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Sample records for clue ii cohort

  1. Interleukin-6 and risk of colorectal cancer: results from the CLUE II cohort and a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Kakourou, Artemisia; Koutsioumpa, Charalampia; Lopez, David S; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Bradwin, Gary; Rifai, Nader; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Platz, Elizabeth A; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K

    2015-10-01

    The association between prediagnostic interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer was evaluated in a nested case-control study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Colorectal cancer cases (n = 173) and matched controls (n = 345) were identified between 1989 and 2000 among participants in the CLUE II cohort of Washington Country, Maryland. Matched odds ratios and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Participants in the highest third of plasma IL-6 concentration had a 2.48 times higher risk of colon cancer compared to participants in the bottom third (95 % CI 1.26-4.87; p-trend 0.02) after multivariate adjustment. This association did not differ according to the stage of disease, age, sex, or other potential modifying variables and remained statistically significant after adjustment for C-reactive protein concentrations. No statistically significant association was observed for rectal cancer risk. The meta-analysis of six prospective studies yielded an increased but borderline statistically significant risk of colon cancer per 1 U increase in naturally logarithm-transformed IL-6 (summary RR 1.22; 95 % CI 1.00-1.49; I (2) 46 %). An inverse association was noted for rectal cancer (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.54-0.88; I (2) 0 %), but there was evidence for small-study effects (p 0.02). Our findings provide support for a modest positive association between IL-6 concentrations and colon cancer risk. More work is needed to determine whether IL-6 is a valid marker of colorectal inflammation and whether such inflammation contributes to colon and rectal cancer risk.

  2. Cohort profile: The Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars; Böckenhoff, Anke; Demuth, Ilja; Düzel, Sandra; Eckardt, Rahel; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Pawelec, Graham; Siedler, Thomas; Wagner, Gert G; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    Similar to other industrialized countries, Germany's population is ageing. Whereas some people enjoy good physical and cognitive health into old age, others suffer from a multitude of age-related disorders and impairments which reduce life expectancy and affect quality of life. To identify and characterize the factors associated with 'healthy' vs. 'unhealthy' ageing, we have launched the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project that ascertains a large number of ageing-related variables from a wide range of different functional domains. Phenotypic assessments include factors related to geriatrics and internal medicine, immunology, genetics, psychology, sociology and economics. Baseline recruitment of the BASE-II cohort was recently completed and has led to the sampling of 1600 older adults (age range 60-80 years), as well as 600 younger adults (20-35 years) serving as the basic population for in-depth analyses. BASE-II data are linked to the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), a long-running panel survey representative of the German population, to estimate sample selectivity. A major goal of BASE-II is to facilitate collaboration with other research groups by freely sharing relevant phenotypic and genotypic data with qualified outside investigators. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  3. Association of IL10 and other immune response- and obesity-related genes with prostate cancer in CLUE II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Hsi; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Smith, Michael W; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith A; Clipp, Sandra L; Grinberg, Viktoriya; De Marzo, Angelo M; Isaacs, William B; Drake, Charles G; Shugart, Yin Yao; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2009-06-01

    Chronic intra-prostatic inflammation and obesity are thought to influence prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, variants in genes in these pathways could be associated with prostate cancer risk. We genotyped 17 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RNASEL, TLR4, IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNF, CRP, ADIPOQ, LEP, PPARG, and TCF7L2 in 258 white prostate cancer cases and 258 matched controls nested in CLUE II. Single-locus analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression. TagSNPs were selected in IL10, CRP, and TLR4 and haplotype analyses were done. The A allele of IL10 -1082G>A (rs1800896), known to result in lower levels of this anti-inflammatory cytokine, was positively associated with risk (AG vs. GG, OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.10-2.60; AA vs. GG, OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.11-2.96; P (trend) = 0.02). Associations of IL10 haplotypes with prostate cancer were explained by high linkage disequilibrium between two tagSNPs (rs1800890 and rs3024496) and -1082G>A. A TLR4 candidate SNP (rs4986790; AG/GG vs. AA, OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.33-1.08; P(trend) = 0.09), known to have decreased expression and be associated with lower circulating levels of inflammatory mediators, and tagSNP (rs10116253; CC vs. TT, OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.11-8.41), but not haplotypes, were associated with risk. None of the other candidate SNPs or haplotypes was statistically significantly associated with risk. Our prospective study suggests that genetic variation in IL10 and possibly TLR4 is associated with prostate cancer risk. Although none of the SNPs in the obesity genes tested was associated, this does not rule out a complex role of obesity and its metabolic consequences in prostate cancer etiology. . (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Association of IL10 and Other Immune Response- and Obesity-Related Genes with Prostate Cancer in CLUE II

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Hsi; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Smith, Michael W.; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith A.; Clipp, Sandra L.; Grinberg, Viktoriya; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Isaacs, William B.; Drake, Charles G.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic intra-prostatic inflammation and obesity are thought to influence prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, variants in genes in these pathways could be associated with prostate cancer risk. METHODS We genotyped 17 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RNASEL, TLR4, IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNF, CRP, ADIPOQ, LEP, PPARG, and TCF7L2 in 258 white prostate cancer cases and 258 matched controls nested in CLUE II. Single-locus analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression. TagSNPs were selected in IL10, CRP, and TLR4 and haplotype analyses were done. RESULTS The A allele of IL10 -1082G>A (rs1800896), known to result in lower levels of this anti-inflammatory cytokine, was positively associated with risk (AG vs. GG, OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.10–2.60; AA vs. GG, OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.11–2.96; Ptrend=0.02). Associations of IL10 haplotypes with prostate cancer were explained by high linkage disequilibrium between two tagSNPs (rs1800890 and rs3024496) and -1082G>A. A TLR4 candidate SNP (rs4986790; AG/GG vs. AA, OR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.33–1.08; Ptrend=0.09), known to have decreased expression and be associated with lower circulating levels of inflammatory mediators, and tagSNP (rs10116253; CC vs. TT, OR=3.05, 95% CI: 1.11–8.41), but not haplotypes, were associated with risk. None of the other candidate SNPs or haplotypes was statistically significantly associated with risk. CONCLUSION Our prospective study suggests that genetic variation in IL10 and possibly TLR4 is associated with prostate cancer risk. Although none of the SNPs in the obesity genes tested was associated, this does not rule out a complex role of obesity and its metabolic consequences in prostate cancer etiology. PMID:19267370

  5. 'Tennessee' Clues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows the area within 'Endurance Crater,' currently being investigated by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover is inspecting a hole it drilled into a flat rock (center) dubbed 'Tennessee,' which scientists believe may be made up of the same evaporite-rich materials as those found in 'Eagle Crater.'

    The overall geography inside Endurance is more complex than scientists anticipated, with at least three distinct bands of rock visible in front of the rover. Scientists hope to investigate the second and third layers of rock for more clues to Mars' history. This image was taken on sol 133 (June 8, 2004) with the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  6. 'Tennessee' Clues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows the area within 'Endurance Crater,' currently being investigated by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover is inspecting a hole it drilled into a flat rock (center) dubbed 'Tennessee,' which scientists believe may be made up of the same evaporite-rich materials as those found in 'Eagle Crater.'

    The overall geography inside Endurance is more complex than scientists anticipated, with at least three distinct bands of rock visible in front of the rover. Scientists hope to investigate the second and third layers of rock for more clues to Mars' history. This image was taken on sol 133 (June 8, 2004) with the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  7. Chlorine Clues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This plot shows that levels of the element chlorine rise dramatically in the deeper rocks lining the walls of the crater dubbed 'Endurance.' The data shown here were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer at Endurance and 'Eagle Crater,' the site where Opportunity first landed at Meridiani Planum.

    Opportunity has been inching down the walls of Endurance Crater, investigating distinct layers of rock as it goes for clues to Mars' buried past. The various Endurance layers have been informally labeled 'A' through 'F.' Targets within these layers are listed on the graph along with previous targets from Eagle Crater. All the rocks listed here were observed after they had been drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

    The observations indicate that the elements making up the shallow rock layers of Endurance Crater resemble those of Eagle, while the deeper layers of Endurance possess increasingly higher concentrations of the element chlorine.

    Opportunity will continue to roll deeper into Endurance to see if this puzzling trend continues. Scientists hope the new data will help them figure out how the presence of chlorine fits into the history of water at Endurance Crater.

  8. Chlorine Clues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This plot shows that levels of the element chlorine rise dramatically in the deeper rocks lining the walls of the crater dubbed 'Endurance.' The data shown here were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer at Endurance and 'Eagle Crater,' the site where Opportunity first landed at Meridiani Planum.

    Opportunity has been inching down the walls of Endurance Crater, investigating distinct layers of rock as it goes for clues to Mars' buried past. The various Endurance layers have been informally labeled 'A' through 'F.' Targets within these layers are listed on the graph along with previous targets from Eagle Crater. All the rocks listed here were observed after they had been drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

    The observations indicate that the elements making up the shallow rock layers of Endurance Crater resemble those of Eagle, while the deeper layers of Endurance possess increasingly higher concentrations of the element chlorine.

    Opportunity will continue to roll deeper into Endurance to see if this puzzling trend continues. Scientists hope the new data will help them figure out how the presence of chlorine fits into the history of water at Endurance Crater.

  9. Education as Experimentation: A Planned Variation Model. Volume IIIA: Findings: Cohort II; Interim Findings: Cohort III. Volume IIIB: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Linda B.; And Others

    This segment of the national evaluation study of the Follow Through Planned Variation Model reviews the background of the study, describes 13 of the Follow Through models involved, and presents an analysis of the effects of these models on students. The analysis is based on data from 4 years of Follow Through participation by Cohort II children…

  10. Clues to tRNA Evolution from the Distribution of Class II tRNAs and Serine Codons in the Genetic Code.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Harold S

    2016-02-24

    We have previously proposed that tRNA(Gly) was the first tRNA and glycine was the first amino acid incorporated into the genetic code. The next two amino acids incorporated would have been the other two small hydrophilic amino acids serine and aspartic acid, which occurred through the duplication of the tRNA(Gly) sequence, followed by mutation of its anticodon by single C to U transition mutations, possibly through spontaneous deamination. Interestingly, however, tRNA(Ser) has a different structure than most other tRNAs, possessing a long variable arm; because of this tRNA(Ser) is classified as a class II tRNA. Also, serine codons are found not only in the bottom right-hand corner of the genetic code table next to those for glycine and aspartic acid, but also in the top row of the table, next to those for two of the most hydrophobic amino acids, leucine and phenylalanine. In the following, I propose that the class II tRNA structure of tRNA(Ser) and the arrangement of serine codons in the genetic code provide clues to the early evolution of tRNA and the genetic code. In addition, I address Di Giulio's recent criticism of our proposal that tRNA(Gly) was the first tRNA, and discuss how early peptides produced from a restricted amino acid alphabet of glycine, serine and aspartic acid might have possessed proteolytic activity, which is possibly important for the early recycling of amino acid monomers.

  11. Clues to the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    Students love a mystery. So what do America's most majestic bird, a bag of habitat clues, and a soft-shelled egg have in common? This easy-to-do inquiry activity engages students as they connect clues to problem-solve how the bald eagle reached the brink of extinction in the 1960s in the lower 48 states. It was designed to give students an…

  12. Clues to the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    Students love a mystery. So what do America's most majestic bird, a bag of habitat clues, and a soft-shelled egg have in common? This easy-to-do inquiry activity engages students as they connect clues to problem-solve how the bald eagle reached the brink of extinction in the 1960s in the lower 48 states. It was designed to give students an…

  13. Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue?

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Larry; Hadi, Joseph; Amber, Kyle T; Weiner, Michelle; La Riche, Christopher L; Ference, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Background This retrospective chart review investigated differences in the prevalence of medical comorbidity between women with fibromyalgia (FM) (n=219) and a control group women with chronic pain (CP) without FM (n=116). The specific aims were to compare the prevalence of autoimmune, psychiatric, endocrine, gynecologic pathology, the relationship between timing of gynecologic surgery, and pain onset. We additionally sought to compare the number of comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort. Methods This was a retrospective chart review of patients seen in FM or CP clinics at an academic medical center in 2009–2010. Results Logistic regression modeling found that gynecologic, endocrine, and autoimmune diagnoses were independently associated with a diagnosis of FM. Detailed analyses showed that thyroid disease (P<0.01) and gynecologic surgery (P<0.05) were significantly more common in FM. Women with FM were more likely to have multiple autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, or psychiatric pathologies. A relationship was observed between the timing of gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM, with more surgeries observed in the years just prior to pain onset or in the year after pain onset. A similar pattern was not found in the control group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that autoimmune, endocrine, and gynecologic pathologies occur more commonly in women with FM than in those with CP, which is consistent with findings in less ethnically diverse samples. Moreover, a relationship was found between timing of pain onset and gynecologic surgery. A larger prospective study of the relationship between gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM is warranted. PMID:26316807

  14. Eligibility for the Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage II Study in a Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Opeolu; Woo, Daniel; Haverbusch, Mary; Tao, Haiyang; Sekar, Padmini; Moomaw, Charles J.; Shutter, Lori; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Kissela, Brett; Broderick, Joseph; Flaherty, Matthew L

    2009-01-01

    Introduction No proven treatments exist for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Carefully selected patients may benefit from surgery, and an international multicenter trial is ongoing. We sought to determine how many patients in a population-based ICH cohort would have been eligible for surgery using the Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage II (STICH II) criteria. Methods We identified all patients aged ≥ 18 years residing in the five-county Greater Cincinnati region who were hospitalized with first-ever nontraumatic ICH in 2005. STICH II trial criteria were used to determine eligibility for treatment and reasons for exclusion. Results During 2005, 286 ICH patients were identified (103 lobar, 126 deep cerebral, 23 brainstem, 28 cerebellar, and 6 IVH). Non-lobar hemorrhages are not eligible for STICH II. Among patients with lobar hemorrhage, 22 had no exclusions. The most common (not mutually exclusive) reasons for exclusion were volume < 10cc or > 100cc (n=46) and presence of IVH (n=27). No significant age, gender, or racial differences existed between eligible and ineligible patients with lobar ICH. Only one (4.5%) of the 22 STICH II eligible patients in our population had surgery, compared with 8 of 81 (9.9%) ineligible lobar ICH patients (p=0.43). Mortality at 180 days in STICH II eligible patients was 36% versus 49% for ineligible lobar ICH patients (p=0.19). Conclusions In this population-based ICH cohort, 7.7% (22 of 286) of ICH patients would have qualified for STICH II enrollment. Other treatment options need to be explored for most ICH patients. PMID:18183500

  15. Metalworking exposures and persistent skin symptoms in the ECRHS II and SAPALDIA 2 cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Zock, Jan-Paul; Bircher, Andreas J.; Jarvis, Debbie; Keidel, Dirk; Kromhout, Hans; Norbäck, Dan; Olivieri, Mario; Plana, Estel; Radon, Katja; Schindler, Christian; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Torén, Kjell; Villani, Simona; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2009-01-01

    Background Diseases of the skin are important and often preventable conditions occurring among workers with dermal exposures to irritant and sensitizing agents. Objective We conducted this analysis to assess the associations between metalworking exposures and current, persistent skin symptoms among male and female participants in two population-based epidemiologic studies. Methods We pooled data from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II (ECRHS II) and the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults 2 (SAPALDIA 2), two prospective cohort studies in Europe. Participants each completed interviewer-administered questionnaires to provide information about symptoms and exposures related to selected occupations, including metalworking, during the follow-up periods. We assessed associations between skin symptoms and the frequency of metalworking exposures among 676 ECRHS II/SAPALDIA 2 respondents. Results Current skin symptoms were reported by 10% of metalworkers and were associated with frequent use, defined as 4+days/week, of oil-based metalworking fluids (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 2.49) and organic solvent degreasing agents (PR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.50). Conclusions Skin symptom prevalence is associated with increasing frequency of oil-based metalworking fluid and degreasing agent use. Our findings justify assessing strategies for reducing the frequency of metal-related exposures. PMID:19397617

  16. Incidence of type II diabetes in a cohort with substantial exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Karnes, Conny; Winquist, Andrea; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests an increased type II diabetes mortality risk among workers occupationally exposed to PFOA. However, a cross-sectional study of highly exposed Mid-Ohio Valley community residents did not demonstrate an association between PFOA and type II diabetes. We examined the relationship between exposure to PFOA over time and incidence of type II diabetes in a cohort of community residents and workers exposed to high levels of PFOA via contaminated drinking water. Community residents and workers were interviewed in 2008-2011 to obtain medical history and other demographic information. Cumulative serum PFOA exposure estimates were calculated based on residence and occupation locations, and a history of plant emissions. We estimated the risk of developing type II diabetes using Cox proportional hazard models, controlling for demographic characteristics and family history. Out of 32,254 survey respondents, there were 4434 cases of self-reported type II diabetes, of which 4129 were validated through medical record review. In analyses based on validated type II diabetes, there was no trend of increased risk with increased cumulative PFOA serum levels (HRs compared to lowest exposure decile: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.76-1.08), 1.18 (95% CI: 0.99-1.40), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.81-1.15), 1.04 (95% CI: 0.87-1.24), 1.11 (95% CI: 0.93-1.32), 1.06 (95% CI: 0.89-1.26), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.85-1.19), 1.03 (95% CI: 0.86-1.23), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.84-1.20)). There was no association between fasting glucose level and cumulative serum levels of PFOA, after excluding diabetics. We do not find an association between PFOA exposure and incidence of type II diabetes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion): clues to the causes of the abundance anomaly in H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Vílchez, J. M.; Péquignot, D.

    2011-04-01

    Optical integral field spectroscopy of the archetype protoplanetary disc LV 2 in the Orion nebula is presented, taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES/Argus fibre array. The detection of recombination lines (RLs) of C II and O II from this class of objects is reported, and the lines are utilized as abundance diagnostics. The study is complemented with the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph ultraviolet and optical spectra of the target contained within the Argus field of view. By subtracting the local nebula background the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd is obtained and its elemental composition is derived for the first time. The proplyd is found to be overabundant in carbon, oxygen and neon compared to the Orion nebula and the Sun. The simultaneous coverage over LV 2 of the C III]λ1908 and [O III]λ5007 collisionally excited lines (CELs) and C II and O II RLs has enabled us to measure the abundances of C2 + and O2 + for LV 2 with both sets of lines. The two methods yield consistent results for the intrinsic proplyd spectrum, but not for the proplyd spectrum contaminated by the generic nebula spectrum, thus providing one example where the long-standing abundance anomaly plaguing metallicity studies of H II regions has been resolved. These results would indicate that the standard forbidden-line methods used in the derivation of light metal abundances in H II regions in our own and other galaxies underestimate the true gas metallicity.

  18. Epidemiologic clues to bioterrorism.

    PubMed Central

    Treadwell, Tracee A.; Koo, Denise; Kuker, Kathleen; Khan, Ali S.

    2003-01-01

    Public health investigators have successfully carried out epidemiologic investigations of outbreaks of disease for many years. By far the majority of these outbreaks have occurred naturally. With the recent illnesses resulting from deliberate dissemination of B. anthracis on an unsuspecting population, public health investigation of diseases must now include consideration of bioterrorism as a potential cause of outbreaks of disease. The features of naturally occurring outbreaks have a certain amount of predictability in terms of consistency with previous occurrences, or at least biological plausibility. However, with a deliberately introduced outbreak or infection among a population, this predictability is minimized. In this paper, the authors propose some epidemiologic clues that highlight features of outbreaks that may be suggestive of bioterrorism. They also describe briefly the general process of involvement of agencies at various levels of government, public health and non-public health, depending on the extent of an outbreak or level of suspicion. PMID:12690063

  19. Use of Expansion Cohorts in Phase I Trials and Probability of Success in Phase II for 381 Anticancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Bugano, Diogo D G; Hess, Kenneth; Jardim, Denis L F; Zer, Alona; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Siu, Lillian L; Razak, Albiruni R A; Hong, David S

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the association between the use of phase I expansion cohorts (ECs) and drug performance in phase II as well as time to approval by the FDA.Experimental Design: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE for single-agent dose-finding adult oncology phase I trials published in 2006 to 2011 and subsequent phase II trials. Successful phase II trials were those that met their primary endpoints. Dates of approval were obtained from the Drugs@FDA website in April 2014. A logistic regression model was used to determine the associations between variables and success in phase II.Results: We identified 533 phase I trials evaluating 381 drugs; 112 drugs had at least one phase I trial with an expansion cohort. Phase I trials with expansion cohorts of two to 20 patients were associated with a higher rate of successful phase II trials than those with no expansion cohort [48% vs. 27%; OR, 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-4.0; P = 0.037]. Phase II success rates were the same for expansion cohort with two to 20 and more than 20 patients (48% vs. 52%). Other positive associations were disease-specific trials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9; P = 0.037), industry sponsorship (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5-5.7; P = 0.0024), and response rate of 6% to 20% (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.6-5.2; P = 0.0007). Drugs tested in phase I trials with expansion cohorts had a higher rate of 5-year approval (19% vs. 5%; HR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.2-8.8; P < 0.001).Conclusions: The use of expansion cohorts in phase I trials was associated with success of subsequent phase II trials. However, confounders may play a role in this association. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4020-6. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Loss of human leucocyte antigen class I and gain of class II expression are early events in carcinogenesis: clues from a study of Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Rajendra, S; Ackroyd, R; Karim, N; Mohan, C; Ho, J J; Kutty, M K

    2006-09-01

    Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) expression is altered in oesophageal carcinomas compared with normal tissue. It is unclear, however, whether this phenotype precedes malignant transformation or results as a consequence of it. To investigate HLA class I and II expression in Barrett's oesophagus and normal squamous oesophageal tissue. Asian patients with Barrett's oesophagus (n = 64) and a control group (n = 60) with a normal oesophagus but without reflux symptoms were recruited using endoscopic and histopathological criteria. Tissue samples were stained with monoclonal antibodies specific for HLA-ABC, HLA-DR alpha chain or HLA-DP/DQ/DR, and scored semiquantitatively. The results of immunohistochemical staining were correlated with clinical and histopathological characteristics of patients. Marked expression of HLA-ABC was observed in 50% of Barrett's oesophagus sections as compared with 68.3% of controls (p = 0.038). HLA-DR staining was seen in 51.6% of Barrett's oesophagus samples versus 11.7% of controls (p<0.001). Expression of HLA-DP/DQ/DR was evident in 73.4% of oesophageal intestinal metaplasia tissue as opposed to 18.3% of controls (p<0.001). Importantly, a total loss of HLA-ABC and a concomitant gain of HLA-DP/DQ/DR expression were seen in 37.5% of patients with Barrett's oesophagus but in none of the controls (p<0.001). Interestingly, this phenotype was associated positively with dysplasia (adjusted p, p* = 0.031) but negatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use (p* = 0.004). HLA class I expression is down regulated and class II expression is up regulated in Barrett's oesophagus. As these changes predate malignant transformation, altered major histocompatibility complex expression may be a key event in disease progression, possibly in facilitating evasion from immune surveillance.

  1. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns, Future Diabetes, and Impaired Glucose Metabolism in the Whitehall II Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Ruth A; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis is thought to play a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, evidence for an association between cortisol and future glucose disturbance is sparse. The aim was to examine the association of diurnal cortisol secretion with future T2D and impaired glucose metabolism in a community-dwelling population. This is a prospective cohort study of salivary cortisol measured at the 2002-2004 clinical examination of the Whitehall II study, United Kingdom. We measured cortisol (nmol/l) from six saliva samples obtained over the course of a day: at waking, +30 minutes, +2.5 hours, +8 hours, +12 hours, and bedtime. Participants who were normoglycemic in 2002-2004 (phase 7) were reexamined in 2012-2013 (phase 11). The occupational cohort was originally recruited in 1985-1988. A total of 3270 men and women with an average age of 60.85 years at phase 7 (2002-2004). Incident T2D and impaired fasting glucose in 2012-2013 were measured. Raised evening cortisol at phase 7 was predictive of new-onset T2D at phase 11 (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.37) with a trend for a flatter slope in participants with incident T2D (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.99-1.33). When expanding this analysis to a broader category of glucose disturbance we found that a flattened diurnal cortisol slope at phase 7 was predictive of future impaired fasting glucose or T2D at phase 11 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02-1.22), as was high bedtime cortisol (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20). In this nonclinical population, alterations in diurnal cortisol patterns were predictive of future glucose disturbance.

  2. Plasma carotenoids and breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Furtado, Jeremy D; Campos, Hannia; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2015-09-01

    Several circulating carotenoids have been inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk in large cohort studies and a pooled analysis. Whether associations differ by tumor or participant characteristics remains unclear. We investigated the associations of plasma carotenoids with postmenopausal breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, tumor stage, smoking status, and body mass index, in a case-control study nested in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 496 invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed between blood draw in 1998-2001 and June 30, 2007 and matched 1:1 with controls on race, birth date, and blood draw date were included. Multivariable-adjusted conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Plasma α-carotene above the lowest quartile was associated with significant 40-43% lower risk of invasive breast cancer risk (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.87, P-trend = 0.037) after adjustment for multiple covariates. This inverse association was strengthened after further adjustment for other plasma carotenoids and total fruit and vegetable intake (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.85, P-trend = 0.041). Other plasma carotenoids or total carotenoids were not associated with breast cancer risk. The inverse association of α-carotene with breast cancer remained for ER+, but not for ER- tumors, although test for heterogeneity was not statistically significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.49). These results suggest that higher plasma α-carotene is associated with lower risk of invasive breast cancer.

  3. Obesity-related markers and breast cancer in CPS-II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Mia M; Patel, Alpa V; Teras, Lauren R; Sun, Juzhong; Campbell, Peter T; Stevens, Victoria L; Jacobs, Eric J; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Low circulating levels of adiponectin and high levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and C-peptide have been shown to be related to postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and to partially mediate the obesity-postmenopausal breast cancer association; however, data from prospective studies, especially those limited to non-users of postmenopausal hormones, are sparse. To further evaluate these associations, we measured these markers in a case-control study nested in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort. Plasma samples from 302 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and matched controls were analyzed. None of the women were taking postmenopausal hormones at blood draw. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Low levels of total adiponectin and high levels of total IGF-1 and CRP were associated with increased breast cancer risk, but associations were not statistically significant. The association with C-peptide was statistically significant (T3 vs. T1: OR=1.63, 95% CI 1.08-2.45; p-value for linear trend=0.001), but was slightly attenuated after further adjustment for BMI (T3 vs. T1: OR=1.51, 95% CI 0.99-2.31; p-value for linear trend=0.004). The association between BMI and breast cancer risk was attenuated toward the null after controlling for C-peptide (from OR=1.43 to OR=1.25 for BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) compared to <25 kg/m>(2)). The elevated risk of postmenopausal breast cancer associated with higher circulating levels of C-peptide is consistent with a role of hyperinsulinemia in breast carcinogenesis, and might account for some of the higher risk associated with obesity.

  4. Obesity-related markers and breast cancer in CPS-II Nutrition Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Mia M; Patel, Alpa V; Teras, Lauren R; Sun, Juzhong; Campbell, Peter T; Stevens, Victoria L; Jacobs, Eric J; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Low circulating levels of adiponectin and high levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and C-peptide have been shown to be related to postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and to partially mediate the obesity-postmenopausal breast cancer association; however, data from prospective studies, especially those limited to non-users of postmenopausal hormones, are sparse. To further evaluate these associations, we measured these markers in a case-control study nested in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort. Plasma samples from 302 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and matched controls were analyzed. None of the women were taking postmenopausal hormones at blood draw. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Low levels of total adiponectin and high levels of total IGF-1 and CRP were associated with increased breast cancer risk, but associations were not statistically significant. The association with C-peptide was statistically significant (T3 vs. T1: OR=1.63, 95% CI 1.08-2.45; p-value for linear trend=0.001), but was slightly attenuated after further adjustment for BMI (T3 vs. T1: OR=1.51, 95% CI 0.99-2.31; p-value for linear trend=0.004). The association between BMI and breast cancer risk was attenuated toward the null after controlling for C-peptide (from OR=1.43 to OR=1.25 for BMI ≥30 kg/m2 compared to <25 kg/m>2). The elevated risk of postmenopausal breast cancer associated with higher circulating levels of C-peptide is consistent with a role of hyperinsulinemia in breast carcinogenesis, and might account for some of the higher risk associated with obesity. PMID:24046808

  5. Hospitalization experience of Navajo subjects with type II diabetes and matched controls: an historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, P J; Crabtree, B F; Nakamura, R M; Kelley, D

    1990-01-01

    Using an historical cohort study design with a 12 year follow-up, we found that 77 Navajo adults with type II diabetes mellitus were hospitalized at a rate of 335 hospitalizations per 1000 patient years compared to a rate of 167 hospitalizations per 1000 patient years for 77 age, sex, and residence matched non-diabetic controls, yielding a risk ratio of 2.0. Using matched pairs analysis (sign test), the observed difference in number of hospital admissions is statistically significant (z = 2.30, p less than 0.05). The average duration of hospitalization, however, was not statistically different in matched pairs analysis (z = 0.95, p greater than 0.05). The 136 excess hospitalizations of the diabetic subjects included 45 admissions for poor metabolic control of diabetes, 50 excess admissions for infectious disease, and 26 excess admissions for conditions of the heart, eye, kidney, or non-traumatic amputation. In multivariate analyses, variables found to be associated with greater hospitalization experience among the 77 diabetic subjects in the 12 years follow-up period included older age at entry to the study, poorer metabolic control early in the study period, and presence of diabetic complications.

  6. Tubal sterilization and breast cancer incidence: results from the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Mia M; Patel, Alpa V; Sun, Juzhong; Teras, Lauren R; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-03-15

    Tubal sterilization is a common form of contraception in the United States and is hypothesized to be associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. However, prior observational studies have reported inconsistent results. We investigated the association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk among 77,249 postmenopausal, cancer-free women in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort, enrolled in 21 states in the United States during 1992-1993. During 15 years of follow-up through June 30, 2007, 4,084 invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A meta-analysis including the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort results with other published results from 4 case-control studies and 3 prospective studies was conducted to provide a summary estimate for the association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk. In the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort, tubal sterilization was not associated with breast cancer incidence (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.20). Associations stratified by year of tubal sterilization, age, and time since surgery were also null. The meta-analysis also found no association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.09). Tubal sterilization does not appear to be associated with breast cancer risk.

  7. Work Stress, Caregiving and Allostatic Load: Prospective results from Whitehall II cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis; Head, Jenny; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies investigating health effects of work and family stress usually consider these factors in isolation. The present study investigated prospective interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on allostatic load (AL), a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Methods Subjects were 7,007 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study. Phase 3 (1991-1994) served as the baseline, Phases 5 (1997-1999) and 7 (2002-2004) as follow-ups. Job strain (high job demands combined with low control) and caregiving (providing care to aged or disabled relatives) were assessed at baseline. AL index (possible range 0-9) was assessed at baseline and both follow-ups based on 9 cardiovascular, metabolic and immune biomarkers. Linear mixed effect models were used to examine the association of job strain and caregiving with AL. Results High caregiving burden (above the sample median weekly hours of providing care) predicted higher AL levels, with the effect strongest in those also reporting job strain [b = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.01– 0.71)]; however, the interaction between job strain and caregiving was not significant (p = 0.56). Regardless of job strain, participants with low caregiving burden (below sample median) had lower subsequent AL levels than non-caregivers [b = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06–0.37]. Conclusions The study provides some evidence for adverse effects of stress at work combined with family demands on physiological functioning. However, providing care to others may also have health protective effects if it does not involve excessive time commitment. PMID:25984826

  8. Socioeconomic status, education, and aortic stiffness progression over 5 years: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Xavier; Shipley, Martin J; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Brunner, Eric J

    2016-10-01

    The inverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is well documented. Aortic stiffness assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a strong predictor of CVD events. However, no previous study has examined the effect of SES on arterial stiffening over time. The present study examines this association, using several measures of SES, and attained education level in a large ageing cohort of British men and women. Participants were drawn from the Whitehall II study. The sample was composed of 3836 men and 1406 women who attended the 2008-2009 clinical examination (mean age = 65.5 years). Aortic PWV was measured in 2008-2009 and in 2012-2013 by applanation tonometry. A total of 3484 participants provided PWV measurements on both occasions. The mean difference in 5-year PWV change was examined according to household income, education, employment grade, and father's social class, using linear mixed models. PWV increase [mean: confidence interval (m/s)] over 5 years was higher among participants with lower employment grade (0.38: 0.11-0.65), household income (0.58, 95%: 0.32-0.85), and education (0.30: 0.01, 0.58), after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking, and other cardiovascular risk factors, namely SBP, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, cholesterol, diabetes, and antihypertensive use. The present study supports the presence of robust socioeconomic disparities in aortic stiffness progression. Our findings suggest that arterial aging could be an important pathophysiological pathway explaining the impact of lower SES on CVD risk.

  9. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of <2 drinks per day and a slightly lower risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74-1.00) compared with never drinking. Alcohol use was generally not associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of <2 drinks/day and RR, 1.44 [95% CI, 0.80-2.60] for current drinking of ≥2 drinks/day). The results of the current study do not support an association between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality among individuals with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall II (prospective cohort) study.

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, H.; Marmot, M. G.; Hemingway, H.; Nicholson, A. C.; Brunner, E.; Stansfeld, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of coronary heart disease among male and female civil servants. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the baseline examination (1985-8) and twice during follow up a self report questionnaire provided information on psychosocial factors of the work environment and coronary heart disease. Independent assessments of the work environment were obtained from personnel managers at baseline. Mean length of follow up was 5.3 years. SETTING: London based office staff in 20 civil service departments. SUBJECTS: 10,308 civil servants aged 35-55 were examined-6895 men (67%) and 3413 women (33%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases of angina (Rose questionnaire), severe pain across the chest, diagnosed ischaemic heart disease, and any coronary event. RESULTS: Men and women with low job control, either self reported or independently assessed, had a higher risk of newly reported coronary heart disease during follow up. Job control assessed on two occasions three years apart, although intercorrelated, had cumulative effects on newly reported disease. Subjects with low job control on both occasions had an odds ratio for any subsequent coronary event of 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.34 to 2.77) compared with subjects with high job control at both occasions. This association could not be explained by employment grade, negative affectivity, or classic coronary risk factors. Job demands and social support at work were not related to the risk of coronary heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Low control in the work environment is associated with an increased risk of future coronary heart disease among men and women employed in government offices. The cumulative effect of low job control assessed on two occasions indicates that giving employees more variety in tasks and a stronger say in decisions about work may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:9055714

  11. Health Behaviours, Socioeconomic Status, and Mortality: Further Analyses of the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL Prospective Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Stringhini, Silvia; Dugravot, Aline; Shipley, Martin; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Kivimäki, Mika; Marmot, Michael; Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in morbidity and mortality between socioeconomic groups constitute one of the most consistent findings of epidemiologic research. However, research on social inequalities in health has yet to provide a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. In recent analysis, we showed health behaviours, assessed longitudinally over the follow-up, to explain a major proportion of the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with mortality in the British Whitehall II study. However, whether health behaviours are equally important mediators of the SES-mortality association in different cultural settings remains unknown. In the present paper, we examine this issue in Whitehall II and another prospective European cohort, the French GAZEL study. Methods and Findings We included 9,771 participants from the Whitehall II study and 17,760 from the GAZEL study. Over the follow-up (mean 19.5 y in Whitehall II and 16.5 y in GAZEL), health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity), were assessed longitudinally. Occupation (in the main analysis), education, and income (supplementary analysis) were the markers of SES. The socioeconomic gradient in smoking was greater (p<0.001) in Whitehall II (odds ratio [OR]  = 3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.11–4.36) than in GAZEL (OR  = 1.33, 95% CI 1.18–1.49); this was also true for unhealthy diet (OR  = 7.42, 95% CI 5.19–10.60 in Whitehall II and OR  = 1.31, 95% CI 1.15–1.49 in GAZEL, p<0.001). Socioeconomic differences in mortality were similar in the two cohorts, a hazard ratio of 1.62 (95% CI 1.28–2.05) in Whitehall II and 1.94 in GAZEL (95% CI 1.58–2.39) for lowest versus highest occupational position. Health behaviours attenuated the association of SES with mortality by 75% (95% CI 44%–149%) in Whitehall II but only by 19% (95% CI 13%–29%) in GAZEL. Analysis using education and income yielded similar results. Conclusions Health

  12. Vocabulary Development with Contextual Clues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Hubbard C.

    1977-01-01

    Advanced students can grasp the meaning of many new words from clues in the context. Such words often occur as obvious synonyms, as summarizing words, in comparisons and associations, etc. Two types of exercises are presented which may help to develop the students' ability to recognize such words. (IFS/WGA)

  13. Nails: diagnostic clue to genodermatoses.

    PubMed

    Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Nails are cutaneous appendages mostly involved in mechanical functions. However, nails may reflect presence of various systemic disorders evidenced by alteration of their shape, size, color or texture. Genodermatoses are multisystem disorders with cutaneous involvement. Many of the genodermatoses present with nail changes and some of these may be the clinical pointers to the diagnosis. Diagnostic clues to various genodermatoses derived from nail findings have been discussed.

  14. Historical cohort study of US man-made vitreous fiber production workers: II. Mortality from mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Marsh, G M; Gula, M J; Youk, A O; Buchanich, J M; Churg, A; Colby, T V

    2001-09-01

    As part of our ongoing mortality surveillance program for the US man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) industry, we examined mortality from malignant mesothelioma using data from our 1989 follow-up of 3478 rock/slag wool workers and our 1992 follow-up of 32,110 fiberglass workers. A manual search of death certificates for 1011 rock/slag wool workers and 9060 fiberglass workers revealed only 10 death certificates with any mention of the word "mesothelioma." A subsequent review of medical records and pathology specimens for 3 of the 10 workers deemed two deaths as definitely not due to mesothelioma and one as having a 50% chance of being caused by mesothelioma. Two other deaths, for which only medical records were available, were given less than a 50% chance of being due to mesothelioma. Eight of the 10 decedents had potential occupational asbestos exposure inside or outside the MMVF industry. We also estimated the mortality risk from malignant mesothelioma in the cohort using two cause-of-death categorizations that included both malignant and benign coding rubrics. Using the more comprehensive scheme, we observed overall deficits in deaths among the total cohort and fiberglass workers and an overall excess among rock/slag wool workers. The excess in respiratory system cancer is largely a reflection of elevated lung cancer risks that we attributed mainly to confounding by smoking, to exposures outside the MMVF industry to agents such as asbestos, or to one or more of the several co-exposures present in many of the study plants (including asbestos). The second scheme, which focused on pleural mesothelioma in time periods when specific malignant mesothelioma coding rubrics were available, classified only one cohort death as being caused by malignant mesothelioma, compared with 2.19 expected deaths (local county comparison). We conclude that the overall mortality risk from malignant mesothelioma does not seem to be elevated in the US MMVF cohort.

  15. Familial hyperproinsulinemia. Two cohorts secreting indistinguishable type II intermediates of proinsulin conversion.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, D C; Shoelson, S E; Rubenstein, A H; Tager, H S

    1984-01-01

    Familial hyperproinsulinemia, a hereditary syndrome in which individuals secrete high amounts of 9,000-mol wt proinsulin-like material, has been identified in two unrelated cohorts. Separate analysis of the material from each of the two cohorts had suggested that the proinsulin-like peptide was a conversion intermediate in which the C-peptide remained attached to the insulin B-chain in one case, whereas it was a conversion intermediate in which the C-peptide remained attached to the insulin A-chain in the other. To reinvestigate this apparent discrepancy, we have now used chemical, biochemical, immunochemical, and physical techniques to compare in parallel the structures of the immunoaffinity chromatography-purified, proinsulin-like peptides isolated from the serum of members of both families. Our results show that affected individuals in both cohorts secrete two-chained intermediates of proinsulin conversion in which the COOH-terminus of the C-peptide is extended by the insulin A-chain and from which the insulin B-chain is released by oxidative sulfitolysis. Analysis of the conversion intermediates by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using two different buffer systems showed that the proinsulin-related peptides from both families elute at a single position very near that of the normal intermediate des-Arg31, Arg32-proinsulin. Further, treatment of these peptides with acetic anhydride prevented trypsin-catalyzed cleavage of the C-peptide from the insulin A-chain, a result demonstrating the presence of Lys64 and the absence of Arg65 in both abnormal forms. We conclude that individuals from both cohorts with familial hyperproinsulinemia secret very similar or identical intermediates of proinsulin conversion in which the C-peptide remains attached to the insulin A chain and in which Arg65 has been replaced by another amino acid residue. PMID:6368587

  16. Familial hyperproinsulinemia. Two cohorts secreting indistinguishable type II intermediates of proinsulin conversion.

    PubMed

    Robbins, D C; Shoelson, S E; Rubenstein, A H; Tager, H S

    1984-03-01

    Familial hyperproinsulinemia, a hereditary syndrome in which individuals secrete high amounts of 9,000-mol wt proinsulin-like material, has been identified in two unrelated cohorts. Separate analysis of the material from each of the two cohorts had suggested that the proinsulin-like peptide was a conversion intermediate in which the C-peptide remained attached to the insulin B-chain in one case, whereas it was a conversion intermediate in which the C-peptide remained attached to the insulin A-chain in the other. To reinvestigate this apparent discrepancy, we have now used chemical, biochemical, immunochemical, and physical techniques to compare in parallel the structures of the immunoaffinity chromatography-purified, proinsulin-like peptides isolated from the serum of members of both families. Our results show that affected individuals in both cohorts secrete two-chained intermediates of proinsulin conversion in which the COOH-terminus of the C-peptide is extended by the insulin A-chain and from which the insulin B-chain is released by oxidative sulfitolysis. Analysis of the conversion intermediates by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using two different buffer systems showed that the proinsulin-related peptides from both families elute at a single position very near that of the normal intermediate des-Arg31, Arg32-proinsulin. Further, treatment of these peptides with acetic anhydride prevented trypsin-catalyzed cleavage of the C-peptide from the insulin A-chain, a result demonstrating the presence of Lys64 and the absence of Arg65 in both abnormal forms. We conclude that individuals from both cohorts with familial hyperproinsulinemia secret very similar or identical intermediates of proinsulin conversion in which the C-peptide remains attached to the insulin A chain and in which Arg65 has been replaced by another amino acid residue.

  17. Leukemia risk associated with benzene exposure in the pliofilm cohort. II. Risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Paxton, M B; Chinchilli, V M; Brett, S M; Rodricks, J V

    1994-04-01

    The detailed work histories of the individual workers composing the Pliofilm cohort represent a unique resource for estimating the dose-response for leukemia that may follow occupational exposure to benzene. In this paper, we report the results of analyzing the updated Pliofilm cohort using the proportional hazards model, a more sophisticated technique that uses more of the available exposure data than the conditional logistic model used by Rinsky et al. The more rigorously defined exposure estimates derived by Paustenbach et al. are consistent with those of Crump and Allen in giving estimates of the slope of the leukemogenic dose-response that are not as steep as the slope resulting from the exposure estimates of Rinsky et al. We consider estimates of 0.3-0.5 additional leukemia deaths per thousand workers with 45 ppm-years of cumulative benzene exposure to be the best estimates currently available of leukemia risk from occupational exposure to benzene. These risks were estimated in the proportional hazards model when the exposure estimates of Crump and Allen or of Paustenbach et al. were used to derive a cumulative concentration-by-time metric.

  18. Milk drinking, ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke II. Evidence from cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Elwood, P C; Pickering, J E; Hughes, J; Fehily, A M; Ness, A R

    2004-05-01

    Milk consumption is considered a risk factor for vascular disease on the basis of relevant biological mechanisms and data from ecological studies. The aim was to identify published prospective studies of milk drinking and vascular disease, and conduct an overview. The literature was searched for cohort studies, in which an estimate of the consumption of milk, or the intake of calcium from dairy sources, has been related to incident vascular disease. Ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke. In total, 10 studies were identified. Their results show a high degree of consistency in the reported risk for heart disease and stroke, all but one study suggesting a relative risk of less than one in subjects with the highest intakes of milk. A pooled estimate of relative odds in these subjects, relative to the risk in subjects with the lowest consumption, is 0.87 (95% CI 0.74-1.03) for ischaemic heart disease and 0.83 (0.77-0.90) for ischaemic stroke. The odds ratio for any vascular event is 0.84 (0.78-0.90). Cohort studies provide no convincing evidence that milk is harmful. While there still could be residual confounding from unidentified factors, the studies, taken together, suggest that milk drinking may be associated with a small but worthwhile reduction in heart disease and stroke risk. The University of Wales College of Medicine and Bristol University. Current support is from the Food Standards Agency.

  19. The influence of hormone therapies on type I and II endometrial cancer: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Lina S; Kjaer, Susanne K; Keiding, Niels; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2016-03-15

    The influence of hormone therapy (HT) on risk for endometrial cancer is still casting which type of HT the clinicians recommend. It is unrevealed if HT has a differential influence on Type I versus Type II endometrial tumors, and little is known about the influence of, e.g., different routes of administration and about the influence of tibolone. We followed all Danish women aged 50-79 years without previous cancer or hysterectomy (n = 914,595) during 1995-2009. From the National Prescription Register, we computed HT exposures as time-dependent covariates. Incident endometrial cancers (n = 6,202) were identified from the National Cancer Registry: 4,972 Type I tumors and 500 Type II tumors. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cls) were estimated by Poisson regression. Compared with women never on HT, the RR of endometrial cancer was increased with conjugated estrogen: 4.27 (1.92-9.52), nonconjugated estrogen: 2.00 (1.87-2.13), long cycle combined therapy: 2.89 (2.27-3.67), cyclic combined therapy: 2.06 (1.88-2.27), tibolone 3.56 (2.94-4.32), transdermal estrogen: 2.77 (2.12-3.62) and vaginal estrogen: 1.96 (1.77-2.17), but not with continuous combined therapy: 1.02 (0.87-1.20). In contrast, the risk of Type II tumors appeared decreased with continuous combined therapy: 0.45 (0.20-1.01), and estrogen therapy implied a nonsignificantly altered risk of 1.43 (0.85-2.41). Our findings support that continuous combined therapy is risk free for Type I tumors, while all other hormone therapies increase risk. In contrast, Type II endometrial cancer was less convincingly associated with hormone use, and continuous combined therapy appeared to decrease the risk. © 2015 UICC.

  20. HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot reactivity in a cohort of patients with neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Soldan, S S; Graf, M D; Waziri, A; Flerlage, A N; Robinson, S M; Kawanishi, T; Leist, T P; Lehky, T J; Levin, M C; Jacobson, S

    1999-09-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with a chronic, progressive neurological disease known as HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Screening for HTLV-I involves the detection of virus-specific serum antibodies by EIA and confirmation by Western blot. HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot patterns have been described worldwide. However, the significance of this blot pattern is unclear. We identified 8 patients with neurological disease and an HTLV-I/II seroindeterminate Western blot pattern, none of whom demonstrated increased spontaneous proliferation and HTLV-I-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity. However, HTLV-I tax sequence was amplified from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 4 of them. These data suggest that patients with chronic progressive neurological disease and HTLV-I/II Western blot seroindeterminate reactivity may harbor either defective HTLV-I, novel retrovirus with partial homology to HTLV-I, or HTLV-I in low copy number.

  1. [Validation of APACHE II and SOFA scores in 2 cohorts of patients with suspected infection and sepsis, not admitted to critical care units].

    PubMed

    Cerro, L; Valencia, J; Calle, P; León, A; Jaimes, F

    2014-03-01

    To validate the APACHE II and SOFA scores in patients with suspected infection in clinical settings other than intensive care units. A secondary analysis was performed on 2,530 adult patients participating in 2 cohort studies, with suspected infection as admission diagnosis within the first 24 h of hospitalization. The performance of both scoring systems was studied in order to set calibration and discrimination, respectively, on the outcomes such as mortality, admission to Intensive Care Unit, development of septic shock, or multiple organ dysfunctions. The AUC-ROC values for mortality at discharge and on day 28 in the first cohort were around 0.50 for the SOFA and APACHE II scores; whereas for the second cohort the discrimination value was around 0.70. Calibration of both scoring systems for primary outcomes, according to Hosmer-Lemeshow test, showed p>.05 in the first cohort; while in the second cohort calibration it only showed a p>.05 in the case of the SOFA for mortality at hospital discharge. This validation study of SOFA and APACHE II scores in patients with suspected infection in-hospital units other than the Intensive Care Unit, showed no consistent performance for calibration and discrimination. Its application in emergency and in-hospital patients is limited. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Retrospective cohort mortality study of workers at an aircraft maintenance facility. II. Exposures and their assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, P A; Lee, J S; Marano, D E; Spirtas, R; Forbes, C D; Blair, A

    1991-01-01

    Methods are presented that were used for assessing exposures in a cohort mortality study of 15,000 employees who held 150,000 jobs at an Air Force base from 1939 to 1982. Standardisation of the word order and spelling of the job titles identified 43,000 unique job title organisation combinations. Walkthrough surveys were conducted, long term employees were interviewed, and available industrial hygiene data were collected to evaluate historic exposures. Because of difficulties linking air monitoring data and use of specific chemicals to the departments identified in the work histories, position descriptions were used to identify the tasks in each job. From knowledge of the tasks and the chemicals used in those tasks the presence or absence of 23 chemicals or groups of chemicals were designated for each job organisation combination. Also, estimates of levels of exposure were made for trichloroethylene and for mixed solvents, a category comprising several solvents including trichloroethylene, Stoddard solvent, carbon tetrachloride, JP4 gasoline, freon, alcohols, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, acetone, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, methylene chloride, o-dichlorobenzene, perchloroethylene, chloroform, styrene, and xylene. PMID:1878309

  3. Dengue Infection in Children in Ratchaburi, Thailand: A Cohort Study. II. Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Jiwariyavej, Vithaya; Chokejindachai, Watcharee; Pengsaa, Krisana; Suvannadabba, Saravudh; Dulyachai, Wut; Letson, G. William; Sabchareon, Arunee

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue infection is one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases. More data regarding the disease burden and the prevalence of each clinical spectrum among symptomatic infections and the clinical manifestations are needed. This study aims to describe the incidence and clinical manifestations of symptomatic dengue infection in Thai children during 2006 through 2008. Study Design This study is a school-based prospective open cohort study with a 9,448 person-year follow-up in children aged 3–14 years. Active surveillance for febrile illnesses was done in the studied subjects. Subjects who had febrile illness were asked to visit the study hospital for clinical and laboratory evaluation, treatment, and serological tests for dengue infection. The clinical data from medical records, diary cards, and data collection forms were collected and analyzed. Results Dengue infections were the causes of 12.1% of febrile illnesses attending the hospital, including undifferentiated fever (UF) (49.8%), dengue fever (DF) (39.3%) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) (10.9%). Headache, anorexia, nausea/vomiting and myalgia were common symptoms occurring in more than half of the patients. The more severe dengue spectrum (i.e., DHF) had higher temperature, higher prevalence of nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, rash, diarrhea, petechiae, hepatomegaly and lower platelet count. DHF cases also had significantly higher prevalence of anorexia, nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain during day 3–6 and diarrhea during day 4–6 of illness. The absence of nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, petechiae, hepatomegaly and positive tourniquet test may predict non-DHF. Conclusion Among symptomatic dengue infection, UF is most common followed by DF and DHF. Some clinical manifestations may be useful to predict the more severe disease (i.e., DHF). This study presents additional information in the clinical spectra of symptomatic dengue infection. PMID:22389735

  4. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Diver, W Ryan; Turner, Michelle C; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148Bq/m(3)) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74Bq/m(3)) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23-2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HRcontinuous=1.38, 95% CI:1.15-1.65 per 100Bq/m(3); p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Meat consumption among Black and White men and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carmen; McCullough, Marjorie L; Mondul, Alison M; Jacobs, Eric J; Chao, Ann; Patel, Alpa V; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2006-02-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested that intake of red meat may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Few studies, however, have examined these associations by race. We examined intake of red meat, processed meat, and poultry in relation to incident prostate cancer among Black and White men in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Participants in the study completed a detailed questionnaire on diet, medical history, and lifestyle in 1992 to 1993. After excluding men with a history of cancer and incomplete dietary information, 692 Black and 64,856 White men were included in the cohort. During follow-up through August 31, 2001, we documented 85 and 5,028 cases of incident prostate cancer among Black and White men, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). No measure of meat consumption was associated with risk of prostate cancer among White men. Among Black men, total red meat intake (processed plus unprocessed red meat) was associated with higher risk of prostate cancer (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-4.2 for highest versus lowest quartile; P(trend) = 0.05); this increase in risk was mainly due to risk associated with consumption of cooked processed meats (sausages, bacon, and hot dogs; RR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.3 for highest versus lowest quartile; P(trend) = 0.008). This study suggests that high consumption of cooked processed meats may contribute to prostate cancer risk among Black men in the United States.

  6. Combined impact of smoking and heavy alcohol use on cognitive decline in early old age: Whitehall II prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Sabia, Séverine; Brunner, Eric John; Shipley, Martin; Bobak, Martin; Marmot, Michael; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline may inform prevention of dementia. Aims To examine the combined impact of cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption on cognitive decline from midlife. Method Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II cohort) with three clinical examinations in 1997/99, 2002/04 and 2007/09. Participants were 6473 adults (72% men), mean age 55.76 years (s.d. = 6.02) in 1997/99. Four cognitive tests, assessed three times over 10 years, combined into a global z-score (mean 0, s.d. = 1). Results Age-related decline in the global cognitive score was faster in individuals who were smoking heavy drinkers than in non-smoking moderate alcohol drinkers (reference group). The interaction term (P = 0.04) suggested that the combined effects of smoking and alcohol consumption were greater than their individual effects. Adjusting for age, gender, education and chronic diseases, 10-year decline in global cognition was –0.42 z-scores (95% CI –0.45 to –0.39) for the reference group. In individuals who were heavy alcohol drinkers who also smoked the decline was –0.57 z-scores (95% CI –0.67 to –0.48); 36% faster than the reference group. Conclusions Individuals who were smokers who drank alcohol heavily had a 36% faster cognitive decline, equivalent to an age-effect of 2 extra years over 10-year follow-up, compared with individuals who were non-smoking moderate drinkers. PMID:23846998

  7. Depressive disorder, coronary heart disease, and stroke: dose-response and reverse causation effects in the Whitehall II cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Britton, Annie R; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Heuschmann, Peter U; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2014-03-01

    Systematic reviews examining associations of depressive disorder with coronary heart disease and stroke produce mixed results. Failure to consider reverse causation and dose-response patterns may have caused inconsistencies in evidence. This prospective cohort study on depressive disorder, coronary heart disease, and stroke analysed reverse causation and dose-response effects using four 5-year and three 10-year observation cycles (total follow up 24 years) based on multiple repeat measures of exposure. Participants in the Whitehall II study (n = 10,036, 31,395 person-observations, age at start 44.4 years) provided up to six repeat measures of depressive symptoms via the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and one measure via Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The cohort was followed up for major coronary events (coronary death/nonfatal myocardial infarction) and stroke (stroke death/morbidity) through the national mortality register Hospital Episode Statistics, ECG-screening, medical records, and self-report questionnaires. GHQ-30 caseness predicted stroke over 0-5 years (age-, sex- and ethnicity-adjusted HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.1-2.3) but not over 5-10 years (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.6-1.4). Using the last 5-year observation cycle, cumulative GHQ-30 caseness was associated with incident coronary heart disease in a dose-response manner (1-2 times a case: HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.7-1.7; 3-4 times: HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.2-3.7), and CES-D caseness predicted coronary heart disease (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). There was evidence of a dose-response effect of depressive symptoms on risk of coronary heart disease. In contrast, prospective associations of depressive symptoms with stroke appeared to arise wholly or partly through reverse causation.

  8. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging.

  9. Long working hours and sleep disturbances: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane E; Gimeno, David; Vahtera, Jussi; Elovainio, Marko; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-06-01

    To examine whether exposure to long working hours predicts various forms of sleep disturbance; short sleep, difficulty falling asleep, frequent waking, early waking and waking without feeling refreshed. Prospective study with 2 measurements of working hours (phase 3, 1991-1994 and phase 5, 1997-1999) and 2 measurements of subjective sleep disturbances (phase 5 and phase 7, 2002-2004). The Whitehall II study of British civil servants. Full time workers free of sleep disturbances at phase 5 and employed at phases 5 and 7 (n = 937-1594) or at phases 3, 5, and 7 (n = 886-1510). Working more than 55 hours a week, compared with working 35-40 hours a week, was related to incident sleep disturbances; demographics-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) 1.98 (1.05, 3.76) for shortened sleeping hours, 3.68 (1.58, 8.58) for difficulty falling asleep; and 1.98 (1.04, 3.77) for waking without feeling refreshed. Repeat exposure to long working hours was associated with odds ratio 3.24 (1.45, 7.27) for shortened sleep, 6.66 (2.64, 16.83) for difficulty falling asleep, and 2.23 (1.16, 4.31) for early morning awakenings. Some associations were attenuated after adjustment for other risk factors. To a great extent, similar results were obtained using working hours as a continuous variable. Imputation of missing values supported the findings on shortened sleep and difficulty in falling asleep. Working long hours appears to be a risk factor for the development of shortened sleeping hours and difficulty falling asleep.

  10. Prediction of the 10-year probability of gastric cancer occurrence in the Japanese population: the JPHC study cohort II.

    PubMed

    Charvat, Hadrien; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-15

    Gastric cancer is a particularly important issue in Japan, where incidence rates are among the highest observed. In this work, we provide a risk prediction model allowing the estimation of the 10-year cumulative probability of gastric cancer occurrence. The study population consisted of 19,028 individuals from the Japanese Public Health Center cohort II who were followed-up from 1993 to 2009. A parametric survival model was used to assess the impact on the probability of gastric cancer of clinical and lifestyle-related risk factors in combination with serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody titres and pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II levels. Based on the resulting model, cumulative probability estimates were calculated and a simple risk scoring system was developed. A total of 412 cases of gastric cancer occurred during 270,854 person-years of follow-up. The final model included (besides the biological markers) age, gender, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer and consumption of highly salted food. The developed prediction model showed good predictive performance in terms of discrimination (optimism-corrected c-index: 0.768) and calibration (Nam and d'Agostino's χ(2) test: 14.78; p values = 0.06). Estimates of the 10-year probability of gastric cancer occurrence ranged from 0.04% (0.02, 0.1) to 14.87% (8.96, 24.14) for men and from 0.03% (0.02, 0.07) to 4.91% (2.71, 8.81) for women. In conclusion, we developed a risk prediction model for gastric cancer that combines clinical and biological markers. It might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programmes.

  11. Concurrent or sequential letrozole with adjuvant breast radiotherapy: final results of the CO-HO-RT phase II randomized trial†

    PubMed Central

    Bourgier, C.; Kerns, S.; Gourgou, S.; Lemanski, C.; Gutowski, M.; Fenoglietto, P.; Romieu, G.; Crompton, N.; Lacombe, J.; Pèlegrin, A.; Ozsahin, M.; Rosenstein, B.; Azria, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background We present here final clinical results of the COHORT trial and both translational sub-studies aiming at identifying patients at risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis (RISF): (i) radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) and (ii) candidates of certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Patients and methods Post-menopausal patients with stage I–II breast cancer (n = 150) were enrolled and assigned to either concurrent (arm A) or sequential radiotherapy (RT)-letrozole (arm B). Among them, 121 were eligible for RILA and SNP assays. Grade ≥2 RISF were the primary end point. Secondary end points were lung and heart events and carcinologic outcome. RILA was performed to predict differences in RISF between individuals. A genome-wide association study was performed to identify SNPs associated with RILA and RISF. Analyses were done by intention to treat. Results After a median follow-up of 74 months, 5 patients developed a grade ≥2 RISF. No significant difference was observed between arms A and B. Neither grade ≥2 lung nor symptomatic cardiac toxicity was observed. Median RILA value of the five patients who had grade ≥2 RISF was significantly lower compared with those who developed grade ≤1 RISF (6.9% versus 13%, P = 0.02). Two SNPs were identified as being significantly associated with RILA: rs1182531 (P = 4.2 × 10−9) and rs1182532 (P = 3.6 × 10−8); both located within the PHACTR3 gene on chromosome 20q13.33. Conclusions With long-term follow-up, letrozole can safely be delivered concomitantly with adjuvant breast RT. Translational sub-studies showed that high RILA values were correlated with patients who did not develop RISF. Registered clinical trial NCT00208273. PMID:26681684

  12. A Keen Eye for Clues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Jonothan

    2010-03-01

    Samuel Goudsmit, a pioneering atomic theorist who specialized in the exacting, quantitative art of interpreting line spectra and who, with George Uhlenbeck, discovered electron spin, also contributed key studies of nuclear moments, neutron scattering, and the statistics of experimental measurement. Beyond the traditional ambit of laboratory, desk, and blackboard, Goudsmit was drawn to a wider world of inquiry -- to museums and archaeological sites in Cairo as a respected amateur Egyptologist; to the MIT Radiation Lab early in WWII and to the briefing rooms of British pilots, analyzing the effectiveness of radar; and across wartime Europe by jeep, as head of an Allied mission in pursuit of clear information on Germany's secret fission program. After the war he took up chairmanship of a major physics department and editorship of the Physical Review, where he created the ambitious new journal, Physical Review Letters. The present author, Goudsmit's assistant at the journal forty years ago, looks for a common element that might explain this extraordinary diversity of interests and contributions, and finds one in Goudsmit's abiding delight in solving puzzles of every kind, coupled with a detective's keen eye for clues.

  13. Next generation sequencing to determine HLA class II genotypes in a cohort of hematopoietic cell transplant patients and donors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anajane G; Pyo, Chul-Woo; Nelson, Wyatt; Gow, Edward; Wang, Ruihan; Shen, Shu; Sprague, Maggie; Pereira, Shalini E; Geraghty, Daniel E; Hansen, John A

    2014-10-01

    Current high-resolution HLA typing technologies frequently produce ambiguous results that mandate extended testing prior to reporting. Through multiplex sequencing of individual amplicons from many individuals at multiple loci, next generation sequencing (NGS) promises to eliminate heterozygote ambiguities and extend the breadth of genetic data acquired with little additional effort. We report here on assessment of a novel NGS HLA genotyping system for resequencing exons 2 and 3 of DRB1/B3/B4/B5, DQA1 and DQB1 and exon 2 of DPA1 and DPB1 on the MiSeq platform. In a cohort of 2605 hematopoietic cell transplant recipients and donors, NGS achieved 99.6% accuracy for DRB1 allele assignments and 99.5% for DQB1, compared to legacy genotypes generated pretransplant. NGS provided at least single 4-digit allele resolution for 97% of genotypes at DRB1 and 100% at DQB1. Overall, NGS typing identified 166 class II alleles, including 9 novel sequences with greater than 99% accuracy for DRB1 and DQB1 genotypes and elimination of diploid ambiguities through in-phase sequencing demonstrated the robust reliability of the NGS HLA genotyping reagents and analysis software employed in this study. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Harsh social conditions and perinatal survival: an age-period-cohort analysis of the World War II occupation of Norway.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, A J; Skjaerven, R; Irgens, L M

    1994-09-01

    The hypothesis was tested that unfavorable social conditions are associated with poor perinatal survival through direct effects on pregnancy or, more indirectly, through effects on mothers born under such conditions. The occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany was used as a period of social hardship. Data from Norwegian vital statistics and the Medical Birth Registry were used to describe perinatal mortality during World War II and also a generation later, among babies born to mothers who had themselves been born during the war. Logistic regression was used to identify a possible cohort effect among mothers born in 1940 through 1944 compared with mothers born before or after that period. Harsh conditions in Norway during the occupation increased childhood mortality. However, perinatal mortality declined during that period. Likewise, no adverse effect was seen on the survival of babies born to mothers who had themselves been born during the war (odds ratio = 1.00; 95% confidence interval = 0.96, 1.04). We find no evidence that wartime conditions in Norway impaired perinatal survival, either directly or through an effect on women born during the war. These data underscore how little is known about the ways that social conditions influence perinatal mortality.

  15. Scientists Discover More Clues to Stuttering

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162368.html Scientists Discover More Clues to Stuttering MRI shows involvement of brain areas controlling speech, ... speech, attention and emotion are all linked to stuttering. Stuttering is characterized by involuntarily repeating certain sounds, ...

  16. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  17. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  18. PAI-1 gain-of-function genotype, factors increasing PAI-1 levels, and airway obstruction: The GALA II Cohort.

    PubMed

    Sherenian, M G; Cho, S H; Levin, A; Min, J-Y; Oh, S S; Hu, D; Galanter, J; Sen, S; Huntsman, S; Eng, C; Rodriguez-Santana, J R; Serebrisky, D; Avila, P C; Kalhan, R; Smith, L J; Borrell, L N; Seibold, M A; Keoki Williams, L; Burchard, E G; Kumar, R

    2017-09-01

    PAI-1 gain-of-function variants promote airway fibrosis and are associated with asthma and with worse lung function in subjects with asthma. We sought to determine whether the association of a gain-of-function polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with airway obstruction is modified by asthma status, and whether any genotype effect persists after accounting for common exposures that increase PAI-1 level. We studied 2070 Latino children (8-21y) with genotypic and pulmonary function data from the GALA II cohort. We estimated the relationship of the PAI-1 risk allele with FEV1/FVC by multivariate linear regression, stratified by asthma status. We examined the association of the polymorphism with asthma and airway obstruction within asthmatics via multivariate logistic regression. We replicated associations in the SAPPHIRE cohort of African Americans (n=1056). Secondary analysis included the effect of the at-risk polymorphism on postbronchodilator lung function. There was an interaction between asthma status and the PAI-1 polymorphism on FEV1 /FVC (P=.03). The gain-of-function variants, genotypes (AA/AG), were associated with lower FEV1 /FVC in subjects with asthma (β=-1.25, CI: -2.14,-0.35, P=.006), but not in controls. Subjects with asthma and the AA/AG genotypes had a 5% decrease in FEV1 /FVC (P<.001). In asthmatics, the risk genotype (AA/AG) was associated with a 39% increase in risk of clinically relevant airway obstruction (OR=1.39, CI: 1.01, 1.92, P=.04). These associations persisted after exclusion of factors that increase PAI-1 including tobacco exposure and obesity. The decrease in the FEV1 /FVC ratio associated with the risk genotype was modified by asthma status. The genotype increased the odds of airway obstruction by 75% within asthmatics only. As exposures known to increase PAI-1 levels did not mitigate this association, PAI-1 may contribute to airway obstruction in the context of chronic asthmatic airway inflammation. © 2017 John

  19. Trajectories of Unhealthy Behaviors in Midlife and Risk of Disability at Older Ages in the Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Dugravot, Aline; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the evidence on the association between unhealthy behaviors and disability comes from studies in the elderly, where reverse causation and selection bias may distort associations; thus, studies based on midlife trajectories of health behaviors are needed. We examined the association of trajectories of four health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, smoking, alcohol), starting in midlife and over 20 years, with subsequent disability risk in early old age (range = 54–84 years) in the Whitehall II cohort study. Methods: Disability was assessed three times over 3 years. A hierarchical disability indicator was constructed; participants were considered disabled if they reported difficulties with mobility and instrumental activities of daily living or with mobility and instrumental and basic activities of daily living. Behavior trajectories were defined using group-based trajectory models. Multivariable generalized estimating equations logistic models were used to examine their independent associations with disability. Results: Of 6,825 participants, 19.2% reported being disabled at least once. In mutually adjusted models, participants with persistent inactivity or declining physical activity, recent ex- or current smokers, and persistent/recent abstainers or persistent heavy drinkers had a higher disability risk, whereas fruit and vegetable consumption was not associated with disability. Disability risk increased progressively with the number of unhealthy behavior trajectories: the odds ratio of disability for 2–3 unhealthy trajectories was 2.69 (95% confidence interval = 2.26–3.19); these associations remained after adjustment for a wide range of covariates. Conclusions: Unhealthy behavior trajectories in midlife are associated with greater disability risk later in life. PMID:27034508

  20. Salivary secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and head and neck cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Christine M. Pierce; Giuliano, Anna R.; Torres, B. Nelson; O'Keefe, Michael T.; Ingles, Donna J.; Anderson, Rebecca L.; Teras, Lauren R.; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is an innate-immunity protein displaying antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties that is found in high concentrations in saliva. The role of extracellular salivary SLPI in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unclear. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the association between SLPI and HNSCC risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Materials and Methods Among 53,180 men and women with no history of cancer who provided an oral rinse between 2001 and 2002, 60 were subsequently diagnosed with incident HNSCC between specimen collection and June 2009. In this nested case-control study, archived oral supernatants were evaluated using the Human SLPI Quantikine ELISA Kit for all 60 cases and 180 controls individually matched on gender, race, date of birth, and date of oral rinse collection. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate HNSCC risk. Results Overall, pre-diagnostic salivary SLPI was associated with a non-statistically significant higher risk of HNSCC (OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.9–3.0). Among never smokers, high SLPI was associated with a non-statistically significant lower risk (OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.1–1.9), whereas among ever smokers, high SLPI was associated with a statistically significant higher risk (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.0–4.3) of HNSCC, compared to low SLPI. Conclusion While results from this study suggest that higher concentrations of salivary SLPI might increase the risk of HNSCC among ever smokers, more research is needed to verify these findings and define the mechanisms by which SLPI and smoking influence the etiology of HNSCC. PMID:27016010

  1. Waist circumference, body mass index, and postmenopausal breast cancer incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Mia M; Carter, Brian D; Patel, Alpa V; Teras, Lauren R; Jacobs, Eric J; Gapstur, Susan M

    2014-06-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. However, less is known about associations with waist circumference. In particular, it is unclear whether a larger waist circumference is associated with risk more than would be expected based solely on its contribution to BMI. We examined the associations of BMI and waist circumference with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, with and without mutual adjustment, in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Analyses included 28,965 postmenopausal women who reported weight and waist circumference on a questionnaire in 1997 and were not taking menopausal hormones. During a median follow-up of 11.58 years, 1,088 invasive breast cancer cases were identified. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models. Without adjustment for BMI, a larger waist circumference was associated with higher risk of breast cancer (per 10 cm increase in waist circumference, HR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.08-1.19). However, adjustment for BMI eliminated the association with waist circumference (per 10 cm HR = 1.00, 95 % CI 0.92-1.08). BMI was associated with risk unadjusted for waist circumference (per 1 kg/m(2) HR = 1.04, 95 % CI 1.03-1.05) and adjusted for waist circumference (per 1 kg/m(2) HR = 1.04, 95 % CI 1.02-1.06). Our study of predominantly white women provides evidence that a larger waist circumference is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but not beyond its contribution to BMI.

  2. Reasons Why People Change Their Alcohol Consumption in Later Life: Findings from the Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie; Bell, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Harmful alcohol consumption among the ageing population is an important public health issue. Very few studies ask drinkers why they change their consumption in later life. The aim of this paper was to determine whether a group of people aged over 60 years increased or decreased their alcohol consumption over the past decade and to determine the reasons for their change. We also examined whether the responses varied by age, sex and socio-economic position (SEP). Subjects and Methods Data were taken from 6,011 participants (4,310 men, 1,701 women, age range 61 to 85 years) who completed questionnaires at phase 11 (2012-2013) of the Whitehall II Cohort Study. Results Over half the study members reported a change in alcohol consumption over the past decade (40% decreased, 11% increased). The most common reasons given for decreases were as a health precaution and fewer social occasions. Common reasons for increases were more social occasions and fewer responsibilities. The lowest SEP group was less likely to increase consumption compared to high SEP (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.81). Women were more likely to increase consumption in response to stress/depression than men (RR1.53, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.25). Compared to high SEP, the lowest SEP group was less likely to reduce as a health precaution (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.76). Conclusions Alcohol consumption in late life is not fixed. Reasons for change vary by age, sex and SEP. Such information could be used to tailor intervention strategies to reduce harmful consumption. PMID:25756213

  3. Alcohol intake and the incidence of non-hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms in the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort.

    PubMed

    Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; McCullough, Marjorie L; Teras, Lauren R; Thun, Michael J; Patel, Alpa V

    2012-07-01

    Although several studies have shown a lower risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in alcohol drinkers compared with nondrinkers, the dose-response relation and potential differences between former and current drinking and across beverage types and subtypes are unclear. The authors examined associations of alcohol intake with risk of NHL and NHL subtypes in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a prospective study of US men and women aged 50-74 years. Between 1992 and 2007, there were 1,991 incident NHL cases among 143,124 participants. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk of NHL associated with former drinking was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 1.10); the relative risks associated with current intakes of <1, 1-2, and >2 drinks/day were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.03), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.06), and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.93), respectively. Associations did not differ by sex (P-interaction = 0.45) or beverage type (P-difference = 0.22). Alcohol intake was more strongly associated with B-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.005) than with T-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.76), and associations were similar among B-cell lymphoma subtypes. In this prospective study, current heavy alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of NHL. Associations did not differ by beverage type and were slightly stronger for B-cell tumors than for T-cell tumors.

  4. Alcohol, folate, methionine, and risk of incident breast cancer in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Jonas, Carolyn R; Robertson, Andreas S; McCullough, Marjorie L; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2003-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that the increased risk of breast cancer associated with alcohol consumption may be reduced by adequate folate intake. We examined this question among 66,561 postmenopausal women in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 1,303 incident cases had accrued during the first 5 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models and stratified analysis were used to examine the relationship between alcohol, dietary and total folate intake, multivitamin use, dietary methionine, and breast cancer. We observed an increasing risk of breast cancer with increasing alcohol consumption (P for trend = 0.01). In the highest category of consumption (15 or more grams of ethanol/day), the risk of breast cancer was 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.53) compared with nonusers. We observed this association with higher alcohol consumption for in situ, localized, and regional disease. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and dietary folate, total folate, multivitamin use, or methionine intake. Furthermore, we found no evidence of an interaction between levels of dietary folate (P for interaction = 0.10) or total folate (P for interaction = 0.61) and alcohol. Nor did we find evidence of an interaction between alcohol consumption and recent or long-term multivitamin use (P for interaction = 0.27). Our results are consistent with a positive association with alcohol but do not support an association with folate or methionine intake or an interaction between folate and alcohol intake on risk of breast cancer.

  5. Snake venomics of Crotalus tigris: the minimalist toxin arsenal of the deadliest Nearctic rattlesnake venom. Evolutionary Clues for generating a pan-specific antivenom against crotalid type II venoms [corrected].

    PubMed

    Calvete, Juan J; Pérez, Alicia; Lomonte, Bruno; Sánchez, Elda E; Sanz, Libia

    2012-02-03

    We report the proteomic and antivenomic characterization of Crotalus tigris venom. This venom exhibits the highest lethality for mice among rattlesnakes and the simplest toxin proteome reported to date. The venom proteome of C. tigris comprises 7-8 gene products from 6 toxin families; the presynaptic β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA(2), Mojave toxin, and two serine proteinases comprise, respectively, 66 and 27% of the C. tigris toxin arsenal, whereas a VEGF-like protein, a CRISP molecule, a medium-sized disintegrin, and 1-2 PIII-SVMPs each represent 0.1-5% of the total venom proteome. This toxin profile really explains the systemic neuro- and myotoxic effects observed in envenomated animals. In addition, we found that venom lethality of C. tigris and other North American rattlesnake type II venoms correlates with the concentration of Mojave toxin A-subunit, supporting the view that the neurotoxic venom phenotype of crotalid type II venoms may be described as a single-allele adaptation. Our data suggest that the evolutionary trend toward neurotoxicity, which has been also reported for the South American rattlesnakes, may have resulted by pedomorphism. The ability of an experimental antivenom to effectively immunodeplete proteins from the type II venoms of C. tigris, Crotalus horridus , Crotalus oreganus helleri, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus, and Sistrurus catenatus catenatus indicated the feasibility of generating a pan-American anti-Crotalus type II antivenom, suggested by the identification of shared evolutionary trends among South and North American Crotalus species.

  6. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II alleles which confer susceptibility or protection in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jacobe, Heidi; Ahn, Chul; Arnett, Frank; Reveille, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-class I) and II (HLA-class II) alleles associated with morphea (localized scleroderma) in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort by a nested case–control association study. Methods Morphea patients were included from MAC cohort and matched controls from the NIH/NIAMS Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository and Division of Rheumatology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. HLA- Class II genotyping and SSCP typing was performed of HLA-A, -B, -C alleles. Associations between HLA-Class I and II alleles and morphea as well as its subphenotypes were determined. Results There were 211 cases available for HLA-class I typing with 726 matched controls and 158 cases available for HLA Class-II typing with 1108 matched controls. The strongest associations were found with DRB1*04:04 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–4.0 P=0.002) and HLA-B*37 conferred the highest OR among Class I alleles (3.3, 95% CI 1.6–6.9, P= 0.0016). Comparison with risk alleles in systemic sclerosis determined using the same methods and control population revealed one common allele (DRB*04:04). Conclusion Results of the present study demonstrate specific HLA Class I and II alleles are associated with morphea and likely generalized and linear subtypes. The associated morphea alleles are different than in scleroderma, implicating morphea is also immunogenetically distinct. Risk alleles in morphea are also associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune conditions. Population based studies indicate patients with RA have increased risk of morphea, implicating a common susceptibility allele. PMID:25223600

  7. Lifestyle in progression from hypertensive disorders of pregnancy to chronic hypertension in Nurses' Health Study II: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Simon; Stuart, Jennifer J; Tanz, Lauren J; Rimm, Eric B; Franks, Paul W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2017-07-12

    Objectives To study the association between lifestyle risk factors and chronic hypertension by history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP: gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia) and investigate the extent to which these risk factors modify the association between HDP and chronic hypertension.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2013).Participants 54 588 parous women aged 32 to 59 years with data on reproductive history and without previous chronic hypertension, stroke, or myocardial infarction.Main outcome measure Chronic hypertension diagnosed by a physician and indicated through nurse participant self report. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the development of chronic hypertension contingent on history of HDP and four lifestyle risk factors: post-pregnancy body mass index, physical activity, adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and dietary sodium/potassium intake. Potential effect modification (interaction) between each lifestyle factor and previous HDP was evaluated with the relative excess risk due to interaction.Results 10% (n=5520) of women had a history of HDP at baseline. 13 971 cases of chronic hypertension occurred during 689 988 person years of follow-up. Being overweight or obese was the only lifestyle factor consistently associated with higher risk of chronic hypertension. Higher body mass index, in particular, also increased the risk of chronic hypertension associated with history of HDP (relative excess risk due to interaction P<0.01 for all age strata). For example, in women aged 40-49 years with previous HDP and obesity class I (body mass index 30.0-34.9), 25% (95% confidence interval 12% to 37%) of the risk of chronic hypertension was attributable to a potential effect of obesity that was specific to women with previous HDP. There was no clear evidence of effect modification by physical activity, DASH diet, or sodium

  8. Serum insulin-like growth factors I and II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and risk of breast cancer in the Japan Collaborative Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sakauchi, Fumio; Nojima, Masanori; Mori, Mitsuru; Wakai, Kenji; Suzuki, Sadao; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ito, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Tajima, Kazuo; Nakachi, Kei

    2009-12-01

    The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was planned in the late 1980s as a large-scale cohort study of persons in various areas of Japan. In the present study, we conducted a nested case-control study and examined associations of breast cancer risk with serum levels of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I, IGF-II), as well as insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), among women who participated in the JACC Study and donated blood at the baseline. Sixty-three women who died or suffered from breast cancer were examined. Two or three controls were selected to match each case for age at recruitment and the study area. Controls were alive and not diagnosed as having breast cancer at the diagnosis date of the cases. Associations between the serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3 and breast cancer risk were evaluated using a conditional logistic regression model. In premenopausal Japanese women, IGF-I showed a marginal negative dose-dependent association with the breast cancer risk (trend P= 0.08), but any link disappeared on taking into account IGFBP-3 (trend P= 0.47), which was likely to be inversely associated with the risk. In postmenopausal women, IGFBP-3 showed a marginal dose-dependent association with the risk (trend P= 0.06). Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  9. SPATIALLY RESOLVED [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m EMISSION IN NGC 5135: CLUES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGIN OF THE HARD X-RAYS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Colina, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Bedregal, A. G.

    2012-04-20

    Spatially resolved near-IR and X-ray imaging of the central region of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 5135 is presented. The kinematical signatures of strong outflows are detected in the [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m emission line in a compact region at 0.9 kpc from the nucleus. The derived mechanical energy release is consistent with a supernova rate of 0.05-0.1 yr{sup -1}. The apex of the outflowing gas spatially coincides with the strongest [Fe II] emission peak and with the dominant component of the extranuclear hard X-ray emission. All these features provide evidence for a plausible direct physical link between supernova-driven outflows and the hard X-ray emitting gas in an LIRG. This result is consistent with model predictions of starbursts concentrated in small volumes and with high thermalization efficiencies. A single high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) as the major source of the hard X-ray emission, although not favored, cannot be ruled out. Outside the active galactic nucleus, the hard X-ray emission in NGC 5135 appears to be dominated by the hot interstellar medium produced by supernova explosions in a compact star-forming region, and not by the emission due to HMXBs. If this scenario is common to (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies, the hard X-rays would only trace the most compact ({<=}100 pc) regions with high supernova and star formation densities, therefore a lower limit to their integrated star formation. The star formation rate derived in NGC 5135 based on its hard X-ray luminosity is a factor of two and four lower than the values obtained from the 24 {mu}m and soft X-ray luminosities, respectively.

  10. Postoperative radiotherapy and tumor recurrence after complete resection of stage II/III thymic tumor: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jietao; Sun, Xin; Huang, Letian; Xiong, Zhicheng; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Shuling; Han, Cheng-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) is effective for reducing the recurrence risk in patients who received complete resection of the stage II or III thymic tumors has not been determined. A meta-analysis was performed by combining the results of all available controlled trials. Methods PubMed, Cochrane’s Library, and the Embase databases were searched for studies which compared the recurrence data for patients with complete resection of the stage II or III thymic tumors assigned to an observing group, or a PORT group. A random effect model was applied to combine the results. Results Nineteen studies, all designed as retrospective cohort studies were included. These studies included 663 patients of PORT group and 617 patients of observing group. The recurrence rate for the patients in PORT group and observing group were 12.4% and 11.5%, respectively. Results of our study indicated that PORT has no significant influence on recurrent risk in patients with stage II or III thymic tumor after complete resection (odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.55–1.90, P=0.96). When stratified by stages, our meta-analyses did not indicate any significant effects of PORT on recurrent outcomes in either the stage II or the stage III patients. Moreover, subsequent analysis limited to studies only including patients with thymoma or thymic carcinoma also did not support the benefits of PORT on recurrent outcomes. Conclusion Although derived from retrospective cohort studies, current evidence did not support any benefit of PORT on recurrent risk in patients with complete resection of the stage II or III thymic tumors. PMID:27524907

  11. Clues in diagnosing congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    A number of practical office and bedside clues to cardiac disease in infants and children have been passed on through the years. They relate to the history, to the inspection and palpation components of the physical examination, and to knowledge of the specific cardiac defects that are likely to be associated with certain clinical syndromes. With the possible exception of coarctation of the aorta, the clues are not diagnostically specific. In many instances, however, they serve to narrow a broad array of diagnostic possibilities to 2 or 3 and, with the aid of other clues and auscultation, they can often be distinguished from one another. When a primary care physician is confronted with a child who has an incidental murmur that is "probably" innocent but could be organic, useful clues favoring an organic murmur are a history of congenital heart disease in a first-degree relative; a history of maternal rubella syndrome, alcohol use, or teratogenic drug use during pregnancy; a history of inappropriate sweating; a history of syncope, chest pain, or squatting; maternal diabetes mellitus; premature birth; birth at a high altitude; cyanosis; abnormal pulsations; recurrent bronchiolitis or pneumonia; chronic unexplained hoarseness; asymmetric facies with crying; and a physical appearance suggestive of a clinical syndrome. PMID:1574882

  12. Comparison of one-year prognosis of patients classified as chronic critical lower limb ischaemia according to TASC II or European consensus definition in the COPART cohort.

    PubMed

    Vircoulon, Marion; Boulon, Carine; Desormais, Ileana; Lacroix, Philippe; Aboyans, Victor; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Becker, François; Constans, Joel

    2015-05-01

    We compared one-year amputation and survival rates in patients fulfilling 1991 European consensus critical limb ischaemia (CLI) definition to those clas, sified as CLI by TASC II but not European consensus (EC) definition. Patients were selected from the COPART cohort of hospitalized patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease suffering from lower extremity rest pain or ulcer and who completed one-year follow-up. Ankle and toe systolic pressures and transcutaneous oxygen pressure were measured. The patients were classified into two groups: those who could benefit from revascularization and those who could not (medical group). Within these groups, patients were separated into those who had CLI according to the European consensus definition (EC + TASC II: group A if revascularization, group C if medical treatment) and those who had no CLI by the European definition but who had CLI according to the TASC II definition (TASC: group B if revascularization and D if medical treatment). 471 patients were included in the study (236 in the surgical group, 235 in the medical group). There was no difference according to the CLI definition for survival or cardiovascular event-free survival. However, major amputations were more frequent in group A than in group B (25 vs 12 %, p = 0.046) and in group C than in group D (38 vs 20 %, p = 0.004). Major amputation is twice as frequent in patients with CLI according to the historical European consensus definition than in those classified to the TASC II definition but not the EC. Caution is required when comparing results of recent series to historical controls. The TASC II definition of CLI is too wide to compare patients from clinical trials so we suggest separating these patients into two different stages: permanent (TASC II but not EC definition) and critical ischaemia (TASC II and EC definition).

  13. Major histocompatibility complex class I and class II alleles may confer susceptibility to or protection against morphea: findings from the Morphea in Adults and Children cohort.

    PubMed

    Jacobe, Heidi; Ahn, Chul; Arnett, Frank C; Reveille, John D

    2014-11-01

    To determine the HLA class I and class II alleles of the human major histocompatibility complex showing an association with morphea (localized scleroderma) in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort, using a nested case-control association study. Patients with morphea were identified from the MAC cohort, and matched controls were obtained from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository and from the Division of Rheumatology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. HLA class II genotyping and single-strand conformational polymorphism typing were performed to identify HLA-A, B, and C alleles. Associations between HLA class I and class II alleles and morphea, as well as its subphenotypes, were determined. Two hundred eleven patients with morphea and 726 matched controls were available for HLA class I typing, and 158 patients with morphea and 1,008 matched controls were available for HLA class II typing. The strongest associations were found with DRB1*04:04 (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-4.0, P = 0.002), and HLA-B*37 conferred the highest OR among the class I alleles (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.5, P = 0.001). Comparison of the risk allele profile in this cohort with the risk alleles previously identified in patients with systemic sclerosis, determined using the same methods and same control population, revealed one allele in common, DRB*04:04. These results demonstrate that specific HLA class I and class II alleles are associated with morphea and are also likely to be associated with generalized and linear subtypes of morphea. The morphea-associated alleles are different from those found in scleroderma, suggesting that morphea is immunogenetically distinct. Risk alleles in morphea are also associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune conditions. Population-based studies have

  14. Optimal design of studies of influenza transmission in households. II: comparison between cohort and case-ascertained studies.

    PubMed

    Klick, B; Nishiura, H; Leung, G M; Cowling, B J

    2014-04-01

    Both case-ascertained household studies, in which households are recruited after an 'index case' is identified, and household cohort studies, where a household is enrolled before the start of the epidemic, may be used to test and estimate the protective effect of interventions used to prevent influenza transmission. A simulation approach parameterized with empirical data from household studies was used to evaluate and compare the statistical power of four study designs: a cohort study with routine virological testing of household contacts of infected index case, a cohort study where only household contacts with acute respiratory illness (ARI) are sampled for virological testing, a case-ascertained study with routine virological testing of household contacts, and a case-ascertained study where only household contacts with ARI are sampled for virological testing. We found that a case-ascertained study with ARI-triggered testing would be the most powerful design while a cohort design only testing household contacts with ARI was the least powerful. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that these conclusions varied by model parameters including the serial interval and the risk of influenza virus infection from outside the household.

  15. [Bombed out--psychic and psychosomatic long term consequences of World War II for the cohort born until 1945 in the year 2004].

    PubMed

    Von Heuft, Gereon; Schneider, Gudrun; Klaiberg, Antje; Brähler, Elmar

    2007-01-01

    In a population-based study the hypothesis was pursued as to what extent psychiatric consequences of specific war experiences of the cohort born up to 1945, exemplified through the fate of those bombed out during World War II, can be proven. A representative sample of 2552 participants (1206 men and 1346 women) with an age range from 14 to 92 years were questioned using the random-route-technique by an opinion research institute. The subsample of the cohort born until 1945 was comprised of 776 participants (30.4 % of the complete sample), of whom 375 were men (48.3 %) and 401 women. 161 participants (20.7 % of the cohort born until 1945) had been bombed out (66 men and 95 women). Comparing those who had been bombed out to those who had not been did not show any significant differences concerning their age, their place of residence (Eastern vs. Western Germany), marital status, education level or income level. From a gender perspective women had been bombed out more frequently (p < .05). Four predictors rendered in a multiple regression analysis significant contributions for the prediction of negative body functioning: age, having been bombed out, low income level and low education level (9 % of the variance could be explained). The results show the necessity for a new approach to the long-term consequences of severe strain and traumata concerning psychopathology of older people. For this purpose the concept of ambivalence must be further developed.

  16. Dietary and supplemental intake of one-carbon nutrients and the risk of type I and type II endometrial cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Uccella, S; Mariani, A; Wang, A H; Vierkant, R A; Robien, K; Anderson, K E; Cerhan, J R

    2011-09-01

    Type I and II endometrial cancer are biologically and clinically distinct, with type II cancers having a high frequency of p53 mutations and an association with chromosomal instability. This raises the hypothesis that one-carbon nutrients (folate, methionine, and the enzymic cofactors vitamins B2, B6, and B12), which mediate chromosomal stability and DNA methylation, may be protective for type II but not type I endometrial cancer. Using a prospective cohort of 23 356 postmenopausal women followed 20 years, we estimated the relative risks (RRs) of type I (N = 471) and II (N = 71) endometrial cancers according to intake of one-carbon nutrients, adjusting for confounders. No associations were observed between dietary or supplemental intake of any one-carbon nutrient and risk of type I cancer. For type II cancer, positive associations were due to supplemental, rather than dietary, intake of these nutrients: supplemental folate (RR = 1.80 for >228.6 versus 0 μg/day; P trend = 0.027) and vitamins B2 (RR = 1.94 for >1.70 versus 0 mg/day; P trend = 0.011), B6 (RR = 2.08 for >2.00 versus 0 mg/day; P trend = 0.012), and B12 (RR = 2.10 for >3.43 versus 0 μg/day; P trend = 0.0060). Contrary to our hypothesis, use of supplements containing folate and vitamins B2, B6, and B12 was associated with an increased risk of type II endometrial cancer.

  17. Childhood cancer: etiologic clues from epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Safyer, A W; Miller, R W

    1977-03-01

    Epidemiologic reseach has revealed a wide spectrum of etiologic information concerning childhood cancer. Often, important clues have come from observations made by alert practitioners. The school health professional can help further progress in cancer research by observing peculiarities of environmental exposures as well as the family's medical history when cancer affects a child. Any unusual findings should be referred to an appropriate research center for evaluation.

  18. The Angiotensin II type 1 receptor 1166C polymorphism is associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm in three independent cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gregory T; Thompson, Andrew R; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Hafez, Hany; Cooper, Jackie A; Golledge, Jonathan; Humphries, Stephen E; Norman, Paul E; van Rij, Andre M

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Although polymorphic variations in genes of the RAS system have previously been associated with susceptibility to AAA such studies have been significantly limited by small sample sizes. This study was undertaken, using the largest case series yet reported, to determine if common genetic variants of the RAS are associated with either susceptibility or severity of AAA. Methods and Results The frequencies of four common genetic variants of genes related to the renin-angiotensin system were investigated in three geographically distinct, but ethnically similar, case-control cohorts, resulting in comparison of 1226 AAA cases AAA cases with 1723 controls. In all three the AGTR1 1166C allele was significantly more common in AAA patients than controls (overall adjusted OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.32-1.93, p=1.1×10-6). Overall, the ACE ID genotype was associated with AAA (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.06-1.67, p<0.02). The AGT 268T allele appeared to have an epistatic effect on large aneurysm size. Conclusion This study has identified a strong and repeated association between the AGTR1 1166C allele and susceptibility to AAA, and a weaker effect associated with the ACE deletion allele, in three geographically distinct, but ethnically similar, case-control cohorts. This study highlights the key role of the RAS in AAA and emphasizes the need for replication and validation of results in suitable independent cohorts. PMID:18239157

  19. RISK OF NEW ONSET TYPE II DM IN MDD PATIENTS RECEIVING SECOND-GENERATION ANTIPSYCHOTICS TREATMENT: A NATIONWIDE COHORT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Yu-Hsin; Wang, Hong-Song; Chen, Ping-Kun; Lin, Yuan-Fu; Chien, I-Chia

    2016-05-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) augmentation treatment has showed better efficacy in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the association between SGA and diabetes mellitus (DM) in MDD patients deserves further investigation. The study aimed to examine the risk of new onset type II DM in MDD patients receiving SGA treatment. From the Psychiatric Inpatient Medical Claim Dataset, MDD patients treated with SGA continuously for more than 8 weeks were analyzed in a 1:1 propensity score matched pair sample to 1,049 patients that had never been treated with SGA. Patients were followed up to 5 years based on ICD-9 CM codes indicating incident type II DM. Cumulative incidences of type II DM were calculated and the Cox proportional hazards model with competing risk was applied to determine the risk factors for type II DM onset. Cumulative incidences of new-onset type II DM between the two groups were similar. Use of SGA showed no significant increase in risk for new-onset type II DM (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.898; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.605-1.334; P-value = 0.596). Increased risk for type II DM was shown to be associated with aging (per year) (HR = 1.039; 95% CI, 1.026-1.053; P-value < 0.001) and history of hyperlipidemia (HR = 2.323; 95% CI, 1.469-3.675; P-value < 0.001). This study indicated that there is no significant difference in the risk of developing type II DM between MDD patients with and without SGA exposure. More studies focused on the benefit-risk assessment of SGA treatment in patients with MDD are warranted. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Morphea in adults and children cohort II: patients with morphea experience delay in diagnosis and large variation in treatment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Weilan; Jacobe, Heidi

    2012-11-01

    Little is known about the diagnosis, evaluation, and therapy of morphea (localized scleroderma) in the United States. Delays in diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy, if present, may negatively affect patient care. Further, this gap in knowledge hinders planning for clinical trials and therapeutic guidelines. The morphea in adults and children (MAC) cohort is designed to address this gap. We sought to determine the duration between morphea onset and diagnosis, specialty of the diagnosing provider, and initial evaluation and therapy in the MAC cohort. This was a cross-sectional survey of the inception cohort of the MAC study. In all, 63% (n = 141 of 224) of patients were given the diagnosis more than 6 months after onset. Dermatologists diagnosed and treated the majority of patients (83.5%, n = 187). Rheumatologists diagnosed and treated the more severe forms of morphea (linear and generalized). The most commonly prescribed therapy was topical corticosteroids (63%). Dermatologists predominantly prescribed topical treatments or phototherapy (P < .0001, P = .0018, respectively), even to patients with linear and generalized morphea. In contrast, rheumatologists predominantly prescribed systemic immunosuppressives and physical therapy (P < .0001, P = .0021, respectively). Referral bias and recall bias may affect patterns of evaluation/therapy and ascertainment of disease duration before diagnosis. Patients with morphea experience delay in diagnosis, which likely impacts outcome. Therapeutic decision making is largely determined by the specialty of the provider rather than disease characteristics and many treatments with little or no proven efficacy are used, whereas others with proven efficacy are underused. This underscores the need for a collaborative, multispecialty approach in designing therapeutic trials and guidelines. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of angiotensin II receptor antagonists in a cohort of Dutch patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (ZODIAC-14).

    PubMed

    van Hateren, Kornelis J J; Landman, Gijs W D; Groenier, Klaas H; Bilo, Henk J G; Kleefstra, Nanne

    2015-04-01

    There is limited evidence with respect to the between-group effects of various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on blood pressure and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of differing ARBs on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the albumin-creatinine ratio after 1 year in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In 2007, 24 940 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in the Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) study, a prospective observational cohort study. Patients were included in the current study if they were prescribed an ARB in 2007 and if 1-year follow-up data were available. The final study population comprised 3610 patients. Multivariate mixed-model analyses were performed to estimate effects of the various ARBs on SBP and albuminuria. Stratified subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline hypertension and albuminuria. SBP decreased in all groups, the largest decrease being observed in the group receiving telmisartan. No significant or relevant changes over time were observed among groups for SBP and albuminuria. In the subgroup (n=1225) of normotensive patients, telmisartan was associated with a larger decrease in SBP after 1 year compared to other ARBs, without different effects on the albumin-creatinine ratio. We observed no differences in effects on SBP and the albumin-creatinine ratio among differing ARBs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diet Quality Index as a predictor of short-term mortality in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Jennifer D; Calle, Eugenia E; Flagg, Elaine W; Coates, Ralph J; Ford, Earl S; Thun, Michael J

    2003-06-01

    The Diet Quality Index (DQI) was developed to measure overall dietary patterns and to predict chronic disease risk. This study examined associations between DQI and short-term all-cause, all-circulatory-disease, and all-cancer mortality in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a cohort of US adults aged 50-79 years enrolled in a prospective study. After 4 years of follow-up (1992-1996), there were 869 deaths among 63,109 women and 1,736 deaths among 52,724 men. All study participants reported being disease free at baseline in 1992-1993. In age-adjusted Cox models, a higher DQI, which was indicative of a poorer quality diet, was positively related to all-cause and all-circulatory-disease mortality rates in both women and men and to cancer mortality in men only. However, in fully adjusted Cox models, only circulatory disease mortality was clearly positively related to DQI and only in women (medium-low-quality diet vs. highest-quality diet: rate ratio = 1.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.89). Although trend tests indicated significant positive relations between DQI and all-cause mortality, effects were small (rate ratios

  3. Comparative effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers for major renal outcomes in patients with diabetes: A 15-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Chiao-Ling; Chen, Pei-Chun; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Chang, Chee-Jen; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Yu-Sen; Tu, Yu-Kang; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are considered to have similar renoprotective effects; so far there has been no consensus about their priorities. This study aimed to compare ACEIs and ARBs for major renal outcomes and survival in a 15-year cohort of adults with diabetes. This study utilized Taiwan's medical and pharmacy claims data in the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients. The primary outcome was long-term dialysis, and secondary outcomes were hospitalization for acute kidney injury, hospitalization for hyperkalemia, all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and non-cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes comparing ACEIs with ARBs. We conducted subgroup analyses and interaction tests among patients with different age and comorbid diseases. A total of 34,043 patients received ACEIs and 23,772 patients received ARBs. No differences were found for primary or secondary outcomes in the main analyses. ACEIs showed significantly lower hazard than ARBs for long-term dialysis among patients with cardiovascular disease (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.97, interaction P = 0.003) or chronic kidney disease (0.81, 0.71-0.93, interaction P = 0.001). Our analyses show similar effects of ACEIs and ARBs in patients with diabetes. However, ACEIs might provide additional renoprotective effects among patients who have cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease.

  4. Naked megakaryocyte nuclei: a clue to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, M; Lefkowitz, E

    1977-10-01

    Bone marrow smears from 63 patients with various malignancies and a series of 51 controls were examined for the presence and percentage of naked megakaryocyte nuclei (NMN). Patients with malignancy had more than 15% NMN, which, when compared with the incidence in controls, was statistically significant. The etiology of this artifact is unknown. It is a clue to the presence of malignancy, and might be useful in following treated cases of malignancy for evidence of relapse. NMN should not be confused with metastatic malignant cells.

  5. Twenty-one-year follow-up of supination-external rotation type II-IV (OTA type B) ankle fractures: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Donken, Christian C M A; Verhofstad, Michael H J; Edwards, Michael J; van Laarhoven, Cees J H M

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate long-term results after protocoled treatment of supination-external rotation (SER) Type II-IV ankle injuries. Retrospective cohort study. Level I trauma center. Two hundred seventy-six adult patients with an SER Type II-IV ankle fracture between January 1, 1985, and January 1, 1990. All patients were approached to participate in this study. Fractures with tibiotalar congruity were treated nonoperative and unstable fractures with joint incongruity were treated operatively. MEAN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: 1) a functional outcome questionnaire (Olerud score); 2) range of motion; 3) functional impairment (American Medical Association guidelines); and 4) radiologic anatomic result (medial clear space widening; osteoarthritis; Cedell score). After a median of 21 years in 54% (n = 148) of patients, follow-up was achieved. Seventy-six patients (51%) had a SER Type II injury, four patients (3%) a SER Type III injury, and 68 (46%) had sustained a SER Type IV. Excellent or good results were found in 92% (Olerud score), 97% (loaded dorsal range of motion), 92% (medial clear space widening), 97% (osteoarthritis), and 76% (Cedell score) of patients. Functional impairment expressed as percentage of whole person impairment varied between 0% and 16%. The various fracture types performed statistically equal on all outcome parameters. There was no difference between operative and nonoperative treatment. There was no correlation between the Olerud score and other parameters. The very long-term overall results of the stratified surgical treatment of SER Type II-IV ankle fractures is 'excellent' or 'good' in the majority of patients and therefore seems justified. Although additional soft tissue damage is unavoidable in case of operative treatment, it does not negatively affect outcome in the long term. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. An Experimental Technique for Assessing Readers' Responses to Structural Principles and Clues to Order in a Poem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Nancy Carlyon

    In this study of high school and college students' responses to structural principles and clues to order in poetry, four groups of students were tested: Groups I and II were high school sophomores and seniors enrolled in an English class for "average" learners; Group III were college sophomore English majors in a course in intrinsic literary…

  7. Reliability and Sensitivity of the Self-report of Physician-diagnosed Gout in the Campaign Against Cancer and Heart Disease and the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Community Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    McADAMS, MARA A.; MAYNARD, JANET W.; BAER, ALAN N.; KÖTTGEN, ANNA; CLIPP, SANDRA; CORESH, JOSEF; GELBER, ALLAN C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Gout is often defined by self-report in epidemiologic studies. Yet the validity of self-reported gout is uncertain. We evaluated the reliability and sensitivity of the self-report of physician-diagnosed gout in the Campaign Against Cancer and Heart Disease (CLUE II) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Community (ARIC) cohorts. Methods The CLUE II cohort comprises 12,912 individuals who self-reported gout status on either the 2000, 2003, or 2007 questionnaires. We calculated reliability as the percentage of participants reporting having gout on more than 1 questionnaire using Cohen’s κ statistic. The ARIC cohort comprises 11,506 individuals who self-reported gout status at visit 4. We considered a hospital discharge diagnosis of gout or use of a gout-specific medication as the standard against which to calculate the sensitivity of self-reported, physician-diagnosed gout. Results Of the 437 CLUE II participants who self-reported physician-diagnosed gout in 2000, and subsequently answered the 2003 questionnaire, 75% reported gout in 2003 (κ = 0.73). Of the 271 participants who reported gout in 2000, 73% again reported gout at the 2007 followup questionnaire (κ = 0.63). In ARIC, 196 participants met the definition for gout prior to visit 4 and self-reported their gout status at visit 4. The sensitivity of a self-report of physician-diagnosed gout was 84%. Accuracy was similar across sex and race subgroups, but differed across hyperuricemia and education strata. Conclusion These 2 population-based US cohorts suggest that self-report of physician-diagnosed gout has good reliability and sensitivity. Thus, self-report of a physician diagnosis of gout is appropriate for epidemiologic studies. PMID:21123328

  8. Allicin as a possible adjunctive therapeutic drug for stage II oral submucous fibrosis: a preliminary clinical trial in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Zhang, Y; Li, F; Zhu, Y; Chen, Y; Yang, S; Sun, G

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of allicin in the treatment of stage II oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) in a Chinese patient cohort. A randomized clinical trial was performed. Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) or allicin was injected intralesionally weekly for 16 weeks. Improvements in mouth opening, burning sensation, and oral health-related quality of life were evaluated. Forty-eight subjects completed the study without obvious adverse reactions. At 40 weeks, the net gain in mouth opening was 2.27 ± 0.84 mm in the TA group and 5.16 ± 1.04 mm in the allicin group. Burning sensation improved by 2.79 ± 0.87 in the TA group and by 4.33 ± 1.04 in the allicin group. The OHIP-14 score improved by 4.67 ± 2.94 in the TA group and by 12.58 ± 9.82 in the allicin group. Allicin intralesional injections improved mouth opening, burning sensation, and oral health-related quality of life in these stage II OSF patients. Allicin appears to be a potential adjunctive therapeutic drug.

  9. Redefining high-risk patients with stage II colon cancer by risk index and microRNA-21: results from a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, T F; Kjær-Frifeldt, S; Christensen, R D; Morgenthaler, S; Blondal, T; Lindebjerg, J; Sørensen, F B; Jakobsen, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to analyse the prognostic value of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) in patients with stage II colon cancer aiming at a risk index for this group of patients. Methods: A population-based cohort of 554 patients was included. MicroRNA-21 was analysed by qPCR based on tumour tissue. An index was created using the coefficients obtained from a collective multiple Cox regression. The entire procedure was cross-validated (10-fold). The performance of the index was quantified by time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curves. Results: High miRNA-21 expression was associated with an unfavourable recurrence-free cancer-specific survival (RF-CSS), hazard ratio 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.76) (P=0.028). The generated RF-CSS index divided the traditional high-risk patients into subgroups with 5-year RF-CSS rates of 87% and 73%, respectively (P<0.001). The overall survival (OS) index identified three different subgroups (P<0.001). Cross-validated 5-year OS rates were 88%, 68%, and 50%, respectively. Conclusions: This population-based study supports miRNA-21 as an additional prognostic biomarker in patients with stage II colon cancer. Furthermore, the introduction of a risk index may guide the use of postoperative adjuvant treatment in a more appropriate way compared with current practice. PMID:25051407

  10. Predictive Performance of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in Acutely Ill Intensive Care Patients: Post-Hoc Analyses of the SUP-ICU Inception Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Morten Hylander; Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severity scores including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are used in intensive care units (ICUs) to assess disease severity, predict mortality and in research. We aimed to assess the predictive performance of SAPS II and the initial SOFA score for in-hospital and 90-day mortality in a contemporary international cohort. Methods This was a post-hoc study of the Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit (SUP-ICU) inception cohort study, which included acutely ill adults from ICUs across 11 countries (n = 1034). We compared the discrimination of SAPS II and initial SOFA scores, compared the discrimination of SAPS II in our cohort with the original cohort, assessed the calibration of SAPS II customised to our cohort, and compared the discrimination for 90-day mortality vs. in-hospital mortality for both scores. Discrimination was evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROC). Calibration was evaluated using Hosmer-Lemeshow’s goodness-of-fit Ĉ-statistic. Results AUROC for in-hospital mortality was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–0.83) for SAPS II and 0.73 (95% CI 0.69–0.76) for initial SOFA score (P<0.001 for the comparison). Calibration of the customised SAPS II for predicting in-hospital mortality was adequate (P = 0.60). Discrimination of SAPS II was reduced compared with the original SAPS II validation sample (AUROC 0.80 vs. 0.86; P = 0.001). AUROC for 90-day mortality was 0.79 (95% CI 0.76–0.82; P = 0.74 for comparison with in-hospital mortality) for SAPS II and 0.71 (95% CI 0.68–0.75; P = 0.66 for comparison with in-hospital mortality) for the initial SOFA score. Conclusions The predictive performance of SAPS II was similar for in-hospital and 90-day mortality and superior to that of the initial SOFA score, but SAPS II’s performance has decreased over time. Use of a contemporary severity score with improved predictive

  11. History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Incident Invasive Breast Cancer among Parous Women in the Nurses' Health Study II Prospective Cohort.

    PubMed

    Powe, Camille E; Tobias, Deirdre K; Michels, Karin B; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Manson, JoAnn E; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Cuilin; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rexrode, Kathryn M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Type II diabetes is associated with breast cancer in epidemiologic studies. Pregnancy also modifies breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which shares pathogenesis and risk factors with type II diabetes, would have greater invasive breast cancer risk than parous women without a history of GDM.Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis among parous women in the Nurses' Health Study II, with mean age 35 years in 1989. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare risks of incident invasive breast cancer in women with and without a history of GDM.Results: Among 86,972 women studied, 5,188 women reported a history of GDM and 2,377 developed invasive breast cancer (100 with history of GDM, 2,277 without GDM) over 22 years of prospective follow-up. History of GDM was inversely associated with incident invasive breast cancer [HR, 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55-0.84; P = 0.0004], compared with no history of GDM, after adjustment for body mass index, reproductive history, and other breast cancer risk factors. Findings were similar by menopausal status, although observed person-time was predominantly premenopausal (premenopausal: HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96; P = 0.03; postmenopausal: HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43-0.92; P = 0.02). Restricting to women undergoing mammography screening modestly attenuated the relationship (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.96; P = 0.02).Conclusions: Among a large cohort of U.S. women, history of GDM was not associated with an elevated risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer.Impact: Our findings highlight the need to further investigate GDM's role in breast cancer development. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 321-7. ©2016 AACR.

  12. Survival outcomes improved in contemporary cohort of patients with pelvic or abdominal recurrence after treatment for Stage I/II endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Melody J.; Chu, Christina; Rubin, Stephen; Lin, Lilie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pelvic and abdominal recurrences in Stage I/II endometrial carcinoma are associated with poor outcomes, yet prognostic factors for survival after recurrence are not well-described. Herein we identify patients with pelvic or abdominal recurrence after surgery for Stage I/II endometrial carcinoma and describe symptoms at presentation, prognostic factors, and salvage treatment toxicity. Methods This is a retrospective cohort of 20 consecutively treated patients with recurrence after treatment for Stage I/II endometrial carcinoma followed by our Institution’s Radiation Oncology Department from 1998-2015. Results The median time to pelvic or abdominal recurrence was 18.1 months (range, 4.2-59.6 months), with 50% of recurrences at extra-nodal locations. Two year progression-free survival (PFS) was 44% and 2 year overall survival (OS) was 82%. Salvage treatments varied widely, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) (7), surgery and RT (3), and surgery, chemotherapy, and RT (3). On univariate analysis of PFS, symptoms at recurrence (p=0.04) and extra-nodal recurrences (p<0.01) were found to be statistically significant negative prognosticators for PFS. On univariate analysis of OS, increasing age at recurrence and presence of symptoms were found to have a trend toward statistically significant association with negative OS outcomes (p=0.08 and p=0.10, respectively). Conclusions Our study demonstrates long-term survival for pelvic or abdominal recurrences is possible with curative salvage therapy. The presence of symptoms is a negative prognostic factor in treatment outcome and imaging may be effective for diagnosis in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Larger studies need to be performed to confirm these findings. PMID:26237194

  13. Impact of change in job status on mortality for newly onset type II diabetes patients: 7 years follow-up using cohort data of National Health Insurance, Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Donggyo; Kim, Ji Man; Tandi, Tinyami Erick; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between change in job status and mortality of newly diagnosed type II diabetes patients by gender. Newly onset of individuals diagnosed with type II diabetes in the years 2003 and 2004, had 7 years follow-up using National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) sample cohort data. The individuals diagnosed with type II diabetes within this period were 14,861. After adjusting for age, initial income group, insulin treatment and medical service utilization, hazard ratio was analyzed using Cox's proportional hazard model. Mortality hazard ratio of continuously unemployed individuals is 3.78 times higher in males and 9.78 times higher in females than in those who keep their jobs. Also, individuals with a change in job status (e.g. from industrial worker to unemployed or self-employed), the mortality hazard ratio is 2.24 times higher in males and 5.23 times higher in females than in those who keep their jobs. The impact of change in job status change is largest for the middle class males. The middle class males has the higher mortality hazard ratio, 6.14 times in maintain unemployed and 4.12 times in change his job (industrial worker to unemployed or self-employer) than maintain one's job. The continuous unemployment and the loss of job are related to risk of death in diabetic patients. The impact of unemployed is stronger than job change (loss or change). The impact of job status change is largest for the middle class man. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diabetes Risk Factors, Diabetes Risk Algorithms, and the Prediction of Future Frailty: The Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Kim; Kivimäki, Mika; Hamer, Mark; Shipley, Martin J.; Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Tabak, Adam; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether established diabetes risk factors and diabetes risk algorithms are associated with future frailty. Design Prospective cohort study. Risk algorithms at baseline (1997–1999) were the Framingham Offspring, Cambridge, and Finnish diabetes risk scores. Setting Civil service departments in London, United Kingdom. Participants There were 2707 participants (72% men) aged 45 to 69 years at baseline assessment and free of diabetes. Measurements Risk factors (age, sex, family history of diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antihypertensive and corticosteroid treatments, history of high blood glucose, smoking status, physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides) were used to construct the risk algorithms. Frailty, assessed during a resurvey in 2007–2009, was denoted by the presence of 3 or more of the following indicators: self-reported exhaustion, low physical activity, slow walking speed, low grip strength, and weight loss; “prefrailty” was defined as having 2 or fewer of these indicators. Results After a mean follow-up of 10.5 years, 2.8% of the sample was classified as frail and 37.5% as prefrail. Increased age, being female, stopping smoking, low physical activity, and not having a daily consumption of fruits and vegetables were each associated with frailty or prefrailty. The Cambridge and Finnish diabetes risk scores were associated with frailty/prefrailty with odds ratios per 1 SD increase (disadvantage) in score of 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.09–1.27) and 1.27 (1.17–1.37), respectively. Conclusion Selected diabetes risk factors and risk scores are associated with subsequent frailty. Risk scores may have utility for frailty prediction in clinical practice. PMID:24103860

  15. [Frequency of HLA alleles class I and II in a cohort of northwestern Colombian patients with spondyloarthritis].

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Eliana Patricia; Quintero, Julio César; Aristizábal, Beatriz Helena; Rincón, Olga Lucía; Velásquez, Carlos Jaime; Pinto, Luis Fernando; Márquez, Javier Darío

    2012-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis is a chronic rheumatic disease that affect the axial skeleton and peripheral joints, along with several extra-articular manifestations. The association with HLA-B27 remains one of the strongest known links between these entities and the major histocompatibility complex. However, the global distribution of HLA-B27 varies considerably and furthermore, associations with non-HLA-B27 genes have been described. The frequency of HLA class I and II was determined in a population of patients with spondyloarthritis with respect to detection in the clinical setting and by radiology. A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional, retrospective and prospective study was conducted in 56 patients from northwestern Colombia. Each was diagnosed with spondyloarthritis between 2005 and 2008. In each case, alleles were identified for the loci HLA class I and II (HLA-B; HLADQB1 and HLADRB). The frequency of these alleles in the axial, peripheral, extraarticular and radiological manifestations. The frequency of HLA-B27 was 50% overall, and it was the most frequent allele. The two other alleles were HLA.DRB4*01 at 35.7% and HLA-DQB1*0501 at 28.6%, as detected in each of the clinical and radiological manifestations. A high frequency of HLA-B27 and HLA-DRB4*01 (64.3%) was noted in patients with dactylitis. The alleles HLA-B27, HLA-DRB4*01 and HLA-DQB1*0501 were common in the different subtypes of spondyloarthritis and were frequent in the specific clinical axial, peripheral and extraarticular clinical manifestations, as well as radiological sacroiliitis.

  16. Clues to prolific productivity among prominent scientists.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1992-10-01

    In a survey based on the biographical sketches, obituary notes and eulogies of notable scientists, eight were identified as belonging to an elite group, having authored more than 1000 research publications, which include books, monographs and patents. They were, in chronological order, Thomas Alva Edison, Paul Karrer, Margaret Mead, Giulio Natta, Hans Selye, Herbert C Brown, Tetsuji Kametani and Carl Djerassi. Among these, Karrer, Natta and Brown were Nobelists in chemistry. Four criteria which can be identified as clues to their prolific productivity are, 1) enthusiasm for compulsive work and eccentric life style, 2) physical and/or environmental handicap, 3) pioneering efforts in a new research field, and 4) selection of research area, predominantly organic chemistry.

  17. Increased detection of clue cells in smears from cervical intraepithelial lesions with reduced expression of COX-2.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Priscila Garcia; Sarian, Luis Otávio; Tambascia, Julia Kawamura; Simões, José Antônio; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena; Discacciati, Michelle Garcia; Derchain, Sophie

    2008-10-01

    The relation between the detection of clue cells in cervical smears of women with CIN and the expression of COX-2 in these lesions were determined. Samples from 228 women, treated due to CIN and who underwent cervical conization, were obtained. Hybrid Capture II and Pap smear samples were collected immediately before performing conization. Pathological diagnoses were 11 (5%) normal cervix, 35 (15%) CIN1, 31 (14%) CIN2, and 151 (66%) CIN3. COX-2 immunoreactivity grading on the pathological specimens was based on the German ImmunoReactive score. In cervical smears, 20 fields (40x) were examined, each of them with a minimum count of 10 epithelial cells. When 20% or more of clue cells were detected the sample was considered positive for clue cells. The prevalence of clue cells was similar across histological strata (P = 0.42). Although the expression of COX-2 did not differ in lesions with varying severities (P = 0.24), there was a negative association between the expression of COX-2 and the presence of clue cells in Pap smear (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9): only 12% of women with moderate and strong expression of COX-2 had clue cells in their smears, contrasted to 22% of those with negative and weak expression of COX-2. HPV infection was associated in a borderline manner to the expression of COX-2 (P = 0.04; OR = 2.3 95% CI = 1.0-5.4). The reduced expression of COX-2 in CIN specimens may suggest that clue cells interfere with the inflammatory component of the carcinogenic process that lead to CIN.

  18. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Eric J; Newton, Christina C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-06-15

    While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM). We examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Prediagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Postdiagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (fourth vs. first quartile HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.78-1.28; HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, respectively). Similarly, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4 or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both postdiagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, based on ten PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake < median. Future studies are needed to confirm the potential inverse association of consistently high lycopene intake with PCSM among men with high-risk prostate cancers.

  19. Increased risk of coronary heart disease among individuals reporting adverse impact of stress on their health: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Hermann; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G. David; Shipley, Martin J.; Britton, Annie; Brunner, Eric J.; Vahtera, Jussi; Lemogne, Cédric; Elbaz, Alexis; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Aim Response to stress can vary greatly between individuals. However, it remains unknown whether perceived impact of stress on health is associated with adverse health outcomes. We examined whether individuals who report that stress adversely affects their health are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with those who report that stress has no adverse health impact. Methods and results Analyses are based on 7268 men and women (mean age: 49.5 years, interquartile range: 11 years) from the British Whitehall II cohort study. Over 18 years of follow-up, there were 352 coronary deaths or first non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) events. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, participants who reported at baseline that stress has affected their health ‘a lot or extremely’ had a 2.12 times higher (95% CI 1.52–2.98) risk of coronary death or incident non-fatal MI when compared with those who reported no effect of stress on their health. This association was attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for biological, behavioural, and other psychological risk factors including perceived stress levels, and measures of social support; fully adjusted hazard ratio: 1.49 (95% CI 1.01–2.22). Conclusions In this prospective cohort study, the perception that stress affects health, different from perceived stress levels, was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether disease risk can be reduced by increasing clinical attention to those who complain that stress greatly affects their health. PMID:23804585

  20. Determinants of high pesticide exposure events in the agricultural health cohort study from enrollment (1993-1997) through phase II (1999-2003).

    PubMed

    Payne, K; Andreotti, G; Bell, E; Blair, A; Coble, J; Alavanja, M

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an analysis of the determinants of high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs), which are defined as self-reported incidents of high exposure to pesticides, fertilizers, or other chemicals in the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of private applicators and their spouses residing in North Carolina or Iowa, and commercial applicators residing in Iowa. We examined the risk of HPEEs occurring between enrollment (phase 1: 1993-1997) and follow-up (phase II: 1999-2003) among participants who completed the phase II questionnaire (n=43,149) by calculating hazard rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional-hazard regression. During the followup period, 1,582 HPEEs were reported (3.8%). HPEE risk was significantly higher among Iowa residents, younger participants, those with a hearing deficit, a risk-taking personality, and an HPEE prior to enrollment. Among private applicators (n=30,102), larger farm size, higher frequency and duration of pesticide use, spraying pesticides with open cab windows, using a tractor cab without a charcoal filter, repairing spray equipment, wearing work clothing more than two days without changing, not removing work boots before entering the home, and storing pesticides in the home were associated with significantly higher HPEE risk. Among commercial applicators (n=2326), higher frequency of pesticide use was associated with a significantly higher HPEE risk. Among spouses (n=10,721), higher frequency of pesticide use, using an application vehicle with a cab, and storing pesticides in the home were associated with a significantly higher HPEE risk. Our findings indicate that HPEEs were associated with several modifiable pesticide handling procedures that can be targeted in safety training and education.

  1. Anterior single odontoid screw placement for type II odontoid fractures: our modified surgical technique and initial results in a cohort study of 15 patients

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod Kumar; Bhattarai, Binod

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Anterior odontoid screw fixation for type II odontoid fracture is the ideal management option. However in the context of unavailability of an O-arm or neuro-navigation and poor images from the available C-arm may be an obstacle to ideal trajectory and placement of the odontoid screw. We herein detail  our surgical technique so as to ensure a correct trajectory and subsequent good fusion in Type II odontoid fractures. This may be advantageous  in clinical set ups lacking state of the art facilities.  Methods and Results: In this cohort study we included 15 consecutive patients who underwent anterior odontoid screw placement. We routinely dissect the longus colli to completely visualize the entire width of C3 body. We then perform a median C2-C3 disectomy followed by creating a gutter in the superior end of C3 body. We then guide the Kirchsner (K) wire purchasing adequate anterior cortex of C2. Rest of the procedure follows the similar steps as described for odontoid screw placement. We achieved 100% correct trajectory and screw placement in our study. There were no instances of screw break out, pull out or nonunion. There was one patient mortality following myocardial infarction in our study. Conclusion: Preoperative imaging details, proper patient positioning, meticulous dissection, thorough anatomical knowledge and few added surgical nuances are the cornerstones in ideal odontoid screw placement. This may be pivotal in managing  patients in developing nations having rudimentary neurosurgical set up. PMID:27990259

  2. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a nested case control study in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Marjorie L; Stevens, Victoria L; Patel, Roshni; Jacobs, Eric J; Bain, Elizabeth B; Horst, Ronald L; Gapstur, Susan M; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D status measured during adulthood has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk in some, but not all, studies. Vitamin D has been hypothesized to prevent breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic actions in cell-cycle regulation. Methods A subset (n = 21,965) of female participants from the prospective Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort provided a blood sample from 1998-2001 and were followed through 2005. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in 516 verified incident cases and 516 controls, matched on birth date (± 6 months), date of blood draw (± 6 months) and race. Information on medical history, risk factors and lifestyle was available from repeated questionnaires. We computed multi-variable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between 25(OH)D quintile and breast cancer risk using unconditional logistic regression, controlling for matching factors and additional confounders. Results We observed no association between 25(OH)D and breast cancer (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.70-1.68, P = 0.60) for the top vs bottom quintile. Using a priori cut-points, the OR was 0.86 (95% CI 0.59-1.26), for ≥75 vs <50 nmol/L. Results were not different when the first two years of follow-up were excluded, or in analyses stratified by season, latitude, BMI, postmenopausal hormone use, or by tumor grade or estrogen receptor status. Conclusions These results do not support an association between adulthood serum 25(OH)D and postmenopausal breast cancer. We cannot rule out an association with 25(OH)D status earlier in life. PMID:19715600

  3. Age-specific administration of chemotherapy and long-term quality of life in stage II and III colorectal cancer patients: a population-based prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Hoffmeister, Michael; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Koch, Moritz; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the age-specific pattern of administration of chemotherapy and its association with long-term survival and quality of life (QoL) in stage II and III colorectal cancer patients. Chemotherapy allocation according to disease and patient characteristics was investigated in a population-based cohort of 562 stage II and III colorectal cancer patients. Five years after diagnosis, survival was determined and QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 Items and a tumor specific module. The association among chemotherapy, survival, and QoL was examined while controlling for potential confounders. Chemotherapy was administered in 71% of patients aged <60 years and in only 20% of patients aged ≥80 years. A significant association between chemotherapy and longer survival time was found for stage III cancer only. Chemotherapy was associated with higher symptom levels for trouble with taste, anxiety, and hair loss. In age-specific analyses, younger survivors (<70 years at time of follow-up) with a history of chemotherapy reported significantly lower physical, role, and cognitive functioning and higher pain, appetite loss, hair loss, and trouble with taste symptom levels. In contrast, for older survivors (≥70 years), only two (hair loss and dry mouth) out of 38 QoL scores were significantly associated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is associated with lower long-term QoL, especially in younger survivors. In cases of uncertain survival benefits of chemotherapy, consideration of its long-term effects on QoL should be incorporated into final decisions on treatment.

  4. Postmenopausal unopposed estrogen and estrogen plus progestin use and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Cohort.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Patel, Alpa V; Hildebrand, Janet S; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    Results of epidemiologic studies on postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are inconsistent. To help clarify this issue, PMH and NHL incidence was examined in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Between 1992 and 2007, 616 cases of NHL were identified among 67 980 postmenopausal women who were cancer-free at baseline. PMH use was updated during follow-up. Using extended Cox regression, we observed a statistically significant 29% higher risk of NHL for ever unopposed estrogen use compared to never use, which was restricted to follicular lymphoma (current estrogen compared to never use, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-4.33) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, HR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.13-3.35). There was no association between current estrogen plus progestin (E + P) use and NHL incidence overall, but a suggested positive association between current E + P use and DLBCL, as well as former E + P use and follicular lymphoma. These results suggest that postmenopausal hormones might play a role in NHL etiology, particularly for follicular lymphoma and DLBCL.

  5. No association of plasma levels of adiponectin and c-peptide with risk of aggressive prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Victoria L; Jacobs, Eric J; Sun, Juzhong; Gapstur, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is associated with a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer and alters circulating levels of insulin and adiponectin, two hormones that influence biologic processes implicated in carcinogenesis. Results of some studies showed associations of circulating levels of adiponectin, insulin, and c-peptide (a marker of insulin secretion) with aggressive prostate cancer, but the size of these studies was limited. A nested case-control study of 272 aggressive prostate cancer cases [Gleason score ≥ 7 (4+3) or T3-T4] and 272 age- and race-matched controls from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort was conducted to determine the associations of prediagnostic plasma levels of c-peptide and adiponectin with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Neither circulating adiponectin nor c-peptide was associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. In analyses of the highest-risk aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥ 8 or T3-T4), the highest quartile of c-peptide, compared with the lowest, was associated with an OR of 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-2.78]. Our findings provide no support for the hypothesis that adiponectin is associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer but a possible association of high levels of c-peptide with particularly high-risk prostate cancer cannot be ruled out. These results indicate that changes in circulating levels of adiponectin and c-peptide do not play an important role in risk of aggressive prostate cancer. ©2014 AACR.

  6. Neutrophilic Epitheliotropism is a Histopathological Clue to Neutrophilic Urticarial Dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, Sigrid M C; Böer-Auer, Almut; Kerl, Katrin; Herrgott, Ilka; Schulz, Xenia; Bonsmann, Gisela; Brehler, Randolf; Metze, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis (NUD) comprises a particular autoinflammatory condition within the spectrum of aseptic neutrophilic dermatoses characterized by a distinct urticarial eruption clinically and a neutrophilic dermatosis histopathologically. In this study, we reviewed skin biopsies of lesional skin of patients seen in our outpatient clinic for autoimmune dermatoses and in allergy department from 1982 to 2014 that fulfilled these criteria. A total of 77 biopsies from 50 patients were analyzed histopathologically. Included were cases of Schnitzler syndrome, Still disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, primary biliary cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and those that had signs of systemic inflammation not otherwise specified, that is, fever, arthritis, leukocytosis, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A control cohort was defined as including a total of 70 biopsies from 50 patients comprising neutrophilic urticaria (pressure-induced and not pressure-induced), conventional urticaria, lupus erythematosus expressing neutrophils, and exanthematous drug reaction of macular type expressing neutrophils. Skin biopsies of NUD revealed a perivascular and interstitial neutrophilic infiltrate focally extending into the epithelia of epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands, a feature which we termed neutrophilic epitheliotropism. This neutrophilic epitheliotropism proved to be of high sensitivity (83.1%) and lower specificity (74.3%). The histological findings could be substantiated by immunohistochemical markers for leukocytes (elastase and myeloperoxidase), in particular in cases where neutrophils showed uncharacteristic band-like nuclei. Neutrophilic epitheliotropism is a new sensitive and specific histopathological clue for NUD, a histopathological reaction pattern within the spectrum of neutrophilic dermatoses that needs to be differentiated from conventional urticaria.

  7. The Effect of Short Sleep Duration on Coronary Heart Disease Risk is Greatest Among Those with Sleep Disturbance: A Prospective Study from the Whitehall II Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chandola, Tarani; Ferrie, Jane E.; Perski, Aleksander; Akbaraly, Tasnime; Marmot, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    disturbance: a prospective study from the Whitehall II cohort. SLEEP 2010;33(6):739-744 PMID:20550013

  8. Ophthalmic clues to the endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Chen, Y; Lin, Z; Shi, X

    2017-01-01

    Eye is a vital sense organ and reflects the physical and mental wellbeing of a person. Detailed examination of the eye is an essential part in the clinical evaluation of patients with any systemic disorder. The interaction between ophthalmologists and endocrinologists is often limited to Graves' ophthalmopathy and diabetic retinopathy. However, there are many ophthalmic manifestations, which are characteristically seen in endocrine disorders. In this review, we shall discuss the ocular manifestations of the endocrine syndromes excluding the Graves' ophthalmopathy and diabetic retinopathy. We performed a PubMed search of articles published in English showing the ophthalmic features in the endocrine disorders. Relevant cited articles were also retrieved. Most of the publications included in the review were case reports and review articles. Many endocrine disorders have characteristic manifestations pertaining to the various structures of the eye. The involvement is seen from the external structures of the eye to the inner most layers of the retina. Many ocular-endocrine syndromes also exist with characteristic clues to the clinical diagnosis. The endocrinologists need to be aware of these ocular signs that help in the early diagnosis of the underlying disorder. A syndromic approach is essential in the diagnosis of endocrinopathy in patients presenting with ophthalmic features.

  9. Spatial perception in normal and strabismic subjects: role of stereopsis and monocular clues.

    PubMed

    Nuzzi, G; Cantù, C

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate the roles of binocular vision, monocular clues, and experience in spatial perception in a prospective, nonrandomized, case-control study. A test was created consisting of three wood blocks arranged along the frontal plane inside Panum area. To produce some degrees of horizontal disparity, blocks were moved along a sagittal plane. Thirteen normal subjects (control group) and 13 nonamblyopic strabismic subjects (study group) were asked to identify, both under binocular and monocular vision, the position of the blocks in a series of 12 randomized presentations (phase 1). In phase II of the trial, a letter E in three different sizes, acting as a monocular clue, marked the three blocks. In both phases, the number of correct answers to the test during binocular and monocular vision was recorded. Binocular normal responses appeared greater than monocular normal responses and strabismic binocular responses in both phases (p < 0.001). Binocular strabismic responses and monocular answers of both groups appeared similar. In our experimental model, spatial orientation of strabismic subjects in binocular vision is substantially identical to that of normal subjects in monocular vision. Monocular clues were used in the same manner in both groups of subjects, and experience seemed to play no role in spatial localization of visual objects.

  10. A phase II, multicenter, open-label, 3-cohort trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in operable basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sofen, Howard; Gross, Kenneth G; Goldberg, Leonard H; Sharata, Harry; Hamilton, Tiffani K; Egbert, Barbara; Lyons, Benjamin; Hou, Jeannie; Caro, Ivor

    2015-07-01

    Vismodegib is approved for treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. We sought to characterize vismodegib efficacy and safety in operable basal cell carcinoma. Patients with new, operable, nodular basal cell carcinoma received vismodegib (150 mg/d) followed by excision and Mohs micrographic surgery to ensure clear margins. Cohort 1 received vismodegib for 12 weeks; cohort 2 received vismodegib for 12 weeks, then 24 weeks of observation before excision; and cohort 3 received vismodegib for 8 weeks on/4 weeks off/8 weeks on. In all, 24 patients enrolled in cohort 1, and 25 in cohorts 2 and 3. Complete histologic clearance was achieved by 42%, 16%, and 44% of patients in cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Muscle spasms (76%), alopecia (58%), and dysgeusia (50%) were the most frequent adverse events (AEs). Five (7%) patients discontinued treatment because of an AE. AE reversibility was evaluated in cohort 2 with 24 weeks of observation after treatment discontinuation. Nonrandomized, small cohort sizes, and short observation durations for some patients are limitations. Primary efficacy end points were not met (predefined complete histologic clearance rate: >50% in cohorts 1 and 3; >30% in cohort 2). Safety was comparable when dosed continuously versus intermittently. Posttreatment reversibility of vismodegib-related AEs was demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study-II (LAPS-II): a retrospective cohort study of transfusion-related acute lung injury in recipients of high-plasma-volume human leukocyte antigen antibody–positive or –negative components

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven H.; Triulzi, Darrell J.; Murphy, Edward L.; Carey, Patricia M.; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Roback, John D.; Carrick, Danielle; Mathew, Sunitha; Wright, David J.; Cable, Ritchard; Ness, Paul; Gajic, Ognjen; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Looney, Mark R.; Kakaiya, Ram M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND We used a multicenter retrospective cohort study design to evaluate whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody donor screening would reduce the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) or possible TRALI. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In the Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study-II (LAPS-II), we evaluated pulmonary outcomes in recipients of 2596 plasma-rich blood components (transfusable plasma and plateletpheresis) sent to participating hospitals; half of the components were collected from anti-HLA–positive donors (study arm) and half from anti-HLA–negative donors (control arm) matched by sex, parity, and blood center. A staged medical record review process was used. Final recipient diagnosis was based on case review by a blinded expert panel of pulmonary or critical care physicians. RESULTS TRALI incidence was 0.59% (seven cases) in study arm recipients versus 0.16% (two cases) in control arm recipients for an odds ratio (OR) of 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7–17.4; p = 0.10). For possible TRALI cases (nine study arm, eight control arm), the OR was 1.2 (95% CI, 0.4–3.0; p = 0.81), and for TRALI and possible TRALI aggregated together, it was 1.7 (95% CI, 0.7–3.7; p = 0.24). Transfusion-associated circulatory overload incidence was identical in the two arms (1.17 and 1.22%, respectively; OR, 1.0; p = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS TRALI incidence in recipients of anti-HLA–positive components was relatively low for a look-back study (1 in 170) and was higher than in the control arm, but did not reach significance. Based on this trend, the data are consistent with the likelihood that TRALI risk is decreased by selecting high-volume plasma components for transfusion from donors at low risk of having HLA antibodies. PMID:21446938

  12. Scientists Spot Genetic Clues to Disfiguring 'Fish Scale' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166145.html Scientists Spot Genetic Clues to Disfiguring 'Fish Scale' Disease People with ... June 1 in the American Journal of Human Genetics , adds to the list of genetic culprits. The ...

  13. Can Dirty Diapers Offer Clues to the Infant Brain?

    MedlinePlus

    ... hold clues to their brain development, a new study suggests. Researchers analyzed fecal samples from dozens of 1-year-olds and assessed their thinking (cognitive) skills a year later. The results revealed a link ...

  14. Basosquamous carcinoma: Dermoscopic clues to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Akay, Bengu Nisa; Saral, Secil; Heper, Aylin O; Erdem, Cengizhan; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2017-02-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare skin cancer which has areas of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and a transition zone between them. However, dermoscopic features of BSC are not well described in the published work, except one study. The aim of the present study was to better identify and clarify the dermoscopic findings of BSC in the largest group of patients in the published work and to describe its dermoscopic features according to histopathologically BCC-dominant, SCC-dominant and intermediate categories. Dermoscopic features of 36 histopathologically proven BSC and their dermatopathological correlates were retrospectively analyzed. Dermoscopic features were evaluated by pattern analysis. Keratin mass (91.7%) was the most common dermoscopic feature. Surface scaling (77.8%), ulceration (69.4%), white structureless areas (69.4%), white clods (66.7%) and blood spots on keratin mass (66.7%) were the other frequent findings. Polymorphous vascular pattern consisting of various combinations of branched, serpentine, straight, coiled or looped vessels were detected in 61% of the lesions. BSC has BCC-dominant vascular features together with otherwise SCC-dominant morphology, the common pattern seen in BSC lesions being BCC-dominant polymorphous or monomorphous vasculature, together with dermoscopic findings of keratinization. White circles, known to be a valuable clue to SCC and keratoacanthoma, were present at the same magnitude in BSC in our study. The observed histological correlation of eosinophilic keratin overlying the epithelium which lined follicular infundibulae in these tumors, provides a plausible new perspective on dermoscopic white circles. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Role of psychosocial work factors in the relation between becoming a caregiver and changes in health behaviour: results from the Whitehall II cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dich, Nadya; Head, Jenny; Hulvej Rod, Naja

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study tested the effects of becoming a caregiver combined with adverse working conditions on changes in health behaviours. Methods Participants were 5419 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study who were not caregivers at baseline (phase 3, 1991–1994). Psychosocial work factors were assessed at baseline. Phase 4 questionnaire (1995–1996) was used to identify participants who became caregivers to an aged or disabled relative. Smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise were assessed at baseline and follow-up (phase 5, 1997–1999). Results Those who became caregivers were more likely to increase frequency of alcohol consumption, but only if they also reported low decision latitude at work (OR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.37 compared with non-caregivers with average decision latitude), or belonged to low occupational social class (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.78 compared with non-caregivers of high occupational social class). Caregivers were more likely to quit smoking if job demands were low (OR=2.92; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.92 compared with non-caregivers with low job demands), or if social support at work was high (OR=2.99, 95% CI 1.01 to 8.86 compared with caregivers with average social support). There was no effect of caregiving on reducing exercise below recommended number of hours per week, or on drinking above recommended number of units per week, regardless of working conditions. Conclusions The findings underscore the importance of a well-balanced work environment as a resource for people exposed to increased family demands. PMID:27217534

  16. Recreational physical activity, leisure sitting time and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Cohort.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Birmann, Brenda M; Patel, Alpa V

    2012-10-15

    Results of studies that examined the relationship between physical activity and non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms (NHL) are inconsistent, and only one study to date examined time spent sitting in relation to NHL. We examined recreational physical activity and leisure-time sitting in relation to risk of NHL in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Between 1992 and 2007, 2,002 incident cases were identified among 146,850 participants who were cancer-free at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) while adjusting for potential confounders. Women who sat for at least 6 hr/day were at 28% higher risk of NHL compared to women who sat for fewer than 3 hr/day. In analyses of specific subtypes, sitting time was associated with risk of multiple myeloma only (6+ vs. 3 hr/day sitting: HR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.45-3.97). Women who engaged in any recreational physical activity had a nonsignificant 20%-30% lower risk of NHL (p-trend = 0.05) compared to women who reported no recreational physical activity. Neither leisure-time sitting nor recreational physical activity was associated with risk of NHL or major NHL subtype in men. There was no evidence of statistical interaction between physical activity and sitting time, or between body mass index and physical activity or sitting time. Further research is needed to confirm an association between sitting time and multiple myeloma and explore a possible association between physical activity and NHL.

  17. Aminoglycoside antibiotics for NIH category II chronic bacterial prostatitis: A single-cohort study with one-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Vittorio; Montanari, Emanuele; Marras, Emanuela; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2016-01-01

    Although fluoroquinolones are first-line agents for the treatment of National Institutes of Health (NIH) category II chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), therapy with these agents is not always feasible due to the increasing worldwide resistance of causative uropathogens. New therapeutic options are urgently required, as drugs such as β-lactam antibiotics distribute poorly to prostatic sites of infection and trimethoprim therapy is often unfeasible due to high resistance rates. The present study aimed to analyze the efficacy of aminoglycosides, administered to a cohort of 78 patients affected by fluoroquinolone-resistant CBP, or excluded from fluoroquinolone therapy due to various contraindications. Patients received netilmicin (4.5 mg/kg, once-daily, intramuscular), combined or not with a β-lactam antibiotic, for 4 weeks. Follow-up visits were scheduled 6 and 12 months after the end of treatment. Fifty-five out of 70 patients (78.6%) showed eradication of the causative pathogen, and a significant reduction of the NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) total score from a baseline median value of 21 to 14 at the end of therapy, and to 9 and 8 at 6-month and 12-month follow-up assessments, respectively. The pain, voiding and quality of life subdomains of the NIH-CPSI decreased accordingly. In 15 patients showing persistence of infection, NIH-CPSI total and subdomain scores did not decrease at the end of therapy. Additional clinical parameters, such as the urinary peak flow rate, percentage voided bladder, serum prostate-specific antigen concentration, International Prostate Symptom Score and prostate volume improved significantly only in the group of patients in which the infection was eradicated. Therapy was well tolerated, and genetic testing for deafness-predisposing mitochondrial mutations allowed safer administration of aminoglycosides. These results suggest that aminoglycosides may become a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of CBP. These

  18. Aminoglycoside antibiotics for NIH category II chronic bacterial prostatitis: A single-cohort study with one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Magri, Vittorio; Montanari, Emanuele; Marras, Emanuela; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2016-10-01

    Although fluoroquinolones are first-line agents for the treatment of National Institutes of Health (NIH) category II chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), therapy with these agents is not always feasible due to the increasing worldwide resistance of causative uropathogens. New therapeutic options are urgently required, as drugs such as β-lactam antibiotics distribute poorly to prostatic sites of infection and trimethoprim therapy is often unfeasible due to high resistance rates. The present study aimed to analyze the efficacy of aminoglycosides, administered to a cohort of 78 patients affected by fluoroquinolone-resistant CBP, or excluded from fluoroquinolone therapy due to various contraindications. Patients received netilmicin (4.5 mg/kg, once-daily, intramuscular), combined or not with a β-lactam antibiotic, for 4 weeks. Follow-up visits were scheduled 6 and 12 months after the end of treatment. Fifty-five out of 70 patients (78.6%) showed eradication of the causative pathogen, and a significant reduction of the NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) total score from a baseline median value of 21 to 14 at the end of therapy, and to 9 and 8 at 6-month and 12-month follow-up assessments, respectively. The pain, voiding and quality of life subdomains of the NIH-CPSI decreased accordingly. In 15 patients showing persistence of infection, NIH-CPSI total and subdomain scores did not decrease at the end of therapy. Additional clinical parameters, such as the urinary peak flow rate, percentage voided bladder, serum prostate-specific antigen concentration, International Prostate Symptom Score and prostate volume improved significantly only in the group of patients in which the infection was eradicated. Therapy was well tolerated, and genetic testing for deafness-predisposing mitochondrial mutations allowed safer administration of aminoglycosides. These results suggest that aminoglycosides may become a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of CBP. These

  19. Amount, type, and timing of recreational physical activity in relation to colon and rectal cancer in older adults: the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ann; Connell, Cari J; Jacobs, Eric J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Patel, Alpa V; Calle, Eugenia E; Cokkinides, Vilma E; Thun, Michael J

    2004-12-01

    Physical activity has consistently been associated with lower risk of colon cancer, but information is limited on the amount, type, and timing of activities. The relationship between physical activity and rectal cancer is unclear. We examined characteristics of recreational physical activity in relation to colon and rectal cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort of 70,403 men and 80,771 women (median age, 63 years); 940 colon and 390 rectal cancers were identified from enrollment in 1992 to 1993 through August 1999. The multivariate-adjusted rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with any recreational physical activity compared with none were 0.87 (0.71-1.06) for colon cancer and 0.70 (0.53-0.93) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk decreased significantly with increasing total hours (P for trend without reference group = 0.007) and metabolic equivalent hours (P for trend = 0.006) per week of activities. No clear decrease in rectal cancer risk was seen with increasing hours per week of physical activity. Rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.72 (0.52-0.98) for <2 hours, 0.68 (0.47-0.97) for 2 to 3 hours, 0.59 (0.41-0.83) for 4 to 6 hours, and 0.83 (0.59-1.16) for >/=7 hours per week of physical activity compared with none. Past exercise, as reported in 1982, was not associated with risk of either colon or rectal cancer. We conclude that increasing amounts of time spent at recreational physical activity are associated with substantially lower risk of colon cancer and that recreational physical activity is associated with lower risk of rectal cancer in older men and women.

  20. Role of psychosocial work factors in the relation between becoming a caregiver and changes in health behaviour: results from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dich, Nadya; Head, Jenny; Hulvej Rod, Naja

    2016-05-23

    The present study tested the effects of becoming a caregiver combined with adverse working conditions on changes in health behaviours. Participants were 5419 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study who were not caregivers at baseline (phase 3, 1991-1994). Psychosocial work factors were assessed at baseline. Phase 4 questionnaire (1995-1996) was used to identify participants who became caregivers to an aged or disabled relative. Smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise were assessed at baseline and follow-up (phase 5, 1997-1999). Those who became caregivers were more likely to increase frequency of alcohol consumption, but only if they also reported low decision latitude at work (OR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.37 compared with non-caregivers with average decision latitude), or belonged to low occupational social class (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.78 compared with non-caregivers of high occupational social class). Caregivers were more likely to quit smoking if job demands were low (OR=2.92; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.92 compared with non-caregivers with low job demands), or if social support at work was high (OR=2.99, 95% CI 1.01 to 8.86 compared with caregivers with average social support). There was no effect of caregiving on reducing exercise below recommended number of hours per week, or on drinking above recommended number of units per week, regardless of working conditions. The findings underscore the importance of a well-balanced work environment as a resource for people exposed to increased family demands. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms: nation-wide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Karl Emil; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Egfjord, Martin; Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2015-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) on human AAAs remain unclear. We therefore examined whether treatment with ACEIs or ARBs influenced hard clinical end points in a nation-wide cohort of patients with AAA. All patients diagnosed with AAA during the period 1995 to 2011 were identified from the Danish nation-wide registries. Subjects were divided according to ACEI and ARB treatment status and followed up for an average of 5 years. Study outcomes were evaluated by time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models. Of 9441 patients with AAA, 12.6% were treated with ACEIs and 5.0% received ARBs. Incidence rates of death from AAA per 100 patient-years were 3.7, 3.6, 4.0, and 4.7 for treatment with ACEIs or ARBs, ACEIs, ARBs, and no ACEI/ARB, respectively. Hazard ratios of death from AAA were 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.80; P<0.001) for patients receiving ACEIs and 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.88; P=0.006) for those receiving ARBs, respectively (P for difference=0.944). The risk of surgery for AAA was significantly reduced in patients receiving ACEIs (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99]; P=0.040) but not in patients receiving ARBs (hazard ratio, 1.02 [95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.23]; P=0.867; P for difference=0.119). In this observational study, treatment with ACEIs or ARBs was associated with a comparable reduction in mortality but not in surgery for AAA among patients with AAA. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these findings. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. THE EXTENDED He IIλ4686-EMITTING REGION IN IZw 18 UNVEILED: CLUES FOR PECULIAR IONIZING SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Bayo, F. M.; Kunth, D.; Durret, F.

    2015-03-10

    New integral field spectroscopy has been obtained for IZw 18, the nearby lowest-metallicity galaxy considered to be our best local analog of systems forming at high redshift (z). Here we report the spatially resolved spectral map of the nebular He ii λ4686 emission in IZw 18, from which we derived for the first time its total He ii-ionizing flux. Nebular He ii emission implies the existence of a hard radiation field. He ii-emitters are observed to be more frequent among high-z galaxies than for local objects. Therefore, investigating the He ii-ionizing source(s) in IZw 18 may reveal the ionization processes at high z. He ii emission in star-forming galaxies has been suggested to be mainly associated with Wolf–Rayet stars (WRs), but WRs cannot satisfactorily explain the He ii-ionization at all times, particularly at the lowest metallicities. Shocks from supernova remnants, or X-ray binaries, have been proposed as additional potential sources of He ii-ionizing photons. Our data indicate that conventional He ii-ionizing sources (WRs, shocks, X-ray binaries) are not sufficient to explain the observed nebular He iiλ4686 emission in IZw 18. We find that the He ii-ionizing radiation expected from models for either low-metallicity super-massive O stars or rotating metal-free stars could account for the He ii-ionization budget measured, while only the latter models could explain the highest values of He iiλ4686/Hβ observed. The presence of such peculiar stars in IZw 18 is suggestive and further investigation in this regard is needed. This letter highlights that some of the clues of the early universe can be found here in our cosmic backyard.

  3. Singular Clues to Causality and Their Use in Human Causal Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    It is argued that causal understanding originates in experiences of acting on objects. Such experiences have consistent features that can be used as clues to causal identification and judgment. These are singular clues, meaning that they can be detected in single instances. A catalog of 14 singular clues is proposed. The clues function as…

  4. Dynamic modelling of future land-use change: a comparison between CLUE-S and Dinamica EGO models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Maosi

    2012-10-01

    Land-use and land-cover change has been a research focus in global environmental change. Recent research found that land-use change could influence the structure of biogeochemical spheres as well as material and energy recycle directly or indirectly. Land-use dynamic models are considered as an effective technique to study the processes of land-use modification. The objective of this paper is to compare two widely use land-use dynamic models, CLUE-S and Dinamica EGO, from the perspective of land-use change amount, spatial characteristics, and their utility. A case study was conducted to examine the ascendants of each model and Kappa coefficient was used to compare the simulation accuracy. The modelling experiments reflected that the predictions of land-use change based on CLUE-S and Dinamica EGO matched broadly with actual situation. CLUE-S was better in overall accuracy whereas the Markov process in Dinamica EGO could precisely predict the amount of land-use change. Moreover, the spatial pattern of simulation map based on Dinamica EGO was more consistent with empirical result. Both results indicate their possible further applicability for forecasting future land-use change and corresponding studies.

  5. Nested Cohort

    Cancer.gov

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  6. Prior Clues of Internal Activity on Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    New Horizons scientists Kelsi Singer and Alan Stern predicted that Pluto may have subsurface activity, in this study published even before New Horizon's recent observations of Pluto's strangely uncratered surface areas. Where Does the Nitrogen Come From? Pluto's surface and atmosphere contain a significant amount of nitrogen, but the gas leaks out of Pluto's atmosphere at an tremendous rate -- estimated at about 1.5 × 1012-13 grams per year (roughly 200-2000 tons/hr!). But if the nitrogen has been escaping at this rate since the solar system was formed, the entire atmospheric reservoir of would have been lost long before now. So what is resupplying Pluto's nitrogen? Singer and Stern explore several possible sources: Delivery by comet impact: The authors calculate that over the 4-billion-year span since Pluto's formation, it has been impacted by a total of 600 million comets of varying sizes, all likely containing nitrogen. But their estimates show that the amount of nitrogen this would supply falls several orders of magnitude shy of explaining the escape rate. Excavation by cratering: Could comet impacts simply expose nitrogen buried in reservoirs just beneath Pluto's surface? That method, too, falls short of resupplying atmospheric nitrogen escape by at least an order of magnitude, even using the most generous estimates. Internal activity: Unless the believed atmospheric loss rate of Pluto is overestimated, the authors conclude that Pluto must experience some sort of internal activity such as cryovolcanism that brings nitrogen from below its surface up and into the atmosphere. The Study in Context of Current Events. Singer and Stern wrote and submitted this paper before the New Horizons spacecraft's recent flyby of Pluto. Data from this mission has recently provided surprise after surprise -- from images of smooth, crater-free regions on Pluto's surface to evidence of sheets of carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrogen ices flowing like glaciers. These clues support

  7. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through red, green and blue filters that have been combined into this approximately true-color image.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif

  8. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through red, green and blue filters that have been combined into this approximately true-color image.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif

  9. Younger age at gout onset is related to obesity in a community-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    McAdams DeMarco, Mara A.; Maynard, Janet W.; Huizinga, Mary Margret; Baer, Alan N.; Köttgen, Anna; Gelber, Allan C.; Coresh, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with gout risk. It is unclear whether obesity is associated with a younger age of gout onset. We examined whether obesity is related to age at gout onset and quantified the risk of incident gout by obesity status in the Campaign Against Cancer and Heart Disease (CLUE II) study, a longitudinal community-based cohort. Methods CLUE II began in 1989 as a cohort study of residents living within or surrounding Washington County, Maryland. Follow-up questionnaires queried whether each participant had been diagnosed with gout by a healthcare professional. Among participants with gout, we assessed whether obesity was related to age at disease onset. We also ascertained the eighteen-year risk of incident gout according to obesity status (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) at baseline with cumulative incidence ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Poisson regression. Results Among the study population (n=15,533), 517 developed incident gout. The prevalence of obesity at baseline was 16.2%. The overall mean age at gout onset was 59.3 years. The onset of gout was 3.1 years (95% CI: 0.3, 5.8) earlier in those who were obese at baseline and 11.0 years earlier (95% CI: 5.8, 16.1) in participants who were obese at age 21, compared to their non-obese participants. The 18-year adjusted RR of gout in obese participants compared to non-obese participants was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.37). Conclusion Obesity is not only a risk factor for incident gout but was associated with an earlier age at gout onset. PMID:21485022

  10. Predictors of Paravalvular Regurgitation After Implantation of the Fully Repositionable and Retrievable Lotus Transcatheter Aortic Valve (from the REPRISE II Trial Extended Cohort).

    PubMed

    Blackman, Daniel J; Meredith, Ian T; Dumonteil, Nicolas; Tchétché, Didier; Hildick-Smith, David; Spence, Mark S; Walters, Darren L; Harnek, Jan; Worthley, Stephen G; Rioufol, Gilles; Lefèvre, Thierry; Houle, Vicki M; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2017-07-15

    Paravalvular leak (PVL) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is associated with worse long-term outcomes. The Lotus Valve incorporates an innovative Adaptive Seal designed to minimize PVL. This analysis evaluated the incidence and predictors of PVL after implantation of the Lotus transcatheter aortic valve. The REPRISE II (REpositionable Percutaneous Replacement of Stenotic Aortic Valve through Implantation of Lotus Valve System - Evaluation of Safety and Performance) Study With Extended Cohort enrolled 250 high-surgical risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Aortic regurgitation was assessed by echocardiography pre-procedure, at discharge and 30 days, by an independent core laboratory. Baseline and procedural predictors of mild or greater PVL at 30 days (or at discharge if 30-day data were not available) were determined using a multivariate regression model (n = 229). Of the 229 patients, 197 (86%) had no/trace PVL, 30 had mild, and 2 had moderate PVL; no patient had severe PVL. Significant predictors of mild/moderate PVL included device:annulus area ratio (odds ratio [OR] 0.87; 95% CI 0.83 to 0.92; p <0.001), left ventricular outflow tract calcium volume (OR 2.85; 95% CI 1.44 to 5.63; p = 0.003), and annulus area (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.96; p = 0.002). When the device:annulus area ratio was <1, the rate of mild/moderate PVL was 53.1% (17 of 32). The rates of mild/moderate PVL with 0% to 5%, 5% to 10%, and >10% annular oversizing by area were 17.5% (11 of 63), 2.9% (2 of 70), and 3.2% (2 of 63), respectively. Significant independent predictors of PVL included device:annulus area ratio and left ventricular outflow tract calcium volume. When the prosthetic valve was oversized by ≥5%, the rate of mild or greater PVL was only 3%. In conclusion, the overall rates of PVL with the Lotus Valve are low and predominantly related to device/annulus areas and calcium; these findings have implications for optimal device sizing. Copyright

  11. Development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE Scales.

    PubMed

    Wirth, R J; Edwards, Michael C; Henderson, Michael; Henderson, Terri; Olivares, Giovanna; Houts, Carrie R

    2016-08-01

    The field of optometry has become increasingly interested in patient-reported outcomes, reflecting a common trend occurring across the spectrum of healthcare. This article reviews the development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE system designed to assess patient evaluations of contact lenses. CLUE was built using modern psychometric methods such as factor analysis and item response theory. The qualitative process through which relevant domains were identified is outlined as well as the process of creating initial item banks. Psychometric analyses were conducted on the initial item banks and refinements were made to the domains and items. Following this data-driven refinement phase, a second round of data was collected to further refine the items and obtain final item response theory item parameters estimates. Extensive qualitative work identified three key areas patients consider important when describing their experience with contact lenses. Based on item content and psychometric dimensionality assessments, the developing CLUE instruments were ultimately focused around four domains: comfort, vision, handling, and packaging. Item response theory parameters were estimated for the CLUE item banks (377 items), and the resulting scales were found to provide precise and reliable assignment of scores detailing users' subjective experiences with contact lenses. The CLUE family of instruments, as it currently exists, exhibits excellent psychometric properties.

  12. Ultrasonographic clues for diagnosis of spina bifida occulta in children

    PubMed Central

    Cinar, Hasibe Gokce; Uner, Cigdem; Ucan, Berna; Eksioglu, Ayse Secil; Pala, Melek; Yildiz, Yasemin Tasci; Cakmakci, Selma; Yikmaz, Hulya Seker

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to find out if spinal ultrasonography might have a predictive potential for detection of spina bifida occulta (SBO) in pediatric nocturnal enuresis patients. Methods A total of 108 children (58 females, 50 males) with a mean age of 8 (range, 6–15) years diagnosed for nocturnal enuresis in our tertiary care center were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Half of the cases (n=54, 50%) were found to have SBO, while the other half did not have SBO. After obtaining radiographs and computed tomography examinations of L5-S1 vertebra, patients were examined by spinal ultrasound regarding radiologic clues which may aid in the detection of SBO. Results The clues of “single and double echogeneous cap signs and the V-shaped tip of spine” were found useful for diagnosing SBO at levels of L5 and S1 in pediatric patients suspected for SBO. Receiver operating curve (ROC) curve analysis of CT and ultrasonographic clues for diagnosis of SBO on S1 level revealed that these clues yielded a comparable diagnostic accuracy to CT. Areas under curve for CT and studied ultrasonographic clues were are 0.667±0.053 and 0.907±0.032 (P<0.001) respectively. Conclusions Ultrasonography seems to be a useful and practical diagnostic tool for diagnosing spina bifida. However, to implement our ultrasonographic criteria in routine radiological practice, further studies in larger series are warranted. PMID:27942474

  13. Ultrasonographic clues for diagnosis of spina bifida occulta in children.

    PubMed

    Cakmakci, Emin; Cinar, Hasibe Gokce; Uner, Cigdem; Ucan, Berna; Eksioglu, Ayse Secil; Pala, Melek; Yildiz, Yasemin Tasci; Cakmakci, Selma; Yikmaz, Hulya Seker

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to find out if spinal ultrasonography might have a predictive potential for detection of spina bifida occulta (SBO) in pediatric nocturnal enuresis patients. A total of 108 children (58 females, 50 males) with a mean age of 8 (range, 6-15) years diagnosed for nocturnal enuresis in our tertiary care center were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Half of the cases (n=54, 50%) were found to have SBO, while the other half did not have SBO. After obtaining radiographs and computed tomography examinations of L5-S1 vertebra, patients were examined by spinal ultrasound regarding radiologic clues which may aid in the detection of SBO. The clues of "single and double echogeneous cap signs and the V-shaped tip of spine" were found useful for diagnosing SBO at levels of L5 and S1 in pediatric patients suspected for SBO. Receiver operating curve (ROC) curve analysis of CT and ultrasonographic clues for diagnosis of SBO on S1 level revealed that these clues yielded a comparable diagnostic accuracy to CT. Areas under curve for CT and studied ultrasonographic clues were are 0.667±0.053 and 0.907±0.032 (P<0.001) respectively. Ultrasonography seems to be a useful and practical diagnostic tool for diagnosing spina bifida. However, to implement our ultrasonographic criteria in routine radiological practice, further studies in larger series are warranted.

  14. Development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE Scales

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, R. J.; Edwards, Michael C.; Henderson, Michael; Henderson, Terri; Olivares, Giovanna; Houts, Carrie R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The field of optometry has become increasingly interested in patient-reported outcomes, reflecting a common trend occurring across the spectrum of healthcare. This article reviews the development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE system designed to assess patient evaluations of contact lenses. CLUE was built using modern psychometric methods such as factor analysis and item response theory. Methods The qualitative process through which relevant domains were identified is outlined as well as the process of creating initial item banks. Psychometric analyses were conducted on the initial item banks and refinements were made to the domains and items. Following this data-driven refinement phase, a second round of data was collected to further refine the items and obtain final item response theory item parameters estimates. Results Extensive qualitative work identified three key areas patients consider important when describing their experience with contact lenses. Based on item content and psychometric dimensionality assessments, the developing CLUE instruments were ultimately focused around four domains: comfort, vision, handling, and packaging. Item response theory parameters were estimated for the CLUE item banks (377 items), and the resulting scales were found to provide precise and reliable assignment of scores detailing users’ subjective experiences with contact lenses. Conclusions The CLUE family of instruments, as it currently exists, exhibits excellent psychometric properties. PMID:27383257

  15. The Cloud Detection and UV Monitoring Experiment (CLUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, L.; Loh, E.; Sokolsky, P.; Streitmatter, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a large-area, low-power instrument to perform CLoud detection and Ultraviolet monitoring, CLUE. CLUE will combine the W detection capabilities of the NIGHTGLOW payload, with an array of infrared sensors to perform cloud slicing measurements. Missions such as EUSO and OWL which seek to measure UHE cosmic-rays at 1W20 eV use the atmosphere as a fluorescence detector. CLUE will provide several important correlated measurements for these missions, including: monitoring the atmospheric W emissions &om 330 - 400 nm, determining the ambient cloud cover during those W measurements (with active LIDAR), measuring the optical depth of the clouds (with an array of narrow band-pass IR sensors), and correlating LIDAR and IR cloud cover measurements. This talk will describe the instrument as we envision it.

  16. The Cloud Detection and UV Monitoring Experiment (CLUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, L.; Loh, E.; Sokolsky, P.; Streitmatter, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a large-area, low-power instrument to perform CLoud detection and Ultraviolet monitoring, CLUE. CLUE will combine the W detection capabilities of the NIGHTGLOW payload, with an array of infrared sensors to perform cloud slicing measurements. Missions such as EUSO and OWL which seek to measure UHE cosmic-rays at 1W20 eV use the atmosphere as a fluorescence detector. CLUE will provide several important correlated measurements for these missions, including: monitoring the atmospheric W emissions &om 330 - 400 nm, determining the ambient cloud cover during those W measurements (with active LIDAR), measuring the optical depth of the clouds (with an array of narrow band-pass IR sensors), and correlating LIDAR and IR cloud cover measurements. This talk will describe the instrument as we envision it.

  17. VLA Study Offers Clue to Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the most distant known quasar have found a tantalizing clue that may answer a longstanding cosmic chicken-and-egg question: which came first, supermassive black holes or giant galaxies? VLA Image of Quasar VLA Image of Quasar J1148+5251 CREDIT: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) For years, astronomers have noted a direct relationship between the mass of a galaxy's central, supermassive black hole and the total mass of the "bulge" of stars at its core. The more massive the black hole, the more massive the bulge. Scientists have speculated extensively about whether the black hole or the stellar bulge formed first. Recently, some theories have suggested that the two may form simultaneously. However, the new VLA observations of a quasar and its host galaxy seen as they were when the Universe was less than a billion years old indicate that the young galaxy has a supermassive black hole but no massive bulge of stars. "We found a large amount of gas in this young galaxy, and, when we add the mass of this gas to that of the black hole, they add up to nearly the total mass of the entire system. The dynamics of the galaxy imply that there isn't much mass left to make up the size of stellar bulge predicted by current models," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, NM. The scientists studied a quasar dubbed J1148+5251, that, at more than 12.8 billion light-years, is the most distant quasar yet found. Discovered in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, J1148+5251 is a young galaxy with a bright quasar core seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. The Universe now is 13.7 billion years old. Aiming the VLA at J1148+4241 for about 60 hours, the researchers were able to determine the amount of molecular gas in the system. In addition, they were able to measure the motions of that gas

  18. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    An international team of astronomers has looked at something very big -- a distant galaxy -- to study the behavior of things very small -- atoms and molecules -- to gain vital clues about the fundamental nature of our entire Universe. The team used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test whether the laws of nature have changed over vast spans of cosmic time. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) "The fundamental constants of physics are expected to remain fixed across space and time; that's why they're called constants! Now, however, new theoretical models for the basic structure of matter indicate that they may change. We're testing these predictions." said Nissim Kanekar, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. So far, the scientists' measurements show no change in the constants. "We've put the most stringent limits yet on some changes in these constants, but that's not the end of the story," said Christopher Carilli, another NRAO astronomer. "This is the exciting frontier where astronomy meets particle physics," Carilli explained. The research can help answer fundamental questions about whether the basic components of matter are tiny particles or tiny vibrating strings, how many dimensions the Universe has, and the nature of "dark energy." The astronomers were looking for changes in two quantities: the ratio of the masses of the electron and the proton, and a number physicists call the fine structure constant, a combination of the electron charge, the speed of light and the Planck constant. These values, considered fundamental physical constants, once were "taken as time independent, with values given once and forever" said German particle physicist Christof Wetterich. However, Wetterich explained, "the viewpoint of modern particle theory has changed in recent years," with ideas such as

  19. Pomalidomide-dexamethasone in refractory multiple myeloma: Long-term follow-up of a multi-cohort phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ailawadhi, S; Mikhael, J R; LaPlant, B R; Laumann, K M; Kumar, S; Roy, V; Dingli, D; Bergsagel, P L; Buadi, F K; Rajkumar, S V; Fonseca, R; Gertz, M A; Kapoor, P; Sher, T; Hayman, S R; Stewart, A K; Dispenzieri, A; Kyle, R A; Gonsalves, W I; Reeder, C B; Lin, Y; Go, R S; Leung, N; Kourelis, T; Lust, J A; Russell, S J; Chanan-Khan, A A; Lacy, M Q

    2017-09-01

    Despite therapeutic advances, multiple myeloma remains incurable, with limited options for patients with refractory disease. We conducted a large, multi-cohort clinical trial testing various doses and treatment schedules of pomalidomide and dexamethasone (Pom/dex) in patients with refractory multiple myeloma. Overall 345 patients were enrolled to six cohorts based on number and type of prior lines of therapy, pomalidomide dose and schedule. Median prior lines of therapy were 3 with near universal prior exposure to proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulatory drugs. A confirmed response rate of 35% was noted for all cohorts (range 23-65%) with higher responses in cohorts with fewer prior lines of therapy. Median time to confirmed response was ⩽2 months and the longest PFS and OS seen in any cohort were 13.1 months and 47.9 months, respectively. Observed adverse reactions were as expected, with myelosuppression and fatigue being the most common hematologic and non-hematologic adverse events, respectively. Longer durations of treatment and response, higher response rates, and fewer adverse events were noted with the 2 mg pomalidomide dose. This is the longest follow up data for Pom/dex in refractory multiple myeloma and will help shape the real-world utilization of this regimen.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 01 September 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.258.

  20. Diagnostic clues and more from photographs.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Asao; Wate, Reika

    2007-02-01

    During over 50 years of the first author's career in neuropathology at Montefiore Medical Center in New York, we have come across certain interesting neuropathological findings. In this communication, some photographs showing macroscopic, microscopic and electron microscopic significant findings are selected to illustrate usefulness not only for the diagnosis but also for understanding of the nervous system. The six topics presented in this paper are: (i) unattached presynaptic terminals in cerebellar neuroblastoma; (ii) neurofibrillary tangle formation in the nucleus basalis of Meynert ipsilateral to a massive cerebral infarct; (iii) orderly arrangement of tumor cells in leptomeningeal carcinomatosis; (iv) interface between craniopharyngioma and brain tissue; (v) neurofibrillary tangles and Lewy bodies in a single neuron; and (vi) Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase positive Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions in anterior horn cells in familial motor neuron diseases. Analyses of these findings are presented for an educational purpose.

  1. Genital ulcer as a new clinical clue to PFAPA syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scattoni, R; Verrotti, A; Rinaldi, V E; Paglino, A; Carelli, A; D'Alonzo, R

    2015-04-01

    Vaginal ulcers can be associated with a number of different diseases. We describe two girls who presented genital ulcers as a persistent symptom of PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) syndrome. The possibility of considering this clinical manifestation as a clue for the diagnosis of PFAPA is discussed.

  2. Clue Insensitivity in Remote Associates Test Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven M.; Sifonis, Cynthia M.; Angello, Genna

    2012-01-01

    Does spreading activation from incidentally encountered hints cause incubation effects? We used Remote Associates Test (RAT) problems to examine effects of incidental clues on impasse resolution. When solution words were seen incidentally 3-sec before initially unsolved problems were retested, more problems were resolved (Experiment 1). When…

  3. Sex Behavior as a Clue to Mental Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrzanowski, Gerard

    1971-01-01

    While certain forms of sex behavior may serve as a clue to the existence of mental illness, care must be taken not to view such behavior outside the overall context of a person's particular life situation, since sex behavior is a reflection of the totality of human existence. (Author)

  4. Clue Insensitivity in Remote Associates Test Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven M.; Sifonis, Cynthia M.; Angello, Genna

    2012-01-01

    Does spreading activation from incidentally encountered hints cause incubation effects? We used Remote Associates Test (RAT) problems to examine effects of incidental clues on impasse resolution. When solution words were seen incidentally 3-sec before initially unsolved problems were retested, more problems were resolved (Experiment 1). When…

  5. Tinea imbricata as a clue to occult immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Maroñas Jiménez, Lidia; Monsálvez, Verónica; Gutiérrez García-Rodrigo, Carlota; Postigo Llorente, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Tinea imbricata (TI) is a geographically restricted dermatophytosis with distinctive clinical and immunologic features. We present a case of TI occurring in a native Brazilian child with previously undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection. Physicians should bear in mind that diagnosis of TI may be a clinical clue to potentially serious underlying immunodeficiency.

  6. Clue to the unification of gravitation and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wesson, P.S.

    1981-04-15

    Astrophysical data reveal the existence of a (broken) symmetry of the gravitational interaction implying the existence of a new dimensional constant papprox. =8 x 10/sup -16/ g/sup -1/ cm/sup 2/ sec/sup -1/. The existence of this constant provides a clue to the unification of gravitation and particle physics.

  7. The performance of SAPS II in a cohort of patients admitted to 99 Italian ICUs: results from GiViTI. Gruppo Italiano per la Valutazione degli interventi in Terapia Intensiva.

    PubMed

    Apolone, G; Bertolini, G; D'Amico, R; Iapichino, G; Cattaneo, A; De Salvo, G; Melotti, R M

    1996-12-01

    To assess the validity of SAPS II (new Simplified Acute Physiology Score) in a cohort of patients admitted to a large sample of Italian intensive care units (ICU). The ability of the SAPS II scoring system to predict the probability of hospital mortality was assessed with calibration and discrimination measures obtained using published coefficients. A new logistic regression equation was then developed and further formal calibration and discrimination measures were estimated for the customized model. From the 2202 consecutive patients recruited during a 1-month period in 99 ICUs, a total of 1393 patients were included in this validation study. When the parameters based on the standard model were applied, the expected probability of mortality did not fit those actually observed in the cohort (p < 0.001), although it showed satisfactory discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.80). Such lack of fit yields an overall under prediction of mortality (observed/expected ratio = 1.14) that reflects a uniform pattern across a preselected set of subgroups. Customization allowed new mortality estimates to be calculated, with satisfactory calibration (p = 0.82) and a more uniform pattern across subgroups. SAPS II maintained its validity in an independent sample of patients recruited in a large network of Italian ICUs only after appropriate adaptation (first-level customization). Whether the determinants of this relatively poor performance are related to differences in unmeasured case-mix, methods of application, or quality of care delivered is a matter for discussion that cannot be solved with the data presently available. However, these findings suggest that caution is warranted before implementing the standard SAPS II scoring system parameters outside formal research projects.

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST BURDEN, EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES - VOLUME I - FINAL REPORT AND VOLUME II - APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue f...

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST BURDEN, EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES - VOLUME I - FINAL REPORT AND VOLUME II - APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue f...

  10. Approximation of the breast height diameter distribution of two-cohort stands by mixture models II Goodness-of-fit tests

    Treesearch

    Rafal Podlaski; Francis .A. Roesch

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study are (1) to analyse the accuracy of the approximation of empirical distributions of diameter at breast height (dbh) using two-component mixtures of either the Weibull distribution or the gamma distribution in two−cohort stands, and (2) to discuss the procedure of choosing goodness−of−fit tests. The study plots were...

  11. Associations of ECP (eosinophil cationic protein)-gene polymorphisms to allergy, asthma, smoke habits and lung function in two Estonian and Swedish sub cohorts of the ECRHS II study.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Ulla-Britt; Håkansson, Lena Douhan; Jõgi, Rain; Janson, Christer; Venge, Per

    2010-06-09

    The Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a potent multifunctional protein. Three common polymorphisms are present in the ECP gene, which determine the function and production of the protein. The aim was to study the relationship of these ECP gene polymorphisms to signs and symptoms of allergy and asthma in a community based cohort (The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)). Swedish and Estonian subjects (n = 757) were selected from the larger cohort of the ECRHS II study cohort. The prevalence of the gene polymorphisms ECP434(G>C) (rs2073342), ECP562(G>C) (rs2233860) and ECP c.-38(A>C) (rs2233859) were analysed by DNA sequencing and/or real-time PCR and related to questionnaire-based information of allergy, asthma, smoking habits and to lung functions. Genotype prevalence showed both ethnic and gender differences. Close associations were found between the ECP434(G>C) and ECP562(G>C) genotypes and smoking habits, lung function and expression of allergic symptoms. Non-allergic asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of the ECP434GG genotype. The ECP c.-38(A>C) genotypes were independently associated to the subject being atopic. Our results show associations of symptoms of allergy and asthma to ECP-genotypes, but also to smoking habits. ECP may be involved in impairment of lung functions in disease. Gender, ethnicity and smoking habits are major confounders in the evaluations of genetic associations to allergy and asthma.

  12. MTHFR-1298 A>C (rs1801131) is a predictor of survival in two cohorts of stage II/III colorectal cancer patients treated with adjuvant fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy with or without oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Cecchin, E; Perrone, G; Nobili, S; Polesel, J; De Mattia, E; Zanusso, C; Petreni, P; Lonardi, S; Pella, N; D'Andrea, M; Errante, D; Rizzolio, F; Mazzei, T; Landini, I; Mini, E; Toffoli, G

    2015-06-01

    Adjuvant treatment based on fluoropyrimidines (FL) improves the prognosis of stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC). Validated predictive/prognostic biomarkers would spare therapy-related morbidity in patients with a good prognosis. We compared the impact of a set of 22 FL-related polymorphisms with the prognosis of two cohorts of CRC patients treated with adjuvant FL with or without OXA, including a total of 262 cases. 5,10-Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) MTHFR-1298 A>C (rs1801131) polymorphism had a concordant effect: MTHFR-rs1801131-1298CC genotype carriers had a worse disease free survival (DFS) in both the cohorts. In the pooled population MTHFR-rs1801131-1298CC carriers had also a worse overall survival. We computed a clinical score related to DFS including MTHFR-rs1801131, tumor stage, sex and tumor location, where rs1801131 is the most detrimental factor (hazard ratio=5.3, 95% confidence interval=2.2-12.9; P-value=0.0006). MTHFR-rs1801131 is a prognostic factor that could be used as an additional criteria for the choice of the proper adjuvant regimen in stage II/III colorectal cancer patients.

  13. Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy and the Risk of Vascular Complications in Patients With Type II Diabetes Mellitus: A Nationwide, Retrospective, Taiwanese-Registry, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ai-Lin; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Mou, Chih-Hsin; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), evidence of long-term benefit with adjunctive TCM treatment is limited. This study investigated whether the concurrent TCM treatment reduces the risk of vascular complications in T2DM patients by using a large population from National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD).We identified 33,457 adult patients with newly diagnosed T2DM using anti-diabetic agents from a random sample of one million beneficiaries in the NHIRD between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011. We recruited 1049 TCM users (received TCM over 30 days with a diagnosis of T2DM) and randomly selected 4092 controls as the non-TCM cohort at a ratio of 1:4 frequency-matched by age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and index year. We investigated the prescription pattern of TCM and conducted a Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke, chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and diabetic foot between the 2 cohorts.In the TCM cohort, the prescription pattern of TCM was different between insulin and noninsulin patients. The most common herbs were Dan-Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae) in noninsulin group and Da-Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) in insulin group. The most common formulae were Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in noninsulin group and Yu-Quan-Wan in insulin group. Although no significant reduction in the hazard ratio of CKD and diabetic foot, the incidence rate of stroke was 7.19 per 1000 person-years in the TCM cohort and 10.66 per 1000 person-years in the control cohort, respectively. After adjustment of age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and antidiabetes agent use (including sulfonylureas, α-glucosidase, metformin, meglitinide, thiazolidinediones, and insulin), TCM cohorts were found to have a 33% decreased risk of stroke (95% CI = 0.46-0.97; P < 0.05).This population-based retrospective study showed that the complementary TCM therapy might associate with

  14. Long-term mortality study of oil refinery workers: V. Comparison of workers hired before, during, and after World War II (1940-1945) with a discussion of the impact of study designs on cohort results.

    PubMed

    Wen, C P; Tsai, S P; Weiss, N S; Gibson, R L

    1986-01-01

    The mortality experience of a large refinery cohort (1937-1978) was examined by dividing it into three subcohorts according to hire dates: those hired before 1940, those hired during the period 1940-1945, and those hired after 1945. These three periods are approximately equivalent to before, during, and after World War II and span a total hiring period of more than 75 years. The results showed that a substantial portion of the cohort (3,330 or 27%) had been recruited during 1940-1945, and they contributed 980 or 28% of the total deaths. However, their mortality experience was quite different from the rest. A series of significant increases were seen among the external causes for accidents, suicide, and homicide. In terms of overall mortality and in contrast to the rest of the cohort, no "healthy worker effect" was seen (SMR = 1.00). They also showed increases in several types of cancer including cancers of the pancreas and prostate and leukemia. These unusual experiences cannot be explained either on the basis of their war-related deaths or on their period of employment (one-half were terminated within 1 year from date of hire), and data is insufficient to separate the role of hiring practices or their socioeconomic status. However, their life-styles were probably quite different judged from the fact that alcoholism-related deaths were increased as much as fivefold. Almost two-thirds of the total deaths occurred among 4,080 workers in the before 1940 subcohort. Further, the 5,117 workers of the after-1945 subcohort contributed only 5% of the total deaths. Thus, the results of the original refinery cohort (1937-1978) primarily reflect the experience of those employees hired before 1940. Given the same cohort method (historical prospective), cohort results vary widely according to different study designs, and this has implications for "generalizable" risk assessment or risk projections. A prospective study of new hires with 30 years of follow-up is rather inefficient

  15. Orthographic Analogies and Early Reading: Evidence from a Multiple Clue Word Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert S.; Deault, Louise; Daki, Julia; Aouad, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments using a variation of the clue word analogy task (Goswami, 1986) explored whether children can make orthographic analogies when given multiple clue words, beyond the known effects of purely phonological activation. In Experiment 1, 42 children (mean age 6 years and 8 months) were first taught 3 "clue" words (e.g.,…

  16. Prediction of outcome from intensive care: a prospective cohort study comparing Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and III prognostic systems in a United Kingdom intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Beck, D H; Taylor, B L; Millar, B; Smith, G B

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of two prognostic systems to predict hospital mortality in adult intensive care patients. Prospective cohort study. A mixed medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) in the United Kingdom. A total of 1,144 patients consecutively admitted to the study. None. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and III prognostic systems were applied to assess probabilities of hospital mortality, which were compared with the actual outcome. The overall goodness-of-fit of both models was assessed. Hospital death rates were higher than those predicted by each system. Risk estimates showed a strong positive correlation between both systems (nonsurvivors r2 = 0.756, p < .0001; survivors r2 = 0.787, p < .0001). Calibration of APACHE II (chi 2 = 98.6, Lemeshow-Hosmer) was superior to that of APACHE III (chi 2 = 129.8, Lemeshow-Hosmer). The total correct classification rate of APACHE III was greater for all decision criteria applied; the best overall total correct classification rate was 80.6% for APACHE III and 77.9% for APACHE II (both for a decision criterion of 40%). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.806 and 0.847 for APACHE II and III, respectively, confirming the better discrimination of APACHE III. When patients were classified by diagnostic categories, risk predictions did not fit uniformly across the spectrum of disease groups. For both models, mortality ratios were highest for trauma patients and lowest for the group with respiratory disease. APACHE II predictions for patients with gastrointestinal disease were significantly better. Risk estimates for surgical admissions were superior with APACHE II (MR = 1.27) compared with APACHE III (MR = 1.56), but were similar for medical patients (1.22 vs. 1.28 for APACHE II and III, respectively). Bias induced by factors reflecting the clinical practice in an individual ICU (e.g., admission criteria, treatment before admission) may have considerable impact

  17. Angiotensin II Promotes the Development of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetes Patients via Regulating the T Cells Activities: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Zhanpu; Sun, Xiaochuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Specific T cell phenotype has been reported to potentially contribute to the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced several vascular disorders. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is intimately associated with cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between T cell phenotypes and Ang II in T2DM patients combined with carotid atherosclerosis (CA). Material/Methods This study was performed on 50 patients with T2DM in our hospital. Based on the presence of CA, they were divided into CA group (presence of CA, n=30) or T2DM group (absence of CA, n=20). Additionally, 10 healthy participants were selected as controls. Basic characteristics of all participants were collected and recorded. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from patients and controls with or without Ang II and Ang II receptor blocker (ARB) treatment were used to detect Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell proportions, mRNA levels of T-bet, GATA3, and RORγt as well as the expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 by flow cytometry, ELISA, and Real-Time PCR. Results Ang II levels were notably higher in patients in the CA group than those in the T2DM and control group (p<0.05). Th1 and Th17 positive cells, mRNA levels of T-bet and RORγt as well as the expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were significantly increased in the CA group compared with the T2DM group and control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the activities of T cells and related cytokines were significantly increased of healthy controls after Ang II treatment (p<0.05), while these changes were notably weakened by ARB treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions Ang II promotes the development of CA in T2DM patients by regulating T cells activities. PMID:27782101

  18. Incidence of and temporal relationships between HIV, herpes simplex II virus, and syphilis among men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand: an observational cohort.

    PubMed

    Thienkrua, Warunee; Todd, Catherine S; Chonwattana, Wannee; Wimonsate, Wipas; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Varangrat, Anchalee; Chitwarakorn, Anupong; van Griensven, Frits; Holtz, Timothy H

    2016-07-22

    High HIV incidence has been detected among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Thailand, but the relationship and timing of HIV, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis is unknown. This analysis measures incidence, temporal relationships, and risk factors for HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis among at-risk MSM in the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study. Between April 2006 and December 2010, 960 men negative for HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis at entry enrolled and contributed 12-60 months of follow-up data. Behavioral questionnaires were administered at each visit; testing for HIV antibody was performed at each visit, while testing for syphilis and HSV-2 were performed at 12 month intervals. We calculated HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis incidence, assessed risk factors with complementary log-log regression, and among co-infected men, measured temporal relationships between infections with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and paired t-test. The total number of infections and incidence density for HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis were 159 infections and 4.7 cases/100 PY (95 % Confidence Interval (CI): 4.0-5.4), 128 infections and 4.5/100 PY (95 % CI: 3.9-5.5), and 65 infections and 1.9/100 PY (95 % CI: 1.5-2.5), respectively. Among men acquiring >1 infection during the cohort period, mean time to HIV and HSV-2 infection was similar (2.5 vs. 2.9 years; p = 0.24), while syphilis occurred significantly later following HIV (4.0 vs. 2.8 years, p < 0.01) or HSV-2 (3.8 vs. 2.8 years, p = 0.04) infection. The strongest independent predictor of any single infection in adjusted analysis was acquisition of another infection; risk of syphilis (Adjusted Hazards Ratio (AHR) = 3.49, 95 % CI: 1.89-6.42) or HIV (AHR = 2.26, 95 % CI: 1.47-3.48) acquisition during the cohort was significantly higher among men with incident HSV-2 infection. No single independent behavioral factor was common to HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis acquisition. HIV and HSV-2 incidence was high among this Thai MSM cohort

  19. Eribulin mesylate (halichondrin B Analog E7389) in platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer: a two-cohort, phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Martee L.; Kravetz, Sara; Jia, Xiaoyu; Iasonos, Alexia; Tew, William; Pereira, Lauren; Sabbatini, Paul; Whalen, Christin; Aghajanian, Carol A.; Zarwan, Corinne; Berlin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Background Eribulin mesylate is a tubulin inhibitor with activity superior to paclitaxel in NIH:OVCAR-3 human epithelial ovarian cancer xenograft models. We sought to assess the efficacy of eribulin in platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods Patients with recurrent measurable epithelial ovarian cancer, ≤2 prior cytotoxic regimens, and adequate organ function were enrolled into two separate cohorts: 1) Platinum resistant (progression-free interval from last platinum-based therapy <6 months); and 2) Platinum sensitive (progression-free interval from last platinum-based therapy ≥6 months). Treatment: Eribulin 1.4 mg/m2 over 15 minutes by vein on days 1 and 8, every 21 days. Efficacy was determined by objective response by computed tomography. Results Platinum-resistant cohort: Thirty-seven patients enrolled. Thirty-six patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. Two patients achieved partial response (PR, 5.5%). Sixteen (44%) had a best response of stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval, 1.4–2.8 months). Platinum-sensitive cohort: Thirty-seven patients enrolled, and all were evaluable for response. Seven patients achieved partial response (PR, 19%). Median progression-free survival was 4.1 months (95% confidence interval, 2.8–5.8 months). The major toxicity was grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (42% in platinum-resistant patients; 54% in platinum-sensitive patients). Conclusions Eribulin achieved objective response in 5.5% of women with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer and in 19% of women with platinum-sensitive disease. Median progression-free survival was 1.8 months in the platinum-resistant group and 4.1 months in the platinum-sensitive group. PMID:21935916

  20. Land use scenarios simulation based on the CLUE-S model of the Lijiang River Basin in Guilin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Qingwen; Liu, Guang; Li, Lei; He, Chengxin; Huang, Yuqing; Yao, Yuefeng

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between government policy and land use change is very important, which can provide important information for understanding of land use change and for helping in development of sustainable policy. Returning Farmland to Forest Program is simulated by the CLUE-S model. Land use maps in 1993, 2006, 2010 and 2015 in Lijiang River Basin are interpreted based on remote sensing change from 1993 to 2025 under two scenarios (i.e., Natural Growth Scenarios, Government Intervention Scenarios). In the “Natural Growth Scenarios”, the area of construction land and cultivated land are increased, the others are decreased. In the “Government Intervention Scenarios”, the area of construction land, woodland, cultivated land, and water are increased, the others is in declined. The compared results of two scenarios provide a scientific support for the government policy in the Lijiang River Basin.

  1. Long-term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic vs open surgery for stages II and III rectal cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen-Xu; Zhao, Li-Ying; Lin, Tian; Liu, Hao; Deng, Hai-Jun; Zhu, Heng-Liang; Yan, Jun; Li, Guo-Xin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the 5-year survival after laparoscopic surgery vs open surgery for stages II and III rectal cancer. METHODS: This study enrolled 406 consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for stages II and III rectal cancer between January 2000 and December 2009 [laparoscopic rectal resection (LRR), n = 152; open rectal resection (ORR), n = 254]. Clinical characteristics, operative outcomes, pathological outcomes, postoperative recovery, and 5-year survival outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Most of the clinical characteristics were similar except age (59 years vs 55 years, P = 0.033) between the LRR group and ORR group. The proportion of anterior resection was higher in the LRR group than that in the ORR group (81.6% vs 66.1%, P = 0.001). The LRR group had less estimated blood loss (50 mL vs 200 mL, P < 0.001) and a lower rate of blood transfusion (4.6% vs 11.8%, P = 0.019) compared to the ORR group. The pathological outcomes of the two groups were comparable. The LRR group was associated with faster recovery of bowel function (2.8 d vs 3.7 d, P < 0.001) and shorter postoperative hospital stay (11.7 d vs 13.7 d, P < 0.001). The median follow-up time was 63 mo in the LRR group and 65 mo in the ORR group. As for the survival outcomes, the 5-year local recurrence rate (16.0% vs 16.4%, P = 0.753), 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate (63.0% vs 63.1%, P = 0.589), and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate (68.1% vs 63.5%, P = 0.682) were comparable between the LRR group and the ORR group. Stage by stage, there were also no statistical differences between the LRR group and the ORR group in terms of the 5-year local recurrence rate (stage II: 6.3% vs 8.7%, P = 0.623; stage III: 26.4% vs 23.2%, P = 0.747), 5-year DFS rate (stage II: 77.5% vs 77.6%, P = 0.462; stage III: 46.5% vs 50.9%, P = 0.738), and 5-year OS rate (stage II: 81.4% vs 74.3%, P = 0.242; stage III: 53.9% vs 54.1%, P = 0.459). CONCLUSION: LRR for stages II and III rectal

  2. Patterns of hormone replacement therapy in a population-based cohort of postmenopausal German women. Changes after HERS II and WHI.

    PubMed

    Clanget, C; Hinke, V; Lange, S; Fricke, R; Botko, R; Pfeilschifter, J

    2005-10-01

    In July 2002, data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial provided strong evidence for an increased risk of cardiovascular disease with use of combined estrogen plus progestogen in postmenopausal women. These unexpected results triggered a large and ongoing discussion about the role of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We investigated the frequency of HRT before and after the publications of the WHI trial and the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study II (HERS II) in a population-based random sample of German women aged 45 - 65 years. A total of 8380 women completed a questionnaire on menopausal status, hysterectomy and HRT. 75 % were postmenopausal. Mean age was 56.1 years; mean age of natural menopause 49.9 years; mean duration of postmenopause was 11 years; 27 % of the women had undergone hysterectomy. The percentage of current HRT users dropped by 16 % (35.4 % to 29.8 %, p = 0.004), past users increased from 19.8 % to 23.5 % (p = 0.03). Among current HRT users, the share of combined conjugated estrogen/progestogen decreased by 41 % (p = 0.008). We observed a decreased prevalence of HRT among German women 7 months after publication of the HERS II and WHI results. The decline was, however less pronounced than reported from other countries. The use of conjugated estrogen/gestagen combinations declined disproportionately compared to other formulations.

  3. Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Plus Metronidazole May Not Prevent the Deterioration of Necrotizing Enterocolitis From Stage II to III in Full-term and Near-term Infants: A Propensity Score-matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li-Juan; Li, Xin; Yang, Kai-Di; Lu, Jiang-Yi; Li, Lu-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common and frequently dangerous neonatal gastrointestinal disease. Studies have shown broad-spectrum antibiotics plus anaerobic antimicrobial therapy did not prevent the deterioration of NEC among very low birth preterm infants. However, few studies about this therapy which focused on full-term and near-term infant with NEC has been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotic plus metronidazole in preventing the deterioration of NEC from stage II to III in full-term and near-term infants.A retrospective cohort study based on the propensity score (PS) 1:1 matching was performed among the full-term and near-term infants with NEC (Bell stage ≥II). All infants who received broad-spectrum antibiotics were divided into 2 groups: group with metronidazole treatment (metronidazole was used ≥4 days continuously, 15 mg/kg/day) and group without metronidazole treatment. The depraved rates of stage II NEC between the 2 groups were compared. Meanwhile, the risk factors associated with the deterioration of stage II NEC were analyzed by case-control study in the PS-matched cases.A total of 229 infants met the inclusion criteria. Before PS-matching, we found the deterioration of NEC rate in the group with metronidazole treatment was higher than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (18.1% [28/155] vs 8.1% [6/74]; P = 0.048). After PS-matching, 73 pairs were matched, and the depraved rate of NEC in the group with metronidazole treatment was not lower than that in the group without metronidazole treatment (15.1% vs 8.2%; P = 0.2). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that sepsis after NEC (odds ratio [OR] 3.748, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.171-11.998, P = 0.03), the need to use transfusion of blood products after diagnosis of NEC (OR 8.003, 95% CI 2.365-27.087, P = 0.00), and the need of longer time for nasogastric suction were risk factors for stage II NEC progressing to

  4. Shared HLA Class I and II Alleles and Clonally Restricted Public and Private Brain-Infiltrating αβ T Cells in a Cohort of Rasmussen Encephalitis Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dandekar, Sugandha; Wijesuriya, Hemani; Geiger, Tim; Hamm, David; Mathern, Gary W.; Owens, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare pediatric neuroinflammatory disease characterized by intractable seizures and unilateral brain atrophy. T cell infiltrates in affected brain tissue and the presence of circulating autoantibodies in some RE patients have indicated that RE may be an autoimmune disease. The strongest genetic links to autoimmunity reside in the MHC locus, therefore, we determined the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles carried by a cohort of 24 RE surgery cases by targeted in-depth genomic sequencing. Compared with a reference population the allelic frequency of three alleles, DQA1*04:01:01, DQB1*04:02:01, and HLA-C*07:02:01:01 indicated that they might confer susceptibility to the disease. It has been reported that HLA-C*07:02 is a risk factor for Graves disease. Further, eight patients in the study cohort carried HLA-A*03:01:01:01, which has been linked to susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Four patients carried a combination of three HLA class II alleles that has been linked to type 1 diabetes (DQA1*05:01:01:01~DQB1*02:01:01~DRB1*03:01:01:01), and five patients carried a combination of HLA class II alleles that has been linked to the risk of contracting multiple sclerosis (DQA1*01:02:01:01, DQB1*06:02:01, DRB1*15:01:01:01). We also analyzed the diversity of αβ T cells in brain and blood specimens from 14 of these RE surgery cases by sequencing the third complementarity regions (CDR3s) of rearranged T cell receptor β genes. A total of 31 unique CDR3 sequences accounted for the top 5% of all CDR3 sequences in the 14 brain specimens. Thirteen of these sequences were found in sequencing data from healthy blood donors; the remaining 18 sequences were patient specific. These observations provide evidence for the clonal expansion of public and private T cells in the brain, which might be influenced by the RE patient’s HLA haplotype. PMID:28066418

  5. 'Hints' in the horn: diagnostic clues in the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, José Carlos; Veraitch, Ophelia; Gianotti, Raffaele; Ferrara, Gerardo; Tomasini, Carlo F; Singh, Manuraj; Zalaudek, Iris; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    The stratum corneum or horny layer is the uppermost layer of the epidermis, and is mainly responsible for the skin's barrier function. In spite of its complexity at the ultrastructural and molecular level, the features accessible to visualization on conventional histology are relatively limited. Nevertheless, knowledge of subtle clues that one may observe in the stratum corneum can prove useful in a wide range of situations in dermatopathology. We herein review a selection of common and rare entities in which the horny layer may reveal significantly important hints for the diagnosis. These clues include parakeratosis and its different patterns (focal, confluent, alternating, associated with spongiosis, epidermal hyperplasia or lichenoid changes), subcorneal acantholysis, infectious organisms in the stratum corneum (including fungal, bacterial and parasitic), thickening or thinning of the stratum corneum and the presence of different kinds of pigment. Even when normal, the horny layer may prove to be useful when seen in association with severe epidermal damage, a combination of features testifying to the acute nature of the underlying pathological process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Some clues in the investigation of the FFLO phase in superconductors.

    PubMed

    Dey, Poulumi; Basu, Saurabh; Kishore, R

    2009-09-02

    The Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovichinnikov (FFLO) phase is investigated in a two-dimensional superconductor described by a negative- U Hubbard model in the presence of a magnetic field. The parameter space defined by interparticle attraction and band filling is investigated and a search is performed for the FFLO phase therein, so as to provide clues to experiments designed to confirm the existence of a nonuniform spatial nature of the superconducting state. Our results convincingly demonstrate periodic modulation of the local pairing gap in real space. Heavy fermions, considered as a probable candidate that hosts the FFLO phase, are found in a metallurgically clean state and shows extreme type-II behaviour. In our calculations both these conditions are satisfied for a certain magnetic field range and the range expands for large interacting strengths and particle densities. The cleanliness condition is met as the coherence length becomes very small (compared to the mean free path) and the extreme type-II behaviour shows up via a large Ginzburg-Landau parameter.

  7. Psychological distress and incidence of type 2 diabetes in high-risk and low-risk populations: the Whitehall II Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane E; Tabak, Adam G; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Vahtera, Jussi; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether psychological distress predicts incident type 2 diabetes and if the association differs between populations at higher or lower risk of type 2 diabetes. This was a prospective cohort of 5,932 diabetes-free adults (4,189 men and 1,743 women, mean age 54.6 years) with three 5-year data cycles (1991-2009): a total of 13,207 person-observations. Participants were classified into four groups according to their prediabetes status and Framingham Offspring Type 2 Diabetes Risk Score: normoglycemia with a risk score of 0-9, normoglycemia with a risk score of 10-19, prediabetes with a risk score of 10-19, and prediabetes with a risk score of >19. Psychological distress was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire. Incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained by 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, doctor diagnosis, or use of antihyperglycemic medication at the 5-year follow-up for each data cycle. Adjustments were made for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, antidepressant use, smoking, and physical activity. Among participants with normoglycemia and among those with prediabetes combined with a low risk score, psychological distress did not predict type 2 diabetes. Diabetes incidence in these groups varied between 1.6 and 15.6%. Among participants with prediabetes and a high risk score, 40.9% of those with psychological distress compared with 28.5% of those without distress developed diabetes during the follow-up. The corresponding adjusted odds ratio for psychological distress was 2.07 (95% CI 1.19-3.62). These data suggest that psychological distress is associated with an accelerated progression to manifest diabetes in a subpopulation with advanced prediabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Psychological Distress and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in High-Risk and Low-Risk Populations: The Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrie, Jane E.; Tabak, Adam G.; Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Vahtera, Jussi; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined whether psychological distress predicts incident type 2 diabetes and if the association differs between populations at higher or lower risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective cohort of 5,932 diabetes-free adults (4,189 men and 1,743 women, mean age 54.6 years) with three 5-year data cycles (1991–2009): a total of 13,207 person-observations. Participants were classified into four groups according to their prediabetes status and Framingham Offspring Type 2 Diabetes Risk Score: normoglycemia with a risk score of 0–9, normoglycemia with a risk score of 10–19, prediabetes with a risk score of 10–19, and prediabetes with a risk score of >19. Psychological distress was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire. Incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained by 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, doctor diagnosis, or use of antihyperglycemic medication at the 5-year follow-up for each data cycle. Adjustments were made for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, antidepressant use, smoking, and physical activity. RESULTS Among participants with normoglycemia and among those with prediabetes combined with a low risk score, psychological distress did not predict type 2 diabetes. Diabetes incidence in these groups varied between 1.6 and 15.6%. Among participants with prediabetes and a high risk score, 40.9% of those with psychological distress compared with 28.5% of those without distress developed diabetes during the follow-up. The corresponding adjusted odds ratio for psychological distress was 2.07 (95% CI 1.19–3.62). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that psychological distress is associated with an accelerated progression to manifest diabetes in a subpopulation with advanced prediabetes. PMID:24784831

  9. Use of β-Blockers, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers, and Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Gitte Vrelits; Ganz, Patricia A.; Cole, Steven W.; Pedersen, Lars A.; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P.; Peter Garne, Jens; Christiansen, Peer M.; Lash, Timothy L.; Ahern, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To estimate associations between use of β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and breast cancer recurrence in a large Danish cohort. Patients and Methods We enrolled 18,733 women diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer between 1996 and 2003. Patient, treatment, and 10-year recurrence data were ascertained from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group registry. Prescription and medical histories were ascertained by linkage to the National Prescription Registry and Registry of Patients, respectively. β-Blocker exposure was defined in aggregate and according to solubility, receptor selectivity, and individual drugs. ACE inhibitor and ARB exposures were defined in aggregate. Recurrence associations were estimated with multivariable Cox regression models in which time-varying drug exposures were lagged by 1 year. Results Compared with never users, users of any β-blocker had a lower recurrence hazard in unadjusted models (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.0) and a slightly higher recurrence hazard in adjusted models (adjusted HR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.5). Associations were similar for exposures defined by receptor selectivity and solubility. Although most individual β-blockers showed no association with recurrence, metoprolol and sotalol were associated with increased recurrence rates (adjusted metoprolol HR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8; adjusted sotalol HR = 2.0, 95% CI, 0.99 to 4.0). ACE inhibitors were associated with a slightly increased recurrence hazard, whereas ARBs were not associated with recurrence (adjusted ACE inhibitor HR = 1.2, 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.4; adjusted ARBs HR = 1.1, 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.3). Conclusion Our data do not support the hypothesis that β-blockers attenuate breast cancer recurrence risk. PMID:23650417

  10. Simulating land-use changes by incorporating spatial autocorrelation and self-organization in CLUE-S modeling: a case study in Zengcheng District, Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Zhixiong; Wu, Hao; Li, Shiyun

    2017-04-01

    The Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent (CLUE-S), which is a widely used model for land-use simulation, utilizes logistic regression to estimate the relationships between land use and its drivers, and thus, predict land-use change probabilities. However, logistic regression disregards possible spatial autocorrelation and self-organization in land-use data. Autologistic regression can depict spatial autocorrelation but cannot address self-organization, while logistic regression by considering only self-organization (NElogistic regression) fails to capture spatial autocorrelation. Therefore, this study developed a regression (NE-autologistic regression) method, which incorporated both spatial autocorrelation and self-organization, to improve CLUE-S. The Zengcheng District of Guangzhou, China was selected as the study area. The land-use data of 2001, 2005, and 2009, as well as 10 typical driving factors, were used to validate the proposed regression method and the improved CLUE-S model. Then, three future land-use scenarios in 2020: the natural growth scenario, ecological protection scenario, and economic development scenario, were simulated using the improved model. Validation results showed that NE-autologistic regression performed better than logistic regression, autologistic regression, and NE-logistic regression in predicting land-use change probabilities. The spatial allocation accuracy and kappa values of NE-autologistic-CLUE-S were higher than those of logistic-CLUE-S, autologistic-CLUE-S, and NE-logistic-CLUE-S for the simulations of two periods, 2001-2009 and 2005-2009, which proved that the improved CLUE-S model achieved the best simulation and was thereby effective to a certain extent. The scenario simulation results indicated that under all three scenarios, traffic land and residential/industrial land would increase, whereas arable land and unused land would decrease during 2009-2020. Apparent differences also existed in the

  11. Changes in Pulmonary Function After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy and After Surgery for Stage I and II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, a Description of Two Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Leonie; El Sharouni, Sherif Y; Hofman, Frederik N; Van Putte, Bart P; Tromp, Ellen; Van Vulpen, Marco; Kastelijn, Elisabeth A; Schramel, Franz M N H

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate changes in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) at different follow-up durations after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and surgery in stage I and II non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Differences between pre-treatment- and follow-up PFTs were analyzed in 93 patients treated with surgery and 30 patients treated with SBRT for NSCLC. Follow-up durations were categorized into: early (0-9 months), middle (10-21 months) and late (≥22 months). Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze differences between pre-treatment and follow-up PFTs. Forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide corrected for the actual hemoglobin level significantly diminished after surgery for all follow-up durations: 11-17% of predicted values. After SBRT, PFTs remained stable, but a declining trend of 6% (p=0.1) was observed after 22 months. SBRT might lead to less treatment-related toxicity measured by PFTs than surgery in both the short and long term. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. No strong correlations between serum cytokine levels, CMV serostatus and hand-grip strength in older subjects in the Berlin BASE-II cohort.

    PubMed

    Goldeck, David; Pawelec, Graham; Norman, Kristina; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Oettinger, Lilly; Haehnel, Karin; Demuth, Ilja

    2016-02-01

    Hand-grip strength is strongly correlated with measures of muscle mass and can be taken to predict morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hand-grip strength and other markers associated with immune ageing, such as Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, leukocyte telomere length and serum levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in the elderly. We have assessed grip strength with the Smedley Dynamometer in younger (22-37 years) and older (60-85 years) men and women in a sample of people living in Berlin (the BASE-II study). Serum cytokine levels were determined by flow-cytometry, CMV serostatus via ELISA and leukocyte telomere length by quantitative PCR. IL-1β levels tended to be negatively associated with grip strength, but we did not find a significant association with IL-6 levels. CMV-seropositivity was not associated with higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6 or TNF, nor with weaker grip strength in men or women at any age. A putative general measure of organismal ageing, overall leukocyte telomere length, was also found not to be associated with lower grip strength in the elderly. Hand-grip strength remains an important biomarker independent of CMV infection or shorter telomere lengths, and poorly reflected in peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, all of which have been associated in some studies with frailty and mortality.

  13. Cohort Profile Update: The China Jintan Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Zehang; Raine, Adrian; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ai, Yuexian; Zhou, Guoping; Yan, Chonghuai; Leung, Patrick W; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The China Jintan Child Cohort study began in 2004 with 1656 pre-school participants and a research focus on studying the impact of environmental exposures, such as lead, on children’s neurobehavioural outcomes. This population cohort now includes around 1000 of the original participants, who have been assessed three times over a period of 10 years. Since the original IJE cohort profile publication in 2010, participants have experienced a critical developmental transition from pre-school to school age and then adolescence. The study has also witnessed an increase in breadth and depth of data collection from the original aim of risk assessment. This cohort has added new directions to investigate the mechanisms and protective factors for the relationship between early health factors and child physical and mental health outcomes, with an emphasis on neurobehavioural consequences. The study now encompasses 11 domains, composed of repeated measures of the original variables and new domains of biomarkers, sleep, psychophysiology, neurocognition, personality, peer relationship, mindfulness and family dynamics. Depth of evaluation has increased from parent/teacher report to self/peer report and intergenerational family report. Consequently, the cohort has additional directions to include: (i) classmates of the original cohort participants for peer relationship assessment; and (ii) parental and grandparental measures to assess personality and dynamics within families. We welcome interest in our study and ask investigators to contact the corresponding author for additional information on data acquisition. PMID:26323725

  14. Enthesitis: The clue to the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis?

    PubMed

    Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2015-12-01

    The term "spondyloarthritis" designates a group of conditions whose shared characteristic is inflammation at the interface between the bone and either the tendons and ligaments or the joint capsule. This interface, known as the enthesis, can be the site of ossification in spondyloarthritis. The advent of high-performance imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging has rekindled interest in the enthesis by providing new insights into the sequence that leads to entheseal ossification. These techniques have established initial inflammation and fatty metaplasia as key events that precede ossification. The pathophysiological mechanisms that trigger the initial inflammation probably involve multiple factors such as mechanical stress and the presence of resident cells responsive to interleukin-23 and capable of releasing proinflammatory cytokines. Research into the triggers of entheseal inflammation and ossification may thus provide the clue to the pathophysiology of spondyloarthritis.

  15. Observations give us CLUES to Cosmic Flows' origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorce, Jenny; Courtois, H.; Gottloeber, S.; Hoffman, Y.; Pomarede, D.; Tully, R. B.; Flows, Cosmic; CLUES

    2014-01-01

    In an era where the wealth of telescope-data and the development of computer superclusters keep increasing, the knowledge of Large Scale Structures' formation and evolution constitutes a tremendous challenge. Within this context the project Cosmic Flows has recently produced a catalog of peculiar velocities up to 150 Mpc. These velocities, obtained from direct distance measurements, are ideal markers of the underlying gravitational potential. They form a fantastic input to perform constrained simulations of the Local Universe within the CLUES project. A new method has recently been elaborated to achieve these simulations which prove to be excellent replicas of our neighborhood. The Wiener-Filter, the Reverse Zel'dovich Approximation and the Constrained Realization techniques are combined to build Initial Conditions. The resulting second generation of constrained simulations presents us the formidable history of the Great Attractor's and nearby supercluster's formation.

  16. Red ochre and shells: clues to human evolution.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-10-01

    The 200-kiloannus (ka) use of red ochre and shells by humans is interpreted as a simple clue of symbolic thinking. Integration of multiple lines of evidence supports the opinion that the use of red ochre and shells might have had direct significance for human evolution. Use of seafood and red ochre supplies docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), possibly iron, and other essential nutrients for brain development and reproductive health, improving human fitness and triggering brain growth. The fitness advantages to humans of using shells, and possibly red ochre, might have selected for artistic and symbolic expression, and, thereby, lead to social cohesion. Current global health syndromes show that an adequate supply of seafood and iron continues to play a fundamental role in human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Chemical submission, epidemiology and some clues for the diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Landeira, Angelines; Quintela-Jorge, Oscar; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2008-12-06

    The use of chemical substances to control people is not a new event. Indeed, it has been done for centuries. This practice has recenttly acquired a new dimension because of its association with sexual assaults and other type of crimes. The frequency of the association of the use of chemical substances with sexual assaults is behind the term SQ (drug facilitated sexual assauit). The Spaniish term foir this practice, Sumisión Química, comes from the French one, Soumissión Chimique, and has a wide meaning. In this review, the epidemiology of SQ is revised and an analysis of its main involved elements, namely the chemical, the victim and the assailant, is done. Chief clinical signs and clues for the toxicological doiagnosis are also appproached.

  18. Prehistoric Packrats Piled Up Clues to Climate Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and Northern Arizona University studying climate change in the Southwestern United States are getting a helping hand?or would that be paw??from prehistoric packrats. By hoarding parts of animals and plants, including seeds and leaves, in garbage piles or ?middens,? these bushy-tailed rodents preserved crucial ecological and environmental information about the past. From these middens, scientists are able to reconstruct plant communities and natural systems from as long ago as 50,000 years. The contents of middens allow scientists to understand how ecosystems responded to rapid, large-scale climate changes of the past. The insights gained from midden research could offer clues to future changes driven by rapid climate shifts.

  19. Associations of food and nutrient intakes with serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels among middle-aged Japanese: the Japan Collaborative Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ito, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Tajima, Kazuo; Nakachi, Kei; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-12-01

    No observational study has examined whether cancer-related biomarkers are associated with diet in Japanese. We therefore assessed sex-specific food and nutrient intakes according to serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels, under a cross-sectional study of 10,350 control subjects who answered the food frequency questionnaire in the first-wave nested case-control study within the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. For both men and women, IGF-I levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, fruits, green tea, calcium and vitamin C. IGF-II levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and miso soup, and lower intakes of rice, coffee and carbohydrate. IGFBP-3 levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and vitamin C, and lower intakes of rice, energy, protein, carbohydrate, sodium and polyunsaturated fatty acids. TGF-b1 levels were associated with lower intakes of coffee intakes, and higher intakes of miso soup and sodium. Total SOD activity levels were associated with lower intakes of most nutrients other than energy, carbohydrate, iron, copper, manganese, retinol equivalents, vitamin A, B2, B12, niacin, folic acid, vitamin C and fish fat. sFas levels were associated with higher intakes of manganese and folic acids. The results of the present study should help to account for findings on those biomarkers regarding risks of cancer and other lifestyle-related diseases in terms of dietary confounding as causality.

  20. Misleading Contexts: The Construction of Ambiguity in the Cryptic Crossword Clue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, John

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the intentional creation of ambiguity by composers of cryptic crossword puzzles. Taking a research question of "what makes a cryptic clue more difficult to solve than a simple crossword clue," it compares a sample of cryptic and quick crosswords from "The Guardian" and attempts to isolate the linguistic…

  1. Cohort Shepherd II: Verifying Cohort Constraints from Hospital Visits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    staging or moni- toring of cancer. 112 Female patients with breast cancer with mastectomies during admission. 119 Adult patients who presented to the...resonance imaging, stag- ing, monitoring, and cancer ; query 112 contains breast cancer, mastectomies ; and query 119 contains anion gap acidosis and insulin

  2. Long-term effects on adult attachment in German occupation children born after World War II in comparison with a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German general population.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2016-10-28

    Children born of war are a phenomenon of every conflict. At the end of World War II and thereafter, approximately 400,000 children were fathered by foreign soldiers and born to local women in Germany. Quantitative research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as German occupation child (GOC) has been missing so far. This study examines adult attachment and its association with current depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Adult Attachment Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire. Data were compared to a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German population (BCMS; N = 786). GOC differ in both attachment dimensions (less comfortable with closeness/intimacy, lowered ability to depend on others) and adult attachment (more dismissive and fearful) compared to BCMS. Insecure adult attachment is associated with current depression. GOC grew up under difficult circumstances (e.g. poverty, adverse events, and stigmatization). Even decades later they display more insecure attachment in current relationships. Findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their developmental conditions on attachment and current mental health.

  3. Insights into the need for permanent pacemaker following implantation of the repositionable LOTUS valve for transcatheter aortic valve replacement in 250 patients: results from the REPRISE II trial with extended cohort.

    PubMed

    Dumonteil, Nicolas; Meredith, Ian T; Blackman, Daniel J; Tchétché, Didier; Hildick-Smith, David; Spence, Mark S; Walters, Darren L; Harnek, Jan; Worthley, Stephen G; Rioufol, Gilles; Lefèvre, Thierry; Modine, Thomas; Van Mieghem, Nicolas; Houle, Vicki M; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2017-09-20

    This analysis aimed to evaluate the incidence and predictors of the need for permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation following implantation of the repositionable and fully retrievable LOTUS Aortic Valve Replacement System. The prospective, single-arm, multicentre REPRISE II study with extended cohort enrolled 250 symptomatic, high surgical risk patients with severe aortic stenosis for transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with a 23 mm or 27 mm LOTUS valve. Echocardiography, computed tomography, and electrocardiography data were evaluated by independent core labs. Post TAVI, 32.0% (72/225) of pacemaker-naïve patients underwent new PPM implantation at 30 days. Most (59/72, 82%) patients were implanted for third-degree atrioventricular block, and >10% overstretch of the LVOT by area was observed in 59.7% (43/72) of PPM patients. Significant independent predictors of PPM at 30 days included baseline RBBB (odds ratio [OR] 12.7, 95% CI: 4.5, 36.2; p<0.001) and LVOT overstretch >10% (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.7, 6.7; p<0.001). There was a trend towards a lower 30-day PPM rate in patients with a shallower (≤5 mm) implant depth (23.9% ≤5 mm vs. 36.9% >5 mm depth from LCS; p=0.06). Careful attention to valve sizing and implant depth may help to reduce the rate of PPM with the LOTUS valve.

  4. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-04-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012-13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome.

  5. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012–13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome. PMID:25733577

  6. Young Stellar Object Variability (YSOVAR): Mid Infrared Clues to Accretion Disk Physics and Protostar Rotational Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, John; Akeson, Rachel; Allen, Lori; Ardila, David; Barrado, David; Bayo, Amelia; Bouvier, Jerome; Calvet, Nuria; Carey, Sean; Carpenter, John; Ciardi, David; Covey, Kevin; Favata, Fabio; Flaherty, Kevin; Forbrich, Jan; Guieu, Sylvain; Gutermuth, Rob; Hartmann, Lee; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hora, Joe; McCaughrean, Mark; Megeath, Tom; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Muzerolle, James; Plavchan, Peter; Rebull, Luisa; Skrutskie, Mike; Smith, Howard; Song, Inseok; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Sung, Hwankyung; Terebey, Susan; Vrba, Fred; Werner, Mike; Whitney, Barbara; Winston, Elaine; Wood, Kenny

    2008-12-01

    Spitzer/IRAC in the warm mission is the only facility now existing or planned capable of carrying out an extensive, accurate time series photometric monitoring survey of star-forming regions in the thermal infrared. The demonstrated sensitivity and stability of IRAC allows measurement of the relative fluxes of YSO's down to the substellar mass limit to 1-2% accuracy in star-forming regions out to >500 pc. We propose a time series monitoring exploration science survey of the Orion Nebula Cluster and 11 very young, populous embedded star-forming cores which will provide >D 80 epochs of data for > 1500 YSO's. We will complement these observations with contemporaneous optical and near-IR monitoring data in order to allow comparison of the phase, amplitude and light-curve shape as a function of wavelength. These data will allow us to: (a) provide otherwise unobtainable constraints on the structure of the inner disks in Class I and II YSOs - and hence, perhaps, provide clues to the formation and migration of planets at young ages; (b) measure the short and long-term stability of hot spots on the surfaces of YSO's of all evolutionary stages; and (c) determine rotational periods for the largest sample to date of Class I YSO's and hence obtain the best measure of the initial angular momentum distribution of young stars.

  7. Young Stellar Object Variability at IRAC Wavelengths: Clues to Star and Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, John R.

    2009-05-01

    Spitzer/IRAC in the warm mission is the only facility, now existing or planned, capable of carrying out an extensive, accurate time series photometric monitoring survey of star-forming regions in the thermal infrared The demonstrated sensitivity and stability of IRAC allows measurement of the relative fluxes of YSO's down to the substellar mass limit to 1-2% accuracy in star-forming regions out to >500 pc. Our exploration science project - YSOVAR - will obtain synoptic data for the Orion Nebula Cluster and 11 very young, populous embedded star-forming cores. Each cluster will be observed at 80 or more epochs spread over 40+ days, with generally two observations per day. These data will allow us to: (a) provide otherwise unobtainable constraints on the structure of the inner disks in Class I and II YSOs - and hence, perhaps, provide clues to the formation and migration of planets at young ages; (b) measure the short and long-term stability of hot spots on the surfaces of YSO's of all evolutionary stages; and (c) determine rotational periods for the largest sample to date of Class I YSO's and hence obtain the best measure of the initial angular momentum distribution of young stars.

  8. New vision based navigation clue for a regular colonoscope's tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekaouar, Anouar; Ben Amar, Chokri; Redarce, Tanneguy

    2009-02-01

    Regular colonoscopy has always been regarded as a complicated procedure requiring a tremendous amount of skill to be safely performed. In deed, the practitioner needs to contend with both the tortuousness of the colon and the mastering of a colonoscope. So, he has to take the visual data acquired by the scope's tip into account and rely mostly on his common sense and skill to steer it in a fashion promoting a safe insertion of the device's shaft. In that context, we do propose a new navigation clue for the tip of regular colonoscope in order to assist surgeons over a colonoscopic examination. Firstly, we consider a patch of the inner colon depicted in a regular colonoscopy frame. Then we perform a sketchy 3D reconstruction of the corresponding 2D data. Furthermore, a suggested navigation trajectory ensued on the basis of the obtained relief. The visible and invisible lumen cases are considered. Due to its low cost reckoning, such strategy would allow for the intraoperative configuration changes and thus cut back the non-rigidity effect of the colon. Besides, it would have the trend to provide a safe navigation trajectory through the whole colon, since this approach is aiming at keeping the extremity of the instrument as far as possible from the colon wall during navigation. In order to make effective the considered process, we replaced the original manual control system of a regular colonoscope by a motorized one allowing automatic pan and tilt motions of the device's tip.

  9. Behavioral phenotypes in genetic syndromes: genetic clues to human behavior.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Suzanne B; Morris, Colleen A

    2002-01-01

    A behavioral phenotype is the characteristic cognitive, personality, behavioral, and psychiatric pattern that typifies a disorder. A number of genetic syndromes have been identified as having this type of distinctive and consistent behavior pattern. It may act as an important diagnostic sign, like a malformation or characteristic facial appearance. Such patterns are also useful for the physician's anticipatory guidance from an educational, rehabilitative, and parenting perspective. In addition, because they are the consequences of known genetic alterations, behavioral phenotypes can be potentially highly valuable clues to the identification of genes in the population that are important to determination of cognitive skills or deficits, personality determinants, behavioral abnormalities, or psychiatric disorders. The nature of a behavioral phenotype and its potential for genetic insight can be appreciated through the examples of Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Angelman syndrome. The cognitive and behavioral characteristics of these disorders are distinctive. Williams syndrome is known for its association with remarkable conversational verbal abilities and excessive empathy, whereas Prader-Willi syndrome is known for temper tantrums and obsessive-compulsive features, and Angelman syndrome is associated with a constantly happy affect and hyperactivity. The genetic basis for each of these disorders is known, and the pathophysiology and genotype-phenotype correlations are beginning to provide insight into genes responsible for personality characteristics and behavioral abnormalities.

  10. Saturn's small inner satellites: clues to their origins.

    PubMed

    Porco, C C; Thomas, P C; Weiss, J W; Richardson, D C

    2007-12-07

    Cassini images of Saturn's small inner satellites (radii of less than approximately 100 kilometers) have yielded their sizes, shapes, and in some cases, topographies and mean densities. This information and numerical N-body simulations of accretionary growth have provided clues to their internal structures and origins. The innermost ring-region satellites have likely grown to the maximum sizes possible by accreting material around a dense core about one-third to one-half the present size of the moon. The other small satellites outside the ring region either may be close to monolithic collisional shards, modified to varying degrees by accretion, or may have grown by accretion without the aid of a core. We derived viscosity values of 87 and 20 square centimeters per second, respectively, for the ring material surrounding ring-embedded Pan and Daphnis. These moons almost certainly opened their respective gaps and then grew to their present size early on, when the local ring environment was thicker than it is today.

  11. Saturn’s Small Inner Satellites: Clues to Their Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porco, C. C.; Thomas, P. C.; Weiss, J. W.; Richardson, D. C.

    2007-12-01

    Cassini images of Saturn’s small inner satellites (radii of less than ~100 kilometers) have yielded their sizes, shapes, and in some cases, topographies and mean densities. This information and numerical N-body simulations of accretionary growth have provided clues to their internal structures and origins. The innermost ring-region satellites have likely grown to the maximum sizes possible by accreting material around a dense core about one-third to one-half the present size of the moon. The other small satellites outside the ring region either may be close to monolithic collisional shards, modified to varying degrees by accretion, or may have grown by accretion without the aid of a core. We derived viscosity values of 87 and 20 square centimeters per second, respectively, for the ring material surrounding ring-embedded Pan and Daphnis. These moons almost certainly opened their respective gaps and then grew to their present size early on, when the local ring environment was thicker than it is today.

  12. A Crater of Clues to Mars' Buried Past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' Scientists are eager to explore Endurance for clues to the red planet's history. The crater's exposed walls provide a window to what lies beneath the surface of Mars and thus what geologic processes occurred there in the past. While recent studies of the smaller crater nicknamed 'Eagle' revealed an evaporating body of salty water, that crater was not deep enough to indicate what came before the water. Endurance may be able to help answer this question, but the challenge is getting to the scientific targets: most of the crater's rocks are embedded in vertical cliffs. Rover planners are currently developing strategies to overcome this obstacle.

    Presently, Opportunity is perched 40 centimeters (15.7 inches) away from the crater's edge. Endurance is roughly 130 meters (430 feet) across.

    This image mosaic was taken by the panoramic camera's 480-, 530- and 750-nanometer filters on sols 97 and 98. It consists of a total of 258 individual images.

  13. The Evolution of Galaxies, I-Observational Clues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilchez, José M.; Stasińska, Grazyna; Pérez, Enrique

    2001-12-01

    Galaxies have a history. This has become clear from recent sky surveys, which have shown that distant galaxies, formed early in the life of the Universe, differ from the nearby ones. New observational windows at ultraviolet, infrared and millimetric wavelengths (provided by ROSAT, IRAM, IUE, IRAS, ISO) have revealed that galaxies contain a wealth of components: very hot gas, atomic hydrogen, molecules, dust, dark matter.... A significant advance is expected due to new instruments (VLT, FIRST, XMM) which will allow one to explore the most distant Universe. Three Euroconferences have been planned to punctuate this new epoch in galactic research, bringing together specialists in various fields of Astronomy. The first, held in Granada (Spain) in May 2000, addressed the observational clues. The second will take place in October 2001 in St Denis de la Réunion (France) and will review the basic building blocks and small-scale processes in galaxy evolution. The third will take place in July 2002 in Kiel (Germany) and will be devoted to the overall modelling of galaxy evolution. This book contains the proceedings of the first conference. It is recommended to researchers and PhD students in Astrophysics. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0001-4

  14. Artistic representations: clues to efficient coding in human vision.

    PubMed

    Graham, Daniel J; Meng, Ming

    2011-07-01

    In what ways is mammalian vision--and in particular, human vision--efficiently adapted to its ecology? We suggest that human visual artwork, which is made for the human eye, holds clues that could help answer this question. Paintings are readily perceived as representations of natural objects and scenes, yet statistical relationships between natural images and paintings are nontrivial. Although spatial frequency content is generally similar for art and natural images, paintings cannot reproduce the dynamic range of luminance in scenes. Through a variety of image manipulations designed to alter image intensity distributions and spatial contrast, we here investigate the notion that artists' representational strategies can efficiently capture salient features of natural images, and in particular, of faces. We report that humans perform near flawless discrimination of faces and nonfaces in both paintings and natural images, even for stimulus presentation durations of 12 ms. In addition, contrast negation and up-down inversion have minimal to no effect on performance for both image types, whereas 1/f noise addition significantly affects discrimination performance for art more than for natural images. Together, these results suggest artists create representations that are highly efficient for transmitting perceptual information to the human brain.

  15. New clues to identify proteins correlated with Attractin.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Yang, J; Cheng, D; Shen, S-L; Xiong, C-L

    2014-09-01

    In our previous study, the age-dependent testis vacuolisation and sperm dysfunction were found in Attractin (Atrn)-deficient mice, Atrn(mg-3J) , which is a null or nearly null allele. To explore the potential mechanism involved in these pathological changes, Attractin knock-down in mouse Sertoli cells TM4 (psiAtrn-TM4) was successfully established by stable RNA interference. The TM4 transfected by psiRNA-hH1 (psiRNA-TM4) was the control group, in which the expression of Atrn was not affected. The proteomic changes among the psiAtrn-TM4, primary cultures of Sertoli cells of Atrn(mg-3J) (mu-Sc) and control cells (psiRNA-TM4) were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Fifteen differentially expressed protein spots of those cells were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the NCBI proteins database. Except the decreased expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), there were several novel proteins associated with Atrn function, including downregulated ATP synthase, peroxiredoxin 2 and upregulated caspase 6, ketohexokinase, etc., in psiAtrn-TM4 and mu-Sc. These data suggest that these differentially expressed proteins may be associated with the function of Atrn in Sertoli cells, thus providing a new clue to interpret the mechanism of testis degeneration in Atrn mutants. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Unrelated donor cord blood transplantation for children with severe sickle cell disease: results of one cohort from the phase II study from the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN).

    PubMed

    Kamani, Naynesh R; Walters, Mark C; Carter, Shelly; Aquino, Victor; Brochstein, Joel A; Chaudhury, Sonali; Eapen, Mary; Freed, Brian M; Grimley, Michael; Levine, John E; Logan, Brent; Moore, Theodore; Panepinto, Julie; Parikh, Suhag; Pulsipher, Michael A; Sande, Jane; Schultz, Kirk R; Spellman, Stephen; Shenoy, Shalini

    2012-08-01

    The Sickle Cell Unrelated Donor Transplant Trial (SCURT trial) of the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) is a phase II study of the toxicity and efficacy of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation in children with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. Here we report the results for the cord blood cohort of this trial. Eight children with severe SCD underwent unrelated donor cord blood transplantation (CBT) following alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. Cyclosporine or tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were administered for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Donor/recipient HLA match status was 6 of 6 (n = 1) or 5 of 6 (n = 7), based on low/intermediate-resolution molecular typing at HLA -A, -B, and high-resolution typing at -DRB1. Median recipient age was 13.7 years (range: 7.4-16.2 years), and median weight was 35.0 kg (range: 25.2-90.2 kg). The median pre-cryopreservation total nucleated cell dose was 6.4 × 10(7) /kg (range: 3.1-7.6), and the median postthaw infused CD34 cell dose was 1.5 × 10(5) /kg (range: 0.2-2.3). All patients achieved neutrophil recovery (absolute neutrophil count >500/mm(3)) by day 33 (median: 22 days). Three patients who engrafted had 100% donor cells by day 100, which was sustained, and 5 patients had autologous hematopoietic recovery. Six of 8 patients had a platelet recovery to >50,000/mm(3) by day 100. Two patients developed grade II acute GVHD. Of these, 1 developed extensive chronic GVHD and died of respiratory failure 14 months posttransplantation. With a median follow-up of 1.8 years (range: 1-2.6), 7 patients are alive with a 1-year survival of 100%, and 3 of 8 are alive without graft failure or disease recurrence. Based upon the high incidence of graft rejection after unrelated donor CBT, enrollment onto the cord blood arm of the SCURT trial was suspended. However, because this reduced-intensity regimen has demonstrated a

  17. Higher rate of hepatitis events in patients with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis D genotype II infection: a cohort study in a medical center in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Yuan; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Sy, Cheng-Len; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Chen, Yao-Shen

    2015-02-01

    The epidemiology and impact of hepatitis δ virus (HDV) on hepatic outcomes and virological and immunological responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in northern Taiwan have been reported. However, the epidemiology and impact of HDV infection in HIV-HBV coinfection patients in southern Taiwan remains uncertain. In this cohort study, a total of 64 HIV patients coinfected with HBV were identified between January 1, 2009 and May 30, 2012. The seroprevalence of anti-HDV antibodies, HDV genotyping, clinical manifestations and hepatic outcomes were compared between the patients with and without HDV coinfection, and laboratory examinations and hepatic outcomes were recorded. Among the 64 HIV patients coinfected with HBV, seven were seropositive for HDV (10.9%). There were no statistically significant differences in risk factors for acquiring HIV infection. During a median observation period of 27.8 months, the adjusted hazard ratio of HDV and HBV genotype (type B vs. non-type B) on hepatitis flare-ups were 62.132 (p = 0.04) and 0.028 (p = 0.01), respectively. All seven patients had genotype II and were HDV viremic. The phylogenetic tree analysis and clinical history evaluation did not identify any clusters of HDV infection. HDV infection resulted in higher rate of hepatitis flare-ups, but it did not have a statistical significance on HIV progression and immunological response to HAART. Whether higher rate of HDV viremia has worse impact on the hepatic outcomes requires further investigation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Etiologic heterogeneity of neural tube defects. II. Clues from family studies.

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, M J; Erickson, J D; James, L M

    1982-01-01

    We previously reported that among neural tube defects (NTDs) with no known causes the ones that occur alone (singles) have different epidemiologic characteristics from those that occur in combination with other defects (multiples), suggesting an underlying causal heterogeneity. In this study, we compared family histories of 223 single NTD cases and 66 multiple cases ascertained through the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) between 1970 and 1979. Compared with siblings of multiples, siblings of singles had a higher precurrence rate for NTDs (2.0% vs. 0.0%) and for birth defects in general (10.9% vs. 3.0%). Furthermore, siblings of singles that were born within 2 years before the birth of the index case had a higher precurrence rate for NTDs (8.0% vs. 1.1%) and for major birth defects (20.0% vs. 2.9%) than had those born earlier. These results further suggest that NTDs are etiologically heterogeneous, depending on the presence of associated defects, and point to important environmental influences in the increased risk for birth defects among siblings of singles. Larger studies are needed to confirm these data and show that single and multiple NTDs have different recurrence rates, not only for NTDs but also for other birth defects. PMID:7180852

  19. Planetary isophotes as a clue to aerosol characteristics. II - Observations of Venus from spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.; Kattawar, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Contrary to published reports, the limb-darkening observed by Mariner 10 is consistent with the sulfuric-acid aerosol scattering that explains the polarization and spectroscopic features of Venus. A combination of both geometric and photometric systematic errors explains the previously reported discrepancy. Although the aerosol model cannot be distinguished from isotropic scattering at the Mariner 10 phase angle, Venera 9 data at larger phases clearly favor the aerosol model. There is no evidence for isotropic scattering in the clouds of Venus.

  20. TV Crime Reporter Missed Clues | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Women and Heart Disease TV Crime Reporter Missed Clues Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... heart attack at the age of 36. A crime reporter for WJLA-TV in Washington, D.C., ...

  1. New Clues to Huge Jump in U.S. Mosquito Population

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clues to Huge Jump in U.S. Mosquito Population Urbanization, DDT pesticide ban played roles, but climate change ... past 50 years in certain U.S. states: Increased urbanization and shrinking levels of the pesticide DDT in ...

  2. Search for clues to Mesozoic graben on Long Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, W.B.; Aparisi, M.; Sirkin, L.

    1989-01-01

    The position of Long Island between the Hartford Basin of Connecticut and graben structures reported from seismic reflection studies offshore to the south of the island suggests the possibility that other grabens associated with the early Mesozoic rifting might be buried beneath central Long Island. The hypothesis that post-rift tectonic activity would be related to the rift grabens and that such activity would be expressed in the post-rift sedimentary deposits led to a study of the Cretaceous and Pleistocene section to seek clues for buried grabens on Long Island. The Pleistocene glacial deposits in central and eastern Long Island have been mapped and a pollen zonation in the Upper Cretaceous section in the central part established. This work, combined with literature research, suggests the following: 1. (1) In central Long Island, the spacing of wells which reach basement enables a NE- striking zone free of basement samples to be defined where a buried graben could occur. This zone is referred to as the "permissible zone" because within it the data permit the existence of a hidden graben. 2. (2) The abrupt changes in the thickness of some pollen zones in the Upper Cretaceous deposits of central Long Island may be related to Cretaceous faulting. 3. (3) Buried preglacial valleys, the confluence of glacial lobes and major glacial outwash channels seem concentrated in west central and central Long Island. The loci of these drainage features may reflect structural control by a basement depression. 4. (4) The "permissible zone" is aligned with the zone of structures in an offshore zone south of central Long Island and with the Hartford Basin in Connecticut. Geophysical anomalies also fit into this pattern. 5. (5) A definitive answer to the question of a buried graben on Long Island will require a seismic line across the "permissible zone", or further drilling. ?? 1989.

  3. Properties of the SW Sextantis Stars: Clues to the Underlying Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, D. W.; Szkody, P.

    1996-12-01

    The SW Sextantis stars are a recently identified subclass of novalike cataclysmic variable (CV). These ~10 systems have orbital periods in the range ~ 3--4 hr; they also share a number of peculiar characteristics that set them apart from other CVs. For example, (1) an unusually high level of excitation in their spectra (including prominent He ii lambda4686 emission); (2) velocity curves of their emission lines that imply non-uniform emission from the accretion disk; (3) single-peaked emission lines in contrast to the expected double-peaked lines typically observed in high inclination disk systems; and (4) their Balmer and He i lines have orbital-phase-dependent profiles characterized by the appearance of a strong absorption feature at specific phases. Since the novalike CVs are thought to be systems with a constant high mass transfer rate, we are investigating the possible origin of the SW Sex phenomenon in the structure of the prominent accretion disks in these CVs. We present a compilation of new and published data on the SW Sex stars comparing the values of system parameters (such as inclination, component masses, etc.) and a number of observational properties (such as optical and UV line intensities, X-ray flux, etc.). Clues to the geometry of these CVs can be inferred by comparing characteristics among the entire group. For example, the orbital phases(s) at which the absorption feature appears in the Balmer and He i emission lines may depend on the inclination of the system. This relationship, in turn, can be used to deduce the relative vertical extent of the structures in the disk responsible for the absorption.

  4. Clues to Stellar Evolution from Microscopy of Star Dust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    grains from O-rich asymp- totic giant branch (AGB) stars, SiC from C-rich AGB stars, SiC from type-II supernovae , and silicates from O-rich AGB stars...oxidizing, O-rich plasma of the early solar system, without sublimation of the C to form CO gas. On Earth , SiC is extremely rare except as a...rich AGB star atmospheres. SUPERNOVA SiC Type-II supernovae are among the most extreme environments known. They are literally the rapid explosion of

  5. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through its left eye and right eye that have been combined into this stereo view. The image appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA

  6. Clues for genesis of magnetic field structure of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiremath, K. M.

    2012-07-01

    Recent space observations suggest that Mercury inherits a weak and predominantly large-scale steady dipole like magnetic field structure. Present popular paradigm is to invoke most promising geodynamo like phenomenon that requires the main ingredients such as either a full or partial convection of the interior and fast rotation such that magnetic (Lorentz) and Coriolis forces are of similar order of magnitudes. Hence, the ratio of Lorentz to Coriolis force, called the Elsasser number Λ, must be order of unity. Contrary to the expectation, Mercury rotates so slow that Elsasser number turns out to be << 1. There are also other alternative models to explain genesis of magnetic field structure of Mercury. With the observed constraint of Mercury's atmospheric magnetic field structure, internal magnetic field structure is obtained as a solution of magnetic diffusion equation in the core and a combined multipolar (dipole and quadrupole like magnetic field structures embedded in the uniform field) solution of a current free like magnetic field structure in the mantle and in the atmosphere. Magnetic diffusion time scales are estimated to be ˜ billion years suggesting that present day magnetic field structure might be of primordial origin. In order to reconcile with the experimental fact that, as temperature of Mercury's iron core is above Curie temperature and primordial magnetic field structure must be non-existent, it is proposed that permanency of such a large-scale magnetic field structure of the planet is attained during Mercury's early evolutionary history of heavy bombardments by the asteroids and comets leaving their imprints as craters on this planet. That means the solar system bodies that have heavy bombardments with high density craters during the early epochs of such catastrophic events should have strong magnetic field structures. Is this hypothesis universal? Can this hypothesis gives some clues regarding presence or absence of magnetic field structure of

  7. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through its left eye and right eye that have been combined into this stereo view. The image appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA

  8. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  9. Astronomers Discover Clue to Origin of Milky Way Gas Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    A surprising discovery that hydrogen gas clouds found in abundance in and above our Milky Way Galaxy have preferred locations has given astronomers a key clue about the origin of such clouds, which play an important part in galaxy evolution. We've concluded that these clouds are gas that has been blown away from the Galaxy's plane by supernova explosions and the fierce winds from young stars in areas of intense star formation," said H. Alyson Ford of the University of Michigan, whose Ph.D thesis research from Swinburne University formed the basis for this result. The team, consisting of Ford and collaborators Felix J. Lockman, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Naomi Mclure-Griffiths of CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Miami, Florida. The astronomers studied gas clouds in two distinct regions of the Galaxy. The clouds they studied are between 400 and 15,000 light-years outside the disk-like plane of the Galaxy. The disk contains most of the Galaxy's stars and gas, and is surrounded by a "halo" of gas more distant than the clouds the astronomers studied. "These clouds were first detected with the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and are quite puzzling. They are in a transitional area between the disk and the halo, and their origin has been uncertain," Lockman explained. The research team used data from the Galactic All-Sky Survey, made with CSIRO's Parkes radio telescope in Australia. When the astronomers compared the observations of the two regions, they saw that one region contained three times as many hydrogen clouds as the other. In addition, that region's clouds are, on average, twice as far above the Galaxy's plane. The dramatic difference, they believe, is because the region with more clouds lies near the tip of the Galaxy's central "bar," where the bar merges with a major spiral arm. This is an area of intense star formation

  10. The CEMI Field Theory: Seven Clues to the Nature of Consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Johnjoe

    In this chapter I examine seven clues to the nature of consciousness and explore what they reveal about the underlying physical substrate of consciousness. The consciousness clues are: it impacts upon the world; it is a property of living brains but no other structure; brain activity may be conscious or unconscious; the conscious mind appears to be serial; learning requires consciousness but recall doesn't; conscious information is bound; and consciousness correlates with synchronous firing of neurons. I discuss field theories of consciousness and introduce the conscious electromagnetic field (CEMI) theory that suggests that consciousness is a product of the brain's electromagnetic field. I show that the CEMI field theory successfully accounts for each of the seven clues to the nature of consciousness. Finally, I show that although current quantum mechanical theories of consciousness are also field theories, they are physical untenable and should be discarded.

  11. CRITICAL DIFFERENCES AND CLUES IN ETA CAR'S 2009 EVENT ,

    SciTech Connect

    Mehner, Andrea; Davidson, Kris; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Martin, John C.; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ferland, Gary J.

    2011-10-20

    We monitored Eta Carinae with the Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 and Gemini GMOS throughout the 2009 spectroscopic event, which was expected to differ from its predecessor in 2003. Here we report major observed differences between events and their implications. Some of these results were quite unexpected. (1) The UV brightness minimum was much deeper in 2009. This suggests that physical conditions in the early stages of an event depend on different parameters than the 'normal' inter-event wind. Extra mass ejection from the primary star is one possible cause. (2) The expected He II {lambda}4687 brightness maximum was followed several weeks later by another. We explain why this fact and the timing of the {lambda}4687 maxima strongly support a 'shock breakup' hypothesis for X-ray and {lambda}4687 behavior as proposed 5-10 years ago. (3) We observed a polar view of the star via light reflected by dust in the Homunculus nebula. Surprisingly, at that location, the variations of emission-line brightness and Doppler velocities closely resembled a direct view of the star, which should not have been true for any phenomena related to the orbit. This result casts very serious doubt on all the proposed velocity interpretations that depend on the secondary star's orbital motion. (4) Latitude-dependent variations of H I, He I, and Fe II features reveal aspects of wind behavior during the event. In addition, we discuss implications of the observations for several crucial unsolved problems.

  12. A New Clue in the Mystery of Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    .Bassa and collaborators also found that the properties of the host galaxy are consistent with those of a type of galaxy known as extreme emission line galaxies. This provides a tantalizing clue, as these galaxies are known to host both hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae and long-duration gamma-ray bursts.Linking to the CauseWhat can this tell us about the cause of FRB 121102? The fact that this burst repeats already eliminates cataclysmic events as the origin. But the projected location of FRB 121102 within a star-forming region especially in a host galaxy thats similar to those typically hosting superluminous supernovae and long gamma-ray bursts strongly suggests theres a relation between these events.Artists impression of a gamma-ray burst in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]The authors propose that this observed coincidence, supported by models of magnetized neutron star birth, indicate an evolutionary link between fast radio bursts and neutron stars. In this picture, neutron stars or magnetars are born as long gamma-ray bursts or hydrogen-poor supernovae, and then evolve into fast-radio-burst-emitting sources.This picture may finally explain the cause of fast radio bursts but Bassa and collaborators caution that its also possible that this model applies only to FRB 121102. Since FRB 121102 is unique in being the only burst discovered to repeat, its cause may also be unique. The authors suggest that targeted searches of star-forming regions in galaxies similar to FRB 121102s host may reveal other repeating burst candidates, helping us to unravel the ongoing mystery of fast radio bursts.CitationC. G. Bassa et al 2017 ApJL 843 L8. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa7a0c

  13. 'Wake sign': an important clue for the diagnosis of scabies.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, J; Harada, T

    2009-08-01

    Japan is currently experiencing many outbreaks of scabies, occurring mainly in long-term care facilities. Scabies burrows, the only pathognomonic lesion for scabies, often occur on the creases of the palms, and are followed by a pattern of scale reminiscent of the 'wake' left on the surface of water by a moving bird or a ship (wake sign).(1-4) The wake sign is useful because (i) it is specific for scabies, (ii) it is sufficiently large to be found by the naked eye and (iii) it points towards the location of the mite and its products. Examination of patients' palms to look for this sign is a simple and efficient way to make a diagnosis of scabies throughout the course of an infestation.

  14. Snake Venom: Any Clue for Antibiotics and CAM?

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Lately several naturally occurring peptides presenting antimicrobial activity have been described in the literature. However, snake venoms, which are an enormous source of peptides, have not been fully explored for searching such molecules. The aim of this work is to review the basis of antimicrobial mechanisms revealing snake venom as a feasible source for searching an antibiotic prototype. Therefore, it includes (i) a description of the constituents of the snake venoms involved in their main biological effects during the envenomation process; (ii) examples of snake venom molecules of commercial use; (iii) mechanisms of action of known antibiotics; and (iv) how the microorganisms can be resistant to antibiotics. This review also shows that snake venoms are not totally unexplored sources for antibiotics and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). PMID:15841277

  15. Lack of association between risk of biliary tract cancer and circulating IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factor) -I, IGF-II or IGFBP-3 (IGF-binding Protein-3): A nested case-control study in a large scale cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yagyu, Kiyoko; Kikuchi, Shogo; Lin, Yingsong; Ishibashi, Teruo; Obata, Yuki; Kurosawa, Michiko; Ito, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Tajima, Kazuo; Nakachi, Kei; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-12-01

    Biliary tract cancer, encompassing gallbladder and bile duct cancers, has a poor prognosis, but little is known of the etiology. A nested case-control study was here conducted to evaluate the association between serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 and death from biliary tract cancer. In a large scale cohort study, 35 gallbladder and 42 bile duct cancers were observed during the follow-up. For each subject in the case group, 1-3 control subjects (228 in total) were selected randomly, matched for sex, age (as near as possible) and residential area. The subjects were divided into tertiles by circulating levels of IGF-I, IGF-II or IGFBP-3. Using conditional logistic regression, risks among the tertiles were compared adjusted for defecation, smoking and drinking habits. No remarkable differences in risks of gallbladder or bile duct cancer were observed among tertiles of IGF-I or IGF-II, and no remarkable trend was observed. Circulating IGFBP-3 showed an inverse U-shape association with gallbladder cancer and a U-shaped one with bile duct cancer. Associations between IGF-I or IGF-II and gallbladder or bile duct cancer thus were lacking or very weak. The observed U- and inverse U-shaped association of IGFBP-3 with the cancers is not suggestive of any meaningful relationships.

  16. Cohort Profile Update: The GAZEL Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Marcel; Leclerc, Annette; Zins, Marie

    2015-02-01

    The original GAZEL cohort was composed of 20 625 employees of the French national gas and electricity companies (15 011 male employees then aged 40 to 50 years and 5614 women between 35 and 50 years old) at its inception in 1989. A Cohort Profile article was published in 2007. By the end of 2013, participants were aged 60-75, and almost all of them retired during follow-up. Accordingly, the main focus of research in the past decade was devoted to the study of the persistent, long-term effects of occupational exposures after retirement; of the transition between professionally active life and retirement; and on determinants of early ageing. Accordingly, in addition to the health, behavioural and social data collected yearly since the beginning of the follow-up, new data were thus collected on cognitive complaints, cognitive and physical functioning, limitations in daily activities, time use and social relationships of retirees. This update presents the main findings of research within the GAZEL Cohort Study during the past 7 years. Any research group, in France or elsewhere, can submit a research proposal to work on the GAZEL cohort. To do this, interested researchers should contact one of the principal investigators of the GAZEL Cohort Study.

  17. New Literacies and Multimediacy: The Immersive Universe of "The 39 Clues"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Diane Carver; Watson, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    "The 39 Clues" (2009) is a multimedia series produced by Scholastic for readers 7-14 years old that includes printed texts released periodically; trading cards also published periodically in print and virtually; and a complex, intriguing, and entertaining website. To fully experience the multimedia series, the publishers expect that readers can…

  18. Examination of Children Decision Making Using Clues during the Logical Reasoning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Meryem

    2017-01-01

    Logical reasoning is the process of thinking about a problem and finding the most effective solution. Children's decision-making skills are part of their cognitive development and are also indicative. The purpose of this study was to examine children's decision-making skills using clues in logical reasoning based on various variables. The study…

  19. New Literacies and Multimediacy: The Immersive Universe of "The 39 Clues"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Diane Carver; Watson, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    "The 39 Clues" (2009) is a multimedia series produced by Scholastic for readers 7-14 years old that includes printed texts released periodically; trading cards also published periodically in print and virtually; and a complex, intriguing, and entertaining website. To fully experience the multimedia series, the publishers expect that readers can…

  20. Peripheral stellate telangiectasias: a clinical-dermoscopic clue for diganosing cutaneous melanoma metastases.

    PubMed

    Julian, Yamina; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Moscarella, Elvira; de Paula Ramos Castro, Raquel; Longo, Caterina; Abeldaño, Alejandra; Zalaudek, Iris

    2012-12-31

    The clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma metastases may be challenging especially in patients with unknown primary melanoma. We observed repetitive dermoscopic patterns of peripheral stellate telangiectasias in cutaneous melanoma metastases from 3 patients, of whom 2 had an unknown primary melanoma. Stellate telangiectasias surrounding bluish to purple or red nodules with recent onset may represent a clue for cutaneous melanoma metastases.

  1. The Decline in Female Elementary Principals Since 1928: Riddles and Clues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalvelage, Joan

    In 1928, 55 percent of elementary school principals were women. By 1973, only 20 percent were women. This paper examines research data for explanations of the decline of the percentage of women elementary school principals. Both incompetence and sex discrimination are rejected as explanations. Clues to the decline are traced to the decline of the…

  2. Correction: Rule out pulmonary tuberculosis: clinical and radiographic clues for the internist.

    PubMed

    Curley, Catherine Anne

    2015-02-01

    In the article "Rule out pulmonary tuberculosis: Clinical and radiographic clues for the internist" (Curley CA. Cleve Clin J Med 2015; 82:32-38), on page 33, "Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine" has been corrected to "BCG vaccine."

  3. Experiments with ClueWeb09: Relevance Feedback and Web Tracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    Lemur Project developers to index ClueWeb09. We built 30 separate indexes across 10 machines. Each machine was a modern (2-2.3 GHz CPU) 4 core machine... Lemur . Lemur Toolkit for Language Modeling and IR, 2003. http://www.lemurproject.org/. [7] D. Metzler and W. B. Croft. A markov random field model for

  4. Performance on Middle School Geometry Problems with Geometry Clues Matched to Three Different Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen L.; Casey, M. Beth; Thompson, William L.; Burrage, Marie S.; Pezaris, Elizabeth; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between 3 ability-based cognitive styles (verbal deductive, spatial imagery, and object imagery) and performance on geometry problems that provided different types of clues. The purpose was to determine whether students with a specific cognitive style outperformed other students, when the geometry problems…

  5. The Pollino 2012 seismic sequence: clues from continuous radon monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersanti, Antonio; Cannelli, Valentina; Galli, Gianfranco

    2016-09-01

    The 2012 Pollino (Calabria, Italy) seismic sequence, culminating in the Mw 5.2 earthquake of 25 October 2012, is investigated, exploiting data collected during a long-term continuous radon monitoring experiment performed in the epicentral area from late 2011 to the end of 2014. We analyse data collected both using a phenomenological approach based on quantitative evidence and a purely numerical analysis including the following: (i) correlation and cross-correlation investigations; (ii) an original approach aimed at limiting the impact of meteorological parameters variations on the interpretation of measured radon levels; (iii) a change point analysis; (iv) the implementation of an original detection algorithm aimed at highlighting the connections between radon emission variations and major seismic events occurrence. Results from both approaches suggest that radon monitoring stations can be subject to massive site effects, especially regarding rainfall, making data interpretation harder. The availability of long-term continuous measurements is crucial to precisely assess those effects. Nevertheless, statistical analysis shows a viable approach for quantitatively relating radon emanation variations to seismic energy release. Although much work is still needed to make radon time series analysis a robust complement to traditional seismological tools, this work has identified a characteristic variation in radon exhalation during the preparation process of large earthquakes.

  6. THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2011ja: CLUES FROM CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Ray, Alak; Yadav, Naveen; Smith, Randall; Ryder, Stuart; Sutaria, Firoza; Dwarkadas, Vikram V.; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David; Roy, Rupak

    2013-09-01

    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until core collapse, produce Type II plateau (IIP) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shocks the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work, we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array to study the relative importance of processes which accelerate particles and those which amplify magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the explosion date. Multiple Chandra observations allow us to probe the history of variable mass loss from the progenitor. The ejecta expands into a low-density bubble followed by interaction with a higher density wind from a red supergiant consistent with M{sub ZAMS} {approx}> 12 M{sub Sun }. Our results suggest that a fraction of Type IIP supernovae may interact with circumstellar media set up by non-steady winds.

  7. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs).

  8. Microbial Colonization in a New Intensive Care Burn Unit. A Prospective Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    organisms is commonly ustion of Providencla ii.artlI and Pseudomonas aeruginosa e (type 15) endemics occurred In 9. The collected data demon- used...Providencia Tex. stuartii and an unusual serotype of Pseudomonas aeru- ¢. Read before the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Surgical Infection Society, ginosa...Aerobic Rods Gram-negative Aerobic Rods* Organism Cohort A Cohort B Cohort A Cohort B Pseudomonas aeruginoso 6 12 Sputum Escherichia coil 10 8 ICU 16 18

  9. [Unipolar versus bipolar depression: clues toward predicting bipolarity disorder].

    PubMed

    Ben Abla, T; Ellouze, F; Amri, H; Krid, G; Zouari, A; M'Rad, M F

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar and unipolar disorders share a common depressive clinical manifestation. It is important to distinguish between these two forms of depression for several reasons. First, prescribing antidepressors in monotherapy indubitably worsens the prognosis of bipolarity disorders. Second, postponing the prescription of a mood stabilizer reduces the efficacy of the treatment and multiplies the suicidal risks by two. The object of this study is to reveal the factors that distinguish between unipolar and bipolar depression. This is a retrospective study on patients' files. It includes 186 patients divided according to DSM IV criteria into two groups: patients with bipolar disorder type I or II with a recent depressive episode (123 patients) and patients with recurrent depressive disorder (63 patients). A medical record card was filled-in for every patient. It included socio-demographic data, information about the disorder, family antecedents, CGI score (global clinical impressions), physical comorbidity, substance abuse and personality disorder. In order to sort out the categorization variables, the two groups were compared using chi2 test or Fischer's test. With regard to the quantitative variables, the two groups were compared using Krostal Wallis's test or Ancova. Our study has revealed that bipolar disorder differs significantly from unipolar disorder in the following respects: bipolar disorder is prevalent among men (sex-ratio 2) while unipolar disorder is prevailing among women (sex-ratio 0.8); patients with bipolar disorder are younger than patients with unipolar disorder (38.1 +/- 5 years vs. 49.7 +/- years); the age at the onset of bipolar disorder is earlier than that of unipolar disorder (20.8 +/- 2 years vs. 38.7 +/- 5 years); family antecedents are more important in bipolar patients than in unipolar patients (51.1% vs. 33%). More importantly, bipolar disorder differs from unipolar disorder in the following aspects: The number of suicidal attempts (25.3% vs

  10. Clues on the Galactic evolution of sulphur from star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Monaco, L.; Spite, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Carraro, G.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Villanova, S.; Beletsky, Y.; Sbordone, L.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The abundances of α-elements are a powerful diagnostic of the star formation history and chemical evolution of a galaxy. Sulphur, being moderately volatile, can be reliably measured in the interstellar medium (ISM) of damped Ly-α galaxies and extragalactic H ii regions. Measurements in stars of different metallicity in our Galaxy can then be readily compared to the abundances in external galaxies. Such a comparison is not possible for Si or Ca that suffer depletion onto dust in the ISM. Furthermore, studying sulphur is interesting because it probes nucleosynthetic conditions that are very different from those of O or Mg. In this context measurements in star clusters are a reliable tracers of the Galactic evolution of sulphur. Aims: The aim of this paper is to determine sulphur abundances in several Galactic clusters that span a metallicity range -1.5 < [Fe/H] < 0.0. Methods: We use a standard abundance analysis, based on 1D model atmospheres in local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and literature corrections for non-LTE (NLTE), as well as 3D corrections based on hydrodynamical model atmospheres, to derive sulphur abundances in a sample of stars in the globular cluster M 4, and the open clusters Trumpler 5, NGC 2477, and NGC 5822. Results: We find ⟨ A(S) ⟩ NLTE = 6.11 ± 0.04 for M 4, ⟨ A(S) ⟩ NLTE = 7.17 ± 0.02 for NGC 2477, and ⟨ A(S) ⟩ NLTE = 7.13 ± 0.06 for NGC 5822. For the only star studied in Trumpler 5 we find A(S)NLTE = 6.43 ± 0.03 and A(S)LTE = 6.94 ± 0.05. Conclusions: Our measurements show that, by and large, the S abundances in Galactic clusters trace reliably those in field stars. The only possible exception is Trumpler 5, for which the NLTE sulphur abundance implies an [S/Fe] ratio lower by roughly 0.4 dex than observed in field stars of comparable metallicity, even though its LTE sulphur abundance is in line with abundances of field stars. Moreover the LTE sulphur abundance is consistent only with the abundance of another

  11. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein-3, and risk of colorectal cancer: a nested case-control study in the Japan Collaborative Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sadao; Kojima, Masayo; Tokudome, Shinkan; Suzuki, Koji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Ito, Yoshinori; Inaba, Yutaka; Tajima, Kazuo; Nakachi, Kei; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II are important mitogen and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) exerts opposite effects. However, the results of epidemiological studies on cancer influence are somewhat controversial, and mainly from Western countries. In the present study, we therefore examined associations of serum IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 with colorectal cancer risk among participants in the JACC Study in Japan. After matching 3 controls to cases by sex, age, and study area, a total 101 risk sets were examined using a conditional logistic regression model adjusted for body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol consumption and family history of colorectal cancer. The odds ratios (and 95% CIs) for colorectal cancer mortality among the highest tertiles of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3, compared to the lowest tertiles were 1.01 (0.49-2.10), 1.02 (0.55- 1.91), and 1.22 (0.63-2.38), respectively. No linear trends were observed. The lack of any association was not altered after additional adjustment for mutual markers of IGF-I/IGF-II or IGFBP-3, 0.76 (0.34-1.71) for IGF-I, 0.66 (0.30-1.45) for IGF-II, and 1.11 (0.47-2.66) for IGFBP-3. Our prospective data thus indicated that there is no association of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 with colorectal cancer risk in the Japanese population. Although these markers might be etiologically significant in relation to colorectal cancer, we did not obtain evidence supporting this hypothesis.

  12. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-03-24

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML.

  13. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML. PMID:27023575

  14. [International cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Pigeot, I

    2012-06-01

    Among observational studies, cohort studies, i.e. longitudinal observations of selected population groups, provide the highest possible evidence of a causal association between specific risk factors (exposure) and the occurrence of disease in populations. Besides the fact that many exposures cannot be investigated in experimental designs, cohort studies have the advantage over randomized clinical trials that they are conducted in free living populations and not in restrictive, clinical settings. In this paper we describe the aims and features of international cohorts that have been selected because of their impact, their size or their endpoints. We do not only present the study designs and survey instruments used but we also highlight some of the most important results gained by these studies. Most of these prospective studies investigated common chronic diseases in the elderly, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis and ophthalmologic disorders. Newer cohorts and recent reassessments of existing cohorts almost always include the collection and storage of biological samples. In recent years technological developments allowed the implementation of cutting edge measurement procedures, such as imaging techniques for phenotyping. Finally, we discuss on the one hand whether these designs can be transferred to the German situation and on the other hand to what degree the results obtained from foreign cohorts can be generalized for the German population. We conclude with recommendations for future cohort studies.

  15. Career clue: an interactive teaching strategy to introduce beginning students to the nursing profession.

    PubMed

    Lever, Kathryn Ann

    2010-02-01

    An assignment incorporating active learning, computerized technology, and contact with RNs or Real Nurses was created to educate, enthuse, and heighten the awareness of nursing students about the world of nursing that exists beyond the classroom walls. Students gather information about an assigned field of nursing and share findings with classmates by giving clues about their mystery careers related to educational background, practice location, clientele, responsibilities, rewards, and challenges associated with the area of practice. Access to Web sites, RN e-mails, and guidelines are provided via an online Blackboard(®) learning system. Students benefit by gaining experience in the use of different types of computerized technology while being educated about the extensive career options available in nursing. The Career Clue assignment is a creative teaching strategy that has been used since 2003 and has consistently received positive feedback from students. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. The orphan tsunami of 1700—Japanese clues to a parent earthquake in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Musumi-Rokkaku, Satoko; Satake, Kenji; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Kazue; Yamaguchi, David K.

    2005-09-15

    The Orphan Tsunami of 1700, now in its second edition, tells this scientific detective story through its North American and Japanese clues. The discoveries underpin many of today’s precautions against earthquakes and tsunamis in the Cascadia region of northwestern North America. The Japanese tsunami of March 2011 called attention to those hazards as a mirror image of the transpacific waves of January 1700.

  17. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  18. Higher Maternal Protein Intake during Pregnancy Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-II, IGF Binding Protein 3, and Insulin, but Not IGF-I, in a Cohort of Women with High Protein Intake.

    PubMed

    Switkowski, Karen M; Jacques, Paul F; Must, Aviva; Hivert, Marie-France; Fleisch, Abby; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Oken, Emily

    2017-07-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to dietary protein may program growth-regulating hormones, consequently influencing early-life growth patterns and later risk of associated chronic diseases. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is of particular interest in this context given its influence on pre- and postnatal growth and its sensitivity to the early nutritional environment.Objective: Our objective was to examine associations of maternal protein intake during pregnancy with cord blood concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and insulin.Methods: We studied 938 mother-child pairs from early pregnancy through delivery in the Project Viva cohort. Using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, parity, height, and gestational weight gain and for child sex, we examined associations of second-trimester maternal protein intake [grams per kilogram (weight before pregnancy) per day], as reported on a food frequency questionnaire, with IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and insulin concentrations in cord blood. We also examined how these associations may differ by child sex and parity.Results: Mothers were predominantly white (71%), college-educated (64%), and nonsmokers (67%). Mean ± SD protein intake was 1.35 ± 0.35 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) Each 1-SD increment in second-trimester protein intake corresponded to a change of -0.50 ng/mL (95% CI: -2.26, 1.26 ng/mL) in IGF-I and -0.91 μU/mL (95% CI: -1.45, -0.37 μU/mL) in insulin. Child sex and parity modified associations of maternal protein intake with IGF-II and IGFBP-3: protein intake was inversely associated with IGF-II in girls (P-interaction = 0.04) and multiparous mothers (P-interaction = 0.05), and with IGFBP-3 in multiparous mothers (P-interaction = 0.04).Conclusions: In a cohort of pregnant women with relatively high mean protein intakes, higher intake was associated with lower concentrations of growth-promoting hormones in cord blood

  19. Improved Cardiovascular Risk among Hispanic Border Participants of the Mi Corazón Mi Comunidad Promotores De Salud Model: The HEART II Cohort Intervention Study 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; Balcazar, Hector G; Wise, Sherrie; Redelfs, Alisha H; Rosenthal, E Lee; Duarte, Maria O

    2015-01-01

    Community resources (parks, recreational facilities) provide opportunities for health promotion, but little is known about how to promote utilization of these resources and their impact on cardiovascular disease risk (CVD). This cohort study evaluated the impact of an intervention called Mi Corazon Mi Comunidad (MiCMiC), which consisted of promoting use of community physical activity and nutrition resources by Promotoras de Salud/Community Health Workers. Participants were assessed at baseline and following the 4-month intervention. Attendance records were objectively collected to assess utilization of intervention programing. A total of five consecutive cohorts were recruited between 2009 and 2013. Participants were mostly females (86.0%), on average 46.6 years old, and 81% were low in acculturation. Participants who completed follow-up (n = 413) showed significant improvements in reported health behaviors and body composition. Higher attendance significantly predicted greater improvements. The baseline to 4-month change for the highest vs. the lowest attendance quartiles were for weight (-5.2 vs. +0.01 lbs, p < 0.001), waist circumference (-1.20 vs. -0.56 inches, p = 0.047), hip circumference (-1.13 vs. -0.41 inches, p < 0.001); hours of exercise/week (+3.87 vs. +0.81 hours, p < 0.001), proportion of participants eating five servings of fruits and vegetables/day (+54.7 vs. 14.7%, p < 0.001). Following the Promotora-led MiCMiC intervention, substantial improvements in health behaviors and modest improvements in cardiovascular risk factors were found. Greater utilization of community resources was associated with more favorable changes. This study provided preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of Promotora-led interventions for promoting use of existing community resources in CVD risk reduction.

  20. The Value of Procalcitonin and the SAPS II and APACHE III Scores in the Differentiation of Infectious and Non-infectious Fever in the ICU: A Prospective, Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eun Ju; Jung, Jae Woo; Choi, Jae Chol; Shin, Jong Wook; Park, In Won; Choi, Byoung Whui; Park, Ae Ja

    2010-01-01

    Early and accurate differentiation between infectious and non-infectious fever is vitally important in the intensive care unit (ICU). In the present study, patients admitted to the medical ICU were screened daily from August 2008 to February 2009. Within 24 hr after the development of fever (>38.3℃), serum was collected for the measurement of the procalcitonin (PCT) and high mobility group B 1 levels. Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III scores were also analyzed. Sixty-three patients developed fever among 448 consecutive patients (14.1%). Fever was caused by either infectious (84.1%) or non-infectious processes (15.9%). Patients with fever due to infectious causes showed higher values of serum PCT (7.8±10.2 vs 0.5±0.2 ng/mL, P=0.026), SAPS II (12.0±3.8 vs 7.6±2.7, P=0.006), and APACHE III (48±20 vs 28.7±13.3, P=0.039) than those with non-infectious fever. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve was 0.726 (95% CI; 0.587-0.865) for PCT, 0.759 (95% CI; 0.597-0.922) for SAPS II, and 0.715 (95% CI; 0.550-0.880) for APACHE III. Serum PCT, SAPS II, and APACHE III are useful in the differentiation between infectious and non-infectious fever in the ICU. PMID:21060753

  1. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and pregnancy outcome: a prospective, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-08-01

    Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units.

  2. Modeling and assessing the effects of land use changes on runoff generation with the CLUE-s and WetSpa models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammady, Majid; Moradi, Hamid Reza; Zeinivand, Hossein; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Yazdani, Mohammad Reza; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2017-06-01

    Land use change is an important determinant of hydrological processes and is known to affect hydrological parameters such as runoff volume, flood frequency, base flow, and the partitioning into surface flow and subsurface flow. The main objective of this research was to assess the magnitude of the effect of land use changes on runoff parameters, using the Baghsalian watershed in Iran as a case study site. At first, land use maps of years 1986 and 2012 were prepared using synthetic method, and then simulation was done based on land use changes in the 1986 to 2012 period. Land use map of year 2030 was simulated using CLUE-s model. Spatially distributed hydrological WetSpa model was used to simulate runoff at daily scale with land use maps of 1986, 2012, and 2030. Total volume of runoff, peak flow, and surface flow were compared. The accuracy of the WetSpa model simulation was assessed with the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, which had values of 0.61 and 0.56% for the calibration and validation dataset, respectively. The aggregation measure criterion was also calculated and had values of 64 and 62% for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. The main land use changes in Baghsalian watershed between 1986, 2012, and 2030 were the conversion of forest and rangeland to agriculture and residential land use types. Because of these conversions, simulated total runoff volume increased; and the rate of increase in surface runoff was larger than the rate of increase in subsurface runoff. In addition, surface and subsurface runoff increased in 2012 and 2030 compared to 1986 land use map, but the rate of increase of subsurface runoff was less than surface runoff.

  3. Blindness Clues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in older adults, yet researchers are still in the dark about many of the factors that cause this incurable disease. But new insight from University of Florida (UF) and German researchers about a genetic link between rhesus monkeys with macular degeneration and humans could unlock…

  4. Blindness Clues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in older adults, yet researchers are still in the dark about many of the factors that cause this incurable disease. But new insight from University of Florida (UF) and German researchers about a genetic link between rhesus monkeys with macular degeneration and humans could unlock…

  5. Occupational Cohort Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores how highly correlated time variables (occupational cohort time scales) contribute to confounding and ambiguity of interpretation. Methods: Occupational cohort time scales were identified and organized through simple equations of three time scales (relational triads) and the connections between these triads (time scale web). The behavior of the time scales was examined when constraints were imposed on variable ranges and interrelationships. Results: Constraints on a time scale in a triad create high correlations between the other two time scales. These correlations combine with the connections between relational triads to produce association paths. High correlation between time scales leads to ambiguity of interpretation. Conclusions: Understanding the properties of occupational cohort time scales, their relational triads, and the time scale web is helpful in understanding the origins of otherwise obscure confounding bias and ambiguity of interpretation. PMID:25647318

  6. Structure and morphology of submarine slab slides: clues to origin and behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, Dennis W.

    1991-01-01

    Geologic features suggest that some slab slides probably result from long-term strength degradation of weak layers deep in the homoclinal section. Time-dependent strain in clay-rich layers can create potential slide surfaces of low frictional strength. Competent layers are weak in tension and probably fragment in the first instance of, or even prior to, translation, and the allochthonous mass is readily transformed into a high-momentum debris flow. The structure and geomorphology of slab slides provide important clues to their origin and behavior. -from Author

  7. Clues from hands/Part 2. Personal details about patients revealed by hand examination.

    PubMed

    Schilli, Karen Danielle; Stricklin, Sherea Monica; Payne, Katie Sue; Rader, Ryan Kent; Stoecker, William V

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part article on personal details revealed by hand examination. Examining hands to determine daily activities was the focus of Part 1 in the July/August 2014 Missouri Medicine. Personal traits and preferences, including pets, nutrition and psychology are presented here. These articles serve as a guide for visual clues on the hands to discern a patient's daily activities and personal preference, thereby providing social information that may help establish rapport between patient and physician and may have medical significance.

  8. Better Contextual Suggestions in ClueWeb12 Using Domain Knowledge Inferred from The Open Web

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    To do this, we first split the document into sentences by using the Java BreakIterator class3 which can detect sentence boundaries in a text . We...6/docs/api/ java / text / BreakIterator.html 3 Results and Analysis In this section we present the analysis of the performance of our runs compared to all...relying on ClueWeb12 collection rather than public tourist APIs for finding suggestions. In this paper, we present our approach for selecting candi- date

  9. Improving three-dimensional reconstruction of buildings from web-harvested images using forensic clues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Simone; Tronca, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    During the past years, research has focused on the reconstruction of three-dimensional point cloud models from unordered and uncalibrated sets of images. Most of the proposed solutions rely on the structure-from-motion algorithm, and their performances significantly degrade whenever exchangeable image file format information about focal lengths is missing or corrupted. We propose a preprocessing strategy that permits estimating the focal lengths of a camera more accurately. The basic idea is to cluster the input images into separate subsets according to an array of interpolation-related multimedia forensic clues. This operation permits having a more robust estimate and improving the accuracy of the final model.

  10. Seeking new mutation clues from Bacillus licheniformis amylase by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao

    2009-07-01

    Amylase is one of the most important industrial enzymes in the world. Researchers have been searching for a highly thermal stable mutant for many years, but most focus on point mutations of one or few nitrogenous bases. According to this molecular dynamic simulation of amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (BLA), the deletion of some nitrogenous bases would be more efficacious than point mutations. The simulation reveals strong fluctuation of the BLA structure at optimum temperature. The fluctuation of the outer domains of BLA is stronger than that of the core domain. Molecular simulation provides a clue to design thermal stable amylases through deletion mutations in the outer domain.

  11. Leukemia cutis with lymphoglandular bodies: a clue to acute lymphoblastic leukemia cutis.

    PubMed

    Obiozor, Cynthia; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Fraga, Garth R

    2015-08-15

    Leukemia cutis describes cutaneous lesions produced by infiltrates of leukemic cells. It usually manifests contemporaneously with the initial diagnosis of systemic leukemia, but may also precede or follow systemic leukemia. Most cases are associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Adult B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia cutis is very rare. We report a 59-year-old woman with a history of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who relapsed with aleukemic lymphoblastic leukemia cutis. Lymphoglandular bodies were conspicuous on biopsy and may serve as a morphologic clue to lymphocytic differentiation while molecular and immunophenotypic studies are pending. The patient was successfully treated with local radiation therapy and oral ponatinib.

  12. The Nakhla parent melt: REE partition coefficients and clues to major element composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, G.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nakhla is one of the SNC meteorites, generally believed to be of Martian origin. It is a medium-grained augite-olivine cumulate with a variolitic groundmass of sodic plagioclase, alkali feldspar, and Fe-rich pyroxenes and olivine. One of the major tasks in deciphering Nakhla's petrogenesis is determining the composition of its parent melt. Gaining an understanding of the composition and petrogenesis of this parent melt may help unravel Nakhla's relationship to the other SNCs, and provide clues to Martian petrogenesis in general. Our experimental partitioning studies provide new information that helps constrain both the major and trace element composition of the Nakhla parent melt.

  13. Clues in the eye: ocular signs of metabolic and nutritional disorders.

    PubMed

    Berman, E L

    1995-07-01

    Ocular signs and symptoms provide clinical clues to many of the more common metabolic and nutritional disorders seen in older adults. Diabetes mellitus can affect all parts of the eye and orbit. Complications include refractive visual loss, macular edema, retinopathy, increased risk of fungal infection, and diplopia. In patients with gout, urate crystals may precipitate in the eye and cause conjunctivitis, uveitis, or scleritis. Other problems are seen with Wilson's disease, hyperlipidemia, and albinism. Nutritional disorders usually arise from malabsorption, gastrointestinal surgery, and alcohol abuse. Deficiencies in vitamins A, B1 (thiamine), B12, and C may be manifest in the eye.

  14. Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy, Dropped Head Syndrome, and Hypertension in a Toddler: Is There a Clue?

    PubMed

    Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Ganeshan, Saptharishi Lalgudi; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Rao, Katragadda Laxmi Narayan; Singhi, Pratibha

    2016-04-01

    Paraneoplastic manifestations may provide an early clue to underlying malignancies in children. We describe a 3-year-old girl with an unusual neurological paraneoplastic syndrome of steroid-responsive encephalopathy and dropped head syndrome associated with paraspinal neuroblastoma. Cranial neuroimaging, metabolic screen, and thyroid functions were normal. Abdominal imaging identified a paraspinal neuroblastoma. Encephalopathy and neck extensor weakness responded to pulse corticosteroids followed by tumor resection. This is a unique child with paraneoplastic steroid-responsive encephalopathy and dropped head syndrome in association with neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Association between augmented renal clearance and clinical outcomes in patients receiving β-lactam antibiotic therapy by continuous or intermittent infusion: a nested cohort study of the BLING-II randomised, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Udy, Andrew A; Dulhunty, Joel M; Roberts, Jason A; Davis, Joshua S; Webb, Steven A R; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Gomersall, Charles; Shirwadkar, Charudatt; Eastwood, Glenn M; Myburgh, John; Paterson, David L; Starr, Therese; Paul, Sanjoy K; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2017-03-09

    Augmented renal clearance (ARC) is known to influence β-lactam antibiotic pharmacokinetics. This substudy of the BLING-II trial aimed to explore the association between ARC and patient outcomes in a large randomised clinical trial. BLING-II enrolled 432 participants with severe sepsis randomised to receive β-lactam therapy by continuous or intermittent infusion. An 8-h creatinine clearance (CLCr) measured on Day 1 was used to identify ARC, defined as CLCr ≥ 130 mL/min. Patients receiving any form of renal replacement therapy were excluded. Primary outcome was alive ICU-free days at Day 28. Secondary outcomes included 90-day mortality and clinical cure at 14 days following antibiotic cessation. A total of 254 patients were included, among which 45 (17.7%) manifested ARC [median (IQR) CLCr 165 (144-198) mL/min]. ARC patients were younger (P <0.001), more commonly male (P = 0.04) and had less organ dysfunction (P <0.001). There was no difference in ICU-free days at Day 28 [ARC, 21 (12-24) days; no ARC, 21 (11-25) days; P = 0.89], although clinical cure was significantly greater in the unadjusted analysis in those manifesting ARC [33/45 (73.3%) vs. 115/209 (55.0%) P = 0.02]. This was attenuated in the multivariable analysis. No difference was noted in 90-day mortality. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical outcomes in ARC patients according to the dosing strategy employed. In this substudy of a large clinical trial of β-lactam antibiotics in severe sepsis, ARC was not associated with any differences in outcomes, regardless of dosing strategy.

  17. NCI Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies.

  18. In vitro adhesiveness and biotype of Gardnerella vaginalis strains in relation to the occurrence of clue cells in vaginal discharges.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, T G; Smyth, C J; Keane, C T

    1987-01-01

    Haemagglutination and tissue culture adherence tests using a McCoy cell line were used to examine the adherence characteristics of 105 strains of Gardnerella vaginalis. Each strain represented one isolate per patient. For each patient, a direct smear of vaginal discharge was examined for clue cells. The relation between in vitro adherence and the presence of clue cells was examined. There seemed to be no appreciable relation between the presence of clue cells in smears and the haemagglutinating activity of strains. In contrast, adherence as judged by the McCoy tissue culture system showed a significant relation to the presence of clue cells (p less than 0.001). Though both adhesive characteristics were not inhibited by mannose, the mechanism of haemagglutination of human red cells appeared to differ from that of adherence of tissue culture cells. The findings imply that the clue cell phenomenon is due to attachment of adherent strains of G vaginalis to epithelial cells. Adherent strains of G vaginalis may play a part in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis. Images PMID:3493202

  19. Ability of a Urine Assay of Type II Collagen Cleavage by Collagenases to Detect Early Onset and Progression of Articular Cartilage Degeneration: Results from a Population-based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poole, A Robin; Ha, Nhuan; Bourdon, Suzanne; Sayre, Eric C; Guermazi, Ali; Cibere, Jolanda

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the association of a sandwich assay for cartilage collagenase-mediated degradation, the C2C human urine sandwich assay (IB-C2C-HUSA), with early and late knee cartilage pathology and with progression of cartilage damage. A population-based cohort with knee pain, age 40-79 years, was evaluated at baseline (n = 253) and after mean 3.3 years (n = 161). We evaluated the IB-C2C-HUSA and a related competitive inhibition assay (C2C). The C2C assay was applied to serum (sC2C) and urine (uC2C). Based on knee radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3 subgroups [no cartilage pathology, preradiographic cartilage pathology, and radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA)] were evaluated cross-sectionally for association with biomarker levels. Longitudinally, we evaluated whether baseline assays predict subsequent progression of cartilage degeneration, defined by MRI cartilage loss. Cross-sectionally, statistically significant differences were seen in the 3 subgroups for IB-C2C-HUSA (p < 0.001), with the highest levels seen in ROA, and for sC2C (p = 0.023), while no differences were seen for uC2C (p = 0.501). Baseline IB-C2C-HUSA levels were higher in progressors vs nonprogressors (p = 0.003). In logistic regression analysis, only baseline IB-C2C-HUSA was associated with an increased risk of progression of cartilage damage (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.03-3.09). The IB-C2C-HUSA degradation assay detects the generation of a pathology-related cartilage collagen peptide(s) that increase(s) with onset of degeneration of knee articular cartilage. The baseline values are associated with progression of cartilage degeneration over 3 subsequent years. This assay may have value in clinical OA trials. Further, it points to collagenase activity as a therapeutic target for controlling degeneration of articular cartilage.

  20. Clues to the nature of SN 2009ip - II. The continuing photometric and spectroscopic evolution to 1000 days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, M. L.; Bigley, A.; Mauerhan, J. C.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; Valenti, S.; McCully, C.; Filippenko, A. V.; Hosseinzadeh, G.

    2017-08-01

    The 2012 brightening of SN 2009ip was dominated by emission from the interaction of ejecta with the surrounding circumstellar material (CSM) produced by episodic mass loss from the progenitor, complicating the diagnosis of whether the underlying explosion was a true supernova (SN) or a non-terminal eruption of a massive star. In this paper, we contribute a time series of optical photometric and spectroscopic observations for SN 2009ip from 1 to 3 yr after the 2012 outburst, collected at the Las Cumbres Observatory and the Keck Observatory. We find that the brightness of SN 2009ip continues to decline with no deviations from a linear slope of 0.0030 ± 0.0005 mag d - 1 in the r΄ band and demonstrate that this is similar to both observations and models of CSM-ejecta interaction. We show that the late-time spectra continue to be dominated by the signature features of CSM interaction, and that the large ratio of LH α/LH β ≈ 40 implies that the material remains optically thick to Balmer photons ('Case C' recombination). We combine our late-time photometry and spectra with early-time data for SN 2009ip and provide a comprehensive discussion that incorporates recently published models and observations for transient phenomena dominated by CSM-ejecta interaction, and conclude that the presence of broad H α at early times remains among the best evidence that a terminal SN has occurred. Finally, we compare our late-time spectra to those of Type IIn SN and SN impostors at late phases and find that although SN 2009ip has some similarities with both types, it has more differences with late-time impostor spectra.

  1. Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis in schizophrenic Caucasians: confirming clues for associations with human leukocyte class I and II antigens.

    PubMed

    Dettling, M; Cascorbi, I; Opgen-Rhein, C; Schaub, R

    2007-10-01

    Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CA) is still among the least understood adverse drug reactions in psychopharmacology. In particular, its genetic background is far from being clarified. Within the framework of a case-control study, we performed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping and haplotype analyses in 42 non-Jewish Caucasian schizophrenic patients (N=42) suffering from CA and 75 non-Jewish Caucasian schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine without developing CA. While controlling for age (P<0.0001) and sex (P=0.835), testing of the alleles from both HLA-loci resulted in borderline results for Cw2 (P=0.085, odds ratio (OR)=0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08-1.23), Cw7 (P=0.058, OR=2.0, 95% CI: 0.87-4.63) and DRB5*0201 (P=0.005, adjusted OR=22.15). For haplotype analysis, we obtained significant association results with CA for the two-locus haplotypes HLA-Cw-B (P=0.022) and HLA-DRB5-DRB4 (P=0.050), and for the three-locus haplotype HLA-Cw-B-DRB5 (P=0.030). The complex nature of CA implies that many genes might play a role, but currently, only HLA associations with CA are identified as clinically relevant.

  2. 'I knew before I was told': Breaches, cues and clues in the diagnostic assemblage.

    PubMed

    Locock, Louise; Nettleton, Sarah; Kirkpatrick, Susan; Ryan, Sara; Ziebland, Sue

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis can be both a 'diagnostic moment', but also a process over time. This paper uses secondary analysis of narrative interviews on ovarian cancer, antenatal screening and motor neurone disease to explore how people relate assembling procedural, spatial and interactional evidence before the formal diagnostic moment. We offer the idea of a diagnostic assemblage to capture the ways in which individuals connect to and re-order signs and events that come to be associated with their bodies. Building on the empirical work of Poole and Lyne (2000) in the field of breast cancer diagnosis, we identify how patients describe being alerted to their diagnosis, either through 'clues' they report picking up (often inadvertently) or through 'cues', perceived as a more intentional prompt given by a health professional, or an organisational process. For patients, these clues frequently represent a breach in the expected order of their encounter with healthcare. Even seemingly mundane episodes or behaviours take on meanings which health professionals may not themselves anticipate. Our findings speak to an emergent body of work demonstrating that experiences of formal healthcare during the lead-up to diagnosis shape patients' expectations, degree of trust in professionals, and even health outcomes.

  3. Important Diagnostic Clues for Diagnosing Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma in Absence of Splenic Histology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Suteri, Pooja; Marwah, Sadhna; Nigam, Abhay Shankar

    2017-01-01

    Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL) is a rare B-cell neoplasm comprising less than 2% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. We hereby report a case of SMZL in a 66-year-old female who presented with fever and massive splenomegaly. Peripheral blood smear examination showed atypical lymphoid cells showing variable cytoplasmic processes. Flowcytometric immunophenotyping of peripheral blood showed tumour cells which were found to be positive for CD19, CD79b and showing kappa light chain restriction along with lack of expression for CD5, CD10, CD23, CD103 and lambda. These findings were suggestive of B cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorder. Various differential diagnoses considered in this case were analysed by using different diagnostic clues to arrive at the diagnosis. Bone marrow examination and Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis showed tumour cells in nodular, interstitial and intrasinusoidal pattern of infiltration which were positive for CD20 and CD79b with kappa light chain restriction and lack of expression of CD5, CD10, CD23 and CD103 which further corroborated the flowcytometric immunophenotyping. The diagnosis of SMZL is arrived at by a combination of diagnostic clues like clinical features, peripheral smear findings, flowcytometric immunophenotyping, morphological and IHC findings in bone marrow biopsy. This case highlights the significance of flowcytometric immunophenotyping and bone marrow biopsy with immunohistochemistry to arrive at a diagnosis of SMZL even in absence of splenic histopathology.

  4. The "Umbrella Sign": A Useful Clue in the Diagnosis of Melanocytic Lesions in Sun Damaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Wood, Benjamin A; Harvey, Nathan T

    2016-07-01

    As ultraviolet radiation is an important aetiological agent in melanoma development, the presence of solar elastosis is an important factor in the assessment of any melanocytic lesion. However, melanocytic naevi are also seen in chronically sun damaged skin, particularly in regions with high levels of ultraviolet exposure and fair skinned populations. It has previously been noted that the relationship of a melanocytic proliferation to elastic fibers in the dermis can be of discriminatory value in the separation of melanoma from melanocytic naevus, in particular, it has been proposed that naevi act as a "sunscreen," which may result in a histological clue that the authors colloquially refer to in practice as "the umbrella sign." The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of solar elastosis within and beneath melanocytic proliferations developing in sun damaged skin and to determine the utility of the "umbrella sign" in diagnostic practice. We assessed 81 melanocytic proliferations in sun damaged skin for the presence of an umbrella sign, that was present in 49/53 melanocytic naevi (92%) compared with only 2/28 melanomas (7%, P < 0.05). In addition, entrapped elastotic fibers displaying distinct purple discolouration were identified in 16 melanocytic naevi. This finding was not identified in any of the melanomas. The umbrella sign appears to be a useful clue in the distinction of melanoma from melanocytic naevus in sun damaged skin, although as with all histological features in melanocytic pathology, it requires interpretation within a multifactorial assessment cognizant of potential diagnostic pitfalls.

  5. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  6. Cohort Profile: Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline HD

    2015-01-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997–98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6–12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up. PMID:24609067

  7. Cohort profile: Mysore parthenon birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-02-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997-98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6-12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up.

  8. Cohort profile: Shahroud Eye Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Yazdani, Kamran; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Koohian, Hassan; Khademi, Mohammad Reza; Hodjatjalali, Kamran; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Malihi, Sarvenaz; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2013-10-01

    The Shahroud Eye Cohort Study was set up to determine the prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and major eye conditions in the 40-64-year-old population of Shahroud as a Middle Eastern population. The first phase of the study was conducted in 2009-10. Using random cluster sampling, 6311 Shahroud inhabitants were invited for ophthalmologic examinations; of these, 5190 participants completed phase 1 (participation rate of 82.2%). All participants were interviewed to collect data on participants' demographics, occupation status, socioeconomic status, history of smoking, and medical and ophthalmic history, as well as history of medication, and the quality and duration of their insurance. DNA and plasma samples, as well as four dots of whole blood were collected from participants. Extensive optometric and ophthalmologic examinations were performed for each participant, including lensometry of current glasses, testing near and far visual acuity; determining objective and subjective refraction; eye motility; cycloplegic refraction; colour vision test; slit-lamp biomicroscopy and intraocular pressure measurement; direct and indirect fundoscopy; perimetry test; ocular biometry; corneal topography; lens and fundus photography; and the Schirmer's (1008 participants) and tear breakup time tests (1013 participants). The study data are available for collaborative research at Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

  9. Formation of the Galaxy: Clues from Globular Cluster Ages and Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullton, Laura Kellar

    1996-06-01

    In an effort to bring more data to bear on the problem of the age and formation history of the inner regions of the Milky Way, I undertook a photometric and spectroscopic study of a small sample of globular clusters within 5 kpc of the Galactic center: NGC~6723, NGC~6352 and NGC~5927. The ages and chemical compositions of these clusters provide clues to the formation and chemical enrichment timescale of the Galactic (thick) disk and inner halo. Deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) were constructed for the clusters from data obtained both from the ground and from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A total of 104 UBV frames of two fields in NGC~6723 were obtained during three separate runs at CTIO in 1989 and 1993. Twenty-eight images of NGC~5927 in filters F555W and F814W (similar to Johnson VI) were obtained during Cycle 4 with HST. All photometry of these images was done using DAOPHOT II and ALLSTAR (Stetson 1987, PASP, 99, 191 and updates) following standard reduction procedures. A self-consistent photometric reduction of all 110 NGC 6723 data frames was performed using ALLFRAME (Stetson 1994, PASP, 106, 260). NGC 6352 was observed during Cycle~2 with HST. Four exposures in each of two filters (F555W and F785LP) were obtained. Because these images suffered from the effects of spherical aberration in the telescope's primary mirror, a new flux-conserving deconvolution procedure was developed to allow accurate photometry for this data set. Ages were inferred from the magnitude differences between the clusters' horizontal branches (HBs) and main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) in the CMDs. A comparison between the age thus derived for NGC 6723 and that derived using an independent age estimator, the color difference between the MSTO and the base of the subgiant branch, indicated that the two methods produced similar relative ages for NGC~6723 with respect to other clusters. Three red giants in NGC~6723 were observed with the CTIO 4m echelle spectrograph in 1994. Usable

  10. Hereditary inclusion-body myopathy: clues on pathogenesis and possible therapy.

    PubMed

    Broccolini, Aldobrando; Gidaro, Teresa; Morosetti, Roberta; Mirabella, Massimiliano

    2009-09-01

    Hereditary inclusion-body myopathy (h-IBM), or distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV), is an autosomal recessive disorder with onset in early adult life and a progressive course leading to severe disability. h-IBM/DMRV is due to mutations of a gene (GNE) that codes for a rate-limiting enzyme in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. Despite the identification of the causative gene defect, it has not been unambiguously clarified how GNE gene mutations impair muscle metabolism. Although numerous studies have indicated a key role of hyposialylation of glycoproteins in h-IBM/DMRV pathogenesis, others have demonstrated new and unpredicted functions of the GNE gene, outside the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway, that may also be relevant. This review illustrates the clinical and pathologic characteristics of h-IBM/DMRV and the main clues available to date concerning the possible pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives of this disorder.

  11. Gas in Debris Disks: Clues to the Late Stages of Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    The basic character of debris disks was established soon after their discovery in the mid-80's. These disks around nearby main sequence stars are composed of material produced by collisions and/or evaporation of extrasolar asteroids and comets. Debris disks appear to be largely composed of dust, though little is known about its typical composition. Nonetheless, at least some debris disks have detectable gas, which has very different characteristics from the gas in younger protoplanetary disks. The gas component has resisted observation, but appears to hold important clues to the composition of extrasolar planetesimals during the late-stages of planetary system formation and the formation of terrestrial planet atmospheres. In this talk, I will explain our current understanding of the place of debris disks in the planet formation process and describe what is known about the gas component. Finally, I will outline upcoming opportunities for sensitive new studies of gas in debris disks.

  12. HBL variability at high energies: clues on jet structure and driving engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costamante, Luigi

    High-energy-peaked BLLac objects (HBL) are characterized by the highest energy electrons in the whole blazar class. They show strong variability on many different timescales, in particular in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, which are close to the peaks of their spectral energy distribution (SED). This variability carries information on two different aspects: on how the central engine drives the jet (long time series analysis) and on the details of the acceleration and emission processes in each single dissipative event. In the latter case, the study of flares (down to few minutes in gamma-rays) with time-resolved spectroscopy and correlations in different bands is now providing new clues on the structure of the jet, exposing the limits of the one-zone interpretation for the SED peaks. I will discuss the recent progresses allowed by multi-wavelength campaigns with new-generation instruments.

  13. 'Batman excision' of ventral skin in hypospadias repair, clue to aesthetic repair (point of technique).

    PubMed

    Hoebeke, P B; De Kuyper, P; Van Laecke, E

    2002-11-01

    In the hypospadiac penis the ventral skin is poorly developed, while dorsal skin is redundant. The classical Byars' flaps are a way to use the excess dorsal skin to cover the penile shaft. The appearance after Byars' flaps however is not natural. We use a more natural looking skin allocation with superior aesthetic results. The clue in this reconstruction is an inverted triangle shaped excision of ventral skin expanding over the edges of the hooded prepuce (which makes it look like Batman). After excision of the ventral skin it is possible to close the penile skin in the midline, thus mimicking the natural raphe. In case of preputial reconstruction the excised ventral skin makes the prepuce look more natural. The trend of further refining aesthetic appearance of the hypospadiac penis often neglects the penile skin reconstruction. A technique is presented by which the total penile appearances after surgery ameliorates due to better skin reconstruction.

  14. The CLUE test. A multiparameter coagulation and fibrinolysis screening test using the platelet aggregometer.

    PubMed

    Glover, D; Warner, E D

    1975-01-01

    Optical density measurements of plasma clot formation and lysis were recorded using a platelet aggregometer and strip chart recorder. It was discovered that, by adding standard solutions of ellagic acid-activated partial thromboplastin, urokinase, and CaCl2, and monitoring the reaction via the recorder, characteristic curves would be generated by normal human plasma. The curve segments were labeled Tc (clotting time), which correlated with the activated partial thromboplastin time, Fc (maximum optical density change), which paralleled fibrinogen concentration, and Tl (lysis time), which corresponded generally to plasminogen levels. Deviations from normal curve segments, observed in disseminated intravascular coagulation, hypo- and hyperfibrinogenemia, factor VIII deficiency, severe hepatocellular disease, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and neonates (normally low in plasminogen), indicated abnormalities which were substantiated by standard procedures. This new test, given the acronym "CLUE" for clotting and lysis, urokinase enzyme activated, appears to be sensitive, inexpensive and easily performed on a sample of 0.2 ml. of plasma in only 15 minutes.

  15. Age at onset of Alzheimer's disease: clue to the relative importance of etiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, R.D.

    1987-09-01

    Clues to the relative importance of possible etiologic factors for dementia of the Alzheimer type may be gained by examining the fit of case series to Sartwell's model of the distribution of incubation periods. If age at disease onset is used as the incubation period of this disease, a genetic or environmental factor acting during the prenatal period is suggested if the distribution of these ages fits the lognormal curve; otherwise, environmental factors acting after birth are implicated. Case series were identified from the literature. Four case series were found which contained sufficiently detailed data to permit this secondary analysis; only one case series was population-based. The distribution of age at disease onset for each series was graphically and statistically assessed for fit to the logarithmic normal distribution. Each case series fit the lognormal curve well. This suggests that research into the etiology of dementia of the Alzheimer type should focus on the prenatal experiences of patients with this disease.

  16. Gas in Debris Disks: Clues to the Late Stages of Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    The basic character of debris disks was established soon after their discovery in the mid-80's. These disks around nearby main sequence stars are composed of material produced by collisions and/or evaporation of extrasolar asteroids and comets. Debris disks appear to be largely composed of dust, though little is known about its typical composition. Nonetheless, at least some debris disks have detectable gas, which has very different characteristics from the gas in younger protoplanetary disks. The gas component has resisted observation, but appears to hold important clues to the composition of extrasolar planetesimals during the late-stages of planetary system formation and the formation of terrestrial planet atmospheres. In this talk, I will explain our current understanding of the place of debris disks in the planet formation process and describe what is known about the gas component. Finally, I will outline upcoming opportunities for sensitive new studies of gas in debris disks.

  17. Prosodic clues to syntactic processing--a PET and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Strelnikov, K N; Vorobyev, V A; Chernigovskaya, T V; Medvedev, S V

    2006-02-15

    Syntactic processing of spoken speech often involves prosodic clues processing. In the present PET and ERP study, subjects listened to phrases in which different prosodic segmentation dramatically changed the meaning of the phrase. In the contrast of segmented vs. non-segmented phrases, PET data revealed activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and in the right cerebellum. These brain structures, therefore, might be part of the syntactic analysis network involved in prosodic segmentation and pitch processing. ERP results revealed frontal negativity that was sensitive to the position of the segmenting pause, possibly reflecting prosody-based semantic prediction. The present results are discussed in the context of their relation to brain networks of emotions, prosody, and syntax perception.

  18. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    SciTech Connect

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

    2014-12-08

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  19. Clues to vascular disorders at non-contrast CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.

    PubMed

    Esterson, Yonah B; Berkowitz, Jennifer L; Friedman, Barak; Hines, John J; Shah, Priya K; Grimaldi, Gregory M

    2017-04-01

    Non-contrast chest CT scans are commonly performed while CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis are performed in a select subset of patients; those with limited renal function, an allergy to iodinated contrast, in the setting of suspected renal calculus, retroperitoneal hematoma, common duct calculus, abdominal aortic aneurysm with or without rupture, and in patients undergoing a PET-CT scan. In the absence of intravenous contrast, vascular structures may prove challenging to evaluate, yet their assessment is an important component of every non-contrast CT examination. We describe the key imaging features of both arterial and venous pathology, and review clues and common associated non-vascular findings, which can help the radiologist identify vascular disorders at non-contrast CT. Briefly, alternative imaging options are discussed.

  20. [Implementation of a French cohort of children or adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: ELENA cohort].

    PubMed

    Baghdadli, A; Loubersac, J; Soussana, M; Rattaz, C; Michelon, C

    2014-10-01

    Multidisciplinary cohort studies of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) followed from childhood to adulthood exist abroad but not in France. The objective of the ELENA French cohort is to study the developmental trajectories of children and adolescents with ASD and their risk or protective associated factors. This is an open, prospective and multicenter cohort study, including children and adolescents under 16 years of age with ASD recruited from services specialized in the assessment of developmental disorders. The patients will be monitored every 18 months for at least 36 months and during a maximum of 10 years. Clinical, social, environmental, and genetic data, as well as data relating to the parental quality of life will be collected. The primary endpoint will be the adaptive level in three domains of the Vineland II (communication, socialization and daily living skills). The secondary endpoints will be parental quality of life, comorbidities, interventions and severity of ASD. The inclusion of 1600 patients over a 10-year period is expected. This cohort should contribute to a better knowledge of the child developing an ASD, taking into account the physical, social and familial environment, the type of interventions and some genetic components. It should also lay the foundations for a national network of professionals working in the field of autism research by offering them a common tool for promoting translational studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  2. An Evaluative Review of Uses of Computers in Instruction, Project CLUE (Computer Learning Under Evaluation). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Karl L.

    Project CLUE (Computer Learning Under Evaluation) was an extensive review of the state of the art of the instructional uses of computers. Students, laymen, administrators and teachers will find the first volume of the two volume final report directed to their needs. The introduction discusses the scope of computer uses considered and a timetable…

  3. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    SAGE II Data and Information The goals of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE ) II are to determine the spatial distributions of stratospheric ... profiles and calculating monthly averages of each. The SAGE II sensor (a Sun Photometer) was launched into a 57-degree inclination ...

  4. Cohort profile update: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort follow-up visits in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cf; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana Mb

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we update the profile of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, with emphasis on a shift of priority from maternal and child health research topics to four main categories of outcome variables, collected throughout adolescence: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); (iv) human capital. We were able to trace 81.3% (n = 4106) of the original cohort at 18 years of age. For the first time, the 18-years visit took place entirely on the university premises, in a clinic equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for the assessment of body composition. We welcome requests for data analyses from outside scientists. For more information, refer to our website (http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.projetos_de_pesquisas/estudos/coorte_1993) or e-mail the corresponding author. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  5. Cohort Research in "Omics" and Preventive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Zhang, Sheng; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Jiajia

    2017-01-01

    Cohort studies are observational studies in which the investigator determines the exposure status of subjects and then follows them for subsequent outcomes. The incidence of outcomes is observed in the exposed group and compared with that in a nonexposed group. Recently, new epidemiologic strategies have encouraged cohort research information exchange and cooperation to improve the cognition of disease etiology, such as case-cohort design and nested case-control study, which is available for "omics" data. Meanwhile, large-scale cohort studies using a prospective multiple design and long follow-ups have explored some of the challenges in preventive medicine. Cohort study can bridge the gap between the micro and macro research.This chapter is divided into three parts: 1. Basic knowledge of cohort study, which included the definition of cohort study and different types of cohort study, how to design the cohort study, data analysis for the cohort study, sources of bias in cohort studies, tools and software for cohort studies, and strengths and limitations of cohort study 2. Cohort study for "omics" data analysis, which introduced three related methodologically distinct study designs, case-cohort design for genomic cohort study, nested case-control design for transcriptomics cohort data, and population-based design for integrative "omics" cohort 3. Perspectives on cohort study including data-driven medicine and cohort research, cohort research for healthcare medicine, and cohort research for preventive medicine.

  6. Births and cohort size.

    PubMed

    de Beer, J

    1991-01-01

    Ahlburg (1983, 1986) tested a simple version of Easterlin's relative-cohort-size model of fertility on the basis of U.S. and Canadian post-war data. His conclusion was that the Easterlin model fits the data very well and can therefore be used for calculating forecasts. However, the model he estimated is oversimplified. In this paper an alternative specification is presented. The model is applied to Dutch fertility data. The Easterlin effect is found to affect the movement of births in the Netherlands during the period 1950-85, but a declining long-term trend in average family size proves far more important in explaining post-war births. The model forecasts a rise of births until 2000.

  7. Analyzing Clues in River Evolution of the Bedrock-Controlled Colorado River using Hydraulic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magirl, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    Because the bedrock-controlled Colorado River in Grand Canyon is mantled with Holocene alluvium from numerous debris-flow producing tributaries, little active incision into bedrock is occurring today. Most contemporary geomorphic work performed by the dam-regulated river is focused on reworking debris-flow deposits and transporting sediment, a hypothesis confirmed with the analysis of energy dissipation along 363 km of the river corridor using a one-dimensional hydraulic model (built with HEC-RAS). Using this model to simulate large and extreme floods offers important insight into geomorphic evolution of the river corridor since the late Pleistocene. At low flows (~227 cubic meters per second), the ten largest continuous drops in energy grade in Grand Canyon are associated with debris fans, but during extreme flooding (~11,000 cubic meters per second) only five of the ten largest drops are associated debris fans—the other five drops are associated with bedrock constrictions. The location of these large energy-dissipation constrictions offers clues about river evolution and geomorphic response to landslides, incision knickpoints, and long-lived debris-flow production from select tributaries. For example, one of the biggest energy-dissipation constrictions at high flow occurs at Granite Narrows, a river reach with small energy-grade slope at low flow influenced by the late Pleistocene Deer Creek Slump which dammed and redirected the river. The model demonstrates the landslide’s continued influence on river hydraulics. Similarly, other significant drops in energy grade suggest the presence of knickpoints in the long profile that appear only for larger discharge values. These knickpoints have not been observed by other researchers and could be associated with tectonics or active incision. While energy drops at many debris fans decrease for large discharge (exemplified by rapids drowning out), some debris fans (notably the fan at Lava Falls Rapid) exert increasing

  8. Is the Subduction Actually a Mantle Wedge Upduction? Clues and Interpretations From the Mediterranean Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalera, G.

    2005-05-01

    Recent reviews of large scale seismic tomographies show that the prolongation of the rigid/colder lithospheric slab up to the core mantle boundary is not clearly recognizable. Often the tomographic image of these high-velocity bodies become horizontal - at the deep of the 640 km discontinuity - and often it continues to bend coming back toward the upper mantle. Because the strict similarity of some Italian and Mediterranean tectonic situations to the East Asia tectonics - arcs, trenches, Wadati-Benioff zones, volcanic and seismic activities, and the above mentioned horizontal bending of the alleged lithospheric slab -, many clues are examined in search of new interpretations of the Mediterranean geological and observational evidence, with the aim to find solutions that are exportable to the problems of the circumpacific arc-trench zones. The inspection of facts coming from surface geology, magmatism, geochemistry, different method tomographies, etc., is at variance with the alleged Africa-Eurasia convergence. The clues for rifting prevail on those for compression, and many tectonic situations previously interpreted as due to plates' collision, are associated or mixed to rifting evidence. The high velocity bodies characterizing the Wadati-Benioff zone connect gently with large extents of anomalous high velocity mantle trapped in the transition zone. Then the proposal is put forward that uprising - or upduction - of mantle material wedges - driven by isostasy - between two separating lithospheric plates could be a new work hypothesis. Because on an expanding Earth the Mediterranean region has ever had a little latitudinal extension, it is possible in this view, to identify as Mediterranean phases of opening also the Paleo Tethys and Neo Tethys currently alleged `closures', which have added to the Proterozoic nuclei the Variscan and Alpine terranes respectively. These phases and their orogens have to be considered as extensional phases, and the added terranes of

  9. Selection factors in cohort studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    Cohort studies play an important role in the quantitation of cancer risk among occupationally exposed individuals. Properly conducted cohort studies can develop important data on the age, time, and exposure dependence of cancer risk. Such information allows identification of possible selection effects which may be present and allows generalization of risk estimates to other exposure circumstances.

  10. All in the family: Clueing into the link between metabolic syndrome and hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Reem; Dalovisio, Andrew; Borgia, Jeffrey A; Venugopal, Parameswaran; Kim, Brian W; Grant-Szymanski, Kelly; Hari, Parameswaran; Lazarus, Hillard

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome constitutes a constellation of findings including central obesity, insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia and hypertension. Metabolic syndrome affects 1 in 4 adults in the United States and is rapidly rising in prevalence, largely driven by the dramatic rise in obesity and insulin resistance/DM. Being central to the development of metabolic syndrome and its other related diseases, much focus has been placed on identifying the mitogenic effects of obesity and insulin resistance/DM as mechanistic clues of the link between metabolic syndrome and cancer. Pertinent mechanisms identified include altered lipid signaling, adipokine and inflammatory cytokine effects, and activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and RAS/RAF/MAPK/ERK pathways via dysregulated insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. Through variable activation of these multiple pathways, obesity and insulin resistance/DM pre-dispose to hematologic malignancies, imposing the aggressive and chemo-resistant phenotypes typically seen in cancer patients with underlying metabolic syndrome. Growing understanding of these pathways has identified druggable cancer targets, rationalizing the development and testing of agents like PI3K inhibitor idelalisib, mTOR inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus, and IGF-1 receptor inhibitor linsitinib. It has also led to exploration of obesity and diabetes-directed therapies including statins and oral hypoglycemic for the management of metabolic syndrome-related hematologic neoplasms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Flavin-containing monooxygenase, a new clue of pathological proteins in the rotenone model of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Li, Boyu; Yuan, Yuhe; Zhang, Wanqing; He, Wenbin; Hu, Jinfeng; Chen, Naihong

    2014-04-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc) and accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein in brain areas. Rotenone is a neurotoxin that is routinely used to model PD, thus to help us understand the mechanisms of neural death. Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), usually known as an important hepatic microsomal enzyme like cytochrome P450, was found to play a role in the brain recent years. In our study we aimed to find out the role that FMO might play in PD pathology. Thus we successfully generated rotenone model in primary midbrain dopaminergic neurons and identified the apoptosis of neurons caused by rotenone. We found that in rotenone model of Parkinsonism, the expression/protein level of parkin and FMO1 were decreased accompanied by the activation of caspase 3. Blocking FMO activity by FMO inhibitor methimazole directly caused activation of caspase 3, meanwhile parkin protein level was decreased. Our data indicated that FMO, whose dysfunction could be a reason for the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in rotenone model, might be a new clue of pathological proteins in rotenone model of parkinsonism. Meanwhile, it was suggested that parkin function was compromised in neuro-pathological states, thereby further adding to the cellular survival stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The furrow ink test: a clue for the dermoscopic diagnosis of acral melanoma vs nevus.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ralph Peter; Thomas, Luc; Kolm, Isabel; French, Lars E; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2008-12-01

    Dermoscopy is a helpful tool that can assist experienced users improve the diagnostic accuracy for pigmented lesions in acral sites. As a simplification, one can assume that if pigment is found predominantly in the furrows, the lesion can be considered benign, and if the pigmentation is present predominantly on the ridges, the lesion should be considered malignant. The differentiation between furrows and ridges is the main clue for the diagnosis, but this can sometimes be difficult to discern. For this reason, we describe a simple in vivo technique that makes this task much easier for the clinician. Liquid ink (ie, from a fountain pen) should be applied directly onto the lesion. The ink should be left on the skin for a few seconds to allow the ink to penetrate into the furrows. The excess ink should then be wiped off. The ink will at first diffusely color the entire skin surface. The subsequent cotton swab wiping will only remove the ink on the skin overlying the ridges. The furrows will retain the stain and become clearly visible on dermoscopic examination as thin inked lines. This in turn will make it easy to evaluate whether the melanin pigmentation follows the ink lines (benign pattern) or if the pigmentation is located in between these ink lines (malignant pattern). Conclusion The furrow ink test is a quick and easy method to facilitate the correct identification of furrows and ridges on volar skin and facilitates dermoscopic diagnosis of pigmented lesions in acral sites.

  13. Systematic chemical variations in large 3AB iron meteorites: Clues to core crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haack, H.; Scott, E. R. D.; Rubio, G. S.; Gutierrez, D. F.; Lewis, C. F.; Wasson, J. T.; Brooks, R. R.; Guo, X.; Ryan, D. E.; Holzbecher, J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of numerous individual iron meteorites have shown that fractional crystallization of iron cores result in variations in chemical concentration of the solid core which span several orders of magnitude. The magnitude and direction of the resulting spatial gradients in the core can provide clues to the physical nature of the core crystallization process. We have analyzed suites of samples from three large 3AB irons (Cape York, 58t; Chupaderos, 24t; Morito, 10t) in order to estimate local chemical gradients. Initial results for the concentrations of Ge, Pd, Pt (Massey group), Ir, Au, As, Co, Os, and Rh (Dalhouse group), and P (Arizona group) show significant ranges among the Cape York and Chupaderos samples and marginally significant ranges among the Morito samples. Measurements of Au, Ir, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, As, W, Re (from UCLA) and Ni and Co (Arizona group) are in progress. We find a spatial Ir gradient in Chupaderos with a magnitude similar to the one reported for Agpalilik (Cape York iron) by Esbensen et al.

  14. Orthopaedic manifestations and diagnostic clues in children with Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Itomi, Kazuya; Kitakoji, Takahiko; Iwata, Koji; Mishima, Kenichi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hattori, Tadashi

    2013-06-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy characterized by symmetric limb weakness. Children with GBS sometimes consult the orthopaedists because of limb pain and gait disturbance. The orthopaedists, however, are unfamiliar with GBS, since it has rarely been delineated in detail in the orthopaedic literature. In the present study, we specifically describe orthopaedic manifestations and diagnostic clues in pediatric GBS. We reviewed seven patients with pediatric GBS in regard to age, gender, clinical symptoms, department at the first medical consultation, initial diagnosis, physical and laboratory findings, medical interventions, and the latest clinical outcome. There were five boys and two girls, with a mean age at presentation of 7.2 years. Gait disturbance associated with lower limb pain and weakness was the most frequent early clinical symptom. Among the five patients who presented initially at the orthopaedic department, three were misdiagnosed. Loss of deep tendon reflexes was seen in all patients. Anti-ganglioside antibodies were positive in three and protein levels of cerebrospinal fluid were elevated in five patients. Six patients recovered completely after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, while one patient who had not undergone IVIG treatment showed minor residual disability. Acute symmetrical limb pain and gait disturbance associated with loss of tendon reflexes were important clinical manifestations of pediatric GBS. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent delayed recovery, long-term weakness, and permanent functional disabilities.

  15. Transient tachypnea of the newborn: are there bedside clues for predicting the need of ventilation support?

    PubMed

    Kahvecioğlu, Dilek; Çakır, Ufuk; Yıldız, Duran; Alan, Serdar; Erdeve, Ömer; Atasay, Begüm; Arsan, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    Decision making to transfer a late preterm or term neonate with the diagnosis of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) to an intensive care unit for respiratory support is a challenge for caregivers in level one and two NICUs. The aim of this study was to identify "practical bedside clinical clues" that may help to predict the severity of disease and need for respiratory support in patients with the diagnosis of TTN. Newborns having the diagnosis of TTN were classified into two groups according to the intensity of the respiratory support. Infants receiving only supplemental oxygen and infants requiring nasal continuous positive airway pressure or mechanical ventilation constituted group 1 (mild) and group 2 (severe), respectively. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between the two groups. Patients in group 2 had lower gestational age, higher Silverman and Richardson scores, longer mean duration of oxygen support and hospitalization. A positive correlation was found between subcostal and xiphoid retractions, asynchrony in chest-abdomen movements, arterial pH < 7.30, ratio of PaO < sub > 2 < /sub > / % inspired O < sub > 2 < /sub > < 1.2 and need of respiratory support (p < 0.05). We suggest that simple scores can help physicians to get a good sense of a given baby's likelihood of deterioration.

  16. Clues for a Tortonian reconstruction of the Gibraltar Arc: Structural pattern, deformation diachronism and block rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Comas, Menchu; Balanyá, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    We proposed a reconstruction of one of the tightest orogenic arcs on Earth: the Gibraltar Arc System. This reconstruction, which includes onshore and offshore data, is completed for approximately 9 Ma. The clues that lead us to draw it are based on a review in terms of structures and age of the superposed deformational events that took place during Miocene, with special attention to the external zones. This review and new structural data presented in this paper permit us to constrain the timing of vertical axis-rotations evidenced by previously published paleomagnetic data, and to identify homogeneous domains in terms of relationships between timing of deformation events, (re)magnetization and rotations. In particular, remagnetization in the Betics took place after the main shortening which produced the external fold-and-thrust belts (pre-upper Miocene), but was mostly previous to a contractive reorganization that affected the whole area; it should have occurred during lower Tortonian (between 9.9 and 11 Ma). From Tortonian to Present, block-rotations as high as 53° took place. Together with plate convergence, they accommodated a tightening and lengthening of the Gibraltar Arc System and drastically altered its geometry. As the orientation and position of any pre-9 Ma kinematic indicator or structural element is also modified, our reconstruction should be used as starting point for any pre-Tortonian model of the westernmost orogenic segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean system.

  17. Interdental spacing and orthodontic treatment in competitive athletes: clues to doping with growth hormones?

    PubMed

    Türp, Jens Christoph; Lünsch, Heinz; Radlanski, Ralf Johannes

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this report is to examine clues of a suspected link between the artificial ingestion of human growth hormone (rh- GH) and resulting interdental spaces in adult athletes. We conducted an electronic search in the German-language versions of the search engines Google and Google Scholar as well as in the database PubMed. While no explicit articles could be identified in PubMed, the search in Google and Google Scholar produced 1370 and 6 hits, respectively. Original quotes from 20 sources show that in the media the wearing of orthodontic multibracket appliances among athletes is largely attributed to changes in tooth position as a consequence of the illegal ingestion of rhGH. On the other hand, there are few references to the possibility that orthodontic treatments with fixed appliances might be carried out for reasons unrelated to doping. A definitive assessment of this issue is not possible at present. In view of its major importance of the subject, the relationships depicted here should be investigated in greater depth.

  18. Clues in the differential diagnosis of primary vs secondary cough, exercise, and sexual headaches.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Rocío; Ramón, César; Pascual, Julio

    2014-10-01

    Activity-related headaches can be provoked by Valsalva maneuvers ("cough headache"), prolonged exercise ("exertional headache") and sexual excitation ("sexual headache"). These entities are a challenging diagnostic problem as can be primary or secondary and the etiologies for secondary cases differ depending on the headache type. In this paper we review the clinical clues which help us in the differential diagnosis of patients consulting due to activity-related headaches. Cough headache is the most common in terms of consultation. Primary cough headache should be suspected in patients older than 50 years, if pain does not predominate in the occipital area, if pain lasts seconds, when there are no other symptoms/signs and if indomethacin relieves the headache attacks. Almost half of cough headaches are secondary, usually to a Chiari type I malformation. Secondary cough headache should be suspected in young people, when pain is occipital and lasts longer than one minute, and especially if there are other symptoms/signs and if there is no response to indomethacin. Every patient with cough headache needs cranio-cervical MRI. Primary exercise/sexual headaches are more common than secondary, which should be suspected in women especially with one episode, when there are other symptoms/signs, in people older than 40 and if the headache lasts longer than 24 hours. These patients must have quickly a CT and then brain MRI with MRA or an angioCT to exclude space-occupying lesions or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  19. Left pleural effusion and fever of unknown origin--a clue to thoracic arterial pathology.

    PubMed

    Schattner, Ami; Klepfish, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    The subset of patients who have both fever of unknown origin (FUO) and a nondiagnostic pleural effusion on presentation has not been previously investigated. A retrospective search of all patients classified as 'classic' FUO one week after admission to a department of general internal medicine identified 71 patients over 15 years. Seven were found to have associated pleural effusion(s) on admission (9.8%). In three patients thoracic large vessel pathology was diagnosed (chronic aortic dissection, giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis). In these patients, the pleural effusion was predominantly left-sided, small to moderate in amount and nondiagnostic on thoracentesis. The effusions resolved spontaneously or with appropriate treatment. Thus, in patients with prolonged fever and systemic symptoms, a 'bland' left-sided pleural effusion may be a diagnostic clue to underlying inflammation of large thoracic arteries. Pleural irritation due to its anatomical proximity to the large arteries on the left side of the thorax may underlie the pathogenesis. Recognition of this sign may lead to a more timely diagnosis of occult thoracic large vessel pathology.

  20. Thyroid Paraganglioma: "Naked" Nuclei as a Clue to Diagnosis on Imprint Cytology.

    PubMed

    Taweevisit, Mana; Bunyayothin, Wasakorn; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2015-09-01

    A cytologic diagnosis of paraganglioma of the thyroid is difficult to make because the thyroid gland is an unusual location for such a tumor and the cytologic findings overlap with other benign and malignant thyroid tumors. We report the case of a 28-year-old female presenting with a solitary mass of the right thyroid gland. A diagnosis of paraganglioma was made on the resected specimen. At the time of tumor resection, imprint cytology was performed. The imprint was hypercellular with cohesive sheets of round cells showing anisokaryosis and anisocytosis. Moreover, there was a second cell type consisting of oval nuclei with dispersed nuclear chromatin present within the sheets and separate as "naked" nuclei. By immunohistochemistry, the cohesive round cells were positive for chromogranin A, indicating chief cells. The naked nuclei were positive for S-100 protein, indicating sustentacular cells. To the best our knowledge, this is the first case report describing naked nuclei as a cytologic feature of paraganglioma. Identification of sustentacular cells provides a clue for the cytologic diagnosis of paraganglioma.

  1. Diagnostic Approach to Advanced Fibrotic Interstitial Lung Disease: Bringing Together Clinical, Radiologic, and Histologic Clues.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brandon T; Smith, Maxwell L; Elicker, Brett M; Fernandez, Jessica M; de Morvil, Guillermo A Arbo-Oze; Pereira, Carlos A C; Leslie, Kevin O

    2017-07-01

    - Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a distinctive clinicopathologic entity and the most common form of progressive diffuse lung scarring in older adults. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis manifests histopathologically as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. The usual interstitial pneumonia pattern is distinguished by geographically and temporally heterogeneous fibrosis that is peripherally accentuated, often with honeycombing and traction bronchiectasis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is not the only disease that leads to end-stage lung fibrosis, however, and several other entities may also cause advanced fibrosis. Surgical lung biopsies often present a diagnostic dilemma when they show clear evidence of advanced fibrosis, but the clinical, imaging, and/or histopathologic subcharacteristics suggest something other than IPF. - To address this dilemma, we review several other fibrotic lung diseases, including connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, advanced pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, end-stage pulmonary sarcoidosis, Erdheim-Chester disease, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, and others, detailing their clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic attributes and emphasizing similarities to and differences from IPF. - Data sources comprised published peer-reviewed literature and personal experience of the authors. - Often, clues in the lung biopsy may offer the first suggestion of a fibrotic lung disease other than IPF, and accurate classification is important for prognosis, treatment, and the development of future therapies.

  2. What are the clinical implications of nodular gastritis? Clues from histopathology.

    PubMed

    Sokmensuer, Cenk; Onal, Ibrahim Koral; Yeniova, Ozgur; Ersoy, Osman; Aydinli, Musa; Yonem, Ozlem; Harmanci, Ozgur; Onal, Eda Demir; Altinok, Gulcin; Batman, Figen; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2009-10-01

    There is no widely accepted histopathological definition for nodular gastritis. In this study we aim to uncover the pathologic entity responsible for the nodular appearance and to find clues about the clinical implications of nodular gastritis. Antral biopsy specimens of 160 patients with nodular gastritis and 133 patients without nodular gastritis were examined by an experienced pathologist for dysplasia, foveolar hyperplasia, inflammatory activity, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, intestinal metaplasia, and lymphoid follicle/aggregate formation, and comparative analysis was performed between the two groups of patients. The presence of intraepithelial lymphocytosis was more frequent in patients with nodular gastritis (P < 0.05). There was no difference between the two groups regarding the other pathological features such as presence of dysplasia, inflammatory activity, intestinal metaplasia, lymphoid hyperplasia, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Increase of intraepithelial lymphocytes may contribute to formation of macroscopical nodules in this peculiar type of gastritis. Nodular gastritis would not indicate a new therapeutic approach in addition to the current measures for Helicobacter pylori infection.

  3. Physicochemical Profiles of the Marketed Agrochemicals and Clues for Agrochemical Lead Discovery and Screening Library Development.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hanbing; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Wang, Xianxiang; Tang, Tiansheng; Zeng, Xianyin; Li, Zerong; Chen, Yuzong

    2015-05-01

    Combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput and virtual screening technologies have been extensively used for discovering agrochemical leads from chemical libraries. The knowledge of the physicochemical properties of the marketed agrochemicals is useful for guiding the design and selection of such libraries. Since the earlier profiling of marketed agrochemicals, the number and types of marketed agrochemicals have significantly increased. Recent studies have shown the change of some physicochemical properties of oral drugs with time. There is a need to also profile the physicochemical properties of the marketed agrochemicals. In this work, we analyzed the key physicochemical properties of 1751 marketed agrochemicals in comparison with the previously-analyzed herbicides and insecticides, 106 391 natural products and 57 548 diverse synthetic libraries compounds. Our study revealed the distribution profiles and evolution trend of different types of agrochemicals that in many respects are broadly similar to the reported profiles for oral drugs, with the most marked difference being that agrochemicals have a lower number of hydrogen bond donors. The derived distribution patterns provided the rule of thumb guidelines for selecting potential agrochemical leads and also provided clues for further improving the libraries for agrochemical lead discovery.

  4. Changing facial phenotype in Cohen syndrome: towards clues for an earlier diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Blair, Edward; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Moncla, Anne; Frances, Anne-Marie; Rio, Marlène; Debray, François-Guillaume; Rump, Patrick; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Gigot, Nadège; Callier, Patrick; Duplomb, Laurence; Aral, Bernard; Huet, Frédéric; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Faivre, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations and/or large rearrangements in the VPS13B gene. CS clinical features, including developmental delay, the typical facial gestalt, chorioretinal dystrophy (CRD) and neutropenia, are well described. CS diagnosis is generally raised after school age, when visual disturbances lead to CRD diagnosis and to VPS13B gene testing. This relatively late diagnosis precludes accurate genetic counselling. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of CS facial features in the early period of life, particularly before school age (6 years), to find clues for an earlier diagnosis. Photographs of 17 patients with molecularly confirmed CS were analysed, from birth to preschool age. By comparing their facial phenotype when growing, we show that there are no special facial characteristics before 1 year. However, between 2 and 6 years, CS children already share common facial features such as a short neck, a square face with micrognathia and full cheeks, a hypotonic facial appearance, epicanthic folds, long ears with an everted upper part of the auricle and/or a prominent lobe, a relatively short philtrum, a small and open mouth with downturned corners, a thick lower lip and abnormal eye shapes. These early transient facial features evolve to typical CS facial features with aging. These observations emphasize the importance of ophthalmological tests and neutrophil count in children in preschool age presenting with developmental delay, hypotonia and the facial features we described here, for an earlier CS diagnosis. PMID:23188044

  5. Clinical clues for head injuries amongst Malaysian infants: accidental or non-accidental?

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, M; Veerakumarasivam, A; Kulanthayan, S; Khairuddin, F; Cheah, I G S

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the differences between infants with non-accidental head injuries (NAHI) and accidental head injuries (AHI) may help alert clinicians to recognize markers of abuse. A retrospective review of infants <1 year of age admitted to a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia over a two year period with a diagnosis of head injury or abnormal computed tomography head scans was conducted to identify the clinical features pointing towards a diagnosis of NAHI by comparing the socio-demographics, presenting complaints, clinical features and the extent of hospital investigations carried out. NAHI infants were more likely to be symptomatic, under a non-related caregiver's supervision, and presented with inconsistent or no known mechanism of injury. Subdural haemorrhages were more common in NAHI infants. The history, mechanism of injury, presenting signs and symptoms as well as the nature of the injuries sustained are all valuable clues as to whether a head injury sustained during infancy is likely to be accidental or not. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DARK MATTER DECAY AND ANNIHILATION IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE: CLUES FROM FERMI

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, A. J.; Zandanel, F.; Prada, F.; Jeltema, T. E.; Yepes, G.; Klypin, A.; Hoffman, Y.; Gottloeber, S.; Sanchez-Conde, M. A.; Pfrommer, C. E-mail: fabio@iaa.es

    2011-01-01

    We present all-sky simulated Fermi maps of {gamma}-rays from dark matter (DM) decay and annihilation in the local universe. The DM distribution is obtained from a constrained cosmological simulation of the neighboring large-scale structure provided by the CLUES project. The DM fields of density and density squared are then taken as an input for the Fermi observation simulation tool to predict the {gamma}-ray photon counts that Fermi would detect in 5 years of an all-sky survey for given DM models. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) sky maps have also been obtained by adopting the current Galactic and isotropic diffuse background models released by the Fermi Collaboration. We point out the possibility for Fermi to detect a DM {gamma}-ray signal in local extragalactic structures. In particular, we conclude here that Fermi observations of nearby clusters (e.g., Virgo and Coma) and filaments are expected to give stronger constraints on decaying DM compared to previous studies. As an example, we find a significant S/N in DM models with a decay rate fitting the positron excess as measured by PAMELA. This is the first time that DM filaments are shown to be promising targets for indirect detection of DM. On the other hand, the prospects for detectability of annihilating DM in local extragalactic structures are less optimistic even with extreme cross-sections. We make the DM density and density squared maps publicly available online.

  7. The leaf annals. [Fossil leaves provide clues about ancient carbon dioxide levels

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1993-08-28

    Knowing what ancient variations in the concentration of carbon dioxide, indicative of climatic change, in the earth's atmosphere have occurred, can help scientists predict what lies in store for the next century as pollution drives carbon dioxide levels up. A new technique offers hope for tracing carbon dioxide levels back in time. Paleobotanists report that morphological studies of fossil leaves can offer a clue. Research on vegetation growing in greenhouse has shown that the density of stomata depends on the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, a relationship found also outside the greenhouse. Palobotanists have developed a stomatal index to evaluate ancient leaves, and then have gone further by devising an equation relating stomata indexes to carbon dioxide concentrations of ancient times. This technique suggests that gas levels 10 million years ago averaged around 370 ppm, then dropped to 280 ppm during a cool spell, later rising back to 370 ppm. As with other techniques, this has some critisms, mentioned in the article, but it does add to the information available for evaluating future climatic change.

  8. Genetic expression outside the skin: clues to mechanisms of Genotype x Environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly moving study of Gene x Environment interaction (G x E) needs interim conceptual tools to track progress, integrate findings, and apply this knowledge to preventive intervention. We define two closely related concepts: the social mediation of the expression of genetic influences and the interaction between the entire genotype and the social environment (G x E). G x E, the primary focus of this report, assesses individual differences in the full genotype using twin, sibling, and adoption designs and, for the most part, employs fine-grained analyses of relational processes in the social environment. In comparison, studies of Allele x Environment interaction assess the influence on development of one or more measured polymorphisms as modified by environmental factors. G x E studies build on work showing how the social environment responds to genetic influences and how genetic influences shape the social environment. Recent G x E research has yielded new insight into variations in the sensitivity of the social environment to genotypic influences and provides clues to the specificity and timing of these environmental responses that can be leveraged to inform preventive interventions aimed at reducing genetic risk for problem behavior.

  9. Prenatal pelvic MRI: additional clues for assessment of urogenital obstructive anomalies.

    PubMed

    Capito, Carmen; Belarbi, Nadia; Paye Jaouen, Annabel; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude; Oury, Jean-François; Sebag, Guy; El-Ghoneimi, Alaa

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasound prenatal evaluation of pelvic cystic mass can be challenging. After having ruled out a cloaca anterior to a large hydrocolpos, it is important to differentiate between combined urogenital anomalies such as urogenital sinus and isolated genital anomalies. We reviewed the charts of 13 women referred for a third trimester pelvic MRI for cystic pelvic mass discovered in second trimester ultrasound. We evaluated MRI compared with postnatal surgical findings in order to determine clues for improving prenatal diagnoses. MRI excluded the diagnosis of cloacal malformation in nine cases with no false negative. Once a cloaca is ruled out, a different signal between the bladder and the hydrocolpos on T2 sequences is in favor of an isolated genital obstruction. In contrast, in case of urogenital sinus, the vagina is filled with a mixture of genital secretions and urine, which gives it an MRI signal similar to the bladder on T2 sequences. Third trimester fetal MRI is an essential exam for characterization of pelvic cystic mass diagnosed by ultrasound. This exam appears valuable for invalidating the diagnosis of cloacal malformation and for differentiating between isolated genital obstruction and urogenital sinus. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Body fatness as a cause of cancer: epidemiologic clues to biologic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Byers, Tim; Sedjo, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Carrying excess body fat is a leading cause of cancer. Epidemiologic evidence gives strong clues about the mechanisms that link excess adiposity to risk for several cancer sites. For postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer, the hyper-estrogenic state that is induced by excess body fatness is the likely cause. For esophageal cancer and gallbladder cancer, chronic local inflammation induced by acid reflux and gallstones is the likely cause, and for liver cancer, local inflammation induced by hepatic fatty infiltration is the likely cause. However, for several other cancers known to be associated with excess adiposity, including cancers of the colon, pancreas, ovary, kidney, and prostate, specific causes are not known. Possible candidates include elevated systemic or local tissue inflammation induced by adiposity and effects of the elevated levels of leptin, insulin, IGFs, and depressed immune function that are seen with excess adiposity. There is growing evidence that intentional weight loss not only reduces circulating levels of cancer-associated factors but that it also reduces cancer incidence and recurrence. Better research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link excess body fat to cancer risk as well as to understand the amount of weight loss needed for substantial cancer risk reduction. Finally, as we develop better understanding of the mediators of the effects of excess body fatness on cancer risk, we should identify pharmacologic interventions that target those mediators so that they can be used to complement weight loss in order to reduce cancer risk. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Surface Abundances of NGC 188 Blue Stragglers as a Clue to Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliman, Katelyn; Mathieu, R. D.; Schuler, S. C.

    2013-06-01

    Studies of the old open cluster NGC 188 have discovered a blue straggler binary frequency nearly three times the binary fraction of main-sequence stars, and a secondary mass distribution peaking at 0.5 solar masses for long-period blue stragglers. These features suggest that asymptotic giant branch mass transfer in binary stars dominates the production of blue stragglers in open clusters. However, sophisticated N-body simulations point toward stellar collisions being the dominant formation process. These two mechanisms are expected to result in measurably different blue straggler surface abundances. Blue stragglers resulting from stellar collisions of main-sequence stars are predicted to retain roughly the same surface abundance as the more massive star in the collision. On the other hand, blue stragglers formed by mass transfer from an evolved companion will have a surface abundance altered by the nucleosynthesis that occurred within the evolved donor star. We present first results of a surface abundance study of 21 blue stragglers in NGC 188 using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. These results include measurements of barium, oxygen, and carbon and offer a clue to the formation history of blue stragglers in open clusters. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under grant AST-0908082.

  12. Terror from the sky: unconventional linguistic clues to the negrito past.

    PubMed

    Blust, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Within recorded history, most Southeast Asian peoples have been of "southern Mongoloid" physical type, whether they speak Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Austronesian, Tai-Kadai, or Hmong-Mien languages. However, population distributions suggest that this is a post-Pleistocene phenomenon and that for tens of millennia before the last glaciation ended Greater Mainland Southeast Asia, which included the currently insular world that rests on the Sunda Shelf, was peopled by short, dark-skinned, frizzy-haired foragers whose descendants in the Philippines came to be labeled by the sixteenth-century Spanish colonizers as "negritos," a term that has since been extended to similar groups throughout the region. There are three areas in which these populations survived into the present so as to become part of written history: the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and the Andaman Islands. All Philippine negritos speak Austronesian languages, and all Malayan negritos speak languages in the nuclear Mon-Khmer branch of Austroasiatic, but the linguistic situation in the Andamans is a world apart. Given prehistoric language shifts among both Philippine and Malayan negritos, the prospects of determining whether disparate negrito populations were once a linguistically or culturally unified community would appear hopeless. Surprisingly, however, some clues to a common negrito past do survive in a most unexpected way.

  13. Autoantibodies in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): clues for clinical evaluation, prognosis and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grassegger, Alfred; Pohla-Gubo, Gabriela; Frauscher, Margret; Hintner, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a generalized autoimmune connective tissue disease of unknown aetiology. Profound vascular and immunological dysregulations result in tissue fibrosis affecting the skin and internal organs. Currently, two main clinical subtypes are distinguished, i.e. limited and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, which differ significantly in the clinical course and prognosis. Autoantibodies against topoisomerase (Scl-70), centromere-associated proteins, and nucleolar antigens are important for the diagnosis of the disease and give clues for its clinical manifestations and prognosis (prognostic autoantibodies). For most of these antibodies, however, the role in pathogenesis is not established. Anti-centromere antibodies are associated with limited cutaneous involvement and risk for pulmonary hypertension, whereas anti-topoisomerase I is associated with diffuse progressive disease and severe interstitial lung disease. Anti-Th/To positivity is associated with limited skin involvement but a high risk for severe internal organ involvement (Kidneys, PAH, Lung fibrosis). Anti-RNA polymerase I/III antibodies are associated with a high risk for renal involvement. Autoantibodies against the PDGF receptor and fibrillin-1 seem to play important roles in the pathogenetic process of systemic sclerosis.

  14. Physiological responses of freeze-tolerant and -intolerant frogs: clues to evolution of anuran freeze tolerance.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, J P; Lee, R E; Lortz, P H

    1993-10-01

    Freeze tolerance in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, is promoted by multiple, integrated physiological responses to ice forming within body tissues. By analyzing the freezing responses of the sympatric, but freeze intolerant, leopard frog (R. pipiens), we sought clues to the evolution of anuran freeze tolerance. Physiological responses critical to R. sylvatica's freeze tolerance, such as the synthesis and distribution of the cryoprotectant glucose, protective dehydration of organs, and deferred cardiac failure, were present, but comparatively less pronounced, in R. pipiens. Both species were innately tolerant of hyperglycemia. Glucose supplements did not enhance the freezing viability of R. pipiens, although in vitro tests of cryoprotectant efficacy revealed that glucose and glycerol provided comparable protection to erythrocytes of both species. We conclude that the evolution of freeze tolerance in R. sylvatica is not only promoted by its desiccation tolerance and the fortuitous biophysical consequences of freezing (e.g., exothermic induction of cardioacceleration and moderation of cooling rate) but also involves a progressive enhancement of fundamental physiological stress responses.

  15. A clue to the origin of life: begin from making tools.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiangchen; Yuan, Zhuangdong

    2009-02-01

    The small molecules already existing on the earth can be assembled to biological macromolecules in the presence of the suitable tool. A workman must sharpen his tools if he is to do his work well. The tool must be specific, delicate and automatic. Obviously, it is enzyme. Therefore, to explore the origin of life we must understand the origin of the manufacturing tool of biological macromolecules--the origin of enzymes. We can understand more about the origin and evolution procedures of enzymes from the NO2. NO2 can easily form the dimmer, N2O4. Four N2O4 molecules can coordinate with a suitable metal ion and form a plane super molecule with four N2O4 molecules. This supramolecule provides the basis for the appearance of enzymes: (1) It is the template for producing enzymes. (2) It provides the active centers for enzymes. (3) It provides for the enzymes with specific function of chiral selection. This supramolecule reacts with formaldehyde and porphyrin compound is gradually formed. Once suitable function groups are substituted on the porphyrin ring, enzymes are formed. The primitive environment of earth can easily produce NO2 and CH2O. Therefore, this might be one clue to the origin of life.

  16. Angiotensin A/Alamandine/MrgD Axis: Another Clue to Understanding Cardiovascular Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Hrenak, Jaroslav; Paulis, Ludovit; Simko, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in cardiovascular regulations and its modulation is a challenging target for the vast majority of cardioprotective strategies. However, many biological effects of these drugs cannot be explained by the known mode of action. Our comprehension of the RAS is thus far from complete. The RAS represents an ingenious system of “checks and balances”. It incorporates vasoconstrictive, pro-proliferative, and pro-inflammatory compounds on one hand and molecules with opposing action on the other hand. The list of these molecules is still not definitive because new biological properties can be achieved by minor alteration of the molecular structure. The angiotensin A/alamandine-MrgD cascade associates the deleterious and protective branches of the RAS. Its identification provided a novel clue to the understanding of the RAS. Angiotensin A (Ang A) is positioned at the “crossroad” in this system since it either elicits direct vasoconstrictive and pro-proliferative actions or it is further metabolized to alamandine, triggering opposing effects. Alamandine, the central molecule of this cascade, can be generated both from the “deleterious” Ang A as well as from the “protective” angiotensin 1–7. This pathway modulates peripheral and central blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular remodeling. Further research will elucidate its interactions in cardiovascular pathophysiology and its possible therapeutic implications. PMID:27447621

  17. Biceps tendon sheath effusion as a diagnostic clue to rotator cuff pathology.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pankaj K; Shah, Bhavin; Shende, Amol; Rajesh, S

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of biceps tendon sheath effusion detected on ultrasound as a diagnostic clue to rotator cuff pathology. Despite being the most common cause of shoulder pain in adults early sonographic changes of rotator cuff tendinopathy are easy to miss. A total of 31 patients out of whom 27 had unilateral shoulder pain and 4 had bilateral complaints under- went ultrasonographic examination of shoulder joint using high frequency linear array transducer. Any fluid surrounding the long head of biceps tendon was noted followed by a careful search for any associated sonographic abnormality involving the rotator cuff. Eighteen out of the 35 had presence of fluid in their biceps tendon sheath. Twelve had presence of both biceps tendon sheath effusion and rotator cuff pathologies. Among 17 patients, who had no fluid in their biceps tendon sheath, only 2 had rotator cuff involvement whereas rest 15 had neither biceps tendon sheath fluid nor rotator cuff pathologies. A significant association was found between presence of fluid in long head of biceps tendon sheath and rotator cuff pathologies. Thus the most common finding observed in association with the presence of fluid around the long head of biceps tendon sheath in this study was tendinosis of rotator cuff. On ultrasonography simple presence of fluid around the long head of biceps tendon sheath demands careful examination of rotator cuff.

  18. A Cohort, Is a Cohort, Is a Cohort...or Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.; Akkary, Rima Karami

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a multi-year qualitative study based upon life-history narratives of women pursuing doctoral degrees in Educational Leadership. This paper focuses on findings specific to educational cohort models, and suggests that perhaps, at least for women, naturally emergent cohorts--born of relationships of choice--may be…

  19. Clinical and molecular cross-sectional study of a cohort of adult type III spinal muscular atrophy patients: clues from a biomarker study

    PubMed Central

    Tiziano, Francesco D; Lomastro, Rosa; Di Pietro, Lorena; Barbara Pasanisi, Maria; Fiori, Stefania; Angelozzi, Carla; Abiusi, Emanuela; Angelini, Corrado; Sorarù, Gianni; Gaiani, Alessandra; Mongini, Tiziana; Vercelli, Liliana; Vasco, Gessica; Vita, Giuseppe; Luca Vita, Gian; Messina, Sonia; Politano, Luisa; Passamano, Luigia; Di Gregorio, Grazia; Montomoli, Cristina; Orsi, Chiara; Campanella, Angela; Mantegazza, Renato; Morandi, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations of the SMN1 gene. Based on severity, three forms of SMA are recognized (types I–III). All patients usually have 2–4 copies of a highly homologous gene (SMN2), which produces insufficient levels of functional survival motor neuron (SMN) protein due to the alternative splicing of exon 7. The availability of potential candidates to the treatment of SMA has raised a number of issues, including the availability of biomarkers. This study was aimed at evaluating whether the quantification of SMN2 products in peripheral blood is a suitable biomarker for SMA. Forty-five adult type III patients were evaluated by Manual Muscle Testing, North Star Ambulatory Assessment scale, 6-min walk test, myometry, forced vital capacity, and dual X-ray absorptiometry. Molecular assessments included SMN2 copy number, levels of full-length SMN2 (SMN2-fl) transcripts and those lacking exon 7 and SMN protein. Clinical outcome measures strongly correlated to each other. Lean body mass correlated inversely with years from diagnosis and with several aspects of motor performance. SMN2 copy number and SMN protein levels were not associated with motor performance or transcript levels. SMN2-fl levels correlated with motor performance in ambulant patients. Our results indicate that SMN2-fl levels correlate with motor performance only in patients preserving higher levels of motor function, whereas motor performance was strongly influenced by disease duration and lean body mass. If not taken into account, the confounding effect of disease duration may impair the identification of potential SMA biomarkers. PMID:23073312

  20. Clinical and molecular cross-sectional study of a cohort of adult type III spinal muscular atrophy patients: clues from a biomarker study.

    PubMed

    Tiziano, Francesco D; Lomastro, Rosa; Di Pietro, Lorena; Barbara Pasanisi, Maria; Fiori, Stefania; Angelozzi, Carla; Abiusi, Emanuela; Angelini, Corrado; Sorarù, Gianni; Gaiani, Alessandra; Mongini, Tiziana; Vercelli, Liliana; Vasco, Gessica; Vita, Giuseppe; Luca Vita, Gian; Messina, Sonia; Politano, Luisa; Passamano, Luigia; Di Gregorio, Grazia; Montomoli, Cristina; Orsi, Chiara; Campanella, Angela; Mantegazza, Renato; Morandi, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations of the SMN1 gene. Based on severity, three forms of SMA are recognized (types I-III). All patients usually have 2-4 copies of a highly homologous gene (SMN2), which produces insufficient levels of functional survival motor neuron (SMN) protein due to the alternative splicing of exon 7. The availability of potential candidates to the treatment of SMA has raised a number of issues, including the availability of biomarkers. This study was aimed at evaluating whether the quantification of SMN2 products in peripheral blood is a suitable biomarker for SMA. Forty-five adult type III patients were evaluated by Manual Muscle Testing, North Star Ambulatory Assessment scale, 6-min walk test, myometry, forced vital capacity, and dual X-ray absorptiometry. Molecular assessments included SMN2 copy number, levels of full-length SMN2 (SMN2-fl) transcripts and those lacking exon 7 and SMN protein. Clinical outcome measures strongly correlated to each other. Lean body mass correlated inversely with years from diagnosis and with several aspects of motor performance. SMN2 copy number and SMN protein levels were not associated with motor performance or transcript levels. SMN2-fl levels correlated with motor performance in ambulant patients. Our results indicate that SMN2-fl levels correlate with motor performance only in patients preserving higher levels of motor function, whereas motor performance was strongly influenced by disease duration and lean body mass. If not taken into account, the confounding effect of disease duration may impair the identification of potential SMA biomarkers.

  1. Predictive value of the "clue cells" investigation and the amine volatilization test in vaginal infections caused by Gardnerella vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Marquez-Davila, G; Martinez-Barreda, C E

    1985-01-01

    Although still controversial, an etiologic role of Gardnerella vaginalis is imputed in vaginitis. Besides isolation of the organism by culture, two alternative diagnostic procedures have been claimed to be useful: the investigation of "clue cells" in clinical specimens and the amine volatilization test or fishy odor perception in genital secretions. Herein we report on the findings of the simultaneous use of G. vaginalis isolation, the clue cell test and amine volatilization perception in specimens from 1,263 consecutive female patients referred to our clinic. Our results show that the simultaneous use of both alternative tests is very useful as a screening procedure. A negative result of both tests predicts a negative culture result in 99% of the cases. However, a positive result of either or both should be considered as an indication to proceed to culture and not as diagnostic of infection. PMID:3878365

  2. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047576 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  3. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047582 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  4. Survival effect of first- and second-line treatments for patients with primary glioblastoma: a cohort study from a prospective registry, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Francesca; Tramacere, Irene; Fittipaldo, Andrea; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; DiMeco, Francesco; Fariselli, Laura; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Pollo, Bianca; Salmaggi, Andrea; Silvani, Antonio; Farinotti, Mariangela; Filippini, Graziella

    2014-01-01

    Background Prospective follow-up studies of large cohorts of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) are needed to assess the effectiveness of conventional treatments in clinical practice. We report GBM survival data from the Brain Cancer Register of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta (INCB) in Milan, Italy, which collected longitudinal data for all consecutive patients with GBM from 1997 to 2010. Methods Survival data were obtained from 764 patients (aged>16 years) with histologically confirmed primary GBM who were diagnosed and treated over a 7-year period (2004–2010) with follow-up to April 2012 (cohort II). Equivalent data from 490 GBM patients diagnosed and treated over the preceding 7 years (1997–2003) with follow-up to April 2005 (cohort I) were available for comparison. Progression-free survival (PFS) was available from 361 and 219 patients actively followed up at INCB in cohorts II and I, respectively. Results Survival probabilities were 54% at 1 year, 21% at 2 years, and 11% at 3 years, respectively, in cohort II compared with 47%, 11%, and 5%, respectively, in cohort I. PFS was 22% and 12% at 1 year in cohorts II and I. Better survival and PFS in cohort II was significantly associated with introduction of the Stupp protocol into clinical practice, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.78 for survival and 0.73 for PFS, or a 22% relative decrease in the risk of death and a 27% relative decrease in the risk of recurrence. After recurrence, reoperation was performed in one-fifth of cohort I and in one-third of cohort II but was not effective (HR, 1.05 in cohort I and 1.02 in cohort II). Second-line chemotherapy, mainly consisting of nitrosourea-based chemotherapy, temozolomide, mitoxantrone, fotemustine, and bevacizumab, improved survival in both cohorts (HR, 0.57 in cohort I and 0.74 in cohort II). Radiosurgery was also effective (HR, 0.52 in cohort II). Conclusions We found a significant increase in overall survival, PFS, and survival after

  5. Cohort: critical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digney, Bruce L.

    2007-04-01

    Unmanned vehicle systems is an attractive technology for the military, but whose promises have remained largely undelivered. There currently exist fielded remote controlled UGVs and high altitude UAV whose benefits are based on standoff in low complexity environments with sufficiently low control reaction time requirements to allow for teleoperation. While effective within there limited operational niche such systems do not meet with the vision of future military UxV scenarios. Such scenarios envision unmanned vehicles operating effectively in complex environments and situations with high levels of independence and effective coordination with other machines and humans pursing high level, changing and sometimes conflicting goals. While these aims are clearly ambitious they do provide necessary targets and inspiration with hopes of fielding near term useful semi-autonomous unmanned systems. Autonomy involves many fields of research including machine vision, artificial intelligence, control theory, machine learning and distributed systems all of which are intertwined and have goals of creating more versatile broadly applicable algorithms. Cohort is a major Applied Research Program (ARP) led by Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) Suffield and its aim is to develop coordinated teams of unmanned vehicles (UxVs) for urban environments. This paper will discuss the critical science being addressed by DRDC developing semi-autonomous systems.

  6. The Cycle of Dust in the Milky Ways: Clues from the High-Redshift and the Local Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Massive amount of dust has been observed at high-redshifts when the universe was a mere 900 Myr old. The formation and evolution of dust is there dominated by massive stars and interstellar processes. In contrast, in the local universe lower mass stars, predominantly 2-5 Msun AGB stars, play the dominant role in the production of interstellar dust. These two extreme environments offer fascinating clues about the evolution of dust in the Milky Way galaxy

  7. Two Different Cell Populations Is an Important Clue for Diagnosis of Primary Cutaneous Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Banu Ince; Karadeniz, Müjde; Bozdoğan, Nazan

    2017-01-01

    Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a very rare malignancy. The differential diagnosis of PCACCs in pathology practice can be difficult and a group of primary and metastatic lesions, including adenoid basal cell carcinoma of the skin, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Besides histomorphological clues, immunohistochemistry studies are very helpful in the differential diagnosis of PCACC. We report herein a case of PCACC with extensive immunohistochemical studies and review the literature from an immunohistochemistry perspective. PMID:28243477

  8. The Cycle of Dust in the Milky Ways: Clues from the High-Redshift and the Local Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Massive amount of dust has been observed at high-redshifts when the universe was a mere 900 Myr old. The formation and evolution of dust is there dominated by massive stars and interstellar processes. In contrast, in the local universe lower mass stars, predominantly 2-5 Msun AGB stars, play the dominant role in the production of interstellar dust. These two extreme environments offer fascinating clues about the evolution of dust in the Milky Way galaxy

  9. Utility of the clue - From assessing the investigative contribution of forensic science to supporting the decision to use traces.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Sonja; Albertini, Nicola; Lock, Eric; Ribaux, Olivier; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to grasp the effectiveness of forensic science in the criminal justice process, a number of studies introduced some form of performance indicator. However, most of these indicators suffer from different weaknesses, from the definition of forensic science itself to problems of reliability and validity. We suggest the introduction of the concept of utility of the clue as an internal evaluation indicator of forensic science in the investigation. Utility of the clue is defined as added value of information, gained by the use of traces. This concept could be used to assess the contribution of the trace in the context of the case. By extension, a second application of this concept is suggested. By formalising and considering, a priori, the perceived utility of using traces, we introduce the notion of expected utility that could be used as decision factor when choosing which traces to use, once they have been collected at the crime scene or from an object in the laboratory. In a case-based approach, utility can be assessed in the light of the available information to evaluate the investigative contribution of forensic science. In the decision-making process, the projection or estimation of the utility of the clue is proposed to be a factor to take into account when triaging the set of traces.

  10. Cohort Profile: HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Sophie; Cescon, Angela; Samji, Hasina; Cui, Zishan; Yip, Benita; Lepik, Katherine J; Moore, David; Lima, Viviane D; Nosyk, Bohdan; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio SG; Shannon, Kate; Wood, Evan; Hogg, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Since 1986, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available free of charge to individuals living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through the BC Centre of Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) Drug Treatment Program (DTP). The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort was established in 1996 to maintain a prospective record of clinical measurements and medication profiles of a subset of DTP participants initiating HAART in BC. This unique cohort provides a comprehensive data source to investigate mortality, prognostic factors and treatment response among people living with HIV in BC from the inception of HAART. Currently over 5000 individuals are enrolled in the HOMER cohort. Data captured include socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, health authority), clinical variables (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma HIV viral load, AIDS-defining illness, hepatitis C co-infection, mortality) and treatment variables (e.g. HAART regimens, date of treatment initiation, treatment interruptions, adherence data, resistance testing). Research findings from the HOMER cohort have featured in numerous high-impact peer-reviewed journals. The HOMER cohort collaborates with other HIV cohorts on both national and international scales to answer complex HIV-specific research questions, and welcomes input from external investigators regarding potential research proposals or future collaborations. For further information please contact the principal investigator, Dr Robert Hogg (robert_hogg@sfu.ca). PMID:24639444

  11. Cohort Profile: HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Sophie; Cescon, Angela; Samji, Hasina; Cui, Zishan; Yip, Benita; Lepik, Katherine J; Moore, David; Lima, Viviane D; Nosyk, Bohdan; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate; Wood, Evan; Hogg, Robert S

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available free of charge to individuals living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through the BC Centre of Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) Drug Treatment Program (DTP). The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort was established in 1996 to maintain a prospective record of clinical measurements and medication profiles of a subset of DTP participants initiating HAART in BC. This unique cohort provides a comprehensive data source to investigate mortality, prognostic factors and treatment response among people living with HIV in BC from the inception of HAART. Currently over 5000 individuals are enrolled in the HOMER cohort. Data captured include socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, health authority), clinical variables (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma HIV viral load, AIDS-defining illness, hepatitis C co-infection, mortality) and treatment variables (e.g. HAART regimens, date of treatment initiation, treatment interruptions, adherence data, resistance testing). Research findings from the HOMER cohort have featured in numerous high-impact peer-reviewed journals. The HOMER cohort collaborates with other HIV cohorts on both national and international scales to answer complex HIV-specific research questions, and welcomes input from external investigators regarding potential research proposals or future collaborations. For further information please contact the principal investigator, Dr Robert Hogg (robert_hogg@sfu.ca).

  12. Collembolan Transcriptomes Highlight Molecular Evolution of Hexapods and Provide Clues on the Adaptation to Terrestrial Life

    PubMed Central

    Faddeeva, A.; Studer, R. A.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Sie, D.; Ylstra, B.; Mariën, J.; op den Camp, H. J. M.; Datema, E.; den Dunnen, J. T.; van Straalen, N. M.; Roelofs, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Collembola (springtails) represent a soil-living lineage of hexapods in between insects and crustaceans. Consequently, their genomes may hold key information on the early processes leading to evolution of Hexapoda from a crustacean ancestor. Method We assembled and annotated transcriptomes of the Collembola Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta, and performed comparative analysis with protein-coding gene sequences of three crustaceans and three insects to identify adaptive signatures associated with the evolution of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade. Results Assembly of the springtail transcriptomes resulted in 37,730 transcripts with predicted open reading frames for F. candida and 32,154 for O. cincta, of which 34.2% were functionally annotated for F. candida and 38.4% for O. cincta. Subsequently, we predicted orthologous clusters among eight species and applied the branch-site test to detect episodic positive selection in the Hexapoda and Collembola lineages. A subset of 250 genes showed significant positive selection along the Hexapoda branch and 57 in the Collembola lineage. Gene Ontology categories enriched in these genes include metabolism, stress response (i.e. DNA repair, immune response), ion transport, ATP metabolism, regulation and development-related processes (i.e. eye development, neurological development). Conclusions We suggest that the identified gene families represent processes that have played a key role in the divergence of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade that eventually evolved into the most species-rich group of all animals, the hexapods. Furthermore, some adaptive signatures in collembolans may provide valuable clues to understand evolution of hexapods on land. PMID:26075903

  13. Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the Southern Cone of South America: New Clues from Mitogenomes

    PubMed Central

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A.; Bodner, Martin; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Corach, Daniel; Angerhofer, Norman; Woodward, Scott R.; Semino, Ornella; Salas, Antonio; Parson, Walther; Moraga, Mauricio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Olivieri, Anna

    2012-01-01

    With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j) whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l) and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11–13,000 years) appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups. PMID:23240014

  14. Transferrin hypoglycosylation in hereditary fructose intolerance: using the clues and avoiding the pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, M; Płoski, R; Rokicki, D; Morava, E; Gizewska, M; Mierzewska, H; Pollak, A; Lefeber, D J; Wevers, R A; Pronicka, E

    2007-06-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is caused by a deficiency of aldolase B due to mutations of the ALDOB gene. The disease poses diagnostic problems because of unspecific clinical manifestations. We report three cases of HFI all of whom had a chronic disease with neurological, nephrological or gastroenterological symptoms, whereas nutritional fructose intolerance, the pathognomonic sign of HFI, was apparent only in retrospect. In all patients a hypoglycosylated pattern of transferrin isoforms was found but was misinterpreted as a sign of CDG Ix. The correct diagnosis was achieved with marked delay (26, 36 and 24 months, respectively) by sequencing of the ALDOB gene two common mutations were identified on both alleles or on one (A150P/A175D, A150P/-, and A150P/A175D). The diagnosis was further supported by normalization of transferrin isoforms on a fructose-free diet. Data available in two patients showed that following the fructose restriction the type I pattern of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin detectable on fructose-containing diet disappeared after 3-4 weeks. These cases illustrate that in the first years of life HFI may show misleading variability in clinical presentation and that protein glycosylation analysis such as transferrin isofocusing may give important diagnostic clues. However, care should be taken not to misinterpret the abnormal results as CDG Ix as well as to remember that a normal profile does not exclude HFI due to the possibility of spontaneous fructose restriction in the diet. The presented data also emphasize the usefulness of ALDOB mutation screening for diagnosis of HFI.

  15. Tissue hypoxia during ischemic stroke: adaptive clues from hypoxia-tolerant animal models.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Thomas I; Williams-Hernandez, Ashley; Hunter, Anan L; Liddy, Caroline; Peffley, Dennis M; Umesiri, Francis E; Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola

    2015-05-01

    The treatment and prevention of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury in stroke patients remain a severe and global medical issue. Numerous clinical studies have resulted in a failure to develop chemical neuroprotection for acute, ischemic stroke. Over 150 estimated clinical trials of ischemic stroke treatments have been done, and more than 200 drugs and combinations of drugs for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have been developed. Billions of dollars have been invested for new scientific breakthroughs with only limited success. The revascularization of occluded cerebral arteries such as anti-clot treatments of thrombolysis has proven effective, but it can only be used in a 3-4.5h time frame after the onset of a stroke, and not for every patient. This review is about novel insights on how to resist tissue hypoxia from unconventional animal models. Ability to resist tissue hypoxia is an extraordinary ability that is not common in many laboratory animals such as rat and mouse models. For example, we can learn from a naked mole-rat, Chrysemys picta, how to actively regulate brain metabolic activity to defend the brain against fluctuating oxygen tension and acute bouts of oxidative stress following the onset of a stroke. Additionally, a euthermic arctic ground squirrel can teach us how the brain of a stroke patient can remain well oxygenated during tissue hypoxia with no evidence of cellular stress. In this review, we discuss how these animals provide us with a system to gain insight into the possible mechanisms of tissue hypoxia/ischemia. This issue is of clinical significance to stroke patients. We describe specific physiological and molecular adaptations employed by different animals' models of hypoxia tolerance in aquatic and terrestrial environments. We highlight how these adaptations might provide potential clues on strategies to adapt for the clinical management of tissue hypoxia during conditions such as stroke where oxygen demand fails to match the supply.

  16. Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the southern cone of South America: new clues from mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A; Bodner, Martin; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Corach, Daniel; Angerhofer, Norman; Woodward, Scott R; Semino, Ornella; Salas, Antonio; Parson, Walther; Moraga, Mauricio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Olivieri, Anna

    2012-01-01

    With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (MTDNA) variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j) whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l) and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11-13,000 years) appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups.

  17. Diversity of dwarf galaxy IR-submm emission patterns: CLUES from hydrodynamical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Santos, Isabel M. E.; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Granato, Gian Luigi; Brook, Chris B.; Obreja, Aura

    2017-06-01

    Context. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of low-mass low-metallicity (dwarf) galaxies are a challenging piece of the puzzle of galaxy formation in the near Universe. These SEDs show some particular features in the submillimeter to far-infrared (FIR) wavelength range compared to normal larger galaxies that cannot be explained by the current models. Aims: We aim to explain the particular emission features of low-mass low-metallicity galaxies in the IR-submm range, which are: a broadening of the IR peak, which implies a warmer dust component; an excess of emission in the submm ( 500 μm), that causes a flattening of the submm/FIR slope; and a very low intensity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission features. Methods: The SEDs of a sample of 27 simulated dwarf galaxies were calculated using the GRASIL-3D radiative transfer code. This code has the particularity that it separately treats the radiative transfer through dust grains within molecular clouds and within the cirrus, the dense and diffuse components of the gas phase, respectively. The simulated galaxies have stellar masses ranging from 106-109M⊙, and were obtained from a single simulation run within a Local Group environment with initial conditions from the CLUES project. Results: We report a study of the IRAS, Spitzer, and Herschel bands luminosities, and of the star formation rates, dust, and gas (HI and H2) mass contents. We find a satisfactory agreement with observational data, with GRASIL-3D naturally reproducing the specific spectral features mentioned above. Conclusions: We conclude that the GRASIL-3D two-component dust model gives a physical interpretation of the emission of dwarf galaxies: molecular clouds and cirrus represent the warm and cold dust components, respectively, needed to reproduce observational data.

  18. Parkinson disease, 10 years after its genetic revolution: multiple clues to a complex disorder.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christine; Schlossmacher, Michael G

    2007-11-27

    Over the last 10 years, an unprecedented number of scientific reports have been published that relate to the pathogenesis of parkinsonism. Since the discovery in 1997 of the first heritable form of parkinsonism that could be linked to a mutation in a single gene, SNCA, many more genetic leads have followed (Parkin, DJ-1, PINK1, LRRK2, to name a few); these have provided us with many molecular clues to better explore the etiology of parkinsonism and have led to the dismantling of many previously held dogmas about Parkinson disease (PD). Epidemiologic studies have delineated an array of environmental modulators of susceptibility to parkinsonism, which can now be examined in the context of gene expression. Furthermore, in vivo imaging data and postmortem results have generated concepts that greatly expanded our appreciation for the phenotypic spectrum of parkinsonism from its presymptomatic to advanced stages. With this plethora of new information emerged the picture of a complex syndrome that raises many questions: How many forms of classic parkinsonism/Parkinson disease(s) are there? Where does the disease begin? What causes late-onset, "idiopathic" PD? What are the caveats related to genetic testing? What is the role of Lewy bodies? What will be the best disease model to accommodate the now known genetic and environmental contributors to parkinsonism? What will be the ideal markers and targets for earlier diagnosis and cause-directed therapy? In the following article we highlight some of the burning issues surrounding the understanding of classic parkinsonism, a complex puzzle of genes, environment, and an aging host.

  19. The satellite cell as a companion in skeletal muscle plasticity: currency, conveyance, clue, connector and colander.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Judy E

    2006-06-01

    Satellite cells are companions to voluntary muscle fibres, and are named for their intimate positional or ;satellite' relationship, as if revolving around fibres, like a satellite moon around the earth. Studies on the nature of at least some satellite cells, including their capabilities for self-renewal and for giving rise to multiple lineages in a stem cell-like function, are exploring the molecular basis of phenotypes described by markers of specialized function and gene expression in normal development, neuromuscular disease and aging. In adult skeletal muscle, the self-renewing capacity of satellite cells contributes to muscle growth, adaptation and regeneration. Muscle remodeling, such as demonstrated by changes in myofibre cross-sectional area and length, nerve and tendon junctions, and fibre-type distribution, occur in the absence of injury and provide broad functional and structural diversity among skeletal muscles. Those contributions to plasticity involve the satellite cell in at least five distinct roles, here described using metaphors for behaviour or the investigator's perspective. Satellite cells are the 'currency' of muscle; have a 'conveyance' role in adaptation by domains of cytoplasm along a myofibre; serve researchers, through a marker role, as 'clues' to various activities of muscle; are 'connectors' that physically, and through signalling and cell-fibre communications, bridge myofibres to the intra- and extra-muscular environment; and are equipped as metabolic and genetic filters or 'colanders' that can rectify or modulate particular signals. While all these roles are still under exploration, each contributes to the plasticity of skeletal muscle and thence to the overall biology and function of an organism. The use of metaphor for describing these roles helps to clarify and scrutinize the definitions that form the basis of our understanding of satellite cell biology: the metaphors provide the construct for various approaches to detect or test

  20. Novel sonographic clues for diagnosis of antral gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Cakmakci, Emin; Ucan, Berna; Colak, Bayram; Cinar, Hasibe Gokçe

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether transabdominal sonography may have a predictive role for detection of antral gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in the antrum. A total of 108 patients and 54 control participants were allocated into 3 groups: group 1, controls without any symptoms or findings of antral gastritis and H pylori infection; group 2, patients with symptoms and endoscopic findings consistent with gastritis in the absence of documented H pylori infection; and group 3, patients with symptoms and endoscopic findings consistent with gastritis and documented H pylori infection. These groups were compared in terms of demographics, antral wall thickness, mucosal layer (together with muscularis mucosa) thickness, and mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio. The groups had no statistically significant differences with respect to age, sex, body mass index, and smoking habits. However, it turned out that both antral walls and muscularis mucosa layers were thicker and the mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio was higher in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 (P > .001). In addition, group 3 had statistically significantly thicker antral walls and muscularis mucosa layers and a significantly increased mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio than group 2 (P < .001). Our results suggest that antral gastritis caused by H pylori infection is associated with characteristic features such as thickening of antral walls and mucosal layers on sonography. These novel clues may be useful in the diagnosis of gastritis, and unnecessary interventions and measures can be avoided in some cases. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Chávez Hoffmeister, Martín; Carrillo Briceño, Jorge D; Nielsen, Sven N

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa) suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  2. The Evolution of Seabirds in the Humboldt Current: New Clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Hoffmeister, Martín; Carrillo Briceño, Jorge D.; Nielsen, Sven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. Principal Findings Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. Conclusion/Significance The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa) suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current. PMID:24621560

  3. Age of Diagnosis Influences Serologic Responses in Children with Crohn Disease: A Possible Clue to Etiology?

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, James; Kugathasan, Subra; Dubinsky, Marla; Mei, Ling; Crandall, Wallace; LeLeiko, Neal; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Rosh, Joel; Evans, Jonathan; Mack, David; Otley, Anthony; Pfefferkorn, Marian; Bahar, Ron; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Silber, Gary; Quiros, J. Antonio; Wrobel, Iwona; Nebel, Justin; Landers, Carol; Picornell, Yoanna; Targan, Stephan; Lerer, Trudy; Hyams, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is often associated with antibodies to microbial antigens. Differences in immune response may offer clues to the pathogenesis of the disease. AIM To examine the influence of age at diagnosis on serologic response in children with CD. METHODS Data were drawn from 3 North American multicenter pediatric IBD research consortia. At or shortly after diagnosis, pANCA, ASCA IgA, ASCA IgG, anti-ompC and anti-CBir1 were assayed. Results were compared as a function of age at CD diagnosis (0–7 years vs 8–15 years). RESULTS 705 children (79 <8 yr of age at diagnosis, 626 ≥8yr) were studied. Small bowel CD was less frequent in the younger group (48.7% vs 72.6%; p<0.0001) while colonic involvement was comparable (91.0% vs 86.5%). ASCA IgA and IgG were seen in <20% of those 0–7 yr compared to nearly 40% of those 8–15 yr (p<0.001), while anti-CBir1 was more frequent in the younger children (66% vs 54%, p<0.05). Anti-CBir1 detected a significant number of children in both age groups who otherwise were serologically negative. Both age at diagnosis and site of CD involvement were independently associated with expression of ASCA and anti-CBir1. CONCLUSIONS Compared to children 8–15 yr of age at diagnosis, those 0–7 yr are more likely to express anti-CBir1 but only half as likely to express ASCA. These age-associated differences in antimicrobial seropositivity suggest that there may be different, and as yet unrecognized, genetic, immunologic and/or microbial factors leading to CD in the youngest children. PMID:19107777

  4. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  5. Delta II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Delta II expendable launch vehicle with the ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), cooperative space X-ray astronomy mission between NASA, Germany and United Kingdom, was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on June 1, 1990.

  6. Cohort Profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC)

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan AC

    2014-01-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70 000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). PMID:23599235

  7. Cohort profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC).

    PubMed

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2014-06-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70,000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org).

  8. Operation Everest II.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations across several organ systems as the subjects were gradually decompressed over 40 days to the Everest summit equivalent. There the subjects reached a V(O)(2)max of 15.3 mL/kg/min (28% of initial sea-level values) at 100 W and arterial P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) of approximately 28 and approximately 10 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiac function resisted hypoxia, but the lungs could not: ventilation-perfusion inequality and O(2) diffusion limitation reduced arterial oxygenation considerably. Pulmonary vascular resistance was increased, was not reversible after short-term hyperoxia, but was reduced during exercise. Skeletal muscle atrophy occurred, but muscle structure and function were otherwise remarkably unaffected. Neurological deficits (cognition and memory) persisted after return to sea level, more so in those with high hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, with motor function essentially spared. Nine percent body weight loss (despite an unrestricted diet) was mainly (67%) from muscle and exceeded the 2% predicted from energy intake-expenditure balance. Some immunological and lipid metabolic changes occurred, of uncertain mechanism or significance. OE II was unique in the diversity and complexity of studies carried out on a single, courageous cohort of subjects. These studies could never have been carried out in the field, and thus complement studies such as the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest (AMREE) that, although more limited in scope, serve as benchmarks and reality checks for chamber studies like OE II.

  9. Line profile variations in M giants - Clues to mass-loss and chromospheric heating mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, P. G.; Luttermoser, D. G.; Neff, D. H.; Cuntz, M.; Stencel, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis is presented of time-series, high dispersion spectra of the Mg II, k, Ca II H, and K lines of the semiregular giants Rho Per (M4 II-III, periodicity of about 50 days), R Lyr (M5 III, period of about 46 days), and g Her (M6 III, period of about 90 days). The fine error sensor on the IUE satellite and ground based UBV photometry was used to relate line profile variations to photospheric variations. The above mentioned stars were selected to study the relative importance of convective motions and global stellar pulsations in determining the structure of the outer atmospheres. Small amplitude changes, but substantial changes in the profiles of Mg II and Ca II lines were detected. It is contended that the observed variability is due to changes in chromospheric conditions and not variations within the circumstellar shell. The picture of a steady state chromosphere, which is modulated on long time scales, is corroborated by these observations. Localized heating is found in g Her.

  10. Role of environmental factors in autoantibody production - importance of a detailed analysis in a small cohort

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the previous issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Muro and colleagues reported a detailed epidemiologic analysis in central Japan on one of the new myositis-specific autoantibodies to MDA-5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5), which is associated with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis accompanying interstitial lung disease. The increasing prevalence of anti-MDA-5, higher prevalence in small rural towns, and geographical clustering in two areas along the Kiso River suggest a role of environmental factors associated with rural communities or the river/water system or both. A detailed analysis of a small cohort may offer clues, which is ignored in multi-center studies, to the pathogenesis of systemic rheumatic diseases and autoantibody production. PMID:22380573

  11. The racial cohort phenomenon: seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in a multiracial South-East Asian country.

    PubMed

    Goh, K L; Parasakthi, N

    2001-02-01

    multiracial population in Malaysia points to a 'racial cohort' phenomenon. The infection appears to be confined to a racial group, with the Malays having consistently low prevalence rates. This observation may provide clues to the mode of transmission of infection.

  12. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; McCormack, Francis X.

    2015-01-01

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases have a broad differential diagnosis. A wide variety of pathophysiological processes spanning the spectrum from airway obstruction to lung remodeling can lead to multifocal cyst development in the lung. Although lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are perhaps more frequently seen in the clinic, disorders such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and light-chain deposition disease are increasingly being recognized. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and management approaches are highly disease dependent. Unique imaging features, genetic tests, serum studies, and clinical features provide invaluable clues that help clinicians distinguish among the various etiologies, but biopsy is often required for definitive diagnosis. In part II of this review, we present an overview of the diffuse cystic lung diseases caused by lymphoproliferative disorders, genetic mutations, or aberrant lung development and provide an approach to aid in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25906201

  13. Photosensitivity disorders in children: part II.

    PubMed

    Chantorn, Rattanavalai; Lim, Henry W; Shwayder, Tor A

    2012-12-01

    Photosensitivity disorders in children encompass a diverse group of diseases. Some inherited disorders manifest with photosensitivity early in life. Specific extracutaneous association may be the clue to diagnosis in this group of pediatric photodermatoses. Part II of this 2-part review covers hereditary photodermatoses caused by defects in nucleotide excision repair, double strand break repair, or localized or systemic biochemical abnormalities. Diagnosis and management of photoaggravated dermatoses are also discussed. Sun protection strategies are required in all patients with evidence of photosensitivity. Early recognition and prompt diagnosis is essential to minimize the long-term complications associated with inadequate photoprotection. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The importance of chemosensory clues in Aguaruna tree classification and identification

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Kevin A

    2008-01-01

    Background The ethnobotanical literature still contains few detailed descriptions of the sensory criteria people use for judging membership in taxonomic categories. Olfactory criteria in particular have been explored very little. This paper will describe the importance of odor for woody plant taxonomy and identification among the Aguaruna Jívaro of the northern Peruvian Amazon, focusing on the Aguaruna category númi (trees excluding palms). Aguaruna informants almost always place trees that they consider to have a similar odor together as kumpají – 'companions,' a metaphor they use to describe trees that they consider to be related. Methods The research took place in several Aguaruna communities in the upper Marañón region of the Peruvian Amazon. Structured interview data focus on informant criteria for membership in various folk taxa of trees. Informants were also asked to explain what members of each group of related companions had in common. This paper focuses on odor and taste criteria that came to light during these structured interviews. Botanical voucher specimens were collected, wherever possible. Results Of the 182 tree folk genera recorded in this study, 51 (28%) were widely considered to possess a distinctive odor. Thirty nine of those (76%) were said to have odors similar to some other tree, while the other 24% had unique odors. Aguaruna informants very rarely described tree odors in non-botanical terms. Taste was used mostly to describe trees with edible fruits. Trees judged to be related were nearly always in the same botanical family. Conclusion The results of this study illustrate that odor of bark, sap, flowers, fruit and leaves are important clues that help the Aguaruna to judge the relatedness of trees found in their local environment. In contrast, taste appears to play a more limited role. The results suggest a more general ethnobotanical hypothesis that could be tested in other cultural settings: people tend to consider plants with

  15. Deformation behavior in reactor pressure vessel steels as a clue to understanding irradiation hardening.

    SciTech Connect

    DiMelfi, R. J.; Alexander, D. E.; Rehn, L. E.

    1999-10-25

    post-yield hardening rate is clearly greater than that of the unirradiated material, and the flow curves cannot be made to superimpose. The binary iron-base model alloys studied here show a less pronounced difference in flow behavior for neutrons and electrons than exhibited by the steels, implicating the effect of alloy chemistry. Our results are analyzed in the context of classical theories dealing with the interaction between the deformation microstructure, i.e. glide dislocations, and irradiation-produced defects. Our findings provide clues about the way different alloy constituents interact with the different kinds of irradiation damage to strengthen the material differently.

  16. Factors Controlling the Evolution of Anatolia: Clues from Teleseismic Finite-Frequency Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryol, C. B.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Ozacar, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    The complex and sinusoidal pattern of subduction zones of the Mediterranenan region plays an important role in controlling the current tectonic framework of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The Anatolian region is part of this belt and it displays the complex characteristics of the interplay between continent collision in the east and subduction-rollback related backarc extension in the west. The ongoing northward subduction of the African Plate beneath the Anatolian Plate contributes significantly to the emergence of the current tectonic setting of this region. Despite its crucial effect on the tectonics of Anatolia, there are only a few studies that focus on the deeper extent of this zone. In this study we provide higher resolution tomographic images of the subducting African lithosphere beneath Anatolia. Our approach is based on analysis of teleseismic body-wave travel-time data using a finite-frequency seismic tomography algorithm. The data for our analysis comes from multiple permanent and temporary networks deployed in the region. A major part of our dataset is formed by the multiple frequency-band picks of P-wave arrival times recorded at more than 100 broadband and short-period seismic stations of the National Earthquake Monitoring Center and 39 broadband seismic stations of the North Anatolian Passive Seismic Experiment network. The results of our analysis indicates the presence of large and smaller scale gaps in the subducting African Lithosphere, that are interpreted as slab tears. The most significant tear is located beneath western Anatolia with a maximum width of ~250 km. This tear is marked by lack of intermediate to deep seismicity and is associated with slow seismic speed perturbations that we interpret as ascending hot, buoyant asthenosphere. The configuration of the edges of this gap at depths between 50 to 200 km provides clues about how the impediments on the subducting seafloor could have an influence on rates of roll-back on both sides

  17. Cassini microwave observations provide clues to the origin of Saturn's C ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hayes, A. G.; Janssen, M. A.; Nicholson, P. D.; Cuzzi, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Dunn, D. E.; Estrada, P. R.; Hedman, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite considerable study, Saturn's rings continue to challenge current theories for their provenance. Water ice comprises the bulk of Saturn's rings, yet it is the small fraction of non-icy material that is arguably more valuable in revealing clues about the system's origin and age. Herein, we present new measurements of the non-icy material fraction in Saturn's C ring, determined from microwave radiometry observations acquired by the Cassini spacecraft. Our observations show an exceptionally high brightness at near-zero azimuthal angles, suggesting a high porosity of 70-75% for the C ring particles. Furthermore, our results show that most regions in the C ring contain about 1-2% silicates. These results are consistent with an initially nearly pure-ice ring system that has been continuously contaminated by in-falling micrometeoroids over ∼15-90 million years, using the currently accepted value of the micrometeoroid flux at infinity of ∼4.5 × 10-17g cm-2 s-1, and assuming that the C ring optical depth and surface density has not changed significantly during that time. This absolute time scale is inversely proportional not only to the flux at infinity, but also to the amount of gravitational focusing by Saturn the micrometeoroids experience before encountering the rings. We also find an enhanced abundance of non-icy material concentrated in the middle C ring. When assumed to be mixed volumetrically ("intramixed") with water ice, this enhanced contamination reaches a maximum concentration of 6-11% silicates by volume around a ring radius of 83,000 km, depending on the volume mixing model used. This is significantly higher than the inner and outer C ring. As opposed to an intramixing model, we also consider a silicate-core, icy-mantle model to address the fact that silicates may be present in chunks instead of fine powder in the ring particles. Such a model naturally helps to account for the observed opacity distribution. We propose several models to explain the

  18. Chemical Clues of a Changing Upper Arctic Ocean Circulation: A tribute to John M. Edmond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, K. K.

    2001-12-01

    Chemical Clues of a Changing Upper Arctic Ocean Circulation: A tribute to John M. Edmond In April 2000, an international research team, supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), embarked on a five-year program to undertake atmosphere-ice-ocean observations at distributed locations in the high Arctic Ocean. The first temporary camp at the North Pole that year laid the groundwork for taking the pulse of the Arctic Ocean and learning how the world's northernmost sea helps regulate global climate. The Arctic Ocean has been affected in recent years by dramatic thinning of sea ice and shifts in ocean circulation which seem to be related to a pattern of change in the atmospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere. The objective of the "North Pole Environmental Observatory" or NPEO is to document further change and to understand what is controlling the Arctic system. Among other things, the NPEO includes a hydrographic component in which Twin Otter aircraft are landed on the ice at targeted stations in order to record ocean properties and take water samples through holes drilled in the ice. I am responsible for contributing chemical measurements to deciphering upper ocean circulation patterns under the ice. Properties analyzed thus far include salinity, nutrients, oxygen, oxygen isotopic composition of water and barium. Results are posted at http://chemoc.oce.orst.edu/users/kfalkner/index.html this web-site by year. This site is linked to the main project web-site where additional information about NPEO can be found. In my AGU presentation, I will describe the challenging field program and summarize implications of the chemical data to date. The news of John Edmond's untimely death reached me while I was en route to the North Pole camp this past April. Seemingly endless hours on a Canadian Hercules allowed me to reflect on the many influences John had on me as his graduate student and beyond. One thing is certain; there was no way in hell I'd have been

  19. Hyaline droplets in Kupffer cells: a novel diagnostic clue for autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Suzanne M; Jonas, Maureen M; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R

    2015-06-01

    described. They should be distinguished from the nonspecific granular lysosomal structures frequently found in Kupffer cells in a variety of chronic liver diseases and from erythrophagocytosis. Hyaline droplets may occur in AIH regardless of the type and correlate with a >2-fold increase in serum level of IgG as compared with patients without droplets in their biopsies. Identification of hyaline droplets in Kupffer cells provides a useful diagnostic clue to distinguish AIH from other forms of chronic hepatitis.

  20. Sarcoidosis or Sjögren syndrome? Clues to defining mimicry or coexistence in 59 cases.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; García-Carrasco, Mario; Font, Josep

    2004-03-01

    We present 5 new cases of coexisting sarcoidosis and Sjögren syndrome (SS) and review the literature for additional cases in order to analyze the clinical, immunologic, and histologic characteristics that may help physicians differentiate the mimicry of SS by sarcoidosis from a true coexistence of both autoimmune diseases. We considered the coexistence of sarcoidosis with SS to be when patients presented specific histologic patterns of both diseases, simultaneously or at different times.Fifty-nine patients were included in the analysis (54 identified in the literature search plus our 5 unpublished cases): 49 (83%) patients were female and 10 (17%) were male, with a mean age at diagnosis of 50 years. According to the histopathologic examination of the exocrine glands performed in 53 cases, we defined coexistence of sarcoidosis and SS in 28 cases, while in the remaining 25 patients, sarcoidosis mimicked SS. Clues to identifying when sarcoidosis coexists with SS were a higher prevalence of systemic manifestations (arthritis and uveitis) and positive immunologic parameters (antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and anti-Ro/SS-A), as well as the existence of a focal sialadenitis (Chisholm-Mason score grades III-IV, with a CD4+ lymphocytic infiltration) in the salivary gland biopsy. In patients first diagnosed with primary SS, the appearance of some clinical features such as hilar adenopathies, uveitis, or hypercalcemia leads to the diagnosis of coexisting sarcoidosis. A careful application of the new American-European consensus criteria had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 92% in identifying when SS coexists with sarcoidosis.In conclusion, the association of sarcoidosis with SS leads to a true coexistence of both diseases in more than half the patients described in the literature, while in the remaining patients, sarcoidosis mimics SS. In light of these results, sarcoidosis should not be considered as an exclusion criterion for the diagnosis of SS, and in

  1. [right] - DUST RING AROUND STAR OFFERS NEW CLUES INTO PLANET FORMATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope false-color near infrared image of a novel type of structure seen in space - a dust ring around a star. Superficially resembling Saturn's rings -- but on a vastly larger scale -- the 'hula-hoop' around the star called HR 4796A offers new clues into the possible presence of young planets. The near-infrared light reflecting off the dust ring is about 1,000 times fainter than the illuminating central star. Astronomers used a coronagraphic camera on Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), specifically designed to enable observations of very faint and low surface brightness objects in the close proximity to bright stars. Even with the coronagraph, the glare from HR 4796A overwhelms the much-fainter ring at distances less than about 4 billion miles (inside the blacked-out circle, centered on the star). Hubble's crisp view was able to resolve the ring, seen at lower resolution at longer wavelengths, in ground-based thermal infrared images, as a disk with some degree of central clearing. The ring has an angular radius of 1.05 arc seconds, equivalent to the apparent size of a dime seen more than 4 miles away. Unlike the extensive disks of dust seen around other young stars, the HR 4796A dust ring, 6.5 billion miles from the star, is tightly confined within a relatively narrow zone less than 17 Astronomical Units wide. An Astronomical Unit is the distance from the Earth to the Sun). For comparison, the ring width is approximately equal to the distance separating the orbits of Mars and Uranus in our own Solar System. All dust rings, whether around stars or planets, can only stay intact by some mechanism confining the dust, likely the gravitational tug of unseen planets. The image was taken on March 15, 1998, centered at a near infrared wavelength of 1.1 microns. The false-color corresponds to the ring's brightness (yellow is bright, purple is faint). The ring, which is undoubtedly circular, appears elliptical since

  2. Genetic characterization of Plectorhinchus mediterraneus yields important clues about genome organization and evolution of multigene families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    markers have been obtained. Some of these results have not been described before in any other fish species. New clues about the genome organization and evolution of the multigene families are offered in this study. PMID:22545758

  3. [right] - DUST RING AROUND STAR OFFERS NEW CLUES INTO PLANET FORMATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope false-color near infrared image of a novel type of structure seen in space - a dust ring around a star. Superficially resembling Saturn's rings -- but on a vastly larger scale -- the 'hula-hoop' around the star called HR 4796A offers new clues into the possible presence of young planets. The near-infrared light reflecting off the dust ring is about 1,000 times fainter than the illuminating central star. Astronomers used a coronagraphic camera on Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), specifically designed to enable observations of very faint and low surface brightness objects in the close proximity to bright stars. Even with the coronagraph, the glare from HR 4796A overwhelms the much-fainter ring at distances less than about 4 billion miles (inside the blacked-out circle, centered on the star). Hubble's crisp view was able to resolve the ring, seen at lower resolution at longer wavelengths, in ground-based thermal infrared images, as a disk with some degree of central clearing. The ring has an angular radius of 1.05 arc seconds, equivalent to the apparent size of a dime seen more than 4 miles away. Unlike the extensive disks of dust seen around other young stars, the HR 4796A dust ring, 6.5 billion miles from the star, is tightly confined within a relatively narrow zone less than 17 Astronomical Units wide. An Astronomical Unit is the distance from the Earth to the Sun). For comparison, the ring width is approximately equal to the distance separating the orbits of Mars and Uranus in our own Solar System. All dust rings, whether around stars or planets, can only stay intact by some mechanism confining the dust, likely the gravitational tug of unseen planets. The image was taken on March 15, 1998, centered at a near infrared wavelength of 1.1 microns. The false-color corresponds to the ring's brightness (yellow is bright, purple is faint). The ring, which is undoubtedly circular, appears elliptical since

  4. Cohort profile: the skin cancer after organ transplant study.

    PubMed

    Madeleine, Margaret M; Johnson, Lisa G; Daling, Janet R; Schwartz, Stephen M; Carter, Joseph J; Berg, Daniel; Nelson, Karen; Davis, Connie L; Galloway, Denise A

    2013-12-01

    The Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant (SCOT) study was designed to investigate the link between genus beta human papillomavirus (HPV) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCSC). We focused on a population receiving immunosuppressive therapy for extended periods, transplant patients, as they are at extremely high risk for developing SCSC. Two complementary projects were conducted in the Seattle area: (i) a retrospective cohort with interview data from 2004 recipients of renal or cardiac transplants between 1995 and 2010 and (ii) a prospective cohort with interview data from 328 people on the transplant waiting lists between 2009 and 2011. Within the retrospective cohort, we developed a nested case-control study (172 cases and 337 control subjects) to assess risk of SCSC associated with markers of HPV in SCSC tumour tissue and eyebrow hair bulb DNA (HPV genotypes) and blood (HPV antibodies). In the prospective cohort, 135 participants had a 1-year post-transplant visit and 71 completed a 2-year post-transplant visit. In both arms of the cohort, we collected samples to assess markers of HPV infection such as acquisition of new types, proportion positive for each type, persistence of types at consecutive visits and number of HPV types detected. In the prospective cohort, we will also examine these HPV markers in relation to levels of cell-mediated immunity. The goal of the SCOT study is to use the data we collected to gain a more complete understanding of the role of immune suppression in HPV kinetics and of genus beta HPV types in SCSC. For more information, please contact the principal investigator through the study website: http://www.fhcrc.org/science/phs/cerc/The_SCOT_Study.html.

  5. Cohort profile: the Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Prescott, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Lange, Theis; Keiding, Niels; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Ingelise

    2014-12-01

    The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study was established to determine pathways through which socioeconomic position affects morbidity and mortality, in particular common subtypes of cancer. Data from seven well-established cohort studies from Denmark were pooled. Combining these cohorts provided a unique opportunity to generate a large study population with long follow-up and sufficient statistical power to develop and apply new methods for quantification of the two basic mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cancer-mediation and interaction. The SIC cohort included 83 006 participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at inan@sund.ku.dk.

  6. Input data to run Landis-II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeJager, Nathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The data are input data files to run the forest simulation model Landis-II for Isle Royale National Park. Files include: a) Initial_Comm, which includes the location of each mapcode, b) Cohort_ages, which includes the ages for each tree species-cohort within each mapcode, c) Ecoregions, which consist of different regions of soils and climate, d) Ecoregion_codes, which define the ecoregions, and e) Species_Params, which link the potential establishment and growth rates for each species with each ecoregion.

  7. FAQs II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Frank, Vikki; Lester, Jaime; Yang, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    In their paper entitled "Why should postsecondary institutions consider partnering to offer (Individual Development Accounts (IDAs)?" the authors reviewed frequently asked questions they encountered from higher education professionals about IDAs, but as their research continued so did the questions. FAQ II has more in-depth questions and…

  8. Operation Everest II

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    mechanism or significance. OE II was unique in the diversity and complexity of studies carried out on a single, courageous cohort of subjects. These studies could never have been carried out in the field, and thus complement studies such as the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest (AMREE) that, although more limited in scope, serve as benchmarks and reality checks for chamber studies like OE II. PMID:20586595

  9. Gamma II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, M.; Cline, J.; Owen, L.; Boehme, J.; Rottler, L.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.

    2011-05-01

    GAMMA II is the Guide Star Automatic Measuring MAchine relocated from STScI to the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). GAMMA II is a multi-channel laser-scanning microdensitometer that was used to measure POSS and SERC plates to create the Guide Star Catalog and the Digital Sky Survey. The microdensitometer is designed with submicron accuracy in x and y measurements using a HP 5507 laser interferometer, 15 micron sampling, and the capability to measure plates as large as 0.5-m across. GAMMA II is a vital instrument for the success of digitizing the direct, objective prism, and spectra photographic plate collections in APDA for research. We plan several targeted projects. One is a collaboration with Drs. P.D. Hemenway and R. L. Duncombe who plan to scan 1000 plates of 34 minor planets to identify systematic errors in the Fundamental System of celestial coordinates. Another is a collaboration with Dr. R. Hudec (Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) who is working within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 to digitize objective prism spectra on the Henize plates and Burrell-Schmidt plates located in APDA. These low dispersion spectral plates provide optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources and cataclysmic variables enabling the simulation of Gaia BP/RP outputs. The astronomical community is invited to explore the more than 140,000 plates from 20 observatories now archived in APDA, and use GAMMA II. The process of relocating GAMMA to APDA, re-commissioning, and starting up the production scan programs will be described. Also, we will present planned research and future upgrades to GAMMA II.

  10. THE MASSES OF POPULATION II WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Davis, D. Saul; Richer, Harvey B.; Bergeron, P.; Catelan, Marcio; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Michael Rich, R. E-mail: sdavis@astro.ubc.c E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.c E-mail: hansen@astro.ucla.ed

    2009-11-01

    Globular star clusters are among the first stellar populations to have formed in the Milky Way, and thus only a small sliver of their initial spectrum of stellar types are still burning hydrogen on the main sequence today. Almost all of the stars born with more mass than 0.8 M{sub sun} have evolved to form the white dwarf cooling sequence of these systems, and the distribution and properties of these remnants uniquely holds clues related to the nature of the now evolved progenitor stars. With ultra-deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations, rich white dwarf populations of four nearby Milky Way globular clusters have recently been uncovered, and are found to extend impressive 5-8 mag in the faint-blue region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In this paper, we characterize the properties of these population II remnants by presenting the first direct mass measurements of individual white dwarfs near the tip of the cooling sequence in the nearest of the Milky Way globulars, M4. Based on Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS multiobject spectroscopic observations, our results indicate that 0.8 M{sub sun} population II main-sequence stars evolving today form 0.53 +- 0.01 M{sub sun} white dwarfs. We discuss the implications of this result as it relates to our understanding of stellar structure and evolution of population II stars and for the age of the Galactic halo, as measured with white dwarf cooling theory.

  11. Ages, chemistry, and type 1A supernovae: Clues to the formation of the galactic stellar halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    We endeavor to resolve two conflicting constraints on the duration of the formation of the Galactic stellar halo - 2-3 Gyr age differences in halo stars, and the time scale inferred from the observed constant values of chemical element abundance ratios characteristic of enrichment by Type II supernovae - by investigating the time scale for the onset of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) in the currently favored progenitor model - mergers of carbon and oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs).

  12. Titan's topography as a clue to geologic processes and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Cassini has revealed a diversity of surface features on Titan rivaled by few bodies in the Solar System. Some of these features are readily identified: dunes, channels, lakes, seas, fresh impact craters, and mountains. Others are enigmatic and in some cases have sparked debate about their mode of origin. Given the limited resolution of the Cassini images, at best 300 m for synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) images, it can be difficult to identify details that might confirm a particular mode of origin. Supplementing the images with topographic information provides an important and sometimes crucial clue to the origin and evolution of landforms. Topographic profiles from altimetry and SARTopo analysis of the images can shed light on simpler features (e.g., dunes) and led to the surprising conclusion that Titan's largest feature, Xanadu, is not elevated as had been supposed. For more complex structures, digital topographic models (DTMs) provide a full three-dimensional view. About 10% of Titan's surface has been imaged in stereo by RADAR, and we have produced DTMs of about 2% by analyzing these stereopairs. Analysis of the results within the Cassini RADAR team has shed light on a number of geologic problems: * Some putative volcanic features (e.g., the supposed dome Ganesa Macula and various diffuse surface flows) have been shown to lack the expected relief, greatly weakening the case for their volcanic origin. * Conversely, flows in Hotei Regio have been shown to tower over nearby fluvial channels, and those near Sotra Facula are associated with multiple edifices and caldera-like pits, strengthening the case for a volcanic origin. * Depths of the handful of definite impact craters measured so far range from Ganymede-like to nearly zero, and are statistically consistent with a process such as eolian deposition that would steadily reduce the crater depth rather than a process such as surface erosion that would tend to leave craters only partially filled. * Clustering of

  13. Microwave observations provide clues to the origin of Saturn's main rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhimeng

    Despite considerable study, Saturn's rings continue to challenge current theories for their provenance. Water ice comprises the bulk of Saturn's rings, yet it is the small fraction of non-icy material that is more valuable in revealing clues about the system's origin and age. Herein, we present new measurements of the non-icy material fraction in Saturn's main rings, determined from microwave radiometry observations acquired by the Cassini spacecraft at 2.2 cm and multi-wavelength VLA interferometer. We find the C ring particles to be 70%-75% porous. Our results also show that most regions in the C ring contain about 1-2% silicates together with an enhanced abundance in the middle C ring reaching 6%-11% when assumed to be mixed volumetrically ("intramixed") with water ice. As opposed to an intramixure model, we also consider a silicate-core, icy-mantle model to address the fact that silicates may be present in chunks instead of fine powder in the ring particles, which naturally explains the opacity distribution. Our most preferred model is that the C ring has been continuously polluted by meteoroid bombardment since it first formed 15-90 million years ago, while the middle C ring was further contaminated by an disrupted Centaur 10-20 million years ago. We derive the silicates fractions in the B ring, which has a significant dependence on the assumed porosity, but the radial distribution follows the same trend as the optical depth. Owing to the B ring's high opacity (i.e. high optical depth but low surface density), its particles are likely to have 85%-90% porosity, with corresponding silicates fractions of 0.3%-0.5% in the inner and outer B ring, and 0.1%-0.2% in the middle regions. For the A ring interior to the Encke gap, the derived silicate fraction is 0.2%-0.3% everywhere for porosities ranging from 55%-90%. Finally, our results for the Cassini Division indicate a silicates fraction of 1%-2% similar to most regions in the C ring, except that the Cassini

  14. Discrete Climatic Events on Timescales of Decades to Centuries: Clues from Polar Landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2002-12-01

    depressions were reactivated close to the same time as the smaller ones began forming. It is possible therefore that the same climatic event is responsible in both cases. Modeling these quickly evolving polar landforms can offer clues to Martian climatic events on timescales of decades to centuries. Changes in orbital parameters on these timescales are negligible, implying that Mars' climate has some intrinsically variability. It seems unlikely that we happen to be observing Mars during a single short-lived episode of Swiss-cheese growth. A more likely possibility is that this is part of a longer term cyclic process containing many of these climatic events. We report on these possible events and develop some scenarios of the recent history of Mars' climate and southern residual cap.

  15. Can Halogen Enrichment in Reduced Enstatite Chondrites Provide Clues to Volatile Accretion in the Early Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, P. L.; Burgess, R.; Busemann, H.; Ruzié, L.; Joachim, B.; Ballentine, C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how the Earth obtained and ultimately retained its volatiles is important for our overall understanding of large scale planetary evolution. Numerous models exist for the heterogeneous accretion of volatiles to early Earth, but accounting for all elements through accretion of typical planetary building blocks (e.g., CI chondrites) is difficult. Proto-planetary collisions resulting in the accretion of volatile-poor material under reducing conditions followed by accretion of volatile-rich material under oxidizing conditions has been suggested in such models [e.g., 1]. The heavy halogens (Cl, Br and I), a group of moderately volatile elements, are excellent tracers of planetary processing due to their low abundance and incompatible nature. Therefore characterizing halogen abundance and distribution in materials that accreted to form the planets, e.g., primitive meteorites, is crucial. One group of primitive meteorites, the enstatite chondrites (EC's), are amongst the most reduced materials in the solar system as evidenced by their unique mineral assemblage. Yet despite forming under ultra-reducing conditions, they are enriched in the moderately volatile elements, such as the halogens. The ECs are of particular interest owing to their oxygen isotopic composition which plots along the terrestrial fractionation line, linking them isotopically to the Earth-Moon system. These samples can thus potentially provide clues on the accretion of moderately volatile element rich material under reducing conditions, such as it may have existed during the early stages of Earth's accretion. Chlorine, Br and I concentrations in ECs were determined through step-heating small neutron-irradiated samples (0.3 to 3.3 mg) and measured by mass spectrometry using the noble gas proxy isotopes 38ArCl/Cl, 80KrBr/Br and 128XeI/I. The EH chondrites are consistently enriched in the heavy halogens (up to 330 ppm Cl, 2290 ppb Br and 180 ppb I), compared to other ordinary and carbonaceous

  16. Megacity Megaquakes: Two Near-misses, and the Clues they Leave for Earthquake Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.

    2013-12-01

    that they are contingent on the mainshock, and underwent at least an initial decay. But aftershocks do not necessarily signal a heightened likelihood of large shocks. They could instead accompany post-seismic creep, with the creep shedding the stress imposed by the megaquakes. These aftershocks are too deep for GPS observations to reveal unequivocally whether the faults are locked or creeping. But one clue is that the ratio of small to large shocks was not changed by the megaquakes. This distribution could be a reliable pointer for the probability of lager quakes, and so large shocks may now indeed be more probable than before the megaquakes--by a factor of at least two.

  17. Megacity Megaquakes: Two Near-misses, and the Clues they Leave for Earthquake Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, S. A.; Krüger, O.; Dinske, C.; Langenbruch, C.

    2011-12-01

    that they are contingent on the mainshock, and underwent at least an initial decay. But aftershocks do not necessarily signal a heightened likelihood of large shocks. They could instead accompany post-seismic creep, with the creep shedding the stress imposed by the megaquakes. These aftershocks are too deep for GPS observations to reveal unequivocally whether the faults are locked or creeping. But one clue is that the ratio of small to large shocks was not changed by the megaquakes. This distribution could be a reliable pointer for the probability of lager quakes, and so large shocks may now indeed be more probable than before the megaquakes--by a factor of at least two.

  18. Microtektite spherules from proximal K-Pg sections: alteration patterns and clues to precursor melt lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belza, J.; Goderis, S.; Smit, J.; Vanhaecke, F. F.; Baert, K.; Terryn, H.; Claeys, P. F.

    2013-05-01

    -layered alteration rim consisting of (1) an immobile product layer depleted in SiO2, Na2O, CaO, MgO, K2O and enriched in H2O, Fe2O3, Al2O3 and TiO2. REE are depleted but still reflect the CI-normalized pattern of the precursor glass phase; (2) a palagonite/smectite phase. Most REE are below LOD and provide no clue to the composition of the precursor phase. This step-wise alteration is expressed as successive palagonite lamellae, enriched in Fe-Ti oxides that have accumulated at the alteration fronts. The type of alteration seems to be controlled by the composition of the glass. SiO2-rich green glasses (>67 wt% SiO2) seem to undergo simple hydration, whereas black SiO2 poor glasses (<65 wt% SiO2) are subjected to palagonitisation. This is consistent with the alteration mechanism postulated by Glass et al. (1997) for Cenozoic microtektites. References GLASS, B. P., MUENOW, D. W., BOHOR, B. F., & MEEKER, G. P. 1997. Fragmentation and hydration of tektites and microtektites. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 32, 333-341.

  19. Epidemiological and genetic clues for molecular mechanisms involved in uterine leiomyoma development and growth

    PubMed Central

    Commandeur, Arno E.; Styer, Aaron K.; Teixeira, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are highly prevalent benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. In the USA, the lifetime risk for women developing uterine leiomyomas is estimated as up to 75%. Except for hysterectomy, most therapies or treatments often provide only partial or temporary relief and are not successful in every patient. There is a clear racial disparity in the disease; African-American women are estimated to be three times more likely to develop uterine leiomyomas and generally develop more severe symptoms. There is also familial clustering between first-degree relatives and twins, and multiple inherited syndromes in which fibroid development occurs. Leiomyomas have been described as clonal and hormonally regulated, but despite the healthcare burden imposed by the disease, the etiology of uterine leiomyomas remains largely unknown. The mechanisms involved in their growth are also essentially unknown, which has contributed to the slow progress in development of effective treatment options. METHODS A comprehensive PubMed search for and critical assessment of articles related to the epidemiological, biological and genetic clues for uterine leiomyoma development was performed. The individual functions of some of the best candidate genes are explained to provide more insight into their biological function and to interconnect and organize genes and pathways in one overarching figure that represents the current state of knowledge about uterine leiomyoma development and growth. RESULTS In this review, the widely recognized roles of estrogen and progesterone in uterine leiomyoma pathobiology on the basis of clinical and experimental data are presented. This is followed by fundamental aspects and concepts including the possible cellular origin of uterine fibroids. The central themes in the subsequent parts are cytogenetic aberrations in leiomyomas and the racial/ethnic disparities in uterine fibroid biology. Then, the attributes of various in vitro and

  20. Mimicked cartilage scaffolds of silk fibroin/hyaluronic acid with stem cells for osteoarthritis surgery: Morphological, mechanical, and physical clues.

    PubMed

    Jaipaew, Jirayut; Wangkulangkul, Piyanun; Meesane, Jirut; Raungrut, Pritsana; Puttawibul, Puttisak

    2016-07-01

    Osteoarthritis is a critical disease that comes from degeneration of cartilage tissue. In severe cases surgery is generally required. Tissue engineering using scaffolds with stem cell transplantation is an attractive approach and a challenge for orthopedic surgery. For sample preparation, silk fibroin (SF)/hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffolds in different ratios of SF/HA (w/w) (i.e., 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30) were formed by freeze-drying. The morphological, mechanical, and physical clues were considered in this research. The morphological structure of the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope. The mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds were analyzed by compressive and swelling ratio testing, respectively. For the cell experiments, scaffolds were seeded and cultured with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). The cultured scaffolds were tested for cell viability, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression. The SF with HA scaffolds showed regular porous structures. Those scaffolds had a soft and elastic characteristic with a high swelling ratio and water uptake. The SF/HA scaffolds showed a spheroid structure of the cells in the porous structure particularly in the SF80 and SF70 scaffolds. Cells could express Col2a, Agg, and Sox9 which are markers for chondrogenesis. It could be deduced that SF/HA scaffolds showed significant clues for suitability in cartilage tissue engineering and in surgery for osteoarthritis.

  1. Modeling Community through Cohort Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basom, Margaret R.; Yerkes, Diane M.

    This paper explores the nature of the curriculum within learning communities, specifically, learning communities in leadership preparation programs. It also addresses how cohorts of learning communities operate effectively as cohesive groups, and how they, in turn, promote the enhancement of individuals. The process curriculum advocated in this…

  2. Cohort Default Rates in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…

  3. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  4. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  5. Critical Zone Exploration in the Tropics: Clues from small experimental watersheds in South Cameroon and South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J.-J.; Riotte, J.; Audry, S.; Boeglin, J. L.; Descloitres, M.; Deschamps, P.; Maréchal, J. C.; Viers, J.; Ndam, J.-R.; Sekhar, M.

    2009-04-01

    Critical Zone Exploration in the Tropics: Clues from small experimental watersheds in South Cameroon and South India J.-J. BRAUN1,2*, J. RIOTTE1,2, S. AUDRY2, J. L. BOEGLIN2, M. DESCLOITRES3, P. DESCHAMPS4, J. C. MARÉCHAL1,2, J. VIERS2, J.-R. NDAM5, M. SEKHAR6, B. DUPRÉ2 1IFCWS, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore, India. (*Correspondence: braun@civil.iisc.ernet.in) 2LMTG, Univ. Toulouse, CNRS IRD OMP, 14, avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France 3LTHE, Univ. Grenoble, CNRS, IRD, INPG, BP53, F-38041 Grenoble, Cedex 09, France 4CEREGE, Univ. Aix-Marseille, CNRS, IRD, Europôle Méditerranéen de l'Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence, France. 5Université de Yaoundé I, Faculté des Sciences, Département des Sciences de la Terre, BP80, 13545 Yaoundé, Cameroun. 6Deprtment of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore, India Understanding the relative controls of forcing factors on the silicate chemical weathering rates and the associated atmospheric CO2 consumption is usually assessed through investigations based on small to medium granito-gneissic watersheds from 1 to100 km2 located in different climatic and tectonic settings. In addition to climate, the importance of the thickness and nature of the blanket of loose and transportable weathered material, namely regolith, which overlies the intact bedrocks, was also recently invoked, especially in tropical environment. We have conducted an integrated approach of the Critical Zone in two pristine forested small watersheds located in Cameroon and India. Both watersheds have developed on granito-gneissic bedrocks of stable Precambrian shields. Our approach is directed at (i) understanding the bio-geochemical, hydro-geological and hydrological processes and (ii) assessing the long-term and contemporary chemical weathering rates. The Nsimi watershed, South Cameroon, has been the first to be monitored since 1994. It belongs to the Nyong River basin and has a humid tropical climate. It is

  6. Disease fatality and bias in survival cohorts.

    PubMed

    Barry, Vaughn; Klein, Mitchel; Winquist, Andrea; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-07-01

    Simulate how the effect of exposure on disease occurrence and fatality influences the presence and magnitude of bias in survivor cohorts, motivated by an actual survivor cohort under study. We simulated a cohort of 50,000 subjects exposed to a disease-causing exposure over time and followed forty years, where disease incidence was the outcome of interest. We simulated this 'inception' cohort under different assumptions about the effect of exposure on disease occurrence and fatality after disease occurrence. We then created a corresponding 'survivor' (or 'cross-sectional') cohort, where cohort enrollment took place at a specific date after exposure began in the inception cohort; subjects dying prior to that enrollment date were excluded. The disease of interest caused all deaths in our simulations, but was not always fatal. In the survivor cohort, person-time at risk began before enrollment for all subjects who did not die prior to enrollment. We compared exposure-disease associations in each inception cohort to those in corresponding survivor cohorts to determine how different assumptions impacted bias in the survivor cohorts. All subjects in both inception and survivor cohorts were considered equally susceptible to the effect of exposure in causing disease. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate effect measures. There was no bias in survivor cohort estimates when case fatality among diseased subjects was independent of exposure. This was true even when the disease was highly fatal and more highly exposed subjects were more likely to develop disease and die. Assuming a positive exposure-response in the inception cohort, survivor cohort rate ratios were biased downwards when case fatality was greater with higher exposure. Survivor cohort effect estimates for fatal outcomes are not always biased, although precision can decrease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Fe/Ni ratio in ionized nebulae: clues on dust depletion patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Inglada, G.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; García-Rojas, J.; Rodríguez, M.; Esteban, C.

    2016-03-01

    We perform a homogeneous analysis of the Fe/Ni abundance ratio in eight Galactic planetary nebulae and three Galactic H II regions that include the Orion nebula, where we study four nebular zones and one shocked region. We use [Fe II], [Fe III], and [Ni III] lines, and ionization correction factors (ICFs) that account for the unobserved ions. We derive an ICF for nickel from an extensive grid of photoionization models. We compare our results with those derived by other authors for 16 neutral clouds in the solar neighbourhood with available Fe/Ni ratios in the literature. We find an excellent agreement between the ionized nebulae and the diffuse clouds, with both types of regions showing a clear correlation between the Fe/Ni ratios and the iron and nickel depletion factors. The trend shows that the objects with a relatively low depletion have near solar Fe/Ni ratios whereas at higher depletions the Fe/Ni ratio increases with the depletion. Our results confirm that, compared to iron atoms, nickel ones are more efficiently stuck to the dust grains in ambients where dust formation or growth have been more efficient.

  8. PESTICINS II. I and II

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Robert R.; Surgalla, Michael J.

    1962-01-01

    Brubaker, Robert R. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Michael J. Surgalla. Pesticins. II. Production of pesticin I and II. J. Bacteriol. 84:539–545. 1962.—Pesticin I was separated from pesticin I inhibitor by ion-exchange chromatography of cell-free culture supernatant fluids and by acid precipitation of soluble preparations obtained from mechanically disrupted cells. The latter procedure resulted in formation of an insoluble pesticin I complex which, upon removal by centrifugation and subsequent dissolution in neutral buffer, exhibited a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in antibacterial activity over that originally observed. However, activity returned to the former level upon addition of the acid-soluble fraction, which contained pesticin I inhibitor. Since the presence of pesticin I inhibitor leads to serious errors in the determination of pesticin I, an assay medium containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in excess Ca++ was developed; this medium eliminated the effect of the inhibitor. By use of the above medium, sufficient pesticin I was found to be contained within 500 nonirradiated cells to inhibit growth of a suitable indicator strain; at least 107 cells were required to effect a corresponding inhibition by pesticin II. Although both pesticins are located primarily within the cell during growth, pesticin I may arise extracellularly during storage of static cells. Slightly higher activity of pesticin I inhibitor was found in culture supernatant fluids than occurred in corresponding cell extracts of equal volume. The differences and similarities between pesticin I and some known bacteriocins are discussed. PMID:14016110

  9. Gas Clouds in Whirlpool Galaxy Yield Important Clues Supporting Theory on Spiral Arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Astronomers studying gas clouds in the famous Whirlpool Galaxy have found important clues supporting a theory that seeks to explain how the spectacular spiral arms of galaxies can persist for billions of years. The astronomers applied techniques used to study similar gas clouds in our own Milky Way to those in the spiral arms of a neighbor galaxy for the first time, and their results bolster a theory first proposed in 1964. M51 The spiral galaxy M51: Left, as seen with the Hubble Space Telescope; Right, radio image showing location of Carbon Monoxide gas. CREDIT: STScI, OVRO, IRAM (Click on image for larger version) Image Files Optical and Radio (CO) Views (above image) HST Optical Image with CO Contours Overlaid Radio/Optical Composite Image of M51 VLA/Effelsberg Radio Image of M51, With Panel Showing Magnetic Field Lines The Whirlpool Galaxy, about 31 million light-years distant, is a beautiful spiral in the constellation Canes Venatici. Also known as M51, it is seen nearly face-on from Earth and is familiar to amateur astronomers and has been featured in countless posters, books and magazine articles. "This galaxy made a great target for our study of spiral arms and how star formation works along them," said Eva Schinnerer, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM. "It was ideal for us because it's one of the closest face-on spirals in the sky," she added. Schinnerer worked with Axel Weiss of the Institute for Millimeter Radio Astronomy (IRAM) in Spain, Susanne Aalto of the Onsala Space Observatory in Sweden, and Nick Scoville of Caltech. The astronomers presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Denver, Colorado. The scientists analyzed radio emission from Carbon Monoxide (CO) molecules in giant gas clouds along M51's spiral arms. Using telescopes at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory and the 30-meter radio telescope of IRAM, they were able to determine the temperatures and amounts of turbulence within the

  10. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  11. [Approach to epidemiological cohort designs].

    PubMed

    Morales González, J M

    2004-09-01

    In neurological cohort studies participants are those who are "at risk" of developing the outcome (i.e., stroke, dementia, parkinsonism) and should be free of such event when their follow-up is begun. They are classified and controlled at the outset by their risk or "exposition" factors. There are several alternatives of selecting the study population, although the most known are those of the large population bases (for example, Framingham Heart Study, the Rochester MN, etc.). There should be standardized procedures of classification and follow-up and the investigator who makes the diagnosis should be blinded to the exposure status, when it is possible. In cohort studies, we will consider several frequency measures, such as incidence and risk, and the most frequent association measures, such as relative risk, risk difference, and rate ratio. The advantages of a cohort study in neurology are: a) the exposure is known to occur prior to the onset of the outcome and is measured prior to the occurrence of the outcome, b) multiple exposures and outcomes (end-points) can be studied simultaneously, and they usually have good control, c) it is good for rare exposures (if there was adequate sampling), and it is good for common outcomes. The disadvantages of a cohort studies are: a) they are expensive and time-consuming; b) possibility of change in investigators for very long studies, or attrition of participants; c) not good for rare outcomes; d) exposures can change, exposures are not independent of other potential causes and prognostic factors, and e) knowledge of exposure may alter surveillance for the disease or alter the likelihood that a particular diagnostic label will be applied. It is useful for the clinical neurologist to know and to understand these terminology and concepts.

  12. Using circumacenes to improve organic electronics and molecular electronics: design clues.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Angel J; Sancho-García, Juan C

    2009-11-25

    Theoretical modeling is used here to ascertain the potential use of circumacenes to improve the transport parameters of pi-conjugated materials acting as: (i) the layered molecular constituent for organic electronic devices; and (ii) the molecular component of gold-molecule-gold nanobridges for molecular electronic device use. It is concluded that, to a first approximation, the molecular length or, alternatively, the HOMO-LUMO gap (HOMO: highest occupied molecular orbital; LUMO: lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) can be used to relate the two transport regimes usually found in these two fields, thus serving as a key design parameter for guaranteeing good performance of circumanthracene for both regimes. It is also clearly established that going beyond this simple relationship requires knowledge of the detailed molecule-contact geometry of the molecular nanobridge, and how its tremendous impact on the binding strength and the conductance prevents blind extrapolation of results obtained for molecular nanobridges built by means of different experimental set-ups.

  13. Tinned fruit consumption and mortality in three prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Aasheim, Erlend T; Sharp, Stephen J; Appleby, Paul N; Shipley, Martin J; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brunner, Eric; Key, Tim J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Dietary recommendations to promote health include fresh, frozen and tinned fruit, but few studies have examined the health benefits of tinned fruit. We therefore studied the association between tinned fruit consumption and mortality. We followed up participants from three prospective cohorts in the United Kingdom: 22,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort (1993-2012), 52,625 participants from the EPIC-Oxford cohort (1993-2012), and 7440 participants from the Whitehall II cohort (1991-2012), all reporting no history of heart attack, stroke, or cancer when entering these studies. We estimated the association between frequency of tinned fruit consumption and all cause mortality (primary outcome measure) using Cox regression models within each cohort, and pooled hazard ratios across cohorts using random-effects meta-analysis. Tinned fruit consumption was assessed with validated food frequency questionnaires including specific questions about tinned fruit. During 1,305,330 person years of follow-up, 8857 deaths occurred. After adjustment for lifestyle factors and risk markers the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of all cause mortality compared with the reference group of tinned fruit consumption less often than one serving per month were: 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for one to three servings per month, 1.10 (1.03, 1.18) for one serving per week, and 1.13 (1.04, 1.23) for two or more servings per week. Analysis of cause-specific mortality showed that tinned fruit consumption was associated with mortality from cardiovascular causes and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. In a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts from the United Kingdom self-reported tinned fruit consumption in the 1990s was weakly but positively associated with mortality during long-term follow-up. These findings raise questions about the evidence underlying dietary recommendations to promote tinned fruit consumption

  14. Tinned Fruit Consumption and Mortality in Three Prospective Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Aasheim, Erlend T.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Appleby, Paul N.; Shipley, Martin J.; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brunner, Eric; Key, Tim J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary recommendations to promote health include fresh, frozen and tinned fruit, but few studies have examined the health benefits of tinned fruit. We therefore studied the association between tinned fruit consumption and mortality. We followed up participants from three prospective cohorts in the United Kingdom: 22,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort (1993–2012), 52,625 participants from the EPIC-Oxford cohort (1993–2012), and 7440 participants from the Whitehall II cohort (1991–2012), all reporting no history of heart attack, stroke, or cancer when entering these studies. We estimated the association between frequency of tinned fruit consumption and all cause mortality (primary outcome measure) using Cox regression models within each cohort, and pooled hazard ratios across cohorts using random-effects meta-analysis. Tinned fruit consumption was assessed with validated food frequency questionnaires including specific questions about tinned fruit. During 1,305,330 person years of follow-up, 8857 deaths occurred. After adjustment for lifestyle factors and risk markers the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of all cause mortality compared with the reference group of tinned fruit consumption less often than one serving per month were: 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for one to three servings per month, 1.10 (1.03, 1.18) for one serving per week, and 1.13 (1.04, 1.23) for two or more servings per week. Analysis of cause-specific mortality showed that tinned fruit consumption was associated with mortality from cardiovascular causes and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. In a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts from the United Kingdom self-reported tinned fruit consumption in the 1990s was weakly but positively associated with mortality during long-term follow-up. These findings raise questions about the evidence underlying dietary recommendations to promote tinned fruit

  15. Distributional patterns of arsenic concentrations in contaminant plumes offer clues to the source of arsenic in groundwater at landfills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    The distributional pattern of dissolved arsenic concentrations from landfill plumes can provide clues to the source of arsenic contamination. Under simple idealized conditions, arsenic concentrations along flow paths in aquifers proximal to a landfill will decrease under anthropogenic sources but potentially increase under in situ sources. This paper presents several conceptual distributional patterns of arsenic in groundwater based on the arsenic source under idealized conditions. An example of advanced subsurface mapping of dissolved arsenic with geophysical surveys, chemical monitoring, and redox fingerprinting is presented for a landfill site in New Hampshire with a complex flow pattern. Tools to assist in the mapping of arsenic in groundwater ultimately provide information on the source of contamination. Once an understanding of the arsenic contamination is achieved, appropriate remedial strategies can then be formulated.

  16. An Important Clue in the Sonographic Diagnosis of Internal Carotid Artery Agenesis: Ipsilateral Common Carotid Artery Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Omer; Yilmaz, Cengiz; Gulek, Bozkurt; Soker, Gokhan; Cikman, Gokalp; Inan, Ibrahim; Demirduzen, Selahaddin

    2014-01-01

    A 42-year-old female patient, who had been diagnosed with an occlusion of her left internal carotid artery (ICA) following Doppler ultrasonographic (US) and digitally-subtracted angiographic (DSA) examinations performed in an outer healthcare center in order to eliminate the underlying cause of her complaint of amorosis fugax, later applied to our hospital with the same complaint. At Doppler US performed in our hospital's radiology department, her right common carotid artery (CCA) was normal, but her left CCA was hypoplastic. The right internal artery (ICA) was validated as normal. At the left side, however, the ICA was apparent only as a stump and it did not demonstrate a continuity. The diagnosis of ICA agenesis was confirmed by the utilization of Doppler US, CT, and DSA imaging, and it was concluded also that ipsilateral CCA hypoplasia could be evaluated as an important clue to the diagnosis of ICA agenesis. PMID:25097789

  17. Compressibility of gastrointestinal tract tumors during transabdominal sonographic examination: a clue to the diagnosis of gastrointestinal lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yasutomo; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Koibuchi, Harumi; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Hideo

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the use of sonography in the assessment of compressibility of the affected bowel in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma. Thirty-two cases of advanced gastric cancer, 28 cases of advanced colon cancer, 7 cases of gastric lymphoma, and 6 cases of colon lymphoma were included in the study. To assess the compressibility of the affected bowel, a transducer was used to exert external compression. Deformation of the tumor and its lumen by compression was considered to indicate positive compressibility. Compressibility was absent in advanced gastric and colon cancer but was present in 11/13 (85%) cases of GI lymphoma. In the diagnosis of GI lymphoma, compressibility showed 85% (11/13) sensitivity, 97% (58/60) specificity, and 95% (69/73) overall accuracy. Compressibility of the affected bowel is a useful clue in the diagnosis of GI lymphoma. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Histopathological clues in the diagnosis of fungal infection by Scedosporium in a case of endophthalmitis starting as conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Lopez-Medrano, Ramiro; Fuster-Foz, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous fungal infections can result in disastrous episodes if improperly diagnosed and treated, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Although dermatopathologists are highly familiar with some filamentous fungi - such as Aspergillus and Zygomycetes - they are not so aware of other less common species. We report a case of ocular infection by Scedosporium apiospermum that started as conjunctivitis and resulted in Phthisis bulbi and subsequent exeresis of the left eye. We describe some of the main morphological features of the fungus as well as the important morphological clues for the differential diagnosis with some similar species, such as Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces and Zygomycetes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. On the subclasses in Swift long gamma-ray bursts: A clue to different central engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Ryo; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-04-01

    Analyzing light curves of a complete sample of bright Swift long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) of which the peak photon fluxes constructed with the bin width of one second in the Swift 15-350 keV energy band exceed 2.6 photons cm-2 s-1, we confirm that there does exist the third class of GRBs in addition to short and long GRBs. Being different from previous works based on the duration, fluence, etc., our classification method is based on two properties both quantified with light curve shapes of the prompt emission: the Absolute Deviation from the Constant Luminosity of their cumulative light curve ADCL, and the ratio of the mean counts to the maximum counts bar{C}/C_max. These are independent of the distance and the jet opening angle. A cluster analysis via the Gaussian mixture model detects three subclasses: one consisting of LGRBs with small ADCL and large bar{C}/C_max values referred to as Type I, one with large ADCL and large bar{C}/C_max referred to as Type II, and one with intermediate ADCL and small bar{C}/C_max, which is composed of contaminating short GRBs with the extended emission. This result is reinforced by different temporal and spectral indices of their X-ray afterglows. The difference is prominent in the temporal index of the steep decay phase in particular; the indices for Type I LGRBs distribute between -6 and -3 while those for Type II LGRBs are between -3 and -2. From these properties, we propose a possible scenario with different central engines: an accreting black hole and a magnetar.

  20. Integrating the SD-CLUE-S and InVEST models into assessment of oasis carbon storage in northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiejun

    2017-01-01

    Spatio-temporal integrated assessment of land-use change impacts on carbon storage services is a new and important research field in land science and landscape ecology. The objective of this paper is to use an integrated SD-CLUE-S and InVEST model to simulate and predict land-use changes impacts during 2000–2018 on carbon storage at pixel and regional scales in the Zhangye oasis, Northwest China. The SD-CLUE-S model was used to simulate land-use change, and three land-use scenarios (current trend, moderate protection, and strict protection) were defined in collaboration with oasis socioeconomic development and ecological environment conservation by local government. The InVEST model was then used to simulate land-use change impacts on carbon storage at different scales in the oasis. The results showed that: (1) the effects of built-up land expansion were especially notable, with a rapid decrease in cropland during 2009–2018; (2) the strict protection scenario saved the largest amount of carbon storage for the oasis compared with the current trend and moderate protection scenarios. The scientific value of this study has been to show that the proposed modeling method can be used to reflect different land-use patterns and their effects on ecosystem services at multiple scales in the oasis. Furthermore, this research can be used to help government managers encourage stakeholders to contribute funds and strategies to maintain oasis landscape patterns and ecological processes by implementing local plans for potential conservation projects. PMID:28231328

  1. Clues for the differential diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis as an expectant variant of diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Kupeli, E; Karnak, D; Kayacan, O; Beder, S

    2004-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, a type of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is an immunologically mediated pulmonary disease induced by inhalation of various antigens. As data on the frequency of hypersensitivity pneumonitis are lacking in Turkey, a retrospective analyses was performed in 43 patients with DPLD, followed up over seven years. The objective was to discover cases fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for hypersensitivity pneumonitis, to determine the frequency and/or the new characteristics of the disease, and to pick up clues for differentiating it from other DPLDs. The four subjects with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (9%) who lived in an urban area were studied in detail. The most common symptoms were dry cough and dyspnoea. According to the symptom duration, clinical features, radiological and pathological findings, three were diagnosed with chronic and one with subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis and those with DPLD were compared by means of age, sex, smoking status, symptom duration, haematology, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, peripheral cell count, spirometric parameters, blood gases, and diffusion capacity. No statistically significant difference was detected in these parameters except for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). In conclusion, patients with a history of antigen exposure, with mild symptoms such as dry cough and dyspnoea, and who have diffuse interstitial lung involvement on radiology should be carefully evaluated for hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Moreover, among other DPLDs, stable FEV1 or FVC values may be the clues for establishing the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. However, further studies are needed in larger series of patients. PMID:15192166

  2. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  3. Do Children Learn How To Watch Television? The Impact of Extensive Experience With "Blue's Clues" on Preschool Children's Television Viewing Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Alisha M.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Santomero, Angela; Wilder, Alice; Williams, Marsha; Evans, Marie K.; Bryant, Jennings

    2002-01-01

    Presents the first investigation of the effects of experience with a particular program series on children's subsequent television viewing behavior and comprehension. Notes three- to five-year-old regular, experienced viewers of "Blue's Clues" were compared to new, inexperienced viewers. Suggests that a television series can teach children a style…

  4. Thermal Modification of Silicate Materials on Flash-heated Sulfide IDPs: The First Clues for Chemically Controlled, Early Silicate Mineral Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Variable Ca-compositions of flash heated ferromagnesiosilica materials on massive sulfide IDPs provide the first clues for chemically controlled nucleation of pyroxenes during the earliest stages of silicate mineral evolution in solar nebula dust. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Ectopic Cushing syndrome secondary to metastatic medullary thyroid cancer in a child with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B: clues to early diagnosis of the paraneoplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Singer, Kanakadurga; Heiniger, Nicholas; Thomas, Inas; Worden, Francis P; Menon, Ram K; Chen, Ming

    2014-09-01

    We describe a 13-year-old male with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B with medullary thyroid carcinoma who was diagnosed with ectopic adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing syndrome. This report highlights the importance of monitoring for paraneoplastic syndrome in MEN and clues to the diagnosis of this complication provided by growth patterns.

  6. When to stop septic shock resuscitation: clues from a dynamic perfusion monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The decision of when to stop septic shock resuscitation is a critical but yet a relatively unexplored aspect of care. This is especially relevant since the risks of over-resuscitation with fluid overload or inotropes have been highlighted in recent years. A recent guideline has proposed normalization of central venous oxygen saturation and/or lactate as therapeutic end-points, assuming that these variables are equivalent or interchangeable. However, since the physiological determinants of both are totally different, it is legitimate to challenge the rationale of this proposal. We designed this study to gain more insights into the most appropriate resuscitation goal from a dynamic point of view. Our objective was to compare the normalization rates of these and other potential perfusion-related targets in a cohort of septic shock survivors. Methods We designed a prospective, observational clinical study. One hundred and four septic shock patients with hyperlactatemia were included and followed until hospital discharge. The 84 hospital-survivors were kept for final analysis. A multimodal perfusion assessment was performed at baseline, 2, 6, and 24 h of ICU treatment. Results Some variables such as central venous oxygen saturation, central venous-arterial pCO2 gradient, and capillary refill time were already normal in more than 70% of survivors at 6 h. Lactate presented a much slower normalization rate decreasing significantly at 6 h compared to that of baseline (4.0 [3.0 to 4.9] vs. 2.7 [2.2 to 3.9] mmol/L; p < 0.01) but with only 52% of patients achieving normality at 24 h. Sublingual microcirculatory variables exhibited the slowest recovery rate with persistent derangements still present in almost 80% of patients at 24 h. Conclusions Perfusion-related variables exhibit very different normalization rates in septic shock survivors, most of them exhibiting a biphasic response with an initial rapid improvement, followed by a much slower trend

  7. Patterns of recurrence and treatment in male breast cancer: A clue to prognosis?

    PubMed

    Henriques Abreu, Miguel; Henriques Abreu, Pedro; Afonso, Noémia; Pereira, Deolinda; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Carlos

    2016-10-15

    Male breast cancer (MBC) patients seem to have inferior survival compared to female (FBC) ones, which is not fully explained by usual prognostic factors. Recurrence analysis could show differences in relapse patterns and/or in patients' approaches that justify these outcomes. Retrospective analysis of MBC patients treated in a cancer center between 1990 and 2014, looking for relapse. For each patient, three matched FBC patients were selected by: diagnosis' year, age (within 5 years), stage and tumors' type (only luminal-like were considered). Differences between cohorts were assessed by χ(2) test and hierarchical clustering was performed to define subgroups according to relapse local. Survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier and compared using log-rank test. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Groups were balanced according to age, histological grade, stage, expression of hormonal receptors and adjuvant treatments. Median time to recurrence was equivalent, p = 0.72, with the majority of patients presented with distant metastases, p = 0.69, with more lung involvement in male, p = 0.003. Male patients were more often proposed to symptomatic treatment (21.1% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.02). Overall and from recurrence survivals were poorer for male, median: 5 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.1-5.9 years] and 1 year (95% CI: 0-2.1 years) vs. 10 years (95% CI: 7.8-12.2 years) and 2 years (95% CI: 1.6-2.4 years), p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively, and this tendency remained in the five cluster subgroups, that identified five patterns of relapse, p = 0.003. MBC patients had the worst survival, even after controlling important factors, namely the local of relapse. Palliative systemic treatment had favorable impact in prognosis and its frequently avoidance in male could justify the outcomes differences. © 2016 UICC.

  8. Multiproxy Investigations on Tso Moriri Lake, Indian Himalayas provide clues to climate controlled lake level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, P. K.; Dietze, E.; Schettler, G.; Anoop, A.; Menzel, P.; Gaye, B.; Jehangir, A.; Prasad, S.

    2013-12-01

    The available data on Holocene climate variability from Asia indicates spatio-temporal changes in the precipitation over this vast region. Timing, duration, regionality, and causes of these fluctuations are not well understood, especially over the Indian subcontinent. We present high resolution studies on radiocarbon dated lake sediments from the Tso Moriri lake, NW Himalaya (78°14'-78°25'N and 32°40'-33°02'E; altitude: 4500 m, max depth: 105m). The lake is situated in the transition zone between both mid latitude westerlies and Indian summer monsoon zone. Detailed geochemical, sedimentological and statistical analysis of modern surface sediments from the lake, and the catchment area has been carried out to develop multiple proxies to infer past environmental conditions. Based on our investigations, we concluded that i) the allochthonous contribution is controlled by meltwater inflow and monsoon runoff, and the sedimentological and mineralogical characteristics can be used to infer the relative contributions of the two transport mechanisms; ii) the formation of authigenic aragonite is related to lake water chemistry which in turn is governed by the relative changes in melt water inflow and monsoon precipitation; iii) grain size variability reflects the energy and mode of transport and can be used as an indicator of shore line proximity and lake level changes. Based on the developed proxies on modern sediments we have identified five different periods of lake level changes from the core sediments retrieved from the deepest part of the lake (105 m water depth): a) Period V: (728.0-585.0 cm; >19.50 cal kyr. BP): Lake establishment. b) Period IV: (425.0-585 cm; 19.50-16.56-cal kyr BP): Shallow lake with high organic productivity. c) Period III: (320.0-425.0 cm; 12.52-16.56 cal kyr BP): Increasing the lake level marked by the dominance of medium silt. d) Period II: (130.0-320.0 cm; 12.52- 4.1-cal kyr. BP): Highest lake level, possibly linked to increased monsoon

  9. Cohort Profile: The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS).

    PubMed

    Tate, Robert B; Cuddy, T Edward; Mathewson, Francis A L

    2015-10-01

    The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) is Canada's longest running study of cardiovascular disease and ageing. The MFUS cohort consists of 3983 men recruited from the Royal Canadian Air Force at the end of World War II. At entry to the study, 1 July 1948, their mean age was 31 years, with 90% between ages 20 and 39 years. All study members were free of clinical evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The protocol of MFUS was to obtain routine medical examinations from these men at regular intervals over time. The research goal of the study was to examine the role that any abnormalities detected on routine electrocardiograms from apparently healthy men might play in the prediction of subsequent diagnoses of cardiovascular disease. Over the course of 65 years, about 35% of the cohort has documented evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The research focus was expanded in 1996 to explore the roles of physical, mental and social functioning in support of healthy and successful ageing. On 1 July 2013, 429 original cohort members were alive with a mean age of 92 years. Collaborative research with others outside the in-house team is welcomed.

  10. Cohort Profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-01-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings [E-mail: hamigo@med.uchile.cl]. PMID:24366489

  11. Cohort profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-08-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings.

  12. Gradients of stellar population properties and evolution clues in a nearby galaxy M101

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Kong, Xu; Lin, Xuanbin; Mao, Yewei; Cheng, Fuzhen; Zou, Hu; Jiang, Zhaoji; Zhou, Xu E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-06-01

    Multiband photometric images from ultraviolet and optical to infrared are collected to derive spatially resolved properties of the nearby Scd-type galaxy M101. With evolutionary stellar population synthesis models, two-dimensional distributions and radial profiles of age, metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation timescale in the form of the Sandage star formation history are obtained. When fitting with the models, we use the IRX-A {sub FUV} relation, found to depend on a second parameter of birth rate b (ratio of present- and past-averaged star formation rates), to constrain the dust attenuation. There are obvious parameter gradients in the disk of M101, which supports the theory of an 'inside-out' disk growth scenario. Two distinct disk regions with different gradients of age and color are discovered, similar to another late-type galaxy, NGC 628. The metallicity gradient of the stellar content is flatter than that of H II regions. The stellar disk is optically thicker inside than outside and the global dust attenuation of this galaxy is lower compared with galaxies of similar and earlier morphological type. We note that a variational star formation timescale describes the real star formation history of a galaxy. The timescale increases steadily from the center to the outskirt. We also confirm that the bulge in this galaxy is a disk-like pseudobulge, whose evolution is likely to be induced by some secular processes of the small bar which is relatively young, metal-rich, and contains much dust.

  13. Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

    PubMed

    Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.-a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties-since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health.

  14. Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill

    PubMed Central

    Emiliani, Giovanni; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.—a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties—since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

  15. Individual differences in approach-avoidance aptitude: some clues from research on Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alberto; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Approach and avoidance are two basic behavioral aptitudes of humans whose correct balance is critical for successful adaptation to the environment. As the expression of approach and avoidance tendencies may differ significantly between healthy individuals, different psychobiological factors have been posited to account for such variability. In this regard, two main issues are still open that refers to (i) the role played by dopamine neurotransmission; and (ii) the possible influence of cognitive characteristics, particularly executive functioning. The aim of the present paper was to highlight the contribution of research on Parkinson’s disease (PD) to our understanding of the above issues. In particular, we here reviewed PD literature to clarify whether neurobiological and neuropsychological modifications due to PD are associated to changes in approach-avoidance related personality features. Available data indicate that PD patients may show and approach-avoidance imbalance as documented by lower novelty-seeking and higher harm-avoidance behaviors, possibly suggesting a relationship with neurobiological and neurocognitive PD-related changes. However, the literature that directly investigated this issue is still sparse and much more work is needed to better clarify it. PMID:25852500

  16. Gradients of Stellar Population Properties and Evolution Clues in a Nearby Galaxy M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Zou, Hu; Kong, Xu; Lin, Xuanbin; Mao, Yewei; Cheng, Fuzhen; Jiang, Zhaoji; Zhou, Xu

    2013-06-01

    Multiband photometric images from ultraviolet and optical to infrared are collected to derive spatially resolved properties of the nearby Scd-type galaxy M101. With evolutionary stellar population synthesis models, two-dimensional distributions and radial profiles of age, metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation timescale in the form of the Sandage star formation history are obtained. When fitting with the models, we use the IRX-A FUV relation, found to depend on a second parameter of birth rate b (ratio of present- and past-averaged star formation rates), to constrain the dust attenuation. There are obvious parameter gradients in the disk of M101, which supports the theory of an "inside-out" disk growth scenario. Two distinct disk regions with different gradients of age and color are discovered, similar to another late-type galaxy, NGC 628. The metallicity gradient of the stellar content is flatter than that of H II regions. The stellar disk is optically thicker inside than outside and the global dust attenuation of this galaxy is lower compared with galaxies of similar and earlier morphological type. We note that a variational star formation timescale describes the real star formation history of a galaxy. The timescale increases steadily from the center to the outskirt. We also confirm that the bulge in this galaxy is a disk-like pseudobulge, whose evolution is likely to be induced by some secular processes of the small bar which is relatively young, metal-rich, and contains much dust.

  17. The infrared echo of Type II supernovae with circumstellar dust shells. II - A probe into the presupernova evolution of the progenitor star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies the spectral appearance and evolution of the infrared light curve, also referred to as the infrared echo, of Type II supernovae embedded in carbon- or oxygen-rich circumstellar dust shells. The distinct spectral signature of the echo and its temporal evolution can be used to estimate the mass of the shell and identify the composition of the dust. Since the shell mass and dust composition are determined by the combined effect of stellar mass loss and the dredging of newly synthesized heavy elements to the stellar surface, observations of the infrared echo may provide useful clues to the presupernova evolution of the progenitor star.

  18. Selective reporting bias of harm outcomes within studies: findings from a cohort of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Pooja; Loke, Yoon K; Gamble, Carrol; Altman, Douglas G; Williamson, Paula R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent and nature of selective non-reporting of harm outcomes in clinical studies that were eligible for inclusion in a cohort of systematic reviews. Design Cohort study of systematic reviews from two databases. Setting Outcome reporting bias in trials for harm outcomes (ORBIT II) in systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library and a separate cohort of systematic reviews of adverse events. Participants 92 systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published in the Cochrane Library between issue 9, 2012 and issue 2, 2013 (Cochrane cohort) and 230 systematic reviews published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 in other publications, synthesising data on harm outcomes (adverse event cohort). Methods A 13 point classification system for missing outcome data on harm was developed and applied to the studies. Results 86% (79/92) of reviews in the Cochrane cohort did not include full data from the main harm outcome of interest of each review for all of the eligible studies included within that review; 76% (173/230) for the adverse event cohort. Overall, the single primary harm outcome was inadequately reported in 76% (705/931) of the studies included in the 92 reviews from the Cochrane cohort and not reported in 47% (4159/8837) of the 230 reviews in the adverse event cohort. In a sample of primary studies not reporting on the single primary harm outcome in the review, scrutiny of the study publication revealed that outcome reporting bias was suspected in nearly two thirds (63%, 248/393). Conclusions The number of reviews suspected of outcome reporting bias as a result of missing or partially reported harm related outcomes from at least one eligible study is high. The declaration of important harms and the quality of the reporting of harm outcomes must be improved in both primary studies and systematic reviews. PMID:25416499

  19. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria.

  20. [Ti II] and [Ni II] Emission from the Strontium Filament of eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, M. A.; Hartman, H.; GUll, T. R.; Smith, N.; Lodders, K.

    2007-01-01

    We study the nature of the [Ti II] and [Ni II] emission from the so-called strontium filament found in the ejecta of eta Carinae. To this purpose we employ multilevel models of the Ti II and Ni II systems which are used to investigate the physical condition of the filament and the excitation mechanisms of the observed lines. For the Ti II ion, for which no atomic data was previously available, we carry out ab initio calculations of radiative transition rates and electron impact excitation rate coefficients. It is found that the observed spectrum is consistent with the lines being excited in a mostly neutral region with an electron density of the order of 10(exp 7) per cubic centimeter and a temperature around 6000 K. In analyzing three observations with different slit orientations recorded between March 2000 and November 2001 we find line ratios that change among various observations, in a way consistent with changes of up to an order of magnitude in the strength of the continuum radiation field. These changes result from different samplings of the extended filament, due to the different slit orientations used for each observation, and yield clues on the spatial extent and optical depth of the filament. The observed emission indicates a large Ti/Ni abundance ratio relative to solar abundances. It is suggested that the observed high Ti/Ni ratio in gas is caused by dust-gas fractionation processes and does not reflect the absolute Ti/Ni ratio in the ejecta of eta Carinae. We study the condensation chemistry of Ti, Ni and Fe within the filament and suggest that the observed gas phase overabundance of Ti is likely the result of selective photo-evaporation of Ti-bearing grains. Some mechanisms for such a scenario are proposed.

  1. [Ti II] and [Ni II] Emission from the Strontium Filament of eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, M. A.; Hartman, H.; Gull, T. R.; Smith, N.; Lodders, K.

    2005-01-01

    We study the nature of the [Ti II] and [Ni II] emission from the so-called strontium filament found in the ejecta of eta Carinae. To this purpose we employ multilevel models of the Ti II and Ni II systems which are used to investigate the physical condition of the filament and the excitation mechanisms of the observed lines. For the Ti II ion, for which no atomic data was previously available, we carry out ab initio calculations of radiative transition rates and electron impact excitation rate coefficients. It is found that the observed spectrum is consistent with the lines being excited in a mostly neutral region with electron density of the order of 10(exp 7) cm(exp -3) and a temperature around 6000 K. In analyzing three observations with different slit orientations recorded between March 2000 and November 2001 we find line ratios that change among various observations, in a way consistent with changes of up to an order of magnitude in the strength of the continuum radiation field. These changes result from different samplings of the extended filament, due to the different slit orientations used for each observation, and yield clues on the spatial extent and optical depth of the filament. The observed emission indicates a large Ti/Ni abundance ratio relative to solar abundances. It is suggested that the observed high Ti/Ni ratio in gas is caused dust-gas fractionation processes and does not reflect the absolute Ti/Ni ratio in the ejecta of eta Carinae. The condensation chemistry shows that if dust condensed in a sequence of layers according to decreasing temperature and increasing distance from the central star, the most refractory dust could be selectively affected by photoevaporation. Thus, Ti would be released back to the gas and the Ti/Ni ratio in the gas would increase to the observed super-solar ratio.

  2. Do baby boomers use more healthcare services than other generations? Longitudinal trajectories of physician service use across five birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Canizares, Mayilee; Gignac, Monique; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Glazier, Richard H; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Objective In light of concerns for meeting the provision of healthcare services given the large numbers of ageing baby boomers, we compared the trajectories of primary care and specialist services use across the lifecourse of 5 birth cohorts and examined factors associated with birth cohort differences. Design Longitudinal panel. Setting Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994–2011). Population Sample of 10 186 individuals aged 20–69 years in 1994–1995 and who were from 5 birth cohorts: Generation X (Gen X; born: 1965–1974), Younger Baby Boomers (born: 1955–1964), Older Baby Boomers (born: 1945–1954), World War II (born: 1935–1944) and pre-World War II (born: 1925–1934). Main outcomes Use of primary care and specialist services. Results Although the overall pattern suggested less use of physician services by each successive recent cohort, this blinded differences in primary and specialist care use by cohort. Multilevel analyses comparing cohorts showed that Gen Xers and younger boomers, particularly those with multimorbidity, were less likely to use primary care than earlier cohorts. In contrast, specialist use was higher in recent cohorts, with Gen Xers having the highest specialist use. These increases were explained by the increasing levels of multimorbidity. Education, income, having a regular source of care, sedentary lifestyle and obesity were significantly associated with physician services use, but only partially contributed to cohort differences. Conclusions The findings suggest a shift from primary care to specialist care among recent cohorts, particularly for those with multimorbidity. This is of concern given policies to promote primary care services to prevent and manage chronic conditions. There is a need for policies to address important generational differences in healthcare preferences and the balance between primary and specialty care to ensure integration and coordination of healthcare delivery. PMID:27687902

  3. Predicting outcome in the intensive care unit using scoring systems: is new better? A comparison of SAPS and SAPS II in a cohort of 1,393 patients. GiViTi Investigators (Gruppo Italiano per la Valutazione degli interventi in Terapia Intensiva). Simplified Acute Physiology Score.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, G; D'Amico, R; Apolone, G; Cattaneo, A; Ravizza, A; Iapichino, G; Brazzi, L; Melotti, R M

    1998-09-01

    This study sought to compare the performance of the old and new versions of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SAPS and SAPS II, in classifying patients according to the risk of hospital mortality. To compare the performance of the two systems, measures of association between the scores and observed mortality were adopted, together with discrimination (area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve) and calibration (goodness-of-fit statistics) estimates. Subjects were 1,393 eligible patients recruited during 1 month in 1994. The outcome measure was vital status at hospital discharge. SAPS II was associated more strongly with hospital mortality than the earlier version. SAPS II also had better discrimination ability than SAPS (area under Receiver Operating Characteristics curve 0.80 versus 0.74) and predicted an overall number of deaths (416.5) closer to the observed figure (475) than SAPS (267.7). Conversely, neither SAPS nor SAPS II fitted our data. Both P values derived from goodness-of-fit statistics were lower than 0.05. SAPS II offers a real improvement compared with SAPS in its ability to explain hospital mortality, but its standard parameters do not fit our data from Italy. The role and impact of potential determinants of this lack of fit, such as random errors and confounders related to casemix and/or quality of care should be clarified before this scoring system be used outside formal research projects. Special caution is suggested when SAPS II is adopted to predict mortality to compare intensive care unit performance across different countries and systems of care.

  4. Y-chromosome diversity in modern Bulgarians: new clues about their ancestry.

    PubMed

    Karachanak, Sena; Grugni, Viola; Fornarino, Simona; Nesheva, Desislava; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Carossa, Valeria; Yordanov, Yordan; Torroni, Antonio; Galabov, Angel S; Toncheva, Draga; Semino, Ornella

    2013-01-01

    To better define the structure and origin of the Bulgarian paternal gene pool, we have examined the Y-chromosome variation in 808 Bulgarian males. The analysis was performed by high-resolution genotyping of biallelic markers and by analyzing the STR variation within the most informative haplogroups. We found that the Y-chromosome gene pool in modern Bulgarians is primarily represented by Western Eurasian haplogroups with ∼ 40% belonging to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423, and 20% to R-M17. Haplogroups common in the Middle East (J and G) and in South Western Asia (R-L23*) occur at frequencies of 19% and 5%, respectively. Haplogroups C, N and Q, distinctive for Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations, occur at the negligible frequency of only 1.5%. Principal Component analyses group Bulgarians with European populations, apart from Central Asian Turkic-speaking groups and South Western Asia populations. Within the country, the genetic variation is structured in Western, Central and Eastern Bulgaria indicating that the Balkan Mountains have been permeable to human movements. The lineage analysis provided the following interesting results: (i) R-L23* is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii) haplogroup E-V13 has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the arrival of farming; (iii) haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea. On the whole, in light of the most recent historical studies, which indicate a substantial proto-Bulgarian input to the contemporary Bulgarian people, our data suggest that a common paternal ancestry between the proto-Bulgarians and the Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations either did not exist or was negligible.

  5. Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Fornarino, Simona; Nesheva, Desislava; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Carossa, Valeria; Yordanov, Yordan; Torroni, Antonio; Galabov, Angel S.; Toncheva, Draga; Semino, Ornella

    2013-01-01

    To better define the structure and origin of the Bulgarian paternal gene pool, we have examined the Y-chromosome variation in 808 Bulgarian males. The analysis was performed by high-resolution genotyping of biallelic markers and by analyzing the STR variation within the most informative haplogroups. We found that the Y-chromosome gene pool in modern Bulgarians is primarily represented by Western Eurasian haplogroups with ∼ 40% belonging to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423, and 20% to R-M17. Haplogroups common in the Middle East (J and G) and in South Western Asia (R-L23*) occur at frequencies of 19% and 5%, respectively. Haplogroups C, N and Q, distinctive for Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations, occur at the negligible frequency of only 1.5%. Principal Component analyses group Bulgarians with European populations, apart from Central Asian Turkic-speaking groups and South Western Asia populations. Within the country, the genetic variation is structured in Western, Central and Eastern Bulgaria indicating that the Balkan Mountains have been permeable to human movements. The lineage analysis provided the following interesting results: (i) R-L23* is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii) haplogroup E-V13 has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the arrival of farming; (iii) haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea. On the whole, in light of the most recent historical studies, which indicate a substantial proto-Bulgarian input to the contemporary Bulgarian people, our data suggest that a common paternal ancestry between the proto-Bulgarians and the Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations either did not exist or was negligible. PMID:23483890

  6. [A plasmodium alciparum malaria case originated from Mozambique: clues for the diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Gülşen; Yildirim, Tolga; Aydin, Kadriye; Ergüven, Sibel; Unal, Serhat

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this report was the presentation of a falciparum malaria case originated from Mozambique and the evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Sixty years old Canadian male patient who has been working in Mozambique for 13 years was admitted to hospital with the complaints of high fever (39.6 degrees C), weakness, nausea and vomiting, when returned to Turkey. The patient was sleepiness and has undulating confusions with the laboratory findings of thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, hyperlactatemia, increased BUN/creatinine levels, increased LDH levels and hypocholesterolemia. The diagnosis was based on the detection of multiple ring formed trophozoites in the thick blood film and the presence of multiple ring forms inside the erythrocytes and the absence of trophozoite and shizont forms in the thin blood film. His medical history revealed that he experienced another falciparum malaria infection one year ago, although he has been using mefloquine prophylaxis during his stay in Mozambique. Since chloroquine resistance was thought to be high in this region, the patient was treated with quinine sulphate and doxycycline. Six days after the onset of therapy, the biochemical markers turned to normal and 14 days later the blood films were free of the parasite. The patient was given doxycycline prophylaxis since he would return to Mozambique. In conclusion, the followings should be taken into consideration for the diagnosis and therapy: (i) cyclic type of fever which is characteristic for malaria, might not be detected in falciparum malaria; (ii) some of the clinical symptoms might be blocked by partial immune response in case of recurrent infections; (iii) thrombocytopenia and hypocholesterolemia might indicate the presence of falciparum malaria; and when falciparum malaria is confirmed by parasitological examinations the patient should be treated as if he/she is accepted as resistant to chloroquine.

  7. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with plasma cell differentiation: Periodic acid-schiff reaction-positive Dutcher body is a diagnostic clue to distinguish it from plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Atsuko; Igawa, Takuro; Sato, Hiaki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2017-06-01

    We herein report a case of primary parotid extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) with Dutcher bodies. An 82-year-old man presented with a 4 cm × 2.5 cm mass in the left parotid region. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) showed localized abnormal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the left parotid gland and lymph nodes of the left cervical region. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the left parotid gland showed lymphoplasmacytoid cells with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive Dutcher bodies. A subsequent excisional biopsy showed sheets of small- to medium-sized neoplastic B cells with abundant IgM in the cytoplasm as detected by immunohistochemistry. A diagnosis of stage II MALT lymphoma was made, but the patient did not receive therapeutic intervention. As previously reported, Dutcher bodies are mainly observed in B-cell neoplasms with IgM production. Because these characteristic intranuclear inclusions can be easily observed by PAS staining, the presence of PAS reaction-positive Dutcher bodies in FNA cytology can serve as a clue to differentially diagnose MALT lymphoma from plasmacytoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:547-551. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Cohort Model of Fertility Postponement

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Cassidy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new formal model in which demographic behavior such as fertility is postponed by differing amounts depending only on cohort membership. The cohort-based model shows the effects of cohort shifts on period fertility measures and provides an accompanying tempo adjustment to determine the period fertility that would have occurred without postponement. Cohort-based postponement spans multiple periods and produces “fertility momentum,” with implications for future fertility rates. We illustrate several methods for model estimation and apply the model to fertility in several countries. We also compare the fit of period-based and cohort-based shift models to the recent Dutch fertility surface, showing how cohort- and period-based postponement can occur simultaneously. PMID:25233957

  9. [Clinical pathway for total knee arthroplasty (EGON). II. The impact of enhanced patient information].

    PubMed

    Kirschner, S; Lützner, J; Meier, V; Günther, K P; Krummenauer, F

    2010-09-01

    The effects of the introduction of a clinical pathway and enhanced patient information on patients' satisfaction were investigated in the current study. In a prospective cohort study patients were systematically interviewed about the preparation and the clinical course during implantation of a total knee arthroplasty. The study included 132 patients before (cohort I) and 128 after (cohort II) introduction of a clinical pathway. All patients of cohort II were offered the opportunity to attend an enhanced patient information lecture. The collected data were analysed in a descriptive manner. Items with more than 10% negative answers constituted the need for improvement. Regarding preparation of the operation there was a need for improvement of 11 items in cohort I and 4 in cohort II. With respect to the clinical course there was a slight increase from 6 to 7 items that required improvement. The enhanced information about the treatment and the clinical course were assessed positively. Patients were unsatisfied with the individual explanation of the X-rays. Of 128 patients from cohort II, 58 decided to participate in the information session for patients. The patients who had attended were more interested in receiving additional information. The success of the operation (gain in WOMAC score of at least 20%) showed a substantial effect on patient satisfaction. With increased patient information the knowledge and patient satisfaction within clinical pathways can be improved.

  10. Animal models of Parkinson's disease: a source of novel treatments and clues to the cause of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Duty, Susan; Jenner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) have proved highly effective in the discovery of novel treatments for motor symptoms of PD and in the search for clues to the underlying cause of the illness. Models based on specific pathogenic mechanisms may subsequently lead to the development of neuroprotective agents for PD that stop or slow disease progression. The array of available rodent models is large and ranges from acute pharmacological models, such as the reserpine- or haloperidol-treated rats that display one or more parkinsonian signs, to models exhibiting destruction of the dopaminergic nigro-striatal pathway, such as the classical 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse models. All of these have provided test beds in which new molecules for treating the motor symptoms of PD can be assessed. In addition, the emergence of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) with repeated treatment of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats with L-DOPA has allowed for examination of the mechanisms responsible for treatment-related dyskinesia in PD, and the detection of molecules able to prevent or reverse their appearance. Other toxin-based models of nigro-striatal tract degeneration include the systemic administration of the pesticides rotenone and paraquat, but whilst providing clues to disease pathogenesis, these are not so commonly used for drug development. The MPTP-treated primate model of PD, which closely mimics the clinical features of PD and in which all currently used anti-parkinsonian medications have been shown to be effective, is undoubtedly the most clinically-relevant of all available models. The MPTP-treated primate develops clear dyskinesia when repeatedly exposed to L-DOPA, and these parkinsonian animals have shown responses to novel dopaminergic agents that are highly predictive of their effect in man. Whether non-dopaminergic drugs show the same degree of predictability of response is a matter of debate. As our

  11. Animal models of Parkinson's disease: a source of novel treatments and clues to the cause of the disease.

    PubMed

    Duty, Susan; Jenner, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) have proved highly effective in the discovery of novel treatments for motor symptoms of PD and in the search for clues to the underlying cause of the illness. Models based on specific pathogenic mechanisms may subsequently lead to the development of neuroprotective agents for PD that stop or slow disease progression. The array of available rodent models is large and ranges from acute pharmacological models, such as the reserpine- or haloperidol-treated rats that display one or more parkinsonian signs, to models exhibiting destruction of the dopaminergic nigro-striatal pathway, such as the classical 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse models. All of these have provided test beds in which new molecules for treating the motor symptoms of PD can be assessed. In addition, the emergence of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) with repeated treatment of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats with L-DOPA has allowed for examination of the mechanisms responsible for treatment-related dyskinesia in PD, and the detection of molecules able to prevent or reverse their appearance. Other toxin-based models of nigro-striatal tract degeneration include the systemic administration of the pesticides rotenone and paraquat, but whilst providing clues to disease pathogenesis, these are not so commonly used for drug development. The MPTP-treated primate model of PD, which closely mimics the clinical features of PD and in which all currently used anti-parkinsonian medications have been shown to be effective, is undoubtedly the most clinically-relevant of all available models. The MPTP-treated primate develops clear dyskinesia when repeatedly exposed to L-DOPA, and these parkinsonian animals have shown responses to novel dopaminergic agents that are highly predictive of their effect in man. Whether non-dopaminergic drugs show the same degree of predictability of response is a matter of debate. As our

  12. Microbially Mediated Glass Alteration in the Geological Record: Textural clues for Microbial Functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, H.; Furnes, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Banerjee, N.

    2007-12-01

    Fe and Mn oxidizing microbes interact with their environment through the microbially mediated formation of Fe/Mn oxides and through the corrosion textures they may leave behind in the solids they colonize and from which they extract nutrients. Understanding the geo-biology of Fe and Mn oxidation may focus on the study of the microbes themselves, the mineral products, its biocorrosion features and the relationships between these types of observations. We have reviewed our own data on glass bio-corrosion and in particular the wider literature on microbial mineral tunneling to develop a two stage biocorrosion model for volcanic glass that offers feedback for our understanding of the mechanisms and the dynamics of microbial dissolution. Traces of microbially mediated dissolution of volcanic glass are commonly observed in volcanic glass found in submarine volcanoes on the seafloor, and in uplifted submarine volcanoes of almost any geological age back to the origin of life. Two main bioalteration textures care observed, granular and tubular. Based on a comparison of these features in particular with tunneling by ectomycorrhizal fungi, we propose two distinct types of biocorrosion that affects glass: (1) Granular alteration textures, made up of colonies of microbe-sized, near spherical mineral - filled cavities that form irregular clusters ranging to a tens of micron thick bands at the glas surfaces. These granular textures are interpreted as the result of microbial colonization. accompanied by dissolution of the glass in their contact surface, deposition of authigenic minerals and the formation of a biofilm, that eventually seals the glass from easy access by seawater for hydration, or from microbes accessing Fe (II) in the glass. (2) The most spectacular bioalteration feature, repesented by the formation of tubes cannot be easily formed by the former mechanism because near spherical, individual microbes are likely not to produce the directionality that is required to

  13. Geochemical Clues on the Processes Controlling the 2005-2014 Unrest at Campi Flegrei Caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Caliro, S.; D'auria, L.; De Martino, P.; Mangiacapra, A.; Petrillo, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of the mechanism which triggers unrests at active calderas is one of the most problematic issues of modern volcanology. In particular, magmatic intrusion vs. hydrothermal dynamics is one of the central questions to understand the signals of several restless calderas of the Earth, including, for example, Yellowstone, Long Valley, and Campi Flegrei. Here we focus on Campi Flegrei caldera, sited in the densely inhabited metropolitan area of Napoli, where an inflation stage showing an accelerating trend started in 2005 and reached a maximum vertical displacement of about 24 cm in July 2014. Fumarolic compositions compared with ground deformation data suggests that this ten year's accelerating uplift is mainly caused by the overlapping of two processes: (i) short time pulses caused by injection of magmatic fluids into the hydrothermal system, and (ii) a long time process of heating of the rocks. The short pulses are highlighted by comparing the residuals of ground deformation, fitted with an accelerating curve, with the fumarolic CO2/CH4 and He/CH4 ratios which are good indicators of the arrival of magmatic gases into the hydrothermal system. These two independent datasets show an impressive temporal correlation, with the same sequence of five peaks with a delay of ~ 200 days of the geochemical signal with respect to the geodetic one. The heating of the hydrothermal system is inferred by an evident increase in the fumarolic activity and by temperature-pressure gas-geoindicators. The accelerating ground deformation is paralleled in fact by an increase in the fumarolic CO/CO2 ratio and by a general decrease of the CH4/CO2ratio, both being sign of increased equilibration temperatures. Comparing the observed fumarolic compositions with the thermodynamically derived equilibrium values we infer that the heating is caused by the condensation of increasing amounts of steam. According to a recent interpretation of fumarolic inert gas species, which relates

  14. [Birth cohort studies in China: a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Sun, L; He, X Y; Wang, Y X; Yu, W P

    2017-04-10

    With longer than 100-year experience of development, methods used on birth cohort study have been viewed as having important roles in exploring the probable effects of health and environment exposure both prior to and during the pregnancy in the life circle as infants, children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. However in China, birth cohort studies started late but with rapid development. Recently, some well-known methods on birth cohort studies were established in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan area. This paper presented an overall review on the progress about birth cohort studies and their prospects, in China.

  15. Sample size calculations for prevalent cohort designs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Shen, Yu; Ning, Jing; Qin, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Cross-sectional prevalent cohort design has drawn considerable interests in the studies of association between risk factors and time-to-event outcome. The sampling scheme in such design gives rise to length-biased data that require specialized analysis strategy but can improve study efficiency. The power and sample size calculation methods are however lacking for studies with prevalent cohort design, and using the formula developed for traditional survival data may overestimate sample size. We derive the sample size formulas that are appropriate for the design of cross-sectional prevalent cohort studies, under the assumptions of exponentially distributed event time and uniform follow-up for cross-sectional prevalent cohort design. We perform numerical and simulation studies to compare the sample size requirements for achieving the same power between prevalent cohort and incident cohort designs. We also use a large prospective prevalent cohort study to demonstrate the procedure. Using rigorous designs and proper analysis tools, the prospective prevalent cohort design can be more efficient than the incident cohort design with the same total sample sizes and study durations.

  16. Longitudinal Stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II: A Latent Trait-State-Occasion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    In a six-wave longitudinal study with two cohorts (660 adolescents and 630 young adults), this study investigated the longitudinal stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) using the Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) model. The results revealed that the full TSO model was the best fitting representation of the depression measured by the…

  17. Longitudinal Stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II: A Latent Trait-State-Occasion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    In a six-wave longitudinal study with two cohorts (660 adolescents and 630 young adults), this study investigated the longitudinal stability of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) using the Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) model. The results revealed that the full TSO model was the best fitting representation of the depression measured by the…

  18. Cohort effects explain the increase in autism diagnosis among children born from 1992 to 2003 in California

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Fountain, Christine; Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and prevalence of autism have dramatically increased over the last 20 years. Decomposition of autism incidence rates into age, period and cohort effects disentangle underlying domains of causal factors linked to time trends. We estimate an age-period-cohort effect model for autism diagnostic incidence overall and by level of functioning. Methods Data are drawn from sequential cohorts of all 6 501 262 individuals born in California from 1992 to 2003. Autism diagnoses from 1994 to 2005 were ascertained from the California Department of Development Services Client Development and Evaluation Report. Results Compared with those born in 1992, each successively younger cohort has significantly higher odds of an autism diagnosis than the previous cohort, controlling for age and period effects. For example, individuals born in 2003 have 16.6 times the odds of an autism diagnosis compared with those born in 1992 [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8–35.3]. The cohort effect observed in these data is stronger for high than for low-functioning children with an autism diagnosis. Discussion Autism incidence in California exhibits a robust and linear positive cohort effect that is stronger among high-functioning children with an autism diagnosis. This finding indicates that the primary drivers of the increases in autism diagnoses must be factors that: (i) have increased linearly year-to-year; (ii) aggregate in birth cohorts; and (iii) are stronger among children with higher levels of functioning. PMID:22253308

  19. Age, Birth Cohorts, and Drinking: An Illustration of the Hazards of Inferring Effects from Cohort Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Norval D.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes problems in the use of cohort data as illustrated by cohort data on drinking alcoholic beverages taken from American national surveys conducted during the late 1950s, late 1960s, and late 1970s. Researchers are cautioned that all available "side information" should be considered before statistical cohort models are tested. (Author/RC)

  20. Age, Birth Cohorts, and Drinking: An Illustration of the Hazards of Inferring Effects from Cohort Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Norval D.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes problems in the use of cohort data as illustrated by cohort data on drinking alcoholic beverages taken from American national surveys conducted during the late 1950s, late 1960s, and late 1970s. Researchers are cautioned that all available "side information" should be considered before statistical cohort models are tested. (Author/RC)

  1. Drowned reefs and carbonate platforms: reef-community disruption by nutrients provides a clue to the paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, P.

    1985-01-01

    Growth rates of corals on Holocene reefs indicate that carbonate platforms should easily keep pace with long-term subsidence and sea-level changes, yet drowned reefs and platforms are common in the geologic record. Recognition of the influence of nutrients in reef communities provides a clue to that paradox. Coral reefs are ecosystems adapted to nutrient-deficient environments. Input of nitrates and phosphates stimulates growth of plankton and, in the benthos, of fleshy algae and suspension-feeding animals such as bryozoans, barnacles, boring bivalves, sponges and tunicates. These fast-growing organisms not only displace the hermatypic algae and corals that produce most of the carbonate, but many are bioeroders that actively destroy the reefal structure. Nutrient enrichment can result from either runoff or upwelling. Thus, not only are terrigenous sediments detrimental to reefs, but suppression of reef development by nutrients carried in runoff from land can extend well beyond the range of sediment influx. Understanding that increased organic productivity disrupts reefal communities and curtails carbonate production provides important new insights for paleoenvironmental interpretations. Carbonate platforms that have succumbed to upwelled nutrients may include those whose drownings coincide with times of increasing deep-ocean circulation.

  2. The usefulness of changing focus during examination using Gram staining as initial diagnostic clue for infective tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Atsukawa, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Sayoko; Asahara, Miwa; Ishigaki, Shinobu; Tanaka, Takashi; Ono, Yasuo; Nishiya, Hajime; Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Koga, Ichiro; Ota, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Yukihisa

    2011-08-01

    Gram staining is a useful technique for detecting bacteria but is highly questionable in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its detection generally requires special staining, such as Ziehl-Neelsen staining. We experienced three cases in which tuberculosis was first suggested by Gram staining of sputum or pus, confirmed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction or culture. To find colorless tubercle bacilli in clinical samples with various organisms, varying the focus to slightly longer and shorter during study of the slides is indispensable. We present criteria for detecting infective pulmonary tuberculosis in Gram staining. First, in the ordinary focus, weakly stained, thin, gram-positive bacilli are found; second, with a slightly longer focus distance, the thin, cord-like, conspicuous gram-positive bacilli can be observed; and third, with a shorter focus distance, the gram-positive bacilli have changed into the brightened, colorless, or ghost ones. Four laboratory technologists each evaluated 20 Gram-stained samples after being lectured on the criteria, with no prior information about the sample. They accurately evaluated the presence of the bacilli in Gram-stained preparations in more than 90% of samples containing 3+ bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Gram staining is available as an easy and rapid initial clue to recognize highly infective tuberculosis.

  3. Lewis Cliff 86010, a unique Antarctic meteorite: Possible new clues to the early history of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, G. A.; Crozaz, G.; Prinz, M.; Goodrich, C. A.; Delaney, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    Results form the Antarctic sample, LEW 86010 indicate that it is an extremely interesting meteorite of clear igneous origin, and is probably closely related to ADOR. Several important questions await further detailed study. The most stringent test of the relationship to ADOR will come from the measurement of the oxygen isotopic composition. One possibility proposed is that LEW 86010 represents a partial or total melt of a mixture of material similar to the white Allende clasts and more ordinary chondritic meteorite material. Several lines of investigation will contribute to resolve this question. Further melting studies will be performed to determine whether LEW 86010 represents molten lava. In addition to test the connection with Allende, isotopic studies will look for anomalous isotopic compositions which are ubiquitous in Allende white inclusions. All of these studies will be performed on a tiny sample which weights only 5 grams, and is smaller than a marble, but which contains important clues to events which occurred during the birth of the solar system.

  4. Spontaneous downbeat nystagmus as a clue for the diagnosis of ataxia associated with anti-GAD antibodies.

    PubMed

    Vale, Thiago Cardoso; Pedroso, José Luiz; Alquéres, Rafaela Almeida; Dutra, Lívia Almeida; Barsottini, Orlando Graziani Povoas

    2015-12-15

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamic acid to the neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid. Antibodies against GAD (anti-GAD-Ab) are associated with an array of autoimmune-related neurological conditions, such as stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, epilepsy and limbic encephalitis. The clinical spectrum of ataxia associated with anti-GAD-Ab comprises slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia syndrome evolving in months or years, associated with cerebellar atrophy on brain MRI. There are few reports of patients with ataxia associated with anti-GAD-Ab presenting with abnormal ocular movements, such as downbeat nystagmus (DBN).We present two patients with ataxia associated with anti-GAD-Ab from a large series of ataxic subjects who presented with cerebellar ataxia combined with spontaneous DBN. All patients underwent a thorough neurological evaluation with the use of ataxia scales, brain MRI scans, cerebrospinal fluid examination, 18FDG-PET/CT scans, laboratory work-up with on coneural and immune encephalitis antibodies, serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of anti-GAD-Ab, and the antibody specificity index to measure the intrathecal synthesis of anti-GAD-Ab. All patients were treated with cycles of intravenous immunoglobulin and had mild/partial ataxia improvement and no improvement of DBN. The finding of DBN may work as a diagnostic clue in the context of adult-onset non-hereditary ataxias.

  5. Markedly elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels are a clue to the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, G R; Al-Abdely, H; Flanders, C D; Geimer, J; Patterson, T F

    1997-05-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is a common late manifestation of AIDS, but the diagnosis may be unsuspected in some patients because the clinical presentation of histoplasmosis may mimic other opportunistic infections. High serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels have been associated with disseminated histoplasmosis. We therefore evaluated whether markedly increased LDH levels were useful for making a diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis by comparing admission LDH levels for 15 patients with culture-proven disseminated histoplasmosis with those for 30 patients with advanced AIDS who were admitted to the hospital for evaluation of pulmonary infiltrates and fever. The mean admission LDH level in patients with disseminated histoplasmosis was 1,356 IU/L (range, 145-5,410 IU) whereas it was 332 (range, 77-832 IU) in the patients with other pulmonary processes. Admission LDH levels were >600 IU in 11 (73%) of the 15 patients with disseminated histoplasmosis vs. 3 (10%) of controls (P < .001). We conclude that markedly elevated admission LDH levels may be a clinical clue to the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

  6. Intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts: a diagnostic clue of renal tumors associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Furuya, Mitsuko; Nagashima, Yoji; Gotohda, Hiroko; Moritani, Suzuko; Kawakami, Fumi; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Bando, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Kanayama, Hiro-omi; Ota, Satoshi; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej; Nakatani, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we searched for the common histologic characteristic of renal tumors in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS). We selected 6 patients with histologically confirmed renal tumor in BHDS. Germline FLCN gene mutation has been identified in 5 patients. Multifocality and bilaterality of the renal tumors were pathologically or radiologically confirmed in 5 and 2 cases, respectively. Histologic subtypes of the dominant tumor included 3 previously described hybrid oncocytic tumors, one composite chromophobe/papillary/clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and one unclassified RCC resembling hybrid chromophobe/clear cell RCC. In one case, chromophobe RCC and clear cell RCC were separately observed. Small papillary lesions located in the peripheral area of the tumor, which we designated as intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts, were identified in all patients. In conclusion, multifocality/bilaterality of renal tumors, discordance of histologic subtypes, and the presence of intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts may be important clues to identify BHDS-associated renal tumors.

  7. Biotypes and O serogroups of Escherichia coli involved in intestinal infections of weaned rabbits: clues to diagnosis of pathogenic strains.

    PubMed Central

    Camguilhem, R; Milon, A

    1989-01-01

    A total of 575 Escherichia coli strains isolated from weaned rabbits experiencing diarrhea in 119 French commercial farms were tested for O serogroups. The results showed a strong predominance of serogroup O103 strains. A sample of 126 strains were further checked for simplified biotypes by using five carbohydrate fermentation reactions. Of 72 O103 strains, 70 were shown to belong to biotypes characterized by a rhamnose-negative reaction. Four of nine serogroup O68 strains also showed this type of reaction. Thirty-nine strains, representative of the serotypes and biotypes found, were further tested for experimental pathogenicity in weaned rabbits and for antibiotic susceptibility. All the rhamnose-negative strains produced life-threatening watery or hemorrhagic diarrhea, whereas rhamnose-positive strains induced only mild diarrheic syndrome without any mortality or no clinical signs at all. Rhamnose-negative, highly pathogenic strains did not belong to related antibiotypes. We think that O serogrouping together with biotyping, or even rhamnose fermentation testing, may be an important clue in the diagnosis of enteropathogenic strains from rabbits in France, permitting rapid identification of highly pathogenic strains and leading to improved prognosis and treatment. PMID:2656746

  8. [Non linear principal component analysis and clues for a differential approach of five groups experiencing social precariousness].

    PubMed

    Meyer, C

    2008-01-01

    We wished to develop an original way of taking care of people experiencing great social precariousness. Our purpose was to develop communication and relational skills, to stimulate expression of emotions and feelings, to bring out personal resources, to increase well-being, motivation and self-esteem, and thus favour rehabilitation. Our sample is composed of long-term unemployed people, of people benefiting from measures of integration into the working process, of people living in community homes, of drug addicts, and of drug-addicted female prisoners. Our research is based on an integrated quantitative and qualitative methodology, with rating scales for the artistic production and observational frames for items of verbal and non-verbal behaviour completing the psychometric questionnaires. It is an action research; we use art therapy, which is a common practice in the health sector, especially with subjects having problems expressing there feelings through words. We have carried out a non linear principal component analysis (PRINCALS) on the data of the projective test (Rotter), as well as a between groups comparison of the responses to the questionnaire on life satisfaction (FLZ), with the help of the Mann-Whitney test. It is from these comparisons that we are able to draw out a few clues for differential treating strategies, depending on the inclusion into the five sub-groups that we have followed.

  9. Structural studies provide clues for analog design of specific inhibitors of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vidya P; Cisneros, Jose A; Frey, Kathleen M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Wang, Yiqiang; Gangjee, Aleem; White, A Clinton; Jorgensen, William L; Anderson, Karen S

    2014-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is the causative agent of a gastrointestinal disease, cryptosporidiosis, which is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals and children. Thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are essential enzymes in the folate biosynthesis pathway and are well established as drug targets in cancer, bacterial infections, and malaria. Cryptosporidium hominis has a bifunctional thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, compared to separate enzymes in the host. We evaluated lead compound 1 from a novel series of antifolates, 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase with selectivity over the human enzyme. Complementing the enzyme inhibition compound 1 also has anti-cryptosporidial activity in cell culture. A crystal structure with compound 1 bound to the TS active site is discussed in terms of several van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with the protein residues and the substrate analog 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (TS), cofactor NADPH and inhibitor methotrexate (DHFR). Another crystal structure in complex with compound 1 bound in both the TS and DHFR active sites is also reported here. The crystal structures provide clues for analog design and for the design of ChTS-DHFR specific inhibitors. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and hypersegmented neutrophils in a patient with ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder: potential diagnostic clues?

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Awaya, Tomonari; Shibata, Minoru; Kato, Takeo; Numabe, Hironao; Kobayashi, Junya; Komatsu, Kenshi; Heike, Toshio

    2014-07-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder (ATLD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, and has symptoms similar to ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). ATLD is caused by mutations in the MRE11 gene, involved in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR). In contrast to AT, ATLD patients lack key clinical features, such as telangiectasia or immunodeficiency, and are therefore difficult to be diagnosed. We report a female ATLD patient presenting with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and hypersegmented neutrophils, previously undescribed features in this disorder, and potential diagnostic clues to differentiate ATLD from other conditions. The patient showed slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia from 2 years of age, and MRI revealed atrophy of the cerebellum, oculomotor apraxia, mild cognitive impairment, writing dystonia, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism with primary amenorrhea, and hypersegmented neutrophils. Western blot assay demonstrated total loss of MRE11 and reduction of ATM-dependent phosphorylation; thus, we diagnosed ATLD. Genetically, a novel missense mutation (c.140C>T) was detected in the MRE11 gene, but no other mutation was found in the patient. Our presenting patient suggests that impaired DSBR may be associated with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and neutrophil hypersegmentation. In conclusion, when assessing patients with ataxia of unknown cause, ATLD should be considered, and the gonadal state and peripheral blood smear samples evaluated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Associations between social networks and life satisfaction among older Japanese: Does birth cohort make a difference?

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Erika; Liang, Jersey; Sugawara, Ikuko; Fukaya, Taro; Shinkai, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2015-12-01

    Japanese older people experienced drastic changes in family structure and values after World War II at different life stages by birth cohorts. We examined how linkages between different types of social ties and life satisfaction (LS) vary across cohorts, in conjunction with age and survey year differences. Data from face-to-face interviews conducted in 1987, 1999, and 2012 with a nationally representative sample of older Japanese (N = 4,917) were analyzed. The participants were members of 4 birth cohorts (C1: 1901-1912, C2: 1913-1924, C3: 1925-1936, C4: 1937-1949), categorized into 6 groups based on cohort and age at time of measurement (young-old [YO]: 63-74; old-old [OO]: 75-86): C1OO, C2YO, C2OO, C3YO, C3OO, and C4YO. Effects of social networks on LS among the 6 groups were compared simultaneously and separately by gender using the Amos software. There were significant cohort variations in the linkages between family network and LS. The positive association between being married and LS was stronger for later cohorts (C3, C4) among men, whereas that of co-residence with a child and LS was stronger for the earlier cohorts (C1, C2) among women. Moreover, the positive association between meeting with nonfamily members and LS increased from 1987 to 2012 among women, indicating a period effect over a cohort effect. The effects of being married and participation in community groups on LS also changed with age. Our results suggest that linkages between social relations and LS should be interpreted within the context of individual and social changes over time.

  12. Across-cohort QC analyses of GWAS summary statistics from complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Bo; Lee, Sang Hong; Robinson, Matthew R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Zhu, Zhi-Xiang; Winkler, Thomas W; Day, Felix R; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Wood, Andrew R; Locke, Adam E; Kutalik, Zoltán; Loos, Ruth J F; Frayling, Timothy M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Yang, Jian; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been successful in discovering SNP trait associations for many quantitative traits and common diseases. Typically, the effect sizes of SNP alleles are very small and this requires large genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMAs) to maximize statistical power. A trend towards ever-larger GWAMA is likely to continue, yet dealing with summary statistics from hundreds of cohorts increases logistical and quality control problems, including unknown sample overlap, and these can lead to both false positive and false negative findings. In this study, we propose four metrics and visualization tools for GWAMA, using summary statistics from cohort-level GWASs. We propose methods to examine the concordance between demographic information, and summary statistics and methods to investigate sample overlap. (I) We use the population genetics Fst statistic to verify the genetic origin of each cohort and their geographic location, and demonstrate using GWAMA data from the GIANT Consortium that geographic locations of cohorts can be recovered and outlier cohorts can be detected. (II) We conduct principal component analysis based on reported allele frequencies, and are able to recover the ancestral information for each cohort. (III) We propose a new statistic that uses the reported allelic effect sizes and their standard errors to identify significant sample overlap or heterogeneity between pairs of cohorts. (IV) To quantify unknown sample overlap across all pairs of cohorts, we propose a method that uses randomly generated genetic predictors that does not require the sharing of individual-level genotype data and does not breach individual privacy. PMID:27552965

  13. Graduate Cohort Approach in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson-Gearhart, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    The use of the cohorts in teacher education has steadily increased over the last decade. Research indicates both beneficial and negative aspects to this approach, with the field undecided. This study focuses on a Midwestern university's accelerated graduate program for special educators. The program uses a mixed cohort approach to model…

  14. A Chinese Birth Cohort: Theoretical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Paul C.; Ren, Xin; Weitekamp, Elmar; Kerner, Hans-Jurgen; Taylor, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    Research on delinquency has shown consistent results across Western industrialized countries. Few studies have been done in non-Western cultures. This study reports on the results of a birth cohort study in China, which was started by Marvin Wolfgang but never completed. The cohort, born in 1973, was traced through official and community files.…

  15. Graduate Cohort Approach in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson-Gearhart, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    The use of the cohorts in teacher education has steadily increased over the last decade. Research indicates both beneficial and negative aspects to this approach, with the field undecided. This study focuses on a Midwestern university's accelerated graduate program for special educators. The program uses a mixed cohort approach to model…

  16. Interpersonal Influence Styles of Adult Cohorts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Stephanie B.

    Generational differences in the balance of power contribute to varying patterns of influence strategy use within cohorts of young, middle-aged, and older adults. The self-report Likelihood of Influence Tactic Use Scale was administered to 10 males and 10 females in each of three cohort groups to investigate the influence tactics used at different…

  17. Cohort profile: The Isle of Man Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Stephanie A; Rolfe, Edna M; Golding, Jean

    2013-10-01

    The Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown Dependency situated equidistantly from England, Scotland and Ireland. In 1991, its population of ∼75,000 comprised ∼50% indigenous Manx and 50% immigrants, mainly from the surrounding countries. It was invited to join the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. The aim of the study was to enrol all pregnant women resident on the Island with an expected date of delivery in the 18-month period of January 1991-June 1992. A total of 1314 livebirths formed the eligible cohort. Questionnaires were completed by mothers and their partners during pregnancy and subsequently at 6 weeks, 6 months, 18 months, 3, 5, 7 and 15/16 years. Hands-on examination of the children occurred at age 7 years, when biological samples were collected. Teachers completed questionnaires at 7 and 15 years; medical records were extracted for the obstetric and childhood periods. Response rates varied from >80% from teachers and children at 15 years to only 23% from partners when their children were aged 7 years. Selected data sets are available to collaborators, although many of the data need funds for further collaboration.

  18. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna; Carmichael, Amanda; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Eller, Esben; Fantini, Maria P.; Fernández, Mariana F.; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hohmann, Cynthia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Keil, Thomas; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koppen, Gudrun; Krämer, Ursula; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Magnus, Per; Majewska, Renata; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Patelarou, Evridiki; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Pierik, Frank H.; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Santos, Ana Cristina; Slama, Rémy; Sram, Radim J.; Thijs, Carel; Tischer, Christina; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomáš; Vandentorren, Stephanie; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a comprehensive overview of European birth cohorts with environmental exposure data. Methods: Birth cohort studies were included if they a) collected data on at least one environmental exposure, b) started enrollment during pregnancy or at birth, c) included at least one follow-up point after birth, d) included at least 200 mother–child pairs, and e) were based in a European country. A questionnaire collected information on basic protocol details and exposure and health outcome assessments, including specific contaminants, methods and samples, timing, and number of subjects. A full inventory can be searched on www.birthcohortsenrieco.net. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 37 cohort studies of > 350,000 mother–child pairs in 19 European countries. Only three cohorts did not participate. All cohorts collected biological specimens of children or parents. Many cohorts collected information on passive smoking (n = 36), maternal occupation (n = 33), outdoor air pollution (n = 27), and allergens/biological organisms (n = 27). Fewer cohorts (n = 12–19) collected information on water contamination, ionizing or nonionizing radiation exposures, noise, metals, persistent organic pollutants, or other pollutants. All cohorts have information on birth outcomes; nearly all on asthma, allergies, childhood growth and obesity; and 26 collected information on child neurodevelopment. Conclusion: Combining forces in this field will yield more efficient and conclusive studies and ultimately improve causal inference. This impressive resource of existing birth cohort data could form the basis for longer-term and worldwide coordination of research on environment and child health. PMID

  19. Air pollution effects on fetal and child development: a cohort comparison in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Deliang; Li, Ting Yu; Chow, Judith C; Kulkarni, Sanasi U; Watson, John G; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Quan, Zhang Y; Qu, L R; Perera, Frederica

    2014-02-01

    In Tongliang, China, a coal-fired power plant was the major pollution source until its shutdown in 2004. We enrolled two cohorts of nonsmoking women and their newborns before and after the shutdown to examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fetal and child growth and development. PAHs were used to measure exposure to air pollution generated by the power plant. Using PAH-DNA adduct levels as biomarkers for the biologically effective dose of PAH exposure, we examined whether PAH-DNA adduct levels were associated with birth outcome, growth rate, and neurodevelopment. Head circumference was greater in children of the second cohort, compared with the first (p = 0.001), consistent with significantly reduced levels of cord blood PAH-DNA adducts in cohort II (p < 0.001) and reduced levels of ambient PAHs (p = 0.01).

  20. [The role of the expansion cohort in phase I trials in oncology: guidelines of the phase I HUB].

    PubMed

    Ezzalfani, Monia; Dugué, Audrey; Mollevi, Caroline; Pulido, Marina; Bonnetain, Franck; Filleron, Thomas; Gal, Jocelyn; Gauthier, Mélanie; Le Deley, Marie Cécile; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Médioni, Jacques; Nguyen, Jean-Michel; Chabaud, Sylvie; Teixeira, Luis; Thivat, Emilie; You, Benoît; Kramar, Andrew; Paoletti, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the dose escalation step of phase I trials in oncology, it is increasingly frequent to include patients in expansion cohorts. However, the objective of the expansion cohorts, the number of patients included and their justification are insufficiently explained in the protocols. These cohorts are sometimes of considerable size. The aim of this article is to outline the methodology of expansion cohorts in order to provide recommendations for their planning in practice. This work has been undertaken in collaboration with the statisticians of the early phase investigation centers (CLIP(2)), supported by INCA. First, we have outlined the recent articles published on the expansion cohorts in phase I. We then proposed recommendations, in terms of objectives and number of patients to be included, to guide investigators and facilitate the use of these expansion cohorts in practice. Manji et al. have identified 149 phase I clinical trials using expansion cohorts in oncology with a review of the literature between 2006 and 2011 (Manji et al., 2013). Objectives of the expansion cohort were reported in 111 trials (74%). In these trials, safety was the most reported objective (80% of trials), followed by efficacy (45%). According to this review, the number of patients included in these cohorts was insufficiently justified. This result was confirmed by the study of literature that we conducted over the period 2011-2014. We propose to define the number of patients to be included in expansion cohorts in terms of (1) their objectives, (2) the statistical criteria and (3) the clinical context of the trial. The toxicity study remains the primary objective to evaluate in the expansion phase. In some contexts, the activity study is considered as co-primary objective, either for identifying preliminary signs of activity in studies like screening, or for studying the activity when the target population is known. This study is then considered as phase I/II, and experience

  1. The cohort effect in childhood disease dynamics.

    PubMed

    He, Daihai; Earn, David J D

    2016-07-01

    The structure of school terms is well known to influence seasonality of transmission rates of childhood infectious diseases in industrialized countries. A less well-studied aspect of school calendars that influences disease dynamics is that all children enter school on the same day each year. Rather than a continuous inflow, there is a sudden increase in the number of susceptible individuals in schools at the start of the school year. Based on the standard susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model, we show that school cohort entry alone is sufficient to generate a biennial epidemic pattern, similar to many observed time series of measles incidence. In addition, cohort entry causes an annual decline in the effective transmission that is evident in observed time series, but not in models without the cohort effect. Including both cohort entry and school terms yields a model fit that is significantly closer to observed measles data than is obtained with either cohort entry or school terms alone (and just as good as that obtained with Schenzle's realistic age-structured model). Nevertheless, we find that the bifurcation structure of the periodically forced SEIR model is nearly identical, regardless of whether forcing arises from cohort entry, school terms and any combination of the two. Thus, while detailed time-series fits are substantially improved by including both cohort entry and school terms, the overall qualitative dynamic structure of the SEIR model appears to be insensitive to the origin of periodic forcing.

  2. Data resource profile: 1991 Canadian Census Cohort.

    PubMed

    Peters, Paul A; Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell; Fines, Philippe; Crouse, Daniel L; Chan, Ping Ching Winnie; Burnett, Richard T

    2013-10-01

    The 1991 Canadian Census Cohort is the largest population-based cohort in Canada (N=2,734,835). Prior to the creation of this Cohort, no national population-based Canadian cohort was available to examine mortality by socioeconomic indicators. The 1991 Canadian Census Cohort was created via the linkage of a sub-sample of respondents from the mandatory 1991 Canadian Census long-form to historical tax summary files, Canadian Mortality Database, Canadian Cancer Database, 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey and a sub-sample of the Longitudinal Worker File. Overall ascertainment of mortality and cancer is anticipated to be nearly complete and the Cohort is broadly representative of most groups in the Canadian population. The Cohort has been used to examine mortality outcomes by different indicators of socioeconomic status, occupational categories, ethnic groups, educational attainment, and for exposure to ambient air pollution. Results have shown that the estimated remaining years of life at age 25 differed substantially by income adequacy quintile, educational attainment, housing type and Aboriginal ancestry.

  3. The 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bushnik, Tracey; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S; Kaufman, Jay S; Sheppard, Amanda J; Wilkins, Russell

    2016-01-20

    Evidence on socioeconomic and ethnocultural disparities in perinatal health in Canada tends to be limited to analyses by neighbourhood or for selected provinces. In 2010, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research awarded funding for a project on perinatal outcomes. This article describes the resulting 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort Database. From the Canadian Live Birth, Infant Death and Stillbirth Database, 687,340 records of children born in Canada from May 16, 2004 through May 15, 2006 to mothers whose usual place of residence was Canada were selected as in-scope births. Deterministic rules were applied to link each person on the birth record-child, mother, father-to 2006 Census data.The cohort was restricted to records linked to a long-form questionnaire, and a cohort weight was developed. Cohort rates (unweighted and weighted) for five birth outcomes-preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, large-for-gestational age, stillbirth, and infant mortality-were compared with rates for all in-scope births across birth characteristics. Cohort rates for these birth outcomes were examined across selected census characteristics. Linkage rates were 91% for births surviving to age 1, 76% for stillbirths, and 80% for infant deaths matched to a birth registration. The cohort estimates were similar to those for all in-scope births, particularly after the cohort weight was applied. The cohort data produced plausible estimates of selected birth outcomes across maternal ethnocultural categories and levels of education. The 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort data can help inform perinatal surveillance and research in Canada.

  4. Sudden unexpected fatal encephalopathy in adults with OTC gene mutations-Clues for early diagnosis and timely treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background X-linked Ornithine Transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is often unrecognized in adults, as clinical manifestations are non-specific, often episodic and unmasked by precipitants, and laboratory findings can be normal outside the acute phase. It may thus be associated with significant mortality if not promptly recognized and treated. The aim of this study was to provide clues for recognition of OTCD in adults and analyze the environmental factors that, interacting with OTC gene mutations, might have triggered acute clinical manifestations. Methods We carried out a clinical, biochemical and molecular study on five unrelated adult patients (one female and four males) with late onset OTCD, who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with initial fatal encephalopathy. The molecular study consisted of OTC gene sequencing in the probands and family members and in silico characterization of the newly detected mutations. Results We identified two new, c.119G>T (p.Arg40Leu) and c.314G>A (p.Gly105Glu), and three known OTC mutations. Both new mutations were predicted to cause a structural destabilization, correlating with late onset OTCD. We also identified, among the family members, 8 heterozygous females and 2 hemizygous asymptomatic males. Patients' histories revealed potential environmental triggering factors, including steroid treatment, chemotherapy, diet changes and hormone therapy for in vitro fertilization. Conclusions This report raises awareness of the ED medical staff in considering OTCD in the differential diagnosis of sudden neurological and behavioural disorders associated with hyperammonemia at any age and in both genders. It also widens the knowledge about combined effect of genetic and environmental factors in determining the phenotypic expression of OTCD. PMID:25026867

  5. Metabolic clues to salubrious longevity in the brain of the longest-lived rodent: the naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Judy C; Swomley, Aaron; Kirk, Jessime; Lewis, Katilyn; Orr, Miranda; Rodriguez, Karl; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-08-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs) are the oldest-living rodent species. Living underground in a thermally stable ecological niche, NMRs have evolved certain exceptional traits, resulting in sustained health spans, negligible cognitive decline, and a pronounced resistance to age-related disease. Uncovering insights into mechanisms underlying these extraordinary traits involved in successful aging may conceivably provide crucial clues to extend the human life span and health span. One of the most fundamental processes inside the cell is the production of ATP, which is an essential fuel in driving all other energy-requiring cellular activities. Not surprisingly, a prominent hallmark in age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cancer, is the impairment and dysregulation of metabolic pathways. Using a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis proteomics approach, alterations in expression and phosphorylation levels of metabolic proteins in the brains of NMRs, aged 2-24 years, were evaluated in an age-dependent manner. We identified 13 proteins with altered levels and/or phosphorylation states that play key roles in various metabolic pathways including glycolysis, β-oxidation, the malate-aspartate shuttle, the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA) cycle, the electron transport chain, NADPH production, as well as the production of glutamate. New insights into potential pathways involved in metabolic aspects of successful aging have been obtained by the identification of key proteins through which the NMR brain responds and adapts to the aging process and how the NMR brain adapted to resist age-related degeneration. This study examines the changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome in the brain of the naked mole-rat aged 2-24 years. We identified 13 proteins (labeled in red) with altered expression and/or phosphorylation levels that are conceivably associated with sustained metabolic functions in the oldest NMRs that may promote a sustained health span and life span.

  6. The clinical importance of the metabolite equol-a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Kenneth D R; Brown, Nadine M; Lydeking-Olsen, Eva

    2002-12-01

    Equol [7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman] is a nonsteroidal estrogen of the isoflavone class. It is exclusively a product of intestinal bacterial metabolism of dietary isoflavones and it possesses estrogenic activity, having affinity for both estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. Equol is superior to all other isoflavones in its antioxidant activity. It is the end product of the biotransformation of the phytoestrogen daidzein, one of the two main isoflavones found in abundance in soybeans and most soy foods. Once formed, it is relatively stable; however, equol is not produced in all healthy adults in response to dietary challenge with soy or daidzein. Several recent dietary intervention studies examining the health effects of soy isoflavones allude to the potential importance of equol by establishing that maximal clinical responses to soy protein diets are observed in people who are good "equol-producers." It is now apparent that there are two distinct subpopulations of people and that "bacterio-typing" individuals for their ability to make equol may hold the clue to the effectiveness of soy protein diets in the treatment or prevention of hormone-dependent conditions. In reviewing the history of equol, its biological properties, factors influencing its formation and clinical data, we propose a new paradigm. The clinical effectiveness of soy protein in cardiovascular, bone and menopausal health may be a function of the ability to biotransform soy isoflavones to the more potent estrogenic isoflavone, equol. The failure to distinguish those subjects who are "equol-producers" from "nonequol producers" in previous clinical studies could plausibly explain the variance in reported data on the health benefits of soy.

  7. Benchmarking Water Oxidation Catalysts Based on Iridium Complexes: Clues and Doubts on the Nature of Active Species.

    PubMed

    Macchioni, Alceo; Menendez Rodriguez, Gabriel; Gatto, Giordano; Zuccaccia, Cristiano

    2017-10-10

    Water Oxidation (WO) is a central reaction in the photo- and electro-synthesis of fuels. Iridium complexes have been successfully exploited as water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) with remarkable performances. Herein we report a systematic study aimed at benchmarking well-known Ir WOCs, when NaIO4 is used to drive the reaction. In particular, the following complexes were studied: cis-[Ir(ppy)2(H2O)2]OTf (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) 1, [Cp*Ir(H2O)3]NO3 (Cp* = cyclopentadienyl anion) 2, [Cp*Ir(bzpy)Cl] (bzpy = 2-benzoylpyridine) 3, [Cp*IrCl2(Me2-NHC)] (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) 4, [Cp*Ir(pyalk)Cl] (pyalk = 2-pyridine-isopropanoate) 5, [Cp*Ir(pic)NO3] (pic = 2-pyridine-carboxylate) 6, [Cp*Ir{(P(O)(OH)2}3]Na 7, and mer-[IrCl3(pic)(HOMe)]K 8. Their reactivity was compared with that of IrCl3.nH2O 9 and [Ir(OH)6]2- 10. Most measurements were carried out in phosphate buffer (0.2 M), where 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 10 showed very high activity (yield close to 100%, TOF up to 554 min-1 with 10, the highest ever observed for a WO driven by NaIO4). The found order of activity is: 10 > 2 ≈ 4 > 6 > 5 > 7 > 1 > 9 > 3 > 8. Clues concerning the molecular nature of the active species were obtained, whereas its exact nature remains doubtfully. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Scattered atypical melanocytes with hyperchromatic nuclei in the nail matrix: diagnostic clue for early subungual melanoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Won; Jang, Kee-Taek; Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Ji-Hye; Kwon, Ghee Young; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Youn; Lee, Jason B; Park, Kelly K

    2016-01-01

    The lack of highly specific clinical and histopathological criteria has contributed to the delay in diagnosis of subungual melanoma in situ in its early stages. Eighteen cases of subungual melanoma in situ, the largest series reported to date, were analyzed to characterize the clinical and histopathological findings of early stages of subungual melanoma in situ along with five cases of nail matrix nevus and five cases of subungual lentigo serving as histologic control. Clinically, longitudinal melanonychia was present in all 18 cases of subungual melanoma in situ, consisting of irregular dark brown to black streaks within a brown background with (11 cases) or without Hutchinson's sign. Histopathologically, variable shaped and sized, hyperchromatic nuclei surrounded by retraction artifact were present in all cases. Nine cases showed a significant increase in the number of atypical melanocytes with marked nuclear atypia, while the rest of the cases showed less noticeable changes in nail matrix including lower density of melanocytes and/or mild nuclear atypia. In 15 cases, the nuclear enlargement in some of the melanocytes was greater than two times that of the neighboring matrix cells. In the remaining three cases, the nuclei were enlarged to a much lesser degree. All cases displayed areas of haphazard and uneven distribution of solitary melanocytes and, although not observed in all cases, some degree of pagetoid spread was present in majority of the cases. In contrast, nail matrix nevi showed well-formed nests consisting of relatively monomorphous melanocytes with abundant cytoplasm and subungual lentigos consisted of subtle increase in the number of dendritic melanocytes in solitary units within the lower layers of the nail matrix. Increase in the number of scattered atypical melanocytes with large hyperchromatic nuclei in a partial nail matrix may provide a diagnostic clue to subungual melanoma in situ in concert with its clinical suspicion. © 2015 John Wiley

  9. Factors associated with non-vaccination against measles in northeastern Brazil: Clues about causes of the 2015 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Hermano A L; Correia, Luciano L; Campos, Jocileide S; Silva, Anamaria C; Andrade, Francisca O; Silveira, Dirlene I; Machado, Márcia M; Leite, Álvaro J; Cunha, Antônio J L A

    2015-09-11

    Measles is a highly contagious disease that can be effectively prevented through vaccination. The recent increase in vaccination coverage was successful in reducing the mortality globally of the disease by 74%. As a whole, the Americas have been considered a disease-free zone. However, it is known that if an immunization programs fails, there will be an accumulation of susceptible people that can lead to disease outbreaks. Recently, both the United States and Brazil faced outbreaks of measles. The present study aims to identify the determining factors of non-vaccination in Brazil in two different vaccination coverage moments, to provide clues as to the causes of current outbreaks. Data were drawn from five population-based cross-sectional studies that surveyed a representative sample of preschool children from 1987 to 2007 (9585 children in total). To assess children's vaccination status, two different information sources were used: information provided by mothers and information from children's health cards. Multivariate analyses with logistic binary regression models were conducted. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that in 1987, with 48.2% vaccination coverage, socioeconomic, maternal, nutritional factors and access to health facilities were important, while in 2007 (96.7% coverage), nutritional and maternal factors were important. Distinct patterns of determinants of non-vaccination were also found. In addition, the low coverage in 1987 resulted in a current pool of adults who were not immunized as children; this may have contributed to the beginning of the current Brazilian outbreak. Globally, there are two standards of vaccination coverage (low and high). Therefore, discussion of the determinants of non-vaccination is important. Our findings suggest vulnerable groups should receive special attention to ensure they are protected. It is also important to consider the possible impact of pools of adults not immunized.

  10. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  11. [The Chinese national twin cohort: an update].

    PubMed

    Gao, W J; Li, L M

    2017-06-10

    The importance of large cohort studies in China has been increasingly emphasized. As special group in the population, twins provide excellent natural resources since they share the same birthday, maternal intrauterine environment and early family environment. Twin cohorts are unique for and benefit on controlling the confounding factors as age, gender (same-sex twins), genetic background (monozygotic twins) or early environment (being raised together) in the etiological studies on complex diseases. In this review, we briefly introduce the objectives, current situation, challenges and opportunities related to the Chinese national twin cohort, focusing on the characteristics of twins that are different from other groups in the general population.

  12. Cohort Learning for Graduate Students at the Dissertation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara D.; Birds, Kimberly; Seay, Angela D.; Smith, Debra B.; Wilson, Kimberly N.

    2010-01-01

    Doctoral students discuss the power of collaborative cohort learning in transforming the dissertation phase of doctoral study. Innovative components of doctoral cohort learning and dissertation preparation are detailed.

  13. Cohort profile: the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Araujo, Andre B; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2014-02-01

    The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey is a community-based, random sample, epidemiologic cohort of n = 5502 Boston (MA) residents. The baseline BACH Survey (2002-05) was designed to explore the mechanisms conferring increased health risks on minority populations with a particular focus on urologic signs/symptoms and type 2 diabetes. To this end, the cohort was designed to include adequate numbers of US racial/ethnic minorities (Black, Hispanic, White), both men and women, across a broad age of distribution. Follow-up surveys were conducted ∼5 (BACH II, 2008) and 7 (BACH III, 2010) years later, which allows for both within- and between-person comparisons over time. The BACH Survey's measures were designed to cover the following seven broad categories: socio-demographics, health care access/utilization, lifestyles, psychosocial factors, health status, physical measures and biochemical parameters. The breadth of measures has allowed BACH researchers to identify disparities and quantify contributions to social disparities in a number of health conditions including urologic conditions (e.g. nocturia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis), type 2 diabetes, obesity, bone mineral content and density, and physical function. BACH I data are available through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories (www.niddkrepository.org). Further inquiries can be made through the New England Research Institutes Inc. website (www.neriscience.com/epidemiology).

  14. Pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and breast-feeding: a cohort study in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xing-Yong; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Zuo, A-Zhu; Tao, Rui-Wen; Cao, Hui; Gu, Chun-Li; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study. Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Urban city in China. Women with infants from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196). The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes. The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.

  15. Magnesium intake and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: results from five large cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Fondell, Elinor; O'Reilly, Eilis J; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Falcone, Guido J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    A low magnesium intake has been suggested to be associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in pathological and case-control studies, but prospective studies in humans are lacking. The relation between dietary intake of magnesium and ALS risk was explored in five large prospective cohort studies (the Nurses' Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the National Institutes of Health - AARP Diet and Health Study), comprising over 1,050,000 males and females contributing 1093 cases of ALS during a mean of 15 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used within each cohort, and cohort-specific estimates were subsequently pooled using a random-effects model. Results demonstrated that dietary magnesium intake was not associated with ALS risk, relative risk 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.88 - 1.31 comparing the highest quintile of intake with the lowest. This finding does not support a protective effect of magnesium intake on ALS risk. Further analyses should explore magnesium intake in combination with heavy metal exposure and genetic variants affecting magnesium absorption.

  16. Magnesium Intake and Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Results From Five Large Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fondell, Elinor; O’Reilly, Éilis J.; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Falcone, Guido J.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Objective A low magnesium intake has been suggested to be associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in pathological and case-control studies, but prospective studies in humans are lacking. Methods The relation between dietary intake of magnesium and ALS risk was explored in five large prospective cohort studies [the Nurses’ Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the National Institutes of Health – AARP Diet and Health Study], comprising over 1,050,000 men and women contributing 1,093 cases of ALS during a mean of 15 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used within each cohort, and cohort-specific estimates were subsequently pooled using a random-effects model. Results Dietary magnesium intake was not associated with ALS risk, relative risk 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.88– 1.31 comparing the highest quintile of intake with the lowest. Conclusions This finding does not support a protective effect of magnesium intake on ALS risk. Further analyses should explore magnesium intake in combination with heavy metal exposure and genetic variants affecting magnesium absorption. PMID:23777266

  17. Breast Cancer Incidence in a Cohort of U.S. Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Anderson, Jeri L.; Hein, Misty J.; Little, Mark P.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Pinkerton, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Flight attendants may have elevated breast cancer incidence (BCI). We evaluated BCI’s association with cosmic radiation dose and circadian rhythm disruption among 6,093 female former U.S. flight attendants. Methods We collected questionnaire data on BCI and risk factors for breast cancer from 2002–2005. We conducted analyses to evaluate (i) BCI in the cohort compared to the U.S. population; and (ii) exposure-response relations. We applied an indirect adjustment to estimate whether parity and age at first birth (AFB) differences between the cohort and U.S. population could explain BCI that differed from expectation. Results BCI was elevated but may be explained by lower parity and older AFB in the cohort than among U.S. women. BCI was not associated with exposure metrics in the cohort overall. Significant positive associations with both were observed only among women with parity of three or more. Conclusions Future cohort analyses may be informative on the role of these occupational exposures and non-occupational risk factors. PMID:25678455

  18. Cohort Profile: Recruitment cohorts in the neuropsychological substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Becker, James T; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Molsberry, Samantha; Reynolds, Sandra; Aronow, Aaron; Levine, Andrew J; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N; Munro, Cynthia A; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola A

    2015-01-01

    The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is one of the largest and longest running studies of the natural and treated history of HIV disease. The Neuropsychological (NP) substudy was begun in 1988 following reports of significant adverse neurological consequences of HIV disease, including dementia. The goal was to characterize the neuropsychological deficits among individuals with HIV disease, and track the natural history of the neurological complications over time. There were three distinct MACS recruitment stages that focused on different groups of HIV-infected men, or men at risk for infection. Initially, a subcohort was evaluated semi-annually with NP tests but, beginning in 2005, the entire group of MACS participants have had NP examinations biannually, unless closer follow-up was warranted. The participants complete a battery of NP tests, and are classified as either normal, mildly or severely impaired using the Antinori criteria for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). Additional behavioural data, including mood state and psychoactive substance use, are recorded as part of the main MACS data collection. The MACS public data set (PDS) has been available since 1994 and includes baseline and 6-monthly follow-up data. Beginning in October 1995, the PDS has been released annually with new releases superseding previous versions. PMID:24771276

  19. Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS)

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Amy C.; Dombrowski, Elizabeth; Conigliaro, Joseph; Fultz, Shawn L.; Gibson, Deborah; Madenwald, Tamra; Goulet, Joseph; Simberkoff, Michael; Butt, Adeel A.; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Oursler, Kris Ann K.; Brown, Sheldon; Leaf, David A.; Goetz, Matthew B.; Bryant, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    Background The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) is a study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and uninfected patients seen in infectious disease and general medical clinics. VACS includes the earlier 3 and 5 site studies (VACS 3 and VACS 5) as well as the ongoing 8 site study. Objectives We sought to provide background and context for analyses based upon VACS data, including study design and rationale as well as its basic protocol and the baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample. Research Design We undertook a prospectively consented multisite observational study of veterans in care with and without HIV infection. Measures Data were derived from patient and provider self report, telephone interviews, blood and DNA samples, focus groups, and full access to the national VA “paperless” electronic medical record system. Results More than 7200 veterans have been enrolled in at least one of the studies. The 8 site study (VACS) has enrolled 2979 HIV-infected and 3019 HIV-uninfected age–race–site matched comparators and has achieved stratified enrollment targets for race/ethnicity and age and 99% of its total target enrollment as of October 30, 2005. Participants in VACS are similar to other veterans receiving care within the VA. VACS participants are older and more predominantly black than those reported by the Centers for Disease Control. Conclusions VACS has assembled a rich, in-depth, and representative sample of veterans in care with and without HIV infection to conduct longitudinal analyses of questions concerning the association between alcohol use and related comorbid and AIDS-defining conditions. PMID:16849964

  20. Birth cohort effects on abdominal obesity in the United States: the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers and Generation X.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W R; Utz, R L; Keyes, K M; Martin, C L; Yang, Y

    2013-08-01

    Abdominal obesity predicts a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Over the past several decades, prevalence of abdominal obesity has increased markedly in industrialized countries like the United States No previous analyses, however, have evaluated whether there are birth cohort effects for abdominal obesity. Estimating cohort effects is necessary to forecast future health trends and understand the past population-level trends. This analysis evaluated whether there were birth cohort effects for abdominal obesity for the Silent Generation (born 1925-1945), children of the Great Depression; Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964); or Generation X (born 1965-1980). Cohort effects for prevalence of abdominal obesity were estimated using the median polish method with data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1988 and 2008. Respondents were aged 20-74 years. After taking into account age effects and ubiquitous secular changes, the Silent Generation and Generation X had higher cohort-specific prevalence of abdominal obesity than the Baby Boomers. Effects were more pronounced in women than men. This work presents a novel finding: evidence that the birth cohorts of the post-World War II Baby Boom appeared to have uniquely low cohort effects on abdominal obesity. The growing prosperity of the post-World War II US may have exposed the baby-boom generation to lower levels of psychosocial and socioeconomic stress than the previous or subsequent generations. By identifying factors associated with the Baby Boomers' low cohort-specific sensitivity to the obesogenic environment, the obesity prevention community can identify early-life factors that can protect future generations from excess weight gain.

  1. Grace by Body Clues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    Describes the author's journey in the expressive arts, including dance, poetry, healing, and interdisciplinary expressive arts. Offers poems that illustrate how she grapples w