis of the genome of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    PubMed

    Yagi, Masafumi; Kosugi, Shunichi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ohmiya, Akemi; Tanase, Koji; Harada, Taro; Kishimoto, Kyutaro; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ichimura, Kazuo; Onozaki, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Miyahara, Taira; Nishizaki, Yuzo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Noriko; Suzuki, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Shusei; Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Akiko; Nakayama, Shinobu; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Tabata, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    The whole-genome sequence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. 'Francesco' was determined using a combination of different new-generation multiplex sequencing platforms. The total length of the non-redundant sequences was 568,887,315 bp, consisting of 45,088 scaffolds, which covered 91% of the 622 Mb carnation genome estimated by k-mer analysis. The N50 values of contigs and scaffolds were 16,644 bp and 60,737 bp, respectively, and the longest scaffold was 1,287,144 bp. The average GC content of the contig sequences was 36%. A total of 1050, 13, 92 and 143 genes for tRNAs, rRNAs, snoRNA and miRNA, respectively, were identified in the assembled genomic sequences. For protein-encoding genes, 43 266 complete and partial gene structures excluding those in transposable elements were deduced. Gene coverage was ∼ 98%, as deduced from the coverage of the core eukaryotic genes. Intensive characterization of the assigned carnation genes and comparison with those of other plant species revealed characteristic features of the carnation genome. The results of this study will serve as a valuable resource for fundamental and applied research of carnation, especially for breeding new carnation varieties. Further information on the genomic sequences is available at http://carnation.kazusa.or.jp. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  19. [Induction and in vitro culture of hairy roots of Dianthus caryophyllus and its plant regeneration].

    PubMed

    Shi, Heping; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Wang, Bei; Sun, Jiangbing; Huang, Shengqin

    2014-11-01

    To use Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots to create new germplasm of Dianthus caryophyllus, we transformed D. caryophyllus with A. rhizogenes by leaf disc for plant regeneration from hairy roots. The white hairy roots could be induced from the basal surface of leaf explants of D. caryophyllus 12 days after inoculation with A. rhizogenes ATCC15834. The percentage of the rooting leaf explants was about 90% 21 days after inoculation. The hairy roots could grow rapidly and autonomously in liquid or solid phytohormone-free MS medium. The transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of rol gene of Ri plasmid and silica gel thin-layer chromatography of opines from D. caryophyllus hairy roots. Hairy roots could form light green callus after cultured on MS+6-BA 1.0-3.0 mg/L + NAA 0.1-0.2 mg/L for 15 days. The optimum medium for adventitious shoots formation was MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L + NAA 0.02 mg/L, where the rate of adventitious shoot induction was 100% after cultured for 6 weeks. The mean number of adventitious shoot per callus was 30-40. The adventitious shoots can form roots when cultured on phytohormone-free 1/2 MS or 1/2 MS +0.5 mg/L NAA for 10 days. When the rooted plantlets transplanted in the substrate mixed with perlite sand and peat (volume ratio of 1:2), the survival rate was above 95%.

  20. Clove cigar sales following the US flavoured cigarette ban.

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Hrywna, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Following the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009, flavoured cigarettes, including clove cigarettes, were banned based on the rationale that such cigarettes appealed to youth. However, the ban on characterising flavours was not extended to cigars. This study reviewed industry documents from Kretek International, the parent company behind Djarum clove cigars, to document the changes in their marketing and production strategies following the flavour ban on cigarettes. To assess sales trends following the ban, data for clove cigar sales in the USA from 2009 to 2012 were analysed using Nielsen's Convenience Track retail scanner database. Additionally, data on tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia were obtained from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System for the years 2008-2012. In anticipation of Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) flavour ban on cigarettes and recognising the regulatory advantages of cigars, Kretek International began developing Djarum clove cigars in 2007. Immediately following the flavour ban, sales of this product increased by more than 1400% between 2009 and 2012. During this same period, tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia, a leader in clove tobacco production, shifted from cigarettes to almost exclusively cigars. Kretek International, like other tobacco manufacturers, manipulated its products following the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act as a way to capitalise on regulatory loopholes and replace its now banned clove cigarettes. As a result, consumption of the company's Djarum clove cigars increased exponentially in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Antifungal activity of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Chee, Hee Youn; Lee, Min Hee

    2007-12-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essential oil showed fungicidal activity.

  2. Chemical profiling of clove bud oil (Syzygium aromaticum) from Toli-Toli and Bali by GC-MS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistyoningrum, A. S.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Amelia, B.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia is the largest clove producer in the world. In 2012, total world clove production is 113,215 tons where nearly 71 % (79,250 tons) comes from Indonesia. Although Indonesia is a major producer of clove in the world, research and publications about cloves in this country are scarce and hence knowledge about characteristics of difference varieties of cloves is very limited. The present study was aimed to compare major and minor constituents in clove oil responsible for their flavor based on origin which are cloves from Toli-Toli and Bali. The clove bud oil was isolated from clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) using steam distillation. The compounds of clove bud oil was analyzed using GC-MS. The major compounds of clove oil were eugenol, caryophyllene, α-humulene and eugenyl acetate with composition 66.37 %, 15.38 %, 1.97 % and 12.99 %, respectively (Toli-Toli) and clove from Bali were 72.34 %, 12.51 %, 2.34 % and 5.33 %, respectively. The unique minor compounds of clove oil from Toli-Toli were (+)-δ-cadinene (0.13 %) and β-caryophylladienol (0.19 %) while in clove oil from Bali were valencene (0.17 %), δ-selinene (0.22 %) and alloaromadendrene (0.24 %). A total of 36 compounds were identified from the clove bud oil Toli-Toli and 38 compounds from the clove bud oil Bali.

  3. GC-MS analysis of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud essential oil from Java and Manado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelia, B.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U.; Sulistyoningrum, A. S.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The largest clove production contributors in Indonesia are mostly coming from Java and Manado. Different flavor among clove origins is caused by chemical constituents in clove oil. Unfortunately, scientific research and publications about flavor in clove from Indonesia's origin are still limited. The objective of this research is to determine significant differences of constituents in terms of flavor in clove oil originated from Java and Manado. The essential oils were isolated from cut clove bud samples by steam distillation method. The chemical constituents of clove bud oil were analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Constituents were then identified by comparing the results of the chromatogram and reference retention time using Wiley mass spectra library (Wiley W9N11). Thirty-six and thirty-four chemical constituents were identified based on GC-MS from clove oil collected from Java and Manado, respectively. Major classes of compounds are sesquiterpenes, phenyl propanoid, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and esters. Different compositions in major constituents were found between both origins. Clove Java contained eugenol (55.60 %), eugenyl acetate (20.54 %), caryophyllene (14.84 %), and α-humulene (2.75 %). While, in clove Manado, the composition were eugenol (74.64 %), caryophyllene (12.79 %), eugenyl acetate (8.70 %), and α-humulene (1.53 %). Moreover, minor constituents β-elemene (0.04 %), α-cadinene (0.05 %) and ledol (0.06 %) were existed only in clove Java, while clove Manado had some unique minor constituents which were not found in clove Java, i.e. β-gurjunene (0.04 %), γ-cadinene %), and humulene oxide (0.05 %). In conclusion, both clove oils from Java and Manado contained same major chemical constituents but different in their composition. In addition, some minor constituents existed only in specific origin.

  4. Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata)

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, L.; Aquino, M. D’

    2012-01-01

    Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21° C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use PMID:24031950

  5. Protein glycation inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of clove extract.

    PubMed

    Suantawee, Tanyawan; Wesarachanon, Krittaporn; Anantsuphasak, Kanokphat; Daenphetploy, Tanuch; Thien-Ngern, Sroshin; Thilavech, Thavaree; Pasukamonset, Porntip; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2015-06-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (clove) is one of the most widely cultivated spices in many tropical countries. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, the antioxidant properties and the antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of clove against fructose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation. The result showed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in clove extract was 239.58 ± 0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 65.67 ± 0.01 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. In addition, clove exhibited antioxidant properties including DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01 mg/ml), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (4.69 ± 0.03 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (20.55 ± 0.11 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/mg dried extract), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (31.12 ± 0.21 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.15 ± 0.04 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), and superoxide radical scavenging activity (18.82 ± 0.50 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract). The aqueous extract of clove (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and non-fluorescent AGEs (N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)) in glycated BSA during 4 weeks of incubation. The extract also markedly prevented oxidation-induced protein damage by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protecting against the loss of protein thiol group. These results clearly demonstrated that a polyphenol enriched clove extract, owing to its antioxidant, was capable to inhibit the formation of AGEs and protein glycation. The findings might lead to the possibility of using the clove extract for targeting diabetic complications.

  6. Unequivocal Identification of 1-Phenylethyl Acetate in Clove Buds (syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) and Clove Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Gassenmeier, Klaus; Schwager, Hugo; Houben, Eric; Clery, Robin

    2017-01-01

    The natural occurrence of 1-phenylethyl acetate (styrallyl acetate) was confirmed in commercially available dried clove buds and also in the hydrodistilled oil from clove buds. This confirms previous reports and other anecdotal evidence for its occurrence in nature. PMID:28653988

  7. The effect of clove and benzocaine versus placebo as topical anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Alqareer, Athbi; Alyahya, Asma; Andersson, Lars

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the natural herb clove can replace benzocaine as a topical anesthetic. Topical agents were applied to the maxillary canine buccal mucosa of 73 adult volunteers. Four substances were tested in the study: (1) homemade clove gel, (2) benzocaine 20% gel, (3) placebo that resembles clove and (4) a placebo that resembled benzocaine. After 5 min of material application in a randomized, subject-blinded manner, each participant received two needle sticks. Pain response was registered using a 100 mm visual analogue pain scale. Both clove and benzocaine gels had significantly lower mean pain scores than placebos (p=0.005). No significant difference was observed between clove and benzocaine regarding pain scores. Clove gel might possess a potential to replace benzocaine as a topical agent before needle insertion.

  8. Identification of nonvolatile compounds in clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Manado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathoni, A.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (clove) are native to Indonesia and have been widely used in food industry due to their flavor. Nonvolatile compounds contribute to flavor, mainly in their taste. Currently, there is very little information available about nonvolatile compounds in clove. Identification of nonvolatile compounds is important to improve clove's value. Compound extraction was conducted by maceration in ethanol. Fractionations of the extract were performed by using gravity column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 as stationary phase. Nonvolatile compounds were identified by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS was operated in negative mode with 0.1 % formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Nonvolatile compounds were identified by fragment analysis and compared to references. Several compounds had been identified and characterized asquinic acid, monogalloylglucose, gallic acid, digalloylglucose, isobiflorin, biflorin, ellagic acid, hydroxygallic acid, luteolin, quercetin, naringenin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, dimethoxyluteolin, and rhamnetin. These compounds had two main flavor perceptions, i.e. astringent, and bitter.

  9. A minimal cost micropropagation protocol for Dianthus caryophyllus L.-- a commercially significant venture.

    PubMed

    Pant, Manu

    2016-03-01

    In tissue culture, high production cost of the products restricts their reach. Though tissue culture is a major strength in floriculture it is marred by pricing issues. Hence, we developed a complete regeneration low cost micropropagation protocol for an economically important floriculture crop, carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Successful regeneration of carnation from nodal explants on cost-efficient medium indicates that psyllium husk, sugar and RO water can effectively replace the conventional medium comprising agar, sucrose and distilled water. The protocol can contribute to increased carnation production at comparatively reduced cost, and there by encourage wide scale adoption by the common growers.

  10. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant.

  11. Non-destructive NIR-FT-Raman analyses in practice. Part I. Analyses of plants and historic textiles.

    PubMed

    Andreev, G N; Schrader, B; Schulz, H; Fuchs, R; Popov, S; Handjieva, N

    2001-12-01

    Non-destructive analysis of natural substances in plants as well as of old dyed textiles by Raman spectroscopy has not been possible using conventional techniques. Exciting lines from the visible part of the spectrum produced photochemical and thermal decomposition of the objects as well as strong fluorescence. Using Nd:YAG laser excitation at 1,064 nm together with a special sample arrangement and interferometric recording, various polyacetylenes in Aethusa cynapium and in chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and the main valuable substances in gentian species (Gentiana lutea and G. punctata), curcuma roots (Curcuma longa), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), and ginger (Zingiber officinale) were analyzed non-destructively and discussed in comparison with the corresponding pure standard compounds. We further analyzed non-destructively the FT Raman spectra of collections of historical textiles and lakes used for dyeing. It is possible to distinguish the main dye component non-destructively by using Raman bands.

  12. Comparative efficacy of Zataria multiflora Boiss., Origanum compactum and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils against E. coli O157:H7, feline calicivirus and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby-leaf salads.

    PubMed

    Azizkhani, Maryam; Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Selma, María Victoria; Aznar, Rosa

    2013-09-02

    Ready-to-eat salads using baby-leaf and multi-leaf mixes are one of the most promising developments in the fresh-cut food industry. There is great interest in developing novel decontamination treatments, which are both safe for consumers and more efficient against foodborne pathogens. In this study, emulsions of essential oils (EOs) from Origanum compactum (oregano), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove), and Zataria multiflora Boiss (zataria) were applied by spray (0.8 ml) after the sanitizing washing step. The aim was to investigate their ability to control the growth of potentially cross-contaminating pathogens and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby leaves, processed in a fresh-cut produce company. Zataria EO emulsions of 3%, 5% and 10% reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 1.7, 2.2 and 3.5 log cfu/g in baby-leaf salads after 5 days of storage at 7°C. By contrast, reductions in E. coli O157:H7 counts remained the same when clove was applied at concentrations of 5% and 10% (2.5 log cfu/g reduction). Oregano (10%) reduced inoculated E. coli O157:H7 counts in baby-leaf salads by a maximum of 0.5 log cfu/g after 5 days of storage. Zataria showed strong antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli O157:H7 and also against the endogenous microbiota of baby-leaf salads stored for 9 days. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a norovirus surrogate, survived on inoculated baby-leaf salads during refrigerated storage (9 days at 7°C) regardless of treatment. Refrigeration temperatures completely annulled the effectiveness of the EOs against FCV inoculated in baby-leaf salads as occurred in FCV cultures. This study shows that EOs, and zataria in particular, have great potential use as an additional barrier to reduce contamination-related risks in baby-leaf salads. However, further research should be done into foodborne viruses in order to improve food safety. © 2013.

  13. Comparative study of cinnamon oil and clove oil on some oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Kumari, Archana; Garg, A Pankaj; Catanzaro, R; Marotta, F

    2011-12-01

    A comparative study was carried out between cinnamon oil and clove oil on the oral micro-biota causing dental caries. Cinnamon oil was found to be more effective than clove oil exhibiting broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting all the ten test bacterial species involved in dental caries. Cinnamon oil produced maximum inhibition zone of diameter (IZD) of 24.0 mm against Streptococcus mutans (major causative bacteria of dental plaque) as compared to clove oil (IZD = 13.0mm). This is contrary to the popular belief that clove oil is effective in tooth decay and dental plaque. This study shows the potential of cinnamon oil over clove oil in the treatment of dental caries. (www.actabiomedica.it).

  14. A quantitative framework for flower phenotyping in cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    PubMed

    Chacón, Borja; Ballester, Roberto; Birlanga, Virginia; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs) accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value.

  15. A Quantitative Framework for Flower Phenotyping in Cultivated Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chacón, Borja; Ballester, Roberto; Birlanga, Virginia; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs) accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value. PMID:24349209

  16. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove) extract regulates energy metabolism in myocytes.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zheng; Moss-Pierce, Tijuana; Ford, Paul; Jiang, T Alan

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide. Herbs and spices have been used for the treatment of diabetes for centuries in folk medicine. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove) extracts (SE) have been shown to perform comparably to insulin by significantly reducing blood glucose levels in animal models; however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the effects of clove on metabolism in C2C12 myocytes and demonstrated that SE significantly increases glucose consumption. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was increased by SE treatment. SE also transcriptionally regulates genes involved in metabolism, including sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α). Nicotinamide, an SIRT1 inhibitor, diminished SE's effects on glucose consumption. Furthermore, treatment with SE dose-dependently increases muscle glycolysis and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. Overall, our study suggests that SE has the potential to increase muscle glycolysis and mitochondria function by activating both AMPK and SIRT1 pathways.

  17. Prevention of vector transmitted diseases with clove oil insect repellent.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Rochel

    2012-08-01

    Vector repellent is one element in the prevention of vector-borne diseases. Families that neglect protecting their children against vectors risk their children contracting illnesses such as West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis, Lyme disease, malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever, babesiosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Southern tick-associated rash illness, ehrlichiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, tularemia, and other insect and arthropod related diseases (CDC, 2011). Identification of families at risk includes screening of the underlying basis for reluctance to apply insect repellent. Nurses and physicians can participate in a positive role by assisting families to determine the proper prophylaxis by recommending insect repellent choices that are economical, safe, and easy to use. A holistic alternative might include the suggestion of clove oil in cases where families might have trepidations regarding the use of DEET on children. This article will explore the safety and effectiveness of clove oil and its use as an insect repellent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation and characterization of clove essential oil-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Carine; Jraij, Alia; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    In this study, suitable formulations of natural soybean phospholipid vesicles were developed to improve the stability of clove essential oil and its main component, eugenol. Using an ethanol injection method, saturated (Phospholipon 80H, Phospholipon 90H) and unsaturated soybean (Lipoid S100) phospholipids, in combination with cholesterol, were used to prepare liposomes at various eugenol and clove essential oil concentrations. Liposomal batches were characterized and compared for their size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The liposomes were tested for their stability after storing them for 2 months at 4°C by monitoring changes in their mean size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values. It was found that liposomes exhibited nanometric oligolamellar and spherical shaped vesicles and protected eugenol from degradation induced by UV exposure; they also maintained the DPPH-scavenging activity of free eugenol. Liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile unstable essential oil constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Application of Clove Extract Protects Chinese-style Sausages against Oxidation and Quality Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xinyan

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of clove extract (CE) (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the oxidative stability and quality deterioration of Chinese-style sausage stored for 21 d at 4°C. The addition of clove extract to sausages significantly retarded increases in Thiobarbituric Reactive Substances (TBARS) values (p<0.05), while also controlling the production of protein carbonyls (p<0.05). However, the addition of clove extract promoted reduced thiol group content in sausages (p<0.05). Sausages amended with clove extract also had decreased L* values (p<0.05) and increased a* values (p<0.05) when compared with the control. Similarly, texture deterioration was retarded in sausage containing added clove extract when compared with the control during refrigerated storage. Moreover, the addition of clove extract had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. These results suggested that clove extract was effective at protecting sausages from oxidation and quality deterioration during refrigerated storage for 21 d. PMID:28316478

  20. The Application of Clove Extract Protects Chinese-style Sausages against Oxidation and Quality Deterioration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyun; Peng, Xinyan; Li, Xinling; Wu, Jingjuan; Guo, Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of clove extract (CE) (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the oxidative stability and quality deterioration of Chinese-style sausage stored for 21 d at 4°C. The addition of clove extract to sausages significantly retarded increases in Thiobarbituric Reactive Substances (TBARS) values ( p <0.05), while also controlling the production of protein carbonyls ( p <0.05). However, the addition of clove extract promoted reduced thiol group content in sausages ( p <0.05). Sausages amended with clove extract also had decreased L* values ( p <0.05) and increased a* values ( p <0.05) when compared with the control. Similarly, texture deterioration was retarded in sausage containing added clove extract when compared with the control during refrigerated storage. Moreover, the addition of clove extract had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. These results suggested that clove extract was effective at protecting sausages from oxidation and quality deterioration during refrigerated storage for 21 d.

  1. Antimicrobial and Virulence-Modulating Effects of Clove Essential Oil on the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Judit K.; Felső, Péter; Makszin, Lilla; Pápai, Zoltán; Horváth, Györgyi; Ábrahám, Hajnalka; Palkovics, Tamás; Böszörményi, Andrea; Emődy, Levente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our study investigated the antimicrobial action of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil (EO) on the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. After confirming the clove essential oil's general antibacterial effect, we analyzed the reference strain Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. Phenotypic, proteomic, and transcriptomic methods were used to reveal changes in cell morphology and functions when exposed to sublethal concentrations of clove EO. The normally curved cells showed markedly straightened and shrunken morphology on the scanning electron micrographs as a result of stress. Although, oxidative stress, as a generally accepted response to essential oils, was also present, the dominance of a general stress response was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The results of RT-PCR and two-dimensional (2D) PAGE revealed that clove oil perturbs the expression of virulence-associated genes taking part in the synthesis of flagella, PEB1, PEB4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serine protease. Loss of motility was also detected by a phenotypic test. Bioautographic analysis revealed that besides its major component, eugenol, at least four other spots of clove EO possessed bactericidal activity against C. jejuni. Our findings show that clove EO has a marked antibacterial and potential virulence-modulating effect on C. jejuni. IMPORTANCE This study demonstrates that the components of clove essential oil influence not only the expression of general stress genes but also the expression of virulence-associated genes. Based on this finding, alternative strategies can be worked on to control this important foodborne pathogen. PMID:27520816

  2. [Acaricidal activity of clove bud oil against Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Hai-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2009-12-01

    Volatile oil from the clove bud was extracted by petroleum ether using Soxhlet Extractor. The acaricidal activity was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. In a filter paper contact toxicity bio-assay, at 2.5 h after treatment, clove bud oil at a dose of 12.20 microg/cm2 killed all dust mites. As judged by 24-h LD50 values, potent fumigant action was observed with clove bud oil (12.20 microg/cm2), showing an adequate acaricidal activity against indoor Dermatophagoides farinae.

  3. Encapsulation of eugenol from clove oil using casein micelle for solid preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayanto, Andri; Putri, Yeshinta Risky Priasmara; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Liquid preparation of eugenol in clove oil form is one of eugenol preparation form that is easiest to get it nowadays in many level of purity. The problem is the liquid preparation of chemical is often not easy to handle than the solid one. In this study, we observe the effectivity of cow milk casein in case of encapsulating eugenol from clove oil for creating the solid preparation of eugenol in nanoscale size. The result is 63.86% eugenol from clove oil can be encapsulated by the casein. The average particle diameter is about 377.5 nm, with loading capacity until 67.2%.

  4. Dianthins, ribosome-damaging proteins with anti-viral properties from Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation).

    PubMed Central

    Stirpe, F; Williams, D G; Onyon, L J; Legg, R F; Stevens, W A

    1981-01-01

    1. Dianthin 30 and dianthin 32, two proteins isolated from the leaves of Diathus caryophyllus (carnation), were purified to homogeneity by chromatography on CM-cellulose. 2. The mol.wt. of dianthin 30 is 29 500 and that of dianthin 32 is 31 700. Both dianthins are glycoproteins containing mannose. 3. Dianthins inhibit protein synthesis in a lysate of rabbit reticulocytes, with an ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of 9.15 ng/ml (dianthin 30) and 3.6 ng/ml (dianthin 32). They act by damaging ribosomes in a less-than-equimolar ratio. Protein synthesis by intact cells is partially inhibited by dianthins at a concentration of 100 microgram/ml. 4. Dianthins mixed with tobacco-mosaic virus strongly decrease the number of local lesions on leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. Images Fig. 2. PMID:7316958

  5. Effect of oven drying and storage on essential oil composition of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Toli-Toli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murni, V. W.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Hastuti, L. T.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The research about post-harvested clove is still limited especially in Indonesia, as the biggest producer of clove in the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of drying process and storage on the composition of essential oil of Indonesian clove originated from Toli-Toli. The essential oil of fresh and dried clove was obtained by steam distillation and the composition of the oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In all of the clove oil samples, eugenol was the major component, followed by caryophyllene and acetyleugenol. The drying method used was oven drying at 50°C until clove's moisture content reaches 13±1%. During the drying process, the content of phenylpropanoids such as eugenol, isoeugenol, and chavicol increased, while esters and monoterpenes decreased. The composition of clove oil was studied from dried clove after oven drying, then stored in the laboratory at room temperature for 4 months. There was slightly change on clove oil composition after 4 months of storage. The content of major components of clove like eugenol was higher while acetyleugenol was lower after 4 months of storage.

  6. Isolation and identification of antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower buds.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Muthanna J; Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2009-06-01

    The aerial parts of Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen. (Lamiaceae) and flower buds of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (Caryophyllaceae) have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of wounds, throat and gum infections and gastro-intestinal disorder by the indigenous people of northern Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In this study, antibacterial compounds from both plants were isolated and characterized, and the biological activity of each compound was assessed individually and combined. Compounds were isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oils of both plants using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentrations MIC values for the compounds were assessed individually and combined based on a microdilution and the checkerboard method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Two known compounds were isolated from the essential oils of both plants and were identified as thymol and eugenol. The isolated compounds were investigated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against seven selected pathogenic bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thymol MIC values ranged from 15.6 to 250.0 microg/ml and B. cereus was found to be the most sensitive pathogen with a MIC value of 15.6 microg/ml. Eugenol achieved stronger MIC values against most tested pathogens and the best MIC value (15.6 microg/ml) was observed against B. cereus, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae whereas, S. aureus, P. mirabilis and E. coli were inhibited with a MIC value of 31.2 microg/ml. Combination results had antibacterial enhancement against most pathogens and the best synergistic result was seen against P. mirabilis and E. coli. The isolation of two antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower

  7. Wound healing effects of nanoemulsion containing clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Alam, Prawez; Ansari, Mohammad J; Anwer, Md Khalid; Raish, Mohammad; Kamal, Yoonus K T; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the wound healing effects of clove oil (CO) via its encapsulation into nanoemulsion. Optimized nanoemulsion (droplet size of 29.10 nm) was selected for wound healing investigation, collagen determination, and histopathological examination in rats. Optimized nanoemulsion presented significant would healing effects in rats as compared to pure CO. Nanoemulsion also presented significant enhancement in leucine content (0.61 mg/g) as compared to pure CO (0.50 mg/g) and negative control (0.31 mg/g). Histopathology of nanoemulsion treated rats showed no signs of inflammatory cells. These results suggested that nanoemulsion of CO was safe and nontoxic.

  8. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent.

  9. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614

  10. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

    2014-10-01

    This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products.

  11. In vitro and in vivo effects of clove on pro-inflammatory cytokines production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, T G; Fernandes, A; Sousa, J P B; Bastos, J K; Sforcin, J M

    2009-01-01

    Biological properties of clove have been reported, but little is known about its effect on the immune system. This work was aimed to investigate the effect in vivo of a water-soluble part of hydroalcoholic extract of clove on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and IL-6) production by macrophages of BALB/c mice. The action of the essential oil of clove on the production of these cytokines macrophages was also investigated in vitro. The chemical compositions of the extract and of the oil were also investigated. Treatment of mice with water extract of clove was found to inhibit macrophages to produce both IL-1beta and IL-6. The essential oil of clove also inhibited the production of these cytokines in vitro. Eugenol was found to be the major component of the clove extract and essential oil, and probably is the causative agent of cytokine inhibition. Taken together, these data suggest an anti-inflammatory action of this spice.

  12. Antimicrobial and Virulence-Modulating Effects of Clove Essential Oil on the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Judit K; Felső, Péter; Makszin, Lilla; Pápai, Zoltán; Horváth, Györgyi; Ábrahám, Hajnalka; Palkovics, Tamás; Böszörményi, Andrea; Emődy, Levente; Schneider, György

    2016-10-15

    Our study investigated the antimicrobial action of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil (EO) on the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni After confirming the clove essential oil's general antibacterial effect, we analyzed the reference strain Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. Phenotypic, proteomic, and transcriptomic methods were used to reveal changes in cell morphology and functions when exposed to sublethal concentrations of clove EO. The normally curved cells showed markedly straightened and shrunken morphology on the scanning electron micrographs as a result of stress. Although, oxidative stress, as a generally accepted response to essential oils, was also present, the dominance of a general stress response was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The results of RT-PCR and two-dimensional (2D) PAGE revealed that clove oil perturbs the expression of virulence-associated genes taking part in the synthesis of flagella, PEB1, PEB4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serine protease. Loss of motility was also detected by a phenotypic test. Bioautographic analysis revealed that besides its major component, eugenol, at least four other spots of clove EO possessed bactericidal activity against C. jejuni Our findings show that clove EO has a marked antibacterial and potential virulence-modulating effect on C. jejuni IMPORTANCE: This study demonstrates that the components of clove essential oil influence not only the expression of general stress genes but also the expression of virulence-associated genes. Based on this finding, alternative strategies can be worked on to control this important foodborne pathogen. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

    PubMed Central

    Taher, Yousef A.; Samud, Awatef M.; El-Taher, Fathy E.; ben-Hussin, Ghazala; Elmezogi, Jamal S.; Al-Mehdawi, Badryia F.; Salem, Hanan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache. Aim The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice. Methods Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and the antipyretic effects, respectively. The oil was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 33 mg/kg body weight and the effects were compared with reference drugs. Results In the antinociceptive test, mice treated with clove oil exhibited significantly decreased acetic-acid-induced writhing movements by a maximum of 87.7% (p<0.01) compared with a decrease of 77.7% (p<0.01) in response to aspirin injection (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.). Similarly, in the hot plate test, clove oil significantly increased the reaction latency to pain after 60 min by 82.3% (p<0.05) compared with morphine value of 91.7% (p<0.01). In addition, clove oil and indomethacin produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by respectively 50.6% (p<0.05) and 70.4% (p<0.01) inhibition of mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan. Furthermore, clove oil significantly attenuated the hyperthermia induced by yeast at ΔT-max by 2.7°C (p<0.001), and time of peak effects was 30–180 min compared with a paracetamol value ΔT-max of 3.2°C (p<0.001). The estimated i.p. LD50 of clove oil was 161.9 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the oil showed the presence of eugenol. Conclusion The present findings demonstrate the potential pharmacological properties of clove oil and provide further a support for its reported use in folk medicine. PMID:26333873

  14. Influence of clove oil and eugenol on muscle contraction of silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Kheawfu, Kantaporn; Pikulkaew, Surachai; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2017-05-30

    Clove oil is used in fish anesthesia and expected to have a mechanism via glutamic receptor. The present study explores the activities of clove oil and its major compound, eugenol, in comparison with L-glutamic acid on glutamic receptor of silkworm muscle and fish anesthesia. It was found that clove oil and eugenol had similar effects to L-glutamic acid on inhibition of silkworm muscle contraction after treated with D-glutamic acid and kainic acid. Anesthetic activity of the test samples was investigated in goldfish. The results demonstrated that L-glutamic acid at 20 and 40 mM could induce the fish to stage 3 of anesthesia that the fish exhibited total loss of equilibrium and muscle tone, whereas clove oil and eugenol at 60 ppm could induce the fish to stage 4 of anesthesia that the reflex activity of the fish was lost. These results suggest that clove oil and eugenol have similar functional activities and mechanism to L-glutamic acid on muscle contraction and fish anesthesia.

  15. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Eugénia; Vale-Silva, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2009-11-01

    The composition and antifungal activity of clove essential oil (EO), obtained from Syzygium aromaticum, were studied. Clove oil was obtained commercially and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The EO analysed showed a high content of eugenol (85.3 %). MICs, determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols, and minimum fungicidal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the clove oil and its main component, eugenol, against Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte clinical and American Type Culture Collection strains. The EO and eugenol showed inhibitory activity against all the tested strains. To clarify its mechanism of action on yeasts and filamentous fungi, flow cytometric and inhibition of ergosterol synthesis studies were performed. Propidium iodide rapidly penetrated the majority of the yeast cells when the cells were treated with concentrations just over the MICs, meaning that the fungicidal effect resulted from an extensive lesion of the cell membrane. Clove oil and eugenol also caused a considerable reduction in the quantity of ergosterol, a specific fungal cell membrane component. Germ tube formation by Candida albicans was completely or almost completely inhibited by oil and eugenol concentrations below the MIC values. The present study indicates that clove oil and eugenol have considerable antifungal activity against clinically relevant fungi, including fluconazole-resistant strains, deserving further investigation for clinical application in the treatment of fungal infections.

  16. Optimization and antioxidant properties of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachna, Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Yadav, M. S.; Sharma, Nisha

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years, silver nanoparticles have been the focus of Nanobiotechnology due to their unique interdisciplinary applications in the field of biomedicals, material diagnostics, optics and chemistry. A wide set of physical and chemical methods have been devised for providing the effective and efficient synthesis procedure of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) but are somehow expensive and involve toxic substances. There is a critical need to develop reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesizing silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, a simple and cost-effective green approach has been utilized for the production of stable silver nanoparticles by employing Dianthus caryophyllus flower extract. Different optimization conditions were checked for extract capped AgNPs and characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The optimum 0.02 dilution of extract found efficient to reduce 4 mM silver ions in the ratio 60:40 at pH 9. The antioxidant potential of the resultant AgNPs was observed using Hydrogen peroxide assay. There was an increasing trend of antioxidant property with increasing concentration. This potential of these photosynthesized AgNPs makes them reliable for good cause of society, mainly in therapeutic and biomedical applications.

  17. Cytological, molecular mechanisms and temperature stress regulating production of diploid male gametes in Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuhong; Mo, Xijun; Gui, Min; Wu, Xuewei; Jiang, Yalian; Ma, Lulin; Shi, Ziming; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Clove oil as an anaesthetic for adult sockeye salmon: Field trials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, C.A.; Nelson, Jack L.; Ramstad, K.

    2002-01-01

    Wild migrating sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka exposed to 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 of clove oil could be handled within 3 min, recovered within 10 min, and survived 15 min exposure trials. Fish tested at 110 mg 1-1 did not recover from 15 min exposure trials. Response curves developed for induction and recovery time considered the following predictors: clove oil concentration, sex, fish length and depth. A significant positive dependence was observed between induction time and fish length for 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 test concentrations; no dependence was observed between induction time and length at 110 and 140 mg 1-1. Recovery time differed as a function of clove oil concentration, but not fish size. A concentration of 50 mg 1-1 is recommended for anaesthetizing sockeye salmon ranging in length from 400 to 550 mm at water temperatures averaging 9-10??C.

  19. Enhanced antibacterial effects of clove essential oil by nanoemulsion.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Md Khalid; Jamil, Shahid; Ibnouf, Elmutasim Osman; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to develop and evaluate nanoemulsion formulations of clove essential oil (CEO) for its antibacterial effects in comparison with pure CEO and standard amikacin antibiotic (positive control). Different nanoemulsions of CEO were developed by aqueous phase titration method via construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and investigated for thermodynamic stability and self-nanoemulsification tests. Selected formulations (F1-F5) were characterized for droplet size distribution, viscosity, zeta potential, transmittance and surface morphology. Based on lowest droplet size (29.1 nm), lowest PI (0.026), lowest viscosity (34.6 cp), optimal zeta potential (-31.4 mV), highest transmittance (99.4 %) and lowest concentration of Triacetin (8 % w/w), CEO nanoemulsion F1 (containing 1 % w/w of CEO, 8 % w/w of Triacetin, 15 % w/w of Tween-80, 15 % w/w of Labrasol and 61 % w/w of water) was subjected to antibacterial studies in comparison with pure oil and standard amikacin. The antibacterial effects of F1 were found to be superior over pure oil against all bacterial strains investigated. However, the antibacterial effects of F1 were highly comparable with standard amikacin against all bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of F1 were observed in the range of 0.075-0.300 % w/w as compared to pure oil (MICs 0.130-0.500 % w/w) and standard amikacin (MICs 2-16 μg/ml). These results indicated the potential of nanoemulsions for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of natural bioactive ingredients such as CEO.

  20. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Unilateral compatibility and genotypic difference in crossability in interspecific hybridization between Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Dianthus japonicus Thunb.

    PubMed

    Nimura, M; Kato, J; Mii, M; Morioka, K

    2003-05-01

    Reciprocal interspecific crosses were carried out between six lines of Dianthus caryophyllus L. and one line of Dianthus japonicus Thunb. Although no seed was set when D. japonicus was used as the seed parent, six seedlings were successfully obtained from 2,380 immature ovules by applying the embryo-rescue technique. However, they showed seed parent-like morphology and no evidence for the hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. When six lines of D. caryophyllus were used as seed parents, a total of 192 seedlings were successfully obtained without using the embryo-rescue technique. Among these seedlings, 12 out of 25 progenies obtained from the carnation line '98sp1651' were confirmed to be the hybrids. The remaining 13 progenies of this line, and the total 167 progenies obtained from the other carnation lines, had carnation-like morphology without any evidence of hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. The progenies confirmed as hybrids had intermediate characters of the parents with respect to leaf width and flower size, but they had a uniform flower color, reddish purple, which was different from that of either parent. Since the hybrids obtained in the present study have some profitable characters such as vigorous growth in summer time, upright robust stem, broad leaves and early flowering, they are expected to be used for the breeding of carnation which is suitable for growing under the Japanese climate.

  2. Clove and eugenol in noncytotoxic concentrations exert immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory action on cytokine production by murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Tatiana Fernanda; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2012-04-01

    The extract and essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) are widely used because of their medicinal properties. Eugenol is the most important component of clove, showing several biological properties. Herein we have analysed the immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effect of clove and eugenol on cytokine production (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in vitro. Macrophages were incubated with clove or eugenol (5, 10, 25, 50 or 100µg/well) for 24h. Concentrations that inhibited the production of cytokines were used before or after incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to verify a preventive or therapeutic effect. Culture supernatants were harvested for measurement of cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clove (100µg/well) inhibited IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 production and exerted an efficient action either before or after LPS challenge for all cytokines. Eugenol did not affect IL-1β production but inhibited IL-6 and IL-10 production. The action of eugenol (50 or 100µg/well) on IL-6 production prevented efficiently effects of LPS either before or after its addition, whereas on IL-10 production it counteracted significantly LPS action when added after LPS incubation. Clove exerted immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting LPS action. A possible mechanism of action probably involved the suppression of the nuclear factor-κB pathway by eugenol, since it was the major compound found in clove extract. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  4. Dose-response effects of clove oil from Syzygium aromaticum on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susan L F; Lakshman, Dilip K; Zasada, Inga A; Vinyard, Bryan T; Chitwood, David J

    2008-03-01

    Clove oil, derived from the plant Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry, is active against various organisms, and was prepared in a soy lecithin/detergent formulation to determine concentrations active against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. In microwell assays, the mean effective clove oil concentration that reduced egg hatch by 50% (EC(50)) was 0.097% (v/v) clove oil; the EC(50) for second-stage juvenile (J2) viability was 0.145% clove oil (compared with carrier control treatments). Volatiles from 5.0% clove oil reduced nematode egg hatch in water by 30%, and decreased viability of hatched J2 by as much as 100%. Reductions were not as large with nematodes in carrier. In soil trials with J2 recovered from Baermann funnels, the EC(50) = 0.192% clove oil (compared with water controls). The results demonstrated that the tested formulation is active against M. incognita eggs and J2, that the EC(50) values for J2 in the microwell studies and the soil recovery tests were similar to each other and that direct contact with the clove oil is needed for optimal management results with this natural product. (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) based on next-generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Tanase, Koji; Nishitani, Chikako; Hirakawa, Hideki; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Ohmiya, Akemi; Onozaki, Takashi

    2012-07-02

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), in the family Caryophyllaceae, can be found in a wide range of colors and is a model system for studies of flower senescence. In addition, it is one of the most important flowers in the global floriculture industry. However, few genomics resources, such as sequences and markers are available for carnation or other members of the Caryophyllaceae. To increase our understanding of the genetic control of important characters in carnation, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST) database for a carnation cultivar important in horticulture by high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. We constructed a normalized cDNA library and a 3'-UTR library of carnation, obtaining a total of 1,162,126 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 300,740 unigenes consisting of 37,844 contigs and 262,896 singlets. The contigs were searched against an Arabidopsis sequence database, and 61.8% (23,380) of them had at least one BLASTX hit. These contigs were also annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and were found to cover a broad range of GO categories. Furthermore, we identified 17,362 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 14,291 of the unigenes. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of flower color and ethylene biosynthesis. Transcripts were identified for almost every gene involved in flower chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism and in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transcripts were also identified for every step in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. We present the first large-scale sequence data set for carnation, generated using next-generation sequencing technology. The large EST database generated from these sequences is an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in carnation and provides an EST resource for understanding the genetic diversity of this plant.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) based on next-generation sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), in the family Caryophyllaceae, can be found in a wide range of colors and is a model system for studies of flower senescence. In addition, it is one of the most important flowers in the global floriculture industry. However, few genomics resources, such as sequences and markers are available for carnation or other members of the Caryophyllaceae. To increase our understanding of the genetic control of important characters in carnation, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST) database for a carnation cultivar important in horticulture by high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results We constructed a normalized cDNA library and a 3’-UTR library of carnation, obtaining a total of 1,162,126 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 300,740 unigenes consisting of 37,844 contigs and 262,896 singlets. The contigs were searched against an Arabidopsis sequence database, and 61.8% (23,380) of them had at least one BLASTX hit. These contigs were also annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and were found to cover a broad range of GO categories. Furthermore, we identified 17,362 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 14,291 of the unigenes. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of flower color and ethylene biosynthesis. Transcripts were identified for almost every gene involved in flower chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism and in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transcripts were also identified for every step in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions We present the first large-scale sequence data set for carnation, generated using next-generation sequencing technology. The large EST database generated from these sequences is an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in carnation and provides an EST resource for understanding the genetic diversity of this plant. PMID:22747974

  7. Rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor.

    PubMed

    Roy, Debashis; Tomar, S K; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using roughage based diet. Thyme, clove and peppermint oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/l (ppm) of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique in wheat straw based diet (concentrate: Wheat straw 50:50). Different in vitro parameters e.g., total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied using buffalo rumen liquor. Thyme oil at higher dose level (600 ppm) reduced (p<0.05) total gas production, feed degradability and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration whereas total VFA concentration was significantly lower (p>0.05) in 300 and 600 ppm dose levels. 600 ppm dose level of clove oil reduced (p<0.05) total gas production, feed degradability, total VFA and acetate to propionate ratio. Methane production was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in 300 and 600 ppm dose levels of clove and peppermint oil. Right combination of these essential oils may prove to enhance performance of animals by reducing methane production and inhibiting protein degradation in rumen.

  8. Toxicity of clove essential oil and its ester eugenyl acetate against Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Cansian, R L; Vanin, A B; Orlando, T; Piazza, S P; Puton, B M S; Cardoso, R I; Gonçalves, I L; Honaiser, T C; Paroul, N; Oliveira, D

    2017-03-01

    The production of compounds via enzymatic esterification has great scientific and technological interest due to the several inconveniences related to acid catalysis, mainly by these systems do not fit to the concept of "green chemistry". Besides, natural products as clove oil present compounds with excellent biological potential. Bioactives compounds are often toxic at high doses. The evaluation of lethality in a less complex animal organism can be used to a monitoring simple and rapid, helping the identification of compounds with potential insecticide activity against larvae of insect vector of diseases. In this sense, the toxicity against Artemia salina of clove essential oil and its derivative eugenyl acetate obtained by enzymatic esterification using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst was evaluated. The conversion of eugenyl acetate synthesis was 95.6%. The results about the evaluation of toxicity against the microcrustacean Artemia salina demonstrated that both oil (LC50= 0.5993 µg.mL-1) and ester (LC50= 0.1178 µg.mL-1) presented high toxic potential, being the eugenyl acetate almost 5 times more toxic than clove essential oil. The results reported here shows the potential of employing clove oil and eugenyl acetate in insecticide formulations.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang; Chen, Liyan; Shi, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Su; Efferth, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) was tested alone and in combination. The compositions of the oils were analysed by GC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against three Gram-positive bacteria, three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungi were determined for the essential oils and their mixtures. Furthermore, time-kill dynamic processes of clove and rosemary essential oils against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were tested. Both essential oils possessed significant antimicrobial effects against all microorganisms tested. The MICs of clove oil ranged from 0.062% to 0.500% (v/v), while the MICs of rosemary oil ranged from 0.125% to 1.000% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two essential oils indicated their additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual microorganism tests. The time-kill curves of clove and rosemary essential oils towards three strains showed clearly bactericidal and fungicidal processes of (1)/(2) x MIC, MIC, MBC and 2 x MIC.

  10. Antioxidant effects of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) extract used with different extenders on ram spermatozoa during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Baghshahi, H; Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Shirazi, A

    2014-12-01

    Clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) extract was added at concentrations of 0, 35, 75, and 115 μg/ml to ovine semen extenders in order to investigate the antioxidant activities of clove bud extract and its effects on semen quality parameters after cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa. The basic extender was composed of Tris, egg yolk, and glycerol. Two other extenders were prepared by substitution of egg yolk with either LDL or egg yolk+SDS. The DPPH inhibition test was employed to assess the antioxidant activity of clove bud extract. Results showed that, compared to vitamin E, clove bud extract had a higher antioxidant activity. Better sperm motility and movement characteristics (P<0.05) were observed in the semen diluted with medium containing egg yolk+SDS than in that containing egg yolk and LDL. Progressive motility and movement characteristics of the sperm were significantly improved (P<0.05) by adding 35 and/or 75 μg/ml of clove bud extract to semen extenders. Sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity were also higher (P<0.05) in the semen exposed to medium containing egg yolk+SDS and 75 μg of clove buds extract after cryopreservation processes. Higher levels of clove bud extract, however, had adverse effects on all the sperm quality parameters and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the motility, movement parameters, viability, and plasma membrane integrity of ovine sperm. It was concluded that the clove bud extract had an antioxidant potential that makes it useful for addition to semen extenders and that the best results are obtained with a maximum clove bud extract of 75 μg/ml. Moreover, the combination of egg yolk and a detergent was found to improve sperm quality after the cooling and freeze-thawing processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, V; Marcincak, S; Popelka, P; Simkova, J; Martonova, M; Buleca, J; Marcincakova, D; Tuckova, M; Molnar, L; Kovac, G

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of diet supplementation with 1% clove flower buds powder combined with either 0.2% lemon balm extract or 0.2% agrimony extract (each of the two pulverized extracts supplied through drinking water) on body weight of broilers, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio and the carcass yield, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.11.1.9) in blood, concentration of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and E, low-density lipoproteins in the blood plasma, serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins in broiler chickens at 42 days of age. On the day of hatching, 120 male and female broilers of Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (1st group) of broilers received a basal diet (BD) without any feed and water additive. Both experimental groups of chicks were fed BD enriched with clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) powder at a dose of 10 g/kg DM for 42 days. Moreover, either lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.) extract or agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) extract diluted with drinking water (2:1000) was given to broilers in the 2nd and 3rd group respectively. The results indicated that feeding the diets enriched with selected herbal supplements failed to affect the growth performance of broiler chickens at 42 days of age. In addition, this supplementation had no influence on the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, concentration of vitamin A and selected lipid metabolism indices. On the other hand, we observed beneficial effects on some indices of the antioxidant status (increased concentration of -SH groups and vitamin E, decreased concentration of MDA) in the blood of broilers in both experimental groups in comparison with the control group of chickens (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a slightly better antioxidant capacity was found in the blood of broilers supplied the combination of clove and lemon balm compared

  12. Determination of eugenol, anethole, and coumarin in the mainstream cigarette smoke of Indonesian clove cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Polzin, Gregory M; Stanfill, Stephen B; Brown, Candace R; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2007-10-01

    Indonesian clove cigarettes (kreteks), typically have the appearance of a conventional domestic cigarette. The unique aspects of kreteks are that in addition to tobacco they contain dried clove buds (15-40%, by wt.), and are flavored with a proprietary "sauce". Whereas the clove buds contribute to generating high levels of eugenol in the smoke, the "sauce" may also contribute other potentially harmful constituents in addition to those associated with tobacco use. We measured levels of eugenol, trans-anethole (anethole), and coumarin in smoke from 33 brands of clove-flavored cigarettes (filtered and unfiltered) from five kretek manufacturers. In order to provide information for evaluating the delivery of these compounds under standard smoking conditions, a quantification method was developed for their measurement in mainstream cigarette smoke. The method allowed collection of mainstream cigarette smoke particulate matter on a Cambridge filter pad, extraction with methanol, sampling by automated headspace solid-phase microextraction, and subsequent analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The presence of these compounds was confirmed in the smoke of kreteks using mass spectral library matching, high-resolution mass spectrometry (+/-0.0002 amu), and agreement with a relative retention time index, and native standards. We found that when kreteks were smoked according to standardized machine smoke parameters as specified by the International Standards Organization, all 33 clove brands contained levels of eugenol ranging from 2,490 to 37,900 microg/cigarette (microg/cig). Anethole was detected in smoke from 13 brands at levels of 22.8-1,030 microg/cig, and coumarin was detected in 19 brands at levels ranging from 9.2 to 215 microg/cig. These detected levels are significantly higher than the levels found in commercial cigarette brands available in the United States.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk.

    PubMed

    Cava, R; Nowak, E; Taboada, A; Marin-Iniesta, F

    2007-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon bark, cinnamon leaf, and clove against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A were studied in semiskimmed milk incubated at 7 degrees C for 14 days and at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The MIC was 500 ppm for cinnamon bark EO and 3,000 ppm for the cinnamon leaf and clove EOs. These effective concentrations increased to 1,000 ppm for cinnamon bark EO, 3,500 ppm for clove EO, and 4,000 ppm for cinnamon leaf EO when the semiskimmed milk was incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. Partial inhibitory concentrations and partial bactericidal concentrations were obtained for all the assayed EOs. The MBC was 3,000 ppm for the cinnamon bark EO, 10,500 ppm for clove EO, and 11,000 ppm for cinnamon leaf EO. The incubation temperature did not affect the MBC of the EOs but slightly increased the MIC at 35 degrees C. The increased activity at the lower temperature could be attributed to the increased membrane fluidity and to the membrane-perturbing action of EOs. The influence of the fat content of milk on the antimicrobial activity of EOs was tested in whole and skimmed milk. In milk samples with higher fat content, the antimicrobial activity of the EOs was reduced. These results indicate the possibility of using these three EOs in milk beverages as natural antimicrobials, especially because milk beverages flavored with cinnamon and clove are consumed worldwide and have been increasing in popularity in recent years.

  14. Construction of a reference genetic linkage map for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic linkage maps are important tools for many genetic applications including mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), identifying DNA markers for fingerprinting, and map-based gene cloning. Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important ornamental flower worldwide. We previously reported a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-based genetic linkage map derived from Dianthus capitatus ssp. andrezejowskianus and a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic linkage map constructed using data from intraspecific F2 populations; however, the number of markers was insufficient, and so the number of linkage groups (LGs) did not coincide with the number of chromosomes (x = 15). Therefore, we aimed to produce a high-density genetic map to improve its usefulness for breeding purposes and genetic research. Results We improved the SSR-based genetic linkage map using SSR markers derived from a genomic library, expression sequence tags, and RNA-seq data. Linkage analysis revealed that 412 SSR loci (including 234 newly developed SSR loci) could be mapped to 17 linkage groups (LGs) covering 969.6 cM. Comparison of five minor LGs covering less than 50 cM with LGs in our previous RAPD-based genetic map suggested that four LGs could be integrated into two LGs by anchoring common SSR loci. Consequently, the number of LGs corresponded to the number of chromosomes (x = 15). We added 192 new SSRs, eight RAPD, and two sequence-tagged site loci to refine the RAPD-based genetic linkage map, which comprised 15 LGs consisting of 348 loci covering 978.3 cM. The two maps had 125 SSR loci in common, and most of the positions of markers were conserved between them. We identified 635 loci in carnation using the two linkage maps. We also mapped QTLs for two traits (bacterial wilt resistance and anthocyanin pigmentation in the flower) and a phenotypic locus for flower-type by analyzing previously reported genotype and phenotype data. Conclusions The improved genetic

  15. Construction of a reference genetic linkage map for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    PubMed

    Yagi, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Isobe, Sachiko; Hirakawa, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Tanase, Koji; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Onozaki, Takashi

    2013-10-26

    Genetic linkage maps are important tools for many genetic applications including mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), identifying DNA markers for fingerprinting, and map-based gene cloning. Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important ornamental flower worldwide. We previously reported a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-based genetic linkage map derived from Dianthus capitatus ssp. andrezejowskianus and a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic linkage map constructed using data from intraspecific F2 populations; however, the number of markers was insufficient, and so the number of linkage groups (LGs) did not coincide with the number of chromosomes (x = 15). Therefore, we aimed to produce a high-density genetic map to improve its usefulness for breeding purposes and genetic research. We improved the SSR-based genetic linkage map using SSR markers derived from a genomic library, expression sequence tags, and RNA-seq data. Linkage analysis revealed that 412 SSR loci (including 234 newly developed SSR loci) could be mapped to 17 linkage groups (LGs) covering 969.6 cM. Comparison of five minor LGs covering less than 50 cM with LGs in our previous RAPD-based genetic map suggested that four LGs could be integrated into two LGs by anchoring common SSR loci. Consequently, the number of LGs corresponded to the number of chromosomes (x = 15). We added 192 new SSRs, eight RAPD, and two sequence-tagged site loci to refine the RAPD-based genetic linkage map, which comprised 15 LGs consisting of 348 loci covering 978.3 cM. The two maps had 125 SSR loci in common, and most of the positions of markers were conserved between them. We identified 635 loci in carnation using the two linkage maps. We also mapped QTLs for two traits (bacterial wilt resistance and anthocyanin pigmentation in the flower) and a phenotypic locus for flower-type by analyzing previously reported genotype and phenotype data. The improved genetic linkage maps and SSR markers developed

  16. Inhibition of quorum sensing regulated bacterial functions by plant essential oils with special reference to clove oil.

    PubMed

    Khan, M S A; Zahin, M; Hasan, S; Husain, F M; Ahmad, I

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory activity of plant essential oils using strains of Chromobacterium violaceum (CV12472 and CVO26) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1). Inhibition of QS-controlled violacein production in C. violaceum was assayed using disc diffusion and agar well diffusion method. Of the 21 essential oils, four oils showed varying levels of anti-QS activity. Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) oil showed promising anti-QS activity on both wild and mutant strains with zones of pigment inhibition 19 and 17 mm, respectively, followed by activity in cinnamon, lavender and peppermint oils. The effect of clove oil on the extent of violacein production was estimated photometrically and found to be concentration dependent. At sub-MICs of clove oil, 78.4% reduction in violacein production over control and up to 78% reduction in swarming motility in PAO1 over control were recorded. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of clove oil indicated presence of many phytocompounds. Eugenol, the major constituent of clove oil could not exhibit anti-QS activity. Presence of anti-QS activity in clove oil and other essential oils has indicated new anti-infective activity. The identification of anti-QS phytoconstituents is needed to assess the mechanism of action against both C. violaceum and Ps. aeruginosa. Essential oils having new antipathogenic drugs principle because of its anti-QS activity might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of drug-resistant bacteria in vivo.

  17. Protection capacity of mosquito repellent ink from citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.) and clove leaf oils (Syzygium aromaticum) againts Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harismah, Kun; Vitasari, Denny; Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Fuadi, Ahmad Muhammad; Aryanto, Yanur Hendra

    2017-06-01

    The study of combination citronella and clove oils in mosquito repellent newspaper ink has been done. The background of this study was there prevalences of diseases such as malaria, zikka, and dengue fever that are carried by mosquitoes which hunt in the morning, at time while people usually read newspaper. Tests were undertaken in 3 (three) repetitions to determine the effectiveness of ink (as a control) and two types of mosquito repellent inks that consisted of ink and citronella-clove leaf oil with ratio of 4:1 and 1:1 of substances that were presumed to have insect repellent qualities. The results of this study indicated that the mixture of newspaper ink and citronella-clove oil with ratio of 1:4 and 1:1 offer limited protection against mosquitoes bite in the range of 1-5 hours. The efficacy of the citronella-clove leaf oi mixture as mosquito repellent was between 75.85 to 91.10%. Hece, a blend of citronella and clove leaf oil could be added to printing ink and could be commercial potential as a short-period mosquito repellent. However, it is important in disseminating public health messages to emphasize the greater effectiveness of citronella and clove oils-based repellents ink in areas with risks of mosquito-borne disease.

  18. The efficacy of clove oil as an anaesthetic and in euthanasia procedure for small-sized tropical fishes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, I M; Bastos, Y F; Barreto, D S; Lourenço, L S; Penha, J M

    2017-01-01

    Clove oil is used as a fish anesthetic because it is a natural and inexpensive product with low toxicity risks. The goal of the present study was to determine the appropriate concentration of clove oil for small-sized tropical fish to be used in mark-recapture studies or when individuals are to be sacrificed. We applied three different clove oil concentrations (D1=0.05 mL, D2=0.10 mL and D3=0.20 mL per 500 mL of water) on three small-sized fish species. We found a negative relationship between induction time and treatment for two species (Hyphessobrycon sp.1 and Hemigrammus sp.), while concentration was unrelated to recovery time. Fish body length was positively related to induction time in the D2 treatment for Hemigrammus sp., and negatively for Hyphessobrycon sp.1 in the D1 treatment, but was unrelated to recovery time for three species and treatments. Mortality rates varied across treatments, but higher rates were observed with higher clove oil concentrations. We conclude that 0.05 mL of clove oil per 500 mL of water is the most efficient dose for studies where fish will be released back to their natural habitats, while 0.20 mL of clove oil is recommended for studies that require fish euthanization for further laboratory analyses.

  19. Protein extraction and gel-based separation methods to analyze responses to pathogens in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L).

    PubMed

    Ardila, Harold Duban; Fernández, Raquel González; Higuera, Blanca Ligia; Redondo, Inmaculada; Martínez, Sixta Tulia

    2014-01-01

    We are currently using a 2-DE-based proteomics approach to study plant responses to pathogenic fungi by using the carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L)-Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi pathosystem. It is clear that the protocols for the first stages of a standard proteomics workflow must be optimized to each biological system and objectives of the research. The optimization procedure for the extraction and separation of proteins by 1-DE and 2-DE in the indicated system is reported. This strategy can be extrapolated to other plant-pathogen interaction systems in order to perform an evaluation of the changes in the host protein profile caused by the pathogen and to identify proteins which, at early stages, are involved or implicated in the plant defense response.

  20. Comparative studies on cellular behaviour of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) grown in vivo and in vitro for early detection of somaclonal variation.

    PubMed

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2 mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09  μm² to 35.66 ± 0.10  μm² and 142.90 ± 0.59  μm² to 165.05 ± 0.58  μm², respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period.

  1. Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2 mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09 μm2 to 35.66 ± 0.10 μm2 and 142.90 ± 0.59 μm2 to 165.05 ± 0.58 μm2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period. PMID:23766703

  2. [Antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from clove bud and pimento].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Medvedeva, I B

    2015-01-01

    The antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from the clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb.) and berries of tree (Pimenta dioica (L.) Meriff) were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol (2,6-ditret-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHT) in model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The essential oils of clove bud and pimento had qualitatively close composition of the main components but differed by their quantitative content. In the studied samples, eugenol was the main compound with high antiradical activity. The reaction rates of essential oils and extracts with the DPPH radical were practically the same for essential oils and twice the reaction rate of BHT. The values of antiradical efficiency (AE) were also close for essential oils and were twice that for extracts and ionol. A synergetic action of components in the essential oil and extract of pimento on antiradical efficiency values was found.

  3. Basil, tea tree and clove essential oils as analgesics and anaesthetics in Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830).

    PubMed

    Correia, A M; Pedrazzani, A S; Mendonça, R C; Massucatto, A; Ozório, R A; Tsuzuki, M Y

    2017-11-27

    In this study were evaluated the anaesthesia and analgesic effects of clove Eugenia caryophyllata, tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia and basil Ocimum basilicum essential oils (EO) during handling of yellowtail clownfish Amphiprion clarkii. Juveniles (3.70 ± 0.75 cm and 1.03 ± 0.50 g; mean ± standard deviation) were submitted to concentrations of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 µl L-1 of clove, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 µl L-1 of basil and 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 µl L-1 of tea tree oils (n=10/concentration), previously defined in pilot tests. Individually and only once, fish from each treatment were placed in a glass recipient containing 1 L of seawater at a temperature of 25 °C, salinity of 35 g L-1 and the specific concentration of diluted EO (stock solution). Control (only seawater) and blank (seawater and ethanol at the highest concentration used to dilute the oils) treatments were also conducted. After reaching the stage of surgical anaesthesia, fish were submitted to biometry and a sensibility test. After that, they were transferred to clean seawater for anaesthesia recovery. The times of induction needed to reach each anaesthesia stage and anaesthesia recovery were recorded. Animals were observed for 72 hours after the procedures. All the EO provoked anaesthesia and analgesic effects in A. clarkii, but basil oil is not recommended because it caused involuntary muscle contractions and mortality in 100% and 12% of fish, respectively. The lower concentrations that promote suitable induction and recovery times are 50 µl L-1 of clove oil and 500 µl L-1 of tea tree oil. However, due to its complementary high analgesic efficiency, clove oil is recommended as the ideal anaesthetic for A. clarkii.

  4. Clove oil induces anaesthesia and blunts muscle contraction power in three Amazon fish species.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Pereira, Débora Martins; Silva, Jessica Cristina Souza; de Oliveira, Laís Cássia Araújo; Inoue, Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki; Hamoy, Moisés; de Mello, Vanessa Jóia; Torres, Marcelo Ferreira; Barbas, Luis André Luz

    2018-02-01

    Clove oil is used as an anaesthetic for many species of fish worldwide; however, relatively few studies have assessed its effectiveness on Amazon fish species and no compelling evidence has ever been reported on the relaxant properties of this oil for skeletal muscle of fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the latencies to deep anaesthesia and recovery, along with the myorelaxant effect of clove oil on three Amazon fish species: cardinal tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, banded cichlid, Heros severus and angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, submitted to short-term anaesthetic baths. Fish were assayed in three groups of 60 fish each and individually anaesthetized in a completely randomized design with six clove oil concentrations using 10 fish/species/concentration. Electromyographic recordings from dorsal muscle were performed during stages of induction and recovery in which nine fish/species/stage were used. Deep anaesthesia was attained for all concentrations tested, and no mortalities were observed throughout the experiments and after a 48-h observation period. Concentration of 90 μL L -1 and above promoted fast deep anaesthesia (< 3 min) and calm recovery in angelfish and cardinal tetra, whereas the concentration of 60 μL L -1 sufficed to quickly anaesthetize banded cichlid. Times to full recovery were not significantly contrasting among species and occurred within appropriate time threshold (< 5 min). Clove oil exerted a conspicuous depression of muscle contraction power, and therefore can be effectively used as a muscle relaxant agent for P. scalare, P. axelrodi, H. severus and potentially, for other fish species.

  5. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome.

    PubMed

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that "seed" bulbs from "Coreano" variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic "seed" cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies.

  6. Quality improvement by batch vacuum distillation and physicochemical characterization of clove leaf oil in Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alighiri, D.; Eden, W. T.; Cahyono, E.; Supardi, K. I.

    2018-03-01

    Clove leaf oil is one of the essential oils which have high economic value and produced in considerable amount in Indonesia. As many as 60% of clove oil produced by Indonesia has exported to many countries in the world. Musuk and Ringinlarik Village, Boyolali District, Central Java Province is one of the areas in Indonesia which became the primary supplier of Indonesian clove leaf oil. Although, the quality of the resulting yield is still low because it uses a simple distillation kettle in the form of the iron plate or used the drum. The clove leaf oil produced by steam distillation from the dry whole leaves of the clove tree. The color of the oil is brownish black and dirty with the odor are fresh distilled, spicy, warm, and terpenic. The specific gravity at 25 °C of 1.529, the refractive index at 20 °C of 1.030, and based on GC-MS analysis, eugenol levels only 68% and caryophyllene is too high, i.e., 20%. The quality of clove leaf oil produced does not meet the specifications of international market standards. This work aimed to improve the quality of Indonesian clove leaf oil. The purifications done in this research was used by batch vacuum distillation with mode operation at vacuum -76 cmHg and reflux ratios 5:1. Clove leaf oil produced by using this method has a better physicochemical characterization, i.e., the appearance that is yellow to pale color with the odor is spicy, woody, warm, and terpenic. The specific gravity at 25 °C of 1.533, the refractive index at 20 °C of 1.038, and eugenol and caryophyllene contents has yielded 80.58% and 10%, respectively. By The enhancement quality of clove leaf oil by batch vacuum distillation, these oil is already meet international standards and income of clove leaf oil grower in Musuk and Ringinlarik Village, Boyolali District, Central Java Province, Indonesia could be increased.

  7. Inhibitory effects of cinnamon and clove essential oils on mold growth on baked foods.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jian; Xu, Xiaomiao; Xie, Yunfei; Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Yuliang; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of cinnamon and clove essential oils against mold growth on green bean cake and finger citron crisp cake, and also examined the effects of these two essential oils and their application methods on the shelf life of the baked products in normal and vacuum packages by accelerated storage test. The results showed that the MIC of cinnamon and clove essential oils against molds were 0.21-0.83 and 0.21-1.67μL/mL, respectively and the MLC were 0.42-0.83 and 0.83-1.67μL/mL, respectively. In normal package cinnamon and clove essential oils could prolong the shelf life of green bean cake 9-10 and 3-4days, respectively and could prolong the shelf life of finger citron crisp cake 5-6 and 2-3days, respectively. And in vacuum package they were 15-16, 8-9, 10-12 and 7-9days, respectively in turn. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Elena; Mamolini, Elisabetta; De Bastiani, Morena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected) in the range of fungal concentration 0.34–7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR) on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives), providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability. PMID:27428978

  9. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Elena; Mamolini, Elisabetta; De Bastiani, Morena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2016-07-15

    Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected) in the range of fungal concentration 0.34-7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR) on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives), providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability.

  10. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish. PMID:26424256

  11. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish.

  12. A time course study of glucose levels and innate immune response in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) after exposure to clove oil-eugenol derived anaesthetic.

    PubMed

    Bahi, A; Guardiola, F A; Esteban, M A

    2018-06-01

    Clove oil is used as an anaesthetic for many species of fish worldwide; however, relatively few studies have assessed its effects on the innate immune response on these species. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of clove oil-eugenol derived anaesthetic on some humoral and cellular immune response in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). To compare with an unexposed control group, fish were exposed to 55 ppm clove oil for 5 min, before being sampled at 1, 24 and 48 h post-exposure. Serum glucose level was also measured to obtain information on the fish physiological response after clove oil anaesthesia. One hour after exposure the haemolytic complement activity of fish was lower than in the unexposed group. By contrast, the leucocyte peroxidase activity in head-kidney was significantly stimulated 24 h after exposure to clove oil-eugenol. The rest of innate immune parameters evaluated and the glucose levels not were affected by clove oil exposure at any sampling point. Overall, the use of clove oil at 55 ppm as anaesthetic did not seem to alter the innate immune response and neither did it trigger a stress response. The use of clove oil-eugenol derived had become common practice in aquaculture, and its use with gilthead seabream can be considered safe as it does not cause immunodepression in anesthetized fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Candida albicans Impairments Induced by Peppermint and Clove Oils at Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Krajewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Members of Candida species cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. In order to prevent from Candida sp. development, essential oils are more and more frequently applied, due to their antifungal activity, low toxicity if used appropriately, and biodegrability. The aim of the study was to characterize the early alterations in Candida albicans metabolic properties in relation to proteins and chromosomal DNA profiles, after treatment with peppermint and clove oils at sub-inhibitory concentrations. The yeasts were affected by the oils even at a concentration of 0.0075% v/v, which resulted in changes in colony morphotypes and metabolic activities. Peppermint and clove oils at concentrations ranging from 0.015× MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) to 0.5× MIC values substantially affected the enzymatic abilities of C. albicans, and these changes were primarily associated with the loss or decrease of activity of all 9 enzymes detected in the untreated yeast. Moreover, 29% isolates showed additional activity of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and 14% isolates—α-fucosidase in comparison to the yeast grown without essential oils addition. In response to essential oils at 0.25–0.5× MIC, extensive changes in C. albicans whole-cell protein profiles were noted. However, the yeast biochemical profiles were intact with the sole exception of the isolate treated with clove oil at 0.5× MIC. The alterations were not attributed to gross chromosomal rearrangements in C. albicans karyotype. The predominantly observed decrease in protein fractions and the yeast enzymatic activity after treatment with the oils should be considered as a phenotypic response of C. albicans to the essential oils at their sub-inhibitory concentrations and may lead to the reduction of this yeast pathogenicity. PMID:28629195

  14. Candida albicans Impairments Induced by Peppermint and Clove Oils at Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Krajewska, Agnieszka

    2017-06-19

    Members of Candida species cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. In order to prevent from Candida sp. development, essential oils are more and more frequently applied, due to their antifungal activity, low toxicity if used appropriately, and biodegrability. The aim of the study was to characterize the early alterations in Candida albicans metabolic properties in relation to proteins and chromosomal DNA profiles, after treatment with peppermint and clove oils at sub-inhibitory concentrations. The yeasts were affected by the oils even at a concentration of 0.0075% v / v , which resulted in changes in colony morphotypes and metabolic activities. Peppermint and clove oils at concentrations ranging from 0.015× MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) to 0.5× MIC values substantially affected the enzymatic abilities of C. albicans , and these changes were primarily associated with the loss or decrease of activity of all 9 enzymes detected in the untreated yeast. Moreover, 29% isolates showed additional activity of N -acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and 14% isolates-α-fucosidase in comparison to the yeast grown without essential oils addition. In response to essential oils at 0.25-0.5× MIC, extensive changes in C. albicans whole-cell protein profiles were noted. However, the yeast biochemical profiles were intact with the sole exception of the isolate treated with clove oil at 0.5× MIC. The alterations were not attributed to gross chromosomal rearrangements in C. albicans karyotype. The predominantly observed decrease in protein fractions and the yeast enzymatic activity after treatment with the oils should be considered as a phenotypic response of C. albicans to the essential oils at their sub-inhibitory concentrations and may lead to the reduction of this yeast pathogenicity.

  15. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of single clove garlic against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Al-Shaibani, Elham Shukri; Alhadi, Fatima A; Al-Soudi, Safa'a Abdulrzaq; D'souza, Myrene R

    2017-08-17

    The increase in demand and consumption of single clove garlic or 'Solo garlic' (Allium sativum) has resulted in an increase in research on its therapeutic properties. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activities, oxidant-scavenging efficiency and preventive effects of SCG (single clove garlic) and MCG (multi clove garlic) on CCl 4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. For this purpose, rabbits were orally administered with 3 ml of CCl 4 /kg of body weight, followed by 0.8 g of MCG or SCG/kg twice a week for three successive weeks. Oxidative hepatotoxicity was then assessed. SCG extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than the MCG extract. Scavenging ability of SCG showed significant (p < 0.05) elevation against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals in comparison to MCG. In addition, total phenolic content of SCG was significantly elevated (p < 0.001), thereby suggesting that the composition of garlic storage constituents varies with the number of cloves present. CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity demonstrated histological changes including severe damage in the structure of liver tissues which correlated well to oxidative stress levels. Simultaneously, administration of SCG resulted in a significant reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (TB) levels in addition to improvement in some histological parameters. Low levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) (p < 0.001), along with a huge reduction in peroxidase (POx) (p < 0.001) revealed protection against oxidative toxicity in the liver homogenate. Higher levels of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05) when compared to the MCG test (TM) group indicates that removal of H 2 O 2 is based on CAT activity in SCG test (TS) group rather than the POx activity demonstrated in the former group. The present study indicates that SCG

  16. Short-term effects of carbon dioxide on carnation callus cell respiration. [Dianthus Caryophyllus L. ; Elodea canadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Palet, A.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Argiles, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O{sub 2} uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Minchx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO{sub 2} in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO{sub 2} again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO{sub 2}/bicarbonatemore » dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO{sub 2}) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited.« less

  17. The role of silver nano-particles and silver thiosulfate on the longevity of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Hashemabadi, Davood

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of silver nano-particles (SNP) and silver thiosulfate (STS) in extending the vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. 'Tempo') flowers. Pulse treatments of SNP @ 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg l(-1) and STS @ 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM were administered to carnation flowers for 24 hr. The longest vase life (16.1 days) was observed in flowers treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP + 0.2 mM STS. The least chlorophyll was destroyed in flowers treated with 15 mg I(-1) of SNP + 0.3 mM STS. Our findings showed that the 15 mg l(-1) SNP treatment inhibited bacterial growth in the preservative solution. The control flowers bloomed faster than the treated flowers. The maximum peroxidase activity and the minimum lipid peroxidation were obtained in cut flowers that were treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP and 0.3 mM STS. Overall, results of the study revealed that SNP and STS treatment extended the longevity of cut carnation 'Tempo' flowers by reducing oxidative stress, improving anti-oxidant system, reducing bacterial populations and delaying flowering.

  18. CLOVES syndrome: review of a PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, A; Blasco-Morente, G; Perez-Lopez, I; Herrera-Garcia, J D; Luque-Valenzuela, M; Sanchez-Cano, D; Lopez-Gutierrez, J C; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Tercedor-Sanchez, J

    2017-01-01

    Overgrowth syndromes are characterized by global or localized disproportionate growth associated with other anomalies, including vascular malformations and neurological and/or visceral disorders. CLOVES (Congenital Lipomatous asymmetric Overgrowth of the trunk with lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type Vascular malformations, Epidermal naevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and spinal anomalies) is an overgrowth syndrome caused by mosaic activating mutation in gene PIK3CA, which gives rise to abnormal PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway activation. These mutations are responsible for the clinical manifestations of the syndrome, which include low- and high-flow vascular malformations, thoracic lipomatous hyperplasia, asymmetric growth, and visceral and neurological disorders. These common anomalies are illustrated with figures from two personal cases. Identification of the clinical and genetic characteristics of CLOVES syndrome is crucial for the differential diagnosis with other overgrowth syndromes, such as Proteus or Klippel-Trenaunay (K-T) syndromes, and for the therapeutic management of the different anomalies. In this context, a new entity comprising different syndromes with phenotypic mutations in PIK3CA has been proposed, designated PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS), with the aim of facilitating clinical management and establishing appropriate genetic study criteria. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and waterproof RTV silicone-ethyl cellulose composites containing clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Ceseracciu, Luca; Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Paul, Uttam C; Alfaro-Pulido, Alejandro; Grande, Chiara; Vezzulli, Luigi; Bandiera, Tiziano; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Russo, Debora; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Bayer, Ilker S

    2018-07-15

    Ethyl cellulose (EC)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite films were prepared at various concentrations of PDMS in the films (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt.%). Morphological and chemical analysis by EDX-SEM and ATR-FTIR showed that EC-rich matrices and PDMS-rich particles were formed, with the two polymers interacting through Hbonds. The number and diameter of particles in the composite depended on the PDMS content and allowed a fine tuning of several properties such as opacity, hydrophobicity, water uptake, and water permeability. Relative low amounts of clove essential oil were also added to the most waterproof composite material (80 wt.% ethyl cellulose and 20 wt.% PDMS). The essential oil increased the flexibility and the antioxidant capacity of the composite. Finally, the antimicrobial properties were tested against common pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The presence of clove essential oil reduced the biofilm formation on the composites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Terpenoid constituents of cinnamon and clove essential oils cause toxic effects and behavior repellency response on granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius.

    PubMed

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Campos, Juliana Mendonça; da Silva Rolim, Gabriela; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2018-07-30

    This study evaluated toxic effects, repellency and respiration rate caused by terpenoid constituents of cinnamon and clove essential oils and against Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 ), repellent effect, and behavior repellency response on adults of S. granarius after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and terpenoids were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.5%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (10.2%), benzyl benzoate (9.99%), caryophyllene (9.34%), eugenyl acetate (7.71%), α-phellandrene (7.41%), and α-pinene (7.14%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (27.1%), caryophyllene (24.5%), caryophyllene oxide (18.3%), 2-propenoic acid (12.2%), α-humulene (10.8%), γ-cadinene (5.01%), and humulene oxide (4.84%). Cinnamon and clove essential oil was toxic to S. granarius. In toxic terpenoids compounds, eugenol has stronger contact toxicity in S. granarius than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-humulene, and α-phellandrene. Insects reduced their respiratory rates after being exposed to essential oil terpenoids and avoided or reduced their mobility on terpenoid-treated surfaces. Cinnamon and clove essential oil, and their terpenoid constituents were toxic and repellent to adult S. granarius and, therefore, have the potential to prevent or retard the development of insecticide resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Combinations of corn glutel meal, clove oil, and sweep cultivation are ineffective for weed control in organic peanut production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed control in organic peanut is difficult and lack of residual weed control complicates weed management efforts. Weed management systems using corn gluten meal in combination with clove oil and sweep cultivation were evaluated in a series of irrigated field trials. Corn gluten meal applied in a ...

  2. Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  3. Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Adelina; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Morona, Domenica; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2017-09-06

    Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae. The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active compounds percentage composition analysis and structures identification. Probit regression analysis was used for LC 50 and LC 95 calculations while a t-test was used to test for significant differences between laboratory-reared and wild larvae populations in each concentration of plant extract. Mortality effect of clove and cinnamon essential oils against wild and laboratory-reared larvae had variations indicated by their LC 50 and LC 95 values. The mortality at different concentrations of cinnamon and clove post-exposure for wild and laboratory-reared larvae were dosage-dependent and were higher for cinnamon than for clove essential oils. The mortality effect following exposure to a blend of the two essential oils was higher for blends containing a greater proportion of cinnamon oil. In the chemical analysis of the active ingredients of cinnamon essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol, and the rarest was β-Linalool while for clove essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol and the rarest was Bicyclo. The essential oils showed a larvicidal effect which was concentration-dependent for both laboratory and wild collected larvae. The active ingredient compositions triggered different responses in mortality. Further research in small-scale should be conducted with concentrated extracted compounds.

  4. Comparison of mRNA levels of three ethylene receptors in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Nagata, Masayasu; Tanikawa, Natsu; Yoshioka, Toshihito; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2002-03-01

    Three ethylene receptor genes, DC-ERS1, DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1, were previously identified in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Here, the presence of mRNAs for respective genes in flower tissues and their changes during flower senescence are investigated by Northern blot analysis. DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs were present in considerable amounts in petals, ovaries and styles of the flower at the full-opening stage. In the petals the level of DC-ERS2 mRNA showed a decreasing trend toward the late stage of flower senescence, whereas it increased slightly in ovaries and was unchanged in styles throughout the senescence period. However, DC-ETR1 mRNA showed no or little changes in any of the tissues during senescence. Exogenously applied ethylene did not affect the levels of DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs in petals. Ethylene production in the flowers was blocked by treatment with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulphonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS), but the mRNA levels for DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 decreased in the petals. DC-ERS1 mRNA was not detected in any cases. These results indicate that DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 are ethylene receptor genes responsible for ethylene perception and that their expression is regulated in a tissue-specific manner and independently of ethylene in carnation flowers during senescence.

  5. New Edible Bionanocomposite Prepared by Pectin and Clove Essential Oil Nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ronaldo S; Mattoso, Luiz H C; de Moura, Márcia Regina

    2016-06-01

    Nanocomposites are being extremely investigated to provide packaging with interesting characteristics for packages. Because of essential oils' natural occurrence and antibacterial activity, they are considered as an alternative for synthetic additives in the food industry. In this paper, we studied an edible bionanocomposite film made up of pectin and clove essential oil nanoemulsion for application as edible package. Mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and antibacterial activity were analyzed. From mechanical and WVP analyses, we noticed an interesting improvement in film properties. In the antibacterial activity test, disk diffusion was used to assess the inhibition zones of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. With these results, we concluded that the most interesting results were promoted by smaller nanodroplets (diameter of approximately 142 nm).

  6. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) in male mice: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tajuddin; Ahmad, Shamshad; Latif, Abdul; Qasmi, Iqbal Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    Background Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. Methods The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o.) to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate). Results The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. Conclusion The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice. PMID:14567759

  7. Inhibitory components from the buds of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) on melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Matsubara, Eri; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Sukaton, Edi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-03-01

    In the course to find a new whitening agent, we evaluated the methanol extract from bud of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) on melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells. Eugenol and eugenol acetate were isolated as the active compounds and showed melanin inhibition of 60% and 40% in B16 melanoma cell with less cytotoxicity at the concentration of 100 and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, an essential oil prepared from the bud of clove, which contain eugenol and eugenol acetate as dominant components, showed melanin inhibition of 50% and 80% in B16 melanoma cells at the concentration of 100 and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) “seed” cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    PubMed Central

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D.; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á.; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that “seed” bulbs from “Coreano” variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic “seed” cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies

  9. Effects of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud essential oils in edible apple films on physical properties and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) derived from plants are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on contact and in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. EOs from cinnamon, allspice, and clove bud plants are compatible with the sensory characteristics of apple-based edible films. These films could extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. This study evaluated physical properties (water vapor permeability, color, tensile properties) and antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud oils in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: cinnamon oil > clove bud oil > allspice oil. The antimicrobial films were more effective against L. monocytogenes than against the S. enterica. The oils reduced the viscosity of the apple solutions and increased elongation and darkened the colors of the films. They did not affect water vapor permeability. The results show that apple-based films with allspice, cinnamon, or clove bud oils were active against 3 foodborne pathogens by both direct contact with the bacteria and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.

  10. Innovative production of fungal pulp from Trametes versicolor and its application in a fungal paper box containing clove oil.

    PubMed

    Srikaew, Benyapa; Matan, Narumol; Aewsiri, Tanong

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to develop fungal pulp from Trametes versicolor (white-rot fungi) and apply it with clove oil in a paper box to inhibit mold growth on the surface of peanuts. Broken rice media with different sugar solutions (2-10% w w -1 ) were prepared and then inoculated with T. versicolor mycelium at amounts from 0.5 to 1.5% w w -1 . Fungal pulp and commercial paper (50 g) at different ratios (100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70 and 0:100) were mixed and prepared before being placed into a stainless box (5 cm long by 5 cm wide). For the antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus flavus on peanuts, a paper box was incorporated with 2.5, 5 and 7.5% w w -1 of clove oil, eugenol, caryophyllene, and a combination of eugenol and caryophyllene at ratios of 7:1, 4:4, and 1:7. Results indicated that the highest fungal pulp biomass of T. versicolor in broken rice media was found when using 6% sugar with 1% mycelium inoculums. Fungal pulp and commercial paper at the ratio of 70:30 produced the highest value of hardness. The paper box containing clove oil at 7.5% w w -1 inhibited A. flavus on peanuts for at least 28 days while the control had mold growth within 3 days. Combining eugenol and caryophyllene, the main components of clove oil, at the ratio of 7:1 (7.5% w w -1 ) in the paper box should be a key factor to inhibit A. flavus during storage.

  11. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Properties and Mechanism of Action of Essential Oil from Clove Buds against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Ting; Hu, Qing-Ping; Cao, Xin-Ming

    2016-09-08

    The essential oil of clove has a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities and is widely used in the medicine, fragrance and flavoring industries. In this work, 22 components of the essential oil obtained from clove buds were identified. Eugenol was the major component (76.23%). The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.625 mg/mL, and the antibacterial effects depended on its concentration and action time. Kill-time assays also confirmed the essential oil had a significant effect on the growth rate of surviving S. aureus. We hypothesized that the essential oil may interact with the cell wall and membrane first. On the one hand it destroys cell wall and membranes, next causing the losses of vital intracellular materials, which finally result in the bacterial death. Besides, essential oil penetrates to the cytoplasmic membrane or enters inside the cell after destruction of cell structure, and then inhibits the normal synthesis of DNA and proteins that are required for bacterial growth. These results suggested that the effects of the clove essential oil on the growth inhibition of S. aureus may be at the molecular level rather than only physical damage.

  12. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens.

    PubMed

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  13. Cloning and expression of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and its relationship to greening in crushed garlic (Allium sativum) cloves.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungeun; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil; Lee, Seung Koo

    2012-01-30

    Garlic greening occurs when garlic cloves are stored at low temperature, increasing 1-propenyl cysteine sulfoxide, which is induced by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. Although the metabolism of the γ-glutamyl peptide is important for the biosynthesis of green pigments in crushed garlic cloves, garlic GGT is poorly characterised. For the analysis of GGT at the gene level, the garlic GGT sequence was partially cloned using an onion GGT sequence. The relationship between garlic greening and related gene expressions, depending on storage condition, was investigated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for garlic GGT and alliinase. Three storage conditions were set: A, storage at a constant temperature of 20 °C; B, storage at 20 °C for 3 months and then transfer to 0 °C for an additional 3 months; C, storage at 0 °C for 3 months and then transfer to 20 °C for an additional 3 months. GGT expression increased under storage condition B and decreased under storage condition C. However, alliinase expression was not affected by storage condition. Greening in crushed garlic cloves increases with increasing GGT expression at low temperature, while alliinase expression is not affected. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Optimization of a method for preparing solid complexes of essential clove oil with β-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sánchez, Pilar; López-Miranda, Santiago; Guardiola, Lucía; Serrano-Martínez, Ana; Gabaldón, José Antonio; Nuñez-Delicado, Estrella

    2017-01-01

    Clove oil (CO) is an aromatic oily liquid used in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries for its functional properties. However, its disadvantages of pungent taste, volatility, light sensitivity and poor water solubility can be solved by applying microencapsulation or complexation techniques. Essential CO was successfully solubilized in aqueous solution by forming inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrins (β-CDs). Moreover, phase solubility studies demonstrated that essential CO also forms insoluble complexes with β-CDs. Based on these results, essential CO-β-CD solid complexes were prepared by the novel approach of microwave irradiation (MWI), followed by three different drying methods: vacuum oven drying (VO), freeze-drying (FD) or spray-drying (SD). FD was the best option for drying the CO-β-CD solid complexes, followed by VO and SD. MWI can be used efficiently to prepare essential CO-β-CD complexes with good yield on an industrial scale. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Antioxidant property of Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in rats during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahhab, M A; Aly, S E

    2005-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of closely related, extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can occur as natural contaminants of foods and feeds. Aflatoxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic to different animal species. Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil are used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and have antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of these volatile oils to scavenge free radicals generated during aflatoxicosis. Sixty male rats were divided into six treatment groups, including a control group, and the groups were treated for 30 days with Nigella sativa and Syzygium aromaticum oils with or without aflatoxin. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experimental period for haematological and biochemical analysis. The results indicated that exposure to aflatoxins resulted in haematological and biochemical changes typical for aflatoxicosis. Treatment with Nigella sativa and Syzygium aromaticum oil of rats fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet resulted in significant protection against aflatoxicosis. Moreover, Nigella sativa oil was found to be more effective than Syzygium aromaticum oil in restoring the parameters that were altered by aflatoxin in rats. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  16. Bactericidal action mechanism of negatively charged food grade clove oil nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Hamid; Liu, Fei; Hategekimana, Joseph; Sharif, Hafiz Rizwan; Qi, Jing; Ali, Barkat; Bian, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Jianguo; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhong, Fang

    2016-04-15

    Clove oil (CO) anionic nanoemulsions were prepared with varying ratios of CO to canola oil (CA), emulsified and stabilized with purity gum ultra (PGU), a newly developed succinylated waxy maize starch. Interfacial tension measurements showed that CO acted as a co-surfactant and there was a gradual decrease in interfacial tension which favored the formation of small droplet sizes on homogenization until a critical limit (5:5% v/v CO:CA) was reached. Antimicrobial activity of the negatively charged CO nanoemulsion was determined against Gram positive GPB (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative GNB (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a time kill dynamic method. Negatively charged PGU emulsified CO nanoemulsion showed prolonged antibacterial activities against Gram positive bacterial strains. We concluded that negatively charged CO nanoemulsion droplets self-assemble with GPB cell membrane, and facilitated interaction with cellular components of bacteria. Moreover, no electrostatic interaction existed between negatively charged droplets and the GPB membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extraction of α-humulene-enriched oil from clove using ultrasound-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and studies of its fictitious solubility.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming-Chi; Xiao, Jianbo; Yang, Yu-Chiao

    2016-11-01

    Clove buds are used as a spice and food flavoring. In this study, clove oil and α-humulene was extracted from cloves using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction with and without ultrasound assistance (USC-CO2 and SC-CO2, respectively) at different temperatures (32-50°C) and pressures (9.0-25.0MPa). The results of these extractions were compared with those of heat reflux extraction and steam distillation methods conducted in parallel. The extracts obtained using these four techniques were analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results demonstrated that the USC-CO2 extraction procedure may extract clove oil and α-humulene from clove buds with better yields and shorter extraction times than conventional extraction techniques while utilizing less severe operating parameters. Furthermore, the experimental fictitious solubility data obtained using the dynamic method were well correlated with density-based models, including the Chrastil model, the Bartle model and the Kumar and Johnston model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of different cooking methods on fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of n-3 fatty acids fortified tilapia meat with or without clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ramezani-Fard, Ehsan; Romano, Nicholas; Goh, Yong-Meng; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ehteshami, Fariborz; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Tilapia farmers are increasingly relying on dietary fish oil alternatives which substantially reduces health beneficial n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in tilapia products.? This may be further exacerbated depending on the cooking method.? This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of tilapia minced meat after prior fish oil fortifications with or without clove essential oil. Results showed that frying tilapia in either sunflower or palm oil significantly increased the saturated fatty acid and linoleic acid content, respectively, of tilapia. However, fish oil fortifications significantly increased the n-3 PUFA content, but tended to decrease oxidative stability, particularly when microwaving. This was mitigated by clove essential oil, which significantly improved oxidative stability after cooking. Results indicate that n-3 PUFA and clove essential oil fortifications is an effective method to deliver and protect these beneficial fatty acids for human consumers. ?

  20. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Plant essential oils from 29 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with plant material, exposure time, and concentration. Good insecticidal activity against the Japanese termite was achived with essential oils of Melaleuca dissitiflora, Melaleuca uncinata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus radiata, Eucalyptus dives, Eucalyptus globulus, Orixa japonica, Cinnamomum cassia, Allium cepa, Illicium verum, Evodia officinalis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Cacalia roborowskii, Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka, clove bud, and garlic applied at 7.6 microL/L of air. Over 90% mortality after 3 days was achieved with O. japonica essential oil at 3.5 microL/L of air. E. citriodora, C. cassia, A. cepa, I. verum, S. tenuifolia, C. roborowskii, clove bud, and garlic oils at 3.5 microL/L of air were highly toxic 1 day after treatment. At 2.0 microL/L of air concentration, essential oils of I. verum, C. roborowskik, S. tenuifolia, A. cepa, clove bud, and garlic gave 100% mortality within 2 days of treatment. Clove bud and garlic oils showed the most potent antitermitic activity among the plant essential oils. Garlic and clove bud oils produced 100% mortality at 0.5 microL/L of air, but this decreased to 42 and 67% after 3 days of treatment at 0.25 microL/L of air, respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of three major compounds from garlic oil and two from clove bud oils. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied with compound and dose. Diallyl trisulfide was the most toxic, followed by diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite

  1. Essential Oils in Ginger, Hops, Cloves, and Pepper Flavored Beverages-A Review.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Sunday J; Ibekwe, Nneka N; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

    2014-08-28

    ABSTRACT In the West, sugar-based, ginger flavored beverages may contain hops, other flavorings, fruit juices, and varying levels of ethanol. Ginger ales contain 0.5%v/v; ginger beers >0.5%; and alcoholic ginger beers 0.5 ≤ 11%. Ales are carbonated by pressurized CO 2 , while beers and alcoholic beers are carbonated by yeast or ginger beer plant (GBP). In Africa, grain-based beverages include "fura da nono," "kunu," and "akamu," which are spiced with one or more flavorings including ginger, black pepper, clove, chili pepper, or Aframomum alligator peppers. Spices have flavor because they contain essential oils (EOs), which are composed of aroma-active compounds (AACs). The benefits and toxicities of spices are ascribed to their EOs/AACs contents. Aim: Given the toxic potentials of EOs/AACs vis-à-vis their benefits, this review aimed to investigate the means by which the levels of EOs/AACs in spiced beverages are regulated. Methodology: The benefits and liabilities of key EOs/AACs of spices were identified and described. The methods for assaying them in raw materials and beverages were also identified. Results: There was a dearth of data on the levels of EOs/AACs in both raw and finished goods. Moreover, their assay methods were found to be tedious and costly. The implications of these findings on regulation are discussed. Conclusions: Owing to the practical difficulties in assaying flavors in beverages, both manufacturers and regulators should focus on: (i) the wholesomeness of raw materials; and (ii) good manufacturing practice (GMP). However, studies aimed at developing more robust methods for flavor should continue.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuesheng; Parker, Tory L

    2017-12-01

    Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. [Myrtaceae]) essential oil (CEO) has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, few studies have focused on its topical use. We investigated the biological activity of a commercially available CEO in a human skin disease model. We evaluated the effect of CEO on 17 protein biomarkers that play critical roles in inflammation and tissue remodelling in a validated human dermal fibroblast system, which was designed to model chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Four concentrations of CEO (0.011, 0.0037, 0.0012, and 0.00041%, v/v) were studied. The effect of 0.011% CEO on genome-wide gene expression was also evaluated. CEO at a concentration of 0.011% showed robust antiproliferative effects on human dermal fibroblasts. It significantly inhibited the increased production of several proinflammatory biomarkers such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by γ interferon (MIG). CEO also significantly inhibited tissue remodelling protein molecules, namely, collagen-I, collagen-III, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2). Furthermore, it significantly modulated global gene expression and altered signalling pathways critical for inflammation, tissue remodelling, and cancer signalling processes. CEO significantly inhibited VCAM-1 and collagen III at both protein and gene expression levels. This study provides important evidence of CEO-induced anti-inflammatory and tissue remodelling activity in human dermal fibroblasts. This study also supports the anticancer properties of CEO and its major active component eugenol.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of three EIN3-like genes of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Improved White Sim) during flower development and upon wounding, pollination, and ethylene exposure.

    PubMed

    Iordachescu, Mihaela; Verlinden, Sven

    2005-08-01

    Using a combination of approaches, three EIN3-like (EIL) genes DC-EIL1/2 (AY728191), DC-EIL3 (AY728192), and DC-EIL4 (AY728193) were isolated from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) petals. DC-EIL1/2 deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% identity with the previously cloned and characterized carnation DC-EIL1 (AF261654), 62% identity with DC-EIL3, and 60% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL3 deduced amino acid sequence shares 100% identity with a previously cloned carnation gene fragment, Dc106 (CF259543), 61% identity with Dianthus caryophyllus DC-EIL1 (AF261654), and 59% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL4 shared 60% identity with DC-EIL1 (AF261654). Expression analyses performed on vegetative and flower tissues (petals, ovaries, and styles) during growth and development and senescence (natural and ethylene-induced) indicated that the mRNA accumulation of the DC-EIL family of genes in carnation is regulated developmentally and by ethylene. DC-EIL3 mRNA showed significant accumulation upon ethylene exposure, during flower development, and upon pollination in petals and styles. Interestingly, decreasing levels of DC-EIL3 mRNA were found in wounded leaves and ovaries of senescing flowers whenever ethylene levels increased. Flowers treated with sucrose showed a 2 d delay in the accumulation of DC-EIL3 transcripts when compared with control flowers. These observations suggest an important role for DC-EIL3 during growth and development. Changes in DC-EIL1/2 and DC-EIL4 mRNA levels during flower development, and upon ethylene exposure and pollination were very similar. mRNA levels of the DC-EILs in styles of pollinated flowers showed a positive correlation with ethylene production after pollination. The cloning and characterization of the EIN3-like genes in the present study showed their transcriptional regulation not previously observed for EILs.

  4. Exogenous Supplementation of Silicon Improved the Recovery of Hyperhydric Shoots in Dianthus caryophyllus L. by Stabilizing the Physiology and Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivannan, Abinaya; Cho, Yoon S.; Jeong, Byoung R.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhydricity is one of the major problems hindering in vitro propagation of Dianthus caryophyllus L. Silicon (Si) is a well-known beneficial element renowned for its stress amelioration properties in plants. This study has demonstrated the physiological and molecular mechanism behind the Si-mediated recovery from hyperhydricity in D. caryophyllus L. ‘Green Beauty’. Four weeks old hyperhydric shoots obtained from temporary immersion system were cultured on the Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0 (control), 1.8 mM, or 3.6 mM of potassium silicate (K2SiO3). After 2 weeks of culture, we observed only 20% of hyperhydric shoots were recovered in control. On the other hand hyperhydricity, shoot recovery percentage in 1.8 mM and 3.6 mM of Si were 44% and 36%, respectively. Shoots in control possessed higher lipid peroxidation rate compared to the Si treatments. Similarly, damaged stomata were detected in the control, while Si treatments restored the normal stomatal development. Expressions of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase varied between the control and Si treatments. Furthermore, a proteomic analysis showed that as compared with the control Si up-regulated 17 and 10 protein spots in abundance at 1.8 and 3.6 mM of Si, respectively. In comparison to the 3.6 mM, 1.8 mM of Si treatment up-regulated 19 proteins and down-regulated 7 proteins. Identified proteins were categorized into six groups according to their biological roles such as ribosomal binding, oxido-reduction, hormone/cell signaling, metal/ion binding, defense, and photosynthesis. The proteomic results revealed that Si actively involved in the various metabolisms to accelerate the recovery of the shoots from hyperhydricity. Thus, the outcomes of this study can be utilized for addressing the molecular insight of hyperhydricity and its recovery mechanism by the supplementation of Si. Therefore, we conclude that active involvement of Si in the regulation and signaling process

  5. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and quantitation of oils from Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (clove) with supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Chiao; Wei, Ming-Chi; Hong, Show-Jen

    2014-01-03

    This study evaluated ultrasound-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (USC-CO2) extraction for determining the extraction yields of oils and the contents of eugenol, β-caryophyllene, eugenyl acetate and α-humulene from clove buds. Compared to traditional SC-CO2 extraction, USC-CO2 extraction might provide a 13.5% increase in the extraction yield for the oil while utilizing less severe operating parameters, such as temperature, pressure, CO2 flow rate and the time consumed by the process. Our results were comparable to those obtained using the heat reflux extraction method, though the yield was improved by 20.8% using USC-CO2. In kinetic studies, the USC-CO2 extraction of clove oil followed second-order kinetics. The activation energy for the oil extraction was 76.56kJ/mol. The USC-CO2 procedure facilitated the use of mild extraction conditions, improved extraction efficiency and the quality of products and is a potential method for industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication and Release Behavior of Microcapsules with Double-Layered Shell Containing Clove Oil for Antibacterial Applications.

    PubMed

    Chong, Yong-Bing; Zhang, He; Yue, Chee Yoon; Yang, Jinglei

    2018-05-09

    In this study, double-layer polyurethane/poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PU/PUF) shell microcapsules containing clove oil with antibacterial properties were successfully synthesized via in situ and interfacial polymerization reactions in an oil-in-water emulsion. The morphology, core-shell structure, and composition of the microcapsules were investigated systematically. Additionally, the release behaviors of microcapsules synthesized under different reaction parameters were studied. It was found that the release rate of clove oil can be controlled by tuning the amount of PU reactants and the length of PUF deposition time. The release profile fitted well against the Baker-Lonsdale model, which indicates diffusion as the primary release mechanism. Experimental results based on the ASTM E2315 time kill test revealed that the fabricated microcapsules have great antibacterial activities against the marine bacteria Vibrio coralliilyticus, Escherichia coli, Exiguobacterium aestuarii, and marine biofilm-forming bacteria isolated from the on-site contaminated samples, showing their great potential as an eco-friendly solution to replace existing toxic antifouling agent.

  7. Seed-free synthesis of 1D silver nanowires ink using clove oil (Syzygium Aromaticum) at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Jeevika, Alagan; Ravi Shankaran, Dhesingh

    2015-11-15

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been demonstrated to be a promising next generation conducting material and an alternative to the traditional electrode (ITO) because of its high conductivity, transparency and stability. Generally, AgNWs are synthesized by chemical method (mainly polyol reduction method) at high temperature in the presence of exotic seeds. The present work aims at the green approach for preparation and characterization of 1D AgNWs ink using clove oil (Syzygium Aromaticum) at room temperature. AgNWs was prepared by green synthesis using clove oil as reducing as well as capping agent at room temperature. The obtained ink was purified, filtered and redissolved in methanol. The prepared AgNWs showed an absorption peaks at 350 and 387nm in the UV-vis spectrum due to transverse SPR mode of silver. From the HR-TEM analysis, it was observed that the AgNWs possess an average diameter and length of ∼39±0.01nm and ∼3μm, respectively. The obtained AgNWs are crystalline in nature and are arranged in a perfect crystal lattice orientation, which was confirmed from the selected area electron diffraction studies. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the face centered cubic structure. The AgNWs coated glass substrate shows an electrical conductivity of ∼0.48×10(6)S/m. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of chitosan coatings enriched with clove oil on sensory changes of rainbow trout at refrigerated storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2017-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of chitosan coating enriched with clove oil on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sensory changes during refrigerated storage at 4°C was done for a period of 15 days. Three different treatments were tested: C1 (control samples), C2 (chitosan coating) and C3 (chitosan + 1 % [v/w] clove EO added). Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for cooked fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. Panelists were asked to evaluate on a 5-point hedonic scale ranging from very poor (1) to very good (5) where: 1-very poor, 2-poor, 3-normal, 4-good and 5-very good. Sensory scores of each sample were at "good quality" after processing. Group C3 samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists.

  9. Inhibition of in vitro growth and arrest in the G0/G1 phase of HCT8 line human colon cancer cells by kaempferide triglycoside from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    PubMed

    Martineti, Valentina; Tognarini, Isabella; Azzari, Chiara; Carbonell Sala, Silvia; Clematis, Francesca; Dolci, Marcello; Lanzotti, Virginia; Tonelli, Francesco; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Curir, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    The effects of phytoestrogens have been studied in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and in various non-gonadal targets. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates a protective effect of phytoestrogens also in colorectal cancer. The mechanism through which estrogenic molecules control colorectal cancer tumorigenesis could possibly involve estrogen receptor beta, the predominantly expressed estrogen receptor subtype in colon mucosa.To validate this hypothesis, we therefore used an engineered human colon cancer cell line induced to overexpress estrogen receptor beta, beside its native cell line, expressing very low levels of ERbeta and not expressing ERalpha; as a phytoestrogenic molecule, we used kaempferide triglycoside, a glycosylated flavonol from a Dianthus caryophyllus cultivar. The inhibitory properties of this molecule toward vegetal cell growth have been previously demonstrated: however, no data on its activity on animal cell or information about the mechanism of this activity are available. Kaempferide triglycoside proved to inhibit the proliferation of native and estrogen receptor beta overexpressing colon cancer cells through a mechanism not mediated by ligand binding dependent estrogen receptor activation. It affected HCT8 cell cycle progression by increasing the G(0)/G(1) cell fraction and in estrogen receptor beta overexpressing cells increased two antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, the biological effects of this kaempferide triglycoside were strengthened by the presence of high levels of estrogen receptor beta.Pleiotropic molecular effects of phytoestrogens may explain their protective activity against colorectal cancer and may represent an interesting area for future investigation with potential clinical applications. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of clove bud essential oil and eugenol nanoparticles in alcohol-free microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Said Fatouh; Sadek, Zainab; Edris, Amr

    2012-01-01

    Clove bud essential oil (CEO) and its major individual phenolic constituent eugenol were formulated as nanoparticles in water-based microemulsion systems. The oil titration method was used to incorporate different amounts of the oil and eugenol in the micellar solution of Tween-20. The Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were evaluated using the DPPH* free radical scavenging assay and the agar disc dilution method, respectively. Results showed that microemulsion improved the evaluated activities of CEO and eugenol compared with the crude counterparts. Individual eugenol microemulsion was more effective than CEO microemulsion which contained only 61.7% eugenol among its constituents. The results of this study could have potential applications in water-based disinfectants, preservation and flavoring of food and in personal hygiene products. It may also have promising applications in the nutraceutical and functional beverage field.

  11. In vitro controlled release of clove essential oil in self-assembly of amphiphilic polyethylene glycol-block-polycaprolactone.

    PubMed

    Thonggoom, O; Punrattanasin, N; Srisawang, N; Promawan, N; Thonggoom, R

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a micellar delivery system with an amphiphilic diblock copolymer of poly (ethylene glycol) and poly (ɛ-caprolactone) was synthesised and used to incorporate hydrophobic clove essential oil (CEO). To determine an optimal delivery system, the effects of the copolymer's hydrophobic block length and the CEO-loading content on the encapsulation of CEO were investigated. Percentages of entrapment efficiency (%EE), CEO loading (%CEO), and in vitro release profiles were determined. The size, size distribution, zeta potential, and morphology of the obtained micelles were determined by DLS, FE-SEM, and TEM. The %EE, %CEO, and in vitro release profiles of CEO incorporated in micelles were analysed by HPLC. The study revealed a sustained release profile of CEO from CEO-loaded micelles. The results indicate the successful formulation of CEO-loaded PEG-b-PCL micelle nanoparticles. It is suggested that this micelle system has considerably potential applications in the sustained release of CEO in intravascular drug delivery.

  12. Quantification through TLC-densitometric analysis, repellency and anticholinesterase activity of the homemade extract of Indian cloves.

    PubMed

    Affonso, Raphael S; Lima, Josélia A; Lessa, Bruno M; Caetano, João V O; Obara, Marcos T; Nóbrega, Andréa B; Nepovimova, Eugenie; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Slana, Gláucia B C A; França, Tanos C C

    2018-02-01

    The rise of the mosquitoes-transmitted diseases, like dengue, zika and chikungunya in Brazil in the last years has increased concerns on protection against mosquitoes bites. However, the prohibitive prices of the commercially available repellents for the majority of the Brazilian population has provoked a search for cheaper solutions, like the use of the homemade ethanolic extract of Indian clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) as repellent, which has been reported as quite efficient by the local press. In order to verify this, we performed here the quantification of the main components of this extract through high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometry and evaluated its efficiency as a repellent and its acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition capacity. Our results have proved HPTLC-densitometry as an efficient and appropriate method for this quantification and confirmed the repellency activity, as well as its capacity of AChE inhibition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Tissue-Specific Accumulation of Sulfur Compounds and Saponins in Different Parts of Garlic Cloves from Purple and White Ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Argandoña, Javier; Castillo, Purificación; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2017-08-20

    This study set out to determine the distribution of sulfur compounds and saponin metabolites in different parts of garlic cloves. Three fractions from purple and white garlic ecotypes were obtained: the tunic (SS), internal (IS) and external (ES) parts of the clove. Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), together with bioinformatics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Clustering (HCL) and correlation network analyses were carried out. Results showed that the distribution of these metabolites in the different parts of garlic bulbs was different for the purple and the white ecotypes, with the main difference being a slightly higher number of sulfur compounds in purple garlic. The SS fraction in purple garlic had a higher content of sulfur metabolites, while the ES in white garlic was more enriched by these compounds. The correlation network indicated that diallyl disulfide was the most relevant metabolite with regards to sulfur compound metabolism in garlic. The total number of saponins was almost 40-fold higher in purple garlic than in the white variety, with ES having the highest content. Interestingly, five saponins including desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, proto-desgalactotigonin, proto-desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, voghieroside D1, sativoside B1-rhamnose and sativoside R1 were exclusive to the purple variety. Data obtained from saponin analyses revealed a very different network between white and purple garlic, thus suggesting a very robust and tight coregulation of saponin metabolism in garlic. Findings in this study point to the possibility of using tunics from purple garlic in the food and medical industries, since it contains many functional compounds which can be exploited as ingredients.

  14. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element

    PubMed Central

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar ‘Daisy’ carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant ‘Daisy-VPR’ lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar ‘06-LA’ and a deep-colored cultivar ‘Spectrum’ produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the ‘Spectrum’ parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century. PMID:24399917

  15. Diversity of function in the isocitrate lyase enzyme superfamily: the Dianthus caryophyllus petal death protein cleaves alpha-keto and alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhibing; Feng, Xiaohua; Song, Ling; Han, Ying; Kim, Alexander; Herzberg, Osnat; Woodson, William R; Martin, Brian M; Mariano, Patrick S; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

    2005-12-20

    The work described in this paper was carried out to define the chemical function a new member of the isocitrate lyase enzyme family derived from the flowering plant Dianthus caryophyllus. This protein (Swiss-Prot entry Q05957) is synthesized in the senescent flower petals and is named the "petal death protein" or "PDP". On the basis of an analysis of the structural contexts of sequence markers common to the C-C bond lyases of the isocitrate lyase/phosphoenolpyruvate mutase superfamily, a substrate screen that employed a (2R)-malate core structure was designed. Accordingly, stereochemically defined C(2)- and C(3)-substituted malates were synthesized and tested as substrates for PDP-catalyzed cleavage of the C(2)-C(3) bond. The screen identified (2R)-ethyl, (3S)-methylmalate, and oxaloacetate [likely to bind as the hydrate, C(2)(OH)(2) gem-diol] as the most active substrates (for each, k(cat)/K(m) = 2 x 10(4) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). In contrast to the stringent substrate specificities previously observed for the Escherichia coli isocitrate and 2-methylisocitrate lyases, the PDP tolerated hydrogen, methyl, and to a much lesser extent acetate substituents at the C(3) position (S configuration only) and hydoxyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, and to a much lesser extent isobutyl substituents at C(2) (R configuration only). It is hypothesized that PDP functions in oxalate production in Ca(2+) sequestering and/or in carbon scavenging from alpha-hydroxycarboxylate catabolites during the biochemical transition accompanying petal senescence.

  16. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element.

    PubMed

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar 'Daisy' carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant 'Daisy-VPR' lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar '06-LA' and a deep-colored cultivar 'Spectrum' produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the 'Spectrum' parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century.

  17. Efficacy of spray formulations containing binary mixtures of clove and eucalyptus oils against susceptible and pyrethroid/ malathion-resistant head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Han-Young; Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-05-01

    The control efficacy of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata, and eucalyptus, Eucalyptus globulus, essential oils and 15 formulations containing these essential oils alone (8, 12, and 15% sprays) and their binary mixtures (7:3, 5:5, and 3:7 by weight) against adult females of insecticide-susceptible KR-HL and dual malathion- and permethrin-resistant BR-HL strains of head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer), was examined by using contact plus fumigant and human hair wig (placed over the head of mannequin) mortality bioassays. In contact plus fumigant mortality bioassay, essential oils from eucalyptus (0.225 mg/cm2) and clove (1.149 mg/cm2) were less effective than either d-phenothrin (0.0029 mg/cm2) or pyrethrum (0.0025 mg/cm2) based on 6-h median lethal concentration values. However, the efficacies of eucalyptus and clove oils were almost identical against females fromn both strains, despite high levels of resistance of the BR-HL females to d-phenothrin (resistance ratio, 667) and pyrethrum (resistance ratio, 754). In human hair wig mortality bioassay, eucalyptus oil spray treatment gave better control efficacy than either spray treatment with clove oil alone or their binary mixtures. Thus, eucalyptus applied as 8% sprays (15 or 20 ml) appears to provide effective protection against pediculosis even to insecticide-resistant head louse populations. Once the safety issues resolved, covering the treated hair and scalp with bath shower cap or hat would ensure the fumigant action of the essential oil.

  18. The effect of clove bud powder at a spice level on antioxidant and quality properties of emulsified pork sausage during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Gap-Don

    2016-09-01

    Clove bud is a widely used spice in meat and meat products, and it contains high level of phenolic compounds. The effectiveness of the clove as a spice has not been fully studied at a general level of addition in the meat products. Therefore, in the present study, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and nitrite scavenging abilities of clove bud powder (CBP) was assessed at spice level (0.1% and 0.2%) in emulsified pork sausage, during 6 weeks of cold storage. CBP had DPPH radical scavenging ability, but CBP addition at 0.1% and 0.2% did not decrease the TBARS value. An antimicrobial effect of CBP was also not observed during the cold storage. However, residual nitrite at storage weeks 4 and 6 was shown to be lower (P < 0.05). Addition of CBP decreased CIE L* and a* values, but it produced unacceptable sensory properties. Texture profile analysis was not affected by the addition of CBP in emulsified pork sausage (P > 0.05). The positive effect on nitrite scavenging could be expected by the addition of 0.2% CBP as a spice. However, antioxidant and antimicrobial abilities were not observed, as well as improvement in the quality of characteristics, in emulsified pork sausage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Suspended-sediment and turbidity responses to sediment and turbidity reduction projects in the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek, Watersheds, New York, 2010–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siemion, Jason; McHale, Michael R.; Davis, Wae Danyelle

    2016-12-05

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were monitored within the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek tributaries to the upper Esopus Creek in New York, the main source of water to the Ashokan Reservoir, from October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2014. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine the effects of suspended-sediment and turbidity reduction projects (STRPs) on SSC and turbidity in two of the three streams; no STRPs were constructed in the Beaver Kill watershed. During the study period, four STRPs were completed in the Stony Clove Creek and Warner Creek watersheds. Daily mean SSCs decreased significantly for a given streamflow after the STRPs were completed. The most substantial decreases in daily mean SSCs were measured at the highest streamflows. Background SSCs, as measured in water samples collected in upstream reference stream reaches, in all three streams in this study were less than 5 milligrams per liter during low and high streamflows. Longitudinal stream sampling identified stream reaches with failing hillslopes in contact with the stream channel as the primary sediment sources in the Beaver Kill and Stony Clove Creek watersheds.

  20. Eco-Friendly Acaricidal Effects of Nylon 66 Nanofibers via Grafted Clove Bud Oil-Loaded Capsules on House Dust Mites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Hun

    2017-01-01

    Acaricidal nylon 66 fabrics (AN66Fs) grafted with clove oil-loaded microcapsules (COMCs) were developed against Dermatophagoides farina (D. gallinae). The average diameter was about 2.9 µm with a range of 100 nm–8.5 µm. COMCs carried clove oil loading of about 65 vol %. COMCs were chemically grafted to electrospun nylon nanofibers by the chemical reactions between –OH groups of COMCs and –COOH end groups of nylon fabrics to form ester linkages. AN66Fs had an effect on D. farinae depending on COMCs loadings. The increase in COMCs loading of AN66Fs from 5 to 15 wt % increased from 22% to 93% mortality against D. farinae within 72 h. However, AN66Fs containing over 20 wt % COMCs were more effective, showing up to 100% mortality within 24 h because the large amount of monoterpene alcohol, eugenol. This research suggests the use of clove oil and its major constituent eugenol as eco-friendly bioactive agents that can serve as a replacement for synthetic acaricides in controlling the population of D. farinae. PMID:28698512

  1. Eco-Friendly Acaricidal Effects of Nylon 66 Nanofibers via Grafted Clove Bud Oil-Loaded Capsules on House Dust Mites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Ran; Kim, Seong Hun

    2017-07-10

    Acaricidal nylon 66 fabrics (AN66Fs) grafted with clove oil-loaded microcapsules (COMCs) were developed against Dermatophagoides farina ( D. gallinae ). The average diameter was about 2.9 µm with a range of 100 nm-8.5 µm. COMCs carried clove oil loading of about 65 vol %. COMCs were chemically grafted to electrospun nylon nanofibers by the chemical reactions between -OH groups of COMCs and -COOH end groups of nylon fabrics to form ester linkages. AN66Fs had an effect on D. farinae depending on COMCs loadings. The increase in COMCs loading of AN66Fs from 5 to 15 wt % increased from 22% to 93% mortality against D. farinae within 72 h. However, AN66Fs containing over 20 wt % COMCs were more effective, showing up to 100% mortality within 24 h because the large amount of monoterpene alcohol, eugenol. This research suggests the use of clove oil and its major constituent eugenol as eco-friendly bioactive agents that can serve as a replacement for synthetic acaricides in controlling the population of D. farinae .

  2. Allspice and Clove As Source of Triterpene Acids Activating the G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor TGR5

    PubMed Central

    Ladurner, Angela; Zehl, Martin; Grienke, Ulrike; Hofstadler, Christoph; Faur, Nadina; Pereira, Fátima C.; Berry, David; Dirsch, Verena M.; Rollinger, Judith M.

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions. A major regulator of metabolic processes that gained interest in recent years is the bile acid receptor TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). This G protein-coupled membrane receptor can be found predominantly in the intestine, where it is mainly responsible for the secretion of the incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). The aim of this study was (i) to identify plant extracts with TGR5-activating potential, (ii) to narrow down their activity to the responsible constituents, and (iii) to assess whether the intestinal microbiota produces transformed metabolites with a different activity profile. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) served as positive control for both, the applied cell-based luciferase reporter gene assay for TGR5 activity and the biotransformation assay using mouse fecal slurry. The suitability of the workflow was demonstrated by the biotransformation of CDCA to lithocholic acid resulting in a distinct increase in TGR5 activity. Based on a traditional Tibetan formula, 19 plant extracts were selected and investigated for TGR5 activation. Extracts from the commonly used spices Syzygium aromaticum (SaroE, clove), Pimenta dioica (PdioE, allspice), and Kaempferia galanga (KgalE, aromatic ginger) significantly increased TGR5 activity. After biotransformation, only KgalE showed significant differences in its metabolite profile, which, however, did not alter its TGR5 activity compared to non-transformed KgalE. UHPLC-HRMS (high-resolution mass spectrometry) analysis revealed triterpene acids (TTAs) as the main constituents of the extracts SaroE and PdioE. Identification and quantification of TTAs in these two extracts as well as comparison of their TGR5 activity with reconstituted TTA mixtures allowed the attribution of the TGR5 activity to TTAs. EC50s were determined for the main TTAs, i.e., oleanolic acid (2.2 ± 1.6 μM), ursolic

  3. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Clove Essential Oil and Its Two Active Principles on Tooth Decalcification by Apple Juice

    PubMed Central

    Marya, Charu M.; Satija, Gunjan; J., Avinash; Nagpal, Ruchi; Kapoor, Rohtash; Ahmad, Aijaz

    2012-01-01

    The dental erosion or decalcification of enamel is a significant clinical problem. Apple acidic beverages are thought to increase the potential for dental erosion. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of clove essential oil (CEO) and its active principles on tooth decalcification of apple juices. On GC-MS analysis, CEO showed a high content of eugenol (58.29%) and eugenyl acetate (19.10%). Teeth specimens were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: control, CEO, eugenol, eugenyl-acetate, and fluoride. The specimens were exposed for 24 h and were analyzed for calcium contents using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Data were analyzed using student t-test (P < 0.05). CEO, eugenol, and eugenyl-acetate significantly decreased the decalcification of tooth by the apple juice to only 17, 24, and 21 mgL−1, respectively. Hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. It was observed that the CEO and its two lead molecules inhibit the decalcification and/or promote the remineralization caused by the apple juices. The effect of the test compounds appears to be distinct like that of fluoride treatment. CEO may, therefore, serve to be a promising adjunct to fluoride in the treatment of root caries during minimally invasive therapy. PMID:22997520

  4. Effects of clove essential oil and eugenol on quality and browning control of fresh-cut lettuce.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangning; Ren, Lupei; Li, Menglin; Qian, Jia; Fan, Junfeng; Du, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This study confirmed the inhibitory effects of clove essential oil (CEO) and eugenol (EUG) on the browning and relevant enzymes of fresh-cut lettuce, and examined associated mechanisms by inhibition kinetics and computational docking analysis. Fresh-cut lettuce was treated with 0.05% CEO and 0.05% EUG solutions, resulting in inhibition of the deterioration of texture quality and browning of the lettuce surface and interior. Compared with the controls, CEO and EUG significantly inhibited the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD, all p<0.05). EUG suppressed PAL, PPO, and POD in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 5.4±0.9, 29.5±3.5, and 61.9±6.7mM, respectively. The binding and inhibition effects of EUG on PAL, PPO, and POD, determined by inhibition kinetics and computational docking analysis, established EUG as a competitive inhibitor of these browning-relevant enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of blue pigments in crushed garlic cloves (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungeun; Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Seung Koo; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2009-01-01

    The color-forming ability of amino acids with thiosulfinate in crushed garlic was investigated. We developed reaction systems for generating pure blue pigments using extracted thiosulfinate from crushed garlic and onion and all 22 amino acids. Each amino acid was reacted with thiosulfinate solution and was then incubated at 60 degrees C for 3 h to generate pigments. Unknown blue pigments, responsible for discoloration in crushed garlic cloves (Allium sativum L.), were separated and tentatively characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector ranging between 200 and 700 nm. Blue pigment solutions exhibited 2 maximal absorbance peaks at 440 nm and 580 nm, corresponding to yellow and blue, respectively, with different retention times. Our findings indicated that green discoloration is created by the combination of yellow and blue pigments. Eight naturally occurring blue pigments were separated from discolored garlic extracts using HPLC at 580 nm. This suggests that garlic discoloration is not caused by only 1 blue pigment, as reported earlier, but by as many as 8 pigments. Overall, free amino acids that formed blue pigment when reacted with thiosulfinate were glycine, arginine, lysine, serine, alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, and tyrosine. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine had spectra that were more similar to naturally greened garlic extract.

  6. Eugenol-rich Fraction of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) Reverses Biochemical and Histopathological Changes in Liver Cirrhosis and Inhibits Hepatic Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shakir; Prasad, Ram; Mahmood, Amena; Routray, Indusmita; Shinkafi, Tijjani Salihu; Sahin, Kazim; Kucuk, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dried flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) is rich in eugenol, an antioxidant and antiinflammatory compound that can protect liver against injury. Clove, besides eugenol, also contains other pharmacologically active phytochemicals such as β-sitosterol and ascorbic acid. This study reports the effect of eugenol-rich fraction (ERF) of clove on liver cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide. Methods: Cirrhosis of the liver, which predisposes to hepatocellular carcinoma, was induced by administering thioacetamide (0.03%) in drinking water for 16 weeks. Cirrhotic animals were divided into two groups; the treated group was administered ERF for 9 weeks, one week after discontinuation of thioacetamide, while the other group received normal saline for a similar duration of time. Results: The treatment with ERF, as determined by histopathology and through a battery of biochemical markers of hepatic injury, oxidative stress and drug metabolizing enzymes, significantly ameliorated the signs of liver cirrhosis. It lowered the elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase and other biochemical changes in liver cirrhosis. Histopathology of the liver corroborated the effect of ERF with biochemical findings. ERF treatment further inhibited cell proliferation, as demonstrated by reduced [3H]-thymidine uptake. Conclusions: Data provide evidence supporting the protective action of ERF on liver cirrhosis. The study assumes significance because cirrhosis predisposes the liver to cancer, which is characterized by abnormal cell proliferation. ERF in this study is reported to inhibit hepatic cell proliferation and at the same time decrease oxidative stress, which might be the mechanism of protection against liver cirrhosis. PMID:25574464

  7. Sublethal Exposure to Clove and Cinnamon Essential Oils Induces Hormetic-Like Responses and Disturbs Behavioral and Respiratory Responses in Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Faroni, Lêda R A; Guedes, Daniela C; Miranda, Natalie N S

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils have been suggested as suitable alternatives for controlling insect pests. However, the potential adaptive responses elicited in insects for mitigating the actions of these compounds have not received adequate attention. Furthermore, as is widely reported with traditional insecticides, sublethal exposure to essential oils might induce stimulatory responses or contribute to the development of resistance strategies that can compromise the management of insect pests. The current study evaluated the locomotory and respiratory responses as well as the number of larvae per grain produced by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, after being sublethally exposed to the essential oils of clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. The essential oils showed similar insecticidal toxicity (exposure route: contact with dried residues; Clove LC95 = 3.96 [2.78-6.75] µl/cm(2); Cinnamon LC95 = 3.47 [2.75-4.73] µl/cm(2)). A stimulatory effect on the median survival time (TL50) was observed when insects were exposed to low concentrations of each oil. Moreover, a higher number of larvae per grain was produced under sublethal exposure to clove essential oil. S. zeamais avoided the treated areas (in free-choice experiments) and altered their mobility when sublethally exposed to both essential oils. The respiratory rates of S. zeamais (i.e., CO2 production) were significantly reduced under low concentrations of the essential oils. We recommend the consideration of the potential sublethal effects elicited by botanical pesticides during the development of integrated pest management programs aiming to control S. zeamais. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Gonzales Correa, Yenis Del Carmen; Faroni, Lêda R A; Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2015-11-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A chitosan-based coating with or without clove oil extends the shelf life of cooked pork sausages in refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Lekjing, Somwang

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan coatings, with and without clove oil, were investigated for effects on quality and shelf life of cooked pork sausages stored at a refrigerated temperature (4±2°C). The various treatments of cooked pork sausages were: untreated (control), coating with 2% chitosan (CS), and coating with a mixture having 2% chitosan and 1.5% clove oil (CS+CO). Various microbiological, physical, chemical and sensory properties were monitored over 25 days of storage. The total viable count, the psychrotrophic bacteria count, the L* value, peroxide value and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased, while the a* value, the b* value, the pH and the sensory scores decreased with storage time, across all treatments. However, these changes were slowest with the CS+CO treatment. Based on sensory evaluation and microbiological quality, the shelf lives were 14 days for control, 20 days for CS, and 20 days for CS+CO treated samples, under refrigerated storage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effect of edible chitosan/clove oil films and high-pressure processing on the microbiological shelf life of trout fillets.

    PubMed

    Albertos, Irene; Rico, Daniel; Diez, Ana María; González-Arnáiz, Lucía; García-Casas, María Jesús; Jaime, Isabel

    2015-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of chitosan films with clove oil (0-50 g kg(-1) ) was evaluated on a range of ten representative food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. The most sensitive bacteria to the films was Shewanella putrefaciens and the most resistant was Aeromonas hydrophila (inhibition was apparent only at 50 g kg(-1) clove essential oil (CEO)). Films with 20 g kg(-1) CEO inhibited nine of ten of the bacteria tested. Chitosan films with 20 g kg(-1) CEO were combined with high-pressure (HPP) processing as treatments for trout fillets, and changes in physicochemical parameters and microbial load were evaluated at 4 °C over 22 days of storage. The films reduced weight loss and water activity compared to fresh and treated samples (HPP and cooking). Results showed that microbial load (total aerobic mesophilic, lactic acid bacteria and total coliform) of the trout fillets covered with chitosan films was lower than that for HPP-treated samples, and similar to cooked samples, except for coliform counts. The use of 20 g kg(-1) CEO-chitosan films showed a further improvement in the shelf-life of trout fillets when compared to that obtained with HPP and cooking treatment. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Active nanocomposite films based on soy proteins-montmorillonite- clove essential oil for the preservation of refrigerated bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) fillets.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Ignacio; López-Caballero, María Elvira; Gómez-Guillén, María Carmen; Mauri, Adriana Noemi; Montero, María Pilar

    2018-02-02

    This manuscript evaluates the potential application of active nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate (SPI)-montmorillonite (MMT)-clove essential oil (CEO) to the preservation of muscle fillets of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) during refrigerated storage, and furthermore analyzes whether the clay diffuses from the package to food. SPI films with: CEO (SPI-CEO), MMT (SPI-MMT), or both CEO and MMT (SPI-MMT-CEO), were prepared and used to cover tuna fillets during 17days of storage at 2°C. Polyethylene films were also used as control. Protein films nanoreinforced with 10g MMT/100g SPI and activated with CEO were able to decrease microbial growth (evaluated by TVBN and microorganism counts) and lipid autooxidation (evaluated according to the TBA index, FTIR and color parameters) of tuna fillets during the storage period studied. The presence of clay seemed to favor the release of the active principles of clove oil by prolonging its antimicrobial (especially effective to inhibit Pseudomonas spp.) and antioxidant activity over time without observing the diffusion of the clay's own metals (Si and Al) from the nanocomposite materials to the muscle of fish. These results are encouraging for the use of nanocomposite films in food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The vapor activity of oregano, perilla, tea tree, lavender, clove, and geranium oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a closed box.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Hasumi, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    The vapor activity of six essential oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes was examined using a closed box. The antifungal activity was determined from colony size, which was correlated with the inoculum size. As judged from the minimum inhibitory dose and the minimum fungicidal dose determined after vapor exposure for 24 h, the vapor activity of the six essential oils was ranked in the following order: oregano > clove, perilla > geranium, lavender, tea tree. The vapors of oregano, perilla, tea tree, and lavender oils killed the mycelia by short exposure, for 3 h, but the vapors of clove and geranium oils were only active after overnight exposure. The vapor of oregano and other oils induced lysis of the mycelia. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the cell membrane and cell wall were damaged in a dose- and time-dependent manner by the action of oregano vapor, causing rupture and peeling of the cell wall, with small bulges coming from the cell membrane. The vapor activity increased after 24 h, but mycelial accumulation of the active oil constituents was maximized around 15 h, and then decreased in parallel with the decrease of vapor concentration. This suggested that the active constituent accumulated on the fungal cells around 15 h caused irreversible damage, which eventually led to cellular death.

  13. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2016-04-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils were evaluated to determine mortality rates, morphological aberrations, and persistence when used against third and fourth larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The oils were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations in mixtures with soybean oil. Persistence of higher concentrations was measured over a period of 10 days. For Ae. aegypti, both plant oils caused various morphological aberrations to include deformed larvae, incomplete eclosion, white pupae, deformed pupae, dead normal pupae, and incomplete pupal eclosion. All of these aberrations led to larval mortality. In Ae. aegypti larvae, there were no significant differences in mortality at days 1, 5, and 10 or between third and fourth larval instar exposure. In An. dirus, morphological aberrations were rare and S. aromaticum oil was more effective in causing mortality among all larval stages. Both oils were equally effective at producing mortality on days 1, 5, and 10. Both oils had slightly increased LT50 rates from day 1 to day 10. In conclusion, both lemongrass and clove oils have significant effects on the immature stages of Ae. aegypti and An. dirus and could potentially be developed for use as larvicides.

  14. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Disinfecting Ability of Garlic Oil, Neem Oil, Clove Oil, and Tulsi Oil with autoclaving on Endodontic K Files tested against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Hugar, Shivayogi; Nagmoti, Jyoti; Uppin, Chaitanya; Mistry, Laresh; Dhariwal, Neha

    2017-01-01

    Aim To comparatively evaluate the efficacy of disinfecting ability of garlic oil, neem oil, clove oil, and tulsi oil with autoclaving on endodontic K files tested against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods Fifty endodontic K files were exposed to the test micro-organism and checked for its disinfecting ability using three different methods. Result Garlic oil, clove oil, tulsi oil and autoclave showed considerable effectiveness against E. faecalis except neem oil. Conclusion Garlic oil, clove oil and tulsi oil are an effective disinfectant and can be used as an alternative to autoclaving against the test micro-organism. Clinical Significance Herbs and herbal extracts are a natural and harmless way of controlling infection. These products are readily available and comparable to gold standard, thus can have its applications in rural India. How to cite this article Hugar S, Patel PM, Nagmoti J, Uppin C, Mistry L, Dhariwal N. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Disinfecting Ability of Garlic Oil, Neem Oil, Clove Oil, and Tulsi Oil with autoclaving on Endodontic K Files tested against Enterococcus faecalis. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(3):283-288. PMID:29104390

  15. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Disinfecting Ability of Garlic Oil, Neem Oil, Clove Oil, and Tulsi Oil with autoclaving on Endodontic K Files tested against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Hugar, Shivayogi; M Patel, Punit; Nagmoti, Jyoti; Uppin, Chaitanya; Mistry, Laresh; Dhariwal, Neha

    2017-01-01

    To comparatively evaluate the efficacy of disinfecting ability of garlic oil, neem oil, clove oil, and tulsi oil with autoclaving on endodontic K files tested against Enterococcus faecalis. Fifty endodontic K files were exposed to the test micro-organism and checked for its disinfecting ability using three different methods. Garlic oil, clove oil, tulsi oil and autoclave showed considerable effectiveness against E. faecalis except neem oil. Garlic oil, clove oil and tulsi oil are an effective disinfectant and can be used as an alternative to autoclaving against the test micro-organism. Herbs and herbal extracts are a natural and harmless way of controlling infection. These products are readily available and comparable to gold standard, thus can have its applications in rural India. Hugar S, Patel PM, Nagmoti J, Uppin C, Mistry L, Dhariwal N. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Disinfecting Ability of Garlic Oil, Neem Oil, Clove Oil, and Tulsi Oil with autoclaving on Endodontic K Files tested against Enterococcus faecalis. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(3):283-288.

  16. Large-scale preparation of clove essential oil and eugenol-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor and a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Carine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Agusti, Géraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Based on our previous study where optimal conditions were defined to encapsulate clove essential oil (CEO) into liposomes at laboratory scale, we scaled-up the preparation of CEO and eugenol (Eug)-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor (600 mL) and a pilot plant (3 L) based on the principle of ethanol injection method, both equipped with a Shirasu Porous Glass membrane for injection of the organic phase into the aqueous phase. Homogenous, stable, nanometric-sized and multilamellar liposomes with high phospholipid, Eug loading rates and encapsulation efficiency of CEO components were obtained. Saturation of phospholipids and drug concentration in the organic phase may control the liposome stability. Liposomes loaded with other hydrophobic volatile compounds could be prepared at large scale using the ethanol injection method and a membrane for injection.

  17. Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread.

    PubMed

    Otoni, Caio G; Pontes, Silvania F O; Medeiros, Eber A A; Soares, Nilda de F F

    2014-06-04

    Consumers are increasingly demanding foods with lower synthetic preservatives. Plant essential oils are natural compounds with remarkable antimicrobial properties and may be incorporated as emulsions into water-soluble polymers to form antimicrobial films. Coarse emulsions (diameters of 1.3-1.9 μm) and nanoemulsions (diameters of 180-250 nm) of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils were produced through low-speed mixing and ultrasonication, respectively. Methylcellulose was added for film-forming purposes. Both essential oils reduced the rigidity and increased the extensibility of the methylcellulose films, effects that were even more pronounced for nanodroplets. Both essential oils lessened the counts of yeasts and molds in sliced bread during 15 days, and droplet size reduction provided a further improvement in antimicrobial properties. Due to increased bioavailability, less preservative content might be used and still deliver the same antimicrobial efficiency if encapsulated in smaller particles.

  18. Evaluation of Clove Oil, Icaridin, and Transfluthrin for Spatial Repellent Effects in Three Tests Systems Against the Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Nentwig, G; Frohberger, S; Sonneck, R

    2017-01-01

    One essential oil (clove oil), one skin repellent (icaridin), and one insecticide (transfluthrin) were tested for spatial repellent effects against non-blood-fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. The compounds were tested in acetone dilution series using a Y-olfactometer, a double cage system, and a double room system. All compounds exhibited spatial repellent effects at certain concentrations. Clove oil required relative high dosages to cause high effects (Y-olfactometer 6 mg, double cage 60 mg, and double room 1,200 mg). The dosages to achieve comparable results with icaridin were lower (Y-olfactometer and double cage 1 mg, and double room 150 mg). For transfluthrin, the equivalent dosages were lower again (Y-olfactometer 0.003 mg, double cage 0.03 mg, and double room 0.1 mg). Furthermore, these results reveal a correlation between the size of the test system and the effective dosage. Averaged for the three compounds, the quantity for the double room was 21-fold higher than for the double cage, which required again a 9-fold higher dosage than the Y-olfactometer. An establishment of a screening cascade is discussed starting with the Y-olfactometer (high throughput rate), followed by the double cage system and ending with the double room system as the most nearest to practical conditions. Furthermore, the testing of existing repellent products to validate the double room test, the role of sublethal dosages concerning insecticides including possible upcoming of resistance after exposure, the delayed action and impact on blood feeding and oviposition are exemplified. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Analysis of genomic DNA of DcACS1, a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene, expressed in senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and its orthologous genes in D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

    PubMed

    Harada, Taro; Murakoshi, Yuino; Torii, Yuka; Tanase, Koji; Onozaki, Takashi; Morita, Shigeto; Masumura, Takehiro; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-04-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers exhibit climacteric ethylene production followed by petal wilting, a senescence symptom. DcACS1, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), is a gene involved in this phenomenon. We determined the genomic DNA structure of DcACS1 by genomic PCR. In the genome of 'Light Pink Barbara', we found two distinct nucleotide sequences: one corresponding to the gene previously shown as DcACS1, designated here as DcACS1a, and the other novel one designated as DcACS1b. It was revealed that both DcACS1a and DcACS1b have five exons and four introns. These two genes had almost identical nucleotide sequences in exons, but not in some introns and 3'-UTR. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed that DcACS1b is expressed in senescing petals as well as DcACS1a. Genomic PCR analysis of 32 carnation cultivars showed that most cultivars have only DcACS1a and some have both DcACS1a and DcACS1b. Moreover, we found two DcACS1 orthologous genes with different nucleotide sequences from D. superbus var. longicalycinus, and designated them as DsuACS1a and DsuACS1b. Petals of D. superbus var. longicalycinus produced ethylene in response to exogenous ethylene, accompanying accumulation of DsuACS1 transcripts. These data suggest that climacteric ethylene production in flowers was genetically established before the cultivation of carnation.

  20. Growth, physiological, antioxidants, and immune response of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (B.), to dietary clove basil, Ocimum gratissimum, leaf extract and its susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Tawwab, Mohsen; Adeshina, Ibrahim; Jenyo-Oni, Adetola; Ajani, Emmanuel K; Emikpe, Benjami O

    2018-04-26

    Clove basil, Ocimum gratissimum, is a native plant to Africa and grows virtually in tropical and subtropical regions. It has good aroma and its leaves have become used as a spicy and in traditional medicine. The use of plant leaves in fish diets may deteriorate their growth because it may content anti-nutritional factors. Thus, it is better to use plants leaves extract. In the current study, clove basil leaves extract (CBLE) was administrated to African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (B.) to evaluate its effect on growth performance, physiological, antioxidants, and innate immunity variables. Fish (10.7 ± 0.5 g) were fed on diets enriched with 0.0, 5, 10, or 15 g CBLE/kg diet for 12 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were further exposed to pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes) for 14 days. Fish performance and feed intake were significantly enhanced with increasing CBLE levels and its optimum level is found to be 12 g/kg diet. It is noticed that the dietary CBLE in African catfish diets increased significantly the intestinal villi length, villi width, and absorption area in a dose-dependent manner and fish weight was highly correlated with villi length, villi width, and absorption area (R 2 = 0.91, 0.91, and 0.92, respectively). On the other side, Dietary CBLE has significant modulatory effect on hemato- and physiological variables of African catfish in a dose-dependent manner. In this regard, blood glucose and cholesterol levels decreased significantly; mean while total protein, albumin, and globulin increased significantly in fish fed high CBLE levels (10-15 g/kg diet). Furthermore, activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea, and creatinine levels were significantly elevated with increasing dietary CBLE levels and their maximum values were detected in fish fed 15 g CBLE/kg diet. Antioxidants and immunity variables were significantly enhanced by CBLE supplementation. Additionally, fish

  1. Clove essential oil-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes in the aqueous and lyophilized states: From laboratory to large scale using a membrane contactor.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Carine; Charcosset, Catherine; Stainmesse, Serge; Fessi, Hatem; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2016-03-15

    This work is dedicated to prepare liposomal dry powder formulations of inclusion complexes of clove essential oil (CEO) and its main component eugenol (Eug). Ethanol injection method and membrane contactor were applied to prepare liposomes at laboratory and large scale, respectively. Various liposomal formulations were tested: (1) free hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin loaded liposomes; (2) drug in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in liposomes (DCL); (3) DCL2 obtained by double loading technique, where the drug is added in the organic phase and the inclusion complex in the aqueous phase. Liposomes were characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency of CEO components and Eug loading rate. Reproducible results were obtained with both injection devices. Compared to Eug-loaded liposomes, DCL and DCL2 improved the loading rate of Eug and possessed smaller vesicles size. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity of Eug and CEO was maintained upon incorporation of Eug and CEO into DCL and DCL2. Contrary to DCL2, DCL formulations were stable after 1 month of storage at 4°C and upon reconstitution of the dried lyophilized cakes. Hence, DCL in aqueous and lyophilized forms, are considered as a promising carrier system to preserve volatile and hydrophobic drugs enlarging their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse

    PubMed Central

    Kothiwale, Shaila V.; Patwardhan, Vivek; Gandhi, Megha; Sohoni, Rahul; Kumar, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relatively safe nature and cost-effectiveness of herbal extracts have led to a resurgent interest in their utility as therapeutic agents. Therefore, this prospective, double-blind, randomly controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of newly formulated mouthrinse containing tea tree oil (TTO), clove, and basil with those of commercially available essential oil (EO) mouthrinse. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were selected for a 21-day study period and randomly divided into two groups. The test group patients were given newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and the control group patients were given commercially available EO mouthrinse. The Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), and Papillary Marginal Attachment (PMA) Index were recorded at baseline, 14 days, and 21 days. The microbial colony forming units (CFU) were assessed at baseline and 21 days. Results: Test group patients using herbal mouthrinse showed significant improvement in GI (0.16), PI (0.57), and PMA (0.02) scores. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with commercially available EO mouthrinse. However, the aerobic and anaerobic CFU of microbiota were reduced with the herbal mouthrinse (P = 0.0000). Conclusion: The newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and commercially available mouthrinse were beneficial clinically as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Newly formulated mouthrinses showed significant reduction in microbial CFU at 21 days. So, our findings support the regular use of herbal mouthrinse as an antiplaque, antigingivitis, and antimicrobial rinse for better efficacy. PMID:25024544

  3. Clove and rosemary essential oils and encapsuled active principles (eugenol, thymol and vanillin blend) on meat quality of feedlot-finished heifers.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Monteschio, Jéssica; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Kempinski, Emília Maria Barbosa Carvalho; Barcelos, Vinícius Cunha; Nascimento, Karina Favoreto; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2017-08-01

    Forty Nellore heifers were fed (73days) with different diets: with or without essential oils (clove and/or rosemary essential oil) and/or active principle blend (eugenol, thymol and vanillin). The pH, fat thickness, marbling, muscle area and water losses (thawing and drip) were evaluated 24h post mortem on the Longissimus thoracis, and the effects of aging (14days) was evaluated on the meat cooking losses, color, texture and lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Treatments had no effect (P>0.05) on pH, fat thickness, marbling, muscle area, thawing and drip losses. However, treatments affected (P<0.05) cooking losses, color, texture and lipid oxidation. The diets with essential oil and the active principle blend reduced the lipid oxidation and reduced the color losses in relation to control diet. Aging affected (P<0.05) texture and lipid oxidation. The essential oil and active principles or its blend have potential use in animal feed aiming to maintain/improve meat quality during shelf-life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effect of xantham gum, steviosides, clove, and cinnamon essential oils on the sensory and microbiological quality of a low sugar tomato jam.

    PubMed

    Gliemmo, María F; Montagnani, María A; Schelegueda, Laura I; González, Malena M; Campos, Carmen A

    2016-03-01

    The partial or total decrease of sugar content in the formulation of jams affects their physical, chemical and microbiological stability. In order to minimize these technological problems, we studied the effect of xanthan gum (XG), steviosides, cinnamon (CO), and clove (CLO) essential oils on the sensory and microbiological quality of a low sugar tomato jam. Levels of 0.250 g/100 g steviosides and 0.450 g/100 g XG showed maximum score of overall acceptability of jam. The combination of essential oils produced synergistic and additive effects in vitro on growth of Z. bailii and Z. rouxii, respectively. However, in the jam, CO was more effective and CLO did not modify the CO action. Cell surface was one of the sites of action of CO since a decrease in yeast cell surface hydrophobicity was observed. From the microbiological and sensory points of view, 0.0060 g/100 g CO showed the maximum score of jam overall acceptability and did not cause yeast inactivation but it could be useful as an additional stress factor against yeast post--process contamination. The adequate levels of XG, steviosides, and CO can improve the quality of a low sugar jam formulation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Effect of alginate/carboxyl methyl cellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on the quality of silver carp fillet and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inhibition during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Nastaran; Ariiai, Peiman; Fattahi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on quality of silver carp fillet chilled storage (4 + 1 °C) were examined over a period of 16 days. The control samples (c), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose coating (C-A), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil (with different concentration 1 and 1.5 %) (C-A + CEO1 % and C-A + CEO 15 % respectively) were analyzed by bacteriological (total viable counts (TVC) and total psychrotrophic counts (TPC)), biochemical (Peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH) and sensory characteristics. Also, the efficacy of these treatments was investigated in control of the population of Eschershia coli O157:H7 inoculated in silver carp fillet. According to the obtained results, C-A + CEO 1.5 % showed lowest (p < 0.05) and acceptable biochemical, bacteriological and sensory characteristics attributes up to 16 days storage at 4 °C compared to the others. Also, this treated sample was acceptable even at the end of the 16-day storage and it could reduce the population of E. coli O157:H7 below the acceptable level (<2) from day 4 until the end of the storage period. The results indicate Alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating with clove essential oil might be recommended as a preservative in the meat products.

  6. Structural and Hydrologic Implications of Joint Orientations in the Warner Creek and Stony Clove Drainage Basins, Catskill Mountains, Eastern New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskins, M. N.; Vollmer, F. W.; Rayburn, J. A.; Gurdak, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    To investigate joint control on hydrology as well as tectonic implications, we conducted a study of joint orientations near the Stony Clove and Warner Creek drainages of the Catskill Mountains, Eastern New York. Specific goals of this research were to determine joint control on stream orientations and groundwater flow, to compare results with previous studies in the area, and to investigate their tectonic significance. Trails, streams, and road cuts were traversed to locate bedrock outcrops whose positions were determined using topographic maps and a handheld GPS unit. Additional outcrops were located using aerial photographs and GIS data. Joint orientations were measured using a standard Brunton pocket transit. The data was analyzed using Orient (Vollmer, 2010), an orientation analysis program, to plot joint and stream orientations on rose diagrams. ArcGIS was used to produce topographic, hill-shade, and stream drainage maps. Over 500 joint orientations at over 100 outcrop stations were collected. The data were plotted on a rose diagrams, and two major joint sets were found, one with a mean strike of 021° and one with a mean strike of 096°. Stream orientations were also plotted on a rose diagram showing an axial mean of 022°, and indicate that the joint set with mean strike of 021 may have a significant control on stream orientations. The hill-shade maps also demonstrate clearly the strong control of jointing on the topography. The data collected in this research expands on previous joint orientation studies of Engelder and Geiser (1980) in the southwestern and central Catskills, and is similar to joint orientations found by Isachsen et al. (1977) in their study of the Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible impact-related feature. The origin of this jointing is thought to be related to Alleghanian (Permian) and possibly Acadian (Devonian) orogenic events.

  7. In vitro inhibition activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Clove) buds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the inhibitory properties of free and bound phenolic extracts of clove bud against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (alpha-amylase & alpha-glucosidase) and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. Methods The free phenolics were extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone, while bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Then, the interaction of the extracts with alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase was subsequently assessed. Thereafter, the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined. Results The result revealed that both extracts inhibited alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. However, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts were significantly (P<0.05) higher than their alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. The free phenolics (31.67 mg/g) and flavonoid (17.28 mg/g) contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher than bound phenolic (23.52 mg/g) and flavonoid (13.70 mg/g) contents. Both extracts also exhibited high antioxidant activities as typified by their high reducing power, 1,1 diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities, as well as inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. Conclusions This study provides a biochemical rationale by which clove elicits therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes. PMID:23569846

  8. In vitro inhibition activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Clove) buds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2012-10-01

    To investigate and compare the inhibitory properties of free and bound phenolic extracts of clove bud against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (alpha-amylase & alpha-glucosidase) and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone, while bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Then, the interaction of the extracts with alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase was subsequently assessed. Thereafter, the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined. The result revealed that both extracts inhibited alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. However, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts were significantly (P<0.05) higher than their alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. The free phenolics (31.67 mg/g) and flavonoid (17.28 mg/g) contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher than bound phenolic (23.52 mg/g) and flavonoid (13.70 mg/g) contents. Both extracts also exhibited high antioxidant activities as typified by their high reducing power, 1,1 diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities, as well as inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. This study provides a biochemical rationale by which clove elicits therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes.

  9. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antifungal effects of five Iranian essential oils against Candida strains isolated from urine samples.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, A R; Sharifzadeh, A; Nikaein, D; Almaie, Z; Gandomi Nasrabadi, H

    2018-06-01

    Systemic candidiasis has become an emerging fungal infection in recent years. Anti-Candida resistance to conventional antifungal agents has subsequently increased. This study reported the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-Candida activity of Origanum majorana, Artemisia dracunculus, Cymbopogon citrate, Cinnamomum verum and Caryophyllus aromaticus essential oils. Different Candida species, from urine tracts of hospitalized patients, were included to be challenged with understudied essential oils. Chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis and antioxidant activity was measured using DDPH assay. MIC of these essential oils was evaluated using broth micro-dilution test. Caryophyllus aromaticus had the highest antioxidant activity while the lowest antioxidant activity was for Artemisia dracunculus. MICs of Cinnamomum verum, Caryophillium aromaticus, Artemisia dracunculus, Origanum vulgare and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils ranged from 125 to 175μg/mL (mean value: 147.7±25.5μg/mL), 700 to 1000μg/mL (mean value: 740.9±105.4μg/mL), 1000 to 2000μg/mL (mean value: 1454.5±509.6μg/mL), 173 to 350μg/mL (mean value: 208±55.8μg/mL) and 125 to 175μg/mL (mean value: 156.8±24.6μg/mL) for different Candida species, respectively. In general, natural compounds are suitable to be used as anti-Candida and antioxidant agents. However in this stage, these compounds could be applied as supplementary agents along with conventional antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of free and glucosidically-bound volatiles in plants. Two case studies: L-menthol in peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and eugenol in clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry).

    PubMed

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Pagani, Alberto; Sganzerla, Marla; Boggia, Lorenzo; Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    This study arises from both the today's trend towards exploiting plant resources exhaustively, and the wide quantitative discrepancy between the amounts of commercially-valuable markers in aromatic plants and those recovered from the related essential oil. The study addresses the determination of both the qualitative composition and the exhaustive distribution of free and glucosidically-bound L-menthol in peppermint aerial parts (Mentha x piperita L., Lamiaceae) and of eugenol in dried cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry, Myrtaceae), two plants known to provide widely ranging essential oil yields. The two markers were investigated in essential oils and residual hydrodistillation waters, before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. Their amounts were related to those in the headspace taken as reference. The results showed that the difference between marker compound in headspace and in essential oil amounted to 22.8% for L-menthol in peppermint, and 16.5% for eugenol in cloves. The aglycones solubilised in the residual hydrodistillation waters were 7.2% of the headspace reference amount for L-menthol, and 13.3% for eugenol, respectively representing 9.3% and 15.9% of their amounts in the essential oil. The amount of L-menthol from its glucoside in residual hydrodistillation waters was 20.6% of that in the related essential oil, while eugenol from its glucoside accounted for 7.7% of the amount in clove essential oil. The yield of L-menthol, after submitting the plant material to enzymatic hydrolysis before hydrodistillation, increased by 23.1%, and for eugenol the increase was 8.1%, compared to the amount in the respective conventional essential oils. This study also aimed to evaluate the reliability of recently-introduced techniques that are little applied, if at all, in this field. The simultaneous use of high-concentration-capacity sample preparation techniques (SBSE, and HS-SPME and in-solution SPME) to run quali-quantitative analysis without sample

  11. Essential Oil from Clove Bud (Eugenia aromatica Kuntze) Inhibit Key Enzymes Relevant to the Management of Type-2 Diabetes and Some Pro-oxidant Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Pancreas in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Sanni, David M; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates is considered a therapeutic approach to the management of type-2 diabetes. This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from clove bud on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Essential oil from clove bud was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the essential oil on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the oil and the inhibition of Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats pancreas homogenate were also carried out. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase (EC50=88.9 μl/L) and α-glucosidase (EC50=71.94 μl/L) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the essential oil inhibited Fe(2+) and SNP-induced MDA production and exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO*, OH*, scavenging and Fe(2+)- chelating abilities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the essential oil were 12.95 mg/g and 6.62 mg/g respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, gamma terpinene, cis-ocimene, allo ocimene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, myrcene and pinene-2-ol in significant amounts. Furthermore, the essential oils exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO)] radicals scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities. The inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress induced type-2 diabetes.

  12. Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars to different postharvest preservatives.

    PubMed

    Adugna, Biniam; Belew, Derbew; Kassa, Negussie

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1257 - Clove and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...., Washington, DC 20055 (Internet address http://www.nap.edu), or may be examined at the Center for Food Safety....060; and (5) Residual solvent free, except those solvents that are GRAS or within tolerance levels as...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1257 - Clove and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20055 (Internet address http://www.nap.edu), or may be... oil between 1.036 and 1.060; and (5) Residual solvent free, except those solvents that are GRAS or...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1257 - Clove and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20055 (Internet address http://www.nap.edu), or may be... oil between 1.036 and 1.060; and (5) Residual solvent free, except those solvents that are GRAS or...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1257 - Clove and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20055 (Internet address http://www.nap.edu), or may be... oil between 1.036 and 1.060; and (5) Residual solvent free, except those solvents that are GRAS or...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1257 - Clove and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20055 (Internet address http://www.nap.edu), or may be... oil between 1.036 and 1.060; and (5) Residual solvent free, except those solvents that are GRAS or...

  18. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  19. Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of 30 plant extracts of industrial interest using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD, and ORAC assays.

    PubMed

    Dudonné, Stéphanie; Vitrac, Xavier; Coutière, Philippe; Woillez, Marion; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2009-03-11

    Aqueous extracts of 30 plants were investigated for their antioxidant properties using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was also determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant properties and total phenolic content differed significantly among selected plants. It was found that oak (Quercus robur), pine (Pinus maritima), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) aqueous extracts possessed the highest antioxidant capacities in most of the methods used, and thus could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. These extracts presented the highest phenolic content (300-400 mg GAE/g). Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and clove (Eugenia caryophyllus clovis) aqueous extracts also showed strong antioxidant properties and a high phenolic content (about 200 mg GAE/g). A significant relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of these plants.

  20. Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Zachary; Waggoner, Molly; Batdorff, Audra; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2014-05-27

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p=0.409). E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid.

  1. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  2. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  3. Analysis of gene expression during the transition to climacteric phase in carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    PubMed

    In, Byung-Chun; Binder, Brad M; Falbel, Tanya G; Patterson, Sara E

    2013-11-01

    It has been generally thought that in ethylene-sensitive plants such as carnations, senescence proceeds irreversibly once the tissues have entered the climacteric phase. While pre-climacteric petal tissues have a lower sensitivity to ethylene, these tissues are converted to the climacteric phase at a critical point during flower development. In this study, it is demonstrated that the senescence process initiated by exogenous ethylene is reversible in carnation petals. Petals treated with ethylene for 12h showed sustained inrolling and senescence, while petals treated with ethylene for 10h showed inrolling followed by recovery from inrolling. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed differential expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signalling between 10h and 12h ethylene treatment. Ethylene treatment at or beyond 12h (threshold time) decreased the mRNA levels of the receptor genes (DcETR1, DcERS1, and DcERS2) and DcCTR genes, and increased the ethylene biosynthesis genes DcACS1 and DcACO1. In contrast, ethylene treatment under the threshold time caused a transient decrease in the receptor genes and DcCTR genes, and a transient increase in DcACS1 and DcACO1. Sustained DcACS1 accumulation is correlated with decreases in DcCTR genes and increase in DcEIL3 and indicates that tissues have entered the climacteric phase and that senescence proceeds irreversibly. Inhibition of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) prior to 12h ethylene exposure was not able to prevent reduction in transcripts of DcCTR genes, yet suppressed transcript of DcACS1 and DcACO1. This leads to the recovery from inrolling of the petals, indicating that DcACS1 may act as a signalling molecule in senescence of flowers.

  4. The role of N-lauroylethanolamine in the regulation of senescence of cut carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Guo, Wei-ming; Chen, Su-mei; Han, Liang; Li, Zheng-ming

    2007-08-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a group of lipid mediators that play important roles in mammals, but not much is known about their precise function in plants. In this work, we analyzed the possible involvement of N-lauroylethanolamine [NAE(12:0)] in the regulation of cut-flower senescence. In cut carnation flowers of cv. Red Barbara, the pulse treatment with 5 microM NAE(12:0) slowed senescence by delaying the onset of initial wilting. Ion leakage, which is a reliable indicator of membrane integrity, was postponed in NAE(12:0)-treated flowers. The lipid peroxidation increased in carnation petals with time, in parallel to the development in activity of lipoxygenase and superoxide anion production rate, and these increases were both delayed by NAE(12:0) supplementation. The activities of four enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase) that are implicated in antioxidant defense were also upregulated in the cut carnations that had been treated with NAE(12:0). These data indicate that NAE(12:0)-induced delays in cut-carnation senescence involve the protection of the integrity of membranes via suppressing oxidative damage and enhancing antioxidant defense. We propose that the stage from the end of blooming to the onset of wilting is a critical period for NAE(12:0) action.

  5. Analysis of gene expression during the transition to climacteric phase in carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Sara E.

    2013-01-01

    It has been generally thought that in ethylene-sensitive plants such as carnations, senescence proceeds irreversibly once the tissues have entered the climacteric phase. While pre-climacteric petal tissues have a lower sensitivity to ethylene, these tissues are converted to the climacteric phase at a critical point during flower development. In this study, it is demonstrated that the senescence process initiated by exogenous ethylene is reversible in carnation petals. Petals treated with ethylene for 12h showed sustained inrolling and senescence, while petals treated with ethylene for 10h showed inrolling followed by recovery from inrolling. Reverse transcription–PCR analysis revealed differential expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signalling between 10h and 12h ethylene treatment. Ethylene treatment at or beyond 12h (threshold time) decreased the mRNA levels of the receptor genes (DcETR1, DcERS1, and DcERS2) and DcCTR genes, and increased the ethylene biosynthesis genes DcACS1 and DcACO1. In contrast, ethylene treatment under the threshold time caused a transient decrease in the receptor genes and DcCTR genes, and a transient increase in DcACS1 and DcACO1. Sustained DcACS1 accumulation is correlated with decreases in DcCTR genes and increase in DcEIL3 and indicates that tissues have entered the climacteric phase and that senescence proceeds irreversibly. Inhibition of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) prior to 12h ethylene exposure was not able to prevent reduction in transcripts of DcCTR genes, yet suppressed transcript of DcACS1 and DcACO1. This leads to the recovery from inrolling of the petals, indicating that DcACS1 may act as a signalling molecule in senescence of flowers. PMID:24078672

  6. Quantification of major flavonoids in carnation tissues (Dianthus caryophyllus) as a tool for cultivar discrimination.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, Francesco; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Curir, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    One flavone-C-glycoside and two flavonol-O-glycosides were recognized and isolated as the main flavonoidal components in nine different carnation cultivars, and their chemical structures have been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV detection, MS and NMR. The distribution of these three compounds in flowers, leaves, stems, young sprouts, and roots of each cultivar was evaluated by a simple HPLC-UV method: the graphic representation of their content in the different tissues allows to identify and characterize unambiguously each considered carnation cultivar. The presented method could be an easy, inexpensive and reliable tool for carnation cultivar discrimination.

  7. Identification and Characterization of the MADS-Box Genes and Their Contribution to Flower Organ in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoni; Wang, Qijian; Yang, Shaozong; Lin, Shengnan; Bao, Manzhu; Wu, Quanshu; Wang, Caiyun; Fu, Xiaopeng

    2018-01-01

    Dianthus is a large genus containing many species with high ornamental economic value. Extensive breeding strategies permitted an exploration of an improvement in the quality of cultivated carnation, particularly in flowers. However, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in carnation. Here, we report the identification and description of MADS-box genes in carnation (DcaMADS) with a focus on those involved in flower development and organ identity determination. In this study, 39 MADS-box genes were identified from the carnation genome and transcriptome by the phylogenetic analysis. These genes were categorized into four subgroups (30 MIKCc, two MIKC*, two Mα, and five Mγ). The MADS-box domain, gene structure, and conserved motif compositions of the carnation MADS genes were analysed. Meanwhile, the expression of DcaMADS genes were significantly different in stems, leaves, and flower buds. Further studies were carried out for exploring the expression of DcaMADS genes in individual flower organs, and some crucial DcaMADS genes correlated with their putative function were validated. Finally, a new expression pattern of DcaMADS genes in flower organs of carnation was provided: sepal (three class E genes and two class A genes), petal (two class B genes, two class E genes, and one SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP)), stamen (two class B genes, two class E genes, and two class C), styles (two class E genes and two class C), and ovary (two class E genes, two class C, one AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 (AGL6), one SEEDSTICK (STK), one B sister, one SVP, and one Mα). This result proposes a model in floral organ identity of carnation and it may be helpful to further explore the molecular mechanism of flower organ identity in carnation. PMID:29617274

  8. Detection of 1-O-malylglucose: pelargonidin 3-O-glucose-6''-O-malyltransferase activity in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    PubMed

    Abe, Yutaka; Tera, Masayuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Okamura, Masachika; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Momose, Masaki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2008-09-05

    Carnations have anthocyanins acylated with malate. Although anthocyanin acyltransferases have been reported in several plant species, anthocyanin malyltransferase (AMalT) activity in carnation has not been identified. Here, an acyl donor substance of AMalT, 1-O-beta-D-malylglucose, was extracted and partially purified from the petals of carnation. This was synthesized chemically to analyze AMalT activity in a crude extract from carnation. Changes in the AMalT activity showed close correlation to the accumulation of pelargonidin 3-malylglucoside (Pel 3-malGlc) during the development of red petals of carnation, but neither AMalT activity nor Pel 3-malGlc accumulation was detectable in roots, stems and leaves.

  9. Identification and Characterization of the MADS-Box Genes and Their Contribution to Flower Organ in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoni; Wang, Qijian; Yang, Shaozong; Lin, Shengnan; Bao, Manzhu; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Wu, Quanshu; Wang, Caiyun; Fu, Xiaopeng

    2018-04-04

    Dianthus is a large genus containing many species with high ornamental economic value. Extensive breeding strategies permitted an exploration of an improvement in the quality of cultivated carnation, particularly in flowers. However, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in carnation. Here, we report the identification and description of MADS-box genes in carnation ( DcaMADS ) with a focus on those involved in flower development and organ identity determination. In this study, 39 MADS-box genes were identified from the carnation genome and transcriptome by the phylogenetic analysis. These genes were categorized into four subgroups (30 MIKC c , two MIKC*, two Mα, and five Mγ). The MADS-box domain, gene structure, and conserved motif compositions of the carnation MADS genes were analysed. Meanwhile, the expression of DcaMADS genes were significantly different in stems, leaves, and flower buds. Further studies were carried out for exploring the expression of DcaMADS genes in individual flower organs, and some crucial DcaMADS genes correlated with their putative function were validated. Finally, a new expression pattern of DcaMADS genes in flower organs of carnation was provided: sepal (three class E genes and two class A genes), petal (two class B genes, two class E genes, and one SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE ( SVP )), stamen (two class B genes, two class E genes, and two class C), styles (two class E genes and two class C), and ovary (two class E genes, two class C, one AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 ( AGL6 ), one SEEDSTICK ( STK ), one B sister , one SVP , and one Mα ). This result proposes a model in floral organ identity of carnation and it may be helpful to further explore the molecular mechanism of flower organ identity in carnation.

  10. Matran (50% clove oil) broadcast application for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although corn gluten meal has shown promise as an early-season pre-emergent organic herbicide in sweet onion production, uncontrolled weeds can inflict serious yield reductions by the end of the growing season. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the effectiveness of Matran EC...

  11. The production and activity test of cellulases using bagasse substrate on Aspergillus niger isolated from Clove field, Kare, Madiun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhi, Muh. Waskito; Sulistyarsi, Ani; Pujiati

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillus sp is a microorganism which has a high ability to produce cellulase enzymes. In producing Cellulase enzymes requires appropriate concentration and incubation time to obtain optimum enzyme activity. This study aimed to determine the effect of inoculum concentration and incubation time towards production and activity of cellulases from Aspergillus sp substrate bagasse. This research used experiments method; completely randomized design with 2 factorial repeated 2 times. The treatment study include differences inoculum (K) 5% (K1), 15% (K2) 25%, (K3) and incubation time (F) that is 3 days (F1), 6 days (F2), 9 days (F3), 12 days (F4). The data taken from the treatment are glucose reduction and protein levels of crude cellulase enzyme activity that use Nelson Somogyi and Biuret methods. Analysis of variance ANOVA data used two paths with significance level of 5% then continued with LSD test. The results showed that: Fhit>Ftab. Thus, there is effect of inoculum concentrations and incubation time toward activity of crude cellulases of Aspergillus sp. The highest glucose reduction of treatment is K3F4 (concentration of inoculum is 25% with 12 days incubation time) amount 12.834 g / ml and the highest protein content is K3F4 (concentration of inoculum is 25% with with 12 days incubation time) amount 0.740 g / ml.

  12. Effect of sprayer output volume and adjuvants on efficacy of clove oil for weed control in organic Vidalia sweet onion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Timely cultivation with a tine weeder is the primary tool for successful weed control in organic Vidalia® sweet onion, but conditions frequently arise that delay the initial cultivation. Weeds that emerge during the delay are not effectively controlled by cultivation and herbicides derived from nat...

  13. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils extracted from cassia bark, bay fruits and cloves against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria spp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spices are added into foods mainly for enhancing the organoleptic quality of the food. The application of spices and their derivatives in foods as preservatives has been investigated for years. In this study, we determined the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of three spices, cassia bark...

  14. Leaf-morphology-assisted selection for resistance to two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L).

    PubMed

    Seki, Kousuke

    2016-10-01

    The development of a cultivar resistant to the two-spotted spider mite has provided both ecological and economic benefits to the production of cut flowers. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of resistance to mites using an inbred population of carnations. In the resistant and susceptible plants selected from an inbred population, a difference was recognised in the thickness of the abaxial palisade tissue by microscopic examination of the damaged leaf. Therefore, it was assumed that mites displayed feeding preferences within the internal leaf structure of the carnation leaf. The suitability of the host plant for mites was investigated using several cultivars selected using an index of the thickness from the abaxial leaf surface to the spongy tissue. The results suggested that the cultivar associated with a thicker abaxial tissue lowered the intrinsic rate of natural increase of the mites. The cultivars with a thicker abaxial tissue of over 120 µm showed slight damage in the field test. The ability of mites to feed on the spongy tissue during an early life stage from hatching to adult emergence was critical. It was possible to select a cultivar that is resistant to mites under a real cultivation environment by observing the internal structure of the leaf. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of the GMO carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) variety Moonlite based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Jia, J W; Jiang, L X; Zhu, H; Bai, L; Wang, J B; Tang, X M; Pan, A H

    2012-04-27

    To ensure the implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO)-labeling regulations, an event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic carnation variety Moonlite. The 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, the event-specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed to amplify the fragments, which spanned the exogenous DNA and carnation genomic DNA. Qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were developed employing the designed primers and probe. The detection limit of the qualitative PCR assay was 0.05% for Moonlite in 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to about 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome; the limit of detection and quantification of the quantitative PCR assay were estimated to be 38 and 190 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. Carnation samples with different contents of genetically modified components were quantified and the bias between the observed and true values of three samples were lower than the acceptance criterion (<25%) of the GMO detection method. These results indicated that these event-specific methods would be useful for the identification and quantification of the GMO carnation Moonlite.

  16. National Dam Safety Program. Clove Lake Dam (NJ 00259) Delaware River Basin, Shimers Brook, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    1 AU9r, 1,981 Division of Water Resources ~ .N~EtO P.O. Box CN029 I.NME Trenton, NJ 08625 50 R.MONITORING AGENCY NAME 0 ADORESS(ll dilloai how Cmnt...trespassing on the slopes of the dam. j. Provide a drain or other means for removing water collecting in the low-level outlet chamber. k. Reestablish and...Copies furnished: Mr. Dirk C. Hofman, P.E., Deputy Director Division of Water Resources N.J. Dept. of Environmental IProtection P.O. Box CN029 Trenton

  17. Bidis and Kreteks

    MedlinePlus

    ... referred to as clove cigarettes—are imported from Indonesia and typically contain a mixture of tobacco, cloves, ... in the United States. However, research studies from Indonesia indicate that kretek smoking is associated with lung ...

  18. Concentration-dependent inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in heated ground beef patties by apple,olive,and onion powders and clove bud oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the effects of plant compounds on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and two major carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylamidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine (PhIP) in grilled ground beef patties. Ground beef with added apple...

  19. Concentration-dependent inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and heterocyclic amines in heated ground beef patties by apple, olive, and onion powders and clove bud oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meats need to be sufficiently heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature heat treatment used to prepare well-done meats could, however, increase the formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). The objective of this study was to d...

  20. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil (terpeneless), licorice root extract, lobeline (in the form of... such OTC drug product containing cloves, coriander, eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil...

  1. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil (terpeneless), licorice root extract, lobeline (in the form of... such OTC drug product containing cloves, coriander, eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil...

  2. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil (terpeneless), licorice root extract, lobeline (in the form of... such OTC drug product containing cloves, coriander, eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil...

  3. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil (terpeneless), licorice root extract, lobeline (in the form of... such OTC drug product containing cloves, coriander, eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil...

  4. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil (terpeneless), licorice root extract, lobeline (in the form of... such OTC drug product containing cloves, coriander, eucalyptus oil, ginger (Jamaica), lemon oil...

  5. An Anesthetic Drug Demonstration and an Introductory Antioxidant Activity Experiment with "Eugene, the Sleepy Fish"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcena, Homar; Chen, Peishan

    2016-01-01

    Students are introduced to spectrophotometry in comparing the antioxidant activity of pure eugenol and oil of cloves from a commercial source using a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extraction of the essential oil from dried cloves is demonstrated to facilitate discussions on green chemistry. The anesthetic properties…

  6. Anti-cholinesterase activity of the standardized extract of Syzygium aromaticum L.

    PubMed

    Dalai, Manoj K; Bhadra, Santanu; Chaudhary, Sushil K; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2014-04-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is a well-known culinary spice with strong aroma; contains a high amount of oil known as clove oil. The major phyto-constituent of the clove oil is eugenol. Clove and its oil possess various medicinal uses in indigenous medicine as an antiseptic, anti-oxidant, analgesic and neuroprotective properties. Thus, it draws much attention among researchers from pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-cholinesterase activity of the methanol extract of clove, its oil and eugenol. In vitro anti-cholinesterase activity of S. aromaticum was performed by a thin layer chromatography bio autography, 96 well micro titer plate and kinetic methods. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis was carried out to identify the biomarker compound eugenol in clove oil. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition study revealed that eugenol possess better inhibition of the enzymes than extract and oil. Clove extract, its oil and eugenol showed better inhibition of AChE than BChE. Polyphenolic compound eugenol was detected through RP-HPLC analysis. The content of eugenol in essential oil was found to be 0.5 μg/ml. Kinetic analysis of the cholinesterase inhibition study of the extract; clove oil and eugenol have shown that they possess mixed type of inhibition for AChE and non-competitive type of inhibition for BChE. These results might be useful in explaining the effect of clove as anti-cholinesterase agent for the management of cognitive ailments like Alzheimer's disease.

  7. 27 CFR 21.53 - Formula No. 27-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-five pounds of camphor, U.S.P., and 1 gallon of clove oil, N.F. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only). ...

  8. 27 CFR 21.53 - Formula No. 27-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-five pounds of camphor, U.S.P., and 1 gallon of clove oil, N.F. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only). ...

  9. 27 CFR 21.53 - Formula No. 27-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-five pounds of camphor, U.S.P., and 1 gallon of clove oil, N.F. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only). ...

  10. Lymphatic Anomalies Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-23

    Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

  11. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Chinese five-spice ingredients.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xinyan; Soong, Yean Yean; Lim, Siang Wee; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds in spices were reportedly found to possess high antioxidant capacities (AOCs), which may prevent or reduce risk of human diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. The potential AOC of Chinese five-spice powder (consist of Szechuan pepper, fennel seed, cinnamon, star anise and clove) with varying proportion of individual spice ingredients was investigated through four standard methods. Our results suggest that clove is the major contributor to the AOC of the five-spice powder whereas the other four ingredients contribute to the flavour. For example, the total phenolic content as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values increased linearly with the clove percentage in five-spice powder. This observation opens the door to use clove in other spice mixtures to increase their AOC and flavour. Moreover, linear relationships were also observed between AOC and the total phenolic content of the 32 tested spice samples.

  13. Asian-Style Chicken Wraps

    MedlinePlus

    ... rice Ingredients For sauce: 1 small Jalapeno chili pepper, rinsed and split lengthwise—remove seeds and white ... 1 Tbsp); for less spice, use green bell pepper 1 Tbsp garlic, minced (about 2–3 cloves) ...

  14. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Allspice, Anise, Basil, Bay leaves, Caraway seed, Cardamon, Celery seed, Chervil, Cinnamon, Cloves... preservative applied to the fruit or vegetable as a pesticide chemical prior to harvest. (g) A flavor shall be...

  15. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Allspice, Anise, Basil, Bay leaves, Caraway seed, Cardamon, Celery seed, Chervil, Cinnamon, Cloves... preservative applied to the fruit or vegetable as a pesticide chemical prior to harvest. (g) A flavor shall be...

  16. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: Allspice, Anise, Basil, Bay leaves, Caraway seed, Cardamon, Celery seed, Chervil, Cinnamon, Cloves... preservative applied to the fruit or vegetable as a pesticide chemical prior to harvest. (g) A flavor shall be...

  17. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: Allspice, Anise, Basil, Bay leaves, Caraway seed, Cardamon, Celery seed, Chervil, Cinnamon, Cloves... preservative applied to the fruit or vegetable as a pesticide chemical prior to harvest. (g) A flavor shall be...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., prunes, plums, cinnamon, ripe cloves, and most berries. Benzoic acid is manufactured by treating molten... of a transition metal salt catalyst. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food...

  19. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  20. Acute effect of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata on cognition and pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2012-06-01

    The essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (clove oil; Family: Myrtaceae) is used in dental care as an antiseptic and analgesic. The study aims to evaluate the effect of clove oil on experimental models of pain and cognition in mice. To observe the acute effects of clove oil at different doses, the elevated plus maze was used for the assessment of cognition, and the tail flick and formalin tests were used for the study of pain. The formalin test showed that clove oil (0.1 ml/kg, i.p.) demonstrated significantly reduced pain response in both the phases. The lower doses (0.025 and 0.05 ml/kg, i.p.) reduced the formalin-induced pain response significantly in the second phase only. The tail-flick test showed variable response. The dose 0.1 ml/kg, clove oil, significantly decreased the tail-flick latency at 30 min and this effect was reversed by naloxone (1 mg/kg). On the contrary, the dose 0.025 ml/kg of clove oil, at 30 and 60 min increased the mean tail-flick latency compared to control group, but this effect was not statistically significant. Yet naloxone significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the effect of clove oil 0.025 ml/kg at 30 min. Clove oil (0.025 and 0.05 ml/kg, i.p.) significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced retention memory deficit induced by scopolamine, but clove oil (0.1 ml/kg, i.p.) significantly reversed both acquisition as well as retention deficits in elevated plus maze induced by the scopolamine. Clove oil exhibits reduced pain response by a predominantly peripheral action as evidenced by formalin test and the tail flick test showed the involvement of opioid receptors. Clove oil also significantly improved scopolamine-induced retention memory deficit at all doses.

  1. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rajendran, Sasireka; Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Satyawati; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC 50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Essential oils of lemongrass, mint and eucalyptus were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clove oil was 31.25 ppm by broth microdilution method. Thirty one different compounds of clove oil, constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The major components were eugenol (75.41%), E-caryophyllene (15.11%), α-humulene (3.78%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.13%). Effect of clove oil on surface morphology of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM observation revealed shrivelled hyphae while AFM observation showed shrunken and disrupted spores in clove oil treated samples. In pots, 5% aqueous emulsion of clove oil controlled F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 infection on tomato plants. This study demonstrated clove oil as potent antifungal agent that could be used as biofungicide for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both preventive and therapeutic manner. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of ploidy level and endoreduplication in carnation (Dianthus spp.).

    PubMed

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Olmos, Enrique; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the fifth most important ornamental species worldwide. Many desirable plant characteristics, such as big size, adaptation under stress, and intra or interspecific hybridization capability, are dependent on plant ploidy level. We optimized a quick flow cytometry method for DNA content determination in wild and cultivated carnation samples that allowed a systematic evaluation of ploidy levels in Dianthus species. The DNA content of different carnation cultivars and wild Dianthus species was determined using internal reference standards. The precise characterization of ploidy, endoreduplication and C-value of D. caryophyllus 'Master' makes it a suitable standard cultivar for ploidy level determination in other carnation cultivars. Mixoploidy was rigorously characterized in different regions of several organs from D. caryophyllus 'Master', which combined with a detailed morphological description suggested some distinctive developmental traits of this species. Both the number of endoreduplication cycles and the proportion of endopolyploid cells were highly variable in the petals among the cultivars studied, differently to the values found in leaves. Our results suggest a positive correlation between ploidy, cell size and petal size in cultivated carnation, which should be considered in breeding programs aimed to obtain new varieties with large flowers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content. PMID:24031751

  5. Conditioned place avoidance of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to three chemicals used for euthanasia and anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Devina; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Richards, Jeffrey G; Weary, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish are becoming one of the most used vertebrates in developmental and biomedical research. Fish are commonly killed at the end of an experiment with an overdose of tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS, also known as MS-222), but to date little research has assessed if exposure to this or other agents qualifies as euthanasia (i.e. a "good death"). Alternative agents include metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil. We use a conditioned place avoidance paradigm to compare aversion to TMS, clove oil, and metomidate hydrochloride. Zebrafish (n = 51) were exposed to the different anaesthetics in the initially preferred side of a light/dark box. After exposure to TMS zebrafish spent less time in their previously preferred side; aversion was less pronounced following exposure to metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil. Nine of 17 fish exposed to TMS chose not to re-enter the previously preferred side, versus 2 of 18 and 3 of 16 refusals for metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil, respectively. We conclude that metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil are less aversive than TMS and that these agents be used as humane alternatives to TMS for killing zebrafish.

  6. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol.

    PubMed

    Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

    2011-10-01

    Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of spices.

    PubMed

    Arora, D S; Kaur, J

    1999-08-01

    Spices have been shown to possess medicinal value, in particular, antimicrobial activity. This study compares the sensitivity of some human pathogenic bacteria and yeasts to various spice extracts and commonly employed chemotherapeutic substances. Of the different spices tested only garlic and clove were found to possess antimicrobial activity. The bactericidal effect of garlic extract was apparent within 1 h of incubation and 93% killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi was achieved within 3 h. Yeasts were totally killed in 1 h by garlic extract but in 5 h with clove. Some bacteria showing resistance to certain antibiotics were sensitive to extracts of both garlic and clove. Greater anti-candidal activity was shown by garlic than by nystatin. Spices might have a great potential to be used as antimicrobial agents.

  8. Antioxidant activity of spice extracts in a liposome system and in cooked pork patties and the possible mode of action.

    PubMed

    Kong, Baohua; Zhang, Huiyun; Xiong, Youling L

    2010-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the antioxidant efficacy of spice extracts in cooked meat. In experiment 1, antioxidant activity of 13 common spice extracts was screened in a liposome system. Six of the extracts (clove, rosemary, cassia bark, liquorice, nutmeg, and round cardamom), identified to have the greatest total phenolic contents, were strongly inhibitory of TBARS formation. In experiment 2, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing power, and metal chelation of these six spice extracts were evaluated. Clove exhibited the greatest reducing power, and all had strong DPPH scavenging activity. In experiment 3, clove, rosemary, and cassia bark extracts were further tested for in situ antioxidant efficacy. Cooked pork patties containing these spice extracts had markedly reduced TBARS formation and off-flavour scores but a more stable red colour, during storage. The results demonstrated strong potential of spice extracts as natural antioxidants in cooked pork products. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Fábio Ricardo; Schmidt, Gustavo; Romero, Adriano Lopez; Sartoretto, Juliano Luiz; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2009-07-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), sage, Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) and clove, Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae), essential oils were evaluated by studying humor- and cell-mediated immune responses. Essential oils were administered to mice (once a day, orally, for a week) previously immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Clove essential oil increased the total white blood cell (WBC) count and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in mice. Moreover, it restored cellular and humoral immune responses in cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed mice in a dose-dependent manner. Ginger essential oil recovered the humoral immune response in immunosuppressed mice. Contrary to the ginger essential oil response, sage essential oil did not show any immunomodulatory activity. Our findings establish that the immunostimulatory activity found in mice treated with clove essential oil is due to improvement in humor- and cell-mediated immune response mechanisms.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of essential oils of some commonly used Indian spices in in vitro models and in food supplements enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bag, Anwesa; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential of essential oils of some commonly used Indian spices (black pepper, cinnamon, clove, coriander and cumin) in various in vitro models and in food supplements enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. In vitro antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and Fe 2+ ion-chelating methods and lipid oxidation stabilisation potential was evaluated in bulk soybean oil-fish oil mixture and their oil-in-water emulsions using peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV) and total oxidation value as indicators of oxidation. Combination effects using DPPH radical scavenging and Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction methods were also evaluated. Test essential oils showed varying degrees of radical scavenging and Fe 2+ ion-chelating efficacy. Clove and coriander oils showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) radical scavenging and Fe 2+ ion-chelating potential over other tested essential oils as well as BHT and ∞-tocopherol. The anti-lipid peroxidative potential of test essential oils was found in the following decreasing order: clove > coriander > BHT > cinnamon > α-tocopherol > cumin > black pepper. Furthermore, clove and coriander oils showed synergistic antioxidant activity in combination both in DPPH radical scavenging and Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction methods whereas other possible combinations showed additive effects. Strong radical scavenging and Fe 2+ -chelating as well as anti-lipid peroxidative activities of clove and coriander oils provide evidence that clove and coriander oils may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation of food supplements enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

  11. Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Hitokoto, H; Morozumi, S; Wauke, T; Sakai, S; Kurata, H

    1980-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of 29 commercial powdered spices on the growth and toxin production of three species of toxigenic Aspergillus were observed by introducing these materials into culture media for mycotoxin production. Of the 29 samples tested, cloves, star anise seeds, and allspice completely inhibited the fungal growth, whereas most of the others inhibited only the toxin production. Eugenol extracted from cloves and thymol from thyme caused complete inhibition of the growth of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus versicolor at 0.4 mg/ml or less. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, anethol extracted from star anise seeds inhibited the growth of all the strains. PMID:6769391

  12. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Keh-Feng

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power (RP), β-carotene bleaching (BCB) activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS) ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%), thymol (14.36%) and carvacrol (12.33%), and eugenol (0.87%), respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia annua callus for inhibiting stem-end bacteria in cut carnation flowers.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qian Hua; Zheng, Li Ping; Zhao, Pei Fei; Wang, Jian Wen

    2017-03-01

    A biological method for synthesising silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed using the callus extracts from Artemisia annua L. under sunlight at 25,000 lx. The AgNPs were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs were mostly spherical with the size of 2.1 to 45.2 nm (average 10.9 nm). Pulse treatments of AgNPs at 125, 250 and 500 mg/l for 1 h extended vase life of cut carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Green Land) flowers. Four dominant bacteria strains Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Kocuria sp., Staphylococcus equorum and Microbacterium oxydans were isolated from the stem-ends of cut D. caryophyllus flowers. AgNP pulse inhibited significantly bacterial growth in vase solution and cut stem ends during all of the vase period. The bacteria related blockage in the stem-ends was significantly alleviated by AgNP pulse because of its higher antibacterial efficacy against the dominant bacteria. In addition, ethylene release of cut carnation flowers was inhibited in response to AgNP pulse. This is the first time that the biologically synthesised AgNPs could be applied as a promising preservative agent for cut carnation flowers.

  14. Implementation of bio-fungicides and seed treatment in organic rice cv. KDML 105 farming.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the several chemical compounds of relatively composite structure with antifungal activity from Thai local medical plants. The antifungal activity of Stemona curtisii HK. f., Stemona tuberose L., Acorus calamus L., Eugenia caryophyllus, Memmea siamensis Kost. and an eugenol active compound were studied in vitro. Four pathogenic seed borne fungi, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium moniliforme and Rhizoctonia solani were used as target organisms. The agar overlay technique and spore inhibition techniques were applied for the determination of their essential oil and active compound antifungal activity at various concentration; 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v) and untreated as control (0% v/v). Eugenol active compound showed the strongest antifungal activity on all species of tested fungal species. On the other hand, the antifungal activity of those bio-fungicides was lined up into a series from strong to low, as follows: Eugenia caryophyllus > Acorus calamus Linn. > Stemona tuberosa L. > Stemona curtisii Hk.f, while Mammea siamensis Kost. could not control any fungal species. Moreover, after eugenol application, lysis of spore and inhibition of mycelium growth were detected. Microscopic analysis exhibited complete lysis of spores after 24 h at a concentration of 1.00% v/v. Moreover, at the same concentration and 96 h incubation the mycelia growth was completely inhibited.

  15. Expression of a Dianthus flavonoid glucosyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for whole-cell biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sean R; Morgan, John A

    2009-07-15

    Glycosyltransferases are promising biocatalysts for the synthesis of small molecule glycosides. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a flavonoid glucosyltransferase (GT) from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) was investigated as a whole-cell biocatalyst. Two yeast expression systems were compared using the flavonoid naringenin as a model substrate. Under in vitro conditions, naringenin-7-O-glucoside was formed and a higher specific glucosyl transfer activity was found using a galactose inducible expression system compared to a constitutive expression system. However, S. cerevisiae expressing the GT constitutively was significantly more productive than the galactose inducible system under in vivo conditions. Interestingly, the glycosides were recovered directly from the culture broth and did not accumulate intracellularly. A previously uncharacterized naringenin glycoside formed using the D. caryophyllus GT was identified as naringenin-4'-O-glucoside. It was found that S. cerevisiae cells hydrolyze naringenin-7-O-glucoside during whole-cell biocatalysis, resulting in a low final glycoside titer. When phloretin was added as a substrate to the yeast strain expressing the GT constitutively, the natural product phlorizin was formed. This study demonstrates S. cerevisiae is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst host for the production of valuable glycosides.

  16. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  17. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials, including "diet poker" (nutrition game); an experiment on enzyme characteristics; demonstrations of yeast anaerobic respiration and color preference in Calliphora larvae; method to extract eugenol from clove oil to show antibiotic properties; and Benedict's test.…

  18. Integrated systems of weed management in organic transplated vidalia sweet onion production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field experiments were conducted from 2008 through 2010 near Lyons, GA to develop integrated weed management systems for organic Vidalia® sweet onion production. Treatments were a factorial arrangement of summer solarization, cultivation with a tine weeder, and a clove oil herbicide. Plots were so...

  19. Chicken Picadillo

    MedlinePlus

    ... large yellow onion, finely chopped 1 medium green pepper, finely chopped 1 medium red pepper, finely chopped 3 cloves garlic, mashed 1/3 ... large skillet over medium heat. Add the onion, peppers, and garlic, and sauté until the vegetables are ...

  20. Bioautography-guided isolation of antibacterial compounds of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lomarat, Pattamapan; Phanthong, Phanida; Wongsariya, Karn; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

    2013-05-01

    The outbreak of histamine fish poisoning has been being an issue in food safety and international trade. The growth of contaminated bacterial species including Morganella morganii which produce histidine decarboxylase causes histamine formation in fish during storage. Histamine, the main toxin, causes mild to severe allergic reaction. At present, there is no well-established solution for histamine fish poisoning. This study was performed to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria. Among the essential oils tested, clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils were found to possess the antibacterial activity. Clove oil showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Morganella morganii, followed by lemongrass and sweet basil oils. The results indicated that clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils could be useful for the control of histamine-producing bacteria. The attempt to identify the active components using preparative TLC and GC/MS found eugenol, citral and methyl chavicol as the active components of clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils, respectively. The information from this study would be useful in the research and development for the control of histamine-producing bacteria in fish or seafood products to reduce the incidence of histamine fish poisoning.

  1. Nondestructive determination of dry matter and soluble solids content in dehydrator onions and garlics using a handheld visible and near infrared instrument

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A non-destructive method based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy was investigated for determining the dry matter and soluble solids contents of dehydrator onions at the base, equatorial, and shoulder locations and of garlic cloves at the equatorial location. The interactance spectrum (400-10...

  2. 40 CFR 180.950 - Tolerance exemptions for minimal risk active and inert ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... inert or an active ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation, including antimicrobial pesticide..., cloves, and red pepper. (iii) Herbs such as basil, anise, or fenugreek. (2) Excluded from the term...

  3. 40 CFR 180.950 - Tolerance exemptions for minimal risk active and inert ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... inert or an active ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation, including antimicrobial pesticide..., cloves, and red pepper. (iii) Herbs such as basil, anise, or fenugreek. (2) Excluded from the term...

  4. 40 CFR 180.950 - Tolerance exemptions for minimal risk active and inert ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... inert or an active ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation, including antimicrobial pesticide..., cloves, and red pepper. (iii) Herbs such as basil, anise, or fenugreek. (2) Excluded from the term...

  5. 40 CFR 180.950 - Tolerance exemptions for minimal risk active and inert ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... inert or an active ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation, including antimicrobial pesticide..., cloves, and red pepper. (iii) Herbs such as basil, anise, or fenugreek. (2) Excluded from the term...

  6. Phenotypic Characteristics Of Ten Garlic Cultivars Grown At Different North American Locations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs are marketed for their health and culinary values. It is difficult to identify garlic cultivars or classes grown under diverse conditions as a result of their highly elastic environmental responses, particularly relating to skin color and clove arrangement of bulbs....

  7. 21 CFR 145.125 - Canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Varietal types and styles. The optional cherry ingredients referred to in paragraph (a)(1) of this section..., cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (ii) The color type and style of the cherry ingredient as provided in... such quantity is 3 pounds or more. The bottom of the sieve is No. 8 woven-wire cloth that complies with...

  8. 21 CFR 145.145 - Canned grapefruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... words may be combined; for example, “with added cloves and cinnamon oil”. (ii) The form and style of the... the same size, type and style manufactured or packed under similar conditions and handled as a single.... The bottom of the sieve is woven-wire cloth that complies with the specifications for the No. 8 sieve...

  9. Toxic effects of two essential oils and their constituents on the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Martínez, L C; Plata-Rueda, A; Colares, H C; Campos, J M; Dos Santos, M H; Fernandes, F L; Serrão, J E; Zanuncio, J C

    2017-12-14

    The study identified insecticidal effects from the cinnamon and clove essential oils in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), lethal time, and repellent effect on larvae, pupae, and adults of T. molitor after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and toxic compounds were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.19%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (9.92%), benzyl benzoate (9.68%), caryophyllene (9.05%), eugenyl acetate (7.47%), α-phellandrene (7.18%), and α-pinene (6.92%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (26.64%), caryophyllene (23.73%), caryophyllene oxide (17.74%), 2-propenoic acid (11.84%), α-humulene (10.48%), γ-cadinene (4.85%), and humulene oxide (4.69%). Cinnamon and clove essential oils were toxic to T. molitor. In toxic chemical compounds, eugenol have stronger contact toxicity in larvae, pupae, and adult than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-humulene. In general, the two essential oils were toxic and repellent to adult T. molitor. Cinnamon and clove essential oils and their compounds caused higher mortality and repellency on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for integrated management programs of this insect.

  10. Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R.

    2007-01-01

    An ozonolysis experiment, suitable for undergraduate organic chemistry lab, is presented. Ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil), followed by reductive workup furnishes an aldehyde that is easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra. Ozone (3-5% in oxygen) is produced using an easily built generator. (Contains 2 figures and 1 scheme.)

  11. Combined Toxicity of Three Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Ramirez, Jose L; Doll, Kenneth M; Bowman, Michael J

    2017-11-07

    Essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. Twenty-one essential oils were initially screened for their toxicity against Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae and three out of the seven most toxic essential oils (Manuka, oregano, and clove bud essential oils) were examined for their chemical composition and combined toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with oregano essential oil and antagonistically with clove bud essential oil. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 21 components in Manuka essential oil and three components each in oregano and clove bud essential oils. Eugenol (84.9%) and eugenol acetate (9.6%) were the principal constituents in clove bud essential oil while carvacrol (75.8%) and m-isopropyltoluene (15.5%) were the major constituents in oregano essential oil. The major constituents in Manuka essential oil were calamenene (20%) and 3-dodecyl-furandione (11.4%). Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with eugenol acetate and antagonistically with eugenol, suggesting that eugenol was a major contributor to the antagonistic interaction between Manuka and clove bud essential oils. In addition, Manuka interacted synergistically with carvacrol suggesting its contribution to the synergistic interaction between Manuka and oregano essential oils. These findings provide novel insights that can be used to develop new and safer alternatives to synthetic insecticides. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro . The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti- Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (P<0.05). Furthermore, the skin irritation test results indicated that the clove volatile oil did not trigger any irritation (0.2 and 0.3 points for intact and scratched skin, respectively), and had a safety equal to that of distilled water. There were not any adverse effects observed following application of the clove volatile oil on the intact or scratched skin. In conclusion, the volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines, particularly that of clove, demonstrated an evident anti- Demodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo .

  13. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Methods Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Results Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium hysterophorus, Wedelia trilobata

  14. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-03-15

    Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium hysterophorus, Wedelia trilobata, Abelmoschus moschatus

  15. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    PubMed

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  16. Comparison of digestion methods for determination of trace and minor metals in plant samples.

    PubMed

    Lavilla, I; Filgueiras, A V; Bendicho, C

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, three dissolution methods using pressure digestion vessels (low-, medium-, and high-pressure vessels) for the determination of metals in plant samples are described. The Plackett-Burman saturated factorial design was used to identify the significant factors influencing wet ashing and to select optimized dissolution conditions. The three methods were statistically compared (on-way ANOVA) on the same sample; no significant differences were obtained. In all cases the relative standard deviation values were <3%. The digestion method based on the use of low-pressure vessels and a microwave oven was validated against CRM GBW07605 tea leaves. This method was applied to the determination of Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Mg, and Ca in 22 different medicinal, aromatic, and seasoning plants by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration intervals of metal in the plants analyzed were the following: Cu, 4 (Allium sativum)-35 (Thea sinensis) microg g(-1); Zn, 7 (Piper nigrum)-90 (Betula alba) microg g(-1); Mn, 9 (Allium sativum)-939 (Caryophylus aromaticus) microg g(-1); Fe, 33 (Allium sativum)-2486 (Anethum graveolens) microg g(-1); Mg, 495 (Allium sativum)-7458 (Ocimum basilicum) microg g(-1); Ca, 386 (Allium sativum)-21500 (Ocimum basilicum) microg g(-1).

  17. Comparative effect of propolis of honey bee and some herbal extracts on Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz

    2017-03-01

    To determine the effect of propolis on Candida albicans and to compare it with the effects of some other herbal extracts and antibiotics on this pathogenic fungi. The extracts of propolis, Thymus vulgaris, Caryophillium aromaticus, Echinophora platyloba, Allium cepa and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared and the antifungi effects of the extracts were examined on Candida albicans ATCC10231 using disc-diffusion assay and micro-broth dilution. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) as well as inhibition zone were evaluated and the anti fungi effects of herbal extracts were compared with amphotricin B and nystatin at the times of 24, 48 and 72 h. Data analysis was performed using t test. Obtained results showed that propolis extract with MIC 90 and MFC equal to 39 and 65 μg/mL, respectively, possess the highest antifungal activity when compared with other studied extracts. The extracts of Allium cepa and Thymus vulgaris, with MFC of 169 and 137 μg/mL, respectively, showed the lowest effects on the fungi. Also nystatin and amphotricin B yielded better effects on the tested fungi compared with the effects of all studied extracts on Candida albicans. Propolis extract is effective in controlling Candida albicans. However, the issue requires further investigation on samples in animals and performing toxicological examinations.

  18. Essential oil mediated synthesis of silver nanocrystals for environmental, anti-microbial and antioxidant applications.

    PubMed

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Our quest for a green, non-toxic and environmentally benign synthetic design for the fabrication of metal nanoparticles has led to the use of essential oil present in plant parts as the bioreductant. In this report, silver particles at nanoscale have been synthesized using essential oil present in the leaves of Coleus aromaticus at physiological pH and at 373 K. UV-vis spectra of the colloid display strong plasmon bands centred around 396-411 nm, characteristic of silver nanoparticles. Comparative studies of the FTIR spectra of essential oil and silver nanoparticles reveal the involvement of terpenes and their phenolic derivatives in reduction and subsequent stabilization. TEM micrographs and XRD pattern show the formation of 26 and 28 nm sized face centred cubic structured crystalline nanospheroids with intermittent formation of nanorods. The phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles are found to be effective in degrading hazardous organic pollutants including methyl orange, methylene blue, eosin yellowish and para nitro phenol within a span of a few minutes. Dose dependant antibacterial activity of the biogenic nanosilver against pathogenic Gramme-negative Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Gramme-positive Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) has been portrayed through agar-well dispersion method. The antioxidant activity including antiradical activity and reducing power have been depicted through superoxide radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity, DPPH assay and reducing power activity involving the reduction of ferric ion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and quantification of genetically modified Moonshade carnation lines using conventional and TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Jia, Junwei; Bai, Lan; Pan, Aihu; Tang, Xueming

    2013-07-01

    Genetically modified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Moonshade was approved for planting and commercialization in several countries from 2004. Developing methods for analyzing Moonshade is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism labeling regulations. In this study, the 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated using thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, conventional and TaqMan real-time PCR assays were established. The relative limit of detection for the conventional PCR assay was 0.05 % for Moonshade using 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to approximately 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome, and the limits of detection and quantification of the TaqMan real-time PCR assay were estimated to be 51 and 254 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. These results are useful for identifying and quantifying Moonshade and its derivatives.

  20. Identification of atmospheric organic sources using the carbon hollow tube-gas chromatography method and factor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Braman, R.S.; Gilbert, R.A.

    Atmospheric organics were sampled and analyzed by using the carbon hollow tube-gas chromatography method. Chromatograms from spice mixtures, cigarettes, and ambient air were analyzed. Principal factor analysis of row order chromatographic data produces factors which are eigenchromatograms of the components in the samples. Component sources are identified from the eigenchromatograms in all experiments and the individual eigenchromatogram corresponding to a particular source is determined in most cases. Organic sources in ambient air and in cigaretts are identified with 87% certainty. Analysis of clove cigarettes allows the determination of the relative amount of clove in different cigarettes. A new nondestructive qualitymore » control method using the hollow tube-gas chromatography analysis is discussed.« less

  1. Total antioxidant capacity of commonly used fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Sharif, Muhammad Junaid Hassan; Rauf, Khalid; Mahmood, Wajahat; Khan, Ikarmullah; Abbas, Ghulam

    2017-11-01

    The current study was aimed at investigating the total antioxidant activity (TAC) of various fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices habitat in Pakistan. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to measure the TAC of various extracts (aqueous, ethanolic and aqueous-ethanolic). Following is the potency order for fruits (guava >strawberry >Pomegranate >apple >kinnow >melon >lemon >banana), vegetables (spinach >Cabbage (Purple) >Jalapeno >Radish >Brinjal >Bell Pepper >Lettuce >Carrot >Cabbage (White) >Onion >Potato >Tomato >Cucumber) and herbs/spices (clove >Rosemary >Thyme >Oregano >Cinnamon >Cumin >Kalonji >Paprika >Neem (Flower) >Fennel >Black Cardamom >Turmeric >Coriander >Ginger >Garlic). In conclusion, the guava, spinach and clove provide the best natural dietary option for treatment / prevention of oxidative stress and thus could alleviate several associated ailments.

  2. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.)

    PubMed Central

    Sritabutra, Duangkamon; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm×10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi: activity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium L., Syzygium aromaticum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giani F; Cardoso, Maria G; Guimarães, Luiz Gustavo L; Mendonça, Lidiany Z; Soares, Maurilio J

    2007-07-01

    Trypanocidal activity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) essential oils and some of their constituents (eugenol and linalool) was investigated on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, with chemical analyses performed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The IC(50) (concentration that inhibits 50% parasite growth) of the oils and constituents upon T. cruzi was determined by cell counting in a Neubauer chamber. Cell morphology alterations were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with oils and constituents demonstrated that they inhibit parasite growth, with clove essential being the most effective one (IC(50)=99.5 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 57.5 microg/ml for trypomastigotes). Ultrastructural alterations were observed mainly in the nucleus.

  4. Inhibitory effects of some plant essential oils against Arcobacter butzleri and potential for rosemary oil as a natural food preservative.

    PubMed

    Irkin, Reyhan; Abay, Secil; Aydin, Fuat

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method to determine the inhibitory activities of these plant essential oils against strains of Arcobacter, we found that those of rosemary, bay, cinnamon, and clove had strong inhibitory activity against these organisms, whereas the essential oils of cumin, mint, and sage failed to show inhibitory activity against most of the Arcobacter strains tested. The 0.5% (vol/wt) essential oil of rosemary was completely inhibitory against A. butzleri in the cooked minced beef system at 4°C. These essential oils may be further investigated as a natural solution to the food industry by creating an additional barrier (hurdle technology) to inhibit the growth of Arcobacter strains.

  5. Synergistic effect of spice extracts and modified atmospheric packaging towards non-thermal preservation of chicken meat under refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Sivarajan, M; Lalithapriya, U; Mariajenita, Peter; Vajiha, B Aafrin; Harini, K; Madhushalini, D; Sukumar, M

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the integrated approach of spice extracts and modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) chicken meat preservation. Specifically, extracts from clove (CL), cinnamon (CI) individually and in combination (3% w/w) along with MAP (30% CO2/70% N2 and 10% O2/30% CO2/60% N2) were used to increase the shelf life of fresh chicken meat stored at 4°C. The parameters evaluated as shelf life indications are microbiological (total viable count, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and Enterobacteriaceae), physicochemical (pH, Lipid oxidation, color changes) and Sensory attributes. Microbial population were reduced by 2.5 to 5 log cfu/g, with the greater impact being accomplished by the blend of clove and cinnamon extract with 30% CO2/70% N2 MAP. Thiobarbituric values for all treated and MAP packed samples remained lower than 1 mg malondialdehyde (MDA)/kg all through the 24 day storage period. pH values varied from 5.5 for fresh sample on day 0 to 7.11 (day 25) on combined extract treated and MAP packaged samples. The estimations of the color parameters L*, a*, and b* were well maintained in oxygen deficient MAP. Finally, sensory investigation demonstrated that combined clove and cinnamon extract of 3% conferred acceptable sensory attributes to the samples on day 24 of storage. These results indicate the extended shelf life of chicken meat from 4 days to 24 days for samples when coated with 3% of combined clove and cinnamon extract and packaged under MAP without oxygen. These pooled extracts along with MAP displayed expanded the usability and the organoleptic qualities of chicken meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Trials for the control of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in hatchery reared Oreochromis niloticus fries by using garlic.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Galil, Mohamed A A; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2012-04-30

    The present work was designed to study the prevalence of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in Oreochromis niloticus fries, and to test the therapeutic efficacy and preventive efficacy of garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves. Trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis are ectoparasitic diseases that affect most warm freshwater fish, especially fries and fingerlings. In a private O. niloticus fish hatchery, the prevalence of trichodinosis in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 37%, 23% and 40.5%, respectively. The highest infection intensity was detected in 30-day-old-fries. The gyrodactylosis was reported only in combination with trichodinosis. In addition, we found that its prevalence in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 17%, 19.5% and 29%, respectively. Mortality rate of fry in the first month of life was 53% as a result of injury to these two types of parasites. The garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves were tested in both in vitro and earthen ponds of the hatchery. Using 2-, 2.5- and 3-ppt (parts per thousand) garlic oil for 4h in vitro water bath treatment resulted in 100% recovery, while 1 and 1.5 ppt garlic oil, respectively, needed 24 and 16 h to treat the infected fries. The treatment by 3 ppt garlic oil as a water bath for 1h treated the two diseases in 55% in 7 days from application in the hatchery earthen pond. In the mean time, 300 mg L(-1) crushed garlic cloves as an indefinite bath in the hatchery earthen pond eliminated 68% of the diseases. The same protocol for preventing the two diseases resulted in obtaining 65% and 75% of parasite free fries, for garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves, respectively, compared to 53% of the control fries. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dry Transfer Inoculation of Low-Moisture Spices Containing Antimicrobial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Ian M; Hu, Chuxuan; Grasso-Kelley, Elizabeth M; Ye, Peiran; Anderson, Nathan M; Keller, Susanne E

    2017-02-01

    Inoculation of a food product for use in subsequent validation studies typically makes use of a high concentration cocktail of microorganisms suspended in aqueous media. However, this inoculation method may prove difficult particularly when the food product is a low-moisture food containing antimicrobial compounds, such as some dried spices. In this study, a dry transfer method for inoculation of clove powder, oregano leaves, ginger powder, and ground black pepper with a five-serovar cocktail of Salmonella was developed and compared with a traditional aqueous inoculation procedure. Spices were inoculated at three levels, 10, 8, and 6 log CFU/g, by using both an aqueous suspension of Salmonella and a dry transfer of Salmonella from previously inoculated silica beads. At the highest inoculation level, the dry transfer method resulted in a significantly higher microbial load (P < 0.05) for ground cloves and oregano, but not for ginger and ground black pepper. At the intermediate inoculation level, differences were apparent only for ginger and black pepper. Inoculation levels of 6 log CFU/g resulted in recoveries below detection limits for both methods of inoculation. Additional examination on the survival of Salmonella on silica beads after inoculation and in clove powder after dry transfer from silica beads showed linear rates of decline, with a rate of -0.011 log CFU/g/day for beads and -0.015 log CFU/g/day for clove powder. The results suggest that dry transfer of Salmonella via inoculated silica beads is a viable alternative when traditional aqueous inoculation is not feasible.

  8. Sensory and Nutritional Evaluation of Meat Loaves with and without Granular Soy Concentrate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    garlic , sweet chopped peppers, eggs, milk, water, and Onions, dry, finely I lb ..... 3 cups ............ tomato juice. Mix lightly but chopped ...thoroughly. Avoid overmixing if Garlic , dry, minced ......... 2 tsp (2 ......... using mixer. (optional) cloves) Pepper, sweet, 8 oz ..... I % cups...fresh, chopped (option l) 9gs, whole, 2 lb 8 oz. 1% qt (24 ......... slightly beaten eggs) Milknonfat, dry .. Soz ..... 1% ups ......... Water

  9. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P... the denaturant for analysis. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations...

  10. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P... the denaturant for analysis. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations...

  11. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P... the denaturant for analysis. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations...

  12. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P... the denaturant for analysis. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations...

  13. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P... the denaturant for analysis. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations...

  14. Antifungal activities of the essential oils in Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Et Perry and Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and their constituents against various dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Jin; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Yang, In; Choi, Won-Sil; Jo, Hyun-Jin; Chang, Je-Won; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, In-Gyu

    2007-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the potential of using plant oils derived from Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and Syzygium aromaticum L. Merr. Et Perry as natural antifungal agents. The antifungal effects of essential oils at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 mg/ml on the dermatophytes Microsporum canis (KCTC 6591), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (KCTC 6077), Trichophyton rubrum (KCCM 60443), Epidermophyton floccosum (KCCM 11667), and Microsporum gypseum were evaluated using the agar diffusion method. The major constituents of the active fraction against the dermatophytes were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The antifungal activities of S. aromaticum oil (clove oil) against the dermatophytes tested were highest at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml, with an effectiveness of more than 60%. Hyphal growth was completely inhibited in T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and M. gypseum by treatment with clove oil at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml. Eugenol was the most effective antifungal constituent of clove oil against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. Morphological changes in the hyphae of T. mentagrophytes, such as damage to the cell wall and cell membrane and the expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum, after treatment with 0.11 mg/ml eugenol were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml, L. petersonii oil (LPO) was more than 90% effective against all of the dermatophytes tested, with the exception of T. rubrum. Geranial was determined to be the most active antifungal constituent of L. petersonii oil. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that clove and tea tree oils exhibited significant antifungal activities against the dermatophytes tested in this study.

  15. Africa: A Strategic Factor in the Strategic Equation of the World.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-02

    is no clear-cut ideology in any part of the continent except for South Africa. That country has settled for minority democracy based on racially rooted ...assume that arms race in Africa, though unfashionable, has taken root . Egypt’s nuclear program has been mentioned and the disquiet expressions coming...Phosphates COMOROS 1. Flowers Perfume 2. Vanilla 3. Copra, Cloves, Cinnamon 4. Rice, Cassava 5. Bananas MAURITIUS I. Maize 2. Potatoes 3. Cattle 4

  16. Evaluation of anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activity of various essential oils in fresh chicken sausages.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Heena; Mendiratta, S K; Agarwal, Ravi Kant; Kumar, Sudheer; Soni, Arvind

    2017-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant effect of essential oils on the quality of fresh (raw, ready to cook) chicken sausages. Several preliminary trials were carried out to optimize the level of four essential oils viz., clove oil, holybasil oil, thyme oil and cassia oil and these essential oils were incorporated at 0.25, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.125%, respectively in fresh chicken sausages. Quality evaluation and detailed storage stability studies were carried out for fresh chicken sausages for 20 days at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C). Refrigerated storage studies revealed that TBARS of control was significantly higher than treatment products whereas, total phenolics and DPPH activity was significantly lower in control. Among treatments, clove oil products had significantly lower TBARS but higher total phenolic content and DPPH activity followed by cassia oil, thyme oil and holybasil oil products. Microbial count of essential oil incorporated products were significantly lower than control and remained well below the permissible limit of fresh meat products (log 10 7 cfu/g). Cassia oil products were observed with better anti-microbial characteristics than clove oil products at 0.25% level of incorporation, whereas, thyme oil products were better than holy basil oil products at 0.125% level. Storage studies revealed that clove oil (0.25%), holy basil oil (0.125%), cassia oil (0.25%) and thyme oil (0.125%) incorporated aerobically packaged and refrigerated fresh chicken sausages had approx. 4-5, 2-3, 5-6 and 2-3 days longer shelf life than control, respectively.

  17. Use of oil-in-water emulsions to control fungal deterioration of strawberry jams.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Susana; Fuentes, Ana; Talens, Pau; Barat, José M

    2016-11-15

    This work aimed to control the fungal deterioration of strawberry jams. The antifungal activity of the clove, cinnamon leaf, lemon and mandarin essential oils and their effectiveness in oil-in-water emulsions were evaluated. According to the results obtained, only clove and cinnamon leaf oils were selected to prepare emulsions. All the tested emulsions were stable, independently the amount of polymer and essential oil used. Essential oil loss was affected by the amount of polymer employed to prepare the emulsions. The oil-in-water emulsions with 5.0mg/g xanthan gum, and with 0.55mg/g clove or 0.65mg/g cinnamon leaf essential oil, were used for the in vivo tests. The jams prepared with the oil-in-water emulsions showed a lower fungal decay compared with jams without emulsion. The present work demonstrated that emulsions can be employed to prevent strawberry jam mould spoilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synergistic effect of fragrant herbs in Japanese scent sachets.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yumi; Ito, Michiho

    2015-02-01

    The sedative activity of eight aromatic natural medicines that are traditionally used in Japanese scent sachets was examined using an open field test with mice. Galangal (Kaempferia galanga), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), sandalwood (Santalum album), spikenard (Nardostachys chinensis), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), star anise (Illicium verum), and borneol (Dryobalanops aromatica) distilled oils were used. These natural medicines have various pharmacological effects. For example, galangal has insecticidal activity and clove extracts possess strong total antioxidant activity. Aromatherapy, a well-known complementary medicine system that uses inhalation, has recently attracted much attention. The sedative activity of inhaled aromatic compounds or essential oils has been examined by measuring the spontaneous motor activity of mice in an open field test. The galangal, patchouli, sandalwood, spikenard, and borneol oils showed significant sedative effects. The effect was stronger for a mixture of the five oils than for any of the single oils. This suggests that the oil mixture may have synergistic activity. Sedative activity was not observed when inactive oils (cinnamon, clove, and star anise) were added to the mixture of the five active oils. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Essential Oils and Eugenols Inhibit Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Gwon, Giyeon; Kim, Soon-Il; Park, Jae Gyu; Lee, Jintae

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) has caused foodborne outbreaks worldwide and the bacterium forms antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. We investigated the abilities of various plant essential oils and their components to inhibit biofilm formation by EHEC. Bay, clove, pimento berry oils and their major common constituent eugenol at 0.005% (v/v) were found to markedly inhibit EHEC biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth. In addition, three other eugenol derivatives isoeugenol, 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol, and 4-ethylguaiacol had antibiofilm activity, indicating that the C-1 hydroxyl unit, the C-2 methoxy unit, and C-4 alkyl or alkane chain on the benzene ring of eugenol play important roles in antibiofilm activity. Interestingly, these essential oils and eugenol did not inhibit biofilm formation by three laboratory E. coli K-12 strains that reduced curli fimbriae production. Transcriptional analysis showed that eugenol down-regulated 17 of 28 genes analysed, including curli genes (csgABDFG), type I fimbriae genes (fimCDH) and ler-controlled toxin genes (espD, escJ, escR, and tir), which are required for biofilm formation and the attachment and effacement phenotype. In addition, biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) coatings containing clove oil or eugenol exhibited efficient biofilm inhibition on solid surfaces. In a Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model, clove oil and eugenol attenuated the virulence of EHEC. PMID:27808174

  20. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of low Molecular Weight Compounds in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) with Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Target.

    PubMed

    Misiorek, Maria; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is the subject of many studies due to its numerous beneficial properties. Although compounds of garlic have been studied by various analytical methods, their tissue distributions are still unclear. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) appears to be a very powerful tool for the identification of the localisation of compounds within a garlic clove. Visualisation of the spatial distribution of garlic low-molecular weight compounds with nanoparticle-based MSI. Compounds occurring on the cross-section of sprouted garlic has been transferred to gold-nanoparticle enhanced target (AuNPET) by imprinting. The imprint was then subjected to MSI analysis. The results suggest that low molecular weight compounds, such as amino acids, dipeptides, fatty acids, organosulphur and organoselenium compounds are distributed within the garlic clove in a characteristic manner. It can be connected with their biological functions and metabolic properties in the plant. New methodology for the visualisation of low molecular weight compounds allowed a correlation to be made between their spatial distribution within a sprouted garlic clove and their biological function. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Fungi in spices and mycotoxigenic potential of some Aspergilli isolated.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcelo Valle; Parussolo, Gilson; Moro, Camila Brombilla; Bernardi, Angélica Olivier; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify fungal species present in 200 samples of rosemary, fennel, cinnamon, clove, pepperoni, black and white pepper and oregano and evaluate the mycotoxigenic potential of the some Aspergilli isolated. Clove, black and white peppers were analyzed by direct plating. For rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano samples were used spread plate. Mycotoxigenic capacity was verified by the agar plug method. With the exception of clove, all the spices showed high fungal contamination, especially by Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. Frequency of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. was intense in white and black peppers, with presence of Aspergillus flavus (up to 32%), Aspergillus nomius (up to 12%), Aspergillus parasiticus (up to 4%), Aspergillus niger complex (up to 52%), Aspergillus ochraceus (up 12%) and Aspergillus carbonarius (up to 4%). 14,2% of A. flavus isolated from black pepper were aflatoxins producers. In the white pepper, 66.7% of A. flavus isolates and 100% of A. nomius were aflatoxigenic. Oregano showed the highest number of A. niger complex isolates (49), however, only 2.04% produced ochratoxin A. This study showed a huge fungal presence in spices, which could compromise the sensorial quality of these products and represent a hazard for consumers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Anti-rancidity effect of essential oils, application in the lipid stability of cooked turkey meat patties and potential implications for health.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Duthie, Garry

    2015-02-01

    Twenty-three commercial essential oils were tested for their anti-rancidity effect and potential implications to prolong the induction time of corn oil and extend the shelf life of cooked turkey patties. Moreover, the potential health benefit was investigated through DPPH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching, FRAP, and α-amylase inhibitory assays. Essential oils' composition was investigated by GC-MS. Cumin, thyme, clove, and cinnamon oils improved oxidative stability and increased the induction time of the corn oil 1.5-3 fold. Clove and cinnamon oils were particularly effective in delaying lipid oxidation of cooked turkey patties (time of induction 11.04 and 9.43 h) compared with the plain burger (5.04 h). Both oils are also characterized by a potent radical scavenging activity in ABTS test (IC(50) values of 1.43 and 2.05 μg/ml for cinnamon and clove, respectively). In the α-amylase inhibitory assay, cumin and grape fruits were the most potent with IC(50) values of 21.88 and 23.95 μg/ml, respectively.

  3. Postharvest control of anthracnose lesions and its causative agent, Colletotrichum musae by some oils.

    PubMed

    Rizwana, Humaira

    2018-03-31

    Anthracnose of banana is incited by Colletotrichum  musae. It is recognized as one the most destructive diseases of mature and immature banana fruits, resulting in huge economic losses all over the world. Present research deals with screening some oils both in vitro and in vivo for their antifungal activity against C.musae. Clove oil (0.1µl/ml) completely arrested the conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. musae. Fenugreek and almond oil exhibited significant inhibition of mycelial growth, 61% and 57% at a concentration of 2µl/ml. However, olive oil was least inhibitory on the test fungi. Clove oil also a showed marked reduction in anthracnose lesions on banana fruits, thereby suggesting disease control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged mycelium and conidia. FTIR studies show the presence of important bands representing phenols, terpenes, aldehydes, and ketones. Based on our findings; clove, fenugreek and almond oil demonstrated fungicidal and fungistatic activities against anthracnose pathogen. Hence, these oils can be considered as potential alternatives to chemical treatments.

  4. Whey protein isolate edible films with essential oils incorporated to improve the microbial quality of poultry.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pan, Idoya; Mendoza, Mauricio; Maté, Juan I

    2013-09-01

    Whey protein isolate edible films with oregano or clove essential oils (EOs) incorporated as natural antimicrobials have been developed, with the aim of enhancing the microbial quality of poultry. The effectiveness of the films was determined against both the whole and selected microbiota developed during different periods of cold storage on the surface of skinless chicken breast. Tests were conducted by using both turbidimetric and agar disc diffusion methods. The antimicrobial edible films developed showed high effectiveness against the main spoilers developed on the surface of skinless chicken breasts cold-stored for 8 days. The films based on oregano EO showed greater effectiveness than those based on clove EO. Still, clove EO could be part of an effective antimicrobial edible film. Enterobacteriaceae was the most susceptible to the effect of the films when lower concentrations of EO were incorporated. The largest inhibition surfaces obtained were provoked by films with the highest concentration of oregano EO incorporated against lactic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial edible films developed in this study inhibited the growth of the microbial populations that developed through storage of the chicken breast and caused its spoilage. The results of this research have direct application in the food industry to enhance the control of the development of spoilers such as Pseudomonas spp. or lactic acid bacteria. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Composition and Active Property Evaluation of Certain Essential Oils to Assess their Potential Applications in Active Food Packaging.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Cornelia; Sivertsvik, Morten; Miteluţ, Amalia Carmen; Brebu, Mihai Adrian; Stoleru, Elena; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Tănase, Elisabeta Elena; Khan, Waqas; Pamfil, Daniela; Cornea, Călina Petruţa; Irimia, Anamaria; Popa, Mona Elena

    2017-01-07

    The antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of four commercial essential oils (EOs) (thyme, clove, rosemary, and tea tree) from Romanian production were studied in order to assess them as bioactive compounds for active food packaging applications. The chemical composition of the oils was determined with the Folin-Ciocâlteu method and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detectors, and it was found that they respect the AFNOR/ISO standard limits. The EOs were tested against three food spoilage fungi- Fusarium graminearum , Penicillium corylophilum, and Aspergillus brasiliensis -and three potential pathogenic food bacteria- Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes -using the disc diffusion method. It was found that the EOs of thyme, clove, and tea tree can be used as antimicrobial agents against the tested fungi and bacteria, thyme having the highest inhibitory effect. Concerning antioxidant activity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods, it has been established that the clove oil exhibits the highest activity because of its high phenolic content. Promising results were obtained by their incorporation into chitosan emulsions and films, which show potential for food packaging. Therefore, these essential oils could be suitable alternatives to chemical additives, satisfying the consumer demand for naturally preserved food products ensuring its safety.

  6. Antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata and its antifungal activity against a large number of clinical Candida species.

    PubMed

    Chaieb, Kamel; Zmantar, Tarek; Ksouri, Riadh; Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Mahdouani, Kacem; Abdelly, Chedly; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2007-09-01

    Many essential oils are known to possess an antioxidant activity and antifungal properties and therefore they potentially act as antimycotic agents. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) was isolated by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant effect of the tested oil was evaluated by measuring its 2,2-diphenyl-l-1-picrylhydrazil radical scavenging ability and the antiradical dose required to cause a 50% inhibition (IC50) was recorded. The antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against 53 human pathogenic yeasts using a disc paper diffusion method. Our results show that the major components present in the clove bund oil were eugenol (88.6%), eugenyl acetate (5.6%), beta-caryophyllene (1.4%) and 2-heptanone (0.9%). The tested essential oil exhibited a very strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.2 microg ml-1) when compared with the synthetic antioxidant (tert-butylated hydroxytoluene, IC50 = 11.5 microg ml-1). On the other hand, this species displayed an important antifungal effect against the tested strains. It is clear that clove oil shows powerful antifungal activity; and it can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and in pharmaceutical applications.

  7. Fungicidal activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr et L.M. Perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from banana.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, L; Jayawardena, B; Abeywickrama, K

    2002-01-01

    To develop a post-harvest treatment system against post-harvest fungal pathogens of banana using natural products. Colletotrichum musae was isolated and identified as the causative agent responsible for anthracnose peel blemishes while three fungi, namely Lasiodiplodia theobromae, C. musae and Fusarium proliferatum, were identified as causative agents responsible for crown rot. During the liquid bioassay, cinnamon [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.)] leaf, bark and clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.)] oils were tested against the anthracnose and crown rot pathogens. The test oils were fungistatic and fungicidal against the test pathogens within a range of 0.03-0.11% (v/v). Cinnamon and clove essential oils could be used as antifungal agents to manage post harvest fungal diseases of banana. Cinnamon and clove essential oil could be used as alternative post-harvest treatments on banana. Banana treated with essential oil is chemically safe and acceptable to consumers. Benomyl (Benlate), which is currently used to manage fungal pathogens, can cause adverse health effects and could be replaced with volatile essential oils.

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Composition and Active Property Evaluation of Certain Essential Oils to Assess their Potential Applications in Active Food Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Vasile, Cornelia; Sivertsvik, Morten; Miteluţ, Amalia Carmen; Brebu, Mihai Adrian; Stoleru, Elena; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Tănase, Elisabeta Elena; Khan, Waqas; Pamfil, Daniela; Cornea, Călina Petruţa; Irimia, Anamaria; Popa, Mona Elena

    2017-01-01

    The antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of four commercial essential oils (EOs) (thyme, clove, rosemary, and tea tree) from Romanian production were studied in order to assess them as bioactive compounds for active food packaging applications. The chemical composition of the oils was determined with the Folin–Ciocâlteu method and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detectors, and it was found that they respect the AFNOR/ISO standard limits. The EOs were tested against three food spoilage fungi—Fusarium graminearum, Penicillium corylophilum, and Aspergillus brasiliensis—and three potential pathogenic food bacteria—Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes—using the disc diffusion method. It was found that the EOs of thyme, clove, and tea tree can be used as antimicrobial agents against the tested fungi and bacteria, thyme having the highest inhibitory effect. Concerning antioxidant activity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods, it has been established that the clove oil exhibits the highest activity because of its high phenolic content. Promising results were obtained by their incorporation into chitosan emulsions and films, which show potential for food packaging. Therefore, these essential oils could be suitable alternatives to chemical additives, satisfying the consumer demand for naturally preserved food products ensuring its safety. PMID:28772407

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  10. Antifungal activity of essential oils on two Venturia inaequalis strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole.

    PubMed

    Muchembled, Jérôme; Deweer, Caroline; Sahmer, Karin; Halama, Patrice

    2017-11-02

    The antifungal activity of seven essential oils (eucalyptus, clove, mint, oregano, savory, tea tree, and thyme) was studied on Venturia inaequalis, the fungus responsible for apple scab. The composition of the essential oils was checked by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each essential oil had its main compound. Liquid tests were performed to calculate the IC 50 of essential oils as well as their majority compounds. The tests were made on two strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole: S755, the sensitive strain, and rs552, the strain with reduced sensitivity. Copper sulfate was selected as the reference mineral fungicidal substance. IC 50 with confidence intervals were calculated after three independent experiments. The results showed that all essential oils and all major compounds had in vitro antifungal activities. Moreover, it was highlighted that the effectiveness of four essential oils (clove, eucalyptus, mint, and savory) was higher than copper sulfate on both strains. For each strain, the best activity was obtained using clove and eucalyptus essential oils. For clove, the IC 50 obtained on the sensitive strain (5.2 mg/L [4.0-6.7 mg/L]) was statistically lower than the IC 50 of reduced sensitivity strain (14 mg/L [11.1-17.5 mg/L]). In contrast, for eucalyptus essential oil, the IC 50 were not different with respectively 9.4-13.0 and 12.2-17.9 mg/L for S755 and rs552 strains. For mint, origano, savory, tea tree, and thyme, IC 50 were always the best on rs552 strain. The majority compounds were not necessarily more efficient than their corresponding oils; only eugenol (for clove) and carvacrol (for oregano and savory) seemed to be more effective on S755 strain. On the other hand, rs552 strain seemed to be more sensitive to essential oils than S755 strain. In overall, it was shown that essential oils have different antifungal activities but do not have the same antifungal activities depending on the fungus strain used.

  11. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Gil-Ortiz, Mariana; Albarrán, Gabriela; Barbachano-Esparza, Laura; Menjívar, Marta; Medina-Campos, Omar N

    2004-01-01

    Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled garlic cloves, microwave-treated garlic cloves, and pickled garlic were studied. It was also studied if the above mentioned preparations were able to chelate Cu2+. Methods Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm and 37°C by 240 min in a phosphate buffer 20 mM, pH 7.4. Blood serum and CuSO4 were added to a final concentration of 0.67% and 0.0125 mM, respectively. The lag time and the area under the curve from the oxidation curves were obtained. The Cu2+-chelating properties of garlic extracts were assessed using an approach based upon restoring the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibited in the presence of 0.050 mM Cu2+. The activity of xanthine oxidase was assessed by monitoring the production of superoxide anion at 560 nm and the formation of uric acid at 295 nm. Data were compared by parametric or non-parametric analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results Extracts from garlic powder and raw garlic inhibited in a dose-dependent way Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation. The heating of garlic extracts or garlic cloves was unable to alter significantly the increase in lag time and the decrease in the area under the curve observed with the unheated garlic extracts or raw garlic. In addition, it was found that the garlic extracts were unable to chelate Cu2+. Conclusions (a) the heating of aqueous extracts of raw garlic or garlic powder or the heating of garlic cloves by boiling, microwave or pickling do not

  12. Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oils Against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (Vre) And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Feta Soft Cheese And Minced Beef Meat

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Samy

    2011-01-01

    Eleven essential oils (EOs) were evaluated for their antibacterial properties, against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) and E. coli O157:H7. EOs were introduced into Brain Heart Infusion agar (BHI) (15ml) at a concentration of 0.25 to 2% (vol/vol) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for each pathogen evaluated. Results showed that the most active essential oils against bacteria tested were thyme oil, with MIC90 and MBC90 for the VRA strains of 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. Eucalyptus, juniper and clove oils were the least potent agent, with MIC90 and MBC90 of 2%. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of these EO were evaluated against VRE and E. coli O157:H7, experimentally inoculated (103 cfu/g) in Feta soft cheese and minced beef meat, which was mixed with different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) of the EO and stored at 7 °C for 14 days. Out of eucalyptus, juniper, mint, rosemary, sage, clove and thyme oils tested against target bacteria sage and thyme showed the best results. Clove and mint did not show any effect on VRE and E. coli O157:H7 in both kinds of studied foods. The addition of thyme oil at concentrations of 0.5 and 1% caused best significant reduction in the growth rate of VRE and E. coli O157:H7 in cheese and meat at 7 oC. It is concluded that selected plant EOs can act as potent inhibitors of both microorganisms in a food product. The results revealed the potential of thyme oil as a natural preservative in feta soft cheese and minced beef meat against VRE and E. coli O157:H7 contamination. PMID:24031620

  13. Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wijesundara, Niluni M.; Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir

    2017-01-01

    Background Pharyngitis is an inflammatory condition of the pharynx and associated structures commonly caused by the Group A streptococci (GAS). There is a growing interest in discovering plant-based anti-inflammatory compounds as potential alternatives to conventional drugs. This study evaluated anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemical-rich extracts prepared from 12 herbal plants using human tonsil epithelial cells (HTonEpiC) in vitro. Methods The HTonEpiC were induced by a mixture of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) (10 µg/mL; bacterial antigens) for 4 h and then exposed to ethanol extracts (EE) or aqueous extracts (AE) for 20 h. The secretion of four pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results The herbal plant extracts (≤5 µg/mL) were not cytotoxic to HTonEpiC. The extracts exhibited a broad range of reduction (1.2%–92.6%) of secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8), human beta defensin-2 (hBD-2), epithelial-derived neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78), and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2). Both EE and AE of clove, ginger, and echinacea flower and EE from danshen root significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine production as induced by LTA and PGN in HTonEpiCs at the concentrations of 1 and 5 µg/mL. Discussion Our observations indicate that danshen root, clove, ginger, and echinacea flower extracts exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect in HTonEpiCs. The most efficacious extracts from danshen root, clove, ginger and echinacea flowers have potential to be used as natural sources for developing phytotherapeutic products in the management of painful inflammation due to streptococcal pharyngitis. PMID:28652934

  14. In vitro efficacy of five essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Candy, Kerdalidec; Nicolas, Patrick; Andriantsoanirina, Valérie; Izri, Arezki; Durand, Rémy

    2018-02-01

    Treatment of head lice has relied mainly on the use of topical insecticides. Today, conventional topical pediculicides have suffered considerable loss of activity worldwide. There is increasing interest in the use of natural products such as essential oils for head louse control, and many of them are now incorporated into various over-the-counter products presented as pediculicides, often without proper evaluation. The aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro efficacy of five essential oils against adults of Pediculus humanus capitis using a contact filter paper toxicity bioassay. The chemical composition of the essential oils from wild bergamot, clove, lavender, tea tree, and Yunnan verbena was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All treatments and controls were replicated three times on separate occasions over a period of 11 months. In all, 1239 living lice were collected from the scalp of 51 subjects, aged from 1 to 69 years. Clove oil, diluted either in coco oil or sunflower oil, demonstrated the best adulticidal activity, reaching > 90% mortality within 2 h in lice submitted to a 30-min contact. Yunnan verbena oil diluted in coco oil showed also a significant efficacy. Other essential oils showed a lower efficacy. The oil's major component(s) differed according to the tested oils and appeared chemically diverse. In the case of clove oil, the eugenol appeared as the main component. This study confirmed the potential interest of some of the essential oils tested, but not all, as products to include possibly in a pediculicidal formulation.

  15. Effects of euthanasia methods on stable carbon (δ13 C value) and nitrogen (δ15 N value) isotopic compositions of fry and juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Sarah; Séité, Sarah; Kolasinski, Joanna; Aguirre, Pierre; Geurden, Inge

    2017-10-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of fish tissues are now commonly used in ecological studies but mostly require the sacrifice of the animal. Ethical considerations recommend the use of anesthetics for tissue sampling. This study examines how anesthetics affect stable isotope ratios of fish compared with other euthanasia methods. Rainbow trout fry and juveniles were sacrificed using ice-freezing (as this common method used to kill fish does not affect natural isotopic ratios), electronarcosis or an overdose of chemical anesthetics (2-phenoxyethanol, benzocaine and clove oil). For fry, we sampled the whole animal whereas, for juveniles, white dorsal muscle, liver, red blood cells, plasma, external tegument and pectoral fin were sampled. Isotopic ratios and the elemental compositions of carbon and nitrogen were then measured. The δ 15 N values, and the C and N contents of all considered tissues as well as δ 13 C values of muscle, liver, red blood cells and plasma, were not affected by the use of chemical anesthetics. Clove oil and to a lesser extent 2-phenoxyethanol and benzocaine decreased δ 13 C values of whole fry and juvenile external tegument and pectoral fin. The use of electronarcosis drastically affects the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of all fish tissues. Anesthetics should be avoided for δ 13 C analysis when tissues are in contact with the water containing the anesthetic. Ice-immersion has to be preferred when approved by guidelines. If not, benzocaine and 2-phenoxyethanol should be preferred over clove oil. Electronarcosis should not be used to kill fish until further investigations are performed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Growth of Clostridium botulinum in media with garlic (Allium sativum)].

    PubMed

    Giménez, M A; Solanes, R E; Giménez, D F

    1988-01-01

    The effect of garlic on the growth and toxin formation of Clostridium botulinum (GT) was studied in A) crude juice obtained from a pool of cloves by i) crushing, ii) pressing out and iii) filtration, and B) minced garlic (6 to 8 pieces per clove). For both, "white" and "red" garlic varieties were used. The juice (pH 5.7 to 6.0, for different batches) was activated 30 min at 37 degrees C and diluted (log 2) in PGY broth (g%: peptone (Difco) 1.0; glucose 0.5; yeast extract (Difco) 0.5; pH 7.3). A small drop from a 18 h at 37 degrees C chopped meat medium culture of a highly toxigenic autochthonous strain (110) of C. botulinum type A, was transferred to the juice dilutions, incubating anaerobically 15d at 37 degrees C. As a control of the inhibitory effect of the juice, four microorganisms were cultured 48 h at 37 degrees C in the juice dilutions (Table 1). Clove pieces were suspended to 50% (w/v) either in PGY broth or distilled water without pH adjustment. Aliquots were heated in water bath 15 min at 100 degrees C. After seeded with the A 110 strain, duplicate tubes and their controls were incubated 15 d at 37 degrees C in aerated and anaerobic conditions (Table 2). Titers of botulinum toxin were empirically estimated by the time to death of a pair of mice injected with 0.5 ml each, via IP, observed 72 h. Results are shown in tables 1 and 2. Garlic reduces (in undiluted juice, traces or 3 to 5 DL50/ml were recorded in separate experiments) but not inhibit GT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Are stream stabilization projects reducing suspended sediment concentrations and turbidity in the New York City Water Supply Watershed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, M. R.; Siemion, J.; Davis, W. D.

    2015-12-01

    Turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) are primary water quality concerns in the upper Esopus Creek watershed, the main tributary to the Ashokan reservoir. The Ashokan reservoir is one of 6 surface water reservoirs that constitute about 90% of New York City's drinking water supply. This study quantified turbidity levels and SSCs at 10 locations throughout the upper Esopus Creek watershed for 3 years prior to the implementation of 2 stream stabilization projects and for 18 months after the projects were completed. More than 93 percent of the total-suspended sediment load occurred on days with flows greater than or equal to the 90th percentile of flows observed during the study period. Discharge, SSC, and turbidity were strongly related at the outlet of the upper Esopus Creek, but not at every monitoring site. In general, relations between discharge and SSC and turbidity were strongest at sites with high SSCs, with the exception of Stony Clove Creek, the largest tributary. Stony Clove Creek, consistently produced higher SSCs and turbidity than any of the other Esopus Creek tributaries. Nonetheless, there was not a strong relation between either turbidity or SSC and discharge because there was a series of eroding banks in contact with fine grained glacio-lacustrine deposits and associated hill slope failures within the Stony Clove Creek watershed that delivered elevated turbidity and SSCs to the stream during all flow conditions. Stream bank stabilization projects were completed at two of the largest bank failures. After the projects were completed there was decrease in stream SSC and turbidity however, flows during the 18 months following the projects were lower than before the projects. Nevertheless, a shift in the SSC and turbidity discharge rating curves suggests that the stream stabilization projects resulted in lower turbidity levels and SSCs for similar discharge conditions as compared to before the projects thereby reducing sediment yields

  18. Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models.

    PubMed

    Santin, José Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Klein-Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Costa, Philipe; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Tilia, Crislaine; de Souza, Juliana Paula; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2011-02-01

    Syzygium aromaticum, a medicinal plant commonly known as clove, is used to treat toothache, respiratory disorders, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. From the flower buds of S. aromaticum, it is possible to obtain an essential oil comprised of a mixture of aliphatic and cyclic volatile terpenes and phenylpropanoids, being eugenol as the main component. The aims of this study were: (1) to extract the essential oil of the flower buds of S. aromaticum, (2) to identify and quantify the main component of the essential oil, and (3) to evaluate its antiulcer activity using different animal models. Assays were performed using the following protocols in rats: indomethacin-induced and ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model. Both essential oils from S. aromaticum and eugenol displayed antiulcer activities in the rat models of indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer. Studies focusing on the possible mechanisms of gastroprotection were also undertaken using the following experiments: evaluation of gastric secretion by the pylorus-ligated model, determination of mucus in gastric content, participation of nitric oxide (NO) and endogenous sulfhydryl in gastric protection. The results show that there was no significant effect on the volume of gastric juice and total acidity. However, the quantification of free gastric mucus showed that the clove oil and eugenol were capable of significantly enhancing mucus production. With regard to the NO and endogenous sulfhydryls, the results demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by clove oil and eugenol are not related to the activities of the nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute toxicity study. In conclusion, the results of this study show that essential oil of S. aromaticum, as well as its main component (eugenol), possesses antiulcer activity. The data suggest that the effectiveness of the essential oil and eugenol is based on its ability to stimulate the synthesis of mucus, an

  19. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains.

    PubMed

    López, P; Sánchez, C; Batlle, R; Nerín, C

    2005-08-24

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon (Cinnamon zeylanicum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), basil (Ocimum basillicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), dill (Anethum graveolens), and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) was evaluated over a range of concentrations in two types of contact tests (solid and vapor diffusion). The EOs were tested against an array of four Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes), four Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and three fungi (a yeast, Candida albicans, and two molds, Penicillium islandicum and Aspergillus flavus). The rationale for this work was to test the possibility of creating a protective atmosphere by using natural compounds that could extend the shelf life of packaged foodstuffs while minimizing organoleptic alterations. In the solid diffusion tests, cinnamon and clove gave the strongest (and very similar) inhibition, followed by basil and rosemary, with dill and ginger giving the weakest inhibition. The fungi were the most sensitive microorganisms, followed by the Gram-positive bacterial strains. The Gram-negative strain P. aeruginosa was the least inhibited. The composition of the atmosphere generated by the EOs, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), were determined using a disk volatilization method, in which no inhibition from rosemary or basil was observed. Cinnamon and clove, once again, gave similar results for every microorganism. As a general rule, MIC (fungi) < MIC (bacteria) with no clear differences between Gram-positive or -negative strains except for P. aeruginosa, which was not inhibited by any of the EOs in the vapor phase. The atmosphere generated from the EOs was analyzed by means of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Differences among the volatiles in the EOs

  20. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Júri; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 108CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus. PMID:24031939

  1. Mechanism of the greening color formation of "laba" garlic, a traditional homemade chinese food product.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu; Liao, Xiaojun; Zhao, Guanghua; Hu, Xiaosong

    2005-09-07

    While green discoloration during garlic processing is of a major concern, this greening is desirable and required for the traditional homemade Chinese "Laba" garlic. To obtain insights into the mechanism of color formation, simulation of the greening of "Laba" garlic was carried out in the laboratory by soaking aged garlic in 5% (v/v, pH 2.33) acetic acid solution. After 2 days, the garlic cloves turned green. Up to 4 days, pigment(s) diffused from garlic cloves to the pickling solution. The solution exhibits two maximal absorbances at approximately 440 and approximately 590 nm, corresponding to yellow and blue species, respectively, the combination of which creates the green coloration. With increasing time from 4 to 25 days, the concentration of both yellow and blue species increases at nearly the same rate, while after 25 days, the concentration of the yellow species increases faster than that of the blue species. Interestingly, most thiosulfinates ( approximately 85%) in garlic cloves were converted within 4 days, suggesting that thiosulfinate conversion is proportional to the formation of the pigments. Consistent with this conclusion, alliinase and acetic acid were required for the color formation. UV-vis spectral measurements and pH results suggest that the color formation occurs by two kinds of processes: one enzymatic and the other nonenzymatic. Low pH (2.0-3.0) favors nonenzymatic reactions, while high pH (6.0 or above) is conducive to enzymatic reactions. Thus, the ideal pH for the entire process of garlic greening is between 4.0 and 5.0, which is a compromise of the optimal pH of both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions.

  2. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study.

  3. [Inhibition of Linseed Oil Autooxidation by Essential Oils and Extracts from Spice Plants].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Kiseleva, V I; Medvedeva, I B; Semenova, M G

    2015-01-01

    Clove bud essential oil, extracts from ginger, pimento and black pepper, or ascorbyl palmytate were studied as natural antioxidants for the inhibition of autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in linseed oil. Different methods were used to estimate antioxidant efficiency. These methods are based on the following parameters: peroxide values; peroxide concentration; content of degradation products of unsaturated fatty acid peroxides, which acted with thiobarbituric acid; diene conjugate content; the content of volatile compounds that formed as products of unsaturated fatty acid peroxide degradation; and the composition of methyl esters of fatty acids in samples of oxidized linseed oil.

  4. Effects of γ-irradiation on the lipid composition of inner sprout of garlic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M. B.; Curzio, O. A.; Aveldaño, M. I.; Croci, C. A.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60Co γ-rays on the concentration and composition of lipids from the inner sprout of garlic cloves. 210 days after treatment, the levels of phospholipids, triacylglycerols and glycolipids were significantly reduced as a result of radiation. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids from these lipid fractions such as linoleic acids showed a similar trend of decrease. Irradiation also brought about an increase in diacylglycerols. Results are correlated with sprouting inhibition induced by γ-irradiation in garlic.

  5. Sequential transformation of the structural and thermodynamic parameters of the complex particles, combining covalent conjugate (sodium caseinate + maltodextrin) with polyunsaturated lipids stabilized by a plant antioxidant, in the simulated gastro-intestinal conditions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Antipova, Anna S; Zelikina, Darya V; Shumilina, Elena A; Semenova, Maria G

    2016-10-01

    The present work is focused on the structural transformation of the complexes, formed between covalent conjugate (sodium caseinate + maltodextrin) and an equimass mixture of the polyunsaturated lipids (PULs): (soy phosphatidylcholine + triglycerides of flaxseed oil) stabilized by a plant antioxidant (an essential oil of clove buds), in the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The conjugate was used here as a food-grade delivery vehicle for the PULs. The release of these PULs at each stage of the simulated digestion was estimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-Term Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Carnation Callus Cell Respiration 1

    PubMed Central

    Palet, Artur; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Argilés, Josep M.; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquim

    1991-01-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O2 uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Michx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO2 in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO2 again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO2/bicarbonate dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO2/bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO2/bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO2) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited. PMID:16668209

  7. A comprehensive phylogeny of auxin homeostasis genes involved in adventitious root formation in carnation stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Ibáñez, Sergio; Cano, Antonio; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the functional basis of auxin homeostasis requires knowledge about auxin biosynthesis, auxin transport and auxin catabolism genes, which is not always directly available despite the recent whole-genome sequencing of many plant species. Through sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analyses on a selection of 11 plant species with high-quality genome annotation, we identified the putative gene homologs involved in auxin biosynthesis, auxin catabolism and auxin transport pathways in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). To deepen our knowledge of the regulatory events underlying auxin-mediated adventitious root formation in carnation stem cuttings, we used RNA-sequencing data to confirm the expression profiles of some auxin homeostasis genes during the rooting of two carnation cultivars with different rooting behaviors. We also confirmed the presence of several auxin-related metabolites in the stem cutting tissues. Our findings offer a comprehensive overview of auxin homeostasis genes in carnation and provide a solid foundation for further experiments investigating the role of auxin homeostasis in the regulation of adventitious root formation in carnation.

  8. Enhanced Conjugation of Auxin by GH3 Enzymes Leads to Poor Adventitious Rooting in Carnation Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Antonio; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Albacete, Alfonso; González-Bayón, Rebeca; Justamante, María Salud; Ibáñez, Sergio; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Commercial carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars are vegetatively propagated from axillary stem cuttings through adventitious rooting; a process which is affected by complex interactions between nutrient and hormone levels and is strongly genotype-dependent. To deepen our understanding of the regulatory events controlling this process, we performed a comparative study of adventitious root (AR) formation in two carnation cultivars with contrasting rooting performance, “2101–02 MFR” and “2003 R 8”, as well as in the reference cultivar “Master”. We provided molecular evidence that localized auxin response in the stem cutting base was required for efficient adventitious rooting in this species, which was dynamically established by polar auxin transport from the leaves. In turn, the bad-rooting behavior of the “2003 R 8” cultivar was correlated with enhanced synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid conjugated to aspartic acid by GH3 proteins in the stem cutting base. Treatment of stem cuttings with a competitive inhibitor of GH3 enzyme activity significantly improved rooting of “2003 R 8”. Our results allowed us to propose a working model where endogenous auxin homeostasis regulated by GH3 proteins accounts for the cultivar dependency of AR formation in carnation stem cuttings. PMID:29755501

  9. Enhanced Conjugation of Auxin by GH3 Enzymes Leads to Poor Adventitious Rooting in Carnation Stem Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Cano, Antonio; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Albacete, Alfonso; González-Bayón, Rebeca; Justamante, María Salud; Ibáñez, Sergio; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Commercial carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus ) cultivars are vegetatively propagated from axillary stem cuttings through adventitious rooting; a process which is affected by complex interactions between nutrient and hormone levels and is strongly genotype-dependent. To deepen our understanding of the regulatory events controlling this process, we performed a comparative study of adventitious root (AR) formation in two carnation cultivars with contrasting rooting performance, "2101-02 MFR" and "2003 R 8", as well as in the reference cultivar "Master". We provided molecular evidence that localized auxin response in the stem cutting base was required for efficient adventitious rooting in this species, which was dynamically established by polar auxin transport from the leaves. In turn, the bad-rooting behavior of the "2003 R 8" cultivar was correlated with enhanced synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid conjugated to aspartic acid by GH3 proteins in the stem cutting base. Treatment of stem cuttings with a competitive inhibitor of GH3 enzyme activity significantly improved rooting of "2003 R 8". Our results allowed us to propose a working model where endogenous auxin homeostasis regulated by GH3 proteins accounts for the cultivar dependency of AR formation in carnation stem cuttings.

  10. Precursor-Directed Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Cinnamoyl, Dihydrocinnamoyl, and Benzoyl Anthranilates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE PAGES

    Eudes, Aymerick; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Wang, George; ...

    2015-10-02

    Biological synthesis of pharmaceuticals and biochemicals offers an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional chemical synthesis. These alternative methods require the design of metabolic pathways and the identification of enzymes exhibiting adequate activities. Cinnamoyl, dihydrocinnamoyl, and benzoyl anthranilates are natural metabolites which possess beneficial activities for human health, and the search is expanding for novel derivatives that might have enhanced biological activity. For example, biosynthesis in Dianthus caryophyllus is catalyzed by hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/ benzoyltransferase (HCBT), which couples hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs and benzoyl-CoAs to anthranilate. We recently demonstrated the potential of using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for the biological production of a few cinnamoyl anthranilatesmore » by heterologous co-expression of 4-coumaroyl:CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana (4CL5) and HCBT. Here we report that, by exploiting the substrate flexibility of both 4CL5 and HCBT, we achieved rapid biosynthesis of more than 160 cinnamoyl, dihydrocinnamoyl, and benzoyl anthranilates in yeast upon feeding with both natural and non-natural cinnamates, dihydrocinnamates, benzoates, and anthranilates. Our results demonstrate the use of enzyme promiscuity in biological synthesis to achieve high chemical diversity within a defined class of molecules. Finally, this work also points to the potential for the combinatorial biosynthesis of diverse and valuable cinnamoylated, dihydrocinnamoylated, and benzoylated products by using the versatile biological enzyme 4CL5 along with characterized cinnamoyl-CoA- and benzoyl-CoA-utilizing transferases.« less

  11. Cloning, characterization, and expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase and expansin genes associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Taro; Torii, Yuka; Morita, Shigeto; Onodera, Reiko; Hara, Yoshinao; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Growth of petal cells is a basis for expansion and morphogenesis (outward bending) of petals during opening of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Petal growth progressed through elongation in the early stage, expansion with outward bending in the middle stage, and expansion of the whole area in the late stage of flower opening. In the present study, four cDNAs encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (DcXTH1–DcXTH4) and three cDNAs encoding expansin (DcEXPA1–DcEXPA3) were cloned from petals of opening carnation flowers and characterized. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of XTH and expansin genes accumulated differently in floral and vegetative tissues of carnation plants with opening flowers, indicating regulated expression of these genes. DcXTH2 and DcXTH3 transcripts were detected in large quantities in petals as compared with other tissues. DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2 transcripts were markedly accumulated in petals of opening flowers. The action of XTH in growing petal tissues was confirmed by in situ staining of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity using a rhodamine-labelled xyloglucan nonasaccharide as a substrate. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that two XTH genes (DcXTH2 and DcXTH3) and two expansin genes (DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2) are associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening. PMID:20959626

  12. A Novel Glucosylation Reaction on Anthocyanins Catalyzed by Acyl-Glucose–Dependent Glucosyltransferase in the Petals of Carnation and Delphinium[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Matsuba, Yuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Tera, Masayuki; Okamura, Masachika; Abe, Yutaka; Okamoto, Emi; Nakamura, Haruka; Funabashi, Hisakage; Takatsu, Makoto; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanin in carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) and delphiniums (Delphinium grandiflorum) involves novel sugar donors, aromatic acyl-glucoses, in a reaction catalyzed by the enzymes acyl-glucose–dependent anthocyanin 5(7)-O-glucosyltransferase (AA5GT and AA7GT). The AA5GT enzyme was purified from carnation petals, and cDNAs encoding carnation Dc AA5GT and the delphinium homolog Dg AA7GT were isolated. Recombinant Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT proteins showed AA5GT and AA7GT activities in vitro. Although expression of Dc AA5GT in developing carnation petals was highest at early stages, AA5GT activity and anthocyanin accumulation continued to increase during later stages. Neither Dc AA5GT expression nor AA5GT activity was observed in the petals of mutant carnations; these petals accumulated anthocyanin lacking the glucosyl moiety at the 5 position. Transient expression of Dc AA5GT in petal cells of mutant carnations is expected to result in the transfer of a glucose moiety to the 5 position of anthocyanin. The amino acid sequences of Dc AA5GT and Dg AA7GT showed high similarity to glycoside hydrolase family 1 proteins, which typically act as β-glycosidases. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that other plant species are likely to have similar acyl-glucose–dependent glucosyltransferases. PMID:20971893

  13. A comprehensive phylogeny of auxin homeostasis genes involved in adventitious root formation in carnation stem cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Antonio; Acosta, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the functional basis of auxin homeostasis requires knowledge about auxin biosynthesis, auxin transport and auxin catabolism genes, which is not always directly available despite the recent whole-genome sequencing of many plant species. Through sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analyses on a selection of 11 plant species with high-quality genome annotation, we identified the putative gene homologs involved in auxin biosynthesis, auxin catabolism and auxin transport pathways in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). To deepen our knowledge of the regulatory events underlying auxin-mediated adventitious root formation in carnation stem cuttings, we used RNA-sequencing data to confirm the expression profiles of some auxin homeostasis genes during the rooting of two carnation cultivars with different rooting behaviors. We also confirmed the presence of several auxin-related metabolites in the stem cutting tissues. Our findings offer a comprehensive overview of auxin homeostasis genes in carnation and provide a solid foundation for further experiments investigating the role of auxin homeostasis in the regulation of adventitious root formation in carnation. PMID:29709027

  14. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Sofía; Valdés, Oderlaise; Vivar, Isbel; Lavin, Paola; Guiamet, Patricia; Battistoni, Patricia; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Borges, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage.

  15. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Borrego, Sofía; Valdés, Oderlaise; Vivar, Isbel; Lavin, Paola; Guiamet, Patricia; Battistoni, Patricia; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Borges, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage. PMID:23762760

  16. Antimicrobial activity of several herb and spice extracts in culture medium and in vacuum-packaged pork.

    PubMed

    Kong, Baohua; Wang, Jinzhi; Xiong, Youling L

    2007-03-01

    Extracts prepared from honeysuckle, Scutellaria, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb), cinnamon, and rosemary with 75% ethanol and from clove oil dissolved in 75% ethanol were applied to inoculated agar media to observe their inhibitory effects on the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Lactobacillus plantarum. All the extracts suppressed the growth of these bacteria; Scutellaria exhibited the strongest effect against E. coli. An orthogonal test revealed that the most effective antimicrobial composite extracts were equal-volume mixtures of 0.125 g/ml Scutellaria + 0.5 g/ml honeysuckle + 0.125 g/ml Forsythia + 0.25 g/ml cinnamon and 0.25 g/ml cinnamon + 0.125 g/ml rosemary + 0.25% clove oil. These mixed extracts also produced strong antimicrobial effects in vacuum-packaged fresh pork, with 1.81- to 2.32-log reductions in microbial counts compared with the control when stored for up to 28 days. The sensory panel detected minimal differences in surface color and off-odors between meat samples treated with herb-spice extracts and the control. These results indicate that combined herb and spice extracts can be used as natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

  17. Spices Mycobiota and Mycotoxins Available in Saudi Arabia and Their Abilities to Inhibit Growth of Some Toxigenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence and population density of the mycobiota of 50 samples belonging to 10 kinds of spices (anise, black pepper, red pepper, black cumin, peppermint, cardamom, clove, cumin, ginger and marjoram) which collected from different places in Jeddah Governorate were studied. The natural occurrence of mycotoxins in those samples was also investigated. Fifteen genera and thirty - one species of fungi in addition to one species variety were isolated and identified during this study. The most common genera were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Aflatoxins (12~40 µg/kg) were detected in the extract of 5 samples of each of anise seeds and black pepper fruits; three samples of black cumin seeds and on sample only of each of peppermint and marjoram leaves out of 5 samples tested of each. Sterigmatocystin (15~20 µg/kg) was detected in some samples of red pepper, cumin and marjoram. The inhibitory effects of 10 kinds of powdered spices were tested against 3 toxigenic isolates of fungi (Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor and Penicillium citrinum). Clove proved to be antimycotic compounds. It inhibited the growth of the tested toxigenic fungi. Black pepper, peppermint, cardamom, cumin and marjoram completely inhibited aflatoxins production, while black pepper and cardamom also completely inhibited sterigmatocystin production. PMID:24015069

  18. Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Burt, S A; Reinders, R D

    2003-01-01

    To quantify the antibacterial properties of five essential oils (EO) on a non-toxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the presence and absence of a stabilizer and an emulsifier and at three different temperatures. Five EOs known to exhibit antibacterial properties were screened by disc diffusion assay and the most active were selected for further study in microdilution colorimetric assays. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris; light and red varieties) EO had the strongest bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, followed by bay (Pimenta racemosa) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata synonym: Syzygium aromaticum) EO. Oregano oil was colicidal at 625 microl l(-1) at 10, 20 and 37 degrees C. The addition of 0.05% (w/v) agar as stabilizer reinforced the antibacterial properties, particularly at 10 degrees C, whereas 0.25% (w/v) lecithin reduced antibacterial activity. Scanning electron micrographs showed extensive morphological changes to treated cells. Oregano and thyme EO possess significant in vitro colicidal and colistatic properties, which are exhibited in a broad temperature range and substantially improved by the addition of agar as stabilizer. Bay and clove bud EO are less active. Lecithin diminished antibacterial properties. The bactericidal concentration of oregano EO irreversibly damaged E. coli O157:H7 cells within 1 min. Oregano and light thyme EO, particularly when enhanced by agar stabilizer, may be effective in reducing the number or preventing the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in foods.

  19. Antioxidant Activities of Hot Water Extracts from Various Spices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mi-Ra; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the natural spices and herbs such as rosemary, oregano, and caraway have been used for the processing of meat products. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of 13 spices commonly used in meat processing plants. The hot water extracts were then used for evaluation of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities. Our results show that the hot water extract of oregano gave the highest extraction yield (41.33%) whereas mace (7.64%) gave the lowest. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of the spice extracts can be ranked against ascorbic acid in the order ascorbic acid > clove > thyme > rosemary > savory > oregano. The values for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities were in the order of marjoram > rosemary > oregano > cumin > savory > basil > thyme > fennel > coriander > ascorbic acid. When compared to ascorbic acid (48.72%), the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of turmeric and mace were found to be higher (p < 0.001). Clove had the highest total phenolic content (108.28 μg catechin equivalent (CE)/g). The total flavonoid content of the spices varied from 324.08 μg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g for thyme to 3.38 μg QE/g for coriander. Our results indicate that hot water extract of several spices had a high antioxidant activity which is partly due to the phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This provides basic data, having implications for further development of processed food products. PMID:21747728

  20. Antimicrobial, Rheological, and Thermal Properties of Plasticized Polylactide Films Incorporated with Essential Oils to Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Hiremath, Nikhil; Jacob, Harsha

    2016-02-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is the most mature biobased and biodegradable polymer. Due to its inherent brittleness, the polymer cannot be used as a packaging material without plasticizer. An attempt was made to develop antimicrobial plasticized PLA film by incorporating polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3 essential oils (EO), namely cinnamon, garlic, and clove by solvent casting method. Physical, thermal, and rheological properties of those films were evaluated for practical applications whereas the antimicrobial properties were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni-pathogens related to poultry industry. Both PEG and EOs led to the formation of flexible PLA/PEG/EO films with significant drop in the glass transition temperature (Tg ), and mechanical property. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle was employed to melt rheology of EO-based films at selected temperature, and rheological moduli superimposed well in an extended frequency range. Among EOs, cinnamon and clove oil-based films (PLA/PEG/CIN and PLA/PEG/CLO) exhibited a complete zone of inhibition against C. jejuni at the maximum concentration (1.6 mL per 2 g PLA/PEG blend) whereas the garlic oil-based film (PLA/PEG/GAR) had the lowest activity. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Techniques of Celloidin Removal From Temporal Bone Sections

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Jennifer T.; Burgess, Barbara J.; Jones, Diane D.; Adams, Joe C.; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine whether the technique of celloidin removal influences the results of immunostaining in celloidin-embedded cochleae. Methods We compared four protocols of celloidin removal, including those using clove oil, acetone, ether-alcohol, and methanol saturated with sodium hydroxide. By optimally fixing our tissue (perfused mice), and keeping constant the fixative type (formalin plus acetic acid), fixation time (25 hours), and decalcification time (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid for 7 days), we determined whether the technique of celloidin removal influenced the immunostaining results. Six antibodies were used with each removal method: prostaglandin D synthase, sodium, potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase), aquaporin 1, connective tissue growth factor, tubulin, and 200 kd neurofilament. Results Clove oil, acetone, and ether-alcohol resulted in incomplete removal of the celloidin, thereby negatively affecting the results of immunostaining. The methanol–sodium hydroxide method was effective in completely removing the celloidin; it produced the cleanest and most reproducible immunostaining for all six antibodies. Conclusions Freshly prepared methanol saturated with sodium hydroxide and diluted 1:2 with methanol was the best solvent for removing celloidin from mouse temporal bone sections, resulting in consistent and reproducible immunostaining with the six antibodies tested. PMID:19663375

  2. Essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria in minced meat.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Ushimaru, Priscila Ikeda; da Silva Probst, Isabella; Fernandes, Ary

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of oregano, thyme, basil, marjoram, lemongrass, ginger, and clove was investigated in vitro by agar dilution method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteritidis). MIC(90%) values were tested against bacterial strains inoculated experimentally in irradiated minced meat and against natural microbiota (aerobic or facultative, mesophilic, and psychrotrophic bacteria) found in minced meat samples. MIC(90%) values ranged from 0.05%v/v (lemongrass oil) to 0.46%v/v (marjoram oil) to Gram-positive bacteria and from 0.10%v/v (clove oil) to 0.56%v/v (ginger oil) to Gram-negative strains. However, the MIC(90%) assessed on minced meat inoculated experimentally with foodborne pathogen strains and against natural microbiota of meat did not show the same effectiveness, and 1.3 and 1.0 were the highest log CFU/g reduction values obtained against tested microorganisms.

  3. Hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsions based on essential oils for topical delivery of psoralen: Permeation and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Barradas, Thaís Nogueira; Senna, Juliana Perdiz; Cardoso, Stephani Araujo; Nicoli, Sara; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Rossi, Francesca; de Holanda E Silva, K Gyselle; Mansur, Claudia R Elias

    2017-07-01

    Nanoemulsions (NE) have attracted much attention due to their as dermal delivery systems for lipophilic drugs such as psoralens. However, NE feature low viscosity which might be unsuitable for topical application. In this work, we produced hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsions (HTN) using chitosan as thickening polymer to overcome the low viscosity attributed to NE. The aim of this study is to develop and characterize oil-in-water (o/w) HTN based on sweet fennel and clove essential oil to transdermal delivery of 8-methoxsalen (8-MOP). NE components (oil, surfactant) were selected on the basis of solubility and droplet size and processed in a high-pressure homogenizer (HPH). Drug loaded NE and HTN were characterized for particle size, stability under storage and centrifugation, rheological behavior, transdermal permeation and skin accumulation. Transdermal permeation of 8-MOP from HTN was determined by using Franz diffusion cell. Transdermal permeation from HTN using clove essential oil showed strong dependency chitosan molecular weight. On the other hand, HTN using sweet fennel oil showed an unexpected pH-dependent behavior not fully understood at the moment. These results need further investigation, nevertheless HTN revealed to be interesting and complex dermal delivery systems for poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Valéria; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; da Silva, Márcio Roberto; Daemon, Erik; da Silva, Luciane Santos; Guimarães, Flávia del Gaudio; de Mendonça, Alessandra Esther; Folly, Evelize; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; do Amaral, Lilian Henriques; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; do Amaral, Maria da Penha Henriques

    2014-12-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has caused serious harm to livestock raising in Brazil, considering the costs of controlling it, loss of revenue due to smaller production of milk and meat, and damage to leather, in addition to transmitting diseases. The use of medicinal plants is considered an alternative to the recurring resistance to chemicals. Due to the need for efficient alternatives with less environmental impact, this study aimed to develop contact formulations with essential oils from the Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) plants and to assess in vitro the effects in different stages of the tick cycle. In the present study, concentrations from 0.5-15.0% of the essential oils incorporated in the formulations were used. The ticks from different geographical areas were treated with those formulations, and their effects on the production levels of eggs, on the larvae hatching, and their efficiency on ticks were assessed. The obtained results were compared with other commercial acaricidal products. After the 20th day of treatment, the formulations with citronella essential oil had 2.09-55.51% efficiency, depending on the concentration of the oil incorporated. The efficiency of the treatment with formulations containing clove essential oil was higher, from 92.47-100%. The results showed the acaricidal effects of the formulations tested when compared to commercial chemical products. In vivo studies should be performed in order to assess the efficiency of those formulations in the fields, aiming to use these products as an alternative for controlling cattle ticks.

  5. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analytical optimization of a phenolic-rich herbal extract and supplementation in fermented milk containing sweet potato pulp.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Lorena Rodrigues; Santos, Jânio Sousa; Daguer, Heitor; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Granato, Daniel

    2017-04-15

    The aims of the present study were to optimize and characterize the phenolic composition of a herbal extract composed of green mate (Ilex paraguariensis), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and to propose the addition of this polyphenol-rich extract to fermented milks (FM) with/without sweet potato pulp (Ipomoea batatas). Proximate composition, pH, acidity, instrumental texture profile, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA) of all formulations were measured, and sensory attributes were also investigated. The addition of a lyophilized extract (1g 100g -1 ) containing 87.5% clove and 12.5% green mate increased the AA and TPC, while FM with added sweet potato pulp had the best sensory acceptance. The TPC and total reducing capacity had a slight change during 21days of storage. The data showed that herbal extracts and sweet potato pulp may be used to develop new dairy foods with potential functional properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Hao; Li, Andrew Y; Costa Junior, Livio M; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Liu, Jingze

    2016-02-01

    DEET and Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration-repellency response was established using the vertical paper bioassay technique for each essential oil and compared with that of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET), a standard repellent compound present in many commercial repellent formulations. The effective concentration of DEET that repels 50% of ticks (EC50) was estimated at 0.02 mg/cm(2), while EC50s of the essential oils fall between 0.113 and 0.297 mg/cm(2). Based on EC50 estimates, oregano essential oil was the most effective among all essential oils tested, followed by clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint oils. None of the tested essential oils demonstrated a level of tick repellency found with DEET. Results from this study illustrated the challenge in search for more effective natural tick repellents.

  8. Vapor Measurement System of Essential Oil Based on MOS Gas Sensors Driven with Advanced Temperature Modulation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarmaji, A.; Margiwiyatno, A.; Ediati, R.; Mustofa, A.

    2018-05-01

    The aroma/vapor of essential oils is complex compound which depends on the content of the gases and volatiles generated from essential oil. This paper describes a design of quick, simple, and low-cost static measurement system to acquire vapor profile of essential oil. The gases and volatiles are captured in a chamber by means of 9 MOS gas sensors which driven with advance temperature modulation technique. A PSoC CY8C28445-24PVXI based-interface unit is built to generate the modulation signal and acquire all sensor output into computer wirelessly via radio frequency serial communication using Digi International Inc., XBee (IEEE 802.15.4) through developed software under Visual.Net. The system was tested to measure 2 kinds of essential oil (Patchouli and Clove Oils) in 4 temperature modulations (without, 0.25 Hz, 1 Hz, and 4 Hz). A cycle measurement consists of reference and sample measurement sequentially which is set during 2 minutes in every 1 second respectively. It is found that the suitable modulation is 0,25Hz; 75%, and the results of Principle Component Analysis show that the system is able to distinguish clearly between Patchouli Oil and Clove Oil.

  9. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts and Active Principles of Commonly Consumed Indian Spices.

    PubMed

    Patra, Kartick; Jana, Samarjit; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that free radical reactions play a key part in the development of degenerative diseases and that an antioxidant-rich diet is a major defense against these free radical reactions. In this study, we explore comparative antioxidant capacities of extracts of some commonly used in Indian spices (anise, cardamom, Ceylon cinnamon, and clove) along with their purified components (anethole, eucalyptol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol, respectively). Eugenol shows the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide scavenging and reducing power activity in terms of weight; however, this was not found when compared in terms of equivalence. Extracts of the other three spices were found to be more potent antioxidants than their corresponding active components. Interestingly, clove extract, despite possessing the highest phenol and flavonoid content, is not the most potent radical scavenger. At low concentrations, both the crude extracts and their purified components (except for anethole and eugenol) have low hemolytic activity, but at higher concentrations purified components are more toxic than their respective crude extract. This study suggests that spices as a whole are more potent antioxidants than their purified active components, perhaps reflecting the synergism among different phytochemicals present in spice extracts.

  10. Evaluation of biogas production potential of kitchen waste in the presence of spices.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Nidhi; Sharma, Abhinav; Mishra, Priyanka; Chandrashekhar, B; Sharma, Ganesh; Kapley, Atya; Pandey, R A

    2017-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of kitchen waste (KW) for biogas production is a major challenge to all over the world due to significant compositional variations in KW, such as different types and quantities of spices used for preparing food. Spices may affect the AD process owing to their antimicrobial activity. In this paper, the effect of spices (garlic, red chili, cinnamon, coriander, clove, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper) on AD of KW has been investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the maximum biogas production potential, methane production rate and lag phase for biogas production. Analysis of the results revealed different magnitude of inhibition of the AD process of KW in the presence of different spices. Cinnamon, cardamom and clove resulted >85%, black pepper resulted 75%, while coriander, chili, turmeric and garlic resulted 55-70% reduction in cumulative biogas yield. Elemental analysis showed high concentration of heavy metals in the spices, which along with other bioactive components of the spices could be responsible for the inhibitory effect of the spices on biomethanation. Microbial examination of the digestate also showed a decrease in population of fermentative and methanogenic bacteria in the presence of spices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Herbs and spices: characterization and quantitation of biologically-active markers for routine quality control by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with separative or non-separative analysis.

    PubMed

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-09

    Herbs and spices are used worldwide as food flavoring, thus determination of their identity, origin, and quality is mandatory for safe human consumption. An analysis strategy based on separative (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and non-separative (HS-SPME-MS) approaches is proposed for the volatile fraction of herbs and spices, for quality control and to quantify the aromatic markers with a single analysis directly on the plant material as such. Eight-to-ten lots of each of the following herbs/spices were considered: cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry), American peppertree (Schinus molle L.), black pepper and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Homogeneity, origin, and chemotypes of the investigated lots of each herb/spice were defined by fingerprinting, through statistical elaboration with principal component analysis (PCA). Characterizing aromatic markers were directly quantified on the solid matrix through multiple headspace extraction-HS-SPME (MHS-SPME). Reliable results were obtained with both separative and non-separative methods (where the latter were applicable); the two were in full agreement, RSD% ranging from 1.8 to 7.7% for eugenol in cloves, 2.2-18.4% for carvacrol+thymol in thyme, and 3.1-16.8% for thujones in sage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Essential oils of culinary herbs and spices display agonist and antagonist activities at human aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR.

    PubMed

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are used to flavor, color and preserve foods and drinks. Dietary intake of EOs is significant, deserving an attention of toxicologists. We examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on the transcriptional activity of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a pivotal xenobiotic sensor, having also multiple roles in human physiology. Tested EOs were sorted out into AhR-inactive ones (14 EOs) and AhR-active ones, including full agonists (cumin, jasmine, vanilla, bay leaf), partial agonists (cloves, dill, thyme, nutmeg, oregano) and antagonists (tarragon, caraway, turmeric, lovage, fennel, spearmint, star anise, anise). Major constituents (>10%) of AhR-active EOs were studied in more detail. We identified AhR partial agonists (carvacrol, ligustilide, eugenol, eugenyl acetate, thymol, ar-turmerone) and antagonists (trans-anethole, butylidine phtalide, R/S-carvones, p-cymene), which account for AhR-mediated activities of EOs of fennel, anise, star anise, caraway, spearmint, tarragon, cloves, dill, turmeric, lovage, thyme and oregano. We also show that AhR-mediated effects of some individual constituents of EOs differ from those manifested in mixtures. In conclusion, EOs of culinary herbs and spices are agonists and antagonists of human AhR, implying a potential for food-drug interactions and interference with endocrine pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C L; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the possible effects on insulin function, 49 herb, spice, and medicinal plant extracts were tested in the insulin-dependent utilization of glucose using a rat epididymal adipocyte assay. Cinnamon was the most bioactive product followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer's yeast. The glucose oxidation enhancing bioactivity was lost from cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay leaf and allspice by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) treatment, indicating that the active phytochemicals are likely to be phenolic in nature. The activity of sage, mushrooms, and brewers's yeast was not removed by PVP. Some products such as Korean ginseng, flaxseed meal, and basil have been reported to be effective antidiabetic agents; however, they were only marginally active in our assay. Our technique measures direct stimulation of cellular glucose metabolism, so it may be that the active phytochemicals in these plants improve glucose metabolism via other mechanisms or that this in vitro screening is not a reliable predictor of hypoglycemic effects in vivo for some products. In summary, the positive effects of specific plant extracts on insulin activity suggest a possible role of these plants in improving glucose and insulin metabolism.

  14. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. Results: The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections. PMID:28512603

  15. Some Properties of Fresh and Ripened Traditional Akcakatik Cheese

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Akcakatik cheese (yogurt cheese) is produced by drying strained yogurt with or without adding cloves or black cumin. The main objective of this study was to detect the properties of both fresh and ripened Akcakatik cheeses and to compare them. For this purpose the biogenic amine content, volatile flavor compounds, protein degradation level, chemical properties and some microbiological properties of 15 Akcakatik cheese samples were investigated. Titratable acidity, total dry matter, NaCl, total nitrogen, water soluble nitrogen, ripened index, histamine, diacetyl and acetaldehyde levels were found to be higher in ripened cheese samples than in fresh cheese samples. On the other hand, the clove and black cumin ratios were found to be higher in the fresh cheese samples. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electropherograms of cheese samples showed that protein degradation was higher in ripened cheese samples than in fresh samples, as expected. The dominant Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) flora of Akcakatik cheese samples were found to be Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. PMID:29725229

  16. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation.

  17. Innovation of natural essential oil-loaded Orabase for local treatment of oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Gihan S; Aldawsari, Hibah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oral candidiasis may be manifested in the oral cavity as either mild or severe oral fungal infection. This infection results from the overgrowth of Candida species normally existing in the oral cavity in minute amounts based on many predisposing factors. Several aspects have spurred the search for new strategies in the treatment of oral candidiasis, among which are the limited numbers of new antifungal drugs developed in recent years. Previous studies have shown that thyme and clove oils have antimycotic activities and have suggested their incorporation into pharmaceutical preparations. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of the incorporation and characterization of essential oils or their extracted active ingredients in Orabase formulations. Methods Orabase loaded with clove oil, thyme oil, eugenol, and thymol were prepared and evaluated for their antifungal activities, pH, viscosity, erosion and water uptake characteristics, mechanical properties, in vitro release behavior, and ex vivo mucoadhesion properties. Results All prepared bases showed considerable antifungal activity and acceptable physical characteristics. The release pattern from loaded bases was considerably slow for all oils and active ingredients. All bases showed appreciable adhesion in the in vitro and ex vivo studies. Conclusion The incorporation of essential oils in Orabase could help in future drug delivery design, with promising outcomes on patients’ well-being. PMID:26170621

  18. Role of direct bioautographic method for detection of antistaphylococcal activity of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Györgyi; Jámbor, Noémi; Kocsis, Erika; Böszörményi, Andrea; Lemberkovics, Eva; Héthelyi, Eva; Kovács, Krisztina; Kocsis, Béla

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was the chemical characterization of some traditionally used and therapeutically relevant essential oils (thyme, eucalyptus, cinnamon bark, clove, and tea tree) and the optimized microbiological investigation of the effect of these oils on clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by TLC, and controlled by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antibacterial effect was investigated using a TLC-bioautographic method. Antibacterial activity of thyme, clove and cinnamon oils, as well as their main components (thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and cinnamic aldehyde) was observed against all the bacterial strains used in this study. The essential oils of eucalyptus and tea tree showed weak activity in the bioautographic system. On the whole, the antibacterial activity of the essential oils could be related to their most abundant components, but the effect of the minor components should also be taken into consideration. Direct bioautography is more cost-effective and better in comparison with traditional microbiological laboratory methods (e.g. disc-diffusion, agar-plate technique).

  19. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal ( Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger ( Zingiber officinale ), plai ( Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ), kaffir lime ( Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil ( Ocimum gratissimum ), lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove ( Syzygium aromaticum ), and cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum ) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR- A. baumannii ). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil ( Melaleuca alternifolia ) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus , E. coli , P. aeruginosa , and A. baumannii . Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa . In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR- A. baumannii with MBC 90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR- A. baumannii infections.

  20. [Effects of low doses of essential oil on the antioxidant state of the erythrocytes, liver, and the brains of mice].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D; Alinkina, E S; Kozachenko, A I; Nagler, L G; Medvedeva, I B; Goloshchapov, A N; Burlakova, E B

    2014-01-01

    We studied the effects of essential oil from oregano and clove and a mixture of lemon essential oil and a ginger extract on the antioxidant state of organs in intact and three experimental groups of Bulb mice. We found that the essential oil was an efficient in vivo bioantioxidant when mice were treated with it for 6 months even at very low doses, such as 300 ng/day. All essential oil studied inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the membranes of erythrocytes that resulted in increased membrane resistance to spontaneous hemolysis, decreased membrane microviscosity, maintenance of their structural integrity, and functional activity. The essential oil substantially decreased the LPO intensity in the liver and the brains of mice and increased the resistance of liver and brain lipids to oxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver. The most expressed bioantioxidant effect on erythrocytes was observed after clove oil treatment, whereas on the liver and brain, after treatment with a mixture of lemon essential oil and a ginger extract.

  1. Developmental changes in growth, yield and volatile oil of some chinese garlic lines in comparison with the local cultivar "Balady".

    PubMed

    Abouziena, H F; El-Saeid, Hamed M

    2013-10-15

    Balady cultivar and six Chinese lines were planted to study their developmental growth, yield and essential oil variations. Bulb of Balady cultivar had more two folds of cloves number per bulb than the Chinese lines. On the contrary Balady cv had the lowest clove weight compared to all Chinese lines. Chinese lines significantly surppassed the Balady cultivar in the bulb yield ha(-1). The bulb yield ha(-1) could be arrangement in descending order as follow Line B > Line F > Line D > Line C > Line A > Line E > Balady cv. Line B significantly surpassed the other tested lines in oil yield and had 7 folds oil yield plant(-1) than the local cultivar. The main compound in the bulb was found to be methylallay disulfide in both Chinese lines and Balady cultivar. Some components which found in the garlic bulbs at the age 150 days disappeared at the maturity time. Chinese Line B recorded the highest bulb yield and volatile oil content comparing with other lines.

  2. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Lalit Kumar D; Jawale, Bhushan Arun; Sharma, Sheeba; Sharma, Hemant; Kumar, C D Mounesh; Kulkarni, Pooja Adwait

    2012-01-01

    Many essential oils have been advocated for use in complementary medicine for bacterial and fungal infections. However, few of the many claims of therapeutic efficacy have been validated adequately by either in vitro testing or in vivo clinical trials. To study the antibacterial activity of nine commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans in vitro and to compare the antibacterial activity between each material. Nine pure essential oils; wintergreen oil, lime oil, cinnamon oil, spearmint oil, peppermint oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil were selected for the study. Streptococcus mutans was inoculated at 37ºC and seeded on blood agar medium. Agar well diffusion assay was used to measure antibacterial activity. Zone of inhibition was measured around the filter paper in millimeters with vernier caliper. Cinnamon oil showed highest activity against Streptococcus mutans followed by lemongrass oil and cedarwood oil. Wintergreen oil, lime oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil showed no antibacterial activity. Cinnamon oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil exhibit antibacterial property against S. mutans. The use of these essential oils against S. mutans can be a viable alternative to other antibacterial agents as these are an effective module used in the control of both bacteria and yeasts responsible for oral infections.

  4. Comparison of Field and Laboratory-Based Tests for Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to Repellents.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Kongmee, Monthathip; Tainchum, Krajana; Suwansirisilp, Kornwika; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2015-12-01

    The repellent and irritant effects of three essential oils-clove, hairy basil, and sweet basil-were compared using an excito-repellency test system against an insecticide-resistant strain of Aedes aegypti (L.) females from Pu Teuy, Kanchanaburi Province. DEET was used as the comparison standard compound. Tests were conducted under field and controlled laboratory conditions. The most marked repellent effect (spatial noncontact assay) among the three test essential oils was exhibited by sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum L. (53.8% escaped mosquitoes in 30-min exposure period) under laboratory conditions while hairy basil, Ocimum americanum L. and clove, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merill et. L.M. Perry from laboratory tests and sweet basil from field tests were the least effective as repellents (0-14%). In contrast, the contact assays measuring combined irritancy (excitation) and repellency effects found the best contact irritant response to hairy basil and DEET in field tests, whereas all others in laboratory and field were relatively ineffective in stimulating mosquitoes to move out the test chambers (0-5.5%). All three essential oils demonstrated significant differences in behavioral responses between field and laboratory conditions, whereas there was no significant difference in contact and noncontact assays for DEET between the two test conditions (P > 0.05). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Identification and HPLC quantitation of the sulfides and dialk(en)yl thiosulfinates in commercial garlic products.

    PubMed

    Lawson, L D; Wang, Z J; Hughes, B G

    1991-08-01

    The content of dialk(en)yl thiosulfinates, including allicin, and their degradation products has been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using the respective determined extinction coefficients, for a number of commercially available garlic products. Quantitation has been achieved for the thiosulfinates; diallyl, methyl allyl, and diethyl mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexasulfides; the vinyldithiins; and (E)- and (Z)-ajoene. The thiosulfinates were found to be released only from garlic cloves and garlic powder products. The vinyldithiins and ajoenes were found only in products containing garlic macerated in vegetable oil. The diallyl, methyl allyl, and dimethyl sulfide series were the exclusive constituents found in products containing the oil of steam-distilled garlic. Typical steam-distilled garlic oil products contained about the same amount of total sulfur compounds as total thiosulfinates released from freshly homogenized garlic cloves; however, oil-macerated products contained only 20% of that amount, while garlic powder products varied from 0 to 100%. Products containing garlic powder suspended in a a gel or garlic aged in aqueous alcohol did not contain detectable amounts of these non-ionic sulfur compounds. A comparison of several brands of each type of garlic product revealed a large range in content (4-fold for oil-macerates and 33-fold for steam-distilled garlic oils), indicating the importance of analysis before garlic products are used for clinical investigations or commercial distribution.

  6. Turbidity and suspended sediment in the upper Esopus Creek watershed, Ulster County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHale, Michael R.; Siemion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Discharge, SSC, and turbidity were strongly related at the Coldbrook site but not at every monitoring site. In general, relations between discharge and SSC and turbidity were strongest at sites with high SSCs, with the exception of Stony Clove Creek. Stony Clove Creek had high SSCs and turbidity regardless of discharge, and although concentrations and turbidity values generally increased with increasing discharge, the relation was not strong. Five of the six sites used to investigate the relations between SSC and laboratory turbidity had a coefficient of determination (r2) greater than 0.7. Relations were not as strong between SSC and the turbidity measured by in situ probes because the period of record was shorter and therefore the sample sizes were smaller. Data from in situ turbidity probes were strongly related to turbidity data measured in the laboratory for all but one of the monitoring sites where the relation was strongly leveraged by one sample. Although the in situ turbidity probes appeared to provide a good surrogate for SSC and could allow more accurate calculations of suspended-sediment load than discrete suspended-sediment samples alone, more data would be required to define the regression models throughout the range in discharge, SSCs, and turbidity levels that occur at each monitoring site. Nonetheless, the in situ probes provided much greater detail about the relation between discharge and turbidity than did the grab samples and storm samples measured in the laboratory.

  7. Essential Oils Against Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria in Minced Meat

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Ushimaru, Priscila Ikeda; da Silva Probst, Isabella

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of oregano, thyme, basil, marjoram, lemongrass, ginger, and clove was investigated in vitro by agar dilution method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteritidis). MIC90% values were tested against bacterial strains inoculated experimentally in irradiated minced meat and against natural microbiota (aerobic or facultative, mesophilic, and psychrotrophic bacteria) found in minced meat samples. MIC90% values ranged from 0.05%v/v (lemongrass oil) to 0.46%v/v (marjoram oil) to Gram-positive bacteria and from 0.10%v/v (clove oil) to 0.56%v/v (ginger oil) to Gram-negative strains. However, the MIC90% assessed on minced meat inoculated experimentally with foodborne pathogen strains and against natural microbiota of meat did not show the same effectiveness, and 1.3 and 1.0 were the highest log CFU/g reduction values obtained against tested microorganisms. PMID:19580445

  8. Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Lalko, J; Api, A M

    2006-05-01

    Essential oils are commonly used fragrance ingredients. The oils themselves are complex mixtures, which may contain naturally occurring contact sensitizers. The local lymph node assay was used to evaluate the dermal sensitization potential of basil, citronella, clove leaf, geranium, litsea cubeba, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. Three of the major components--citral, eugenol, and geraniol--were included to investigate any difference in sensitization potential arising from their exposure in a mixture. Each fragrance material was tested at five concentration ranging from 2.5% to 50% w/v in 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate. The stimulation index (SI) values were calculated for each dose level, an SI > or = 3 was considered a positive response. The estimated concentration (EC3) required to elicit a positive was calculated and taken as a measure of relative potency. The EC3 values and potency classification for basil, clove leaf, litsea cubeba, lemongrass and palmarosa oils were calculated to be <2.5% (> or = moderate), 7.1% (weak), 8.4% (weak), 6.5% (weak) and 9.6% (weak), respectively. Citronella and geranium oils were negative. The individual components citral, eugenol and geraniol resulted in EC3 values of 6.3%, 5.4% and 11.4%, respectively. In general, the potency of each essential oil did not differ significantly from that observed for its main individual component.

  9. Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Irkin, Reyhan; Korukluoglu, Mihriban

    2009-04-01

    Food safety is a fundamental concern of both consumers and the food industry. The increasing incidence of foodborne diseases increases the demand of using antimicrobials in foods. Spices and plants are rich in essential oils and show inhibition activity against microorganisms, which are composed of many compounds. In this research, effects of garlic, bay, black pepper, origanum, orange, thyme, tea tree, mint, clove, and cumin essential oils on Listeria monocytogenes AUFE 39237, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Proteus mirabilis AUFE 43566, Bacillus cereus AUFE 81154, Saccharomyces uvarum UUFE 16732, Kloeckera apiculata UUFE 10628, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida oleophila UUPP 94365, and Metschnikowia fructicola UUPP 23067 and effects of thyme oil at a concentration of 0.5% on L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice during +4 degrees C storage (first to fifth day) were investigated. Strong antibacterial and antifungal activities of some essential oils were found. Thyme, origanum, clove, and orange essential oils were the most inhibitory against bacteria and yeasts. Cumin, tea tree, and mint oils inhibited the yeasts actively. It is concluded that some essential oils could be used as potential biopreservatives capable of controlling foodborne pathogens and food spoilage yeasts.

  10. Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James

    2010-01-01

    Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies. PMID:20711455

  11. Innovation of natural essential oil-loaded Orabase for local treatment of oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Labib, Gihan S; Aldawsari, Hibah

    2015-01-01

    Oral candidiasis may be manifested in the oral cavity as either mild or severe oral fungal infection. This infection results from the overgrowth of Candida species normally existing in the oral cavity in minute amounts based on many predisposing factors. Several aspects have spurred the search for new strategies in the treatment of oral candidiasis, among which are the limited numbers of new antifungal drugs developed in recent years. Previous studies have shown that thyme and clove oils have antimycotic activities and have suggested their incorporation into pharmaceutical preparations. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of the incorporation and characterization of essential oils or their extracted active ingredients in Orabase formulations. Orabase loaded with clove oil, thyme oil, eugenol, and thymol were prepared and evaluated for their antifungal activities, pH, viscosity, erosion and water uptake characteristics, mechanical properties, in vitro release behavior, and ex vivo mucoadhesion properties. All prepared bases showed considerable antifungal activity and acceptable physical characteristics. The release pattern from loaded bases was considerably slow for all oils and active ingredients. All bases showed appreciable adhesion in the in vitro and ex vivo studies. The incorporation of essential oils in Orabase could help in future drug delivery design, with promising outcomes on patients' well-being.

  12. A Multifactorial Comparison of Ternary Combinations of Essential Oils in Topical Preparations to Current Antibiotic Prescription Therapies for the Control of Acne Vulgaris-Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Owen, Lucy; Grootveld, Martin; Arroo, Randolph; Ruiz-Rodado, Victor; Price, Penny; Laird, Katie

    2017-03-01

    Acne vulgaris, a chronic condition associated with overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, is commonly treated with antibiotics. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in a need for alternative therapies. The aim of this study is to develop a topical preparation incorporating essential oils (EOs) for use against acne-associated bacteria and assess its efficacy against prescription therapies Dalacin T and Stiemycin. Antimicrobial screening of rosewood, clove bud and litsea EOs was conducted before interactions between binary and ternary combinations were determined against P. acnes and S. epidermidis (type and clinical isolates) using minimum inhibitory concentrations and fractional inhibitory concentrations. The EOs were characterised by both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. A combination of 0.53 mg/mL litsea, 0.11 mg/mL rosewood and 0.11 mg/mL clove bud was formulated into herbal distillates and compared with Dalacin T and Stiemycin against antibiotic sensitive and resistant isolates (erythromycin). The distillate with EO had synergistic activity against P. acnes (7log 10 reduction) and indifferent activity against S. epidermidis (6log 10 reduction); antimicrobial activity was either significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more antimicrobial or equivalent to that of Dalacin T and Stiemycin. This formulation may serve as a valuable alternative for the control of acne vulgaris-associated bacteria. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Green synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Majeed Khan, M. A.; Siddiqui, M. K. J.; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Alrokayan, Salman A.

    2011-04-01

    Although green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by various plants and microorganisms has been reported, the potential of plants as biological materials for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their compatibility to biological systems is yet to be fully explored. In this study, we report a simple green method for the synthesis of Ag NPs using garlic clove extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition to green synthesis, biological response of Ag NPs in human lung epithelial A549 cells was also assessed. Ag NPs were rapidly synthesized using garlic clove extract and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 30 min. The green synthesized Ag NPs were characterized using UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Characterization data demonstrated that the particles were crystalline in nature and spherical shaped with an average diameter of 12 nm. Measurements of cell viability, cell membrane integrity and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species have shown that the green synthesized Ag NPs were nontoxic to human lung epithelial A549 cells. This study demonstrated a simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign synthesis of Ag NPs with excellent biocompatibility to human lung epithelial A549 cells. This preliminary in vitro investigation needs to be followed up by future studies with various biological systems.

  14. Aflatoxins in spices marketed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Martins, H M; Bernardo, F

    2001-04-01

    Seventy-nine prepackaged samples of 12 different types of spice powders (five cardamom, five cayenne pepper, eight chilli, five cloves, seven cumin, five curry) powder, five ginger, five mustard, 10 nutmeg, 12 paprika, five saffron and seven white pepper) were selected from supermarkets and ethnic shops in Lisbon (Portugal) for estimation of aflatoxins by immunoaffinity column clean-up followed by HPLC. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was detected in 34 samples of prepackaged spices (43.0%). All of the cayenne pepper samples were contaminated with levels ranging from 2 to 32 microg AFB1/kg. Three nutmeg samples contained levels ranging from 1 to 5 microg/kg, three samples had levels ranging from 6 to 20 microg/kg, and there were two with 54 microg/kg and 58 microg/ kg. Paprika contained levels of aflatoxin B1 ranging from 1 to 20 microg/kg. Chilli, cumin, curry powder, saffron and white pepper samples had levels ranging from 1 to 5 microg/kg. Aflotoxins were not detected in cardamon, cloves, ginger and mustard. None of the samples analysed contained aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2.

  15. Antifungal activity of volatile compounds generated by essential oils against fungi commonly causing deterioration of bakery products.

    PubMed

    Guynot, M E; Ramos, A J; Setó, L; Purroy, P; Sanchis, V; Marín, S

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the volatile fractions of 16 essential oils for activity against the more common fungi causing spoilage of bakery products, Eurotium amstelodami, E. herbariorum, E. repens, E. rubrum, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium corylophilum. The study applied 50 microl of pure essential oils in a sterilized filter paper, were carried out at pH 6 and at different water activity levels (0.80-0.90). First, a wheat flour based agar medium was used, where cinnamon leaf, clove, bay, lemongrass and thyme essential oils where found to totally inhibit all microorganisms tested. These five essential oils were then tested in sponge cake analogues, but the antifungal activity detected was much more limited. Five essential oils showed potential antifungal capacity against all species tested, over a wide range of water availability. Their activity, however, seems to be substrate-dependent. More research is needed to make them work in real bakery products, as in the preliminary study limited effectiveness was found. The potential of the cinnamon leaf, clove, bay, lemongrass and thyme essential oils against species belonging to Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genus has been demonstrated.

  16. Handling Technique Development of Live Carp, Cyprinus carpio, In Cold Dry Styrofoam Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketut Suwetja, I.; Salindeho, Netty; Gede Prabawa Suwetja, I.

    2017-10-01

    The study focused on several following aspects: temperature and time optimation for fainting, holding media optimation, temperature and time optimation for recovery, and their correlation with mortality rate of carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fainting occurred at the optimum time of 11 minutes and 03 seconds, temperature of 8°C, and holding time of 6 hours. Holding medium was rice husk. The fastest consciousness of the fish was found in 6 volt-aerated water medium. The fish consciousness after 6 hours of storing in the rice husk at the fainting temperature of 8°C was found faster (p < 0.05), 11 minutes and 15 seconds, than that added with 0.02% of clove oil, 25 minutes and 16 seconds. The fish mortality rate after 6 hours of storage in the rice husk at fainting temperature of 8°C was lower (p < 0.05), 46%, than that with addition of 0.02% of clove oil, 75%.

  17. Ultraviolet-B Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata on Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2015-10-01

    The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. Clove has been traditionally used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and antiseptic effects. To evaluate the UV-B protective activity of flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata (clove) buds on human dermal fibroblast cells. Protective ability of flavonoid-enriched (FE) fraction of clove was studied against UV-B induced cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 antioxidant response element (Nrf2 ARE) pathway. FE fraction showed a significant antioxidant potential. Pretreatment of cells with FE fraction (10-40 μg/ml) reversed the effects of UV-B induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. The present study demonstrated for the first time that the FE fraction from clove could confer UV-B protection probably through the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which included the down-regulation of Nrf2 and HO-1. These findings suggested that the flavonoids from clove could potentially be considered as UV-B protectants and can be explored further for its topical application to the area of the skin requiring protection. Pretreatment of human dermal fibroblast with flavonoid-enriched fraction of Eugenia caryophylata attenuated effects of ultraviolet-B radiationsIt also conferred protection through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response pathway and increased tolerance of cells against oxidative stressFlavonoid-enriched fraction can be explored further for topical application to the skin as a

  18. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Henika, Philip R; Mandrell, Robert E

    2002-10-01

    An improved method of sample preparation was used in a microplate assay to evaluate the bactericidal activity levels of 96 essential oils and 23 oil compounds against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica obtained from food and clinical sources. Bactericidal activity (BA50) was defined as the percentage of the sample in the assay mixture that resulted in a 50% decrease in CFU relative to a buffer control. Twenty-seven oils and 12 compounds were active against all four species of bacteria. The oils that were most active against C. jejuni (with BA50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.009) were marigold, ginger root, jasmine, patchouli, gardenia, cedarwood, carrot seed, celery seed, mugwort, spikenard, and orange bitter oils; those that were most active against E. coli (with BA50 values ranging from 0.046 to 0.14) were oregano, thyme, cinnamon, palmarosa, bay leaf, clove bud, lemon grass, and allspice oils; those that were most active against L monocytogenes (with BA50 values ranging from 0.057 to 0.092) were gardenia, cedarwood, bay leaf, clove bud, oregano, cinnamon, allspice, thyme, and patchouli oils; and those that were most active against S. enterica (with BA50 values ranging from 0.045 to 0.14) were thyme, oregano, cinnamon, clove bud, allspice, bay leaf, palmarosa, and marjoram oils. The oil compounds that were most active against C. jejuni (with BA50 values ranging from 0.003 to 0.034) were cinnamaldehyde, estragole, carvacrol, benzaldehyde, citral, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, carvone R, and geranyl acetate; those that were most active against E. coli (with BA50 values ranging from 0.057 to 0.28) were carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, eugenol, salicylaldehyde, geraniol, isoeugenol, citral, perillaldehyde, and estragole; those that were most active against L monocytogenes (with BA50 values ranging from 0.019 to 0.43) were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, citral, geraniol, perillaldehyde

  19. A survey of fishes associated with Hawaiian deep-water Halimeda kanaloana (Bryopsidales: Halimedaceae) and Avrainvillea sp. (Bryopsidales: Udoteaceae) meadows.

    PubMed

    Langston, Ross C; Spalding, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    The invasive macroalgal species Avrainvillea sp. and native species Halimeda kanaloana form expansive meadows that extend to depths of 80 m or more in the waters off of O'ahu and Maui, respectively. Despite their wide depth distribution, comparatively little is known about the biota associated with these macroalgal species. Our primary goals were to provide baseline information on the fish fauna associated with these deep-water macroalgal meadows and to compare the abundance and diversity of fishes between the meadow interior and sandy perimeters. Because both species form structurally complex three-dimensional canopies, we hypothesized that they would support a greater abundance and diversity of fishes when compared to surrounding sandy areas. We surveyed the fish fauna associated with these meadows using visual surveys and collections made with clove-oil anesthetic. Using these techniques, we recorded a total of 49 species from 25 families for H. kanaloana meadows and surrounding sandy areas, and 28 species from 19 families for Avrainvillea sp. habitats. Percent endemism was 28.6% and 10.7%, respectively. Wrasses (Family Labridae) were the most speciose taxon in both habitats (11 and six species, respectively), followed by gobies for H. kanaloana (six species). The wrasse Oxycheilinus bimaculatus and cardinalfish Apogonichthys perdix were the most frequently-occurring species within the H. kanaloana and Avrainvillea canopies, respectively. Obligate herbivores and food-fish species were rare in both habitats. Surprisingly, the density and abundance of small epibenthic fishes were greater in open sand than in the meadow canopy. In addition, species richness was also higher in open sand for Avrainvillea sp. We hypothesize that the dense holdfasts and rhizoids present within the meadow canopy may impede benthic-dwelling or bioturbator species, which accounted for 86% and 57% of individuals collected in sand adjacent to H. kanaloana and Avrainvillea sp. habitats

  20. Susceptibility of unprotected seeds and seeds of local bambara groundnut cultivars protected with insecticidal essential oils to infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Ajayi; Lale

    2000-01-15

    Ten local cultivars of bambara groundnut, Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt obtained directly from farmers in Potiskum, Nigeria and from the Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru, Nigeria were compared with three improved varieties developed at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria for their susceptibility to infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Three cultivars (Maifarinhaneh, Angale and Bunmonu) with a susceptibility index (SI) of 3.06-3.71 were identified as slightly susceptible to C. maculatus; four cultivars (Bagantere, Bakingangala, Ole and Bakiyawa 1) and one improved variety (TVSU 1061) with an SI of 4.39-4.93 as moderately susceptible; and three cultivars (Bidi, Uzu and Dadinkowa 1) and two improved varieties (TVSU 702 and TVSU 751) with an SI of 5.00-5.34 as susceptible. Five of the cultivars were used to examine the ability of beetle populations to overcome varietal resistance over six successive generations. Development time was significantly longer but percentage of adults that emerged and susceptibility of bambara groundnuts were significantly lower in F(4), F(5) or F(6) generations than in the F(1) or F(2) generation. The efficacy of combining insecticidal essential oils obtained from clove, Syzgium aromaticum, West African black pepper (WABP), Piper guineense, and ginger, Zingiber officinale applied at the rate of 2 mg/20 g seed and six of the local bambara groundnut cultivars (Angale, Maifarinhaneh, Bakingangala, Bagantere, Bunmonu and Bidi) with differing susceptibilities to C. maculatus (F.) was also assessed during a 3-month storage period. The three essential oils significantly reduced the percentage of C. maculatus adults that emerged from the bambara groundnut cultivars in the F(1) generation and the number of adult offspring that developed in the cultivars during the 3-month storage period. The mean number of progeny that developed in untreated seeds and seeds treated with clove, WABP and ginger

  1. Pharmaceutical Perspectives of Spices and Condiments as Alternative Antimicrobial Remedy

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Savita P.; Chavannavar, Suvarna V.; Kanchanashri, B.; Niveditha, S. B.

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal values of spices and condiments are being revived by biologists through in vitro and in vivo trials providing evidence for its antimicrobial activities. The essential oils and extracts of spices like black pepper, cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg contain active compounds like piperine, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, and lignans. Similarly, condiments like coriander, black cumin, turmeric, garlic, and ginger are recognized for constituents like linalool, thymoquinones, curcumin, allicin, and geranial respectively. These act as natural preventive components of several diseases and represent as antioxidants in body cells. Scientists have to investigate the biochemical nature, mode of action, and minimum concentration of administrating active ingredients effectively. This review reports findings of recent research carried out across South Asia and Middle East countries where spices and condiments form chief flavoring components of traditional foods. It narrates the history, myths, and facts people believe in these regions. There may not be scientific explanation but has evidence of cure for centuries. PMID:28449595

  2. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Tang, Guo-Yi; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-06-16

    Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices-such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin-possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens , pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives.

  3. Phenylpropenes: Occurrence, Distribution, and Biosynthesis in Fruit.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ross G

    2018-03-14

    Phenylpropenes such as eugenol, chavicol, estragole, and anethole contribute to the flavor and aroma of a number of important herbs and spices. They have been shown to function as floral attractants for pollinators and to have antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Phenylpropenes are also detected as free volatiles and sequestered glycosides in a range of economically important fresh fruit species including apple, strawberry, tomato, and grape. Although they contribute a relatively small percentage of total volatiles compared with esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, phenylpropenes have been shown to contribute spicy anise- and clove-like notes to fruit. Phenylpropenes are typically found in fruit throughout development and to reach maximum concentrations in ripe fruit. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropenes have been characterized and manipulated in strawberry and apple, which has validated the importance of these compounds to fruit aroma and may help elucidate other functions for phenylpropenes in fruit.

  4. Ecology, Epidemiology and Disease Management of Ralstonia syzygii in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Safni, Irda; Subandiyah, Siti; Fegan, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum species complex phylotype IV strains, which have been primarily isolated from Indonesia, Australia, Japan, Korea, and Malaysia, have undergone recent taxonomic and nomenclatural changes to be placed in the species Ralstonia syzygii . This species contains three subspecies; Ralstonia syzygii subsp. syzygii , a pathogen causing Sumatra disease of clove trees in Indonesia, Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis , the causal pathogen of bacterial wilt disease on a wide range of host plants, and Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis , the causal pathogen of blood disease on Musa spp. In Indonesia, these three subspecies have devastated the cultivation of susceptible host plants which have high economic value. Limited knowledge on the ecology and epidemiology of the diseases has hindered the development of effective control strategies. In this review, we provide insights into the ecology, epidemiology and disease control of these three subspecies of Ralstonia syzygii .

  5. The ability of selected plant essential oils to enhance the action of recommended antibiotics against pathogenic wound bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Łysakowska, Monika; Kowalczyk, Edward; Szymańska, Grażyna; Kochan, Ewa; Krukowska, Jolanta; Olszewski, Jurek; Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the ability of essential oils to support antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria in wounds. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria obtained from wound infections were identified according to standard microbiological methods. Essential oils were analysed by GC-FID-MS. The susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics, essential oils and their combination was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the essential oils were established by the micro-dilution broth method. Although cinnamon, clove, thyme and lavender essential oils were found to have the greatest antibacterial activity when used alone, the greatest additive and synergistic effects against pathogenic wound bacteria in combination with recommended antibiotics were demonstrated by basil, clary sage and rosemary oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Tang, Guo-Yi; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices—such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin—possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives. PMID:28621716

  7. Spices in a Product Affect Emotions: A Study with an Extruded Snack Product †

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Brandon; Adhikari, Koushik; Alavi, Sajid; King, Silvia; Haub, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Food commonly is associated with emotion. The study was designed to determine if a spice blend (cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves) high in antioxidants can evoke changes in consumer emotions. This was an exploratory study to determine the effects of these four spices on emotions. Three extruded, dry snack products containing 0, 4, or a 5% spice blend were tested. One day of hedonic and just-about-right evaluations (n = 100), followed by three days of emotion testing were conducted. A human clinical trial (n = 10), using the control and the 4% samples, measured total antioxidant capacity and blood glucose levels. The emotion “Satisfied” increased significantly in the 5% blend, showing an effect of a higher spice content. The 4% blend was significantly higher in total antioxidant capacity than the baseline, but blood glucose levels were not significantly different. PMID:28820459

  8. Neuroprotection by Spice-Derived Nutraceuticals: You Are What You Eat!

    PubMed Central

    Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Gupta, Subash Chandra; Kim, Ji Hye; Reuter, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lines of evidence indicate that chronic inflammation plays a major role in the development of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, brain tumor, and meningitis. Why these diseases are more common among people from some countries than others is not fully understood, but lifestyle factors have been linked to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. For example, the incidence of certain neurodegenerative diseases among people living in the Asian subcontinent, where people regularly consume spices, is much lower than in countries of the western world. Extensive research over the last 10 years has indicated that nutraceuticals derived from such spices as turmeric, red pepper, black pepper, licorice, clove, ginger, garlic, coriander, and cinnamon target inflammatory pathways, thereby may prevent neurodegenerative diseases. How these nutraceuticals modulate various pathways and how they exert neuroprotection are the focus of this review. PMID:21360003

  9. Mycotoxins in spices and herbs-An update.

    PubMed

    Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W

    2017-01-02

    Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives, and traditional medicines. There are more than 30 spices and herbs of global economic and culinary importance. Among the spices, black pepper, capsicums, cumin, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, turmeric, saffron, coriander, cloves, dill, mint, thyme, sesame seed, mustard seed, and curry powder are the most popular spices worldwide. In addition to their culinary uses, a number of functional properties of aromatic herbs and spices are also well described in the scientific literature. However, spices and herbs cultivated mainly in tropic and subtropic areas can be exposed to contamination with toxigenic fungi and subsequently mycotoxins. This review provides an overview on the mycotoxin risk in widely consumed spices and aromatic herbs.

  10. Essential Oils, Part IV: Contact Allergy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 80 essential oils (including 2 jasmine absolutes) have caused contact allergy. Fifty-five of these have been tested in consecutive patients suspected of contact dermatitis, and nine (laurel, turpentine, orange, tea tree, citronella, ylang-ylang, sandalwood, clove, and costus root) showed greater than 2% positive patch test reactions. Relevance data are generally missing or inadequate. Most reactions are caused by application of pure oils or high-concentration products. The clinical picture depends on the responsible product. Occupational contact dermatitis may occur in professionals performing massages. The (possible) allergens in essential oils are discussed. Several test allergens are available, but patients should preferably be tested with their own products. Co-reactivity with other essential oils and the fragrance mix is frequent, which may partly be explained by common ingredients. Patch test concentrations for essential oils are suggested.

  11. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

    2006-01-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC 50 of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC 50 values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus. PMID:17111463

  12. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).

    PubMed

    Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

    2006-12-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC(50) of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC(50) values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus.

  13. Spices in a Product Affect Emotions: A Study with an Extruded Snack Product †.

    PubMed

    Bell, Brandon; Adhikari, Koushik; Chambers, Edgar; Alavi, Sajid; King, Silvia; Haub, Mark

    2017-08-18

    Food commonly is associated with emotion. The study was designed to determine if a spice blend (cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves) high in antioxidants can evoke changes in consumer emotions. This was an exploratory study to determine the effects of these four spices on emotions. Three extruded, dry snack products containing 0, 4, or a 5% spice blend were tested. One day of hedonic and just-about-right evaluations ( n = 100), followed by three days of emotion testing were conducted. A human clinical trial ( n = 10), using the control and the 4% samples, measured total antioxidant capacity and blood glucose levels. The emotion "Satisfied" increased significantly in the 5% blend, showing an effect of a higher spice content. The 4% blend was significantly higher in total antioxidant capacity than the baseline, but blood glucose levels were not significantly different.

  14. Density functional theoretical modeling, electrostatic surface potential and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies on biosynthesized silver nanoparticles: observation of 400 PM sensitivity to explosives.

    PubMed

    Sil, Sanchita; Chaturvedi, Deepika; Krishnappa, Keerthi B; Kumar, Srividya; Asthana, S N; Umapathy, Siva

    2014-04-24

    Interaction of adsorbate on charged surfaces, orientation of the analyte on the surface, and surface enhancement aspects have been studied. These aspects have been explored in details to explain the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) spectra of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW or CL-20), a well-known explosive, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) using one-pot synthesis of silver nanoparticles via biosynthetic route using natural precursor extracts of clove and pepper. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (bio Ag Nps) have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. SERS studies conducted using bio Ag Nps on different water insoluble analytes, such as CL-20 and TNT, lead to SERS signals at concentration levels of 400 pM. The experimental findings have been corroborated with density functional computational results, electrostatic surface potential calculations, Fukui functions and ζ potential measurements.

  15. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3.

  16. The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, α-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physicochemical Characteristics of Black Garlic after Different Thermal Processing Steps

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ok-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics of black garlic (BG) after different thermal processing steps. Compared with fresh garlic (FG), the moisture content and pH in BG decreased significantly, while the ash content and browning intensity increased during thermal processing. The total mineral and the free sugar contents were significantly higher than that of the BG2 and BG4 samples, respectively. The free sugar content increased by 16-fold in the BG cloves compared with that of FG, while the amino acid content increased during the first stage of thermal processing, and subsequently decreased. The thiosulfinate content in all samples decreased to during thermal processing. The pyruvic acid content initially increased and then decreased during thermal processing. These results contribute to our understanding of the role of thermal processing in the quality formation of BG. PMID:28078257

  18. Ground-water appraisal of the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snavely, Deborah S.

    1980-01-01

    The most productive aquifers in the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, N.Y., are the sand and gravel beds in the northeast corner of the area and along the valleys of Fishkill and Clove Creeks. The average yield of these aquifers to wells is 190 gal/min (gallons per minute). The most productive bedrock aquifer is limestone, which yields an average of about 150 gal/min. Shale and granite each yield an average of less than 35 gal/min. About 4 billion gallons of available ground water is estimated to be in storage in the sand and gravel aquifers in the area. The area withdraws an average of 3.3 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of water in June, July, and August and 2 Mgal/d during the remainder of the year. (USGS)

  19. Optimization of antibacterial activity by Gold-Thread (Coptidis Rhizoma Franch) against Streptococcus mutans using evolutionary operation-factorial design technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Hyang; Lee, Nan-Hee

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to find the optimum extraction condition of Gold-Thread for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using The evolutionary operation-factorial design technique. Higher antibacterial activity was achieved in a higher extraction temperature (R2 = -0.79) and in a longer extraction time (R2 = -0.71). Antibacterial activity was not affected by differentiation of the ethanol concentration in the extraction solvent (R2 = -0.12). The maximum antibacterial activity of clove against S. mutans determined by the EVOP-factorial technique was obtained at 80 degrees C extraction temperature, 26 h extraction time, and 50% ethanol concentration. The population of S. mutans decreased from 6.110 logCFU/ml in the initial set to 4.125 logCFU/ml in the third set.

  20. Ecology, Epidemiology and Disease Management of Ralstonia syzygii in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Safni, Irda; Subandiyah, Siti; Fegan, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum species complex phylotype IV strains, which have been primarily isolated from Indonesia, Australia, Japan, Korea, and Malaysia, have undergone recent taxonomic and nomenclatural changes to be placed in the species Ralstonia syzygii. This species contains three subspecies; Ralstonia syzygii subsp. syzygii, a pathogen causing Sumatra disease of clove trees in Indonesia, Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis, the causal pathogen of bacterial wilt disease on a wide range of host plants, and Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis, the causal pathogen of blood disease on Musa spp. In Indonesia, these three subspecies have devastated the cultivation of susceptible host plants which have high economic value. Limited knowledge on the ecology and epidemiology of the diseases has hindered the development of effective control strategies. In this review, we provide insights into the ecology, epidemiology and disease control of these three subspecies of Ralstonia syzygii. PMID:29662468

  1. Effect of initial temperature and concentration of catalyst in polyeugenol production

    SciTech Connect

    Widayat, E-mail: yayat-99@yahoo.com; Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy Center of Research and Service Diponegoro University Jln Prof. Soedarto, SH. Semarang 50 239, Tel / Fax:; Fatuchrohman, Alviano

    2015-12-29

    Objective of this research to study influencing of sulfuric acid concentration and initials temperature on polymerization of eugenol. Eugenol is the largest compound in the clove oil that used as raw material. Eugenol was polymerized laboratory scale. Polymerization processing conducted in reactor at 30 minutes. Polyeugenol was obtained in polymerization was conducted at temperature 40°C and ratio eugenol to sulfuric acid 1:15 mole. This research was pbtained the highest yield 81.49%. However, the weight would be increase in according with increasing of initial temperature. The polymerization in temperature 50°C with 1:1.5 mole ratio has the heaviest molecule weight; 47,530.76 gr/mole.

  2. Biomaterial based sulphur di oxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Sarkar, A.

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials are getting importance in the present research field of sensors. In this present paper performance of biomaterial based gas sensor made of gum Arabica and garlic extract had been studied. Extract of garlic clove with multiple medicinal and chemical utility can be proved to be useful in sensing Sulphur di Oxide gas. On exposure to Sulphur di Oxide gas the material under observation suffers some temporary structural change, which can be observed in form of amplified potentiometric change through simple electronic circuitry. Exploiting this very property a potentiometric gas sensor of faster response and recovery time can be designed. In this work sensing property of the said material has been studied through DC conductance, FTIR spectrum etc.

  3. [Study on absorbing volatile oil with mesoporous carbon].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-mei; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E; Yang Nan

    2014-11-01

    Clove oil and turmeric oil were absorbed by mesoporous carbon. The absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria Curing powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorietry (DSC). The effects of mesoporous carbon on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. They reached high adsorption rate when the absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was 1:1. When volatile oil was absorbed, dissolution rate of active components had a little improvement and their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was absorbed by the loss rate decreasing more than 50%. Absorbing herbal volatile oil with mesoporous carbon deserves further studying.

  4. Active starch biopolymeric packaging film for sausages embedded with essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Mariane L; de Cezaro, Aline M; Vedovatto, Felipe; Paroul, Natalia; Steffens, Juliana; Valduga, Eunice; Backes, Geciane T; Franceschi, Elton; Cansian, Rogério L

    2017-06-01

    Starch polymer matrices were developed with the incorporation of 1% clove essential oil (EO) ( Syzygium aromaticum ) aiming for use as active packaging for sausages. At the concentration of 1% EO in the polymer matrix, it showed exponential behavior with respect to oil release over 30 days, with faster release in the beginning and a tendency towards a reduction in release velocity over time. The presence of OE in the biofilm led to significant differences versus the control in terms of aroma and flavor parameters. It was found that EO had an antioxidant effect in sausages with a significant difference between treatments with respect to TBA (thiobarbituric acid) values at the end of a 15 day period of refrigerated storage. There were no significant variations in pH and Aw among treatments during the evaluated period. A significant negative correlation (-0.78) between brightness (L*) and the lipid oxidation of the products was observed.

  5. In vitro cholinesterase inhibitory activity of some plants used in Iranian traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Mina; Babaie, Khatereh; Karimpour-Razkenari, Elahe; Vazirian, Mahdi; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza

    2017-11-01

    In this study, in vitro evaluation of cholinesterase inhibitory (ChEI) activity of various plants including betel nuts (Areca catechu L.), clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L.), aerial parts of dodder (Cuscuta chinensis Lam.), common polypody rhizomes (Polypodium vulgare L.) and turpeth roots (Ipomoea turpethum R. Br.) which were recommended for the treatment of AD symptoms in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) is reported. Among them, aqueous extract of A. catechu L. was found as the most potent anti-AChE (IC 50  = 32.00 μg/mL) and anti-BChE (IC 50  = 48.81 ± 0.1200 μg/mL) agent.

  6. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison).

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils of Cananga odorata (ylang ylang), Citrus sinensis (orange), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass), Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus), Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove), were tested for their insecticide activity against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus using the WHO standard susceptibility test. These were applied in soybean oil at dose of 1%, 5% and 10% (w/v). C. citratus had the KT, values against the three mosquito species tested but the knockdown rates (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes) were lower than some essential oils. C. citratus oil had high insecticidal activity against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. dirus, with LC50 values of < 0.1, 2.22 and < 0.1%, respectively. Ten percent C. citratus gave the highest mortality rates (100%) 24 hours after application. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of C. citratus to be used as an insecticide against 3 species of mosquitoes.

  7. Development of Antimicrobial Biocomposite Films to Preserve the Quality of Bread.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Lopez, Kelly J; Andrade-Mahecha, Margarita María; Torres-Vargas, Olga Lucía

    2018-01-19

    This study focused on the development of gelatin-based films with incorporation of microcrystalline cellulose as reinforcement material. Clove ( Syzygium aromaticum ), nutmeg ( Myristica fragrans ), and black pepper ( Piper nigrum ) oleoresins containing antimicrobial compounds of natural origin were incorporated into the films. The mechanical, thermal, optical, and structural properties, as well as color, seal strength and permeability to water vapor, light, and oil of the films were determined. Adding oleoresins to the gelatin matrix increased the elongation of the material and significantly diminished its permeability to water vapor and oil. Evaluation of the potential use of films containing different oleoresins as bread packaging material was influenced by the film properties. The biocomposite film containing oleoresin from black pepper was the most effective packaging material for maintaining bread's quality characteristics.

  8. Identification of Genes Associated with Chlorophyll Accumulation in Flower Petals

    PubMed Central

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25470367

  9. Hyperspectral imaging for predicting the allicin and soluble solid content of garlic with variable selection algorithms and chemometric models.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur; Faqeerzada, Mohammad A; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2018-03-14

    Allicin and soluble solid content (SSC) in garlic is the responsible for its pungent flavor and odor. However, current conventional methods such as the use of high-pressure liquid chromatography and a refractometer have critical drawbacks in that they are time-consuming, labor-intensive and destructive procedures. The present study aimed to predict allicin and SSC in garlic using hyperspectral imaging in combination with variable selection algorithms and calibration models. Hyperspectral images of 100 garlic cloves were acquired that covered two spectral ranges, from which the mean spectra of each clove were extracted. The calibration models included partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression, as well as different spectral pre-processing techniques, from which the highest performing spectral preprocessing technique and spectral range were selected. Then, variable selection methods, such as regression coefficients, variable importance in projection (VIP) and the successive projections algorithm (SPA), were evaluated for the selection of effective wavelengths (EWs). Furthermore, PLS and LS-SVM regression methods were applied to quantitatively predict the quality attributes of garlic using the selected EWs. Of the established models, the SPA-LS-SVM model obtained an Rpred2 of 0.90 and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.01% for SSC prediction, whereas the VIP-LS-SVM model produced the best result with an Rpred2 of 0.83 and SEP of 0.19 mg g -1 for allicin prediction in the range 1000-1700 nm. Furthermore, chemical images of garlic were developed using the best predictive model to facilitate visualization of the spatial distributions of allicin and SSC. The present study clearly demonstrates that hyperspectral imaging combined with an appropriate chemometrics method can potentially be employed as a fast, non-invasive method to predict the allicin and SSC in garlic. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018

  10. In vitro activity of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Candy, Kerdalidec; Melloul, Elise; Bernigaud, Charlotte; Chai, Ling; Darmon, Céline; Durand, Rémy; Botterel, Françoise; Chosidow, Olivier; Izri, Arezki; Huang, Weiyi; Guillot, Jacques

    2016-11-22

    The development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Essential oils have been demonstrated to exhibit fumigant and topical toxicity to a number of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei. The major chemical components of the oils were identified by GC-MS analysis. Contact and fumigation bioassays were performed on Sarcoptes mites collected from experimentally infected pigs. For contact bioassays, essential oils were diluted with paraffin to get concentrations at 10, 5, and even 1% for the most efficient ones. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after contact. For fumigation bioassay, a filter paper was treated with 100 μL of the pure essential oil. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope for the first 5min, and then every 5min until 1h. Using contact bioassays, 1% clove and palmarosa oil killed all the mites within 20 and 50min, respectively. The oils efficacy order was: clove > palmarosa > geranium > tea tree > lavender > manuka > bitter orange > eucalyptus > Japanese cedar. In fumigation bioassays, the efficacy order was: tea tree > clove > eucalyptus > lavender > palmarosa > geranium > Japanese cedar > bitter orange > manuka. In both bioassays, cade oil showed no activity. Essential oils, especially tea tree, clove, palmarosa, and eucalyptus oils, are potential complementary or alternative products to treat S. scabiei infections in humans or animals, as well as to control the mites in the environment.

  11. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10–20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  12. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:24294222

  13. Effects of topical and systemic administration of Eugenia caryophyllata buds essential oil on corneal anesthesia and analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Emad; Hazrati, Reza; Saiah, Gholamreza Vafaei

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Clove) buds (EOEC) is efficacious in the treatment of dental pain. In the present study, we investigated the analgesic and local anesthetic effects of EOEC and its possible mechanisms of action in acute corneal pain in rats. EOEC was extracted by hydro-distillation in a Clevenger type apparatus from clove buds. The acute corneal pain was induced by applying a drop (40 µl) of 5 M NaCl solution on the corneal surface, and the numbers of eye wipes were counted during the first 30 s. The mechanical sensation of the cornea was evaluated by calibrated Von Frey filaments. Systemic administration of EOEC (100 and 200 mg/kg, SC) and morphine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg, IP) produced a significant antinociceptive effect in acute corneal pain. Pretreatment with naloxone or atropine prevented the EOEC-induced analgesia. However, L-arginine and methylene blue did not change the suppressive effect of EOEC on corneal pain response. Topical application of EOEC, eugenol and lidocaine significantly decreased corneal sensitivity. Combination treatments of eugenol (25 µg) with lidocaine (0.5%) and EOEC (50 µg) with lidocaine (0.5%) also significantly suppressed corneal sensitivity. Systemic administration of EOEC produced analgesia in the acute corneal pain through mechanisms that involved both opioidergic and cholinergic systems. In addition, topical instillation of EOEC, eugenol, and lidocaine produced local anesthesia in the rat cornea. Sub-anesthetic doses of EOEC or eugenol produced a significant local anesthetic effect when concurrently used with the sub-anesthetic dose of lidocaine. PMID:27651809

  14. Eastbound. Pioneering community participation.

    PubMed

    1997-03-01

    The government of Indonesia has taken steps to foster economic growth in the eastern region of the country by creating a transportation infrastructure. While many parts of the region still lack sea transportation, the rate of economic growth in the region has outstripped that of the nation since 1993. In this region, clove was the major cash crop, but trade regulations have reduced the profit in clove farming. Maluku was once renowned for its fishing, but this industry is now dominated by big investors, and the region depends upon aid for backward villages and upon loans from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that are funneled through local self-help groups. The Yayasan Indonesia Sejahtera (YIS) has worked in eastern Indonesia since 1974 and is planning to collect data on its most urgent problems and to fund the income-generation project proposals submitted by NGOs. Among these programs are foundations that provide funds for fishermen to purchase motorized boats, loans to groups of traders, and loans for fishermen and for breeding goats and chickens. Women can also procure loans to sell groceries or for farming activities. The self-help groups of fishermen face obstacles when the weather prohibits fishing, and the farmers have problems obtaining good breeders and combating disease among their livestock. The NGOs combat problems caused by a lack of field workers and by limited funds as well as the obstacles caused by the geography of the region. Members of the self-help groups are improving their knowledge and skills, and the NGOs are improving their management capabilities to deal with these challenges.

  15. A Cross Sectional Study of Kretek Smoking in Indonesia as a Major Risk to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous; Kosen, Soewarte; Tjandra, Aditama; Kadarmanto; Qureshi, Farukh; Andes, Linda; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major cause of preventable disease and death worldwide. Kreteks are clove-flavored cigarettes made from a combination of tobacco and ground-clove mixed with a sauce, smoked widely in Indonesia. Because health and social consequences of kretek smoking are potentially as great as those of traditional cigarettes, this study examines the prevalence of kretek smoking in Indonesia and associated risk factors. The study used nationally representative Indonesia Global Adult Tobacco Survey data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to identify correlates of kretek smoking. One- third of Indonesian adults smoked tobacco of which about 90.0% smoked kreteks. Prevalence of kretek smoking among men (60.9%) was more than 25 times the rate among women (2.3%). Overall, the highest prevalence of kretek use was in the age group 45-54 years (36.5%), followed by 34-44 (35.1%), 25-34 (34.2 %), and 55-64 years (32.8%). By wealth index, prevalence of kreteks smoking among those in the middle index was almost 50% above the rate for the wealthiest group (36.4% vs 24.8% respectively). Logistic regression results showed that being male, being older, having less education, and being less wealthy were significant predictors of kretek smoking, while urban vs rural residence was not. Kretek smoking is common in Indonesia and is entrenched in the sociocultural fabric of the country. However, potential consequences of kretek smoking, particularly as risks for noncommunicable diseases, underscore the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control as outlined in the World Health Organization's MPOWER strategies.

  16. Androstadienone's influence on the perception of facial and vocal attractiveness is not sex specific.

    PubMed

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Delplanque, Sylvain; Atanassova, Reni; Sander, David

    2016-04-01

    The androgen steroid androstadienone, an odorous compound emitted from the human axillary region, has recurrently been considered as a candidate compound involved in human chemical communication and mate choice. Although perception of androstadienone has been shown to influence several affective (mood), attentional, physiological and neural parameters, studies investigating its impact on human attractiveness remain unpersuasive because of incomplete designs (e.g., only female participants) and contradictory results. The aim of this study was to investigate how androstadienone may influence others' attractiveness. Specifically, we used a complete design (male and female raters, male and female faces and voices) to determine whether androstadienone influences the perception of social stimuli in a sex-specific manner, which would favor pheromonal-like properties of the compound, or in a more general manner, which would suggest that the compound has broader influences on human psychological responses. After comparing the ratings of men and women who were exposed to androstadienone masked in clove oil with those of men and women who were exposed to clove oil alone, we found that androstadienone enhanced the perceived attractiveness of emotionally relevant stimuli (opposite-sex stimuli in men and in fertile women). Response times for categorizing the stimuli as attractive or not were also affected by androstadienone, with longer response times in men and in fertile women and shorter response times in non-fertile women, irrespective of the stimulus sex. The results favor the hypothesis of general effects over sex-specific effects of androstadienone, thus questioning the relevance of focusing on that particular compound in the study of human attractiveness through body odor and encouraging the search for other semiochemicals that might be significant for human mate choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of endoscopic sinus surgery on olfaction and use of alternative components in odor threshold measurement.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Divya; Gulati, Achal; Singh, Ishwar; Tekur, Uma

    2015-01-01

    One of the major causes of olfactory disturbances is chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and the main surgical modality to treat CRS is functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). It, therefore, is essential to assess the effect of this surgery on olfaction. Also, it is necessary to find new ways of measuring olfaction so as to reduce dependability on standard tests available. To study the prevalence of olfactory impairment in patients with CRS and to evaluate the impact of FESS on olfaction. The study also aims at investigating the use of other odorants in place of butanol-1 in the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test. Forty patients of CRS without nasal polyposis were included in the study to analyze the prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and examine the influence of FESS at 1 and 3 months after surgery. Computed tomography scores (Lund Mackay scores) were calculated preoperatively, whereas other tests, viz., visual analog scale scoring, nasal endoscopy (Lund Kennedy scoring), and composite olfactory testing with odor thresholds of butanol-1, peppermint, lemon, clove, and ethyl acetate were carried out before surgery and after surgery at 1 and 3 months. Of 40 patients, 70% had symptoms of hyposmia or of anosmia before surgery, which dropped to 22.5% at 1 month after surgery and to 10% at 3 months after surgery. Nasal endoscopy and visual analog scale scores improved significantly. Odor threshold and odor identification scores also improved compared with the preoperative levels. A significant positive correlation was found between the threshold scores of butanol-1 and other odorants, both before and after surgery. Significant improvement was observed in olfaction after FESS, both in patient responses and in objective testing. The olfactory results with peppermint, lemon, clove, and ethyl acetate were close to those with butanol-1, and, hence, these other odorants can be used in place of butanol-1 in measuring the odor threshold.

  18. Chemical composition and efficacy of some selected plant oils against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yones, Doaa A; Bakir, Hanaa Y; Bayoumi, Soad A L

    2016-08-01

    Natural compounds have been suggested as alternative sources for pediculosis capitis control. We aimed to investigate the chemical composition and evaluate the pediculicidal activity of spearmint, clove, cassia, thyme, eucalyptus, and anise essential oils in addition to sesame oil against human head lice in vitro. A filter paper contact bioassay method was used by applying 0.25 and 0.5 mg/cm(2) of each tested oil to filter paper in Petri dishes with 15 females head lice and another with ten nits. The lice mortalities were reported every 5 min for 180 min. The percentage of inhibition of hatch (PIH) was used to calculate ovicidal activity by daily microscopic inspections 5 days after the hatching of controls. Comparison with the widely used pediculicide (malathion) was performed. The most effective essential oil was spearmint followed by cassia and clove with KT50 values of 4.06, 7.62, and 12.12 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 8.84, 11.38, and 19.73 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Thyme, eucalyptus, and anise were also effective adulticides with KT50 values of 18.61, 32.65, and 37.34 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 29.92, 43.16, and 45.37 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Essential oils were also successful in inhibiting nymph emergence. Spearmint oil was the most effective, with a complete inhibition of emergence at 0.5 mg/cm(2). Sesame fixed oil did not show any adulticidal or ovicidal activity against head lice in vitro. The observed insecticidal activity was comparable to malathion. The results herein described the effectiveness of these essential oils as potential pediculicides for head lice control. Incorporation of essential oils in pediculicide formulations needs proper formulation and clinical trials.

  19. A facile, bio-based, novel approach for synthesis of covalently functionalized graphene nanoplatelet nano-coolants toward improved thermo-physical and heat transfer properties.

    PubMed

    Sadri, Rad; Hosseini, Maryam; Kazi, S N; Bagheri, Samira; Abdelrazek, Ali H; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Zubir, Nashrul; Ahmad, Roslina; Abidin, N I Z

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized covalently functionalized graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) aqueous suspensions that are highly stable and environmentally friendly for use as coolants in heat transfer systems. We evaluated the heat transfer and hydrodynamic properties of these nano-coolants flowing through a horizontal stainless steel tube subjected to a uniform heat flux at its outer surface. The GNPs functionalized with clove buds using the one-pot technique. We characterized the clove-treated GNPs (CGNPs) using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We then dispersed the CGNPs in distilled water at three particle concentrations (0.025, 0.075 and 0.1wt%) in order to prepare the CGNP-water nanofluids (nano-coolants). We used ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy to examine the stability and solubility of the CGNPs in the distilled water. There is significant enhancement in thermo-physical properties of CGNPs nanofluids relative those for distilled water. We validated our experimental set-up by comparing the friction factor and Nusselt number for distilled water obtained from experiments with those determined from empirical correlations, indeed, our experimental set-up is reliable and produces results with reasonable accuracy. We conducted heat transfer experiments for the CGNP-water nano-coolants flowing through the horizontal heated tube in fully developed turbulent condition. Our results are indeed promising since there is a significant enhancement in the Nusselt number and convective heat transfer coefficient for the CGNP-water nanofluids, with only a negligible increase in the friction factor and pumping power. More importantly, we found that there is a significant increase in the performance index, which is a positive indicator that our nanofluids have potential to substitute conventional coolants in heat transfer systems because of their overall thermal performance and energy savings benefits. Copyright © 2017

  20. PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS): diagnostic and testing eligibility criteria, differential diagnosis, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Rios, Jonathan J; Parker, Victoria E R; Semple, Robert K; Lindhurst, Marjorie J; Sapp, Julie C; Alomari, Ahmad; Ezaki, Marybeth; Dobyns, William; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2015-02-01

    Somatic activating mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway underlie heterogeneous segmental overgrowth phenotypes. Because of the extreme differences among patients, we sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum associated with different genotypes and mutation burdens, including a better understanding of associated complications and natural history. Historically, the clinical diagnoses in patients with PIK3CA activating mutations have included Fibroadipose hyperplasia or Overgrowth (FAO), Hemihyperplasia Multiple Lipomatosis (HHML), Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and Spinal (CLOVES) syndrome, macrodactyly, Fibroadipose Infiltrating Lipomatosis, and the related megalencephaly syndromes, Megalencephaly-Capillary Malformation (MCAP or M-CM) and Dysplastic Megalencephaly (DMEG). A workshop was convened at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to discuss and develop a consensus document regarding diagnosis and treatment of patients with PIK3CA-associated somatic overgrowth disorders. Participants in the workshop included a group of researchers from several institutions who have been studying these disorders and have published their findings, as well as representatives from patient-advocacy and support groups. The umbrella term of "PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS)" was agreed upon to encompass both the known and emerging clinical entities associated with somatic PIK3CA mutations including, macrodactyly, FAO, HHML, CLOVES, and related megalencephaly conditions. Key clinical diagnostic features and criteria for testing were proposed, and testing approaches summarized. Preliminary recommendations for a uniform approach to assessment of overgrowth and molecular diagnostic testing were determined. Future areas to address include the surgical management of overgrowth tissue and vascular anomalies, the optimal approach to thrombosis risk, and the testing of potential

  1. PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS): Diagnostic and Testing Eligibility Criteria, Differential Diagnosis, and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Rios, Jonathan J.; Parker, Victoria E.R.; Semple, Robert K.; Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Sapp, Julie C.; Alomari, Ahmad; Ezaki, Marybeth; Dobyns, William; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2015-01-01

    Somatic activating mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway underlie heterogeneous segmental overgrowth phenotypes. Because of the extreme differences among patients, we sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum associated with different genotypes and mutation burdens, including a better understanding of associated complications and natural history. Historically, the clinical diagnoses in patients with PIK3CA activating mutations have included Fibroadipose hyperplasia or Overgrowth (FAO), Hemihyperplasia Multiple Lipomatosis (HHML), Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and Spinal (CLOVES) syndrome, macrodactyly, Fibroadipose Infiltrating Lipomatosis, and the related megalencephaly syndromes, Megalencephaly-Capillary Malformation (MCAP or M-CM) and Dysplastic Megalencephaly (DMEG). A workshop was convened at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to discuss and develop a consensus document regarding diagnosis and treatment of patients with PIK3CA-associated somatic overgrowth disorders. Participants in the workshop included a group of researchers from several institutions who have been studying these disorders and have published their findings, as well as representatives from patient-advocacy and support groups. The umbrella term of “PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS)” was agreed upon to encompass both the known and emerging clinical entities associated with somatic PIK3CA mutations including, macrodactyly, FAO, HHML, CLOVES, and related megalencephaly conditions. Key clinical diagnostic features and criteria for testing were proposed, and testing approaches summarized. Preliminary recommendations for a uniform approach to assessment of overgrowth and molecular diagnostic testing were determined. Future areas to address include the surgical management of overgrowth tissue and vascular anomalies, the optimal approach to thrombosis risk, and the testing of potential

  2. Assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori using urease breath test

    PubMed Central

    Zardast, Mahmoud; Namakin, Kokab; Esmaelian Kaho, Jamil; Hashemi, Sarira Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common pathogenic bacteria in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of oral garlic administration on bacterial urease activity inside the stomach and its contribution to the treatment of H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 15 patients were studied quantitatively with Urease Breath Test (UBT). The patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a positive serum H. pylori IgG were enrolled. UBT was performed for each patient in three sessions as follows: at the beginning of the study, an initial UBT was performed based on which, the positive cases entered the study and the negative ones were excluded. Second UBT was done three days later in patients who were not receiving any treatment and were considered as the control, whereas the third UBT was performed three days after prescribing two medium-sized cloves of garlic (3 g) with their meal, twice a day (at noon and in the evening). The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests and the significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: the mean UBT significantly differed before and after treatment with garlic cloves, being significantly lower after garlic consumption. No meaningful difference was observed in the mean UBT without garlic consumption between the first and second steps. Conclusion: Raw garlic has anti-bacterial effects against H. pylori residing in the stomach and may be prescribed along with routine drugs for the treatment of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:27761418

  3. Selected Essential Oils as Antifungal Agents Against Antibiotic-Resistant Candida spp.: In Vitro Study on Clinical and Food-Borne Isolates.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Maroszyńska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Candida spp. cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. As a result of the increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogenic yeasts, the interest in alternative agents of antifungal activity is growing. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils (EOs) against Candida clinical and food-borne strains, including antibiotic-resistant isolates, in relation to yeast cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH). Candida strains showed different range of susceptibility to tea tree, thyme, peppermint, and clove oils, and peppermint oil demonstrated the lowest anticandidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.03-8.0% v/v. MIC values for thyme and clove oils ranged from 0.03% to 0.25% v/v, and for tea tree oil-from 0.12% to 2.0% v/v. The exception was Candida tropicalis food-borne strain, the growth of which was inhibited after application of EOs at concentration of 8% v/v. Due to diverse yeast susceptibility to EOs, isolates were divided into five clusters in a principal component analysis model, each containing both clinical and food-borne strains. Hydrophobic properties of yeast were also diversified, and 37% of clinical and 50% of food-borne strains exhibited high hydrophobicity. The study indicates high homology of clinical and food-borne Candida isolates in relation to their susceptibility to anticandidal agents and hydrophobic properties. The susceptibility of yeasts to EOs could be partially related to their CSH. High antifungal activity of examined EOs, also against antibiotic-resistant isolates, indicates their usefulness as agents preventing the development of Candida strains of different origin.

  4. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  5. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products.

  6. Efficacy of Specific Plant Products on Microorganisms Causing Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Kanth, M Rajini; Prakash, A Ravi; Sreenath, G; Reddy, Vikram Simha; Huldah, S

    2016-12-01

    Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common oral diseases seen globally, both in developed and developing countries. Oral microorganisms that is gram positive and gram negative bacteria are known to be involved in causation of these diseases. Nowadays commercially available dentrifices and mouth rinses are known to contain ingredients that can alter the oral microbial flora and have undesirable side effects such as vomiting, diarrhoea, disarrangement of oral, intestinal flora and tooth staining. Naturally available plant products are known to be less harmful with fewer side effects and also economical for the patient. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of 10 naturally available plant products against oral microorganisms causing caries and to check the efficacy of these products in-vitro and to use these in mouth washes and dentrifices. Sample of caries material was scrapped out from the extracted teeth and transferred to liquid broth, streaked over the agar media to allow for the growth of microorganisms. Plant products like clove oil, neem, ginger-garlic paste, tea tree oil, ginger, garlic, cinnamon oil, green tea, eucalyptus oil and turmeric were used. Antimicrobial efficacy of these products, was estimated by measuring zones of inhibition in the nutrient agar media. Clove oil was the most effective of all products against microorganisms causing caries with zone of inhibition - 30mm followed by ginger-garlic paste - 25mm, Neem - 15mm, tea tree oil - 15mm. Based on the above results, it can be inferred that these natural products have the maximum efficacy against microorganisms and can be recommended in dentifrices, mouth rinses, topical gels, etc.

  7. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  8. Protective Effects of Essential Oils as Natural Antioxidants against Hepatotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheweita, Salah A.; El-Hosseiny, Lobna S.; Nashashibi, Munther A.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical application of cyclophosphamide (CP) as an anticancer drug is often limited due to its toxicity. CP is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 system into acrolein which is the proximate toxic metabolite. Many different natural antioxidants were found to alleviate the toxic effects of various toxic agents via different mechanisms. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the role of essential oils extracted from fennel, cumin and clove as natural antioxidants in the alleviation of hepatotoxicity induced by CP through assessment of hepatotoxicity biomarkers (AST, ALT, ALP), histopathology of liver tissues as well as other biochemical parameters involved in the metabolism of CP. The data of the present study showed that treatment of male mice with cyclophosphamide (2.5 mg/Kg BW) as repeated dose for 28 consecutive days was found to induce hepatotoxicity through the elevation in the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP. Combined administration of any of these oils with CP to mice partially normalized the altered hepatic biochemical markers caused by CP, whereas administration of fennel, clove or cumin essential oils alone couldn’t change liver function indices. Moreover, CP caused histological changes in livers of mice including swelling and dilation in sinusoidal space, inflammation in portal tract and hepatocytes, as well as, hyperplasia in Kuppfer cells. However, co-administration of any of the essential oils with CP alleviated to some extent the changes caused by CP but not as the normal liver. CP was also found to induce free radical levels (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and inhibited the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase as well as activities and protein expressions of both glutathione S-transferase (GSTπ) and glutathione peroxidase. Essential oils restored changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GR, GST, and GPx) caused by CP to their normal levels compared

  9. Protective Effects of Essential Oils as Natural Antioxidants against Hepatotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sheweita, Salah A; El-Hosseiny, Lobna S; Nashashibi, Munther A

    2016-01-01

    Clinical application of cyclophosphamide (CP) as an anticancer drug is often limited due to its toxicity. CP is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 system into acrolein which is the proximate toxic metabolite. Many different natural antioxidants were found to alleviate the toxic effects of various toxic agents via different mechanisms. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the role of essential oils extracted from fennel, cumin and clove as natural antioxidants in the alleviation of hepatotoxicity induced by CP through assessment of hepatotoxicity biomarkers (AST, ALT, ALP), histopathology of liver tissues as well as other biochemical parameters involved in the metabolism of CP. The data of the present study showed that treatment of male mice with cyclophosphamide (2.5 mg/Kg BW) as repeated dose for 28 consecutive days was found to induce hepatotoxicity through the elevation in the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP. Combined administration of any of these oils with CP to mice partially normalized the altered hepatic biochemical markers caused by CP, whereas administration of fennel, clove or cumin essential oils alone couldn't change liver function indices. Moreover, CP caused histological changes in livers of mice including swelling and dilation in sinusoidal space, inflammation in portal tract and hepatocytes, as well as, hyperplasia in Kuppfer cells. However, co-administration of any of the essential oils with CP alleviated to some extent the changes caused by CP but not as the normal liver. CP was also found to induce free radical levels (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and inhibited the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase as well as activities and protein expressions of both glutathione S-transferase (GSTπ) and glutathione peroxidase. Essential oils restored changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GR, GST, and GPx) caused by CP to their normal levels compared

  10. Does the taste matter? Taste and medicinal perceptions associated with five selected herbal drugs among three ethnic groups in West Yorkshire, Northern England

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Andrea; Torry, Bren

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, diverse scholars have addressed the issue of the chemosensory perceptions associated with traditional medicines, nevertheless there is still a distinct lack of studies grounded in the social sciences and conducted from a cross-cultural, comparative perspective. In this urban ethnobotanical field study, 254 informants belonging to the Gujarati, Kashmiri and English ethnic groups and living in Western Yorkshire in Northern England were interviewed about the relationship between taste and medicinal perceptions of five herbal drugs, which were selected during a preliminary study. The herbal drugs included cinnamon (the dried bark of Cinnamomum verum, Lauraceae), mint (the leaves of Mentha spp., Lamiaceae), garlic (the bulbs of Allium sativum, Alliaceae), ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae), and cloves (the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum, Myrtaceae). The main cross-cultural differences in taste perceptions regarded the perception the perception of the spicy taste of ginger, garlic, and cinnamon, of the bitter taste of ginger, the sweet taste of mint, and of the sour taste of garlic. The part of the study of how the five selected herbal drugs are perceived medicinally showed that TK (Traditional Knowledge) is widespread among Kashmiris, but not so prevalent among the Gujarati and especially the English samples. Among Kashmiris, ginger was frequently considered to be helpful for healing infections and muscular-skeletal and digestive disorders, mint was chosen for healing digestive and respiratory troubles, garlic for blood system disorders, and cinnamon was perceived to be efficacious for infectious diseases. Among the Gujarati and Kashmiri groups there was evidence of a strong link between the bitter and spicy tastes of ginger, garlic, cloves, and cinnamon and their perceived medicinal properties, whereas there was a far less obvious link between the sweet taste of mint and cinnamon and their perceived medicinal

  11. The effects of different spices and fat types on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in barbecued sucuk.

    PubMed

    Unal, Kubra; Karakaya, Mustafa; Oz, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    Sucuk is one of the popular traditional Turkish meat products. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of different spices (clove, 0.2%; cinnamon, 0.5%) and animal fat types (beef fat, tallow, subcutaneous and tail fat) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine (HCA) in barbecued sucuk. Although 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAαC) could not be detected in the any of the samples, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (IQx) (up to 0.54 ng g -1 ), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) (up to 5.96 ng g -1 ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) (up to 0.21 ng g -1 ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) (up to 0.34 ng g -1 ), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx) (up to 0.32 ng g -1 ), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) (up to 0.19 ng g -1 ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (up to 1.94 ng g -1 ) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) (up to 0.98 ng g -1 ) were found in the barbecued sucuk samples. The results of the current study have shown that HCAs could be formed in barbecued sucuk. Total HCA can be affected by adding different fat types; however, adding clove and cinnamon decreased the total HCA content in the subcutaneous fat group of sucuk samples. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Evaluation of alternatives to cautery disbudding of dairy goat kids using physiological measures of immediate and longer-term pain.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Melissa N; Waas, Joseph R; Stewart, Mairi; Cave, Vanessa M; Sutherland, Mhairi A

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated alternatives to cautery disbudding of goat kids using physiological measures of immediate and longer-term pain. Fifty Saanen doe kids were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (n = 10/treatment): (1) cautery disbudding (CAUT), (2) caustic paste disbudding (CASP), (3) liquid nitrogen disbudding (CRYO), (4) clove oil injected into the horn bud (CLOV), or (5) sham disbudding (SHAM). Serum cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations were measured from blood samples collected immediately before treatment (baseline) and at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min and then again at 6 and 24 h post-treatment. An infrared thermography camera was used to take images of the horn buds 24 h pre- and 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment to measure skin temperature. Body weight was measured daily for 1 wk to assess weight change post-treatment. Images of the horn buds were taken at d 1, 2, and 7 and at 6 wk post-treatment to assess tissue damage and wound healing. Mean cortisol concentrations were elevated in CASP kids 1 h post-treatment relative to CAUT kids. Cortisol concentrations of CRYO kids were higher than those of CAUT kids 30 min post-treatment; concentrations for CLOV kids were similar to CAUT kids post-treatment. Mean haptoglobin concentrations were similar across treatments over time; however, CLOV kids had higher concentrations at 24 h post-treatment than all other treatments. Skin temperatures of CASP and CLOV kids were elevated relative to CAUT kids at all time points post-treatment, and all disbudded kids had skin temperatures above those of SHAM kids at 72 h post-treatment. Treatment did not influence weight gain. The CAUT kids had large, open wounds exposing bone; small scabs were still evident 6 wk post-treatment. The CASP kids had red and open, raw wounds that generated large eschars, apparent for up to 6 wk. The CRYO kids had closed, dry wounds initially, but over time lesions appeared that caused open wounds; small scabs were present 6 wk post-treatment. The CLOV kids

  13. Complementary and alternative therapies in dentistry and characteristics of dentists who recommend them.

    PubMed

    Baatsch, Beatrice; Zimmer, Stefan; Rodrigues Recchia, Daniela; Büssing, Arndt

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse whether dentists offer or recommend complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) remedies in their clinical routine, and how effective these are rated by proponents and opponents. A second aim of this study was to give a profile of the dentists endorsing CAM. A prospective, explorative, anonymised cross-sectional survey was spread among practicing dentists in Germany via congresses, dental periodicals and online (n=250, 55% male, 45% female; mean age 49.1±11.4years). Of a set of 31 predefined CAM modalities, the dentists integrated plant extracts from Arnica montana (64%), chamomile (64%), clove (63%), Salvia officinalis (54%), but also relaxation therapies (62%), homeopathy (57%), osteopathic medicine (50%) and dietetics (50%). The effectiveness of specific treatments was rated significantly higher (p<0.0001) by CAM proponents than opponents. However also CAM opponents classified some CAM remedies as highly effective, namely ear acupuncture, osteopathic medicine and clove. For ear acupuncture these scores did not significantly differ between both groups. With respect to the characteristic of the proponents, the majority of CAM endorsing dentists were women. The mean age (50.4±0.9 vs 47.0±0.9years) and number of years of professional experience (24.2±1.0 vs 20.0±1.0years) were significantly higher for CAM proponents than the means for opponents (p<0.0001 respectively). CAM proponents worked significantly less (p<0.0001) and their perceived workload was significantly lower (p=0.008). Their self-efficacy expectation (SEE) and work engagement (Utrecht work engagement, UWE) were significantly higher (p≤0.01 and p<0.0001) compared to dentists who abandoned these treatment options. The logistic regression model showed (exploratively) an increased association from CAM proponents with the UWES subscale dedication, with years of experience, and that men are less likely to be CAM proponents than women. Various CAM treatments are

  14. Dextran based herbal nanobiocomposite membranes for scar free wound healing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surabhi; Gupta, Amlan; Sharma, Deepika; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2018-07-01

    Dextran based bionanocomposite membranes encapsulating clove oil (CO) and sandalwood oil (SO) that are capable of preventing infection due to their inherent virtue of antibacterial activity and modifying the wound healing cascade for accelerated scar free healing, were developed. A facile solvent casting technique was used to fabricate dextran/nanosoy/glycerol/chitosan (DNG/Ch) nanocomposite membranes followed by subsequent addition of CO and SO to obtain DNG/Ch/CO and DNG/Ch/SO herbal nanodressings. Dressings exhibited >98% antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) at extremely low loadings of 5% and 10% for CO and SO, respectively. This encapsulation strategy allowed controlled diffusion of EO over a period of 72h which was measured in terms of drug efficacy using bacterial reduction count test and serial plate transfer disk diffusion test (SPTDDT). Swelling behavior and mechanical properties were also examined. Bacterial adherence study was performed to demonstrate the efficiency of dressings for arresting microbial invasion. In vivo wound healing studies were conducted using male swiss albino mice of BALB/c strain and DNG/Ch/CO dressings exhibited complete healing within 14days with remarkable efficacy in scar prevention. Histological analysis revealed that CO and SO treatment led to deposition of ordered collagen along with fibroblast migration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Walking patterns induced by learned odors in the honeybee, Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toshiya; Haupt, S Shuichi; Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Ai, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The odor localization strategy induced by odors learned via differential conditioning of the proboscis extension response was investigated in honeybees. In response to reward-associated but not non-reward-associated odors, learners walked longer paths than non-learners and control bees. When orange odor reward association was learned, the path length and the body turn angles were small during odor stimulation and greatly increased after stimulation ceased. In response to orange odor, bees walked locally with alternate left and right turns during odor stimulation to search for the reward-associated odor source. After odor stimulation, bees walked long paths with large turn angles to explore the odor plume. For clove odor, learning-related modulations of locomotion were less pronounced, presumably due to a spontaneous preference for orange in the tested population of bees. This study is the first to describe how an odor-reward association modulates odor-induced walking in bees. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Probe Heating Method for the Analysis of Solid Samples Using a Portable Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Kumano, Shun; Sugiyama, Masuyuki; Yamada, Masuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazushige; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morokuma, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported on the development of a portable mass spectrometer for the onsite screening of illicit drugs, but our previous sampling system could only be used for liquid samples. In this study, we report on an attempt to develop a probe heating method that also permits solid samples to be analyzed using a portable mass spectrometer. An aluminum rod is used as the sampling probe. The powdered sample is affixed to the sampling probe or a droplet of sample solution is placed on the tip of the probe and dried. The probe is then placed on a heater to vaporize the sample. The vapor is then introduced into the portable mass spectrometer and analyzed. With the heater temperature set to 130°C, the developed system detected 1 ng of methamphetamine, 1 ng of amphetamine, 3 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 1 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, and 0.3 ng of cocaine. Even from mixtures consisting of clove powder and methamphetamine powder, methamphetamine ions were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. The developed probe heating method provides a simple method for the analysis of solid samples. A portable mass spectrometer incorporating this method would thus be useful for the onsite screening of illicit drugs. PMID:26819909

  17. Composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of seven essential oils from the North American boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Poaty, Bouddah; Lahlah, Jasmina; Porqueres, Félicia; Bouafif, Hassine

    2015-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) were steam-extracted from the needles and twigs of balsam fir, black spruce, white spruce, tamarack, jack pine and eastern white cedar that remained after logging in eastern Canada. These EOs, similarly to that from Labrador tea and other commercial EOs from Chinese cinnamon, clove and lemon eucalyptus, exhibited many common constituent compounds (mainly α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and bornyl acetate) making up 91% of each oil based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. All of these oils exhibited antibacterial properties, especially when examined in closed tube assay compared to the traditional 96-well microliter format. These antimicrobial activities (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 0.2% w/v), comparable to those of exotic EOs, were shown against common pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antioxidant potential of the boreal samples was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (concentration providing 50% inhibition ≥ 7 mg/ml) and reducing power methods. Finally, this investigation revealed some boreal EOs to be potential antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that would notably benefit products in the personal hygiene and care industry.

  18. Data-driven signal-resolving approaches of infrared spectra to explore the macroscopic and microscopic spatial distribution of organic and inorganic compounds in plant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-bo; Sun, Su-qin; Zhou, Qun

    2015-07-01

    The nondestructive and label-free infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a direct tool to characterize the spatial distribution of organic and inorganic compounds in plant. Since plant samples are usually complex mixtures, signal-resolving methods are necessary to find the spectral features of compounds of interest in the signal-overlapped IR spectra. In this research, two approaches using existing data-driven signal-resolving methods are proposed to interpret the IR spectra of plant samples. If the number of spectra is small, "tri-step identification" can enhance the spectral resolution to separate and identify the overlapped bands. First, the envelope bands of the original spectrum are interpreted according to the spectra-structure correlations. Then the spectrum is differentiated to resolve the underlying peaks in each envelope band. Finally, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy is used to enhance the spectral resolution further. For a large number of spectra, "tri-step decomposition" can resolve the spectra by multivariate methods to obtain the structural and semi-quantitative information about the chemical components. Principal component analysis is used first to explore the existing signal types without any prior knowledge. Then the spectra are decomposed by self-modeling curve resolution methods to estimate the spectra and contents of significant chemical components. At last, targeted methods such as partial least squares target can explore the content profiles of specific components sensitively. As an example, the macroscopic and microscopic distribution of eugenol and calcium oxalate in the bud of clove is studied.

  19. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Three Different Postzygotic Mutations in PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS) Patients: Effects on PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling and Sensitivity to PIK3 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Giovanna; Bagnulo, Rosanna; Stella, Alessandro; Lastella, Patrizia; Cutrone, Mario; Benedicenti, Francesco; Susca, Francesco C.; Patruno, Margherita; Varvara, Dora; Germani, Aldo; Chessa, Luciana; Laforgia, Nicola; Tenconi, Romano; Simone, Cristiano; Resta, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Background PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) include a group of disorders that affect only the terminal portion of a limb, such as type I macrodactyly, and conditions like fibroadipose overgrowth (FAO), megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) syndrome, congenital lipomatous asymmetric overgrowth of the trunk, lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal and spinal anomalies (CLOVES) syndrome and Hemihyperplasia Multiple Lipomatosis (HHML). Heterozygous postzygotic PIK3CA mutations are frequently identified in these syndromes, while timing and tissue specificity of the mutational event are likely responsible for the extreme phenotypic variability observed. Methods We carried out a combination of Sanger sequencing and targeted deep sequencing of genes involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in three patients (1 MCAP and 2 FAO) to identify causative mutations, and performed immunoblot analyses to assay the phosphorylation status of AKT and P70S6K in affected dermal fibroblasts. In addition, we evaluated their ability to grow in the absence of serum and their response to the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 in vitro. Results and Conclusion Our data indicate that patients’ cells showed constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Of note, PI3K pharmacological blockade resulted in a significant reduction of the proliferation rate in culture, suggesting that inhibition of PI3K might prove beneficial in future therapies for PROS patients. PMID:25915946

  20. Inhibition of protein glycation by extracts of culinary herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Dearlove, Rebecca P; Greenspan, Phillip; Hartle, Diane K; Swanson, Ruthann B; Hargrove, James L

    2008-06-01

    We tested whether polyphenolic substances in extracts of commercial culinary herbs and spices would inhibit fructose-mediated protein glycation. Extracts of 24 herbs and spices from a local supermarket were tested for the ability to inhibit glycation of albumin. Dry samples were ground and extracted with 10 volumes of 50% ethanol, and total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) were measured. Aliquots were incubated in triplicate at pH 7.4 with 0.25 M fructose and 10 mg/mL fatty acid-free bovine albumin. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. In general, spice extracts inhibited glycation more than herb extracts, but inhibition was correlated with total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.89). The most potent inhibitors included extracts of cloves, ground Jamaican allspice, and cinnamon. Potent herbs tested included sage, marjoram, tarragon, and rosemary. Total phenolics were highly correlated with FRAP values (R(2) = 0.93). The concentration of phenolics that inhibited glycation by 50% was typically 4-12 microg/mL. Relative to total phenolic concentration, extracts of powdered ginger and bay leaf were less effective than expected, and black pepper was more effective. Prevention of protein glycation is an example of the antidiabetic potential for bioactive compounds in culinary herbs and spices.

  1. Antibacterial activities of plant-derived compounds and essential oils toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.

    PubMed

    Fraňková, Adéla; Marounek, Milan; Mozrová, Věra; Weber, Jaroslav; Klouček, Pavel; Lukešová, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in children and immunocompromised adults. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of 19 plant-derived compounds, 5 essential oils, and an extract of propolis were assessed against C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus. The effects of most of these antimicrobials have not been reported previously. Both strains were susceptible to thymol, carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, linalool, camphor, citral, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde as well as cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, clove, and laurel essential oils; their minimum inhibitory concentrations varied between 0.1 and 2.0 mg/mL. As an alternative treatment method, vapors of the volatiles were tested as an indirect treatment. Vapors of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils inhibited both tested strains, while vapors of linalool were only active against C. sakazakii. To our knowledge, this study is the first time that the inhibitory activity of the vapors of these compounds and essential oils has been reported against Cronobacter spp.

  2. Targeting Inflammation-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Diseases by Curcumin and Other Nutraceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research within the past two decades has revealed that obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and other chronic diseases, is a proinflammatory disease. Several spices have been shown to exhibit activity against obesity through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Among them, curcumin, a yellow pigment derived from the spice turmeric (an essential component of curry powder), has been investigated most extensively as a treatment for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Curcumin directly interacts with adipocytes, pancreatic cells, hepatic stellate cells, macrophages, and muscle cells. There, it suppresses the proinflammatory transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B, signal transducer and activators of transcription-3, and Wnt/β-catenin, and it activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and Nrf2 cell-signaling pathways, thus leading to the downregulation of adipokines, including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, resistin, leptin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and the upregulation of adiponectin and other gene products. These curcumin-induced alterations reverse insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and other symptoms linked to obesity. Other structurally homologous nutraceuticals, derived from red chili, cinnamon, cloves, black pepper, and ginger, also exhibit effects against obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:20420526

  3. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-02

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Concentrations of nine alkenylbenzenes, coumarin, piperonal and pulegone in Indian bidi cigarette tobacco.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, S B; Calafat, A M; Brown, C R; Polzin, G M; Chiang, J M; Watson, C H; Ashley, D L

    2003-02-01

    Indian-made bidi cigarettes sold in the United States are available in a variety of exotic (e.g. clove, mango) and candy-like (e.g. chocolate, raspberry) flavors. Because certain tobacco flavorings contain alkenylbenzenes and other toxic or carcinogenic chemicals, we measured the concentration of flavor-related compounds in bidi tobacco using a previously developed method. Twenty-three brands of bidis were sampled using automated headspace solid-phase microextraction and subsequently analyzed for 12 compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two alkenylbenzene compounds, trans-anethole and eugenol, were found in greater than 90% of the brands analyzed. Methyleugenol, pulegone and estragole were each detected in 30% or more of the brands, whereas safrole and elemicin were not detected in any of the brands. The flavor-related compounds with the highest tobacco concentrations were eugenol (12,000 microg/g tobacco) and trans-anethole (2200 microg/g tobacco). The highest eugenol and trans-anethole concentrations found in bidi tobacco were about 70,000 and 7500 times greater, respectively, than the highest levels previously found in US cigarette brands. Measurement of these compounds is crucial to evaluation of potential risks associated with inhaling highly concentrated flavor-related compounds from bidis or other tobacco products.

  5. Amidation reaction of eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester with 1,3 diaminopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, V.; Wibowo, F. R.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Wibowo, A. H.; Khumaidah, S. A.; Wijayanti, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Eugenol having various substituents on the aromatic ring (hydroxy, methoxy and allyl) are useful for starting material in synthesizing of its derivatives. Eugenol derivatives have shown wide future potential applications in many areas, especially as future drugs against many diseases. The aim of this work was to synthesize an amide of eugenol derivative. The starting material used was eugenol from clove oil and the reaction was conducted in 3 step reactions to give the final product. Firstly, eugenol was converted into eugenyl oxyacetate [2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetic acid] as a white crystal with 70.5% yield, which was then esterified with ethanol to have eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester [ethyl 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetate] as brown liquid in 75.7%. The last step was the reaction between eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester and 1,3 diaminopropane to give 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-N-(3-aminopropyl) acetamide as a brown powder with 71.6% yield, where the amidation reaction was occurred.

  6. Comoros.

    PubMed

    1992-04-01

    The territory of Comoros comprises 2171 square km or 838 square miles with a population of 455,000 in 1990 of African-Arab origins, adherents of the Islamic religion. The literacy rate is only 15%. After the Portuguese and the Arabs, the French colonized the islands between 1841 and 1912. A plantation-based economy produces export crops. In 1975 independence was achieved except for Mayotte which remained under French rule. After the assassination of President Abdallah in 1989 a new president was elected in 1990. A revision of the constitution is underway, with elections planned in late 1992. The implementation of the International Monetary Fund/World Bank structural adjustment program is also being effected. The islands are among the poorest regions of the world. Most islanders live from subsistence agriculture and fishing, and plantations produce export crops of vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, and copra. Agriculture employs 87% of the population and makes up 37% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Tourism construction, and commerce are other contributors to the GDP. The infrastructure (roads and ports) is inadequate for economic development. France provides direct aid for governmental operations, and the US share of exports from the Comoros is increasing.

  7. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Ye-Ming; Liu, Pei; Yao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-10-07

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs) as penetration enhancers (PEs) to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil > Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05). The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO) were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05). In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea.

  8. Biphasic effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on reproductive physiology of male mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Singh, S K

    2016-11-01

    The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used for the treatment of male sexual disorders in indigenous medicines of Indian subcontinent. Therefore to evaluate the efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum on the male reproductive health, chronic oral exposure of aqueous extract of flower buds of Syzygium in three doses (15 mg, 30 mg and 60 mg kg -1 BW) were studied for a single spermatogenic cycle (35 days) in Parkes (P) strain mice. Lower dose (15 mg) of Syzygium aromaticum flower buds increased serum testosterone level and testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activities and improved sperm motility, sperm morphology, secretory activity of epididymis and seminal vesicle, and number of litters per female. On the other hand, higher doses (30 and 60 mg) of the treatment adversely affected above parameters. Further, higher doses of the extract also had adverse effects on daily sperm production, 1C cell population and on histology of testis. In conclusion, Syzygium aromaticum flower buds extract exhibits biphasic effect on reproductive physiology of male mice. Lower dose of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud extract is androgenic in nature and may have a viable future as an indigenous sexual rejuvenator, while higher doses adversely affected functional physiology of reproductive organs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis of traditional Chinese medicine ‘Red Flower Oil’ preparation from different manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Tao, Jia-Xun; Noda, Isao

    2008-06-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), 'Red Flower Oil' preparation is widely used as a household remedy in China and Southeast Asia. Usually, the preparation is a mixture of several plant essential oils with different volatile features, such as wintergreen oil, turpentine oil and clove oil. The proportions of these plant essential oils in 'Red Flower Oil' vary from different manufacturers. Thus, it is important to develop a simple and rapid evaluation method for quality assurance of the preparations. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) was applied and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) based on the volatile characteristic of samples was used to enhance the resolution of FT-IR spectra. 2D IR technique could, not only easily provide the composition and their volatile sequences in 'Red flower Oil' preparations, but also rapidly discriminate the subtle differences in products from different manufacturers. Therefore, FT-IR combined with volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis provides a very fast and effective method for the quality control of essential oil mixtures in TCM.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2009-03-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects.

  11. Racial and ethnic differences in current use of cigarettes, cigars, and hookahs among lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults.

    PubMed

    Blosnich, John R; Jarrett, Traci; Horn, Kimberly

    2011-06-01

    Research demonstrates that lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (i.e., LGBs or sexual minorities) smoke more than their heterosexual peers, but relatively less is known about the heterogeneity within LGB populations, namely racial/ethnic differences. Moreover, smoking research on sexual minorities has focused mainly on cigarette smoking, with little attention to other forms of smoking, such as hookahs/water pipes. Using a large national sample of college students, we examined differences by race and sexual orientation in prevalence of smoking cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos/clove cigarettes, and hookahs. All LGB racial groups had higher cigarette smoking prevalence than their heterosexual racial group counterparts. Significantly more White and Hispanic LGBs smoked hookahs when compared, respectively, with White and Hispanic heterosexuals. Given the higher prevalence of multiple forms of smoking among sexual minorities, the heterogeneity within sexual minority populations and the nuances of multiple identities (i.e., racial, ethnic, and sexual minority), targeted-if not tailored-prevention and cessation efforts are needed to address smoking disparities in these diverse communities. Prevention, intervention, and epidemiological research on smoking behaviors among college attending young adults should take into account other forms of smoking, such as hookah use.

  12. The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Warnke, Patrick H; Becker, Stephan T; Podschun, Rainer; Sivananthan, Sureshan; Springer, Ingo N; Russo, Paul A J; Wiltfang, Joerg; Fickenscher, Helmut; Sherry, Eugene

    2009-10-01

    Hospital-acquired infections and antibiotic-resistant bacteria continue to be major health concerns worldwide. Particularly problematic is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and its ability to cause severe soft tissue, bone or implant infections. First used by the Australian Aborigines, Tea tree oil and Eucalyptus oil (and several other essential oils) have each demonstrated promising efficacy against several bacteria and have been used clinically against multi-resistant strains. Several common and hospital-acquired bacterial and yeast isolates (6 Staphylococcus strains including MRSA, 4 Streptococcus strains and 3 Candida strains including Candida krusei) were tested for their susceptibility for Eucalyptus, Tea tree, Thyme white, Lavender, Lemon, Lemongrass, Cinnamon, Grapefruit, Clove Bud, Sandalwood, Peppermint, Kunzea and Sage oil with the agar diffusion test. Olive oil, Paraffin oil, Ethanol (70%), Povidone iodine, Chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) served as controls. Large prevailing effective zones of inhibition were observed for Thyme white, Lemon, Lemongrass and Cinnamon oil. The other oils also showed considerable efficacy. Remarkably, almost all tested oils demonstrated efficacy against hospital-acquired isolates and reference strains, whereas Olive and Paraffin oil from the control group produced no inhibition. As proven in vitro, essential oils represent a cheap and effective antiseptic topical treatment option even for antibiotic-resistant strains as MRSA and antimycotic-resistant Candida species.

  13. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  14. The In Vitro Efficacy of Essential Oils and Antifungal Drugs Against Prototheca zopfii.

    PubMed

    Grzesiak, Barbara; Głowacka, Anna; Krukowski, Henryk; Lisowski, Andrzej; Lassa, Henryka; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2016-08-01

    The algae of the genus Prototheca are environmental pathogens whose main reservoir is the habitat of cows. They can cause protothecosis in domestic and wild animals, as well as human beings, with the main etiological agents being Prototheca zopfii in animals and Prototheca wickerhamii in humans. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of selected essential oils and antifungal antibiotics against P. zopfii isolates. The material consisted of nine P. zopfii strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis. Eight essential oils produced by POLLENA-AROMA, Poland, and nine antifungal agents were tested. The effects of essential oils on P. zopfii were evaluated by microdilution with liquid Sabouraud dextrose broth, and susceptibility to antifungal agents was tested using the disk-diffusion method. All used essential oils inhibited the activity of P. zopfii isolates, with MIC values ranging from 0.2 to 10.5 μl/ml. Cinnamon, clove, and thyme demonstrated the highest activity against the tested P. zopfii strains at concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 μl/ml. Of the antifungal agents, the tested strains were the most sensitive to nystatin (100 %). The tested essential oils can be used to complement protothecosis therapy in animals and human beings.

  15. Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Some of Their Constituents on the Turkestan Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae).

    PubMed

    Gaire, Sudip; O'Connell, Mary; Holguin, Francisco O; Amatya, Anup; Bundy, Scott; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Inhibition of oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters by essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Vorobjeva, A K; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils from 16 various spice plants were studied as natural antioxidants for the inhibition of autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids methyl esters isolated from linseed oil. The content of methyl oleate, methyl linoleate, and methyl linolenoate after 1, 2, and 4 months of autooxidation were used as criteria to estimate the antioxidant efficiencies of essential oils. In 4 months, 92% of the methyl linolenoate and 79% of the methyl linoleate were oxidized in a control sample of a model system. It was found that the most effective antioxidants were essential oils from clove bud, cinnamon leaves, and oregano. They inhibited autooxidation of methyl linolenoate by 76–85%. The antioxidant properties of these essential oils were due to phenols— eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol. Essential oil from coriander did not contain phenols, but it inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 38%. Essential oils from thyme, savory, mace, lemon, and tea tree inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 17–24%. The other essential oils had no antioxidant properties.

  17. Assessment of gaseous CO2 and AQUI-S as anesthetics when surgically implanting radio transmitters into cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanderson, T.B.; Hubert, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) and CO2 are anesthetics that can be legally used in fisheries work in the United States, but they are limited in their field applications. A mandatory 21-d withdrawal period is required for fish exposed to MS-222. Carbon dioxide is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but it is a "low regulatory priority drug" that can be used legally for fish anesthesia. However, stressful induction and lengthy recovery times have been associated with CO2. AQUI-S is a clove oil derivative that has the potential to become an approved anesthetic without the limitations of MS-222 or CO2. We compared the efficacy of CO2 with that of AQUI-S when surgically implanting radio transmitters into cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii. A 20% survival rate was observed when CO2 was used in combination with silk sutures, but a 100% survival rate was observed when CO2 was used in combination with surgical staples to shorten the duration of the surgical procedure. A 100% survival rate was observed when AQUI-S was used in combination with either silk sutures or surgical staples. Carbon dioxide in combination with surgical staples seemed to provide a reasonable option when surgically implanting radio transmitters into cutthroat trout, but AQUI-S may be the preferred anesthesia because high pH and dissolved oxygen levels and low free-CO2 concentrations are maintained during surgical procedures.

  18. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Mikaili, Peyman; Maadirad, Surush; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Sarahroodi, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Garlic (Allium sativum L. family Liliaceae) is well known in Iran and its leaves, flowers, and cloves have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Research in recent decades has shown widespread pharmacological effects of A. sativum and its organosulfur compounds especially Allicin. Studies carried out on the chemical composition of the plant show that the most important constituents of this plant are organosulfur compounds such as allicin, diallyl disulphide, S-allylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide. Allicin represents one of the most studied among these naturally occurring compounds. In addition to A. sativum, these compounds are also present in A. hirtifolium (shallot) and have been used to treat various diseases. This article reviews the pharmacological effects and traditional uses of A. sativum, A. hirtifolium, and their active constituents to show whether or not they can be further used as potential natural sources for the development of novel drugs. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the authors went through a vast number of sources and articles and all needed data was gathered. The findings were reviewed and classified on the basis of relevance to the topic and a summary of all effects were reported as tables. Conclusion: Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents. PMID:24379960

  19. Diversity evaluation based on morphological, physiological and isozyme variation in genetic resources of garlic (Allium sativum L.) collected worldwide.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Sho; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2016-11-26

    The aim of this study was to obtain primary information about the global diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by evaluating morphological, physiological and isozyme variation. A total of 107 garlic accessions collected worldwide were grown in Yamaguchi, Japan. Five morphological traits (bulb weight, bulb diameter, number of cloves per bulb, number of bulbils and scape length) and one physiological trait (bolting period) of the collected garlic showed wide variation. Meanwhile, a total of 140 garlic accessions, including the 107 mentioned above, were characterized by leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) isozyme analyses; they clearly showed polymorphisms in putative isozyme loci (Lap-1, Lap-2 and Pgi-1). Allelic frequencies were estimated in each group of accessions categorized by their geographical origin, and the observed (H o ) and expected (H e ) heterozygosities were calculated. The allelic frequencies differed between groups. A principal component analysis based on morpho-physiological data indicated a grouping of the garlic accessions into Central Asian and Northern Mediterranean groups as well as others. We discuss the roles of artificial and natural selection that may have caused differentiation in these traits, on the assumption that ancestral domesticated garlic populations have adapted in various regions using standing variation or mutations that accumulated during expansion, and have evolved along with human-preferred traits over a long history of cultivation.

  20. Pleasantness, familiarity, and identification of spice odors are interrelated and enhanced by consumption of herbs and food neophilia.

    PubMed

    Knaapila, Antti; Laaksonen, Oskar; Virtanen, Markus; Yang, Baoru; Lagström, Hanna; Sandell, Mari

    2017-02-01

    The primary dimension of odor is pleasantness, which is associated with a multitude of factors. We investigated how the pleasantness, familiarity, and identification of spice odors were associated with each other and with the use of the respective spice, overall use of herbs, and level of food neophobia. A total of 126 adults (93 women, 33 men; age 25-61 years, mean 39 years) rated the odors from 12 spices (oregano, anise, rosemary, mint, caraway, sage, thyme, cinnamon, fennel, marjoram, garlic, and clove) for pleasantness and familiarity, and completed a multiple-choice odor identification. Data on the use of specific spices, overall use of herbs, and Food Neophobia Scale score were collected using an online questionnaire. Familiar odors were mostly rated as pleasant (except garlic), whereas unfamiliar odors were rated as neutral (r = 0.63). We observed consistent and often significant trends that suggested the odor pleasantness and familiarity were positively associated with the correct odor identification, consumption of the respective spice, overall use of herbs, and food neophilia. Our results suggest that knowledge acquisition through repetitive exposure to spice odor with active attention may gradually increase the odor pleasantness within the framework set by the chemical characteristics of the aroma compound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cancer Cell Signaling Pathways Targeted by Spice-Derived Nutraceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bokyung; Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research within the last half a century has revealed that cancer is caused by dysregulation of as many as 500 different gene products. Most natural products target multiple gene products and thus are ideally suited for prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases, including cancer. Dietary agents such as spices have been used extensively in the Eastern world for a variety of ailments for millennia, and five centuries ago they took a golden journey to the Western world. Various spice-derived nutraceuticals, including 1′-acetoxychavicol acetate, anethole, capsaicin, car-damonin, curcumin, dibenzoylmethane, diosgenin, eugenol, gambogic acid, gingerol, thymoquinone, ursolic acid, xanthohumol, and zerumbone derived from galangal, anise, red chili, black cardamom, turmeric, licorice, fenugreek, clove, kokum, ginger, black cumin, rosemary, hop, and pinecone ginger, respectively, are the focus of this review. The modulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, protein kinases, and inflammatory mediators by these spice-derived nutraceuticals are described. The anticancer potential through the modulation of various targets is also the subject of this review. Although they have always been used to improve taste and color and as a preservative, they are now also used for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including cancer. PMID:22149093

  2. Spice use in food: Properties and benefits.

    PubMed

    Jessica Elizabeth, De La Torre; Gassara, Fatma; Kouassi, Anne Patricia; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2017-04-13

    Spices are parts of plants that due to their properties are used as colorants, preservatives, or medicine. The uses of spices have been known since long time, and the interest in the potential of spices is remarkable due to the chemical compounds contained in spices, such as phenylpropanoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. Spices, such as cumin (cuminaldehyde), clove (eugenol), and cinnamon (cinnamaldehyde) among others, are known and studied for their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties due to their main chemical compounds. These spices have the potential to be used as preservatives in many foods namely in processed meat to replace chemical preservatives. Main chemical compounds in spices also confer other properties providing a variety of applications to spices, such as insecticidal, medicines, colorants, and natural flavoring. Spices provide beneficial effects, such as antioxidant activity levels that are comparable to regular chemical antioxidants used so they can be used as a natural alternative to synthetic preservatives. In this review, the main characteristics of spices will be described as well as their chemical properties, different applications of these spices, and the advantages and disadvantages of their use.

  3. Effect of spice-incorporated starch edible film wrapping on shelf life of white shrimps stored at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Meenatchisundaram, Sivarajan; Chandrasekar, Chandra Mohan; Udayasoorian, Lalitha Priya; Kavindapadi Rajasekaran, Rakhavan; Kesavan, Radha Krishnan; Srinivasan, Babuskin; Muthusamy, Sukumar

    2016-09-01

    White shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) are a major aquaculture product in the world fishery market. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clove- and cinnamon-assimilated starch edible films on the shelf life of white shrimps in terms of maintaining their freshness and other organoleptic properties. Physical, chemical, microbial and sensory qualities of edible film-wrapped white shrimps were studied until they reached their limit of acceptability during storage at different temperatures (10 and 4 °C). Shrimp samples wrapped with spice-assimilated edible films showed lower bacterial counts. Shelf life extension of edible film-wrapped white shrimps was estimated to be 14 and 12 days for storage at 10 and 4 °C respectively. Reduced lipid oxidation and release of nitrogen base compounds were noted for edible film-wrapped shrimp samples. Good consumer acceptance was noted for edible film-wrapped shrimp samples through sensory evaluation. The results of this study show that spice-fused edible films were effective in inhibiting the growth of microbial populations. Reductions in lipid oxidation and total volatile base nitrogen were also achieved through edible film wrapping of shrimps, which increased their consumer acceptance during sensory evaluation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Authentication of commercial spices based on the similarities between gas chromatographic fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Takaya; Zhao, Jing Jing; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2018-06-01

    A simple and solvent-free method was developed for the authentication of commercial spices. The similarities between gas chromatographic fingerprints were measured using similarity indices and multivariate data analyses, as morphological differentiation between dried powders and small spice particles was challenging. The volatile compounds present in 11 spices (i.e. allspice, anise, black pepper, caraway, clove, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, star anise, and white pepper) were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction, and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The largest 10 peaks were selected from each total ion chromatogram, and a total of 65 volatiles were tentatively identified. The similarity indices (i.e. the congruence coefficients) were calculated using the data matrices of the identified compound relative peak areas to differentiate between two sets of fingerprints. Where pairs of similar fingerprints produced high congruence coefficients (>0.80), distinctive volatile markers were employed to distinguish between these samples. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to visualise the similarity among fingerprints, and the analysed spices were grouped and characterised according to their distinctive major components. This method is suitable for screening unknown spices, and can therefore be employed to evaluate the quality and authenticity of various spices. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  6. Determination of minor and trace elements in aromatic spices by micro-wave assisted digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naeem; Choi, Ji Yeon; Nho, Eun Yeong; Jamila, Nargis; Habte, Girum; Hong, Joon Ho; Hwang, In Min; Kim, Kyong Su

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the concentrations of 23 minor and trace elements in aromatic spices by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after wet digestion by microwave system. The analytical method was validated by linearity, detection limits, precision, accuracy and recovery experiments, obtaining satisfactory values in all cases. Results indicated the presence of variable amounts of both minor and trace elements in the selected aromatic spices. Manganese was high in cinnamon (879.8 μg/g) followed by cardamom (758.1 μg/g) and clove (649.9 μg/g), strontium and zinc were high in ajwain (489.9 μg/g and 84.95 μg/g, respectively), while copper was high in mango powder (77.68 μg/g). On the whole some of the minor and essential trace elements were found to have good nutritional contribution in accordance to RDA. The levels of toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, and Pb were very low and did not found to pose any threat to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. A green approach to prepare silver nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(acrylate) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Kumari, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    In this work, gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPN) have been fabricated via free radical initiated aqueous polymerization of monomer sodium acrylate (SA) in the presence of dissolved Gum acacia (GA), using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MB) as cross-linker and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The semi-IPNs, synthesized, were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dynamic water uptake behavior of semi-IPNs was investigated and the data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The equilibrium swelling data were used to evaluate various network parameters. The semi-IPNs were used as template for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles using extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the antibacterial activity of GA/poly(SA)/silver nanocomposites was tested against E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Essential oils from Origanum vulgare and Salvia officinalis exhibit antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Wijesundara, Niluni M; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from oregano, sage, cloves, and ginger were evaluated for the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EOs. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using MTT assay and fixed biofilms were observed through scan electron microscopy. The oregano and sage EOs showed the lowest MIC as well as MBC of 0.25-0.5 mg/mL. Time kill assay results showed that oregano and sage EOs exhibited bactericidal effects within 5 min and 4 h, respectively. Both oregano and sage extracts acts as a potent anti-biofilm agent with dual actions, preventing and eradicating the biofilm. The microscopic visualization of biofilms treated with EOs have shown morphological and density changes compared to the untreated control. Oregano EO was constituted predominantly carvacrol (91.6%) and in sage EO, higher levels of α-thujone (28.5%) and camphor (16.6%) were revealed. EOs of oregano and sage inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. pyogenes. Effective concentrations of oregano and sage EOs and their phytochemicals can be used in developing potential plant-derived antimicrobial agents in the management of streptococcal pharyngitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contact allergy to essential oils: current patch test results (2000-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK).

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Erich; Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Schnuch, Axel; Frosch, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Essential oils are used in perfumery and in products for aromatherapy or balneotherapy. Previous studies have shown some to be important contact sensitizers. A practical diagnostic approach, based on the results of a large, central European network and other evidence, is needed. Data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK; www.ivdk.org) on all patients patch tested between January 2000 and December 2008 with essential oils were retrospectively analysed. 15 682 patients of 84 716 consulting in the period had been tested with at least one essential oil, and 637 reacted positively to at least one of the essential oils, most commonly to ylang-ylang oil (I and II) (3.1% as weighted mean of positive tests in special series and consecutive testing), lemongrass oil (1.8%), jasmine absolute (1.6%), sandalwood oil and clove oil (1.5% each). Cross-reactivity between distillate and main allergen, if available, was marked. Patch testing the important essential oils should be considered in patients with a suggestive history. Additionally, culprit products brought in by the patient should be tested, closing a diagnostic gap by (i) including those other essential oils not included in the commercial test series and (ii) providing a means of testing with the oxidized substances to which the patient had actually been exposed. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Changes in olfactory bulb volume following lateralized olfactory training.

    PubMed

    Negoias, S; Pietsch, K; Hummel, T

    2017-08-01

    Repeated exposure to odors modifies olfactory function. Consequently, "olfactory training" plays a significant role in hyposmia treatment. In addition, numerous studies show that the olfactory bulb (OB) volume changes in disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction. Aim of this study was to investigate whether and how olfactory bulb volume changes in relation to lateralized olfactory training in healthy people. Over a period of 4 months, 97 healthy participants (63 females and 34 males, mean age: 23.74 ± 4.16 years, age range: 19-43 years) performed olfactory training by exposing the same nostril twice a day to 4 odors (lemon, rose, eucalyptus and cloves) while closing the other nostril. Before and after olfactory training, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed to measure OB volume. Furthermore, participants underwent lateralized odor threshold and odor identification testing using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery.OB volume increased significantly after olfactory training (11.3 % and 13.1 % respectively) for both trained and untrained nostril. No significant effects of sex, duration and frequency of training or age of the subjects were seen. Interestingly, PEA odor thresholds worsened after training, while olfactory identification remained unchanged.These data show for the first time in humans that olfactory training may involve top-down process, which ultimately lead to a bilateral increase in olfactory bulb volume.

  12. The function of yeast CAP family proteins in lipid export, mating, and pathogen defense.

    PubMed

    Darwiche, Rabih; El Atab, Ola; Cottier, Stéphanie; Schneiter, Roger

    2018-04-01

    In their natural habitat, yeast cells are constantly challenged by changing environmental conditions and a fierce competition for limiting resources. To thrive under such conditions, cells need to adapt and divide quickly, and be able to neutralize the toxic compounds secreted by their neighbors. Proteins like the pathogen-related yeast, Pry proteins, which belong to the large CAP/SCP/TAPS superfamily, may have an important role in this function. CAP proteins are conserved from yeast to man and are characterized by a unique αβα sandwich fold. They are mostly secreted glycoproteins and have been implicated in many different physiological processes including pathogen defense, virulence, venom toxicity, and sperm maturation. Yeast members of this family bind and export sterols as well as fatty acids, and they render cells resistant to eugenol, an antimicrobial compound present in clove oil. CAP family members might thus exert their various physiological functions through binding, sequestration, and neutralization of such small hydrophobic compounds. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils.

  14. Essential oils, their therapeutic properties, and implication in dentistry: A review

    PubMed Central

    Dagli, Namrata; Dagli, Rushabh; Mahmoud, Rasha Said; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antibacterial treatments currently used for treatment cause several side effects, and bacterial resistance to the antibiotics is also increasing. Therefore, there is need to find better alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) have been used for treatment of various ailments since ancient times and have gained popularity over the years. Safety and efficacy of EOs have been proved by several clinical trials. This review gives an overview on the EOs, their uses, and adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed in the PubMed for clinical trial studies and review articles on EOs published up to February 2015. The search was performed during March 2015. The following keywords were used: “Lavender essential oil,” “cinnamon oil,” “clove oil,” “eucalyptus oil,” “peppermint oil,” “lemon EOs,” and “tea tree oil.” Results: Total 70 relevant articles were found in PubMed database. After screening of abstracts, 52 articles were selected to be included in the present review. Conclusion: On the basis of the available information, it can be concluded that EOs have the potential to be developed as preventive or therapeutic agents for various oral diseases, but further clinical trials are required to establish their safety and efficacy. PMID:26539382

  15. Kainari, a Unique Greek Traditional Herbal Tea, from the Island of Lesvos: Chemical Analysis and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Bampali, Evangelia; Graikou, Konstantia; Aligiannis, Nektarios

    2018-01-01

    The chemical composition, as well as the total phenolic content (TPC) and the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, of three Kainari-herbal tea samples from different areas of Lesvos Island (Greece) was evaluated. The rich aroma of the mixtures was studied through GC-MS, as well as through Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME)/GC-MS analyses. Cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, pepper, and ginger were identified as main ingredients, while, throughout the chemical analysis of the volatiles of one selected sample, several secondary metabolites have been isolated and identified on the basis of GC-MS as well as spectral evidence as eugenol, cinnamic aldehyde and myristicin, cinnamyl alcohol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, two food dyes, azorubine and amaranth, were also isolated and identified from the infusions. The total phenolic content was estimated and the free radical scavenging activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays and the antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested showing a very interesting profile against all the assayed microorganisms. Due to its very pleasant aroma and taste properties as well as to its bioactivities, Kainari-herbal tea could be further proposed as functional beverage. PMID:29681979

  16. Psychological effects of musky compounds: comparison of androstadienone with androstenol and muscone.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Suma; Garcia, Sheila; Hayreh, Davinder; McClintock, Martha K

    2002-11-01

    Previously, we have shown that delta4,16-androstadien-3-one modulates psychological state, reducing negative mood and increasing positive mood (Jacob and McClintock, 2000; Jacob et al., 2001a). In order to determine whether similar musky compounds also produce these effects, we compared the effects of androstadienone to those of androstenol and muscone, measuring the psychological states of 37 participants. Androstenol and muscone were chosen because they too have a musky odor at high concentrations, while androstenol is a steroid like androstadienone and muscone is not. In a controlled laboratory setting, we conducted a double-blind, within-subject, repeated-measures experiment counterbalanced for order of presentation. Under each participant's nose, a nanomolar amount of each compound was presented, masked by clove oil to minimize perceptible olfactory differences. Participants completed a baseline psychological battery and twice again at 25-min intervals after exposure. Androstadienone's effects on psychological state were unique in comparison with those of androstenol and with muscone. Exposure through passive inhalation, rather than dermal contact, was sufficient for these effects. Although this is additional evidence that androstadienone may be a pheromone, it is yet to be determined whether humans exude concentrations into the air adequate for social communication or process this chemical information within natural social contexts.

  17. Competing with kreteks: transnational tobacco companies, globalisation, and Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, S; Collin, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the strategies employed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to compete more effectively compete with the dominant kretek manufacturers in Indonesia, and to consider implications of their failure. Methods: Systematic analysis of corporate documents obtained from British American Tobacco's (BAT's) Guildford depository and from industry and tobacco control websites document collections. Results: The limited progress of the TTCs in Indonesia is best explained by the distinctive political economy of its tobacco industry. Though effective when collaborating on regulatory issues of mutual interest, TTCs have been less able than kretek manufacturers to exercise political influence where their interests conflict. Global strategies of TTCs have undergone significant local adaptation in attempting to compete in this distinctive environment. While maintaining uniformity in core brand attributes, TTCs have sought to reconcile international imagery with local norms, particularly to appeal to women. BAT unsuccessfully attempted to develop clove based products that imitated the appeal of kreteks, withdrawn following concerns about exposing the company to charges of operating double standards. Conclusions: The documents presented highlight the complexity of the global tobacco industry. Tobacco control efforts need to address more effectively the ongoing impact of kreteks while recognising the distinctive threats posed by TTCs. PMID:15564227

  18. Traditional production, consumption and storage of Kunu--a non alcoholic cereal beverage.

    PubMed

    Gaffa, T; Jideani, I A; Nkama, I

    2002-01-01

    A survey of the production, consumption and storage of Kunu was carried out. Some of the information included consumption rate, processing techniques and equipment, producer's status and grains used. About 73% consume Kunu daily, 26% occasionally; 1% know it is produced but may or may not be consuming it. Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa) and acha (Digitalis exilis) were used in its production in decreasing order of preference. The grains were used singly or combined; sorghum/millet was the most common combination in a ratio of 1:2 (w/w). Steeping was done in ordinary water for 12-72 h, depending on the grain type, in local clay pots, plastic buckets, calabashes or basins or 5-7 h in warm water (60-70 degrees C). The grains were dry or wet milled with or without spices such as ginger, red pepper, black pepper, clove and garlic. Other ingredients introduced included: sweet potatoes, malted rice, malted sorghum and Cadaba farinosa crude extract. Both dry and wet milling was done with grinding mills, mill stones or mortar and pestle, depending on locality. The product was then cooked into a thin free flowing gruel. The various types of kunu were: Kunun zaki, Kunun gyada, Kunun akamu, Kunun tsamiya, Kunun baule, Kunun jiko, Amshau and Kunun gayamba. Kunun zaki was the most commonly consumed. Production and consumption cut across all social classes of the society.

  19. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an Emulsion-Forming Arabinogalactan Gum from the Stems of Native North American Grape Species Vitis riparia Michx.

    PubMed

    Price, Neil P J; Vermillion, Karl E; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-08-19

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of l-arabinofuranose (l-Araf, 55.2%) and d-galactopyranose (d-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of d-xylose (11.2%), d-mannose (3.5%), and glucuronic acid (GlcA, ∼2%), the latter linked via a galactosyl residue. Permethylation identified 3-linked Galp residues, some substituted at the 2-position with Galp or Manp, terminal Araf and Xylp, and an internal 3-substituted Araf. NMR (HSQC, TOCSY, HMBC, DOSY) identified βGalp and three αAraf spin systems, in an Araf-α1,3-Araf-α1,2-Araf-α1,2-Galp structural motif. Diffusion-ordered NMR showed that the FGP has a molecular weight of 1-10 MDa. Unlike gum arabic, the FGP does not contain a hydroxyproline-rich protein (HPRP). FGP forms stable gels at >15% w/v and at 1-12% solutions are viscous and are excellent emulsifiers of flavoring oils (grapefruit, clove, and lemongrass), giving stable emulsions for ≥72 h. Lower concentrations (0.1% w/v) were less viscous, yet still gave stable grapefruit oil/water emulsions. Hence, FGP is a β1,3-linked arabinogalactan with potential as a gum arabic replacement in the food and beverage industries.

  20. AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BETEL PRODUCTS IN THE U.S.†

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the availability and characteristics of these products outside of this region. Thus, a representative sample of betel products and additives was purchased in the Richmond, Virginia area. Five venues were visited between March and May, 2006. Products successfully purchased were those containing betel alone (seven), betel/tobacco (three), tobacco alone (four), and additives (four). Most betel products listed ingredients on the packaging, though some did not explicitly distinguish between those with versus without tobacco. Importantly, seven of seven betel alone and one of three betel/tobacco products omitted any health-related warnings. All products were inexpensive and relatively obtainable in the groceries visited. More research is warranted in order to accurately estimate product emergence into the U.S. and other world markets, and the consequent impact on public health. PMID:19004423

  1. Availability and characteristics of betel products in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L

    2008-09-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/ sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the availability and characteristics of these products outside of this region. Thus, a representative sample of betel products and additives was purchased in the Richmond, Virginia area. Five venues were visited between March and May, 2006. Products successfully purchased were those containing betel alone (seven), betel/tobacco (three), tobacco alone (four), and additives (four). Most betel products listed ingredients on the packaging, though some did not explicitly distinguish between those with versus without tobacco. Importantly, seven of seven betel alone and one of three betel/tobacco products omitted any health-related warnings. All products were inexpensive and relatively obtainable in the groceries visited. More research is warranted in order to accurately estimate product emergence into the U.S. and other world markets, and the consequent impact on public health.

  2. Preferences and Perceptions of Flavored Hookah Tobacco among US Women.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Stroud, Laura R

    2018-05-01

    We assessed preferences, perceptions, and intentions to use flavored waterpipe (hookah) tobacco (HT) among women of reproductive age in the United States. A convenience sample of women 18-44 years of age (N = 238; mean age = 28; 74% white) were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to complete a survey assessing preferences, perceptions, and intentions to use flavored HT. Of the women who had ever used hookah (62%), most (82%) used hookah sweetened with fruit flavors. Preferences for hookah flavors were statistically different between flavors such that women overall preferred sweet flavors (fruits, candy or other sweets, chocolate) versus other flavors (menthol/mint, clove/spice, alcohol, other beverages, tobacco/unflavored). Perceptions of general or pregnancy-related harmfulness did not differ between flavors. Sweet flavors (fruits, candy or other sweets, chocolate) were perceived to be less harsh than tobacco/unflavored hookah among women who had ever used hookah. Flavor preferences (but not perceptions of harmfulness or harshness) predicted intentions to use flavored HT in the future. Sweet flavored tobacco is preferred and used by reproductive-age women. Prohibiting flavorings in HT will likely lessen the appeal of smoking hookah to protect the health of women and children.

  3. 'Laba' garlic processed by dense phase carbon dioxide: the relation between green colour generation and cellular structure, alliin consumption and alliinase activity.

    PubMed

    Tao, Dandan; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Luyao; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    'Laba' garlic is usually processed by soaking garlic in vinegar for more than 1 week during winter. It is popular for its unique green colour and tasty flavour. Greening is desirable and required for this product as its characteristic. Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) had a significant effect on the greening of intact garlic (Allium sativum L.) cloves. The relation between green colour generation and alliin consumption, alliinase activity and the cellular structure of garlic, respectively, were investigated in this work. The effects of treatment time, pressure and temperature of DPCD were also analysed and discussed. DPCD had a significant effect on the cellular structure of garlic cells. Garlic protoplast underwent greater morphological change after DPCD treatments at higher temperatures while the amount of precipitate increased with greater treatment time and temperature. Common trends on garlic greening and alliin consumption were observed except for DPCD treatment at 10 MPa and 65 °C. The alliinase activity decreased with increasing treatment time, pressure and temperature. It reached the lowest level at 13 MPa and 55 °C. The formation of the green colour was a comprehensive result of DPCD on changing cellular structure, alliin consumption and alliinase activity. DPCD treatment at 10 MPa and 55 °C was the optimum condition for the greening of 'Laba' garlic. This work further facilitated the application of DPCD in the industrial production of 'Laba' garlic. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effects of a garlic-derived principle (ajoene) on aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, K C; Tyagi, O D

    1993-08-01

    When garlic cloves are chopped or crushed several dialkyl thiosulfinates are rapidly formed by the action of the enzyme alliin lyase or alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) on S(+)-alkyl-L-cysteine sulfoxides. Allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate or allyl 2-propene thiosulfinate) is the dominant thiosulfinate released. A variety of sulfur containing compounds are formed from allicin and other thiosulfinates depending on the way in which garlic is handled. One such compound identified recently is ajoene which has been reported to possess antithrombotic properties. We present here data on the antiplatelet properties of ajoene together with its effects on the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in intact platelets. Thus, ajoene was found to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by AA, adrenaline, collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and calcium ionophore A23187; the nature of the inhibition was irreversible. In washed platelets stimulated by labelled arachidonate, ajoene inhibited the formation of thromboxane A2; 12-lipoxygenase product(s) were reduced at higher ajoene concentrations. This garlic-derived substance inhibited the incorporation of labelled AA into platelet phospholipids at higher concentration. In labelled platelets, on stimulation with either calcium ionophore A23187 or collagen, reduced amounts of thromboxane and 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) were produced in ajoene-treated platelets compared to control platelets. This substance had no effect on the deacylation of platelet phospholipids. The results suggest that at least one of the mechanisms by which ajoene shows antiplatelet effects could be related to altered metabolism of AA.

  5. Comparison of distillation and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods for the isolation of sensitive aroma compounds from garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; Siatis, Nikolaos G; Daferera, Dimitra J; Tarantilis, Petros A; Pappas, Christos S; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of traditional simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), microwave assisted hydrodistillation extraction (MWHD) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) is presented, for the extraction of essential oils from fresh garlic (Allium sativum) cloves. Each method is evaluated in terms of qualitative and quantitative composition of the isolated essential oil. The highly reactive sulfur molecules of the garlic volatile fraction show variable response to the different isolation methods. The application of ultrasound for the extraction of the essential oil is considered to cause a lesser damage of thermal-sensitive molecules, thus, providing a better approach of the compounds primarily responsible for the characteristic odor and taste of freshly chopped garlic. All heat-involving isolation procedures have been shown to differentiate the volatile-fraction profile as analyzed by GC-MS. Especially when grouping the compounds into cyclic and acyclic, the percentage concentrations drop from 77.4% to 8.7% for the acyclic while that of the cyclic compounds increase from 4.7% to 70.8%. The observed fact may be attributed to the effect of the heat applied, which changes from harsh thermal treatment (SDE) to short time thermal (MWHD) and room-temperature isolation (USE). The use of USE proves to be crucial in order to provide reliable insight into garlic's chemistry.

  6. Development of antioxidant food packaging materials containing eugenol for extending display life of fresh beef.

    PubMed

    Navikaite-Snipaitiene, Vesta; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Jakstas, Valdas; Rüegg, Nadine; Rutkaite, Ramune; Wolfram, Evelyn; Yildirim, Selçuk

    2018-05-23

    In this study, clove essential oil (CL) or eugenol (EU) containing cellulose acetate (CA) or acrylic component/hydrophobically modified starch (AC/S) coatings on corona treated oriented polypropylene film (OPP) were designed and investigated for their possible applications as antioxidant packaging materials for fresh meat. The antioxidant properties of the coatings were investigated by Vapour Phase-DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The CA coatings containing CL or EU showed 43-92% and 43-94% inhibition against DPPH free radicals through the vapour phase, respectively, whereas AC/S/CL and AC/S/EU coatings resulted in DPPH inhibition of 21-65% and 25-84%, respectively. AC/S/EU and CA/EU coatings on OPP containing from 0.32 ± 0.03 to 6.40 ± 0.14 g/m 2 of EU were used to prepare packaging for fresh beef (Longissimus thoracis). After 14 days, the lipid oxidation in beef steaks kept in control and antioxidant packages was 3.33 and 1.00-1.22 mg of malondialdehyde per kilogram of meat, respectively. Moreover, red colour of beef in antioxidant packages was retained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicity of plant essential oils to different life stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, and non-target invertebrates.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2010-03-01

    Seven essential oils with potential as acaricides for use against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), were selected for study. These products (essential oils of manuka, cade, pennyroyal, thyme, garlic, clove bud and cinnamon bark) were deployed against different life stages of D. gallinae in laboratory tests at the (lethal concentration) LC(50) level for adult mites. For all essential oils tested, toxicity to D. gallinae juveniles was as high as toxicity to adults, if not higher. However, at the LC(50) level determined for adults, some oils were ineffective in preventing hatching of D. gallinae eggs. The essential oils were also tested under laboratory conditions at their LC(90) levels for D. gallinae adults on two model non-target species, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (L.), and the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (L.). Results showed that not all essential oils were as toxic to A. salina and T. molitor as they were to D. gallinae, suggesting that it may be possible to select certain oils for development as acaricides against D. gallinae that would have minimal impact on non-target organisms. However, the level of toxicity to A. salina and T. molitor was not consistent across the selected essential oils.

  8. Adaptation of the ORAC assay to the common laboratory equipment and subsequent application to antioxidant plastic films.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, K; Vera, P; Rubio, C; Nerin, C

    2009-06-01

    The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method has been adapted to the instrumental laboratory and optimized for the determination of the antioxidant capacity of a novel active packaging. As the ORAC assay requires the monitorization of a reaction at controlled temperature by means of the fluorescence signal decrease over time, specific instrumental is usually necessary. In this work, a common liquid chromatographic device has been adapted to perform the ORAC assay, leaving it accessible to any laboratory. Using this adaptation, five different essential oils have been determined resulting in the following antioxidant order: clove (2.66 g Trolox per gram of essential oil), oregano (2.25), cinnamon (1.93), rosemary (1.66), and ginger (1.47). After incorporating the essential oils to the film, its antioxidant capacity has also been checked and related to the concentration of essential oil as well as the thickness of the active film. The results point out that for the same amount of essential oil incorporated measured as grams per square meter, thicker films have more antioxidant capacity than the thinner and more concentrated ones. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity found in the films was always higher than expected taking into account the amount of essential oil incorporated. Some likely explanations have been proposed, leading to the improvement of the antioxidant film under development.

  9. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  10. Competing with kreteks: transnational tobacco companies, globalisation, and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, S; Collin, J

    2004-12-01

    To examine the strategies employed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to compete more effectively compete with the dominant kretek manufacturers in Indonesia, and to consider implications of their failure. Systematic analysis of corporate documents obtained from British American Tobacco's (BAT's) Guildford depository and from industry and tobacco control websites document collections. The limited progress of the TTCs in Indonesia is best explained by the distinctive political economy of its tobacco industry. Though effective when collaborating on regulatory issues of mutual interest, TTCs have been less able than kretek manufacturers to exercise political influence where their interests conflict. Global strategies of TTCs have undergone significant local adaptation in attempting to compete in this distinctive environment. While maintaining uniformity in core brand attributes, TTCs have sought to reconcile international imagery with local norms, particularly to appeal to women. BAT unsuccessfully attempted to develop clove based products that imitated the appeal of kreteks, withdrawn following concerns about exposing the company to charges of operating double standards. The documents presented highlight the complexity of the global tobacco industry. Tobacco control efforts need to address more effectively the ongoing impact of kreteks while recognising the distinctive threats posed by TTCs.

  11. The Effect of Aromatherapy Abdominal Massage on Alleviating Menstrual Pain in Nursing Students: A Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Marzouk, Tyseer M. F.; El-Nemer, Amina M. R.; Baraka, Hany N.

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 (n = 48) received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil). Group 2 (n = 47) received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil). In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding. PMID:23662151

  12. Alternative Saccharomyces interspecies hybrid combinations and their potential for low‐temperature wort fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Nikulin, Jarkko; Krogerus, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The lager yeast hybrid (Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus) possesses two key characteristics that are essential for lager brewing: efficient sugar utilization and cold tolerance. Here we explore the possibility that the lager yeast phenotype can be recreated by hybridizing S. cerevisiae ale yeast with a number of cold‐tolerant Saccharomyces species including Saccharomyces arboricola, Saccharomyces eubayanus, Saccharomyces mikatae and Saccharomyces uvarum. Interspecies hybrids performed better than parental strains in lager brewing conditions (12°C and 12°P wort), with the S. mikatae hybrid performing as well as the S. eubayanus hybrid. Where the S. cerevisiae parent was capable of utilizing maltotriose, this trait was inherited by the hybrids. A greater production of higher alcohols and esters by the hybrids resulted in the production of more aromatic beers relative to the parents. Strong fermentation performance relative to the parents was dependent on ploidy, with polyploid hybrids (3n, 4n) performing better than diploid hybrids. All hybrids produced 4‐vinyl guaiacol, a smoke/clove aroma generally considered an off flavour in lager beer. This characteristic could however be eliminated by isolating spore clones from a fertile hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. mikatae. The results suggest that S. eubayanus is dispensable when constructing yeast hybrids that express the typical lager yeast phenotype. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:28755430

  13. Essential oils, their therapeutic properties, and implication in dentistry: A review.

    PubMed

    Dagli, Namrata; Dagli, Rushabh; Mahmoud, Rasha Said; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial treatments currently used for treatment cause several side effects, and bacterial resistance to the antibiotics is also increasing. Therefore, there is need to find better alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) have been used for treatment of various ailments since ancient times and have gained popularity over the years. Safety and efficacy of EOs have been proved by several clinical trials. This review gives an overview on the EOs, their uses, and adverse effects. A literature search was performed in the PubMed for clinical trial studies and review articles on EOs published up to February 2015. The search was performed during March 2015. The following keywords were used: "Lavender essential oil," "cinnamon oil," "clove oil," "eucalyptus oil," "peppermint oil," "lemon EOs," and "tea tree oil." Total 70 relevant articles were found in PubMed database. After screening of abstracts, 52 articles were selected to be included in the present review. On the basis of the available information, it can be concluded that EOs have the potential to be developed as preventive or therapeutic agents for various oral diseases, but further clinical trials are required to establish their safety and efficacy.

  14. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils and their components against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Henika, Philip R; Levin, Carol E; Mandrell, Robert E

    2004-09-22

    We evaluated 17 plant essential oils and nine oil compounds for antibacterial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juices in a bactericidal assay in terms of % of the sample that resulted in a 50% decrease in the number of bacteria (BA(50)). The 10 compounds most active against E. coli (60 min BA(50) range in clear juice, 0.018-0.093%) were carvacrol, oregano oil, geraniol, eugenol, cinnamon leaf oil, citral, clove bud oil, lemongrass oil, cinnamon bark oil, and lemon oil. The corresponding compounds against S. enterica (BA(50) range, 0.0044-0.011%) were Melissa oil, carvacrol, oregano oil, terpeineol, geraniol, lemon oil, citral, lemongrass oil, cinnamon leaf oil, and linalool. The activity (i) was greater for S. enterica than for E. coli, (ii) increased with incubation temperature and storage time, and (iii) was not affected by the acidity of the juices. The antibacterial agents could be divided into two classes: fast-acting and slow-acting. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the bactericidal results are related to the composition of the oils. These studies provide information about new ways to protect apple juice and other foods against human pathogens.

  15. Identification of novel aroma-active thiols in pan-roasted white sesame seeds.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hitoshi; Fujita, Akira; Steinhaus, Martin; Takahisa, Eisuke; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Schieberle, Peter

    2010-06-23

    Screening for aroma-active compounds in an aroma distillate obtained from freshly pan-roasted sesame seeds by aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 32 odorants in the FD factor range of 2-2048, 29 of which could be identified. The highest FD factors were found for the coffee-like smelling 2-furfurylthiol, the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, the coffee-like smelling 2-thenylthiol (thiophen-2-yl-methylthiol), and the clove-like smelling 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. In addition, 9 odor-active thiols with sulfurous, meaty, and/or catty, black-currant-like odors were identified for the first time in roasted sesame seeds. Among them, 2-methyl-1-propene-1-thiol, (Z)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-3-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (Z)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, (E)-2-methyl-1-butene-1-thiol, and 4-mercapto-3-hexanone were previously unknown as food constituents. Their structures were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices as well as their sensory properties with those of synthesized reference compounds. The relatively unstable 1-alkene-1-thiols represent a new class of food odorants and are suggested as the key contributors to the characteristic, but quickly vanishing, aroma of freshly ground roasted sesame seeds.

  16. Antifungal properties of essential oils for improvement of indoor air quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Harriet; Gaskin, Sharyn; Schroder, Tiffany; Ross, Kirstin

    2018-03-28

    Concerns regarding indoor air quality, particularly the presence of fungi and moulds, are increasing. The potential for essential oils to reduce, control or remove fungi, is gaining interest as they are seen as a "natural" alternative to synthetic chemical fungicides. This review examines published research on essential oils as a method of fungal control in indoor environments. It was difficult to compare the relative performances of essential oils due to differences in research methods and reporting languages. In addition, there are limited studies that scale up laboratory results and assess the efficacy of essential oils within building environments. However, generally, there appears to be some evidence to support the essential oils clove oil, tea tree oil, oregano, thyme and lemon as potential antifungal agents. Essential oils from heartwood, marjoram, cinnamon, lemon basil, caraway, bay tree, fir, peppermint, pine, cedar leaf and manuka were identified in at least one study as having antifungal potential. Future studies should focus on comparing the effectiveness of these essential oils against a large number of fungal isolates from indoor environments. Studies will then need to focus on translating these results into realistic application methods, in actual buildings, and assess the potential for long-term antifungal persistence.

  17. Evaluation of commercial essential oil samples on the growth of postharvest pathogen Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey.

    PubMed

    Lazar-Baker, E E; Hetherington, S D; Ku, V V; Newman, S M

    2011-03-01

    To assess the effect of several commercial essential oils samples Australian lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), oregano (Origanum vulgare), thyme oil (Thymus vulgaris), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and Australian tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on mycelium growth and spore germination of Monilinia fructicola. The effectiveness of lemon myrtle essential oil as a fumigant for the control of brown rot in nectarines was evaluated. Monilinia fructicola exhibited a different level of sensitivity to each tested essential oil with results suggesting that the essential oils provide excellent control of the pathogen with respect to mycelium growth and spore germination at very low concentrations, whereas for others higher concentrations are needed to reduce significant fungal growth. In vivo application of lemon myrtle essential oil effectively reduced the incidence of M. fructicola on noninoculated fruit. Fumigation of nectarines following inoculation did not reduce the incidence of brown rot in comparison with the inoculated control treatment. No evidence of phytotoxicity on the fruit was recorded. Lemon myrtle essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal activity against M. fructicola, in vitro and to a lesser extent, under in vivo conditions. The results demonstrate that lemon myrtle essential oil, in particular, has potential as an antifungal agent to control M. fructicola. © 2011 NSW Industry & Investment, Australia. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Reproductive effects of lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Raghav Kumar; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used in indigenous medicines for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Indian subcontinent. Objective: To evaluate the effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on male reproduction, using Parkes (P) strain mice as animal model. Materials and Methods: Mice were orally administered lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in doses of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight for 35 days, and several male reproductive endpoints were evaluated. Results: Treatment with lower dose (15 mg) of Syzygium increased the motility of sperm and stimulated the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle, while higher doses (30 and 60 mg) had adverse effects on sperm dynamics of cauda epididymidis and on the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle. Libido was not affected in treated males; however, a significant decrease in litter in females sired by males treated with higher doses of Syzygium was recorded. Conclusion: Treatment with Syzygium aromaticum flower bud causes dose-dependent biphasic effect on male reproductive indices in P mice; lower dose of Syzygium appears stimulatory, while the higher doses have adverse effect on male reproduction. The results suggest that the lower dose of Syzygium may have androgenic effect, but further studies are needed to support this contention. PMID:23930041

  19. Antimicrobial activity of eugenol and essential oils containing eugenol: A mechanistic viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Anna; Barbieri, Ramona; Coppo, Erika; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Izadi, Morteza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ajami, Marjan

    2017-11-01

    Eugenol is a hydroxyphenyl propene, naturally occurring in the essential oils of several plants belonging to the Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, and Myristicaceae families. It is one of the major constituents of clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae) oil and is largely used in both foods and cosmetics as a flavoring agent. A large body of recent scientific evidence supports claims from traditional medicine that eugenol exerts beneficial effects on human health. These effects are mainly associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Eugenol has also shown excellent antimicrobial activity in studies, being active against fungi and a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The aim of this review is to analyze scientific data from the main published studies describing the antibacterial and antifungal activities of eugenol targeting different kind of microorganisms, such as those responsible for human infectious diseases, diseases of the oral cavity, and food-borne pathogens. This article also reports the effects of eugenol on multi-drug resistant microorganisms. On the basis of this collected data, eugenol represents a very interesting bioactive compound with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against both planktonic and sessile cells belonging to food-decaying microorganisms and human pathogens.

  20. Green synthesis of manganese oxide nanoparticles for the electrochemical sensing of p-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vineet; Singh, Kulvinder; Panwar, Shaily; Mehta, Surinder Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Manganese oxide (MnO) NPs are widely used in contaminant sensing, drug delivery, data storage, catalysis and biomedical imaging. Green synthesis of NPs is important due to increased concern of environmental pollution. Green chemistry based synthesis of NPs is preferred due to its ecofriendly nature. In this study, MnO NPs of different sizes were synthesized in aqueous medium using clove, i.e., Syzygium aromaticum extract (CE) as reducing and stabilizing agents. These NPs were used for the electrochemical sensing of p-nitrophenol (PNP). The synthesis of MnO NPs was over in 30 min. MnO NPs of different sizes were obtained by varying metal ion concentration, metal ion volume ratio, CE concentration, CE volume ratio, and incubation temperature. Selectively, 4 nm MnO NPs were used for electrochemical sensing of paranitrophenol. The MnO NPs modified gold electrodes detected PNP with good sensitivity, 0.16 µA µM-1 cm2. The limit of PNP detection was 15.65 µM. The MnO NPs prepared using CE based green chemistry approach is useful for PNP sensing. These NPs can also be useful for various in vivo applications in which the NPs come in human contact.

  1. Growth Mechanism of a Unique Hierarchical Vaterite Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guobin; Xu, Yifei; Wang, Mu

    2013-03-01

    Calcium carbonate is one of the most significant minerals in nature as well as in biogenic sources. Calcium carbonate occurs naturally in three crystalline polymorphs, i.e., calcite, aragonite, and vaterite. Although it has been attracted much research attention to understanding of the formation mechanisms of the material, the properties of the vaterite polymorph is not well known. Here we report synthesis and formation mechanism of a unique hierarchical structure of vaterite. The material is grown by a controlled diffusion method. The structure possesses a core and an outer part. The core is convex lens-like and is formed by vaterite nanocrystals that have small misorientations. The outer part is separated into six garlic clove-like segments. Each segment possesses piles of plate-like vaterite crystals, and the orientations of the plates continuously change from pile to pile. Based on real-time experimental results and the structural analysis, a growth mechanism is presented. Work supported by NSFC (Grant No. 51172104) and MOST of China (Grant No. 2101CB630705)

  2. In Vitro and Cryopreservation Techniques for Conservation of Snow Mountain Garlic.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is an important medicinal herb of culinary value by imparting its flavors and odors to the food. Allicin, a notable flavonoid in garlic, is a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound. Due to poor bioavailability, garlic is of limited use for oral human consumption. Being sexually sterile, propagation of garlic is done by individual cloves from a bulb which increases the chances of transfer of viral diseases. In this chapter, an efficient and improved regeneration protocol for explant establishment and shoot multiplication under in vitro conditions is described. A high rate of shoot multiplication is obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BAP, 1.0 mg/l KN, and 2.0 mg/l GA3. Addition of 1.0 mg/l NAA to MS medium resulted in rooting at the shoot bases. A detailed method for encapsulation of explant in sodium alginate beads and their cryopreservation using encapsulation-dehydration is also described.

  3. Aroma profile of malbec red wines from La Mancha region: Chemical and sensory characterization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Trujillo, M; García Ruiz, A; González Viñas, M A

    2017-10-01

    The aroma of La Mancha Malbec red wines over four consecutive vintages was characterized by chemical and sensory analysis. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to isolate and analyze free volatile compounds. Quantitative Descriptive Sensory Analysis (QDA) was carried out to characterize the sensory aroma profile. A total of 79 free volatile compounds were identified and quantified in the wines over these four vintages. Volatile aroma compounds were classified into seven aromatic series and their odour activity values were calculated in order to determine the aroma impact compounds in these wines. The aroma sensory profile of these wines was characterized by red fruit, fresh, prune, liquorice, clove, caramel, leather, tobacco and coffee aromas. This study provides a complete aroma characterization of La Mancha Malbec red wines and it is proposed that these wines can be considered as an alternative to wines from traditional grape varieties of this region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioflavoring by non-conventional yeasts in sequential beer fermentations.

    PubMed

    Holt, Sylvester; Mukherjee, Vaskar; Lievens, Bart; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Thevelein, Johan M

    2018-06-01

    Non-conventional yeast species have great capacity for producing diverse flavor profiles in production of alcoholic beverages, but their potential for beer brewing, in particular in consecutive fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has only poorly been explored. We have screened 17 non-conventional yeast species for production of an appealing profile of flavor esters and phenolics in the first phase of alcoholic fermentation, followed by inoculation with S. cerevisiae to complete the fermentation. For measurement of phenolic compounds and their precursors we developed an improved and highly sensitive methodology. The results show that non-conventional yeast species possess promising potential for enhancement of desirable flavors in beer production. Notable examples are increasing isoamyl acetate (fruity, banana flavor) by application of P. kluyverii, augmenting ethyl phenolic compounds (spicy notes) with Brettanomyces species and enhancing 4-vinyl guaiacol (clove-like aroma) with T. delbrueckii. All Pichia strains also produced high levels of ethyl acetate (solvent-like flavor). This might be selectively counteracted by selection of an appropriate S. cerevisiae strain for the second fermentation phase, which lowers total ester profile. Hence, optimization of the process conditions and/or proper strain selection in sequentially inoculated fermentations are required to unlock the full potential for aroma improvement by the non-conventional yeast species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il Sook; Cha, Han Sam; Lee, Young Soon

    2014-10-20

    Black garlic (BG) is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p < 0.05) and correspondingly, the antioxidant activities of BG, measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays, were highest on the 21st day of aging. These results indicate that BG can be considered to not only possess antioxidant properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  6. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  7. Eugenol and carvacrol excite first- and second-order trigeminal neurons and enhance their heat-evoked responses

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Amanda H.; Joe, Christopher L.; Davoodi, Auva; Takechi, Kenichi; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2014-01-01

    Eugenol and carvacrol from clove and oregano, respectively, are agonists of the warmth-sensitive transient receptor potential channel TRPV3 and the irritant-sensitive TRPA1. Eugenol and carvacrol induce oral irritation that rapidly desensitizes, accompanied by brief enhancement of innocuous warmth and heat pain in humans. We presently investigated if eugenol and carvacrol activate nociceptive primary afferent and higher-order trigeminal neurons and enhance their heat-evoked responses, using calcium imaging of cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and in vivo single-unit recordings in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) of rats. Eugenol and carvacrol activated 20-30% of TG and 7-20% of DRG cells, the majority of which additionally responded to menthol, mustard oil and/or capsaicin. TG cell responses to innocuous (39°) and noxious (42°C) heating were enhanced by eugenol and carvacrol. We identified dorsomedial Vc neurons responsive to noxious heating of the tongue in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Eugenol and carvacrol dose-dependently elicited desensitizing responses in 55% and 73% of heat-sensitive units, respectively. Responses to noxious heat were briefly enhanced by eugenol and carvacrol. Many eugenol- and carvacrol-responsive units also responded to menthol, cinnamaldehyde and capsaicin. These data support a peripheral site for eugenol and carvacrol to enhance warmth- and noxious heat-evoked responses of trigeminal neurons, and are consistent with the observation that these agonists briefly enhance warmth and heat pain on the human tongue. PMID:24759772

  8. Bio protection and preservation of raw beef meat using pungent aromatic plant substances.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kesavan Radha; Babuskin, Srinivasan; Babu, Packirisamy Azhagu Saravana; Fayidh, Mohammed Abbas; Sabina, Kalleary; Archana, Ganesan; Sivarajan, Meenatchisundaram; Sukumar, Muthusamy

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of three individual spice (clove, cinnamon and oregano) extracts and their combinations in raw beef meat during refrigerated storage. Meat samples were monitored for microbiological (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas spp.) and physicochemical (pH, colour and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)) attributes. Samples treated with the combination of all three spice extracts showed lower bacterial counts and better L*, a* and b* values among treated samples during the storage period. Positive and negative control samples had the highest TBARS values at the end of the storage period. With the addition of spice extracts, TBARS values in raw beef samples were retarded effectively (P < 0.05) compared with control samples, especially when the combination of all three spice extracts was used. The results of this study show that spice extracts were effective in inhibiting the growth of microbial populations and retarding lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage (4 °C) of raw beef meat. They also suggest that combinations of these extracts may have potential as natural preservatives in raw meat products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Potential application of corn starch edible films with spice essential oils for the shelf life extension of red meat.

    PubMed

    Radha Krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Rakhavan, K R; Tharavin, R; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of corn starch (CS) edible films with spice oils on the stability of raw beef during refrigerated storage. The antimicrobial properties of corn starch films containing 0-4·0% (w/v) ratios of clove (CL) and cinnamon (CI) essential oils (EOs) were tested against seven meat spoilage organisms by zone inhibition test. Effects of CS films containing 3% CL or CI or a mixture of CL + CI were also tested in raw beef stored at 4°C. Meat samples were analysed for pH, microbial counts, colour values and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values for a period of 15 days. CS films with CL + CI resulted in a significant reduction in microbial populations in the meat samples and also improved meat colour stability at the end of storage period. The incorporation of spice EOs in CS films may provide antimicrobial and antioxidant activities that could improve the stability of raw meat. Results from this study may be applied in meat industries as an additional barrier to control microbial spoilage as well as lipid oxidation in meat products. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Preliminary Study on the Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils Alone and in Combination with Gentamicin Against Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing and New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Paweł; Pruss, Agata; Grygorcewicz, Bartłomiej; Wojciuk, Bartosz; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Giedrys-Kalemba, Stefania; Kochan, Ewa; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2018-04-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate possible synergistic effects between several selected, commercially available essential oils and gentamicin against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. ESBLs production was confirmed by double-disk synergy test. Isolates positive for bla NDM-1 gene were found among the tested strains. K. pneumoniae ATCC ® BAA-1705™ strain was used as a control. The checkerboard method was applied to assess the synergistic and additive action of nine essential oils: caraway, fennel, peppermint, geranium, basil, clove, thyme, clary sage, and lavender, respectively, in combination with gentamicin. Our results indicated that peppermint oil combined with gentamicin showed synergistic activity against both control, ESBL-producing and NDM-1-producing isolates. Caraway essential oil demonstrated synergy with gentamicin toward ESBL-producing and additionally gentamicin-resistant strains. The additive effect was observed for gentamicin combined with thyme, fennel, basil, and clary sage. Because of their synergistic activity with gentamicin, peppermint, and caraway oils in particular, can be considered as an alternative or an addition for the control of infections with limited therapeutic options due to multidrug resistance.

  11. Analysis of volatile compounds by open-air ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meher, Anil Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2017-05-08

    This study demonstrates a simple method for rapid and in situ identification of volatile and endogenous compounds in culinary spice samples through mass spectrometry (MS). This method only requires a holder for solid spice sample (2-3 mm) that is placed close to a mass spectrometer inlet, which is applied with a high voltage. Volatile species responsible for the aroma of the spice samples can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Sample pretreatment is not required prior to MS analysis, and no solvent was used during MS analysis. The high voltage applied to the inlet of the mass spectrometer induces the ionization of volatile compounds released from the solid spice samples. Furthermore, moisture in the air also contributes to the ionization of volatile compounds. Dried spices including cinnamon and cloves are used as the model sample to demonstrate this straightforward MS analysis, which can be completed within few seconds. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the suitability of the current method for rapid screening of cinnamon quality through detection of the presence of a hepatotoxic agent, i.e. coumarin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of sodium alginate/PVA antibacterial nanofibers by the incorporation of essential oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, M.; Hussain, T.; Abid, S.; Nazir, A.; Masood, R.

    2018-03-01

    Electrospinning is a well known method for the manufacturing of nanoscale fibers. Electrospun nanofibers have higher surface area to volume ratio and can be used for the incorporation of different materials. Essential oils are well known for their antimicrobial and healing properties since ancient times. The main objective of this study was to develop antibacterial nanofibers by the incorporation of essential oils in sodium alginate/PVA solution. Sodium alginate and PVA have excellent biocompatible properties which are the base of their use in wound care applications. Three different essential oils (cinnamon, clove, and lavender) at three different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were used to optimize the fiber forming conditions during electrospinning and then the desired antibacterial properties were evaluated. Addition of oils in PVA/SA solutions increased the viscosity but reduced the surface tension and conductivity as compared to pure PVA/sodium alginate solution. FTIR Spectra of composite fibers verified the successful incorporation of essential oils in nanofibers through electrospinning. All oil containing samples showed good antibacterial properties against staphylococcus aureus which make them a good replacement of antibiotics. Cinnamon oil loaded nanofibers showed the best results among selected oils regarding the antibacterial properties. Nanofibers with 1.5% cinnamon oil exhibited highest zone of inhabitation of 2.7 cm. Nanofibrous coated cotton gauze showed higher liquid absorptions as compared to simple cotton gauze and potential to be used as wound dressings for its improved liquid absorption and antibacterial activity.

  13. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage.

  15. Contamination of common spices in Saudi Arabia markets with potential mycotoxin-producing fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Mohamed; Alamri, Saad

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen spices obtained from common markets were examined for their mould profile. A total of 520 fungal isolates, representing 57 species, were recovered and identified from dried and ground spice samples on three different media using standard dilution plate method. The most heavily contaminated spice samples examined were observed in ginger in order of magnitude of 5325–6800 cfu/g. The most predominant fungal genera encountered were Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizopus. Relative occurrence values of taxa disclosed ranged between 80% for Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillusniger and Penicilliumarenicola, and 10% for some species. Samples obtained from sumac encountered very rare colony counts indicating its antifungal prosperities. The present magnitude of contamination and spectra of mycobiota approximate those reported for similar spice samples. Several potentially mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated from the majority of samples. The present study attracts the attention to potential risk for mycotoxins contamination may be caused as a result of using these spices, especially in great quantities. The study strongly recommends reduction in application of heavily contaminated spices like ginger in food processing and using some others like clove and sumac due to their antimicrobial properties. PMID:23961074

  16. Leaf Area Index (LAI) in different type of agroforestry systems based on hemispherical photographs in Cidanau Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Khairiah, Rahmi; Setiawan, Yudi; Budi Prasetyo, Lilik; Ayu Permatasari, Prita

    2017-01-01

    Ecological functions of agroforestry systems have perceived benefit to people around Cidanau Watershed, especially in the protection of water quality. The main causes of the problems encountered in the Cidanau Watershed are associated with the human factors, especially encroachment and conversion of forest into farmland. The encroachment has made most forest in Cidanau Watershed become bare land. To preserve the ecological function of agroforestry systems in Cidanau Watershed, monitoring of the condition of the vegetation canopy in agroforestry systems is really needed. High intensity thinning of crown density due to deforestation can change stand leaf area index dramatically. By knowing LAI, we can assess the condition of the vegetation canopy in agroforestry systems. LAI in this research was obtained from Hemispherical Photographs analysis using the threshold method in HemiView Canopy Analysis Software. Our research results indicate that there are six types of agroforestry in Cidanau Watershed i.e. Sengon Agroforestry, Clove Agroforestry, Melinjo Agroforestry, Chocolate Agroforestry, Coffee Agroforestry, and Complex Agroforestry. Several factors potentially contribute to variations in the value of LAI in different types of agroforestry. The simple assumptions about differences ranges of LAI values on six types of agroforestry is closely related to leaf area and plant population density.

  17. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    PubMed Central

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  18. Development of Natural Insect-Repellent Loaded Halloysite Nanotubes and their Application to Food Packaging to Prevent Plodia interpunctella Infestation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungheon; Park, No-Hyung; Na, Ja Hyun; Han, Jaejoon

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to develop insect-proof halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and apply the HNTs to a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film that will prevent Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), commonly known as Indian mealmoth, from infesting the food. Clove bud oil (CO), an insect repellent, was encapsulated into HNTs with polyethylenimine (PEI) to bring about controlled release of CO. Chemical composition and insecticidal effect of CO were examined. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of encapsulated CO was confirmed. The surface charges of uncoated HNTs (HNTs/CO) and coated HNTs with PEI by the layer-by-layer (LBL) method (HNTs/CO/LBL) were determined to be -37.23 and 36.33 mV, respectively. HNTs/CO/LBL showed slow, controlled release of CO compared to HNTs/CO. After 30 d, the residual amounts of CO in HNTs/CO and HNTs/CO/LBL were estimated to be 13.43 and 28.66 mg/g, respectively. HNTs/CO/LBL showed the most sustainable repellent effect. HNTs applied to gravure printing ink solution did not affect mechanical, optical, or thermal properties of the developed film. Gravure-printed LDPE film containing HNTs/CO/LBL displayed the greatest preventive effect on insect penetration, indicating its potential for use as insect-resistant food packaging materials. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Perceptual and processing differences between physical and dichorhinic odor mixtures.

    PubMed

    Schütze, M; Negoias, S; Olsson, M J; Hummel, T

    2014-01-31

    Perceptual integration of sensory input from our two nostrils has received little attention in comparison to lateralized inputs for vision and hearing. Here, we investigated whether a binary odor mixture of eugenol and l-carvone (smells of cloves and caraway) would be perceived differently if presented as a mixture in one nostril (physical mixture), vs. the same two odorants in separate nostrils (dichorhinic mixture). In parallel, we investigated whether the different types of presentation resulted in differences in olfactory event-related potentials (OERP). Psychophysical ratings showed that the dichorhinic mixtures were perceived as more intense than the physical mixtures. A tendency for shift in perceived quality was also observed. In line with these perceptual changes, the OERP showed a shift in latencies and amplitudes for early (more "sensory") peaks P1 and N1 whereas no significant differences were observed for the later (more "cognitive") peak P2. The results altogether suggest that the peripheral level is a site of interaction between odorants. Both psychophysical ratings and, for the first time, electrophysiological measurements converge on this conclusion. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Myrtaceae Plant Essential Oils and their β-Triketone Components as Insecticides against Drosophila suzukii.

    PubMed

    Park, Chung Gyoo; Jang, Miyeon; Shin, Eunsik; Kim, Junheon

    2017-06-24

    Spotted wing drosophila (SWD, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), Diptera: Drosophilidae) is recognized as an economically important pest in North America and Europe as well as in Asia. Assessments were made for fumigant and contact toxicities of six Myrtaceae plant essential oils (EOs) and their components to find new alternative types of insecticides active against SWD. Among the EOs tested, Leptospermum citratum EO, consisting mainly of geranial and neral, exhibited effective fumigant activity. Median lethal dose (LD 50 ; mg/L) values of L. citratum were 2.39 and 3.24 for males and females, respectively. All tested EOs except Kunzea ambigua EO exhibited effective contact toxicity. LD 50 (µg/fly) values for contact toxicity of manuka and kanuka were 0.60 and 0.71, respectively, for males and 1.10 and 1.23, respectively, for females. The LD 50 values of the other 3 EOs-L. citratum, allspice and clove bud were 2.11-3.31 and 3.53-5.22 for males and females, respectively. The non-polar fraction of manuka and kanuka did not show significant contact toxicity, whereas the polar and triketone fractions, composed of flavesone, isoleptospermone and leptospermone, exhibited efficient activity with the LD 50 values of 0.13-0.37 and 0.22-0.57 µg/fly for males and females, respectively. Our results indicate