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Sample records for clustered cardiovascular risk

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Cluster Headache.

    PubMed

    Lasaosa, S Santos; Diago, E Bellosta; Calzada, J Navarro; Benito, A Velázquez

    2017-06-01

     Patients with cluster headache tend to have a dysregulation of systemic blood pressure such as increased blood pressure variability and decreased nocturnal dipping. This pattern of nocturnal nondipping is associated with end-organ damage and increased risk of cardiovascular disease.  To determine if cluster headache is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.  Cross-sectional study of 33 cluster headache patients without evidence of cardiovascular disease and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in all subjects. We evaluate anthropometric, hematologic, and structural parameters (carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index).  Of the 33 cluster headache patients, 16 (48.5%) were nondippers, a higher percentage than expected. Most of the cluster headache patients (69.7%) also presented a pathological ankle-brachial index. In terms of the carotid intima-media thickness values, 58.3% of the patients were in the 75th percentile, 25% were in the 90th percentile, and 20% were in the 95th percentile. In the control group, only five of the 30 subjects (16.7%) had a nondipper pattern ( P  =   0.004), with 4.54% in the 90th and 95th percentiles ( P  =   0.012 and 0.015).  Compared with healthy controls, patients with cluster headache presented a high incidence (48.5%) of nondipper pattern, pathological ankle-brachial index (69.7%), and intima-media thickness values above the 75th percentile. These findings support the hypothesis that patients with cluster headache present increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  2. The insulin resistance syndrome: mechanisms of clustering of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Chan, Juliana C N; Tong, Peter C Y; Critchley, Julian A J H

    2002-02-01

    For more than a decade, insulin resistance has been proposed as the key linking factor for the metabolic syndrome disease cluster of glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Although most of the epidemiological, experimental, and clinical evidence still support the role of insulin resistance as an important component of this multifaceted syndrome, there is evidence amassing that a neurohormonal mechanism, including an endocrine role for adipocytes, probably plays a more fundamental role. This is supported by the strong associations between obesity, especially central adiposity, and all components of the metabolic syndrome, in contrast to the inconsistent relationships between blood pressure and markers of insulin resistance. However, much of the effect of visceral fat on cardiovascular risk factors is mediated through the metabolic actions of free fatty acids (FFA) on insulin resistance, thus resolving any obesity versus insulin resistance controversy. In addition to the roles of obesity and FFA in the development of insulin resistance syndrome, the high prevalence rates of this disease cluster among subjects from low socioeconomic groups as well as from developing countries have led to alternative hypotheses to better our understanding of the contributory roles of socioeconomic, in utero, and genetic factors in this syndrome. More recently, the pathogenetic roles of iron overload and liver dysfunction have also been re-examined. In this article, the various hypotheses which have been put forward to explain the diverse clinical manifestations of the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome are summarized and put into perspective. While there is clinical and experimental evidence to support many of these independent pathways, alternative statistical methods such as factor analysis or structural equation modeling may be needed to unravel the complex nature of these interacting pathways. Finally, these hypotheses, if proven

  3. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-income country: a call for urgency.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Kaur, Gurpreet; Hiong, Tee Guat; Cheong, Kee Chee; Lim, Chiao Mei; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and its clustering. The findings are to help shape the Malaysian future healthcare planning for cardiovascular disease prevention and management. Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey was used. The survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire. A total of 37,906 eligible participants aged 18 years and older was identified, of whom 34,505 (91%) participated. Focus was on hypertension, hyperglycaemia (diabetes and impaired fasting glucose), hypercholesterolaemia and central obesity. Overall, 63% (95% confidence limits 62, 65%) of the participants had at least one cardiovascular risk factor, 33% (32, 35%) had two or more and 14% (12, 15%) had three risk factors or more. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia and central obesity were 38%, 15%, 24% and 37%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors for most age groups; adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.1 (0.91, 1.32) to 1.26 (1.12, 1.43) for the presence of one risk factor and 1.07 (0.91, 1.32) to 2.00 (1.78, 2.25) for two or more risk factors. Cardiovascular risk-factor clustering provides a clear impression of the true burden of cardiovascular disease risk in the population. Women displayed higher prevalence and a younger age shift in clustering was seen. These findings signal the presence of a cardiovascular epidemic in an upcoming middle-income country and provide evidence that drastic measures have to be taken to safeguard the health of the nation.

  4. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness: The USE-IMT study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Anderson, Todd J.; Britton, Annie R.; Dekker, Jacqueline; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kurl, Sudhir; Lonn, Eva M.; Lorenz, Matthias W.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Nijpels, Giel; Okazaki, Shuhei; Polak, Joseph F.; Price, Jacqueline F.; Rembold, Christopher M.; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T.; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Peters, Sanne A. E.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The relation of a single risk factor with atherosclerosis is established. Clinically we know of risk factor clustering within individuals. Yet, studies into the magnitude of the relation of risk factor clusters with atherosclerosis are limited. Here, we assessed that relation. Methods Individual participant data from 14 cohorts, involving 59,025 individuals were used in this cross-sectional analysis. We made 15 clusters of four risk factors (current smoking, overweight, elevated blood pressure, elevated total cholesterol). Multilevel age and sex adjusted linear regression models were applied to estimate mean differences in common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) between clusters using those without any of the four risk factors as reference group. Results Compared to the reference, those with 1, 2, 3 or 4 risk factors had a significantly higher common CIMT: mean difference of 0.026 mm, 0.052 mm, 0.074 mm and 0.114 mm, respectively. These findings were the same in men and in women, and across ethnic groups. Within each risk factor cluster (1, 2, 3 risk factors), groups with elevated blood pressure had the largest CIMT and those with elevated cholesterol the lowest CIMT, a pattern similar for men and women. Conclusion Clusters of risk factors relate to increased common CIMT in a graded manner, similar in men, women and across race-ethnic groups. Some clusters seemed more atherogenic than others. Our findings support the notion that cardiovascular prevention should focus on sets of risk factors rather than individual levels alone, but may prioritize within clusters. PMID:28323823

  5. [Relationship between central obesity and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in adults of Jiangsu province].

    PubMed

    Su, Jian; Xiang, Quanyong; Lyu, Shurong; Pan, Xiaoqun; Qin, Yu; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Jinyi; Zhang, Yongqing; Wu, Ming; Tao, Ran

    2015-06-01

    To explore the relationship between central obesity and cardiovascular risk factors and their clustering in adults of Jiangsu province. Multi-stratified clustering sampling method was used to sample 8 400 residents aged 18 years and over from 14 diseases surveillance units in Jiangsu province from October to December 2010. Information was obtained with face-to-face interview, physical examination and laboratory testing. A total of 8 380 residents finished the study protocol and their data were analyzed. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥ 85 cm in males or ≥ 80 cm in females. Following complex weighting of the samples, level and proportion of cardiovascular risk factors in group with different waist circumference were analyzed. The prevalence of central obesity among adults in Jiangsu province was 46.2%, the proportion of males and females was 46.4% and 46.1%, respectively (P > 0.05). The prevalence of center obesity varied significantly in residents with different age, area, education and occupation (all P < 0.01). The level of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol was also significantly different in residents with different degree of waist circumference (all P < 0.01). The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors increased in proportion to increasing waist circumference (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors was 2.2 (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 2.0-2.4) and 4.7 (OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 3.9-5.7); 2.1 (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.7-2.5) and 3.8 (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 3.2-4.5); 2.3 (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.8-2.9) and 4.1 (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 3.2-5.3); 3.4 (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 2.9-3.9) and 8.0 (OR = 8.0, 95% CI: 6.2-10.2) fold higher in residents with mild and

  6. Prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in adults in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Yang, Fang; Bots, Michiel L; Guo, Weiying; Zhao, Di; Hoes, Arno W; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate the prevalence and clustering of major cardiovascular risk factors in adults in Northeast China. Methods In total, 37 141 individuals undergoing a health screening programme at the International Health Promotion Center at the 1st Hospital of Jilin University were enrolled. Height, weight, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were recorded. Results Compared with women, the age-standardised prevalence of overweight (44.0% vs 25.0%) and obesity (20.2% vs 7.1%), hypertension (33.7% vs 19.3%), dyslipidaemia (63.8% vs 42.3%), impaired fasting glucose (5.1% vs 4.2%) and diabetes mellitus (8.1% vs 3.5%) was higher in men. Overall, 69.1%, 32.7% and 10.0% of participants had ≥1, ≥2 and ≥3 major cardiovascular risk factors, respectively (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus). For men, the figures were 79.2%, 41.1% and 13.3%, respectively, and for women 53.4%, 19.8% and 5.0%, respectively. With increasing age and increasing body mass index, the prevalence of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors increased in both men and women. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adults in Northeast China: one out of three has at least two risk factors. Prevalence was higher in men than in women. Clustering of risk factors is more common with increasing age and body mass index in both men and women. Prevention of the development of risk factors should be an extremely high priority in this region. PMID:27326186

  7. Prevalence and Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Tibetan Adults in China: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shaopeng; Jiayong, Zepei; Li, Bin; Zhu, Hong; Chang, Hong; Shi, Wei; Gao, Zhengxuan; Ning, Xianjia; Wang, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors has increased worldwide. However, the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans is currently unknown. We aimed to explore the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetan adults in China. In 2011, 1659 Tibetan adults (aged ≥ 18 years) from Changdu, China were recruited to this cross-section study. The questionnaire, physical examinations and laboratory testing were completed and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking, were counted. The association between the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors and demographic characteristics, and geographic altitude were assessed. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, overweight or obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking were 62.4%, 6.4%, 34.3%, 42.7%, and 6.1%, respectively, and these risk factors were associated with age, gender, education level, yearly family income, altitude, occupation, and butter tea consumption (P < 0.05). Overall, the age-adjusted prevalence of clustering of ≥ 1, ≥ 2, and ≥ 3 cardiovascular disease risk factors were 79.4%, 47.1%, and 20.9%, respectively. There appeared higher clustering of ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans with higher education level and family income yearly, and those living at an altitude < 3500 m and in a township. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, especially hypertension, was high in Tibetans. Moreover, there was an increased clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among those with higher socioeconomic status, lamas and those living at an altitude < 3500 m. These findings suggest that without the immediate implementation of an efficient policy to control these risk factors, cardiovascular disease will eventually become a major disease burden among

  8. Prevalence and Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Tibetan Adults in China: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Hong; Chang, Hong; Shi, Wei; Gao, Zhengxuan; Ning, Xianjia; Wang, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors has increased worldwide. However, the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans is currently unknown. We aimed to explore the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetan adults in China. Methods In 2011, 1659 Tibetan adults (aged ≥18 years) from Changdu, China were recruited to this cross-section study. The questionnaire, physical examinations and laboratory testing were completed and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking, were counted. The association between the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors and demographic characteristics, and geographic altitude were assessed. Results The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, overweight or obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking were 62.4%, 6.4%, 34.3%, 42.7%, and 6.1%, respectively, and these risk factors were associated with age, gender, education level, yearly family income, altitude, occupation, and butter tea consumption (P < 0.05). Overall, the age-adjusted prevalence of clustering of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 cardiovascular disease risk factors were 79.4%, 47.1%, and 20.9%, respectively. There appeared higher clustering of ≥2 and ≥3 cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans with higher education level and family income yearly, and those living at an altitude < 3500 m and in a township. Conclusions The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, especially hypertension, was high in Tibetans. Moreover, there was an increased clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among those with higher socioeconomic status, lamas and those living at an altitude < 3500 m. These findings suggest that without the immediate implementation of an efficient policy to control these risk factors, cardiovascular disease will eventually become

  9. Cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rupert A

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major, growing, worldwide problem. It is important that individuals at risk of developing cardiovascular disease can be effectively identified and appropriately stratified according to risk. This review examines what we understand by the term risk, traditional and novel risk factors, clinical scoring systems, and the use of risk for informing prescribing decisions. Many different cardiovascular risk factors have been identified. Established, traditional factors such as ageing are powerful predictors of adverse outcome, and in the case of hypertension and dyslipidaemia are the major targets for therapeutic intervention. Numerous novel biomarkers have also been described, such as inflammatory and genetic markers. These have yet to be shown to be of value in improving risk prediction, but may represent potential therapeutic targets and facilitate more targeted use of existing therapies. Risk factors have been incorporated into several cardiovascular disease prediction algorithms, such as the Framingham equation, SCORE and QRISK. These have relatively poor predictive power, and uncertainties remain with regards to aspects such as choice of equation, different risk thresholds and the roles of relative risk, lifetime risk and reversible factors in identifying and treating at-risk individuals. Nonetheless, such scores provide objective and transparent means of quantifying risk and their integration into therapeutic guidelines enables equitable and cost-effective distribution of health service resources and improves the consistency and quality of clinical decision making. PMID:22348281

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention.

    PubMed

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Prescott, Eva; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper; Skotte, Jørgen Henrik; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-08-13

    Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise "60 min per week". Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health

  12. Impaired Fasting Glucose in Nondiabetic Range: Is It a Marker of Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering?

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Giovanna; Kramer, Verónica; Orellana, Lorena; Bustamante, María José; Casasbellas, Cinthia; Adasme, Marcela; Salazar, Alejandra; Navarrete, Carlos; Acevedo, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Background. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) through the nondiabetic range (100–125 mg/dL) is not considered in the cardiovascular (CV) risk profile. Aim. To compare the clustering of CV risk factors (RFs) in nondiabetic subjects with normal fasting glucose (NFG) and IFG. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study in 3739 nondiabetic subjects. Demographics, medical history, and CV risk factors were collected and lipid profile, fasting glucose levels (FBG), C-reactive protein (hsCRP), blood pressure (BP), anthropometric measurements, and aerobic capacity were determined. Results. 559 (15%) subjects had IFG: they had a higher mean age, BMI, waist circumference, non-HDL cholesterol, BP, and hsCRP (p < 0.0001) and lower HDL (p < 0.001) and aerobic capacity (p < 0.001). They also had a higher prevalence of hypertension (34% versus 25%; p < 0.001), dyslipidemia (79% versus 74%; p < 0.001), and obesity (29% versus 16%; p < 0.001) and a higher Framingham risk score (8% versus 6%; p < 0.001). The probability of presenting 3 or more CV RFs adjusted by age and gender was significantly higher in the top quintile of fasting glucose (≥98 mg/dL; OR = 2.02; 1.62–2.51). Conclusions. IFG in the nondiabetic range is associated with increased cardiovascular RF clustering. PMID:26504260

  13. Resting Heart Rate Is Not a Good Predictor of a Clustered Cardiovascular Risk Score in Adolescents: The HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Leclercq, Catherine; Dallongeville, Jean; Androutsos, Odysseas; Török, Katalin; González-Gross, Marcela; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; Moreno, Luis Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Resting heart rate (RHR) reflects sympathetic nerve activity a significant association between RHR and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has been reported in some epidemiologic studies. To analyze the predictive power and accuracy of RHR as a screening measure for individual and clustered cardiovascular risk in adolescents. The study comprised 769 European adolescents (376 boys) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008) were included in this study. Measurements on systolic blood pressure, HOMA index, triglycerides, TC/HDL-c, VO2máx and the sum of four skinfolds were obtained, and a clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk index was computed. The receiver operating characteristics curve was applied to calculate the power and accuracy of RHR to predict individual and clustered CVD risk factors. RHR showed low accuracy for screening CVD risk factors in both sexes (range 38.5%-54.4% in boys and 45.5%-54.3% in girls). Low specificity's (15.6%-19.7% in boys; 18.1%-20.0% in girls) were also found. Nevertheless, the sensitivities were moderate-to-high (61.4%-89.1% in boys; 72.9%-90.3% in girls). RHR is a poor predictor of individual CVD risk factors and of clustered CVD and the estimates based on RHR are not accurate. The use of RHR as an indicator of CVD risk in adolescents may produce a biased screening of cardiovascular health in both sexes.

  14. Clinical values dataset processing through cluster analysis to find cardiovascular risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, C. M.; Legnani, W. E.; Armentano, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show another way to grouping population with clinical variables measured in health centres and to assign a cardiovascular risk indicator. To do this, two different datasets were used, one coming from France and another coming from Uruguay. The well proved Framingham index was used to validate the results. The preliminary results are very auspicious to encourage the research and get deeper knowledge of the cardiovascular risk indicators.

  15. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction in rural China: a clustered randomized controlled trial in Zhejiang

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death in China. Despite government efforts, the majority of hypertensive and diabetic patients in China do not receive proper treatment. Reducing CVD events requires long-term care that is proactive, patient-centred, community-based, and sustainable. We have designed a package of interventions for patients at high risk of CVD to be implemented by family doctors based in township hospitals (providers of primary care) in rural Zhejiang, China. This trial aims to determine whether the systematic CVD risk reduction package results in reduced CVD events among patients at risk of CVD compared with usual care, and whether the package is cost-effective and suitable for routine implementation and scale-up. Methods/Design This is a prospective, open-label, cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with blinded data analysis. The trial will randomize 67 township hospitals with 31,708 participants in three counties in Zhejiang Province. Participants will be identified from existing health records and will comprise adults aged 50 to 74 years, with a calculated 10-year CVD risk of 20% or higher, or diabetes. In the intervention arm, participants will receive a package of interventions including: 1) healthy lifestyle counseling (smoking cessation, and salt, oil, and alcohol reduction); 2) prescription of a combination of drugs (antihypertensives, aspirin, and statin); and 3) adherence support for drug compliance and healthy lifestyle change. In the control arm, participants will receive usual care for hypertension and diabetes management at individual clinicians’ discretion. The primary outcome is the incidence of severe CVD events over 24 months of follow-up. All CVD events will be defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease (MONICA) definitions, diagnosed at the county hospital or higher level, and reported by the Zhejiang surveillance

  16. Resting Heart Rate Is Not a Good Predictor of a Clustered Cardiovascular Risk Score in Adolescents: The HELENA Study

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Leclercq, Catherine; Dallongeville, Jean; Androutsos, Odysseas; Török, Katalin; González-Gross, Marcela; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; Moreno, Luis Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Resting heart rate (RHR) reflects sympathetic nerve activity a significant association between RHR and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has been reported in some epidemiologic studies. Methods To analyze the predictive power and accuracy of RHR as a screening measure for individual and clustered cardiovascular risk in adolescents. The study comprised 769 European adolescents (376 boys) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006–2008) were included in this study. Measurements on systolic blood pressure, HOMA index, triglycerides, TC/HDL-c, VO2máx and the sum of four skinfolds were obtained, and a clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk index was computed. The receiver operating characteristics curve was applied to calculate the power and accuracy of RHR to predict individual and clustered CVD risk factors. Results RHR showed low accuracy for screening CVD risk factors in both sexes (range 38.5%–54.4% in boys and 45.5%–54.3% in girls). Low specificity’s (15.6%–19.7% in boys; 18.1%–20.0% in girls) were also found. Nevertheless, the sensitivities were moderate-to-high (61.4%–89.1% in boys; 72.9%–90.3% in girls). Conclusion RHR is a poor predictor of individual CVD risk factors and of clustered CVD and the estimates based on RHR are not accurate. The use of RHR as an indicator of CVD risk in adolescents may produce a biased screening of cardiovascular health in both sexes. PMID:26010248

  17. Impact of comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction programme on risk factor clustering associated with elevated blood pressure in an Indian industrial population.

    PubMed

    Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Goenka, Shifalika; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Huffman, Mark; Joshi, Prashant; Sivasankaran, Sivasubramonian; Mohan, B V M; Ahmed, F; Ramanathan, Meera; Ahuja, R; Sinha, Nakul; Thankappan, K R; Reddy, K S

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors clustering associated with blood pressure (BP) has not been studied in the Indian population. This study was aimed at assessing the clustering effect of cardiovascular risk factors with suboptimal BP in Indian population as also the impact of risk reduction interventions. Data from 10543 individuals collected in a nation-wide surveillance programme in India were analysed. The burden of risk factors clustering with blood pressure and coronary heart disease (CHD) was assessed. The impact of a risk reduction programmme on risk factors clustering was prospectively studied in a sub-group. Mean age of participants was 40.9 ± 11.0 yr. A significant linear increase in number of risk factors with increasing blood pressure, irrespective of stratifying using different risk factor thresholds was observed. While hypertension occurred in isolation in 2.6 per cent of the total population, co-existence of hypertension and >3 risk factors was observed in 12.3 per cent population. A comprehensive risk reduction programme significantly reduced the mean number of additional risk factors in the intervention population across the blood pressure groups, while it continued to be high in the control arm without interventions (both within group and between group P<0.001). The proportion of 'low risk phenotype' increased from 13.4 to 19.9 per cent in the intervention population and it was decreased from 27.8 to 10.6 per cent in the control population (P<0.001). The proportion of individuals with hypertension and three more risk factors decreased from 10.6 to 4.7 per cent in the intervention arm while it was increased from 13.3 to 17.8 per cent in the control arm (P<0.001). Our findings showed that cardiovascular risk factors clustered together with elevated blood pressure and a risk reduction programme significantly reduced the risk factors burden.

  18. Impact of comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction programme on risk factor clustering associated with elevated blood pressure in an Indian industrial population

    PubMed Central

    Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Goenka, Shifalika; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Huffman, Mark; Joshi, Prashant; Sivasankaran, Sivasubramonian; Mohan, B.V.M.; Ahmed, F.; Ramanathan, Meera; Ahuja, R.; Sinha, Nakul; Thankappan, K.R.; Reddy, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cardiovascular risk factors clustering associated with blood pressure (BP) has not been studied in the Indian population. This study was aimed at assessing the clustering effect of cardiovascular risk factors with suboptimal BP in Indian population as also the impact of risk reduction interventions. Methods: Data from 10543 individuals collected in a nation-wide surveillance programme in India were analysed. The burden of risk factors clustering with blood pressure and coronary heart disease (CHD) was assessed. The impact of a risk reduction programmme on risk factors clustering was prospectively studied in a sub-group. Results: Mean age of participants was 40.9 ± 11.0 yr. A significant linear increase in number of risk factors with increasing blood pressure, irrespective of stratifying using different risk factor thresholds was observed. While hypertension occurred in isolation in 2.6 per cent of the total population, co-existence of hypertension and >3 risk factors was observed in 12.3 per cent population. A comprehensive risk reduction programme significantly reduced the mean number of additional risk factors in the intervention population across the blood pressure groups, while it continued to be high in the control arm without interventions (both within group and between group P<0.001). The proportion of ‘low risk phenotype’ increased from 13.4 to 19.9 per cent in the intervention population and it was decreased from 27.8 to 10.6 per cent in the control population (P<0.001). The proportion of individuals with hypertension and three more risk factors decreased from 10.6 to 4.7 per cent in the intervention arm while it was increased from 13.3 to 17.8 per cent in the control arm (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that cardiovascular risk factors clustered together with elevated blood pressure and a risk reduction programme significantly reduced the risk factors burden. PMID:22664495

  19. Body Composition Indices and Single and Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents: Providing Clinical-Based Cut-Points.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Gottrand, Frederic; Roccaldo, Romana; Marcos, Ascensión; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Dallongeville, Jean; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Denes; Bueno, Gloria; de Henauw, Stefaan; Widhalm, Kurt; Wells, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study in adolescents were 1) to examine how various body composition-screening tests relate to single and clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, 2) to examine how lean mass and body fatness (independently of each other) relate to clustered CVD risk factors, and 3) to calculate specific thresholds for body composition indices associated with an unhealthier clustered CVD risk. We measured 1089 European adolescents (46.7% boys, 12.5-17.49years) in 2006-2007. CVD risk factors included: systolic blood pressure, maximum oxygen uptake, homeostasis model assessment, C-reactive protein (n=748), total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Body composition indices included: height, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, the sum of four skinfolds, central/peripheral skinfolds, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Most body composition indices are associated with single CVD risk factors. The sum of four skinfolds, WHtR, BMI, WC and lean mass are strong and positively associated with clustered CVD risk. Interestingly, lean mass is positively associated with clustered CVD risk independently of body fatness in girls. Moderate and highly accurate thresholds for the sum of four skinfolds, WHtR, BMI, WC and lean mass are associated with an unhealthier clustered CVD risk (all AUC>0.773). In conclusion, our results support an association between most of the assessed body composition indices and single and clustered CVD risk factors. In addition, lean mass (independent of body fatness) is positively associated with clustered CVD risk in girls, which is a novel finding that helps to understand why an index such as BMI is a good index of CVD risk but a bad index of adiposity. Moderate to highly accurate thresholds for body composition indices associated with a healthier clustered CVD risk were found. Further studies with a longitudinal design are needed to confirm these findings

  20. Clinical phenotype clustering in cardiovascular risk patients for the identification of responsive metabotypes after red wine polyphenol intake.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Llorach, Rafael; Perera, Alexandre; Mandal, Rupasri; Feliz, Miguel; Tinahones, Francisco J; Wishart, David S; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the robustness of clinical and metabolic phenotyping through, for the first time, the identification of differential responsiveness to dietary strategies in the improvement of cardiometabolic risk conditions. Clinical phenotyping of 57 volunteers with cardiovascular risk factors was achieved using k-means cluster analysis based on 69 biochemical and anthropometric parameters. Cluster validation based on Dunn and Figure of Merit analysis for internal coherence and external homogeneity were employed. k-Means produced four clusters with particular clinical profiles. Differences on urine metabolomic profiles among clinical phenotypes were explored and validated by multivariate orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) models. OSC-PLS-DA of (1)H-NMR data revealed that model comparing "obese and diabetic cluster" (OD-c) against "healthier cluster" (H-c) showed the best predictability and robustness in terms of explaining the pairwise differences between clusters. Considering these two clusters, distinct groups of metabolites were observed following an intervention with wine polyphenol intake (WPI; 733 equivalents of gallic acid/day) per 28days. Glucose was significantly linked to OD-c metabotype (P<.01), and lactate, betaine and dimethylamine showed a significant trend. Tartrate (P<.001) was associated with wine polyphenol intervention (OD-c_WPI and H-c_WPI), whereas mannitol, threonine methanol, fucose and 3-hydroxyphenylacetate showed a significant trend. Interestingly, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate significantly increased in H-c_WPI compared to OD-c_WPI and to basal groups (P<.05)-gut microbial-derived metabolite after polyphenol intake-, thereby exhibiting a clear metabotypic intervention effect. Results revealed gut microbiota responsive phenotypes to wine polyphenols intervention. Overall, this study illustrates a novel metabolomic strategy for characterizing interindividual responsiveness to dietary

  1. Does early intensive multifactorial therapy reduce modelled cardiovascular risk in individuals with screen-detected diabetes? Results from the ADDITION-Europe cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Sharp, S J; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims Little is known about the long-term effects of intensive multifactorial treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory. In the absence of long-term data on hard outcomes, we described change in 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk in the 5 years following diagnosis, and quantified the impact of intensive treatment on 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk at 5 years. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, parallel-group trial in Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK, 3057 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes were randomized by general practice to receive (1) routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (1379 patients) or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (1678 patients). Ten-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was calculated at baseline and 5 years using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine (version 3β). Results Among 2101 individuals with complete data at follow up (73.4%), 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was 27.3% (sd 13.9) at baseline and 21.3% (sd 13.8) at 5-year follow-up (intensive treatment group difference –6.9, sd 9.0; routine care group difference –5.0, sd 12.2). Modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group compared with the routine care group at 5 years, after adjustment for baseline cardiovascular disease risk and clustering (–2.0; 95% CI –3.1 to –0.9). Conclusions Despite increasing age and diabetes duration, there was a decline in modelled cardiovascular disease risk in the 5 years following diagnosis. Compared with routine care, 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group at 5 years. Our results suggest that patients benefit from intensive treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory, where the rate of cardiovascular disease risk progression may be slowed. PMID:24533664

  2. Types of Obesity and Its Association with the Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Jilin Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Yuhan; Li, Bo

    2016-07-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a serious public health problem in recent years in China. Aggregation of CVD risk factors in one individual increases the risk of CVD and the risk increases substantially with each additional risk factor. This study aims to explore the relationship between the number of clustered CVD risk factors and different types of obesity. A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this population-based cross-sectional study in 2012. Information was collected by face to face interviews. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple logistic regression were used in this study. The prevalence of general obesity, central obesity and compound obesity were 0.3%, 36.1% and 14.7%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in the compound obesity group were higher than those in other groups (compound obesity > central obesity > general obesity > non-obesity), while smoking rate in the non-obesity group was higher than those in other groups (non-obesity > general obesity > central obesity > compound obesity). People with obesity were more likely to have one or more CVD risk factor compared with non-obesity subjects (general obesity (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13-4.56), central obesity (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 2.41-2.89), compound obesity (OR: 5.09, 95% CI: 4.38-5.90). The results were similar when the number of clustered CVD risk factors was ≥ 2 and ≥ 3. As a conclusion, more than half of the residents in Jilin Province have a problem of obesity, especially central obesity. Government and health department should take measures to improve people's awareness of central obesity in Jilin Province of China. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes are associated with obesity types. Compound obesity has a greater risk to cluster multiple CVD risk factors than central obesity and general obesity. Taking measures to control obesity will reduce the

  3. German origin clusters for high cardiovascular risk in an Italian enclave.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Basso, Giancarlo; Guglielmi, Francesco; Martini, Bortolo; Mazza, Alberto; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Scarpa, Roberta; Saugo, Mario; Caffi, Sandro; Pessina, Achille C

    2005-05-01

    Mortality and morbidity appear to be higher in a Cimbrian population representing an enclave of people who migrated from medieval Germany to the secluded Leogra valley in Italy. A population-based study was organized, recruiting 881 elderly subjects of Cimbrian origin and comparing them with a standard control population (SCP, n = 3,282) having comparable general characteristics and lifestyle. Serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory function, ECG abnormalities, and historical events were used as risk indicators. Age-adjusted systolic and pulse pressure were higher in the Cimbrians than in the SCP, while diastolic blood pressure was comparable. The prevalences of arterial hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension, and pulse hypertension were significantly more represented among Cimbrians than SCP. The prevalences of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were higher among the former than the latter. The ratio between apolipoproteins B and A1 was also higher, while the HDL fraction was significantly lower in Cimbrians than in the SCP. In Cimbrians, the relative risk (RR) for ischemic heart disease was 1.92 (1.57-2.34) in women, 2.30 (1.54-3.43) in men and 1.03 (1.00-1.06) in women for stroke, 2.43 (1.54-3.83) in men and 1.45 (1.01-1.12) in women for atrial fibrillation, 3.85 (2.83-5.24) in men and 1.39 (1.20-1.60) in women for respiratory disease, 1.97 (1.32-2.94) in men and 6.81 (4.38-10.60) in women for intermittent claudication, and 3.31 (2.44-4.50) in men and 2.30 (1.76-3.01) in women for left ventricular hypertrophy. The subjects living in the secluded Leogra valley are at higher cardiovascular risk than the standard controls. Whether this depends on genetic factors, lifestyle, or both will need to be clarified by further analysis.

  4. Body fat and its relationship with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Giovanna; Bustamante, Maria Jose; Orellana, Lorena; Krämer, Veronica; Durán, Samuel; Adasme, Marcela; Salazar, Alejandra; Ibara, Camila; Fernández, Marcelo; Navarrete, Carlos; Acevedo, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: El índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la circunferencia de cintura (CC) son los parámetros antropométricos que se miden con mayor frecuencia dada su asociación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular (RC). La relación entre el porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC) y el riesgo cardiovascular no se ha estudiado ampliamente. Objetivo: Evaluar el %GC y su relación con los FR cardiometabólico en sujetos sanos y comparar estos resultados con la relación IMC/CC y FR cardiovascular Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 99 hombres y 83 mujeres participantes asistentes a un programa de cardiología preventiva (edad 38 ± 10 años). Todos los sujetos completaron una encuesta sobre los FR y hábitos de estilos de vida. Se evaluaron antropométricamente , se les tomo presión arterial sistólica (PAS) y diastólica (PAD), perfil lipídico y glicemia en ayunas. La grasa corporal se determinó a través de cuatro mediciones de pliegues cutáneos. También se calculó el índice de masa grasa (IMG). Resultados: El porcentaje de grasa corporal se asoció significativamente y directamente con el colesterol total (R2=0,11), triglicéridos (R2=0,14), colesterol LDL (R2=0,16), colesterol VLDL (R2=0,24), glicemia (R2=0,16), PAS (R2=0,22) y PAD (R2=0,13) (p.

  5. Soluble cluster of differentiation 36 concentrations are not associated with cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged subjects

    PubMed Central

    ALKHATATBEH, MOHAMMAD J.; AYOUB, NEHAD M.; MHAIDAT, NIZAR M.; SAADEH, NESREEN A.; LINCZ, LISA F.

    2016-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is involved in the development of atherosclerosis by enhancing macrophage endocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoproteins and foam cell formation. Soluble CD36 (sCD36) was found to be elevated in type 2 diabetic patients and possibly acted as a marker of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In young subjects, sCD36 was associated with cardiovascular risk factors including obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. The present study was conducted to further investigate the association between plasma sCD36 and cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and healthy controls. sCD36 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for 41 patients with MetS and 36 healthy controls. Data for other variables were obtained from patient medical records. sCD36 concentrations were relatively low compared to the majority of other studies and were not significantly different between the MetS group and controls (P=0.17). sCD36 was also not correlated with age, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, serum electrolytes and blood counts. sCD36 was not significantly different between subjects with obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension or cardiovascular disease, and those without these abnormalities (P>0.05). The inconsistency between results reported in the present study and other studies may be unique to the study population or be a result of the lack of a reliable standardized method for determining absolute sCD36 concentrations. However, further investigations are required to assess CD36 tissue expression in the study population and to assess the accuracy of various commercially available sCD36 ELISA kits. Thus, the availability of a standardized simple sCD36 ELISA that could be performed in any basic laboratory would be more favorable to the specialized flow cytometry methods that detect CD36+ microparticles if it was to be used as a biomarker. PMID:27123261

  6. Task shifting of frontline community health workers for cardiovascular risk reduction: design and rationale of a cluster randomised controlled trial (DISHA study) in India.

    PubMed

    Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Kondal, Dimple; Kahol, Kashvi; Bharadwaj, Ashok; Purty, Anil; Negi, Prakash; Ladhani, Sulaiman; Sanghvi, Jyoti; Singh, Kuldeep; Kapoor, Deksha; Sobti, Nidhi; Lall, Dorothy; Manimunda, Sathyaprakash; Dwivedi, Supriya; Toteja, Gurudyal; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2016-03-15

    Effective task-shifting interventions targeted at reducing the global cardiovascular disease (CVD) epidemic in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are urgently needed. DISHA is a cluster randomised controlled trial conducted across 10 sites (5 in phase 1 and 5 in phase 2) in India in 120 clusters. At each site, 12 clusters were randomly selected from a district. A cluster is defined as a small village with 250-300 households and well defined geographical boundaries. They were then randomly allocated to intervention and control clusters in a 1:1 allocation sequence. If any of the intervention and control clusters were <10 km apart, one was dropped and replaced with another randomly selected cluster from the same district. The study included a representative baseline cross-sectional survey, development of a structured intervention model, delivery of intervention for a minimum period of 18 months by trained frontline health workers (mainly Anganwadi workers and ASHA workers) and a post intervention survey in a representative sample. The study staff had no information on intervention allocation until the completion of the baseline survey. In order to ensure comparability of data across sites, the DISHA study follows a common protocol and manual of operation with standardized measurement techniques. Our study is the largest community based cluster randomised trial in low and middle-income country settings designed to test the effectiveness of 'task shifting' interventions involving frontline health workers for cardiovascular risk reduction. CTRI/2013/10/004049 . Registered 7 October 2013.

  7. From hypertension control to global cardiovascular risk management: an educational intervention in a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mortsiefer, Achim; Meysen, Tobias; Schumacher, Martin; Abholz, Heinz-Harald; Wegscheider, Karl; In der Schmitten, Jürgen

    2015-05-07

    Guidelines on hypertension management recommend adjusting therapeutic efforts in accordance with global cardiovascular risk (CVR) rather than by blood pressure levels alone. However, this paradigm change has not yet arrived in German General Practice. We have evaluated the effect of an educational outreach visit with general practitioners (GPs), encouraging them to consider CVR in treatment decisions for patients with hypertension. Prospective cluster-randomised trial comprising 3443 patients with known hypertension treated by 87 GPs. Practices were randomly assigned to complex (A) or simple (B) intervention. Both groups received a guideline by mail; group A also received complex peer intervention promoting the concept of global CVR. Clinical data were collected at baseline and 6-9 months after intervention. Main outcome was improvement of calculated CVR in the predefined subpopulation of patients with a high CVR (10-year mortality ≥5%), but no manifest cardiovascular disease. Adjusted for baseline the follow-up CVR were 13.1% (95% CI 12.6%-13.6%) (A) and 12.6% (95% CI 12.2%-13.1%) (B) with a group difference (A vs. B) of 0.5% (-0.2%-1.1%), p = 0.179. The group difference was -0.05% in patients of GPs familiar with global CVR and 1.1% in patients of GPs not familiar with with global CVR. However, this effect modification was not significant (p = 0.165). Pooled over groups, the absolute CVR reduction from baseline was 1.0%, p < 0.001. The ICC was 0.026 (p = 0.002). Hypertension control (BP <140/90 mmHg) improved in the same subpopulation from 38.1 to 45.9% in the complex intervention group, and from 35.6 to 46.5% in the simple intervention group, with adjusted follow-up control rates of 46.7% (95% CI 40.4%-53.1%) (A) and 46.9% (95% CI 40.3%-53.5% (B) and an adjusted odds ratio (A vs B) of 0.99 (95% CI 0.68-1.45), p = 0.966. Our complex educational intervention, including a clinical outreach visit, had no significant effect on CVR of patients with known

  8. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Ying; Lin, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Sharon; Hung, Yu-Chan; Wu, Pei-Wen; Yang, Yu-Cheng; Chan, Te-Fu; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Weng, Yao-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years) were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS) and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively). Low physical activity (<952.4 MET·min/week), long screen time (≥3 h/day) and high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (>500 mL/day) were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.5–7.3), 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4), and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0) odds ratio (OR) of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI) accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3); p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009). The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI

  9. [Cardiovascular risk stratification].

    PubMed

    Martínez Réding, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    In often cited statistic cardiovascular disease is the number 1 cause of death in the worldwide and not only in the developed world. This represents an aggressive identification and management of risk factors. With the many advances in our understanding and practices of risk factor management we hope to change this tendency predicted to be in 2020 the same. Now we know that exists major factor risk and others who predispose. The presence of major risk factors was associated with development of cardiovascular disease. The process of risk factor management is a multidisciplinary one, directly involving both the patient his doctor as well as many others, including nurses, other healthcare and family. The goal is preventing future cardiac events.

  10. Sex-specific clustering of metabolic risk factors and their association with incident cardiovascular diseases: A population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ramezankhani, Azra; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad; Eskandari, Fatemeh

    2017-08-01

    We identified distinct patterns of metabolic risk factors (MRF), and examined their association with subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The study sample included 8113 participants (45% men) aged ≥30 years. Self-organizing map (SOM) was applied to clustering of five dichotomized MRF in men and women. MRF were included: low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), high fasting plasma glucose (FPG), high total cholesterol (TC), high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and high body mass index (BMI). The association between clusters membership and age, education, smoking status, physical activity level and family history (FH) of premature CVD was estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Cox regression was used to estimate the relation of each cluster with CVD events. SOM identified seven distinct clusters of MRF in both men and women. About 35 and 44% of men and women, respectively, had ≥3 MRF. Among men, MRF were clustered in those with older age, low physical activity, lower education and FH of premature CVD; while, among women, clustering was observed in past smoker, those with older age and positive FH of premature CVD. In the male population, a cluster with 100% high SBP and high FPG, had the highest risk for CVD events. However, among women, two clusters, each with 100% high FPG, yielded the highest and similar risk for CVD. SOM identified multiple patterns of MRF in the Iranian population. The results may be useful for targeting efforts to promote strategies to reduce the risk of CVD in the Iranian population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Mayer, Otto

    2012-05-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is without any doubt multifactorial, and it is generally accepted, that conventional risk factors determined only about 80% of cardiovascular risk. There is accumulating evidence that vitamin D exerts important pathophysiological effects on cardiovascular system. Low vitamin D was associated with increased cardiovascular risk in several reports. This review summarizes recent epidemiological evidence and possible pathophysiological mechanism for a role of low vitamin D in cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, available data concerning vitamin D supplementation are depicted.

  12. Effectiveness and efficiency of a practice accreditation program on cardiovascular risk management in primary care: study protocol of a clustered randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Nouwens, Elvira; Van Lieshout, Jan; Adang, Eddy; Bouma, Margriet; Braspenning, Jozé; Wensing, Michel

    2012-10-04

    Cardiovascular risk management is largely provided in primary healthcare, but not all patients with established cardiovascular diseases receive preventive treatment as recommended. Accreditation of healthcare organizations has been introduced across the world with a range of aims, including the improvement of clinical processes and outcomes. The Dutch College of General Practitioners has launched a program for accreditation of primary care practices, which focuses on chronic illness care. This study aims to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of a practice accreditation program, focusing on patients with established cardiovascular diseases. We have planned a two-arm cluster randomized trial with a block design. Seventy primary care practices will be recruited from those who volunteer to participate in the practice accreditation program. Primary care practices will be the unit of randomization. A computer list of random numbers will be generated by an independent statistician. The intervention group (n = 35 practices) will be instructed to focus improvement on cardiovascular risk management. The control group will be instructed to focus improvement on other domains in the first year of the program. Baseline and follow-up measurements at 12 months after receiving the accreditation certificate are based on a standardized version of the audit in the practice accreditation program. Primary outcomes include controlled blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and prescription of recommended preventive medication. Secondary outcomes are 15 process indicators and two outcome indicators of cardiovascular risk management, self-reported achievement of improvement goals and perceived unintended consequences. The intention to treat analysis is statistically powered to detect a difference of 10% on primary outcomes. The economic evaluation aims to determine the efficiency of the program and investigates the relationship between costs, performance indicators, and accreditation

  13. Clustering of cardiovascular behavioral risk factors and blood pressure among people diagnosed with hypertension: a nationally representative survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yichong; Feng, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Ning; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine association between the number of behavioral risk factors and blood pressure (BP) level among a nationally representative sample of Chinese people diagnosed with hypertension. A total of 31,694 respondents aged 18+ years with diagnosed hypertension were extracted from the 2013–2014 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance. BP of each respondent was classified into six levels according to criteria in 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension. Information for smoking, alcohol drinking, fruit and vegetables consumption, physical inactivity, and overweight and obesity were obtained. The average number of risk factors was determined by BP level to explore potential risk factor clustering. Ten generalized proportional odds models were used to examine association between clustering of behavioral risk factors and BP level. A clear gradient between the number of behavioral risk factors and BP level was observed for men and women (P < 0.05 for both genders). BP level for men and women was much likely to upgrade as number of risk factors accumulated (P < 0.01 for 10 models). Behavioral modifications may decrease BP, and combinations of two or more behavioral interventions could potentially result in even better BP management among people diagnosed with hypertension. PMID:27279273

  14. Population impact of a high cardiovascular risk management program delivered by village doctors in rural China: design and rationale of a large, cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The high-risk strategy has been proven effective in preventing cardiovascular disease; however, the population benefits from these interventions remain unknown. This study aims to assess, at the population level, the effects of an evidence-based high cardiovascular risk management program delivered by village doctors in rural China. Methods The study will employ a cluster-randomized controlled trial in which a total of 120 villages in five northern provinces of China, will be assigned to either intervention (60 villages) or control (60 villages). Village doctors in intervention villages will be trained to implement a simple evidence-based management program designed to identify, treat and follow-up as many as possible individuals at high-risk of cardiovascular disease in the village. The intervention will also include performance feedback as well as a performance-based incentive payment scheme and will last for 2 years. We will draw two different (independent) random samples, before and after the intervention, 20 men aged ≥ 50 years and 20 women aged ≥60 years from each village in each sample and a total of 9,600 participants from 2 samples to measure the study outcomes at the population level. The primary outcome will be the pre-post difference in mean systolic blood pressure, analyzed with a generalized estimating equations extension of linear regression model to account for cluster effect. Secondary outcomes will include monthly clinic visits, provision of lifestyle advice, use of antihypertensive medications and use of aspirin. Process and economic evaluations will also be conducted. Discussion This trial will be the first implementation trial in the world to evaluate the population impact of the high-risk strategy in prevention and control of cardiovascular disease. The results are expected to provide important information (effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability) to guide policy making for rural China as well as

  15. Multicenter cluster-randomized trial of a multifactorial intervention to improve antihypertensive medication adherence and blood pressure control among patients at high cardiovascular risk (the COM99 study).

    PubMed

    Pladevall, Manel; Brotons, Carlos; Gabriel, Rafael; Arnau, Anna; Suarez, Carmen; de la Figuera, Mariano; Marquez, Emilio; Coca, Antonio; Sobrino, Javier; Divine, George; Heisler, Michele; Williams, L Keoki

    2010-09-21

    Medication nonadherence is common and results in preventable disease complications. This study assessed the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to improve both medication adherence and blood pressure control and to reduce cardiovascular events. In this multicenter, cluster-randomized trial, physicians from hospital-based hypertension clinics and primary care centers across Spain were randomized to receive and provide the intervention to their high-risk patients. Eligible patients were ≥ 50 years of age, had uncontrolled hypertension, and had an estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk greater than 30%. Physicians randomized to the intervention group counted patients' pills, designated a family member to support adherence behavior, and provided educational information to patients. The primary outcome was blood pressure control at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included both medication adherence and a composite end point of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular-related hospitalizations. Seventy-nine physicians and 877 patients participated in the trial. The mean duration of follow-up was 39 months. Intervention patients were less likely to have an uncontrolled systolic blood pressure (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.78) and were more likely to be adherent (odds ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 3.05) than control group patients at 6 months. After 5 years, 16% of the patients in the intervention group and 19% in the control group met the composite end point (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.39). A multifactorial intervention to improve adherence to antihypertensive medication was effective in improving both adherence and blood pressure control, but it did not appear to improve long-term cardiovascular events.

  16. Design and baseline characteristics of the PerfectFit study: a multicenter cluster-randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention in employees with increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Kouwenhoven-Pasmooij, Tessa A; Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Robroek, Suzan J W; Helmhout, Pieter; Burdorf, Alex; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2015-07-28

    The prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles and preventable chronic diseases is high. They lead to disabilities and sickness absence, which might be reduced if health promotion measures were applied. Therefore, we developed the PerfectFit health promotion intervention with a "blended care"-approach, which consists of a web-based health risk assessment (HRA) including tailored and personalized advice, followed by motivational interviewing (MI). We hypothesize that adding MI to a web-based HRA leads to better health outcomes. The objective is to describe the design and baseline characteristics of the PerfectFit study, which is being conducted among employees with high cardiovascular risk in the military workforce, the police organization and an academic hospital. PerfectFit is a cluster randomized controlled trial, consisting of two arms. Based on cardiovascular risk profiling, done between 2012 and 2014, we included employees based on one or more risk factors and motivation to participate. One arm is the 'limited' health program (control) that consists of: (a) an HRA as a decision aid for lifestyle changes, including tailored and personalized advice, and pros and cons of the options, and (b) a newsletter every 3 months. The other arm is the 'extensive' program (intervention), which is additionally offered MI-sessions by trained occupational physicians, 4 face-to-face and 3 by telephone, and is offered more choices of health promotion activities in the HRA. During the follow-up period, participants choose the health promotion activities they personally prefer. After six and twelve months, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. After twelve months the cardiovascular risk profiling will be repeated. The primary outcome is self-reported general health. Secondary outcomes are self-reported work ability, CVD-risk score, sickness absence, productivity loss at work, participation in health promotion activities, changes in lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption

  17. [Preeclampsia as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death in women. Guidelines for identifying high-risk individuals have been developed, e.g. the Dutch Guideline on Cardiovascular Risk Management. In the most recent version of this guideline, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cited as cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, individuals with these conditions are identified as being at high risk. As with DM and RA, there is strong evidence that the experience of having a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy is a cardiovascular risk factor. This is particularly the case for early preeclampsia, which constitutes a 7-fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, in the Netherlands, there are no guidelines and there is no consensus on how to screen or treat these women. Trial evidence is therefore urgently needed to substantiate the value of cardiovascular risk management for those women with a history of hypertension during pregnancy.

  18. Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Soubrier, Martin; Barber Chamoux, Nicolas; Tatar, Zuzana; Couderc, Marion; Dubost, Jean-Jacques; Mathieu, Sylvain

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss data on the cardiovascular risk increase associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the effects of RA treatments on the cardiovascular risk level, and the management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with RA. Overall, the risk of cardiovascular disease is increased 2-fold in RA patients compared to the general population, due to the combined effects of RA and conventional risk factors. There is some evidence that the cardiovascular risk increase associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy may be smaller in RA patients than in the general population. Glucocorticoid therapy increases the cardiovascular risk in proportion to both the current dose and the cumulative dose. Methotrexate and TNFα antagonists diminish cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. The management of dyslipidemia remains suboptimal. Risk equations may perform poorly in RA patients even when corrected using the multiplication factors suggested by the EUropean League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) (multiply the score by 1.5 when two of the following three criteria are met: disease duration longer than 10 years, presence of rheumatoid factor or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, and extraarticular manifestations). Doppler ultrasonography of the carotid arteries in patients at moderate cardiovascular risk may allow a more aggressive approach to dyslipidemia management via reclassification into the high-risk category of patients with an intima-media thickness greater than 0.9 mm or atheroma plaque.

  19. HIV and General Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Capili, Bernadette; Anastasi, Joyce K.; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in HIV-infected people. Risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance have become common. CVD in HIV may also be related to non-traditional risk factors including accumulation of visceral fat, inflammation secondary to HIV, and effects of some antiretroviral drugs. This cross-sectional study described the CVD risk factors of 123 adults living with HIV and calculated the 10-year estimate for general cardiovascular risk score. Results showed that approximately 25% of the participants were considered to be at high risk for developing CVD in the next 10 years. Increased waist circumference and longer duration of smoking habit were associated with elevated general cardiovascular risk scores. Similar to the general population, most of the identified risks could be modified through lifestyle management. PMID:21277230

  20. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  1. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    PubMed

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  2. Lifetime Risks of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jarett D.; Dyer, Alan; Cai, Xuan; Garside, Daniel B.; Ning, Hongyan; Thomas, Avis; Greenland, Philip; Van Horn, Linda; Tracy, Russell P.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease have not been reported across the age spectrum in black adults and white adults. METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis at the individual level using data from 18 cohort studies involving a total of 257,384 black men and women and white men and women whose risk factors for cardiovascular disease were measured at the ages of 45, 55, 65, and 75 years. Blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking status, and diabetes status were used to stratify participants according to risk factors into five mutually exclusive categories. The remaining lifetime risks of cardiovascular events were estimated for participants in each category at each age, with death free of cardiovascular disease treated as a competing event. RESULTS We observed marked differences in the lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease across risk-factor strata. Among participants who were 55 years of age, those with an optimal risk-factor profile (total cholesterol level, <180 mg per deciliter [4.7 mmol per liter]; blood pressure, <120 mm Hg systolic and 80 mm Hg diastolic; nonsmoking status; and nondiabetic status) had substantially lower risks of death from cardiovascular disease through the age of 80 years than participants with two or more major risk factors (4.7% vs. 29.6% among men, 6.4% vs. 20.5% among women). Those with an optimal risk-factor profile also had lower lifetime risks of fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.6% vs. 37.5% among men, <1% vs. 18.3% among women) and fatal or nonfatal stroke (2.3% vs. 8.3% among men, 5.3% vs. 10.7% among women). Similar trends within risk-factor strata were observed among blacks and whites and across diverse birth cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Differences in risk-factor burden translate into marked differences in the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease, and these differences are consistent across race and birth cohorts. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.) PMID

  3. [Practicality of cardiovascular risk functions].

    PubMed

    Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Icaza, Gloria; Morales-Salinas, Alberto; Dégano, Irene R

    2016-12-13

    Cardiovascular diseases prevention strategies require refinement because their incidence decreases very slowly. Risk functions were developed by including classical cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, and basic lipid profile) in cohorts followed more than 10 years. They are reasonably precise for population screening of, principally, coronary artery disease risk, required in all cardiovascular primary prevention clinical guidelines. Coronary artery disease risk functions classify patients in risk strata to concentrate the maximum therapeutic and life style effort in the highest risk groups, in which the number needed to treat and cost-effectiveness are optimal. By communicating the relative risk and vascular age to patients, increased motivation to comply with the proposed drug and life-style modifications can be achieved. Approximately 20% of the population 35 to 74 years old has an intermediate risk that requires reclassification into high or low risk because they concentrate 35% of population coronary artery disease events. Several biomarkers (biochemical, genetic or imaging) are being tested to improve coronary artery disease risk functions precision. Computerized systems of health facilities should incorporate, automated risk calculation in order to support the preventive task of health care providers.

  4. Cardiovascular risks of antiretroviral therapies.

    PubMed

    Mondy, Kristin; Tebas, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in sustained reductions in mortality from HIV infection. In recent years, HAART has also been associated with metabolic complications that may increase patients' cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies have begun to support a more complex interaction between HAART, HIV infection itself, and other traditional social and immunologic factors that may predispose patients to premature cardiovascular disease. Substantial progress has been made in the development of newer antiretroviral therapies that have a better metabolic profile with respect to dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and lipodystrophy. Optimal selection of metabolically neutral antiretroviral therapies, together with aggressive management of other modifiable coronary risk factors, may improve cardiovascular disease risk in the long term.

  5. A multifaceted strategy using mobile technology to assist rural primary healthcare doctors and frontline health workers in cardiovascular disease risk management: protocol for the SMARTHealth India cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Devarsetty; Patel, Anushka; McMahon, Stephen; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Clifford, Gari D; Maulik, Pallab K; Joshi, Rohina; Jan, Stephen; Heritier, Stephane; Peiris, David

    2013-11-25

    Blood Pressure related disease affected 118 million people in India in the year 2000; this figure will double by 2025. Around one in four adults in rural India have hypertension, and of those, only a minority are accessing appropriate care. Health systems in India face substantial challenges to meet these gaps in care, and innovative solutions are needed. We hypothesise that a multifaceted intervention involving capacity strengthening of primary healthcare doctors and non-physician healthcare workers through use of a mobile device-based clinical decision support system will result in improved blood pressure control for individuals at high risk of a cardiovascular disease event when compared with usual healthcare. This intervention will be implemented as a stepped wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial in 18 primary health centres and 54 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh involving adults aged ≥40 years at high cardiovascular disease event risk (approximately 15,000 people). Cardiovascular disease event risk will be calculated based on World Health Organisation/International Society of Hypertension's region-specific risk charts. Cluster randomisation will occur at the level of the primary health centres. Outcome analyses will be conducted blinded to intervention allocation. The primary study outcome is the difference in the proportion of people meeting guideline-recommended blood pressure targets in the intervention period vs. the control period. Secondary outcomes include mean reduction in blood pressure levels; change in other cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, current smoking, reported healthy eating habits, and reported physical activity levels; self-reported use of blood pressure and other cardiovascular medicines; quality of life (using the EQ-5D); and cardiovascular disease events (using hospitalisation data). Trial outcomes will be accompanied by detailed process and economic evaluations. The findings are likely to inform

  6. Cardiovascular risk management and its impact on hypertension control in primary care in low-resource settings: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Shanthi; Johnston, S Claiborne; Fan, Wu; Oladapo, Olulola; Cameron, Ali; Faramawi, Mohammed F

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate a simple cardiovascular risk management package for assessing and managing cardiovascular risk using hypertension as an entry point in primary care facilities in low-resource settings. Two geographically distant regions in two countries (China and Nigeria) were selected and 10 pairs of primary care facilities in each region were randomly selected and matched. Regions were then randomly assigned to a control group, which received usual care, or to an intervention group, which applied the cardiovascular risk management package. Each facility enrolled 60 consecutive patients with hypertension. Intervention sites educated patients about risk factors at baseline and initiated treatment with hydrochlorothiazide at 4 months in patients at medium risk of a cardiovascular event, according to a standardized treatment algorithm. Systolic blood pressure change from baseline to 12 months was the primary outcome measure. The study included 2397 patients with baseline hypertension: 1191 in 20 intervention facilities and 1206 in 20 control facilities. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased more in intervention patients than in controls. However, at 12 months more than half of patients still had uncontrolled hypertension (systolic blood pressure > 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg). Behavioural risk factors had improved among intervention patients in Nigeria but not in China. Only about 2% of hypertensive patients required referral to the next level of care. Even in low-resource settings, hypertensive patients can be effectively assessed and managed in primary care facilities.

  7. Efficacy of a strategy for implementing a guideline for the control of cardiovascular risk in a primary healthcare setting: the SIRVA2 study a controlled, blinded community intervention trial randomised by clusters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the methodology used to assess a strategy for implementing clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for cardiovascular risk control in a health area of Madrid. Background The results on clinical practice of introducing CPGs have been little studied in Spain. The strategy used to implement a CPG is known to influence its final use. Strategies based on the involvement of opinion leaders and that are easily executed appear to be among the most successful. Aim The main aim of the present work was to compare the effectiveness of two strategies for implementing a CPG designed to reduce cardiovascular risk in the primary healthcare setting, measured in terms of improvements in the recording of calculated cardiovascular risk or specific risk factors in patients' medical records, the control of cardiovascular risk factors, and the incidence of cardiovascular events. Methods This study involved a controlled, blinded community intervention in which the 21 health centres of the Number 2 Health Area of Madrid were randomly assigned by clusters to be involved in either a proposed CPG implementation strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk, or the normal dissemination strategy. The study subjects were patients ≥ 45 years of age whose health cards showed them to belong to the studied health area. The main variable examined was the proportion of patients whose medical histories included the calculation of their cardiovascular risk or that explicitly mentioned the presence of variables necessary for its calculation. The sample size was calculated for a comparison of proportions with alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.20, and assuming that the intervention would lead to a 15% increase in the measured variables. Corrections were made for the design effect, assigning a sample size to each cluster proportional to the size of the population served by the corresponding health centre, and assuming losses of 20%. This demanded a final sample size of 620 patients. Data were analysed

  8. Efficacy of a strategy for implementing a guideline for the control of cardiovascular risk in a primary healthcare setting: the SIRVA2 study a controlled, blinded community intervention trial randomised by clusters.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Salvanés, Francisco; Novella, Blanca; Fernández Luque, María Jesús; Sánchez-Gómez, Luis María; Ruiz-Díaz, Lourdes; Sánchez-Alcalde, Rosa; Sierra-García, Belén; Mayayo, Soledad; Ruiz-López, Marta; Loeches, Pilar; López-Gónzález, Javier; González-Gamarra, Amelia

    2011-04-19

    This work describes the methodology used to assess a strategy for implementing clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for cardiovascular risk control in a health area of Madrid. The results on clinical practice of introducing CPGs have been little studied in Spain. The strategy used to implement a CPG is known to influence its final use. Strategies based on the involvement of opinion leaders and that are easily executed appear to be among the most successful. The main aim of the present work was to compare the effectiveness of two strategies for implementing a CPG designed to reduce cardiovascular risk in the primary healthcare setting, measured in terms of improvements in the recording of calculated cardiovascular risk or specific risk factors in patients' medical records, the control of cardiovascular risk factors, and the incidence of cardiovascular events. This study involved a controlled, blinded community intervention in which the 21 health centres of the Number 2 Health Area of Madrid were randomly assigned by clusters to be involved in either a proposed CPG implementation strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk, or the normal dissemination strategy. The study subjects were patients ≥ 45 years of age whose health cards showed them to belong to the studied health area. The main variable examined was the proportion of patients whose medical histories included the calculation of their cardiovascular risk or that explicitly mentioned the presence of variables necessary for its calculation. The sample size was calculated for a comparison of proportions with alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.20, and assuming that the intervention would lead to a 15% increase in the measured variables. Corrections were made for the design effect, assigning a sample size to each cluster proportional to the size of the population served by the corresponding health centre, and assuming losses of 20%. This demanded a final sample size of 620 patients. Data were analysed using summary measures for

  9. Improving patient adherence to lifestyle advice (IMPALA): a cluster-randomised controlled trial on the implementation of a nurse-led intervention for cardiovascular risk management in primary care (protocol)

    PubMed Central

    Koelewijn-van Loon, Marije S; van Steenkiste, Ben; Ronda, Gaby; Wensing, Michel; Stoffers, Henri E; Elwyn, Glyn; Grol, Richard; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2008-01-01

    Background Many patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases are managed and monitored in general practice. Recommendations for cardiovascular risk management, including lifestyle change, are clearly described in the Dutch national guideline. Although lifestyle interventions, such as advice on diet, physical exercise, smoking and alcohol, have moderate, but potentially relevant effects in these patients, adherence to lifestyle advice in general practice is not optimal. The IMPALA study intends to improve adherence to lifestyle advice by involving patients in decision making on cardiovascular prevention by nurse-led clinics. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods of a study to evaluate an intervention aimed at involving patients in cardiovascular risk management. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial in 20 general practices, 10 practices in the intervention arm and 10 in the control arm, starting on October 2005. A total of 720 patients without existing cardiovascular diseases but eligible for cardiovascular risk assessment will be recruited. In both arms, the general practitioners and nurses will be trained to apply the national guideline for cardiovascular risk management. Nurses in the intervention arm will receive an extended training in risk assessment, risk communication, the use of a decision aid and adapted motivational interviewing. This communication technique will be used to support the shared decision-making process about risk reduction. The intervention comprises 2 consultations and 1 follow-up telephone call. The nurses in the control arm will give usual care after the risk estimation, according to the national guideline. Primary outcome measures are self-reported adherence to lifestyle advice and drug treatment. Secondary outcome measures are the patients' perception of risk and their motivation to change their behaviour. The measurements will take place at baseline and after 12 and 52 weeks. Clinical endpoints will

  10. Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Angell, Peter; Chester, Neil; Green, Danny; Somauroo, John; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith

    2012-02-01

    Recent reports from needle exchange programmes and other public health initiatives have suggested growing use of anabolic steroids (AS) in the UK and other countries. Data indicate that AS use is not confined to body-builders or high-level sportsmen. Use has spread to professionals working in emergency services, casual fitness enthusiasts and subelite sportsmen and women. Although the precise health consequences of AS use is largely undefined, AS use represents a growing public health concern. Data regarding the consequences of AS use on cardiovascular health are limited to case studies and a modest number of small cohort studies. Numerous case studies have linked AS use with a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events or endpoints, including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Large-scale epidemiological studies to support these links are absent. Consequently, the impact of AS use upon known CVD risk factors has been studied in relatively small, case-series studies. Data relating AS use to elevated blood pressure, altered lipid profiles and ECG abnormalities have been reported, but are often limited in scope, and other studies have often produced equivocal outcomes. The use of AS has been linked to the appearance of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy as well as endothelial dysfunction but the data again remains controversial. The mechanisms responsible for the negative effect of AS on cardiovascular health are poorly understood, especially in humans. Possibilities include direct effects on myocytes and endothelial cells, reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, increased release of apoptogenic factors, as well as increased collagen crosslinks between myocytes. New data relating AS use to cardiovascular health risks are emerging, as novel technologies are developed (especially in non-invasive imaging) that can assess physiological structure and function. Continued efforts to fully document the cardiovascular health consequences of AS use is important to

  11. The aged cardiovascular risk patient.

    PubMed

    Priebe, H J

    2000-11-01

    factors contribute most of the increased perioperative risk related to advanced age. First, physiological ageing is accompanied by a progressive decline in resting organ function. Consequently, the reserve capacity to compensate for impaired organ function, drug metabolism and added physiological demands is increasingly impaired. Functional disability will occur more quickly and take longer to be cured. Second, ageing is associated with progressive manifestation of chronic disease which further limits baseline function and accelerates loss of functional reserve in the affected organ. Some of the age-related decline in organ function (e.g. impaired pulmonary gas exchange, diminished renal capacity to conserve and eliminate water and salt, or disturbed thermoregulation) will increase cardiovascular risk. The unpredictable interaction between age-related and disease-associated changes in organ functions, and the altered neurohumoral response to various forms of stress in the elderly may result in a rather atypical clinical presentation of a disease. This may, in turn, delay the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment and, ultimately, worsen outcome. Third, related to the increased intake of medications and altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, the incidence of untoward reactions to medications, anaesthetic agents, and medical and surgical interventions increases with advancing age. On the basis of various clinical studies and observations, it must be concluded that advanced age is an independent predictor of adverse perioperative cardiac outcome. It is to be expected that the aged cardiovascular risk patient carries an even higher perioperative cardiac risk than the younger cardiovascular risk patient. Although knowledge of the physiology of ageing should help reduce age-related complications, successful prophylaxis is hindered by the heterogeneity of age-related changes, unpredictable physiological and pharmacological interactions and diagnostic difficultie

  12. Red wine and cardiovascular risks.

    PubMed

    Lagrue-Lak-Hal, A H; Andriantsitohaina, R

    2006-12-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that a moderate intake of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality secondary to cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol intake from any type of alcoholic beverage appears beneficial, but red wine seems to confer additional health benefits because of the presence of red wine polyphenolic compounds (RWPC). On the basis of clinical and experimental data, the favourable effect of moderate intake of alcohol results to its action on lipid profile, hemostatic parameters, and reduction of inflammation markers. RWPC exert numerous effects including antioxidant and free radical properties, anti-aggregatory platelet and anti-thrombotic activities. Moreover, RWPC are powerful vasodilators and contribute to the preservation of the integrity of the endothelium and inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. All these effects of red wine might interfere with atherosclerotic plaque development and stability, vascular thrombosis and occlusion. Although, red wine might be of therapeutic benefit in cardiovascular diseases, prospective controlled clinical studies are still lacking.

  13. A multifaceted strategy using mobile technology to assist rural primary healthcare doctors and frontline health workers in cardiovascular disease risk management: protocol for the SMARTHealth India cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood Pressure related disease affected 118 million people in India in the year 2000; this figure will double by 2025. Around one in four adults in rural India have hypertension, and of those, only a minority are accessing appropriate care. Health systems in India face substantial challenges to meet these gaps in care, and innovative solutions are needed. Methods We hypothesise that a multifaceted intervention involving capacity strengthening of primary healthcare doctors and non-physician healthcare workers through use of a mobile device-based clinical decision support system will result in improved blood pressure control for individuals at high risk of a cardiovascular disease event when compared with usual healthcare. This intervention will be implemented as a stepped wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial in 18 primary health centres and 54 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh involving adults aged ≥40 years at high cardiovascular disease event risk (approximately 15,000 people). Cardiovascular disease event risk will be calculated based on World Health Organisation/International Society of Hypertension’s region-specific risk charts. Cluster randomisation will occur at the level of the primary health centres. Outcome analyses will be conducted blinded to intervention allocation. Expected outcomes The primary study outcome is the difference in the proportion of people meeting guideline-recommended blood pressure targets in the intervention period vs. the control period. Secondary outcomes include mean reduction in blood pressure levels; change in other cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, current smoking, reported healthy eating habits, and reported physical activity levels; self-reported use of blood pressure and other cardiovascular medicines; quality of life (using the EQ-5D); and cardiovascular disease events (using hospitalisation data). Trial outcomes will be accompanied by detailed process and economic

  14. [Hypertension and cardiovascular risk evaluation of Chinese cardiovascular physicians].

    PubMed

    Li, She-Chang; Yu, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jun; Zhan, Yi-Qiang; Zhang, Fen; Hu, Da-Yi

    2011-03-01

    To observe the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control rate of hypertension and to evaluate the 10-year absolute risk of coronary heart disease(CHD) and ischemic cardiovascular disease(ICVD) in Chinese cardiovascular physicians. A total of 4032 cardiovascular physicians (28 to 79 years old) from 386 hospitals in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities were randomly selected and received an epidemiologic survey of prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension and evaluations of CHD and ICVD risk. The prevalence of hypertension in Chinese cardiovascular physicians was 13.1%. The awareness rate of hypertension in Chinese cardiovascular physicians was 81.7%. Hypertension treatment rate was 69.6% and blood pressure control rate was 44.6%. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in male physicians than in female physicians before the age of 55 years old. Ten-year absolute risk of CHD and ICVD was 0.08 and 0.03 in hypertensive physicians compared to 0.03 and 0.01 in non-hypertensive physicians. The results show suboptimal awareness, treatment and control rate in Chinese cardiovascular physicians for their own hypertension status.Physicians suffering from hypertension face higher risk for cardiovascular disease. It is therefore necessary to improve the self-monitoring of blood pressure in Chinese cardiovascular physicians.

  15. Reducing salt intake for prevention of cardiovascular diseases in high-risk patients by advanced health education intervention (RESIP-CVD study), Northern Thailand: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Decreasing salt consumption can prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Practically, it is difficult to promote people’s awareness of daily salt intake and to change their eating habits in terms of reducing salt intake for better cardiovascular health. Health education programs visualizing daily dietary salt content and intake may promote lifestyle changes in patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods/Design This is a cluster randomized trial. A total of 800 high-CVD-risk patients attending diabetes and hypertension clinics at health centers in Muang District, Chiang Rai province, Thailand, will be studied with informed consent. A health center recruiting 100 participants is a cluster, the unit of randomization. Eight clusters will be randomized into intervention and control arms and followed up for 1 year. Within the intervention clusters the following will be undertaken: (1) salt content in the daily diet will be measured and shown to study participants; (2) 24-hour salt intake will be estimated in overnight-collected urine and the results shown to the participants; (3) a dietician will assist small group health education classes in cooking meals with less salt. The primary outcome is blood pressure change at the 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes at the 1-year follow-up are estimated 24-hoursalt intake, incidence of CVD events and CVD death. The intention-to-treat analysis will be followed. Blood pressure and estimated 24-hour salt intake will be compared between intervention and control groups at the cluster and individual level at the 1-year follow-up. Clinical CVD events and deaths will be analyzed by time-event analysis. Retinal blood vessel calibers of CVD-risk patients will be assessed cross-sectionally. Behavioral change to reduce salt intake and the influencing factors will be determined by structured equation model (SEM). Multilevel regression analyses will be applied. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the intervention

  16. Reducing salt intake for prevention of cardiovascular diseases in high-risk patients by advanced health education intervention (RESIP-CVD study), Northern Thailand: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Moolphate, Saiyud; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Yokokawa, Hidehiro; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Ono, Koichi; Kawai, Sachio; Marui, Eiji

    2012-09-04

    Decreasing salt consumption can prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Practically, it is difficult to promote people's awareness of daily salt intake and to change their eating habits in terms of reducing salt intake for better cardiovascular health. Health education programs visualizing daily dietary salt content and intake may promote lifestyle changes in patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. This is a cluster randomized trial. A total of 800 high-CVD-risk patients attending diabetes and hypertension clinics at health centers in Muang District, Chiang Rai province, Thailand, will be studied with informed consent. A health center recruiting 100 participants is a cluster, the unit of randomization. Eight clusters will be randomized into intervention and control arms and followed up for 1 year. Within the intervention clusters the following will be undertaken: (1) salt content in the daily diet will be measured and shown to study participants; (2) 24-hour salt intake will be estimated in overnight-collected urine and the results shown to the participants; (3) a dietician will assist small group health education classes in cooking meals with less salt. The primary outcome is blood pressure change at the 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes at the 1-year follow-up are estimated 24-hoursalt intake, incidence of CVD events and CVD death. The intention-to-treat analysis will be followed.Blood pressure and estimated 24-hour salt intake will be compared between intervention and control groups at the cluster and individual level at the 1-year follow-up. Clinical CVD events and deaths will be analyzed by time-event analysis. Retinal blood vessel calibers of CVD-risk patients will be assessed cross-sectionally. Behavioral change to reduce salt intake and the influencing factors will be determined by structured equation model (SEM). Multilevel regression analyses will be applied. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the intervention will be analyzed. This study is

  17. Testosterone, cardiovascular risk, and hormonophobia.

    PubMed

    Morgentaler, Abraham

    2014-06-01

    A public outcry against testosterone (T) therapy has suddenly occurred based on two reports suggesting treatment was associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risks. To analyze scientific and social bases for concerns regarding T therapy. Analysis of recent articles regarding CV risks with T and comparison with events surrounding publication of results of the Women's Health Initiative in 2002. In the first study, the percentage of individuals with an adverse event was lower by half in men who received T compared with untreated men (10.1% vs. 21.2%). However, an opposite conclusion was reached via complex statistics. The second study reported minor increased rate of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) up to 90 days after receiving a T prescription compared with the prior 12 months. However, there was no control group, so it is unknown whether this MI rate was increased, reduced, or unchanged compared with untreated men. Neither study provided substantive evidence of risk, yet these were lauded as proof of dangers, despite a substantial literature to the contrary. Similar events followed the publication of the Women's Health Initiative in 2002 when a media frenzy over increased risks with female hormone replacement therapy obscured the fact that the reported excess risk was clinically meaningless, at two events per 1,000 person-years. Stakeholders driving concerns regarding hormone risks are unlikely to be clinicians with real-world patient experience. The use of weak studies as proof of danger indicates that cultural (i.e., nonscientific) forces are at play. Negative media stories touting T's risks appear fueled by antipharma sentiment, anger against aggressive marketing, and antisexuality. This stance is best described as "hormonophobia." As history shows, evidence alone may be insufficient to alter a public narrative. The true outrage is that social forces and hysteria have combined to deprive men of a useful treatment without regard for medical science.

  18. Cardiovascular disease and modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and many parts of the world. Potentially modifiable risk factors for CVD include tobacco use, physical inactivity, hypertension, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a cluster of interrelated metabolic risk factors. Over the last several decades, efforts to prevent or treat CVD risk factors have resulted in significantly lower rates of CVD-related mortality. However, many patients never achieve adequate control of CVD risk factors even when these factors have been identified. In addition, the growing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) threatens to undermine the improvements in CVD that have been achieved. In the United States, approximately two thirds of adults are overweight or obese, and even modest excess body weight is associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD-related mortality. Lifestyle interventions to promote weight loss reduce the risk of CVD-related illness but are difficult for patients to sustain over long periods of time. The increased incidence of obesity has also contributed to significant increases in the prevalence of other important CVD risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 DM. Pharmacologic therapies are currently available to address individual CVD risk factors, and others are being evaluated, including endocannabinoid receptor antagonists, inhibitors of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes alpha and gamma, and several agents that modulate the activity of glucagon-like peptide-1. The new agents have the potential to significantly improve several CVD risk factors with a single medication and may provide clinicians with several new strategies to reduce the long-term risk of CVD.

  19. Egg consumption and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed

    Fuertes García, Antonio

    2016-07-12

    Diet, along with exercise, is the determining factor in primary prevention –and secondary– of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This disease remains the leading cause of death in our country, as well as neighboring countries. After the publication of the results of the study of the Seven Countries in 1980, egg consumption was discouraged because it was thought falsely that the consumption of it had the same harmful effect as saturated fats increasing CVD risk. This idea, that was proved wrong later, was in general accepted by the medical profession as much as the general population. Simultaneously numerous clinical studies were performed and they clearly contradict that belief, concluding that egg intake do not increase CVD risk. In conclusion, although the literature on this topic is abundant, we cite the works that seem most significant in this regard. Consequently and following the recommendations of the American Heart Association Guidelines, since 2000, we can conclude that intake of up to one egg a day does not modify the risk for CVD in healthy adults.

  20. Foetal nutritional status and cardiovascular risk profile among children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Sempos, Christopher

    2007-10-01

    To estimate the impact of foetal nutritional status on cardiovascular risk among children with the Foetal Nutritional Status Index (FNSI), calculated by dividing the child's birth weight (BW, kg) by the mother's height (m2). Cross-sectional survey analysis. A sample of children from the US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 3109 children who were 5-11 years of age and had data on BW and mother's height. Non-fasting blood samples were included. Overall, the FNSI was positively associated with BW and negatively associated with mother's height (P<0.0001). Within sex-specific quintiles of FNSI (third quintile as reference) adjusted for potential confounding variables, cardiovascular risk factors tended to be 'higher' in the lower quintiles for males while the opposite was true for females. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that the odds for males in quintile 1 was 2.4 for having a low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.01) and 2.1 for having a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.01); for females, the odds of having a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors was approximately two times higher for those in the first and fifth quintiles, who also had a significantly higher prevalence of central obesity. The FNSI may be a potential proxy indicator of foetal nutritional status and it may be used to test specific hypotheses of whether foetal nutrition restriction or overnutrition programmes future cardiovascular risk.

  1. Cardiovascular investigations of airline pilots with excessive cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J; Larsen, Peter D

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of airline pilots who have an excessive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score according to the New Zealand Guideline Group (NZGG) Framingham-based Risk Chart and describes their cardiovascular risk assessment and investigations. A cross-sectional study was performed among 856 pilots employed in an Oceania based airline. Pilots with elevated CVD risk that had been previously evaluated at various times over the previous 19 yr were reviewed retrospectively from the airline's medical records, and the subsequent cardiovascular investigations were then described. There were 30 (3.5%) pilots who were found to have 5-yr CVD risk score of 10-15% or higher. Of the 29 pilots who had complete cardiac investigations data, 26 pilots underwent exercise electrocardiography (ECG), 2 pilots progressed directly to coronary angiograms and 1 pilot with abnormal echocardiogram was not examined further. Of the 26 pilots, 7 had positive or borderline exercise tests, all of whom subsequently had angiograms. One patient with a negative exercise test also had a coronary angiogram. Of the 9 patients who had coronary angiograms as a consequence of screening, 5 had significant disease that required treatment and 4 had either trivial disease or normal coronary arteries. The current approach to investigate excessive cardiovascular risk in pilots relies heavily on exercise electrocardiograms as a diagnostic test, and may not be optimal either to detect disease or to protect pilots from unnecessary invasive procedures. A more comprehensive and accurate cardiac investigation algorithm to assess excessive CVD risk in pilots is required.

  2. Childhood migration and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Schooling, Mary; Leung, Gabriel M; Janus, Edward D; Ho, Sai Yin; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai Hing

    2004-12-01

    Childhood living conditions have been hypothesized to be associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in adult life. We analysed, using logistic regression, the risk of self-reported diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease in a population-based sample of 3643 Chinese men and 3778 Chinese women some of whom had experienced a change to more favourable economic conditions at different life stages through migration from mainland China to Hong Kong. Adjusting for socio-economic status, risk behaviours, and family history, the development of diabetes was associated with migration from China to Hong Kong in the first two decades of life, albeit with a decreasing intensity of effect (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.18, 3.45, OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.66, and OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.45 for migration at ages 0-7, 8-17, and 18-24, respectively). The development of hypertension was mostly susceptible to environmental change during the growth spurt and puberty (migration at ages 8-17 OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.99). The development of heart disease was associated with a sex-specific critical period in early childhood for men (migration at ages 0-7 OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.70, 5.91). Environmental change by migration throughout the first two decades of life can affect the development of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease, although adverse childhood conditions alone may not be a risk factor. Our results suggest that specific life course pathways may pre-dispose to these conditions and could be relevant to their aetiology in populations undergoing rapid development.

  3. A MULTI-CENTER CLUSTER-RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF A MULTI-FACTORIAL INTERVENTION TO IMPROVE ANTIHYPERTENSIVE MEDICATION ADHERENCE AND BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL AMONG PATIENTS AT HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK (The COM99 study)*

    PubMed Central

    Pladevall, Manel; Brotons, Carlos; Gabriel, Rafael; Arnau, Anna; Suarez, Carmen; de la Figuera, Mariano; Marquez, Emilio; Coca, Antonio; Sobrino, Javier; Divine, George; Heisler, Michele; Williams, L Keoki

    2010-01-01

    Background Medication non-adherence is common and results in preventable disease complications. This study assesses the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to improve both medication adherence and blood pressure control and to reduce cardiovascular events. Methods and Results In this multi-center, cluster-randomized trial, physicians from hospital-based hypertension clinics and primary care centers across Spain were randomized to receive and provide the intervention to their high-risk patients. Eligible patients were ≥50 years of age, had uncontrolled hypertension, and had an estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk greater than 30%. Physicians randomized to the intervention group counted patients’ pills, designated a family member to support adherence behavior, and provided educational information to patients. The primary outcome was blood pressure control at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included both medication adherence and a composite end-point of all cause mortality and cardiovascular-related hospitalizations. Seventy-nine physicians and 877 patients participated in the trial. The mean duration of follow-up was 39 months. Intervention patients were less likely to have an uncontrolled systolic blood pressure (odds ratio 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50–0.78) and were more likely to be adherent (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.19–3.05) when compared with control group patients at 6 months. After five years 16% of the patients in the intervention group and 19% in the control group met the composite end-point (hazard ratio 0.97; 95% CI 0.67–1.39). Conclusions A multifactorial intervention to improve adherence to antihypertensive medication was effective in improving both adherence and blood pressure control, but it did not appear to improve long-term cardiovascular events. PMID:20823391

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits among preventive cardiovascular nurses.

    PubMed

    Fair, Joan M; Gulanick, Meg; Braun, Lynne T

    2009-01-01

    The cornerstone of cardiovascular disease prevention is the promotion of a healthy lifestyle and the identification and reduction of cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiology nurses play a major role in counseling patients about lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors. We used an e-mail survey to elicit self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and healthy lifestyles among the Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association (PCNA) members and compared their risk profiles with published data for American cardiologists, the Nurses' Health Study 2, and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data for women. A total of 1,345 complete surveys were collected. The respondents were mostly women (96%), with mean (SD) age of 47.4 (8.7) years. More than 95% were not cigarette smokers, more than 50% had a healthy body mass index (<25), and more than 56% achieved the recommended levels of physical activity. Nevertheless, obesity (body mass index ≥ 30) was a health risk in one-fifth of PCNA respondents. The rates of hypertension (17%) and dyslipidemia (15%) were lower than rates reported in other national samples; however, the rate for family history of premature heart disease (20%) was similar to those reported in national samples. Since family history of premature heart disease may be a more significant risk factor in women, PCNA respondents with such a family history may require targeted interventions to further reduce their risk and improve their lifestyle behaviors. PCNA nurses have more favorable lifestyle profiles compared with national samples. It can be expected that nurses who know their risk factors and who follow healthy lifestyle behaviors will be more effective in these counseling roles.

  5. Implementation of the NHLBI integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents: rationale and study design for young hearts, strong starts, a cluster-randomized trial targeting body mass index, blood pressure, and tobacco.

    PubMed

    LaBresh, Kenneth A; Lazorick, Suzanne; Ariza, Adolfo J; Furberg, Robert D; Whetstone, Lauren; Hobbs, Connie; de Jesus, Janet; Bender, Randall H; Salinas, Ilse G; Binns, Helen J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the underlying atherosclerosis begin in childhood, and their presence and intensity are related to known cardiovascular disease risk factors. Attention to risk factor control in childhood has the potential to reduce subsequent risk of CVD. The Young Hearts Strong Starts Study was designed to test strategies facilitating adoption of the National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute supported Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents. This study compares guideline-based quality measures for body mass index, blood pressure, and tobacco using two strategies: a multifaceted, practice-directed intervention versus standard dissemination. Two primary care research networks recruited practices and provided support for the intervention and outcome evaluations. Individual practices were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups using a cluster randomized design based on network affiliation, number of clinicians per practice, urban versus nonurban location, and practice type. The units of observation are individual children because measure adherence is abstracted from individual patient's medical records. The units of randomization are physician practices. This results in a multilevel design in which patients are nested within practices. The intervention practices received toolkits and supported guideline implementation including academic detailing, an ongoing e-learning group. This project is aligned with the American Board of Pediatrics Maintenance of Certification requirements including monthly physician self-abstraction, webinars, and other elements of the trial. This trial will provide an opportunity to demonstrate tools and strategies to enhance CV prevention in children by guideline-based interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    PubMed

    Manson, JoAnn E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death among U.S. women and men. Established cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated total cholesterol, and risk prediction models based on such factors, perform well but do not perfectly predict future risk of CVD. Thus, there has been much recent interest among cardiovascular researchers in identifying novel biomarkers to aid in risk prediction. Such markers include alternative lipids, B-type natriuretic peptides, high-sensitivity troponin, coronary artery calcium, and genetic markers. This article reviews the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, risk prediction tools, and selected novel biomarkers and other exposures in predicting risk of developing CVD in women. The predictive role of novel cardiovascular biomarkers for women in primary prevention settings requires additional study, as does the diagnostic and prognostic utility of cardiac troponins for acute coronary syndromes in clinical settings. Sex differences in the clinical expression and physiology of metabolic syndrome may have implications for cardiovascular outcomes. Consideration of exposures that are unique to, or more prevalent in, women may also help to refine cardiovascular risk estimates in this group.

  7. Familial clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among first-degree relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease in a sub-Saharan African population

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Yemi; Mabayoje, Omolara; Bello, Taslim

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a sub-Saharan African population. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 460 subjects (230 FDRs of patients with CKD and 230 healthy controls). Anthropometrics and blood pressures were measured. Spot urine and fasting venous blood samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. Results The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and dyslipidaemia were significantly higher in FDRs of patients with CKD compared with the controls: 56 (24.3%) vs 29 (12.6%), p = 0.01; 20 (8.7%) vs 6 (2.6%), p = 0.01; 40 (17.4%) vs 24 (10.4%), p = 0.03 and 171 (74.3%) vs 138 (60.0%), p = 0.01, respectively. Hypertension (OR, 1.65), dyslipidaemia (OR, 1.72) and albuminuria (OR, 1.61) were independently associated with being a FDR of patients with CKD. Conclusion In this sub-Saharan African population, risk factors for CVD were more prevalent in the FDRs of patients with CKD than in healthy controls. PMID:25962941

  8. High cardiovascular risk in Spanish workers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Chaparro, M A; Calvo Bonacho, E; González Quintela, A; Cabrera, M; Sáinz, J C; Fernández-Labander, C; Quevedo-Aguado, L; Gelpi, J A; Fernández Meseguer, A; Brotons, C; de Teresa, E; González Santos, P; Román García, J

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of high cardiovascular risk in the Spanish working population, and its distribution among different occupations and gender. Cross-sectional study of 309,955 workers (72.6% males, mean age 36.5 years, range 16-74 years), who underwent a routine medical check-up. Workers were classified as high, intermediate or low cardiovascular risk, according to the SCORE system. Workers with a relative risk greater than 4 were also considered as high-risk. The prevalence of high cardiovascular risk was 7.6% (95% CI 7.5-7.7) in males and 1.7% (95% CI 1.6-1.8) in females. After adjusting for age and gender, the prevalence of high cardiovascular risk was greater in workers from the Agriculture and Construction sectors than in those from Industry and Service sectors. The prevalence of high cardiovascular risk was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar occupations. A sizeable proportion of workers, especially blue-collar males, are at high cardiovascular risk. Knowledge of this risk for certain workers may serve as a basis for preventive strategies. Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  10. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    López Rubio, María Antonia; Tárraga López, Pedro Juan; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio; Frías López, María del Carmen; Solera Albero, Juan; Bermejo López, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Objetivos: Valorar si el hipotiroidismo subclínico puede comportarse como un factor de riesgo cardiovascular o un modificador del mismo, identificando variables epidemiológicas y riesgo cardiovascular estimado en una muestra de sujetos diagnosticados en la provincia de Albacete. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal realizado en Albacete durante la primera quincena de enero de 2012 en pacientes de ambos géneros con hipotiroidismo subclínico. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: glucemia basal, colesterol total, colesterol HDL, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, TSH, T4, peso, talla, I.M.C., tensión arterial, antecedentes de patología cardiovascular, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y riesgo cardiovascular estimado. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 326 pacientes, con predominio femenino (79,2 %), menores de 65 años en el 78% y sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en el 48,61%. La prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular identificados fué: tabaquismo (33,2%), diabetes mellitus (24,9%), hipertensión arterial (23,4%), alteraciones lipídicas (28,9%) y fibrilación auricular (4,9 %). No se encontró asociación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico y la mayoría de los parámetros del perfil lipídico que condicionan un perfil pro-aterogénico, salvo con la hipertrigliceridemia. Asimismo, tampoco se constató asociación con riesgo cardiovascular aumentado. Conclusiones: El perfil del paciente con hipotiroidismo subclínico es una mujer de mediana edad sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la mitad de casos. Se ha encontrado relación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico e hipertrigliceridemia, pero no con el resto de parámetros del perfil lipídico, otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular o con aumento de dicho riesgo. Sin embargo, un 25% de diabéticos y un 22% de no diabéticos están en situación de riesgo cardiovascular moderado-alto.

  11. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves...

  12. Exercise for people with high cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Seron, Pamela; Lanas, Fernando; Pardo Hernandez, Hector; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier

    2014-08-13

    When two or more cardiovascular risk factors occur in one individual, they may interact in a multiplicative way promoting cardiovascular disease. Exercise has proven to be effective in controlling individual risk factors but its effect on overall cardiovascular risk remains uncertain. To assess the effects of exercise training in people with increased cardiovascular risk but without a concurrent cardiovascular disease on general cardiovascular mortality, incidence of cardiovascular events, and total cardiovascular risk. A search was conducted in CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 10 of 12), Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to week 2 November 2013), EMBASE Classic + EMBASE via Ovid (1947 to Week 47 2013), CINAHL Plus with Full Text via EBSCO (to November 2013), Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) (1970 to 22 November 2013), and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (CPCI-S) (1990 to 22 November 2013) on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters). We did not apply any date or language restrictions. Randomized clinical trials comparing aerobic or resistance exercise training versus no exercise or any standard approach that does not include exercise. Participants had to be 18 years of age or older with an average 10-year Framingham risk score of 10% for cardiovascular disease over 10 years, or with two or more cardiovascular risk factors, and no history of cardiovascular disease. The selection of studies and subsequent data collection process were conducted by two independent authors. Disagreements were solved by consensus. The results were reported descriptively. It was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis because of the high heterogeneity and high risk of bias in the included studies. A total of four studies were included that involved 823 participants, 412 in the exercise group and 411 in the control group. Follow-up of participants ranged from 16 weeks to 6 months. Overall, the included studies had a high risk of selection, detection, and attrition bias

  13. Cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: results of the Pandora project.

    PubMed

    Cocchi, Roberto; Degli Esposti, Ezio; Ruffo, Pierfrancesco; Buda, Stefano; Valpiani, Giorgia; Sturani, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Pandora project is to collect epidemiological information, check diagnostic and therapeutic pathways, and assess outcomes in a large hypertensive population. This report presents the results on patients enrolled in the study between 1997-1999. Twenty-one general practitioners working in the Ravenna Local Health Service took part in the study. They were supplied with IBM compatible PCs and were trained to enter the patient's data (age, gender, familiarity for cardiovascular diseases, smoking, hospitalisations for cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, blood pressure, total cholesterolemia, creatininemia, antihypertensive therapy) on So.Ge.Pa. software. Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed according to the WHO - ISH joint committee recommendations. 2,608 treated hypertensive patients were enrolled, 65% of whom showed inadequate blood pressure control. The prevalence of inadequate BP control was higher in patients on multiple-drug antihypertensive therapy compared with those on monotherapy (71.9% vs. 47.9%), in older than in younger patients (70.7% vs. 56.1%) and in patients with three cardiovascular risk factors, or diabetes, or affected target organs, compared to those with two or less risk factors (72.4% vs. 63.3%), (p < 0.001 for all). 63.6% of patients were at risk for age, 36.6% for family history of cardiovascular diseases and 31.7% for severe hypercholesterolemia. BP control was inadequate in a large percentage of patients, but it was particularly unsatisfactory in the elderly and in patients with high cardiovascular risk. A cluster of cardiovascular risk factors was found in both adequately and inadequately controlled hypertensive patients.

  14. Relationship Between Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Same, Robert V; Feldman, David I; Shah, Nishant; Martin, Seth S; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Blaha, Michael J; Graham, Garth; Ahmed, Haitham M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of adults do not meet current guideline recommendations for moderate to vigorous physical activity. Recent research has linked a high amount of sedentary behavior with an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and death. This correlation with sedentary behavior even extends to individuals who meet recommended physical activity goals during the remainder of their day, which implies that sedentary behavior may represent a distinct cardiovascular risk factor that is independent of the overall amount of physical activity. During the past several years, there has been significant interest in identifying and understanding the mechanisms through which sedentary behavior affects cardiovascular health. In this review, we critically evaluate the literature pertaining to sedentary behavior and cardiovascular risk with an emphasis on studies published over the past year, and we suggest possible interventions that may help reduce sedentary behavior time.

  15. [Cardiovascular risk factors in young people].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Contreras, Mónica; Moreno-Gómez, Germán A; Marín-Grisales, Marta E; García-Ortiz, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) involves several disorders related to the formation and development of atherosclerotic processes. Several risk factors are involved in CVD aetiology; some of them (i.e. age, hypertension, obesity, dislipidemia and diabetes) have been clearly associated, whereas others have a variable level of association. An increase in cardiovascular risk factors has been recently reported in the young population; studies of cardiovascular risk factors in this population have shown that its cardiovascular risk profile could be different from that presented by older populations. This review presents a summary of reported cardiovascular risk factors in the young population and their causes which have been released and indexed in different databases. Most factors discussed are life-habit risk factors and represent direct targets for clinical intervention. We propose that primary CVD prevention should include a more detailed knowledge of the nature of the risk factors concerning the young population and could have a positive impact on CVD prevalence during the next few years.

  16. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  17. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy.

  18. Rationale and design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a community health worker-based program for cardiovascular risk factor control in India.

    PubMed

    Khetan, Aditya; Purushothaman, Raghunandan; Zullo, Melissa; Gupta, Rishab; Hejjaji, Vittal; Agarwal, Sushil; Mohan, Sri Krishna Madan; Josephson, Richard

    2017-03-01

    The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in low- and middle-income countries is largely driven by the increasing prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use. We hypothesize that the utilization of community health workers (CHWs) to screen for and manage these 3 determinants of CVD in an integrated manner would be an effective approach to favorably affecting public health. We have designed and set up the infrastructure to implement a 2-year community-based cluster randomized controlled trial in an underserved region of West Bengal, India. Participants include around 1200 adults, aged between 35 and 70 years, with ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor. They are recruited through home-based screening into a total of 12 clusters, which are randomized to either a control or intervention arm before screening. After the screening, CHWs follow up with participants enrolled in the intervention arm for a period of 2 years through home visits. The control arm receives usual care in the community. The CHW arm follows a behavioral strategy focused on modifying the individual's lifestyle, increasing knowledge of CVD, promoting smoking cessation, increasing physician-seeking behavior, and promoting medication adherence. The main project office is based in Cleveland, OH, at University Hospitals/CWRU, and the local site office is located in Dalkhola, West Bengal, at a local nonprofit set up for the study. Institutional review board approval was obtained both in Cleveland as well as in India. The 2-year primary outcome of the study is the absolute reduction in systolic blood pressure among hypertensive participants, absolute reduction in fasting blood glucose among diabetic participants, and absolute reduction in average number of cigarettes smoked per day among smokers. We believe that this study infrastructure serves as a useful model for international collaboration. It builds on unique local resources, attends to important domestic requirements, and will

  19. Bariatric surgery, lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Tailleux, Anne; Rouskas, Konstantinos; Pattou, François; Staels, Bart

    2015-08-01

    To summarize recent epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies on the effects of Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery on cardiovascular risk factors and the underlying mechanisms. Although RYGBP has mechanical effects on the gastrointestinal tract, the reduced gastric pouch and intestinal calorie absorption cannot fully explain the metabolic improvements. Obesity predisposes to cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. In contrast to the limited success of pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, RYGBP induces sustained weight loss, metabolic improvements and decreases morbidity/mortality. In line, RYGBP reduces cardiovascular risk factors. Although the mechanisms are not entirely understood, RYGBP induces complex changes in the gut affecting other organs through endocrine and metabolic signals from the intestine to all key metabolic organs, which can link RYGBP and decreased cardiovascular risk. Here, we discuss the roles of changes in lipid absorption and metabolism, bile acid metabolism, gut hormones and the microbiote as potential mechanisms in the decreased cardiovascular risk and metabolic improvement after RYGBP.

  20. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with migraine.

    PubMed

    Rockett, Fernanda Camboim; Perla, Alexandre da Silveira; Perry, Ingrid D Schweigert; Chaves, Márcia L Fagundes

    2013-09-06

    Studies suggest a higher prevalence of unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors amongst migraineurs, but results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate traditional and newly recognized risk factors as well as other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in obese and normal weight women with migraine. Fifty-nine adult female probands participated in this case-control study. The sample was divided into normal weight and obese migraineurs and age- and body mass index-matched control groups. The following cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed: serum levels of lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin; insulin resistance; blood pressure; smoking (categorized as current, past or never); Framingham 10-year risk of general cardiovascular disease score; C-reactive protein; family history of cardiovascular disease; physical activity; sleep disturbances; depression; and bioelectrical impedance phase angle. The means of continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test for independent samples or the Mann-Whitney U-test (for 2 groups) and ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test (for 4 groups) depending on the distribution of data. All migraineurs were sedentary irrespective of nutritional status. Migraineurs had higher depression scores and shorter sleep duration, and obese migraineurs, in particular, had worse sleep quality scores. Insulin resistance and insulinaemia were associated with obesity, and obese migraineurs had lower HDL-c than normal weight controls and migraineurs. Also, the Framingham risk score was higher in obese migraineurs. These findings suggest that female migraineurs experience marked inactivity, depression, and some sleep disturbance, that higher insulin resistance and insulinaemia are related to obesity, and that obesity and migraine probably exert overlapping effects on HDL-c levels and Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk.

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with migraine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest a higher prevalence of unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors amongst migraineurs, but results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate traditional and newly recognized risk factors as well as other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in obese and normal weight women with migraine. Methods Fifty-nine adult female probands participated in this case–control study. The sample was divided into normal weight and obese migraineurs and age- and body mass index-matched control groups. The following cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed: serum levels of lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin; insulin resistance; blood pressure; smoking (categorized as current, past or never); Framingham 10-year risk of general cardiovascular disease score; C-reactive protein; family history of cardiovascular disease; physical activity; sleep disturbances; depression; and bioelectrical impedance phase angle. The means of continuous variables were compared using Student’s t-test for independent samples or the Mann–Whitney U-test (for 2 groups) and ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test (for 4 groups) depending on the distribution of data. Results All migraineurs were sedentary irrespective of nutritional status. Migraineurs had higher depression scores and shorter sleep duration, and obese migraineurs, in particular, had worse sleep quality scores. Insulin resistance and insulinaemia were associated with obesity, and obese migraineurs had lower HDL-c than normal weight controls and migraineurs. Also, the Framingham risk score was higher in obese migraineurs. Conclusion These findings suggest that female migraineurs experience marked inactivity, depression, and some sleep disturbance, that higher insulin resistance and insulinaemia are related to obesity, and that obesity and migraine probably exert overlapping effects on HDL-c levels and Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk. PMID:24011175

  2. Framingham Risk Score underestimates cardiovascular disease risk in severe psoriatic patients: implications in cardiovascular risk factors management and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, Tiago; Sales, Rita; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Martins da Silva, Berta; Selores, Manuela

    2013-11-01

    Severe psoriasis has been associated with increase cardiovascular mortality, due to a higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and premature atherosclerosis, as a consequence of its systemic inflammation. Recently, it has been estimated that severe psoriasis may confer an increased 6.2% on long-term risk of cardiovascular disease based on Framingham Risk Score, which can have practical implications in the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, as treatment guidelines account for the risk of cardiovascular disease in treatment goals. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the attributable risk of severe psoriasis on long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and its implication on the correct treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease on a real-world cohort of patients. One hundred severe psoriasis patients without psoriatic arthritis or previous cardiovascular disease were evaluated and it was found that more than half of the patients were reclassified to a higher cardiovascular risk category with important clinical implications on the correct management of their cardiovascular risk factors and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, as a considerable proportion of patients with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease equivalent risk were not being correctly managed.

  3. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Vaara, J P; Fogelholm, M; Vasankari, T; Santtila, M; Häkkinen, K; Kyröläinen, H

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to study the associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with single and clustered cardiovascular risk factors. Muscular endurance, maximal strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference were measured in 686 young men (25±5 years). Cardiovascular risk factors (plasma glucose, serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure) were determined. The risk factors were transformed to z-scores and the mean of values formed clustered cardiovascular risk factor. Muscular endurance was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure (β=-0.09 to - 0.23, p<0.05), and positively with s-HDL cholesterol (β=0.17, p<0.001) independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular endurance was negatively associated with the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (β=-0.26, p<0.05), whereas maximal strength was not associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors or the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol and the clustered cardiovascular risk factor (β=-0.14 to - 0.24, p<0.005), as well as positively with s-HDL cholesterol (β=0.11, p<0.05) independent of muscular fitness. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that in young men muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness were independently associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas maximal strength was not. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Effects of a computerized decision support system in improving pharmacological management in high-risk cardiovascular patients: A cluster-randomized open-label controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Piccinni, Carlo; Filippi, Alessandro; Sini, Giovanna; Lapi, Francesco; Sessa, Emiliano; Cricelli, Iacopo; Cutroneo, Paola; Trifirò, Gianluca; Cricelli, Claudio; Caputi, Achille Patrizio

    2016-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of computerized decision support system in improving the prescription of drugs for cardiovascular prevention. A total of 197 Italian general practitioners were randomly allocated to receive either the alerting computerized decision support system integrated into standard software (intervention arm) or the standard software alone (control arm). Data on 21230 patients with diabetes, 3956 with acute myocardial infarction, and 2158 with stroke were analysed. The proportion of patients prescribed with cardiovascular drugs and days of drug-drug interaction exposure were evaluated. Computerized decision support system significantly increased the proportion of patients with diabetes prescribed with antiplatelet drugs (intervention: +2.7% vs. +0.15%; p < 0.001) or lipidlowering drugs (+4.2% vs. +2.8%; p = 0.001). A statistically significant decrease in days of potential interactions has been observed only among patients with stroke (-1.2 vs. -0.5 days/person-year; p = 0.001). In conclusion, computerized decision support system significantly increased the use of recommended cardiovascular drugs in diabetic patients, but it did not influence the exposure to potential interactions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. A Review of Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Cluster Headache.

    PubMed

    Barloese, Mads C J

    2016-02-01

    This review aims to evaluate existing literature concerning cardiovascular autonomic function and CH. Suggestions about future research are offered and known difficulties in investigating the autonomic nervous system in cluster headache are discussed. Little is known of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind cluster headache. Cranial autonomic features are an inherent and diagnostic feature; however, a number of studies and clinical observations support the involvement of systemic autonomic control in its pathophysiology. Further, cluster headache attacks are apparently more easily triggered during periods of parasympathetic dominance. A better understanding of this interaction may provide insight into central autonomic regulation and its role in cluster headache. A PubMed search was performed in April 2015 using the search terms "cluster headache," "cardiovascular," "autonomic nervous system," and "cardiac." References of identified articles were also searched for relevant articles. Studies were included if they contained data on cardiovascular or autonomic responses to autonomic tests, induced or spontaneous attacks. In total, 22 studies investigating cardiac autonomic control in cluster headache were identified. Three overall categories of investigations exist: (1) Those studying changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and electrocardiographic changes; (2) those employing various clinical autonomic tests; and finally (3) those using spectral and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability. Although not completely congruent, overall, results suggest ictal hyperactivation of the parasympathetic branch and a sympathetic deficit. Subclinical autonomic dysregulation is also present in the pain-free state. Cardiac autonomic control is subclinically affected in cluster headache. The changes could be attributed to the suggested central dysregulation present in this disorder. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  6. Is cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS a real risk? Current insights.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios; Kandaraki, Eleni; Papalou, Olga; Vryonidou, Andromachi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2017-01-31

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. PCOS incorporates not only symptoms related to the reproductive system but also a clustering of systemic metabolic abnormalities that are linked with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). More specifically, metabolic aberrations such as impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, accompanied by increased low-grade inflammation as well as elevated coagulation factors appear to contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk. Even though many studies have indicated a rise in surrogate biomarkers of CVD in women with PCOS, it is still doubtful to what extent and magnitude this elevation can be translated to real cardiovascular events. Furthermore, the cardiovascular risk factors appear to vary significantly in the different phenotypes of the syndrome. Women with PCOS have the potential for early atherosclerosis, myocardial and endothelial dysfunction. Whether or not PCOS women are at real cardiovascular risk compared to controls remains between the verge of theoretical and real threat for the PCOS women at any age but particularly in the post menopausal state. Interestingly, although the presence of the CVD risk factors is well documented in PCOS women, their combination on different phenotypes may play a role, which eventually results in a spectrum of clinical manifestations of CVD with variable degree of severity. The present manuscript aims to review the interaction between PCOS and the combination of several cardiovascular risk factors.

  7. Barriers to women's cardiovascular risk knowledge.

    PubMed

    Liewer, Linda; Mains, Douglas A; Lykens, Kristine; René, Antonio A

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women in the United States, resulting in a greater emphasis on research and methods for addressing issues relating to this health problem both nationally and worldwide. The authors' purpose was to identify barriers to women's cardiovascular risk knowledge, both personal and organizational, through key informant interviews of health leaders at 10 community health organizations. Analysis showed an overall lack of awareness of CVD risk for women. Culture, finance, and lack of awareness and easily accessible programs implicated the importance of physicians as health care providers and educators for women patients.

  8. Total adult cardiovascular risk in Central America.

    PubMed

    Barceló, A; Gregg, E W; Wong-McClure, R; Meiners, M; Ramirez-Zea, M; Segovia, J

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate prevalence of cardiovascular risk among adults 40 years and older using population-based samples from six Central American countries. Risk factors were derived from a multi-national cross-sectional survey implemented in 2003-2006, which included a sample of 4 202 participants aged 40 years and older. Charts produced by the World Health Organization and the International Society of Hypertension for the Region of the Americas sub-region B were used to predict risk on the basis of factors including age, sex, blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, smoking status, and diabetes status. Overall, 85.9% of the population was classified as having < 10% risk for cardiovascular events during the following ten years. The likelihood of being in this risk group decreased with age in both males and females. Four percent of respondents were identified as having > 20% risk. More than 75% of those with a 30-40% risk had previously been identified by health services, and an additional 23% were identified during the study, suggesting they could be diagnosed by opportunistic screening for diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Results of bivariate analysis showed that respondents who were male, older, obese and/or less educated had higher risk for cardiovascular events, but a multivariate analysis including education indicated highest risks for older, obese, and less educated females. Measuring cardiovascular disease risk identifies most cases of (or at risk for) diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia among adults 40 years and older. This strategy can facilitate implementation of control programs and decrease disabilities and premature mortality.

  9. Telemedicine cardiovascular risk reduction in veterans.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, S Dee; Zullig, Leah L; McCant, Felicia; Danus, Susanne; Oddone, Eugene; Bastian, Lori; Olsen, Maren; Stechuchak, Karen M; Edelman, David; Rakley, Susan; Morey, Miriam; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2013-04-01

    Patients with co-occurrence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Comprehensive programs addressing both tailored patient self-management and pharmacotherapy are needed to address barriers to optimal cardiovascular risk reduction. We are examining a Clinical pharmacy specialist-, telephone-administered intervention, relying on home monitoring, with a goal of providing tailored medication and behavioral intervention to Veterans with CVD risk. Randomized controlled trial including patients with hypertension (blood pressure >150/100 mm Hg) or elevated low density liporotein (>130 mg/dL). Longitudinal changes in CVD risk profile and improvement in health behaviors over time will be examined. Given the national prevalence of CVD and the dismal rates of risk factor control, intensive but easily disseminated interventions are required to treat this epidemic. This study will be an important step in testing the effectiveness of a behavioral and medication intervention to improve CVD control among Veterans. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Cardiovascular Risk among Older Women in a Havana Health Area.

    PubMed

    Armas, Nurys Bárbara; Hernández, Yesenia de la Caridad; Dueñas, Alfredo F; García, Reynaldo de la Noval; Castillo, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality increase in women after menopause. Various scoring models assess qualitative risk of cardiovascular disease. The Framingham Heart Study global risk score is among the most widely used. Objective Determine level of coronary heart disease risk among women aged ≥60 years in a Havana health catchment area (geographic area whose residents are served by the M�rtires del Corynthia Polyclinic, in the Plaza de la Revoluci�n municipality of Havana). Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006. Universe: all women (3,396) aged ≥60 years in the catchment area, attended at the primary care level by the Polyclinic and 42 neighborhood family doctor-and-nurse offices. Equal probability sample: 1,082 women meeting the inclusion criteria, chosen through single-stage cluster sampling considering a <10% error margin for estimates for this parameter, a 95% confidence interval (CI) and a design effect of 1.5. Absolute frequencies and percentages were calculated to summarize the qualitative data obtained. Results were presented as tables. Results The most common cardiovascular risk factors found in this study were: physical inactivity, 74.9%; hypertension (HTN), 70.6%; abdominal obesity, 53%; reported family history of coronary heart disease (CHD), 41.8%; diabetes mellitus (DM), 21.8%; and cigarette smoking, 17.2%. Scoring according to number of risk factors present in each individual, 79.3% of these women fell into the high- or moderate-risk categories. Conclusion The large number of women categorized as high- or moderate-risk for coronary heart disease in this population emphasizes the need for preventive actions aimed at reducing these figures. Cardiovascular diseases, vascular diseases, ischemic heart disease, coronary heart disease, postmenopause, woman, aged, risk factors, risk assessment, hypertension, high blood pressure, lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, obesity, abdominal adipose tissue, body mass

  11. Examination of cardiovascular risk factors and rurality in Appalachian children.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Christa L; Umer, Amna; Cottrell, Lesley; Pyles, Lee; Neal, William

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors often increases in more rural geographic regions in the USA. However, research on the topic often has conflicting results. Researchers note differences in definitions of rurality and other factors that would lead to differences in inference, including appropriate use of statistical clustering analysis, representative data, and inclusion of individual-level covariates. The present study's objective was to examine CVD risk factors during childhood by geographic distribution in the US Appalachian region as a first step towards understanding the health disparities in this area. Rurality and CVD risk factors (including blood pressure, body-mass index (BMI), and cholesterol) were examined in a large, representative sample of fifth-grade students (N=73 014) from an Appalachian state in the USA. A six-category Rural-Urban Continuum Codes classification system was used to define rurality regions. Mixed modeling analysis was used to appropriately cluster individuals within 725 unique zip codes in each of these six regions, and allowed for including several individual-level socioeconomic factors as covariates. Rural areas had better outcomes for certain CVD risk factors (lowest low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood pressure (BP) and highest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)) whereas mid-sized metro and town areas presented with the worst CVD risk factors (highest BMI% above ideal, mean diastolic BP, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and lowest HDL-C) outcomes in children and adolescence in this Appalachian state. Counter to the study hypothesis, mid-sized metro areas presented with the worst CVD risk factors outcomes in children and adolescence in the Appalachian state. This data contradicts previous literature suggesting a straightforward link between rurality and cardiovascular risk factors. Future research should include a longitudinal design and explore

  12. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Boullart, A C I; de Graaf, J; Stalenhoef, A F

    2012-05-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (patho)physiology of triglycerides is described, including the definition and a short summary of the primary and secondary causes of hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we will give an overview of the published epidemiological studies concerning hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease to support the view that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are an independently associated risk factor. Finally, treatment strategies and treatment targets are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, David M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a community model for reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in children and youth. The model addresses the individual, the family, social groups, and the larger social and physical environments. Exemplary programs are described and recommendations are made for additional research and program development. (Author/DB)

  14. Role of androgen excess on metabolic aberrations and cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christakou, Charikleia D; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2008-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. Insulin resistance is implicated as the major player in the metabolic abnormalities and contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the syndrome. However, androgen excess appears to participate as an independent parameter, which further aggravates the cardiovascular and metabolic aberrations in affected women with PCOS. The resultant impact of hyperandrogenemia possibly acquires clinical significance for women's health in the context of PCOS, particularly since recent data support an increased incidence of coronary artery disease and of cardiovascular events directly related to androgen levels in women with the syndrome.

  15. Cardiovascular risk scores for coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Murat; Kardesoglu, Ejder; Aparci, Mustafa; Isilak, Zafer; Uz, Omer; Yiginer, Omer; Ozmen, Namik; Cingozbay, Bekir Yilmaz; Uzun, Mehmet; Cebeci, Bekir Sitki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare frequently used cardiovascular risk scores in predicting the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and 3-vessel disease. In 350 consecutive patients (218 men and 132 women) who underwent coronary angiography, the cardiovascular risk level was determined using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), the Modified Framingham Risk Score (MFRS), the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) score, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curves showed that FRS had more predictive value than the other scores for CAD (area under curve, 0.76, P < or = 0.001), but all scores had good specificity and positive predictive value. For 3-vessel disease, the FRS had better predictive value than the other scores (area under curve, 0.74, P < or = 0.001), but all scores had good specificity and negative predictive value. The risk scores (FRS, MFRS, PROCAM, and SCORE) may predict the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis.The FRS had better predictive value than the other scores.

  16. An integrated general practice and pharmacy-based intervention to promote the use of appropriate preventive medications among individuals at high cardiovascular disease risk: protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Adina; Joshi, Rohina; Usherwood, Tim; Webster, Ruth; Kaur, Baldeep; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol; Krass, Ines; Laba, Tracey-Lea; Reid, Christopher; Shiel, Louise; Hespe, Charlotte; Hersch, Fred; Jan, Stephen; Lo, Serigne; Peiris, David; Rodgers, Anthony; Patel, Anushka

    2016-09-23

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for significant morbidity, premature mortality, and economic burden. Despite established evidence that supports the use of preventive medications among patients at high CVD risk, treatment gaps remain. Building on prior evidence and a theoretical framework, a complex intervention has been designed to address these gaps among high-risk, under-treated patients in the Australian primary care setting. This intervention comprises a general practice quality improvement tool incorporating clinical decision support and audit/feedback capabilities; availability of a range of CVD polypills (fixed-dose combinations of two blood pressure lowering agents, a statin ± aspirin) for prescription when appropriate; and access to a pharmacy-based program to support long-term medication adherence and lifestyle modification. Following a systematic development process, the intervention will be evaluated in a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial including 70 general practices for a median period of 18 months. The 35 general practices in the intervention group will work with a nominated partner pharmacy, whereas those in the control group will provide usual care without access to the intervention tools. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients at high CVD risk who were inadequately treated at baseline who achieve target blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels at the study end. The outcomes will be analyzed using data from electronic medical records, utilizing a validated extraction tool. Detailed process and economic evaluations will also be performed. The study intends to establish evidence about an intervention that combines technological innovation with team collaboration between patients, pharmacists, and general practitioners (GPs) for CVD prevention. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000233426.

  17. Educational intervention to improve effectiveness in treatment and control of patients with high cardiovascular risk in low-resource settings in Argentina: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gulayin, Pablo; Irazola, Vilma; Lozada, Alfredo; Chaparro, Martin; Santero, Marilina; Gutierrez, Laura; Poggio, Rosana; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hypercholesterolaemia is estimated to cause 2.6 million deaths annually and one-third of the cases of ischaemic heart disease. In Argentina, the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia increased between 2005 and 2013 from 27.9% to 29.8%. Only one out of four subjects with a self-reported diagnosis of coronary heart disease is taking statins. Since 2014, statins (simvastatin 20 mg) are part of the package of drugs provided free-of-charge for patients according to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification. The goal of this study is to test whether a complex intervention targeting physicians and pharmacist assistants improves treatment and control of hypercholesterolaemia among patients with moderate-to-high cardiovascular risk in Argentina. Methods and analysis This is a cluster trial of 350 patients from 10 public primary care centres in Argentina to be randomised to either the intervention or usual care. The study is designed to have 90% statistical power to detect a 0.7 mmol/L reduction in low-density lipoproteins cholesterol from baseline to 12 months. The physician education programme consists of a 2-day initial intensive training and certification workshop followed by educational outreach visits (EOVs) conducted at 3, 6 and 9 months from the outset of the study. An on-site training to pharmacist assistants during the first EOV is performed at each intervention clinic. In addition, two intervention support tools are used: an app installed in physician's smartphones to serve as a decision aid to improve prescription of statins according to patient's CVD risk and a web-based platform tailored to send individualised SMS messages to patients. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from an independent ethics committee. Results of this study will be presented to the Ministry of Health of Argentina for potential dissemination and scale-up of the intervention programme to the entire national public primary care network in

  18. Are there genetic paths common to obesity, cardiovascular disease outcomes, and cardiovascular risk factors?

    PubMed

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-02-27

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ≥ 1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets.

  19. Cardiovascular Risk in Women With PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Scicchitano, Pietro; Dentamaro, Ilaria; Carbonara, Rosa; Bulzis, Gabriella; Dachille, Annamaria; Caputo, Paola; Riccardi, Roberta; Locorotondo, Manuela; Mandurino, Cosimo; Matteo Ciccone, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a common endocrine disorder defined by two of the three following features: i) oligoovulation or anovulation, ii) clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, or iii) polycystic ovaries, once the related endocrinological and gynaecological disorders have been excluded. PCOS does not exclusively involve the reproductive apparatus , it has a complex number of systemic relevancy symptoms. It leads to Metabolic Syndrome, with severe consequences on the cardiovascular apparatus. Many clinical studies have underlined the connection between PCOS and the cardiovascular risk profile of such female patients, due to a lipid/glucose altered metabolism, hypertension, systemic inflammatory condition (assessable by markers such as VES, TNF-alfa, citokines and C-reactive protein (hsPCR) levels), and vascular injuries. Considering the early onset of the disease, PCOS could be considered as a real cardiovascular risk factor which affects the quality of life seriously. The current review aimed to point out the main connections between PCOS and cardiovascular risk factors according to the latest findings coming from literature data analysis, and try to depict the great influences that such a common disease can have on the patients’ health integrity. PMID:23843832

  20. Controlling risk factors in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Tuomilehto, J; Puska, P; Salonen, J; Nissinen, A

    1980-10-01

    In response to community demands to do something about the highest rates of cardiovascular diseases in the world that were found in the country of North Karelia, Finland, a comprehensive community control programme was set up in 1972. The main objective was to reduce the high rates by reducing level of smoking, serum cholesterol and blood pressure. The success of the programme was evaluated by examining independent representative population samples in 1972 and in 1977 in North Karelia and a matched control county. A decrease in the individual risk factors was found among the population aged 25-29 at the outset. This reduction was mainly based on favourable changes in lifestyle that took place through the whole community. In low as well as in high socioeconomic groups risk factor reductions occurred. At the same time morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases fell in North Karelia. The intensified health education was not accompanied by adverse emotional or psychosomatic reactions that could be measured. Since there are results from a series of experimental and controlled studies on success of risk factor reduction, this evidence should be used in development and implementation of prevention programmes for cardiovascular diseases. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases today requires efficient programmes because they are forming the leading cause of death in majority of the countries where reliable mortality statistics are available.

  1. Water chemistry and cardiovascular disease risk

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Zeighami, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The evidence linking cardiovascular disease risk and water quality parameters was weighed and analyzed to identify major gaps in understanding reasons for the regional differences in cardiovascular disease mortality in the United States. Epidemiologic studies evaluating occupational and public health exposure to nitrates, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, fibrogenic dusts, heavy metals and trace elements, chlorides, and hydro- and fluorocarbons were analyzed. Intake of cholesterol, calcium, and magnesium from food items, cooking water enhancement, and drinking water were also appraised. Based on the current state of knowledge, it is our judgment that the drinking water characteristics of highest priority from the standpoint of cardiovascular disease risks are calcium/magnesium content and chlorine treatment. The potential importance of cadmium, lead, nitrate(s), and chloride/sodium concentrations also needs to be considered. We present working hypotheses to evaluate the role(s) of these parameters and a discussion of variables that should be considered in any study design addressing the association between cardiovascular disease risk and water quality. Important variables are sample size, biological endpoint events (mortality, incidence, clinical determination), population characteristics, drinking water parameters, and dietary intake estimates. 207 references, 6 figures, 17 tables.

  2. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Ruth; Heeley, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV) risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications. PMID:22312218

  3. Space-Time Analysis to Identify Areas at Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Poliany C. O.; Santos, Emerson S.; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying areas that were at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in residents aged 45 years or older of the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande between 2009 and 2011. We conducted an ecological study of mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. Mortality rates were calculated for each census tract by the Local Empirical Bayes estimator. High- and low-risk clusters were identified by retrospective space-time scans for each year using the Poisson probability model. We defined the year and month as the temporal analysis unit and the census tracts as the spatial analysis units adjusted by age and sex. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the socioeconomic and environmental variables by risk classification. High-risk clusters showed higher income ratios than low-risk clusters, as did temperature range and atmospheric particulate matter. Low-risk clusters showed higher humidity than high-risk clusters. The Eastern region of Várzea Grande and the central region of Cuiabá were identified as areas at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in individuals aged 45 years or older. High mortality risk was associated with socioeconomic and environmental factors. More high-risk clusters were observed at the end of the dry season. PMID:26504836

  4. [Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence in university students].

    PubMed

    García-Gulfo, María H; García-Zea, Jerson A

    2012-10-01

    Determining cardiovascular risk factor prevalence in university students from Medellin. A descriptive study of 112 students determined their lipid profile and a survey was conducted to assess their life-style and family history. There results were analyzed by gender using Chi² test and simple binary logistic regression. 82.1 % of the sample was female. A modifiable risk factor was found for at least 99.1 % of the study population: sedentary life-style (79.5 %), smoking (17 %), alcohol consumption (75.0 %), atherogenic diet (78.6 %), hypertension (1.8 %), some form of dyslipidemia (48.3 % BMI >25 (4.5 %)) and stress (86.7 %). At least one non-modifiable risk factor was identified in 77.7 % of the students. New intervention strategies are needed given the significant percentage of the target population ± 19 mean age having cardiovascular disease risk factors and young people must be encouraged to develop healthy life-styles to reduce cardiovascular risk factor prevalence.

  5. [Cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean university students].

    PubMed

    Chiang-Salgado, M T; Casanueva-Escobar, V; Cid-Cea, X; González-Rubilar, U; Olate-Mellado, P; Nickel-Paredes, F; Revello-Chiang, L

    1999-01-01

    To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic university students of both sexes, aged 18 to 25 years. Serum lipid levels were measured in a subsample of 293 subjects, using a Hitachi 717 chemical analyzer. Obesity was classified using body mass index (BMI) measurements. A self-applied questionnaire was used to collect data on sedentary life style, family history of cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoking. Statistical associations of lipid levels with lipidic and non-lipidic risk factors were assessed using Pearson's chi-square test and multiple regression. We found lipid risk levels in 29.2% for total cholesterol (CT), 16.2% for low-density lipoproteins (C-LDL) and 5% for high-density lipoproteins (C-HDL). The main non-lipidic factors were smoking (46.1%) and sedentarism (60.8%). Obesity, hypertension and parental history of myocardial infarction were present in 1.9%, 4.6% and 11%, respectively. We observed an association of a lipid risk profile with obesity, cigarette smoking and family history. The results show that sedentarism and smoking are associated with a lipid risk profile. These results call for the need to develop appropriate behavior strategies for the successful prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  6. New approaches for improving cardiovascular risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Simão; Rocha, Teresa; Mendes, Diana; Carvalho, Paulo; Henriques, Jorge; Morais, João; Ferreira, Jorge; Mendes, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Clinical guidelines recommend the use of cardiovascular risk assessment tools (risk scores) to predict the risk of events such as cardiovascular death, since these scores can aid clinical decision-making and thereby reduce the social and economic costs of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, despite their importance, risk scores present important weaknesses that can diminish their reliability in clinical contexts. This study presents a new framework, based on current risk assessment tools, that aims to minimize these limitations. Appropriate application and combination of existing knowledge is the main focus of this work. Two different methodologies are applied: (i) a combination scheme that enables data to be extracted and processed from various sources of information, including current risk assessment tools and the contributions of the physician; and (ii) a personalization scheme based on the creation of patient groups with the purpose of identifying the most suitable risk assessment tool to assess the risk of a specific patient. Validation was performed based on a real patient dataset of 460 patients at Santa Cruz Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal, diagnosed with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Promising results were obtained with both approaches, which achieved sensitivity, specificity and geometric mean of 78.79%, 73.07% and 75.87%, and 75.69%, 69.79% and 72.71%, respectively. The proposed approaches present better performances than current CVD risk scores; however, additional datasets are required to back up these findings. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular risk assessment: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Liu, Jing; Xie, Wuxiang; Qi, Yue

    2015-05-01

    An important strategy in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is the early identification of high-risk individuals. Effective implementation of a strategy to identify these individuals in a clinical setting is reliant on the availability of appropriate CVD risk-assessment models and guideline recommendations. Several well-known models for CVD risk assessment have been developed and utilized in the USA and Europe, but might not be suitable for use in other regions or countries. Very few reports have discussed the development of risk-assessment models and recommendations from a global perspective. In this Review, we discuss why risk-assessment methods developed from studies in one geographical region or ethnic population might not be suitable for other regions or populations, and examine the availability and characteristics of predictive models in areas beyond the USA or Europe. In addition, we compare the differences in risk-assessment recommendations outlined in CVD clinical guidelines from developed and developing countries, and consider their potential effect on clinical practice. This overview of cardiovascular risk assessment from a global perspective can potentially guide low-to-middle-income countries in the development or validation of their own CVD risk-assessment models, and the formulation of recommendations in their own clinical guidelines according to local requirements.

  8. Managing cardiovascular risk inpatients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nesto, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors that contribute to the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD has been identified by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) as the primary clinical outcome of the metabolic syndrome. Although no algorithm is currently available for estimating the absolute risk of CVD for patients with the metabolic syndrome, screening for cardiovascular (CV) risk in these patients involves testing for lipoprotein abnormalities (namely, an analysis of specific low-density lipoprotein particle numbers) and an assessment of various surrogate markers for subclinical coronary artery disease. Such screening can be used to help predict the development of CVD and thereby allow for effective interventions to help prevent coronary events. Strategies for reducing CV risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome are multifactorial. In addition to placing an emphasis on therapeutic lifestyle changes that increase levels of physical activity, dietary modification, and weight reduction, several pharmacologic therapies are available. One novel approach for managing CV risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome involves the inhibition of the endocannabinoid system, including the use of rimonabant. A review of CV risk factors in patients with the metabolic syndrome is beneficial for clinicians to apply in the care of their patients, along with a discussion about strategies for identifying at-risk patients and managing CVD risk for these patients.

  9. [Elevated blood pressure as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Wiesław; Hebel, Kazimiera

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases for decades have been and still are the main and current health problem of the Polish society and there are many reasons for these diseases. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. The factors significantly increasing risk the of cardiovascular disease are in addition to high blood pressure, smoking (also passive), high blood fats (cholesterol and its HDL, LDL fractions as well as triglyceride levels, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes and hereditary features. Other important factors which play an important role are external factors such as e.g. environmental pollution, lifestyle, stress. Prediction of cardiovascular disease should start from the evaluation of the fetal period because low birth weight may be a risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes in adulthood. The authors of the referred tests showed that the level of blood pressure observed during childhood is closely associated with the level of blood pressure in adults and is also dependent on the body weight. Since the issue of the effects of high pressure on the cardiovascular system is inherent in the issue of the metabolic syndrome, it should be mentioned also that another causative factor may be an irregularity in the removal of urine from the body and the amount of insulin. The control of hypertension is a complex problem, at least in view of the wide range of adverse factors affecting the human body: hypertension is often either a constituent of other lesions. Therefore, it is difficult to treat high blood pressure in the strict sense; more often it is a combination therapy based on pharmacology caused for other reasons.

  10. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in persons with paraplegia: the Stockholm spinal cord injury study.

    PubMed

    Wahman, Kerstin; Nash, Mark S; Westgren, Ninni; Lewis, John E; Seiger, Ake; Levi, Richard

    2010-03-01

    To examine cardiovascular disease risk factors and risk clusters in Swedish persons with traumatic wheelchair-dependent paraplegia. Prospective examination. A total of 135 individuals aged 18-79 years with chronic (>or= 1 year) post-traumatic paraplegia. Cardiovascular disease risk factors; dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, overweight, smoking, and medication usage for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, were analyzed according to authoritative guidelines. Stepwise regression tested the effects of age, gender, and injury characteristics on cardiovascular disease risks. High-prevalence risk factors were dyslipidemia (83.1%), hypertension (39.3%), and overweight (42.2%) with pervasive clustering of these risks. Being older was related to increased cardiovascular disease risk, except for dyslipidemia. Hypertension was more common in low-level paraplegia. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was lower than previously reported after paraplegia. A high percentage of persons being prescribed drug treatment for dyslipidemia and hypertension failed to reach authoritative targets for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Swedish persons with paraplegia are at high risk for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and overweight. Impaired fasting glucose was not as common as reported in some previous studies. Pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia and hypertension often failed to achieve recommended targets. Population-based screening and therapeutic countermeasures to these cardiovascular disease risks are indicated.

  11. Preeclampsia: exposing future cardiovascular risk in mothers and their children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cindy M

    2007-01-01

    There is an increased risk for future cardiovascular disease in women who have had preeclampsia. In infants born to mothers with preeclampsia, there is growing evidence of increased risk for both cardiovascular disease and preeclampsia. Epidemiologic and experimental data provide a strong link between intrauterine exposure to preeclampsia and subsequent risk for the development of cardiovascular disease in women.

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in children. Should they concern the pediatrician?

    PubMed

    Berenson, G S; Frank, G C; Hunter, S M; Srinivasan, S R; Voors, A W; Webber, L S

    1982-09-01

    There is evidence that atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and essential hypertension begin early in life. The Bogalusa (La) Heart Study has examined cardiovascular risk factors and their determinants during the pediatric age span in a total community study. Reliable measurements were obtained and then analyzed to identify "tracking" of risk factors over time and clusters or aggregations of various risk factors at high levels. Serum lipoprotein levels, obesity, BP, and plasma insulin levels were all correlated after a glucose load, implying causal interrelationships. Although such relationship are only partly elucidated, the associations potentially enhance premature atherosclerosis. Certain kinds of behavior, for example cigarette smoking and type A behavior, may also contribute to early coronary artery disease. Our observations suggest that practicing physicians should assess risk factors in children and encourage changes in life-style to combat the high incidence of coronary artery disease and essential hypertension in the United States.

  13. [Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-09-01

    To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. PMID:25479851

  15. Psychophysiological risk markers of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Malan, Leone

    2010-09-01

    Acute psychophysiological stress testing, involving measurement of cardiovascular and biological responses to laboratory-induced mental stress, is an important tool to investigate mechanisms that might account for the association between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Accumulating evidence has demonstrated associations of disturbed psychophysiological responses with sub-clinical measures of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and metabolic risk. The complex pattern of stress responding is influenced by individual differences, such as coping style, race and ethnicity, genetics, background stress, and lifestyle habits, which should be taken into account when interpreting results. For example, an unique interplay between cardiac and vascular responses in black Africans and African Americans is thought to contribute towards a heightened risk of hypertension in this group. Whether or not psychophysiological risk markers provide prognostic information over and above that of established risk markers is not clear. In summary, controlled trials that examine if the modification of psychophysiological responses through lifestyle and psychosocial interventions can reduce the risk of CVD outcomes are needed to establish causality. Further work is also required that examines the associations of ambulatory responses to real life stress in relation to risk of CVD.

  16. Modifying women's risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Kathleen M

    2007-01-01

    To present current recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk reduction in women. Medline databases were searched from 1990 to 2006 using keywords women and cardiovascular risk, hypertension, cholesterol, and hormone replacement therapy, as well as Web sites from scientific associations such as the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, Agency for Health Research and Quality, and the Centers for Disease Control for relevant scientific statements and guidelines. Randomized controlled trials, particularly those that have influenced current practice recommendations, scientific statements, and clinical practice guidelines were selected. Factors contributing to women's particular risk and current practice recommendations. Current research has clarified the importance of regular exercise (at least 30 minutes/day most days of the week); abstinence from smoking; a diet focused on whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and low-fat protein sources; and maintenance of normal weight. This lifestyle combined with a partnership with a health care provider to maintain a normal blood pressure (115/75 mm Hg) and optimal lipoproteins through pharmacotherapy when indicated can prevent 82% of cardiovascular disease events in women.

  17. Managing cardiovascular risk in patients with inflammatory arthritis: practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Tournadre, Anne; Mathieu, Sylvain; Soubrier, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or ankylosing spondylitis, have higher rates of cardiovascular mortality. While the increased cardiovascular risk is only explained to some extent, a lot of research is currently conducted to improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, risk stratification, and optimal cardiovascular risk management. This review sought to report epidemiological data pertaining to the cardiovascular disease burden in patients with inflammatory arthritis, underlying mechanisms accounting for excessive cardiovascular risk, along with recommendations regarding risk assessment and management in this patient population. PMID:27721904

  18. Epigenetic Changes in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biologic memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. While the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes, and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Luboshitzky, R; Chertok-Schaham, Y; Lavi, I; Ishay, A

    2009-04-01

    Severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. Such an association in mild PHP is not known. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the correlation between mild and traditional PHP and emergent cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 139 patients with PHP (72 with severe PHP and indications for parathyroidectomy, 67 with mild PHP and no indications for surgery) and 111 control subjects, of similar age and body weight, were enrolled in this study. Participants had measurement of fasting blood levels of calcium, PTH, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. Body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment 2-insulin resistance index (IR) and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) were evaluated. Severe PHP patients had significantly higher rates of MS (37.5%), IR (38.9 %) vs mild PHP (34.3 and 23.9%, respectively) and controls (14.4 and 14.4%, respectively). Multivariate logistic-regression model, adjusted for age and BMI, and for age and waist size, revealed that severe PHP had significantly higher likelihood of cardiovascular risks [odds ratio (OR) 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-8.125, p=0.004 for MS, and OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.64-8.29, p=0.002 for IR]. Serum calcium significantly predicted the presence of MS (OR 1.875, 95% CI 1.259-2.793, p=0.002) and IR (OR 2.043, 95% CI 1.365-3.057, p=0.002). Greater probability of MS and insulin resistance was observed in patients with severe PHP. Serum calcium is a predictor of these cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. Telemedicine Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, S. Dee; Zullig, Leah L.; McCant, Felicia; Danus, Susanne; Oddone, Eugene; Bastian, Lori; Olsen, Maren; Stechuchak, Karen M.; Edelman, David; Rakley, Susan; Morey, Miriam; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with co-occurrence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Comprehensive programs addressing both tailored patient self-management and pharmacotherapy are needed to address barriers to optimal cardiovascular risk reduction. We are examining a Clinical Pharmacy Specialist (CPS), telephone administered intervention, relying on home monitoring, with a goal of providing tailored medication and behavioral intervention to Veterans with CVD risk. Methods Randomized controlled trial including patients with hypertension (blood pressure (BP) > 150/100 mmHg) or elevated low density liporotein (LDL) (> 130 mg/dl). Longitudinal changes in CVD risk profile and improvement in health behaviors over time will be examined. Conclusion Given the national prevalence of CVD and the dismal rates of risk factor control; intensive, but easily disseminated interventions are required to treat this epidemic. This study will be an important step in testing the effectiveness of a behavioral and medication intervention to improve CVD control among Veterans. PMID:23537965

  1. [Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. Risks and adverse effects].

    PubMed

    Voigt, N; Heijman, J; Dobrev, D

    2014-03-01

    Adverse side effects of drugs are a significantly underestimated problem in modern medicine. In this review article, we summarize common adverse side effects of cardiovascular drugs. In particular, we highlight the factors promoting these adverse side effects in patients, including reduced hepatic or renal clearance in elderly patients that often requires dosage adjustment. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs (e.g. through the cytochrome P450 system or P-glycoproteins) can modify the plasma concentration of many compounds, thereby also increasing the likelihood of unwanted side effects. The most prominent cardiac side effects include arrhythmias, e.g. atrioventricular (AV) block, drug-induced long-QT syndrome and torsade de pointes and altered inotropy. Non-cardiac side effects are subsequently discussed grouped by drug class. A better understanding of the risks and side effects of cardiovascular drugs is expected to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with adverse side effects.

  2. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective.

  3. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  4. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  5. Effects of muscular strength on cardiovascular risk factors and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Artero, Enrique G; Lee, Duck-chul; Lavie, Carl J; España-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is one of the strongest predictors of individual future health status. Together with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic disease. We review the most recent literature on the effect of muscular strength in the development of cardiovascular disease, with special interest in elucidating its specific benefits beyond those from CRF and body composition. Muscular strength has shown an independent protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality in healthy middle-aged men, as well as in men with hypertension and patients with heart failure. It has also been inversely associated with age-related weight and adiposity gains, risk of hypertension, and prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. In children and adolescents, higher levels of muscular fitness have been inversely associated with insulin resistance, clustered cardiometabolic risk, and inflammatory proteins. Generally, the influence of muscular fitness was weakened but remained protective after considering CRF. Also, interestingly, higher levels of muscular fitness seems to some extent counteract the adverse cardiovascular profile of overweight and obese individuals. As many of the investigations have been conducted with non-Hispanic white men, it is important to examine how race/ethnicity and gender may affect these relationships. To conclude, most important effects of resistance training are also summarized, to better understand how higher levels of muscular fitness may result in a better cardiovascular prognosis and survival.

  6. Cardiovascular

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Overview of Cardiovascular research which addresses risks of space flight, including adaptive changes to the cephalad fluid shift (such as reduced circulating blood volume), potential for heart rhy...

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended.

  8. Sortilin and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Bourbon, Mafalda; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a key determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is why many studies have attempted to elucidate the pathways that regulate its metabolism. Novel latest-generation sequencing techniques have identified a strong association between the 1p13 locus and the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by changes in plasma LDL-C levels. As expected for a complex phenotype, the effects of variation in this locus are only moderate. Even so, knowledge of the association is of major importance, since it has unveiled a new metabolic pathway regulating plasma cholesterol levels. Crucial to this discovery was the work of three independent teams seeking to clarify the biological basis of this association, who succeeded in proving that SORT1, encoding sortilin, was the gene in the 1p13 locus involved in LDL metabolism. SORT1 was the first gene identified as determining plasma LDL levels to be mechanistically evaluated and, although the three teams used different, though appropriate, experimental methods, their results were in some ways contradictory. Here we review all the experiments that led to the identification of the new pathway connecting sortilin with plasma LDL levels and risk of myocardial infarction. The regulatory mechanism underlying this association remains unclear, but its discovery has paved the way for considering previously unsuspected therapeutic targets and approaches. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Intradialytic hypotension and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Stefánsson, Bergur V; Brunelli, Steven M; Cabrera, Claudia; Rosenbaum, David; Anum, Emmanuel; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Jensen, Donna E; Stålhammar, Nils-Olov

    2014-12-05

    Patients undergoing hemodialysis have an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality compared with the general population. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is estimated to occur during 20%-30% of hemodialysis sessions. To date, no large studies have examined whether IDH is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. This study determined the prevalence of IDH according to interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and studied the association between IDH and outcomes for cardiovascular events and mortality to better understand its role. This study retrospectively examined records of 39,497 hemodialysis patients during 2007 and 2008. US Renal Data System claims and dialysis provider data were used to determine outcomes. IDH was defined by current Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines (≥20 mmHg fall in systolic BP from predialysis to nadir intradialytic levels plus ≥2 responsive measures [dialysis stopped, saline administered, etc.]). IDWG was measured absolutely (in kilograms) and relatively (in percentages). IDH occurred in 31.1% of patients during the 90-day exposure assessment period. At baseline, the higher the IDWG (relative or absolute), the greater the frequency of IDH (P<0.001). For all-cause mortality, the median follow-up was 398 days (interquartile range, 231-602 days). Compared with patients without IDH, IDH was associated with all-cause mortality (7646 events; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07 [95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.14]), myocardial infarction (2396 events; 1.20 [1.10 to 1.31]), hospitalization for heart failure/volume overload (8896 events; 1.13 [1.08 to 1.18]), composite hospitalization for heart failure/volume overload or cardiovascular mortality (10,805 events; 1.12 [1.08 to 1.17]), major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular mortality) (4994 events, 1.10 [1.03 to 1.17]), and MACEs+ (MACEs plus arrhythmia or hospitalization for heart failure/volume overload) (12

  10. [Cardiovascular risk factors in Tlemcen (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Latifa, Boukli Hacène; Kaouel, Meguenni

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors were studied in a random representative sample of the urban community of Tlemcen, aged 20 years or older. The study included 805 subjects (participation rate: 72%). This study showed a high prevalence of hypertension (32.7%), diabetes (16.1%), cigarette smoking (17.1%, but 36.8% among men), blood cholesterol levels > 6.2 mmol/L (6.3%) and obesity (19.2% and significantly higher in women than in men: 27.9% vs 10.5%). These results show that the prevalence of hypertension is very high among women, reaching levels observed in industrialized countries.

  11. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction with sleep apnea treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Louis, Girardin; Brown, Clinton D; Zizi, Ferdinand; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Gorga, Joseph; McFarlane, Samy I

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death among adults in developed countries. An increase in prevalent cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., obesity, hypertension and diabetes) has led to a concerted effort to raise awareness of the need to use evidence-based strategies to help patients at risk of developing cardiovascular disease and to reduce their likelihood of suffering a stroke. Sleep apnea has emerged as an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic and clinical evidence has prompted the American Heart Association to issue a scientific statement describing the need to recognize sleep apnea as an important target for therapy in reducing cardiovascular disease risks. This article examines evidence supporting associations of sleep apnea with cardiovascular disease and considers evidence suggesting cardiovascular risk reductions through sleep apnea treatment. Perspectives on emerging therapeutic approaches and promising areas of clinical and experimental research are also discussed. PMID:20602560

  12. Quantifying cardiovascular risks in patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Kishor; Viscusi, Eugene R; Schwenk, Eric S; Pulido, Luis; Parvizi, Javad

    2012-04-01

    The coexistence of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia is defined as metabolic syndrome. Studies show substantial cardiovascular risks among these patients. The risk of patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is unknown. Patients with and without metabolic syndrome undergoing TJA during a 3-year period were analyzed for postoperative complications. Metabolic syndrome was defined by having 3 of the following 4 criteria: obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)), dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Patients with metabolic syndrome had a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular complications compared with controls (P = .017). The risk of an adverse event increased by 29% and 32%, respectively, when there were 3 or 4 syndrome components. Patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing TJA have increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Our results show that metabolic syndrome may have a clustering effect and pose increased risk when individual risks factors are combined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiovascular risk stratification in familial hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mahtab; Rakhit, Roby D; Humphries, Steve E; Nair, Devaki

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common autosomal-dominant disorder in most European countries. Patients with FH are characterised by a raised level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a high risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Currently there is no consensus regarding the clinical utility to predict future coronary events or testing for the presence of subclinical atherosclerotic disease in asymptomatic patients with FH. Family screening of patients with FH as recommended by the UK National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guideline would result in finding many young individuals with a diagnosis of FH who are clinically asymptomatic. The traditional CHD risk scores, that is, the Framingham score, are insufficient in risk prediction in this group of young individuals. In addition, a better understanding of the genetic aetiology of the FH phenotype and CHD risk in monogenic FH and polygenic hypercholesterolaemia is needed. Non-invasive imaging methods such as carotid intima-media thickness measurement might produce more reliable information in finding high-risk patients with FH. The potential market authorisation of novel therapeutic agents such as PCSK9 monoclonal inhibitors makes it essential to have a better screening programme to prioritise the candidates for treatment with the most severe form of FH and at higher risk of coronary events. The utility of new imaging techniques and new cardiovascular biomarkers remains to be determined in prospective trials. PMID:27126396

  14. [Cardiovascular polypill in high risk patients].

    PubMed

    Lafeber, Melvin; Spiering, Wilko; Bots, Michiel L; de Valk, Vincent; Visseren, Frank L J; Grobbee, Diederick E

    2011-01-01

    The initial theoretical concept of a polypill was a fixed-dosed combination pill containing an antiplatelet agent, a cholesterol-lowering agent and multiple blood pressure-lowering agents aimed at the prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease in the population aged 55 years and up. The reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease does not depend on the cholesterol level and blood pressure at the start of treatment. The pharmacological reduction in risk factors in individuals with a high risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease is often suboptimal, partly due to the complexity of the guidelines and low adherence to the therapy. A polypill may offer opportunities for improvement. Research has shown that the use of combination products leads to a greater reduction in risk factors than the use of separate substances, possibly through improved adherence to the therapy. The use of a polypill in the prevention of vascular disease in high-risk patients may lead to a more effective reduction in risk, a decrease in costs and a reduction in pharmacological expenditure.

  15. [Assessing the cardiovascular risk in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Arnaud, L; Mathian, A; Bruckert, E; Amoura, Z

    2014-11-01

    Multiple factors contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Among these are the so-called classical cardiovascular risk factors, the disease itself through its activity, treatments, and complications, and the thrombotic risk due to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Observational studies suggest that most classical cardiovascular risk factors are observed more frequently in SLE patients than in the general population, and that these are insufficient to explain the increased cardiovascular risk observed in most studies. Given this high risk, adequate management of cardiovascular risk factors should be recommended in SLE patients. Paradoxically, the benefit due to the anti-inflammatory properties of treatments such as corticosteroids may exceed, in certain cases, their pro-atherogenic effect. Importantly, the tools that were developed for the estimation of cardiovascular risk at the individual level among the general population cannot be used reliably in SLE patients, as these tools appear to underestimate the true cardiovascular risk. The adequate indications and targets of cardiovascular treatments are therefore not fully known in SLE. A better understanding of the determinants of the cardiovascular risk in SLE will allow the identification and more tailored management of these high-risk patients.

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karaer, A; Cavkaytar, S; Mert, I; Buyukkagnici, U; Batioglu, S

    2010-05-01

    A total of 31 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 31 healthy age/body mass index matched controls were compared for serum hormones, basal and oral-glucose stimulated glucose, insulin, homocysteine, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and lipid levels. The women with PCOS had significantly higher serum fasting insulin, homocysteine, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol level than controls, whereas no differences were detected in serum fasting or OGTT 60th- and 120th-minute glucose concentrations, hsCRP, HDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels between PCOS and control women. Insulin resistance was found in 54.8% (17/31) of PCOS patients by glucose: insulin (G/I) ratio, whereas only 29.0% (9/31) of control women (p = 0.04). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that only waist/hip ratio was independent determinants of G/I ratio. PCOS is associated with some biochemical and clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, patients with PCOS should undergo comprehensive evaluation for recognised cardiovascular risk factors.

  17. HIV Therapy, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pao, Vivian; Lee, Grace A.; Grunfeld, Carl

    2011-01-01

    People with HIV infection have metabolic abnormalities that resemble metabolic syndrome (hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance), which is known to predict increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is not one underlying cause for these abnormalities and they are not linked to each other. Rather, individual abnormalities can be affected by the host response to HIV itself, specific HIV drugs, classes of HIV drugs, HIV-associated lipoatrophy, or restoration to health. Furthermore, one component of metabolic syndrome, increased waist circumference, occurs less frequently in HIV infection. Thus, HIV infection supports the concept that metabolic syndrome does not represent a syndrome based on a common underlying pathophysiology. As might be predicted from these findings, the prevalence of CVD is higher in people with HIV infection. It remains to be determined whether CVD rates in HIV infection are higher than might be predicted from traditional risk factors, including smoking. PMID:18366987

  18. Wiping Out CGRP: Potential Cardiovascular Risks.

    PubMed

    MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Meijer, Joris; Villalón, Carlos M; Ferrari, Michel D

    2016-09-01

    Migraine is a common episodic neurovascular brain disorder associated with increased risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular ischemia. Migraine headache is likely caused by activation of the trigeminovascular system and release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Monoclonal antibodies against CGRP or its receptor are currently being evaluated for the prevention of migraine attacks. Preliminary efficacy data are promising. However, because CGRP may act as a vasodilatory safeguard during cerebral and cardiac ischemia, CGRP blockade could transform transient mild ischemic events into full-blown infarcts. Here, we review the cerebro- and cardiovascular risks that might be associated with CGRP blockade and which clinical and preclinical studies should be conducted to better assess the potential safety issues of this new promising class of drug.

  19. Cardiovascular risk, lipids and pregnancy: preeclampsia and the risk of later life cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Francesca; Tooher, Jane; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2014-03-01

    It has been widely thought that the effects of hypertension in pregnancy reversed after delivery and hypertension values returned to their pre-pregnancy level as it was seen as a disease of short duration in otherwise healthy young women. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the principal underlying abnormality, endothelial dysfunction, remains in women who had preeclampsia and that it is this damage that increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. The contributions of hypertension and dyslipidaemia before and during the pregnancy are also important and contribute to future risk. Serum lipids are complex and change dramatically in pregnancy. In general there is an increase in most plasma lipid components, notably triglycerides, total cholesterol and the major particles of HDL and LDL. Aberrations or exaggerations in this shift (i.e. decrease HDL and a greater increase in LDL) are associated with poor outcomes of pregnancy such as preeclampsia. Long term cardiovascular disease is influenced by preeclampsia and in part potentially by the lipid changes which escalate late in disease. Whether we can influence the risk of preeclampsia by controlling cardiovascular risk factors preceding or during preeclampsia, or cardiovascular disease after preeclampsia is yet to be determined. Ultimately, strategies to control lipid concentrations will only be viable when we understand the safety to the mother at the time of the pregnancy, and to the foetus both immediately and in the very long term. Strategies to control blood pressure are well established in the non-pregnant population, and previous preeclampsia and gestational hypertension should be considered in any cardiovascular risk profile. Whether control of blood pressure in the pregnancy per se is of any longer term benefit is also yet to be determined.

  20. Epigenetics and cardiovascular risk in childhood.

    PubMed

    Martino, Francesco; Magenta, Alessandra; Pannarale, Giuseppe; Martino, Eliana; Zanoni, Cristina; Perla, Francesco M; Puddu, Paolo E; Barillà, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can arise at the early stages of development and growth. Genetic and environmental factors may interact resulting in epigenetic modifications with abnormal phenotypic expression of genetic information without any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Maternal dietary imbalance, inadequate to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus can lead to intrauterine growth retardation, decreased gestational age, low birth weight, excessive post-natal growth and metabolic alterations, with subsequent appearance of CVD risk factors. Fetal exposure to high cholesterol, diabetes and maternal obesity is associated with increased risk and progression of atherosclerosis. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure to various environmental pollutants induce epigenetic alterations of gene expression relevant to the onset or progression of CVD. In children with hypercholesterolemia and/or obesity, oxidative stress activates platelets and monocytes, which release proinflammatory and proatherogenic substances, inducing endothelial dysfunction, decreased Doppler flow-mediated dilation and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Primary prevention of atherosclerosis should be implemented early. It is necessary to identify, through screening, high-risk apparently healthy children and take care of them enforcing healthy lifestyle (mainly consisting of Mediterranean diet and physical activity), prescribing nutraceuticals and eventual medications, if required by a high-risk profile. The key issue is the restoration of endothelial function in the reversible stage of atherosclerosis. Epigenetics may provide new markers for an early identification of children at risk and thereby develop innovative therapies and specific nutritional interventions in critical times.

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  2. [Cardiovascular risk reduction: impact of an international project].

    PubMed

    Colle, B; Brusaferro, S

    2008-01-01

    The Euroaction project, promoted by European Society of Cardiology, aims to determine whether a nurse co-ordinated, multidisciplinary, family based preventive cardiology programme could help more patients and their families achieve the recommended European lifestyle, risk factor and therapeutic goals for cardiovascular disease prevention. EUROACTION was evaluated in a paired cluster randomized controlled trial, and the primary care branch included 6 European countries. Consecutive patients > 50 years and < 80 years, with no history of cardiovascular disease, were prospectively identified by the general practitioners with one of the following: (i) high total cardiovascular risk (HeartScore > or = 5% over 10 years, either now or when projected to age 60 years) and on no medical treatment for blood pressure, lipids or diabetes; (ii) on treatment with anti-hypertensive and/or lipid-lowering drug therapies started in the last year but with no diabetes; (iii) diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (treated by diet alone or with oral hypoglycaemic drug therapy and/or insulin) within the last three years in both intervention and usual care practices. All eligible high risk individuals and their partners were then invited by the nurse for an assessment of their lifestyle, risk factors and therapeutic management as soon as possible after identification. In the primary care intervention branch 1019 patients have been enrolled with no differences by sex and mean age 62, while in the control branch 1005 patients were recruited with mean age 63, female were 43%. The main results show that Intervention group (I) had a statistically significant improvement compared to Usual Care (UC) in the assumption of recommended quantity of fruit and vegetables (78.4% I vs 38.8% UC p=0.005), in the weight loss (weight loss > al 5% in subjects with BMI > 25 kg/m2) (16.5% I vs 6.8% UC p=0.005), in blood pressure control both in people specifically treated with drugs and untreated (respectively 52% I

  3. Androgen deprivation therapy and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Punnen, Sanoj; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Sadetsky, Natalia; Carroll, Peter R

    2011-09-10

    The potential association between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) remains controversial. This study assessed mortality outcomes in a large national registry to further elucidate the association between treatment selection and cause of mortality. A total of 7,248 men in the CaPSURE registry were analyzed. Treatment was categorized as local only, primary ADT monotherapy, local treatment plus ADT, and watchful waiting/active surveillance (WW/AS). Competing hazards survival analysis was performed for prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), CVM, and all-cause mortality. A propensity score-adjusted and a propensity-matched analysis were undertaken to adjust for imbalances in covariates among men receiving various treatments. Patients treated with ADT or WW/AS had a higher likelihood of PCSM than those treated with local therapy alone. Patients treated with primary ADT had an almost two-fold greater likelihood of CVM (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.97) than those treated with local therapy alone; however, patients treated with WW/AS had a greater than two-fold increased risk of CVM (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.53 to 3.95). A propensity-matching algorithm in a subset of 1,391 patients was unable to find a significant difference in CVM between those who did or did not receive ADT. Patients matched on propensity to receive ADT did not show an association between ADT and CVM. This suggests that potential unmeasured variables affecting treatment selection may confound the relationship between ADT use and cardiovascular risk. However, an association may yet exist, because the propensity score could not include all known risk factors for CVM.

  4. Application of Data Mining techniques to relate Cardiovascular Risk and Coronary Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lujan, F. N.; Cymberknop, L. J.; Alfonso, M.; Legnani, W.; Armentano Feijoo, R.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) constitutes a process that allows data sets to be modeled and analyzed in an automated and exploratory manner. In this sense, data mining can be considered the main core of this procedure. Objective: In this study, a classification of clinical subjects (cluster) based on the comparison of parameters associated to cardiovascular risk factors was performed by means of KDD-based algorithms. Materials and Methods: the K-means algorithm, Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering and Kohonen’s Self-organizing Maps were applied to the database in order to obtain relationships based on the dissimilarity of its constitutive fields. Results: Four different clusters were obtained, represented by a group of well-defined clustering rules. Conclusion: KDD can be used to extract relevant data from clinical databases, which are strongly correlated with well-known cardiovascular risk markers.

  5. A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of a Simplified Multifaceted Management Program for Individuals at High Cardiovascular Risk (SimCard Trial) in Rural Tibet, China and Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Maoyi; Ajay, Vamadevan S.; Dunzhu, Danzeng; Hameed, Safraj S.; Li, Xian; Liu, Zhong; Li, Cong; Chen, Hao; Cho, KaWing; Li, Ruilai; Zhao, Xingshan; Jindal, Devraj; Rawal, Ishita; Ali, Mohammed K.; Peterson, Eric D.; Ji, Jiachao; Amarchand, Ritvik; Krishnan, Anand; Tandon, Nikhil; Xu, Li-Qun; Wu, Yangfeng; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Yan, Lijing L.

    2015-01-01

    Background In rural areas in China and India, cardiovascular disease burden is high but economic and healthcare resources are limited. This study aims to develop and evaluate a simplified cardiovascular management program (SimCard) delivered by community health workers (CHWs) with the aid of a smartphone-based electronic decision support system. Methods and Results The SimCard study was a yearlong cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in 47 villages (27 in China and 20 in India). 2,086 ‘high cardiovascular risk’ individuals (aged 40 years or older with self-reported history of coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and/or measured systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg) were recruited. Participants in the intervention villages were managed by CHWs through an Android-powered “app” on a monthly basis focusing on two medication use and two lifestyle modifications. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had a 25.5% (P<0.001) higher net increase in the primary outcome of the proportion of patient-reported anti-hypertensive medication use pre-and-post intervention. There were also significant differences in certain secondary outcomes: aspirin use (net difference 17.1%, P<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (−2.7 mmHg, P=0.04). However, no significant changes were observed in the lifestyle factors. The intervention was culturally tailored and country-specific results revealed important differences between the regions. Conclusions The results indicate that the simplified cardiovascular management program improved quality of primary care and clinical outcomes in resource-poor settings in China and India. Larger trials in more places are needed to ascertain potential impacts on mortality and morbidity outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration Information clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01503814. PMID:26187183

  6. Systematic screening for cardiovascular risk at pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Rohla, Miklos; Haberfeld, Heinz; Sinzinger, Helmut; Kritz, Harald; Tscharre, Maximilian; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is essential to prevent excess morbidity, mortality and healthcare-related costs. We sought to investigate whether an active screening programme at pharmacies could identify a significant proportion of patients with previously undetected CVRFs. Methods and results Between April and July 2013, 184 pharmacies in Lower Austria enrolled a total of 6800 participants, in whom body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Mean age was 58±17 years and 67.8% were women. 21% of men and 16% of women had a BMI≥30 kg/m2. The crude prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 7%, hypercholesterolaemia was identified in 57%, and 44% had elevated BP. Among fasting individuals (n=1814), DM was found in 18%. In total, 30% were confronted with a CVRF they were previously unaware of, and pharmacists recommended 45% of all participants to actively consult a physician. A first-time diagnosis of a CVRF was most frequent in the age groups between 25 and 64 (32% of participants). Conclusions This pharmacy-based approach for cardiovascular risk screening found similar overall prevalences of CVRFs as reported by national surveys, but revealed underdiagnoses, particularly in lower age groups. A previously unknown CVRF was identified in every third individual, frequently prompting the pharmacists to recommend the consultation of a physician. An active screening approach at pharmacies might therefore serve as an effective alternative to the public preventive medical examination, particularly in younger age groups. PMID:27738518

  7. [The role of inflammatory biomarkers in cardiovascular risk stratification].

    PubMed

    Пузік, Світлана Г

    The increase in cardiovascular diseases requires the search for ways to predict complications based on research additional to traditional risk factors, conduct a study of the formation mechanisms of these complications and to design new treatment strategies. To get an idea about the relationship between inflammation in the blood vessels, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular consequences based on the study of the role of biomarkers of inflammation. the literature on the estimation of risk development of cardiovascular diseases based on the study of the role of biomarkers of vascular inflammation; bibliographic, a systematic approach. Algorithm stratification of cardiovascular risk includes a review of the traditional risk factors for the purpose of preventive therapy. A large number of cases of cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke) occurs in bessimptomnom patients with normal lipid. The use of additional risk factors for development of cerebral and cardiac disorders will allow to foresee the consequences and to prevent mortality from cardiovascular disease. Study of the role of inflammation in development of cardiovascular diseases allows the use of SB and PL-ФЛА2 as an important additional cardiovascular markers, independent of traditional risk factors. The use of biomarkers LP-ФЛА2 and SB specific to vascular inflammation, allows to establish the relationship between endovascular inflammation, atherosclerosis development and progression of cardiovascular diseases and to prevent cerebral and cardiac disorders in patients with traditional risk factor .

  8. Hyperuricemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease: clinical review.

    PubMed

    Gudiño Gomezjurado, Álvaro

    2016-11-15

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several risk factors have been associated with the development of these pathologies. However, there is controversy about whether hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. To answer this question, we performed a recent literature review of relevant published material to assess the association of hyperuricemia with four major cardiovascular diseases: hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

  9. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, Päivi; Vesalainen, Risto; Aarnio, Pertti; Kautiainen, Hannu; Järvenpää, Salme; Kantola, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at investigating whether cardiovascular risk factors and their impact on total risk estimation differ between men and women. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Subjects Finnish cardiovascular risk subjects (n = 904) without established cardiovascular disease, renal disease, or known diabetes. Main outcome measures Ankle-brachial index (ABI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), oral glucose tolerance test, and total cardiovascular risk using SCORE risk charts. Results According to the SCORE risk charts, 27.0% (95% CI 23.1–31.2) of the women and 63.1% (95% CI 58.3–67.7) of the men (p < 0.001) were classified as high-risk subjects. Of the women classified as low-risk subjects according to SCORE, 25% had either subclinical peripheral arterial disease or renal insufficiency. Conclusions The SCORE system does not take into account cardiovascular risk factors typical in women, and thus underestimates their total cardiovascular risk. Measurement of ABI and eGFR in primary care might improve cardiovascular risk assessment. especially in women. PMID:22643155

  10. Sociodemographic factors associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Seman, Zamtira; Cheong, Kee Chee; Hock, Lim Kuang; Manickam, Mala; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi; Mustafa, Feisul Idzwan; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2015-01-31

    To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Malaysian adults. We analysed data on 1044 men and 1528 women, aged 24-64 years, participants in the Non Communicable Disease Surveillance 2005/2006, a nationally representative, population-based, cross-sectional study. Prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, physical inactivity, smoking, risky drinking, low vegetable and fruit intake were determined and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with having ≥3 of these cardiovascular disease risk factors. The response rate was 84.6% (2572/3040). Overall, 68.4% (95% CI: 63.2, 73.1) had at least three risk factors. Among men, older age and Indian ethnicity were independently associated with having ≥3 CVD risk factors; while among women, older age, low education, and housewives were more likely to have ≥3 CVD risk factors. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors clustering among Malaysian adults is high, raising concerns that cardiovascular disease incidence will rise steeply in the near future if no immediate preventive measures are taken. The current national health education and promotion programmes pertaining to modifiable risk factors can be further improved by taking into account the sociodemographic variation in CVD risk factors clustering.

  11. Selected anthropometric variables and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in children

    PubMed Central

    Szmuchrowski, LA; Prado, LS; Couto, BP; Machado, JCQ; Damasceno, VO; Lamounier, JA

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and aerobic fitness as predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 290 school boys and girls from 6 to 10 years old, randomly selected. Blood was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), height and weight were evaluated according to international standards. Aerobic fitness (AF) was assessed by the 20-metre shuttle-run test. Clustering was considered when three of these factors were present: high systolic or diastolic blood pressure, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high triglycerides, high plasma glucose, high insulin concentrations and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. A ROC curve identified the cut-off points of body mass index (BMI), WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and AF as predictors of risk factor clustering. BMI, WC and WHR resulted in significant areas under the ROC curves, which was not observed for AF. The anthropometric variables were good predictors of cardiovascular risk factor clustering in both sexes, whereas aerobic fitness should not be used to identify cardiovascular risk factor clustering in these children. PMID:26424930

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  13. Special Diabetes Program for Indians: Retention in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project. Design and Methods: Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American…

  14. Special Diabetes Program for Indians: Retention in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project. Design and Methods: Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American…

  15. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

  16. Nurse management of cardiovascular risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, Silvia; Corominas, Hèctor

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, multi-system inflammatory disease. The incidence and prevalence of RA varies considerably between geographic areas and over time; the prevalence of RA in adults aged > 20 years in Spain is around 0.5% (Carmona et al, 2002). People with RA also have extra-articular manifestations, presenting an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk; therefore, cardiovascular risk screening and management strategies are necessary in individuals with RA. The importance of interventions in the management of people with RA and cardiovascular risk factors is recognised by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations (Peters et al, 2010). Rheumatology specialist nurses are well placed to include routine cardiovascular risk assessment for people with RA attending clinic, and to provide educational interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk, such as smoking cessation, weight loss, eating a balanced, low-fat diet and exercising regularly.

  17. Comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis*

    PubMed Central

    Baeta, Isabela Guimarães Ribeiro; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques; Gontijo, Bernardo; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease and its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Recent studies have suggested that the chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis may predispose to an association with other inflammatory diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVES To describe the demographic, clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of a sample of psoriasis patients; to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in this group of patients; and to identify the cardiovascular risk profile using the Framingham risk score. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study involving the assessment of 190 patients. Participants underwent history and physical examination. They also completed a specific questionnaire about epidemiological data, past medical history, and comorbidities. The cardiovascular risk profile was calculated using the Framingham risk score. RESULTS Patients' mean age was 51.5 ± 14 years, and the predominant clinical presentation was plaque psoriasis (78.4%). We found an increased prevalence of systemic hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Increased waist circumference was also found in addition to a considerable prevalence of depression, smoking, and regular alcohol intake. Patients' cardiovascular risk was high according to the Framingham risk score, and 47.2% of patients had moderate or high risk of fatal and non-fatal coronary events in 10 years. CONCLUSIONS Patients had high prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and high cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham risk score. Further epidemiological studies are needed in Brazil for validation of our results. PMID:25184912

  18. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  20. [Cardiovascular risk profiles by occupation in Madrid region, Spain].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann Verdejo, Marta; González Gómez, María Fernanda; Galán Labaca, Iñaki

    2010-01-01

    It is well known the association between cardiovascular risks and life styles. In addition, all these factors could be strongly associated with working conditions. The aim of this study was to describe the association between some cardiovascular risk factors and occupations in order to define strategies focused on health promotion at workplace. 16.048 questionnaires were analysed from the Surveillance System for Non-transmissible Diseases Risk Factors (SIVFRENT) for Madrid region. The surveys of eight consecutive years (2000-2007) were aggregated and analysed. Seven risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were studied (diet, overweight, sedentary work, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco consumption and high blood pressure). An indicator of exposure was created based on these seven risk factors. The association between cardiovascular risk factors and occupations was calculated for age and gender effects adjustment. Sedentary work (prevalence: 44,2%) and tobacco consumption (prevalence: 33,1%) were the most common risk factors found . To accumulate more than two cardiovascular risk factors was statistically higher in men (27,4%) than in women (15%). The highest risk was found for tree occupations: Drivers (OR:1,78; 95% CI:1,45-2,18), Administrative secretaries (OR:1,83; 95% CI:1,64-2,05) and Direction managers(OR:1,25; 95% CI:1,09-1,44). Drives, Secretaries and Managers seem to have a higher vulnerability for some cardiovascular risk factors.

  1. Seasonal variations of selected cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gregory S

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews research on selected biomarkers of cardiovascular risk - cholesterol and other lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, homocysteine - in the attempt to determine the existence of a predictable seasonal chronobiological pattern of variation. Studies dating as far back as the 1930s have reported seasonal variations in cholesterol levels. Statistically significant seasonal changes in lipid levels have been found in individuals irrespective of the country where the research has been conducted, and irrespective of the age, sex, ethnicity, and baseline lipid levels of the study subjects. While not all studies have been in complete agreement on either the amplitude (degree of seasonal change) or month/s of highest lipid levels, a strong winter/summer difference has been found in most studies. Existing evidence for an independent effect of season in variation of CRP is weak. Studies have consistently reported significant seasonal variations in fibrinogen levels. While other biological factors clearly interact to affect fibrinogen variability, seasonality appears to be an independent source of variability. Evidence from several studies points to a lack of seasonal variability in homocysteine levels. Although seasonal variability is just one source of periodicity influencing biological function and assessments in clinical practice, for some biomarkers, including lipids and fibrinogen, it is a source of variability that warrants consideration prior to a decision to treat and in assessing response to interventions.

  2. Cardiovascular risk prediction tools for populations in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Collaboration, Asia Pacific Cohort Studies

    2007-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk equations are traditionally derived from the Framingham Study. The accuracy of this approach in Asian populations, where resources for risk factor measurement may be limited, is unclear. Objective To compare “low‐information” equations (derived using only age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking status) derived from the Framingham Study with those derived from the Asian cohorts, on the accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction. Design Separate equations to predict the 8‐year risk of a cardiovascular event were derived from Asian and Framingham cohorts. The performance of these equations, and a subsequently “recalibrated” Framingham equation, were evaluated among participants from independent Chinese cohorts. Setting Six cohort studies from Japan, Korea and Singapore (Asian cohorts); six cohort studies from China; the Framingham Study from the US. Participants 172 077 participants from the Asian cohorts; 25 682 participants from Chinese cohorts and 6053 participants from the Framingham Study. Main results In the Chinese cohorts, 542 cardiovascular events occurred during 8 years of follow‐up. Both the Asian cohorts and the Framingham equations discriminated cardiovascular risk well in the Chinese cohorts; the area under the receiver–operator characteristic curve was at least 0.75 for men and women. However, the Framingham risk equation systematically overestimated risk in the Chinese cohorts by an average of 276% among men and 102% among women. The corresponding average overestimation using the Asian cohorts equation was 11% and 10%, respectively. Recalibrating the Framingham risk equation using cardiovascular disease incidence from the non‐Chinese Asian cohorts led to an overestimation of risk by an average of 4% in women and underestimation of risk by an average of 2% in men. Interpretation A low‐information Framingham cardiovascular risk prediction tool, which, when recalibrated with

  3. Testosterone in men with hypogonadism and high cardiovascular risk, Pros.

    PubMed

    Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Vitale, Cristiana; Fini, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Although numerous randomized studies have shown that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) improves intermediate outcomes in patients at risk and in those with proven cardiovascular disease (CVD), results derived mainly from registries and observational studies have suggested an increased cardiovascular risk in elderly men receiving often supra-therapeutic doses of testosterone. Recent meta-analyses have shown that when testosterone has been used in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions, the effect on the disease has been either beneficial or neutral. Similar results have been reported in hypo- and eugonadal men. Contrasting results have been reported by two trials of testosterone treatment in frail elderly men. Reports from poorly analyzed databases have reported an increased risk of cardiovascular events with testosterone use. More recently, a population-based study showed no increased cardiovascular risk of testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men. Available data from controlled clinical trials suggest that the use of testosterone in elderly men does not increase cardiovascular risk nor the risk of events. Studies in men with CVD, angina, or heart failure report a benefit from testosterone replacement in men with or without hypogonadism. Therefore, at present, the cardiovascular benefits of TRT in elderly men outweigh the risks. This is particularly evident in those men with pre-existing CVD.

  4. Total cardiovascular risk profile of Taiwanese vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-W; Lin, Y-L; Lin, T-K; Lin, C-T; Chen, B-C; Lin, C-L

    2008-01-01

    Although the health benefits of vegetarian diets have been well documented among Western population, there are geographic differences of vegetarian diets and the health benefits of the Taiwanese vegetarian diet have not been studied extensively. In addition to conventional risk factors, homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels have been found to predict first atherothrombotic events. We undertook this study to examine the total risk profile of Taiwanese vegetarians. A total of 198 healthy subjects (99 vegetarians and 99 omnivores) were recruited. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), white blood cell count, hs-CRP and homocysteine. There was no significant difference in age, body mass index, blood glucose, white blood cell count, triglyceride and HDL-C between the two groups. The vegetarian group had significantly more females (65.7 vs 46.5%); lower body weight (58.66+/-11.13 vs 62.88+/-12.24 kg); shorter height (159.14+/-7.88 vs 162.53 +/-8.14 cm); lower total cholesterol (184.74+/-33.23 vs 202.01+/-41.05 mg/dl); and lower LDL-C (119.63+/-31.59 vs 135.89+/-39.50 mg/dl). Hs-CRP was significantly lower (0.14+/-0.23 vs 0.23+/-0.44 mg/dl, P=0.025), whereas homocysteine was significantly higher (10.97+/-6.69 vs 8.44+/-2.50 micromol/l, P=0.001) in vegetarians than omnivores. Taiwanese vegetarians have lower total cholesterol, LDL-C and hs-CRP levels, and higher homocysteine levels than omnivores. Owing to different predictive value of each risk factor, the Taiwanese vegetarians had a better cardiovascular risk profile than omnivores. Whether the Taiwanese vegetarian diet should be supplemented with vitamin B(12) to lower serum homocysteine level remains to be addressed.

  5. Education and hypertension: impact on global cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Scaglione, Alessandra; Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Rosario

    2017-06-28

    Improving cardiovascular risk prediction continues to be a major challenge and effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, several studies have recently reported on the role of cardiovascular risk education. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of education on global cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. The study population consisted of 223 consecutive hypertensive outpatients. Their educational status was categorized according to the number of years of formal education as follows: (1) low education (less than 10 years) and (2) medium-high education (10-15 years). In both groups, cardiometabolic comorbidities, global cardiovascular risk and echocardiographic measurements were analysed. Less educated hypertensive subjects were characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (p < .01), greater global cardiovascular risk (p < .001), and a higher consumption of antihypertensive drugs (p < .01) rather than medium-high educated hypertensive subjects. In the same subjects, a significant increase in microalbuminuria (MA) (p < .01) and a significant decrease in E/A (p < .001) ratio was found. Univariate analysis indicated that global cardiovascular risk correlated directly with waist-hip ratio, mean blood pressure, MA, left ventricular mass index, MetS and inversely with education (r = -0.45; p < .001). Education was independently (p < .001) associated with global CV risk. Our data suggest that education may be considered the best predictor of global cardiovascular risk in hypertensives and thus has to be evaluated in the strategies of hypertension and cardiovascular risk management.

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in scholars (RIVACANGAS).

    PubMed

    Mera-Gallego, Rocío; García-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Cordeiro, Marta; Rodríguez-Reneda, Ángeles; Vérez-Cotelo, Natalia; Andrés-Rodríguez, N Floro; Fornos-Pérez, J Antonio; Rica-Echevarría, Itxaso

    2016-12-01

    The current guidelines for treatment of high blood pressure do not include any section dedicated to hypertension in children and adolescents or to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention strategies in that age group. Our study was aimed at identifying cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in an adolescent sample. A cross-sectional study of a sample of adolescents aged 12 to 17years (n=630), conducted from October 2014 to February 2015 in four schools in Cangas do Morrazo (Pontevedra). Sociodemographic variables: age, sex, personal and family history of hypertension and diabetes (DM). Anthropometric variables: body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC, cm), waist/height index (WHI), blood pressure (mmHg). The study sample consisted of 295 female and 335 male adolescents (mean age: 13.8±1.4). CVR-related conditions: hypercholesterolemia (7.1%), CVD (1.7%), hypertension (0.8%) and diabetes (0.3%). BMI (22.0±3,8) was higher in males (22.4±3.8 vs. 21.0±3.2; P<.01). Overweight was greater in females (27.6% vs. 19.7%; P<.05). Seven percent of subjects were obese, 63.8% had systolic BP >P90 and 23.7% had diastolic BP >P90. Waist circumference positively correlated with age (r=0.1669; P<.0001) and was greater in males (75.4±10.9 vs. 72.9±8.9; P<0.01); 27.1% of adolescents had a waist circumference >P75, and 7.5% >P90. Eighty-four (13.3%) adolescents had two CVRFs (overweight+another). Despite their young age, more than 10% of school children had two CVRFs. Abnormal SBP levels were seen in more than 50%, 20% were overweight, and only 75% had normal waist circumference values. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Antonia; Reyes-García, Rebeca; García-Castro, José Miguel; Quesada-Charneco, Miguel; Escobar-Jiménez, Fernando; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP), even asymptomatic, have an increased cardiovascular risk. However, data on reversibility or improvement of cardiovascular disorders with surgery are controversial. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of classic cardiovascular risk factors in patients with asymptomatic PHP, to explore their relationship with calcium and PTH levels, and analyze the effect of parathyroidectomy on those cardiovascular risk factors. A retrospective, observational study of two groups of patients with asymptomatic PHP: 40 patients on observation and 33 patients who underwent surgery. Clinical and biochemical data related to PHP and various cardiovascular risk factors were collected from all patients at baseline and one year after surgery in the operated patients. A high prevalence of obesity (59.9%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (25%), high blood pressure (47.2%), and dyslipidemia (44.4%) was found in the total sample, with no difference between the study groups. Serum calcium and PTH levels positively correlated with BMI (r=.568, P=.011, and r=.509, P=.026 respectively) in non-operated patients. One year after parathyroidectomy, no improvement occurred in the cardiovascular risk factors considered. Our results confirm the high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in patients with asymptomatic PHP. However, parathyroidectomy did not improve these cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. World Health Organization cardiovascular risk stratification and target organ damage.

    PubMed

    Piskorz, D; Bongarzoni, L; Citta, L; Citta, N; Citta, P; Keller, L; Mata, L; Tommasi, A

    2016-01-01

    Prediction charts allow treatment to be targeted according to simple markers of cardiovascular risk; many algorithms do not recommend screening asymptomatic target organ damage which could change dramatically the assessment. To demonstrate that target organ damage is present in low cardiovascular risk hypertensive patients and it is more frequent and severe as global cardiovascular risk increases. Consecutive hypertensive patients treated at a single Latin American center. Cardiovascular risk stratified according to 2013 WHO/ISH risk prediction chart America B. Left ventricular mass assessed by Devereux method, left ventricular hypertrophy considered >95g/m(2) in women and >115g/m(2) in men. Transmitral diastolic peak early flow velocity to average septal/lateral peak early diastolic relaxation velocity (E/e' ratio) measured cut off value >13. Systolic function assessed by tissue Doppler average interventricular septum/lateral wall mitral annulus rate systolic excursion (s wave). A total of 292 patients were included of whom 159 patients (54.5%) had cardiovascular risk of <10%, 90 (30.8%) had cardiovascular risk of 10-20% and 43 (14.7%) had cardiovascular risk of >20%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 17.6% low risk patients, 27.8% in medium risk and 23.3% in high risk (p<0.05), abnormal E/e' ratio was found in 13.8%, 31.1% and 27.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Mean s wave was 8.03+8, 8.1+9 and 8.7+1cm/s for low, intermediate and high risk patients, respectively (p<0.025). Target organ damage is more frequent and severe in high risk; one over four subjects was misclassified due to the presence of asymptomatic target organ damage. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Food consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    PubMed

    Bel-Serrat, S; Mouratidou, T; Börnhorst, C; Peplies, J; De Henauw, S; Marild, S; Molnár, D; Siani, A; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Krogh, V; Moreno, L A

    2013-06-01

    Few studies addressing the relationship between food consumption and cardiovascular disease or metabolic risk have been conducted in children. Previous findings have indicated greater metabolic risk in children with high intakes of solid hydrogenated fat and white bread, and low consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products. In a large multinational sample of 2 to 9 years old children, high consumption of sweetened beverages and low intake of nuts and seeds, sweets, breakfast cereals, jam and honey and chocolate and nut-based spreads were directly associated with increased clustered cardiovascular disease risk. These findings add new evidence to the limited literature available in young populations on the role that diet may play on cardiovascular health. To investigate food consumption in relation to clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Children (n = 5548, 51.6% boys) from eight European countries participated in the IDEFICS study baseline survey (2007-2008). Z-scores of individual CVD risk factors were summed to compute sex- and age-specific (2-<6 years/6-9 years) clustered CVD risk scores A (all components, except cardiorespiratory fitness) and B (all components). The association of clustered CVD risk and tertiles of food group consumption was examined. Odds ratio (OR) of having clustered CVD risk A increased in older children with higher consumption of chocolate and nut-based spreads (boys: OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.32-0.69; girls: OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.42-0.86), jam and honey (girls: OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.26-0.78) and sweets (boys: OR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.48-0.98). OR of being at risk significantly increased with the highest consumption of soft drinks (younger boys) and manufactured juices (older girls). Concerning CVD risk score B, older boys and girls in the highest tertile of consumption of breakfast cereals were 0.41 (95% CI = 0.21-0.79) and 0.45 (95% CI = 0.22-0.93) times, respectively, less likely

  10. The Treatment of cardiovascular Risk in Primary care using Electronic Decision suppOrt (TORPEDO) study: intervention development and protocol for a cluster randomised, controlled trial of an electronic decision support and quality improvement intervention in Australian primary healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, David; Usherwood, Tim; Panaretto, Katie; Harris, Mark; Hunt, Jenny; Patel, Bindu; Zwar, Nicholas; Redfern, Julie; MacMahon, Stephen; Colagiuri, Stephen; Hayman, Noel; Patel, Anushka

    2012-01-01

    Background Large gaps exist in the implementation of guideline recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management. Electronic decision support (EDS) systems are promising interventions to close these gaps but few have undergone clinical trial evaluation in Australia. We have developed HealthTracker, a multifaceted EDS and quality improvement intervention to improve the management of CVD risk. Methods/design It is hypothesised that the use of HealthTracker over a 12-month period will result in: (1) an increased proportion of patients receiving guideline-indicated measurements of CVD risk factors and (2) an increased proportion of patients at high risk will receive guideline-indicated prescriptions for lowering their CVD risk. Sixty health services (40 general practices and 20 Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) will be randomised in a 1:1 allocation to receive either the intervention package or continue with usual care, stratified by service type, size and participation in existing quality improvement initiatives. The intervention consists of point-of-care decision support; a risk communication interface; a clinical audit tool to assess performance on CVD-related indicators; a quality improvement component comprising peer-ranked data feedback and support to develop strategies to improve performance. The control arm will continue with usual care without access to these intervention components. Quantitative data will be derived from cross-sectional samples at baseline and end of study via automated data extraction. Detailed process and economic evaluations will also be conducted. Ethics and dissemination The general practice component of the study is approved by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) and the ACCHS component is approved by the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council HREC. Formal agreements with each of the participating sites have been signed. In addition to the usual scientific forums

  11. Awareness of Individual Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Self-Perception of Cardiovascular Risk in Women.

    PubMed

    Monsuez, Jean-Jacques; Pham, Tai; Karam, Nicole; Amar, Laurence; Chicheportiche-Ayache, Corinne; Menasché, Philippe; Desnos, Michel; Dardel, Paul; Weill, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) self-perception by women may be inaccurate. A questionnaire was completed anonymously Online by women who self-reported their personal CVRF levels including age, weight, contraceptive use, menopausal status, smoking, diet and physical activities. Self-perceived risk was matched to actual cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham score. Among 5,240 young and middle-aged women with a high educational level, knowledge of personal CVRFs increased with age, from 51-90% for blood pressure (BP), 22-45% for blood glucose and 15-47% for blood cholesterol levels, between 30 and 65 years, respectively. This knowledge was lower for smoking compared with nonsmoking women: 62.5% vs. 74.5% for BP (P < 0.001), 22.7% vs. 33.8% for blood glucose (P < 0.001), 21.9% vs. 32.0% for cholesterol levels (P < 0.001). Knowledge of BP level was reduced among women using an estrogen-progestogen contraception (56.8% vs. 62.1%, P = 0.0031) and even more reduced among smokers (52.2%, P < 0.001). Conversely, women with leisure-time physical or sportive activity (60.5%), were less overweight or obese (22.4% vs. 34.2%, P < 0.001). They reported better knowledge of BP (72.4% vs. 68.3%, P < 0.001), blood cholesterol (31.1% vs. 26.4%, P < 0.001) and glucose levels (32.7% vs. 27.8%, P < 0.001). Self-perceived cardiovascular risk was rated low by 1,279 (20.4%), moderate by 3,710 (63.3%) and high by 893 (16.3%) women. Among 3,386 women tested using the Framingham score, 40.8% were at low, 25.2% at moderate and 33.8% at high risk. Knowledge of CVRFs and self-perception of individual risk are inaccurate in women. Educational interventions should be emphasized. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    PubMed

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  13. Cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events among airline pilots: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Larsen, Peter D; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J

    2012-05-01

    A cardiovascular risk prediction score is routinely applied by aviation authorities worldwide. We examined the accuracy of the Framingham-based risk chart used by the New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority in predicting cardiovascular events among airline pilots. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of 5-yr cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events in Oceania-based airline pilots. Cases were pilots with cardiovascular events as recorded on their medical records. Each case was age and gender matched with four controls that were randomly selected from the pilot population. To collect data before the events, 5-yr retrospective evaluations were conducted. Over a 16-yr study period we identified 15 cases of cardiovascular events, 9 (60%) of which were sudden clinical presentations and only 6 (40%) of which were detected using cardiovascular screening. There were 8 cases (53%) and 16 controls (27%) who had a 5-yr risk of > or = 10-15%. Almost half of the events (7/15) occurred in pilots whose highest 5-yr risk was in the 5-10% range. Cases were 3.91 times more likely to have highest 5-yr risk score of > or =10-15% than controls (OR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.04-16.35). The accuracy of the highest risk scores were moderate (AUC = 0.723, 95% CI 0.583-0.863). The cutoff point of 10% is valid, with a specificity of 0.73, but low sensitivity (0.53). Despite a valid and appropriate cutoff point, the tool had low sensitivity and was unable to predict almost half of the cardiovascular events.

  14. Cardiovascular disease risk in young people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Nadeau, Kristen

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), despite modern advances in glycemic control and CVD risk factor modification. CVD risk identification is essential in this high-risk population, yet remains poorly understood. This review discusses the risk factors for CVD in young people with T1D, including hyperglycemia, traditional CVD risk factors (dyslipidemia, smoking, physical activity, hypertension), as well as novel risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation, and hypoglycemia. We present evidence that adverse changes in cardiovascular function, arterial compliance, and atherosclerosis are present even during adolescence in people with T1D, highlighting the need for earlier intervention. The methods for investigating cardiovascular risk are discussed and reviewed. Finally, we discuss the observational studies and clinical trials which have thus far attempted to elucidate the best targets for early intervention in order to reduce the burden of CVD in people with T1D.

  15. Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Research: Impact of Pets on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Animals interact with humans in multiple ways, including as therapy and service animals, commercially as livestock, as wildlife, and in zoos. But the most common interaction is as companion animals in our homes, with an estimated 180 million cats and dogs living in US households. While pet ownership has been reported to have many health benefits, the findings are inconsistent. Cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, glucose, obesity, and heart rate variability have improved, worsened, or remained the same in the limited number of studies considering companion animals. Physical activity increases have more consistently been linked with dog ownership, although whether this reflects antecedent motivation or direct benefit from the dog is unclear. Allergies and asthma also are variably linked to pet ownership and are confounded by family history of atopy and timing of exposure to pet dander. The benefits of companion animals are most likely to be through reduction in depression, anxiety, and social isolation, but these studies have been largely cross-sectional and may depend on degree of bonding of the owner with the animal. Positive relationships show measurably higher oxytocin with lower cortisol and alpha-amylase levels. Finally, pet ownership is also a marker of better socioeconomic status and family stability, and if companion animals are to provide cardiovascular risk benefit, the route should perhaps be through improved education and opportunity for ownership. PMID:27547289

  16. Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Research: Impact of Pets on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Pamela J

    2016-02-01

    Animals interact with humans in multiple ways, including as therapy and service animals, commercially as livestock, as wildlife, and in zoos. But the most common interaction is as companion animals in our homes, with an estimated 180 million cats and dogs living in US households. While pet ownership has been reported to have many health benefits, the findings are inconsistent. Cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, glucose, obesity, and heart rate variability have improved, worsened, or remained the same in the limited number of studies considering companion animals. Physical activity increases have more consistently been linked with dog ownership, although whether this reflects antecedent motivation or direct benefit from the dog is unclear. Allergies and asthma also are variably linked to pet ownership and are confounded by family history of atopy and timing of exposure to pet dander. The benefits of companion animals are most likely to be through reduction in depression, anxiety, and social isolation, but these studies have been largely cross-sectional and may depend on degree of bonding of the owner with the animal. Positive relationships show measurably higher oxytocin with lower cortisol and alpha-amylase levels. Finally, pet ownership is also a marker of better socioeconomic status and family stability, and if companion animals are to provide cardiovascular risk benefit, the route should perhaps be through improved education and opportunity for ownership.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  18. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marin, A.; Weir-McCall, J.R.; Webb, D.J.; van Beek, E.J.R.; Mirsadraee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients. PMID:25917542

  19. Cardiovascular risk factor modification: is it effective in older adults?

    PubMed

    Fair, Joan M

    2003-01-01

    Older adults over the age of 65 are the fastest growing segment of the US population. However, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highest in this population and CVD is the primary cause of death for elders. Cardiovascular disease risk factors are similar for both younger and older age groups and include hypertension, cigarette smoking, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. Evidence for managing and treating these CVD risk factors in elders is presented.

  20. Estimating Cardiovascular Risk in Spain by the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Amor, Antonio Jesús; Masana, Luis; Soriguer, Federico; Goday, Albert; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Gaztambide, Sonia; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Valdés, Sergio; Gomis, Ramón; Ortega, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    There are no nationwide, population-based studies in Spain assessing overall cardiovascular risk. We aimed to describe cardiovascular risk and achievement of treatment goals following the 2012 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention strategy. We also investigated clinical characteristics (non-classical risk factors) associated with moderate risk. Participants (n=2310, 58% women) aged 40 to 65 years from a national population-based study (Di@bet.es Study) were identified. First, a priori high/very-high risk individuals were identified. Next, total cardiovascular risk (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation equation including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) was used to assess risk of a priori non-high risk individuals. Variables independently associated with moderate versus low-risk were investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Age-and-sex standardized (direct method) percentages of high/very-high, moderate, and low-risk were 22.8%, 43.5%, and 33.7%, respectively. Most men were at moderate (56.2%), while 55.4% of women were at low risk. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (< 70,<100, < 115 mg/dL) and blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) goals for very-high, high and moderate risk were met in 15%, 26% and 46%, and 77%, 68% and 85% of the individuals, respectively. Body mass index, high triglycerides concentrations, diastolic blood pressure, and low Mediterranean diet adherence (in women) were independently associated with moderate (versus low) risk. Cardiovascular risk in Spain is mainly moderate in men and low in women. Achievement of treatment goals in high-risk individuals should be improved. The prevalence of non-classical cardiovascular risk factors is elevated in subjects at moderate risk, an important aspect to consider in a population-based strategy to decrease cardiovascular disease in the most prevalent group. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and validation of cardiovascular risk scores for haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Anker, Stefan D; Gillespie, Iain A; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kronenberg, Florian; Richards, Sharon; Drueke, Tilman B; Stenvinkel, Peter; Pisoni, Ronald L; Robinson, Bruce M; Marcelli, Daniele; Froissart, Marc; Floege, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    A simple clinical tool to predict cardiovascular disease risk does not exist for haemodialysis patients. The long-term coronary risk Framingham Heart Study Risk score (FRS), although used in this population, may be inadequate. Therefore, we developed separate risk-scores for cardiovascular mortality (CVM) and cardiovascular morbidity & mortality (CVMM) in a Fresenius Medical Care-based haemodialysis patient cohort (AROii). Applying a modified FRS approach, we derived and internally validated two-year risk-scores in incident European adult patients randomly assigned to a development (N=4831) or a validation (N=4796) dataset. External validation was conducted in the third Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS III) cohort. Additional discrimination comparing to the FRS was performed. The overall two-year CVM and CVMM event rates were 5.0 and 22.6 per 100 person-years respectively. Common risk predictors included increasing age, cardiovascular disease history, primary diabetic nephropathy, low blood pressure, and inflammation. The CVM score was more predictive in AROii (c-statistic 0.72) and in DOPPS III (c-statistic 0.73-0.74) than the CVMM score (c-statistic 0.66-0.67 & 0.63 respectively). The FRS was not predictive of either CVM (c-statistic 0.54) or CVMM (c-statistic 0.56) in AROii. We describe novel, easy-to-apply and interpret CV risk-scores for haemodialysis patients. Our improved cardiovascular prediction performance over traditional (FRS) scores reflected its tailored development and validation in haemodialysis populations, and the integration of non-classical cardiovascular risk factors. The lower expected versus observed CVM and CVMM risk suggests the existence of novel cardiovascular risk factors in this patient population not measured in this study. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Occupational Health Promotion Programs to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Russell E.; Terborg, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys literature on worksite health promotion programs targeting cardiovascular risk factors. Reviews findings on health-risk appraisal, hypertension control, smoking cessation, weight reduction, exercise, and programs addressing multiple risk factors. Discusses current knowledge, highlights exemplary studies, and identifies problems and…

  3. Cardiovascular risk prediction in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Cedeño Mora, Santiago; Goicoechea, Marian; Torres, Esther; Verdalles, Úrsula; Pérez de José, Ana; Verde, Eduardo; García de Vinuesa, Soledad; Luño, José

    Scores underestimate the prediction of cardiovascular risk (CVR) as they are not validated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two of the most commonly used scores are the Framingham Risk Score (FRS-CVD) and the ASCVD (AHA/ACC 2013). The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of experiencing a cardiovascular event (CVE) via these 2scores in the CKD population. Prospective, observational study of 400 prevalent patients with CKD (stages 4 and 5 according the KDOQI; not on dialysis). Cardiovascular risk was calculated according to the 2scores and the predictive capacity of cardiovascular events (atherosclerotic events: myocardial infarction, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, peripheral vascular disease; and non-atherosclerotic events: heart failure) was analysed. Forty-nine atherosclerotic cardiovascular events occurred in 40.3±6.6 months of follow-up. Most of the patients were classified as high CVR by both scores (59% by the FRS-CVD and 75% by the ASCVD). All cardiovascular events occurred in the high CVR patients and both scores (FRS-CVD log-rank 12.2, P<.001, HR 3.1 [95% CI: 1.3-7.1] P: 0.006 and ASCVD log-rank 8.5 P<.001, HR 3.2 [95% CI: 1.1-9.4] P: 0.03) were independent predictors adjusted to renal function, albuminuria and previous cardiovascular events. The cardiovascular risk scores (FRS-CVD and ASCVD [AHA/ACC 2013]) can estimate the probability of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients with CKD regardless of renal function, albuminuria and previous cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk profile for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Song, Mi-Kyung

    2008-03-01

    Transplant recipients have an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile and experience more cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with the general population, primarily because of immunosuppressant-induced diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. These discouraging prospects are even more ominous for lung transplant recipients who are more likely than other organ recipients to require intense immunosuppression and develop these conditions early and concomitantly. The purposes of this article are to heighten awareness of the prevalence, risk factors, and management of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in lung transplant patients, and to assist nurses to be proactive in helping recipients to reduce the likelihood of developing cardiovascular complications.

  5. The application of motivational theory to cardiovascular risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Fleury, J

    1992-01-01

    The level of motivation sustained by an individual has been identified as a primary predictor of success in sustained cardiovascular risk factor modification efforts. This article reviews the primary motivational theories that have been used to explain and predict cardiovascular risk reduction. Specifically, the application of the Health Belief Model, Health Promotion Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior and Self-efficacy Theory to the initiation and maintenance of cardiovascular health behavior is addressed. The implication of these theories for the development of nursing interventions as well as new directions for nursing research and practice in the study of individual motivation in health behavior change are discussed.

  6. Risk factors for erectile dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rakesh Kumar; Shamsi, Bilal Haider; Chen, Hui-Ming; Tan, Tan; Tang, Kai-Fa; Xing, Jun-Ping

    2016-06-01

    To examine the relationship between risk factors for cardiac disease and erectile dysfunction (ED) in men from Xi'an, China. Participants were patients with cardiovascular disease who visited the Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Xi'an Jiaotong University First Affiliated Hospital between September 2011 and March 2012. Two hundred and fifty patients were issued with questionnaires and underwent a physical examination and blood test.Risk factors for ED were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. In total, 222 participants returned valid questionnaires (89% response rate), underwent a physical examination and blood test, and were included in the study. The most common cardiovascular diseases were hypertension (n = 142; 64%), coronary heart disease (n = 90; 41%) and angina pectoris (n = 78; 35%). Most patients (n = 144; 65%) had two or more cardiovascular diseases. Age, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol level, hypertension and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly associated with ED. Domestic location, level of education, participation in physical activity, diabetes and drinking alcohol were not associated with ED. Common risk factors for cardiovascular disease are associated with ED in patients with cardiovascular disease. This study furthers understanding of the risk factors for ED in Chinese patients with cardiovascular disease and paves the way for further research into the prevention of ED. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Can nocturnal hypertension predict cardiovascular risk?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Oded; Logan, Alexander G

    2009-01-01

    Nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping of blood pressure during sleep are distinct entities that often occur together and are regarded as important harbingers of poor cardiovascular prognosis. This review addresses several aspects related to these blood pressure abnormalities including definitions, diagnostic limitations, pathogenesis and associated patient profiles, prognostic significance, and therapeutic strategies. Taken together, persistent nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping blood pressure pattern, perhaps secondary to abnormal renal sodium handling and/or altered nocturnal sympathovagal balance, are strongly associated with deaths, cardiovascular events, and progressive loss of renal function, independent of daytime and 24-hour blood pressure. Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches may restore nocturnal blood pressure and circadian blood pressure rhythm to normal; however, whether this translates to a clinically meaningful reduction in unfavorable cardiovascular and renal consequences remains to be seen. PMID:21949613

  8. Can nocturnal hypertension predict cardiovascular risk?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Oded; Logan, Alexander G

    2009-01-01

    Nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping of blood pressure during sleep are distinct entities that often occur together and are regarded as important harbingers of poor cardiovascular prognosis. This review addresses several aspects related to these blood pressure abnormalities including definitions, diagnostic limitations, pathogenesis and associated patient profiles, prognostic significance, and therapeutic strategies. Taken together, persistent nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping blood pressure pattern, perhaps secondary to abnormal renal sodium handling and/or altered nocturnal sympathovagal balance, are strongly associated with deaths, cardiovascular events, and progressive loss of renal function, independent of daytime and 24-hour blood pressure. Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches may restore nocturnal blood pressure and circadian blood pressure rhythm to normal; however, whether this translates to a clinically meaningful reduction in unfavorable cardiovascular and renal consequences remains to be seen.

  9. Modified lipoproteins as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Quesada, José Luis; Pérez, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Prevention of high incidence of cardiovascular disease in diabetes is one of the challenges of endocrinology. Validation of new biomarkers that may contribute to a better assessment of cardiovascular risk and help implement treatment strategies is one of the promising approaches in research on prevention and reduction of cardiovascular risk. Modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a key element in development of atherosclerotic lesions. Several pathophysiological characteristics of diabetes are crucial for the LDL of these patients to have higher modification rates as compared to the healthy population. Diabetic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress synergistically promote the occurrence of lipoperoxidation, glycosylation and glycoxidation processes, which will generate modified lipoproteins that stimulate development of atherosclerosis. This article reviews the role of different types of modified LDL in development of atherosclerosis in diabetes, as well as the possibility of using its quantification in cardiovascular risk prediction. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular risk assessment and treatment in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer R; Manzi, Susan

    2009-08-01

    With improved treatment modalities and survival rates, patients with systemic lupus erythematosus live longer and their co-morbidities have become more apparent. Of great concern is cardiovascular disease, which has become a leading cause of death. Lupus patients prematurely develop atherosclerosis, which likely arises from an interaction among traditional cardiovascular risk factors, factors specific to lupus itself and inflammatory mediators. Despite these findings, lupus patients are not always adequately evaluated for traditional risk factors, many of which are treatable and reversible. We propose that lupus patients be assessed and managed regarding cardiovascular risk factors in the same manner as patients with known cardiovascular disease. As a result, preventive cardiology should be considered an essential component of the care for patients with lupus.

  11. [Raising women's awareness of cardiovascular risks].

    PubMed

    Papas, Anne

    Professor Claire Mounier-Vehier, a cardiologist and vascular specialist at Lille university regional hospital, is a leading spokesperson for women in the field of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. One of her many roles is head of the 'heart, arteries and women health care pathway' set up in 2013 at Lille university hospital. She discusses the importance of this specific and multidisciplinary care pathway at a time when epidemiological data show that the management of women's cardiovascular health has become a public health priority. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The cardiovascular polypill in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Lafeber, Melvin; Spiering, Wilko; Singh, Kavita; Guggilla, Rama K; Patil, Vinodvenkatesh; Webster, Ruth

    2012-12-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Adequate treatment of vascular risk factors, such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure are known to reduce the future risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients. However currently, large treatment gaps exist among high-risk individuals, in whom the guidelines recommend concomitant treatment with aspirin, statin, and blood-pressure lowering agents. Combining aspirin, cholesterol, and blood-pressure lowering agents into a single pill called the cardiovascular polypill has been proposed as complementary care in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in both intermediate- and high-risk patient populations. It is now a decade since the first recommendations to develop and trial cardiovascular polypills. The major scientific debate has been about the appropriate initial target population. This review article focuses on the potential role of fixed-dose combination therapy in different patient populations, outlines the pros and cons of combination therapy, and emphasizes the rationale for trialing their use. Current and planned future cardiovascular polypill trials are summarized and the pre-requisites for implementation of the polypill strategy in both primary and secondary prevention are described. The recent development of combination pills containing off-patent medications holds promise for highly affordable and effective treatment and evidence is emerging on the use of this strategy in high-risk populations.

  13. [Do sleep abnormalities contribute to cardiovascular risk in bipolar disorders?].

    PubMed

    Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Geoffroy, P-A; Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the state of knowledge concerning the relationship between cardiovascular risk, sleep abnormalities, and emotional reactivity in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). A scientific literature search of international articles was performed during August and September 2014 using the PubMed electronic database. We used the following MeSH terms : "Bipolar Disorders", "Cardiovascular risk", "Emotional reactivity", "Sleep apnea", and "Sleep disorder". Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder strongly associated with BD, which tends to fragment sleep. OSA is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, emotional hyper-reactivity is favored by "hostility" temperaments, BD and sleep deprivation. The combination of these factors interacts and also results in an increased cardiovascular risk. Taken as a whole, both sleep disorders and emotional hyper-reactivity seem to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in BD. These data emphasize the central role of sleep abnormalities and emotional reactivity in the vulnerability of BD to express cardiovascular diseases. From a clinical point of view, these data also emphasize the importance of identifying and care for sleep abnormalities in BD in order to improve BD outcome. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  14. [Control of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with diabetes with and without cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Herrero, A; Garzón, G; Gil, A; García, I; Vargas, E; Torres, N

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence that cardiovascular goals are beneficial in diabetes. To determine the distribution of cardiovascular risk levels in patients with diabetes and the clinical interventions they have received. Descriptive cross-sectional study. SERMAS (Madrid) 2010. All patients with diabetes. (n=41,096). Patients in primary or secondary prevention, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors control, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Patient and professional variables. Around one-fifth (21.5%) (95%CI: 21.1% -21.9%) in secondary prevention (very high cardiovascular risk). HbA1c was under control in 31% (95%CI: 30.1%-32%), with 49.9% (95%CI: 48.8%-50.9%) with BP under control, and 39.4% (95% CI: 38.4%-40.4%) with LDL controlled. Only 8.9% (95%CI: 8.3%-9.5%) had a well-controlled HdA1c, BP and LDL, and in 19.8% (95%CI: 19%-20.6%) none of these were under control. Of those with an uncontrolled BP, 23.6% (95% CI: 23.2%-24%) had antihypertensive drugs. There was better control in patients older than 70 years, and those who lived in an urban center, or a lower number of patients per day. In diabetic patients with very high cardiovascular risk (secondary prevention), just half of them had good control of cardiovascular risk factors (BP and LDL). An association was found between better control and older than 70, urban center or lower number of patients per day. This suggests developing strategies to promote a comprehensive control of cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients in secondary prevention. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. PMID:25848301

  16. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    PubMed

    Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed.

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk stratification and comparison in a California population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Meng, Y-Y; Leung, K-M; Jatulis, D E; Welsh, N J; Zaher, C A; Legorreta, A P

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the need for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in an HMO population and to develop appropriate interventions for individuals in different risk groups, based on risk stratification and comparison. The analysis is based on a cross-sectional survey of the HMO members of a large employer group. Respondents (n=17,878) were stratified based on the Framingham model; 34% of respondents without cardiovascular disease were classified as moderate to high attributable risk for the disease, and 66% were classified as low attributable risk. Results of logistic regression analyses suggest that, compared with respondents with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, moderate- to high-risk respondents are more likely to smoke, have unhealthy diets, and be overweight, hypertensive, and hypercholesterolemic. More low-risk respondents had unhealthy diets than did those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. There were no differences between these groups for physical activity and stress. Respondents had fewer modifiable risk factors and healthier lifestyles than did those who were at risk. These findings suggest that primary prevention should be enhanced, especially among those with significantly increased risk for the disease. Moreover, the approaches of this project-population-based risk assessment, stratification, and comparison-were instrumental in identifying the target population and designing appropriate interventions. (c) 2001 by CHF, Inc.

  18. Sleep characteristics and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents: an enumerative review.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Karen A; Pantesco, Elizabeth J M

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors develop in childhood and adolescence. This enumerative review addresses whether sleep characteristics, including sleep duration, continuity, quality, and daytime sleepiness, are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in young people. Thirty-nine studies were identified, which examined the following risk factors: metabolic syndrome, glucose and insulin, lipids, blood pressure, and cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors. Due to the availability of other reviews, 16 longitudinal studies of obesity published in 2011 and later were also included in this report. Excluded from the review were studies of participants with suspected or diagnosed sleep disorders and reports from sleep deprivation experiments. Combining studies, evidence was strongest for obesity, followed by glucose, insulin, blood pressure (especially ambulatory blood pressure), and parasympathetic responses to psychological stressors. There was little evidence for metabolic syndrome cluster, lipids, and blood pressure responses to psychological stressors. The more positive associations were obtained for studies that incorporated objective measures of sleep and that included adolescents. The foundational evidence is almost entirely cross-sectional, except for work on obesity. In summary, available evidence suggests that the associations between sleep characteristics and cardiovascular risk vary by risk factor. It is time to conduct studies to determine antecedent and consequent relationships, and to expand risk factors to include markers of inflammation.

  19. Congenital cerebral palsy, child sex and parent cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Streja, Elani; Wu, Chunsen; Uldall, Peter; Grove, Jakob; Arah, Onyebuchi; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP) and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child's 10(th) birthday. We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-2.00), attributable mostly to an increased incidence of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. After additional adjustment for preterm birth, the association was markedly attenuated for cardiovascular disease (1.34, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.76), became nonsignificant for hypertension, but remained significant for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.45- 5.12). There was no increased risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of female CP children, or fathers of CP children of any sex. Women that have a male child with CP are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Part of this association may be related to risk factors for preterm births.

  20. Radiation as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, John E.; Hopewell, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Humans are continually exposed to ionizing radiation from terrestrial sources. The two major contributors to radiation exposure of the U.S. population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.7–6.2 mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1945–1956. PMID:21091078

  1. Integrative Treatments to Reduce Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Ryan; Oberg, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the contribution and interrelatedness of lipoprotein risk factors is critical to prioritizing treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Lipoprotein factors still dominate risk for developing cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction. Some emerging risk factors such as C-reactive protein are gaining acceptance due to recent prospective clinical trials demonstrating clinical benefit in reducing these markers. Other emerging risk factors, including lipoprotein particle size, remain to be validated. In this second article of a 2-part series, we will begin with a review of formal risk assessment, discussing the contribution of multiple “risky” and “healthy” components that play a part in overall cardiovascular health. Following risk assessment, we will discuss evidence-based integrative therapies that can be used to modify any risky lipoprotein and inflammatory patient profiles, including medications, functional foods, supplements, and lifestyle approaches. The focus is on low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein. Understanding the interrelatedness of lipoprotein risk factors, and finding efficient methods of treating multiple risk factors simultaneously, will not only improve the long-term health of patients but will also save on the expenditure of healthcare dollars for unnecessary testing and ineffective treatments. Integrative practitioners who understand the contribution of lifestyle factors, and who have numerous effective treatment options at their disposal, are well positioned to counsel patients on cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:21461347

  2. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in grade nine students.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Dawn; Kilty, Heather Lee; Stearne, Karen; Dobbin, Stafford W

    2008-01-01

    The Niagara Schools' Healthy Heart Program (NSHHP) is a health education and intervention program offered to students enrolled in a grade nine physical education course. The program involves completion of a family history and a self-report lifestyle survey, measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and random total cholesterol levels, a heart education class, and CPR training. The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of cardiovascular risk for adolescents enrolled in the program. A secondary analysis was conducted using data collected by the NSHHP staff to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in grade nine students for the school year 2006. Specific risk factors studied were smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol level and blood pressure. A total of 3,639 students from 30 schools participated. Almost 14% of students had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Body mass index was found to be the highest risk factor (13.7%) and total random cholesterol level (5%) was found to be the lowest risk factor in this sample. There were differences in prevalence rates between male and female students for all risk factors except elevated blood pressure. Five per cent of the students were referred to a family physician for follow-up, mostly for high cholesterol readings. The findings suggest that adolescents do have cardiovascular risk factors and prevention could be targeted to this population. These risk factors were already established by the time the students reached adolescence. The findings support conducting early prevention with younger children and adolescents.

  3. Cardiovascular disorders risk factors in different industries of iran.

    PubMed

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2013-06-01

    Disorders of cardiovascular system can cause disability or death, screening is necessary specially in workers who maybe had risk factors. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, genetic, exposure to chemicals, fumes, solvents, coldness are non occupational and occupational risk factors. Objective was comparison of cardiovascular disorders risk factors between workers in different industries of Iran. In a cross-sectional study, workers of automobile, food industries and light works had been selected and cardiovascular disorders risk factors had been gathered then data analyzed in SPSS with one-way ANOVA, Chi-2 and multi nominal logistic regression with P < 0.05. 875 workers had been participated in the study, all of the cardiovascular disorders risk factors were in the normal range. Mean of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in food industry workers was 63.83 ± 17.42 mg/dl and it was protective, but in workers who work in automobile industry was 38.97 ± 11.08 mg/dl and the lowest, Also hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were more prominent in this industry and after regression with P < 0.05, the differences were significant. Screening of cardiovascular disorders risk factors were important and helpful in industries specially automobile industry, that might be preventive method for these disorders in the future.

  4. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  5. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  6. Association of MR-proadrenomedullin with cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Johannes Tobias; Tzikas, Stergios; Funke-Kaiser, Anne; Wilde, Sandra; Appelbaum, Sebastian; Keller, Till; Ojeda-Echevarria, Francisco; Zeller, Tanja; Zwiener, Isabella; Sinning, Christoph R; Jagodzinski, Annika; Schnabel, Renate B; Lackner, Karl J; Münzel, Thomas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Wild, Philipp S; Sydow, Karsten

    2013-06-01

    Midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a protein, which exerts various effects on the cardiovascular system. Recent studies underscored its prognostic implications in patients with acute dyspnea and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we aimed to determine the distribution of MR-proADM in the general population and to reveal potential associations of MR-proADM with cardiovascular risk factors and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease. MR-proADM plasma concentrations were determined in individuals of the population-based cohort of the Gutenberg Health Study (N = 5000) using a commercially available fluoroimmunoassay. Individuals were enrolled between April 2007 and October 2008. Subclinical cardiovascular disease was assessed using echocardiographic and functional measures of myocardial and vascular function. The mean age of the study population was 55.5 ± 10.9 years. In the overall population we determined a median MR-proADM plasma concentration of 0.44 nmol/L in men and women. MR-proADM concentrations were elevated in individuals with hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, known cardiovascular disease, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and history of myocardial infarction and stroke. In men, we observed a positive association of MR-proADM with reduced ejection fraction, intraventricular septal diameter, wall thickness, and echocardiographic measures of diastolic dysfunction. In this study, we present age-dependent reference values for MR-proADM in a representative population sample. Elevated MR-proADM plasma concentrations were strongly associated with classical cardiovascular risk factors and manifest cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, we revealed a gender-specific association with echocardiographic measures of hypertension. MR-proADM seems to be a promising prognostic biomarker for subclinical and manifest cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hormonal contraception and risk of cardiovascular disease. An international perspective.

    PubMed

    Farley, T M; Collins, J; Schlesselman, J J

    1998-03-01

    The most frequent major adverse effect of hormonal contraception is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The effect on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) differs and is strongly influenced by smoking and the presence of other cardiovascular risks factors, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The incidence of each disease rises with age and there are differences in risk among hormonal contraceptive preparations. This article provides a framework within which to assess the balance of risks among types of hormonal contraceptives according to individual circumstances. Data on cardiovascular disease mortality rates in women of reproductive age in different countries of the world were compiled from nationally reported statistics and supplemented where possible with reported disease incidence rates. Risks associated with current use of hormonal contraception were compiled from the most recent publications on the cardiovascular effects of steroid hormone contraception. These were combined to estimate the total cardiovascular incidence and mortality according to baseline cardiovascular risk and individual characteristics. Mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases are very low in women of reproductive age. Myocardial infarction mortality rates rise from < 0.4 per 100,000 woman-years at age 15-24 years to the range 2 to 7 per 100,000 woman-years at age 35-44 years. Stroke mortality rates similarly rise steeply with age and are between 3 and 5 times higher than those for MI. VTE mortality rates rise less steeply with age and are approximately one-tenth the MI mortality rates at age 35-44 years. The adverse effect of oral contraceptives (OC) on the risk of VTE is the most important contributor to the total number of cardiovascular cases attributable to OC use. The increased risk of stroke and MI dominate the patterns of mortality in OC users and smokers. The additional risks attributable to

  8. Serum bilirubin levels and cardiovascular disease risk: a Janus Bifrons?

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Targher, Giovanni; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    This review examines in vitro and in vivo studies, indicating that bilirubin inhibits lipid oxidation and oxygen radical formation. Experimental and epidemiological evidence is presented that suggests that bilirubin may serve as a physiological antioxidant providing protection against cardiovascular disease. Special attention is focused on large prospective studies that noted a strong, inverse relationship between serum bilirubin concentrations and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality even after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Overall, the evidence from these studies suggests that bilirubin, via its antioxidant potential, has antiatherogenic properties, and that serum bilirubin concentrations in the upper portion of the reference interval for the general population may provide some protection against cardiovascular disease, whereas concentrations in the lower portion of the reference interval indicate increased cardiovascular risk.

  9. Diabetes Mellitus, Arterial Wall, and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kozakova, Michaela; Palombo, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to develop heart disease or stroke than adults without diabetes. The two major features of diabetes, i.e., hyperglycemia and insulin-resistance, trigger arterial stiffening and increase the susceptibility of the arterial wall to atherosclerosis at any given age. These pathological changes in the arterial wall may provide a functional and structural background for cardiovascular events. The present paper provides a critical overview of the clinical evidence linking diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities to cardiovascular risk, debates the pathophysiologic mechanisms through which insulin resistance and hyperglycemia may affect the arterial wall, and discusses the associations between vascular biomarkers, metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular events. PMID:26861377

  10. [New populations at increased cardiovascular risk: Cardiovascular disease in dermatological diseases].

    PubMed

    Godoy-Gijón, Elena; Meseguer-Yebra, Carmen; Palacio-Aller, Lucía; Godoy-Rocati, Diego Vicente; Lahoz-Rallo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The increased cardiovascular risk in some dermatological diseases has been demonstrated in recent decades. Diseases such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus are currently included in the guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Other diseases such as androgenic alopecia, polycystic ovary syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa or lichen planus have numerous studies that point to an increased risk, however, they have not been included in these guidelines. In this article we review the evidence supporting this association, in order to alert the clinician to the need for greater control in cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Text Messaging in Cardiovascular Risk Factor Optimization.

    PubMed

    Klimis, Harry; Khan, Mohammad Ehsan; Kok, Cindy; Chow, Clara K

    2017-01-01

    Many cases of CVD may be avoidable through lowering behavioural risk factors such as smoking and physical inactivity. Mobile health (mHealth) provides a novel opportunity to deliver cardiovascular prevention programs in a format that is potentially scalable. Here, we provide an overview of text messaging-based mHealth interventions in cardiovascular prevention. Text messaging-based interventions appear effective on a range of behavioural risk factors and can effect change on multiple risk factors-e.g. smoking, weight, blood pressure-simultaneously. For many texting studies, there are challenges in interpretation as many texting interventions are part of larger complex interventions making it difficult to determine the benefits of the separate components. Whilst there is evidence for text messaging improving cardiovascular risk factor levels in the short-term, future studies are needed to examine the durability of these effects and whether they can be translated to improvements in clinical care and outcomes.

  12. [Vigilance level for cardiovascular risk factors in schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Rouillon, F; Van Ganse, E; Vekhoff, P; Arnaud, R; Depret-Bixio, L; Dillenschneider, A

    2015-02-01

    Schizophrenic patients have increased cardiovascular risk factors and morbi-mortality as compared with the general population. To assess the level of French psychiatrists vigilance regarding cardiovascular risk factors in schizophrenic patients. Prospective, transverse, multicentric observational study implemented in France in 2007 and conducted by psychiatrists with a liberal activity. The included patients had to meet the following selection criteria: patients ≥ 18 years old, fulfilling the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, treated or not treated for their schizophrenia, with an ambulatory follow-up, without schizophreniform, schizoaffective, or other psychotic disorder. The psychiatrists "vigilance level" for a given cardiovascular risk factor was defined as a systematic investigation of this cardiovascular risk factor for at least 75% of the schizophrenic patients included in the study by the psychiatrist. A total of 382 psychiatrists included 2242 patients, the data collected for 2222 patients were finally analysed. The mean age was 41 years old, 59% were men. The mean BMI was 27 kg/m(2), 34% of the patients were overweight, 23% were obese. The paranoid and residual schizophrenia were the most frequently described subtypes of the disease (41.3 and 25.0% respectively), 58% of the patients were moderately or markedly ill according to the CGI-S scale. Most of the patients were treated with atypical antipsychotics (77%). Only 58% of the psychiatrists were vigilant for the weight of their patients, 38% for the arterial tension, 25% for the family history of premature coronary disease, 14% for the glycemia, 12% for the triglycerides, 10% for HDL cholesterol, 6% for the waist measurement; 35% of the psychiatrists were vigilant for no cardiovascular risk factor. Less than 30% of the psychiatrists recommended their patients to other specialists to manage cardiovascular disorders. Similarly to other countries, French psychiatrists provide insufficient care of

  13. Does fitness improve the cardiovascular risk profile in obese subjects?

    PubMed

    Halland, H; Lønnebakken, M T; Saeed, S; Midtbø, H; Cramariuc, D; Gerdts, E

    2017-06-01

    Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. We explored the association of fitness with the prevalences of major cardiovascular risk factor like hypertension (HT), diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight and obese subjects. Clinical data from 491 participants in the FAT associated CardiOvasculaR dysfunction (FATCOR) study were analyzed. Physical fitness was assessed by ergospirometry, and subjects with at least good level of performance for age and sex were classified as fit. HT subtypes were identified from clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in combination. Diabetes was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. MetS was defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The participants were on average 48 years old (60% women), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 32 kg/m(2). 28% of study participants were classified as fit. Fitness was not associated with lower prevalences of HT or HT subtypes, diabetes, MetS or individual MetS components (all p > 0.05). In multivariable regression analysis, being fit was characterized by lower waist circumference, BMI < 30 kg/m(2), non-smoking and a higher muscle mass (all p < 0.05). In the FATCOR population, fitness was not associated with a lower prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors like HT, diabetes or MetS. Given the strong association of cardiovascular risk factor burden with risk of clinical cardiovascular disease, these findings challenge the notion that fitness alone is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiovascular risk and the use of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Pawel; Szpotanska-Sikorska, Monika; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    The use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is associated with approximately 2-fold and over 4-fold increased relative risks of arterial and venous thromboembolic events, respectively. The highest risk of venous thromboembolism occurs in the first year of use (OR: 4.17) and is reduced to 2.76 over baseline risk after 4 years of therapy. The risk of myocardial infarction does not correlate to the length of therapy and disappears after treatment termination. Most of women, using COCs, have low absolute cardiovascular risks and benefits outweigh the risk associated with this method of birth control. However, in some cases, COCs may be contraindicated due to excessively increased cardiovascular risks. Current users of COCs, older than 35 years, appear to show an estimated 2.5-fold and 10-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism in comparison to younger than 35 years COCs non-users and users, respectively. COCs users, who are current smokers, have 10-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction, whereas the risk of stroke increases nearly 3-fold. The presence of poorly controlled hypertension is associated with approximately 3-fold increased risks of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, while the risk of haemorrhagic stroke rises 15-fold. In women suffering from hypertension, discontinuation of COCs may improve blood pressure control. Women, who had their blood pressure measured before COCs use, have 2-2.5-fold decreased risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke. In women with multiple cardiovascular risk factors the use of progestogen-only contraceptives (POCs) should be considered. POC therapy is associated with substantially less risk of cardiovascular events than COCs.

  15. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Cardiovascular Risk: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Burlina, S.; Dalfrà, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus is increasing in parallel with the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world. Current evidence strongly suggests that women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Given the growing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, it is important to identify appropriate reliable markers of cardiovascular disease and specific treatment strategies capable of containing obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in the women affected. PMID:27956897

  16. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  17. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  18. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in menopausal Argentinian women.

    PubMed

    Etchegoyen, G S; Ortiz, D; Goya, R G; Sala, C; Panzica, E; Sevillano, A; Dron, N

    1995-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk factor profile was assessed in a population sample consisting of 60 nonmenopausal (control) and 100 menopausal women from different cities in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Each subject was individually interviewed and asked to complete a specially designed questionnaire aimed at identifying cardiovascular risk factors. A clinical general and gynecological examination including blood pressure and anthropometric measurements as well as a Papanicolaou smear were performed. The most prevalent risk factor in the menopausal group was low physical activity (87% of the subjects), followed by nervous complaints (67%), obesity (64%), familial antecedents of cardiovascular disease (CVD; 38%) and hypertension (33%). Other risk factors assessed showed a level of prevalence below 10%. In the control group, a tobacco smoking habit was the CVD risk factor with the highest prevalence (47%). Nervous complaints also showed a high prevalence (48%). Most menopausal patients (77%) had a cardiovascular risk index (RI) level between 1.5 and 4.0, whereas 17% of these subjects had an RI greater than 4.0 (high-risk patients). The present study reveals that, in the studied community, the menopause is associated with increased levels of both estrogen-dependent and psychosocial risk factors for CVD.

  19. Targeting Preschool Children to Promote Cardiovascular Health: Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, Jaime; Briceño, German; Farkouh, Michael E.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Baxter, Jorge; Leal, Martha; Boffetta, Paolo; Woodward, Mark; Hunn, Marilyn; Dennis, Rodolfo; Fuster, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND School programs can be effective in modifying knowledge, attitudes, and habits relevant to long-term risk of chronic diseases associated with sedentary lifestyles. As part of a long-term research strategy, we conducted an educational intervention in preschool facilities to assess changes in preschoolers’ knowledge, attitudes, and habits toward healthy eating and living an active lifestyle. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 14 preschool facilities in Bogotá, Colombia to a 5-month educational and playful intervention (7 preschool facilities) or to usual curriculum (7 preschool facilities). A total of 1216 children aged 3–5 years, 928 parents, and 120 teachers participated. A structured survey was used at baseline, at the end of the study, and 12 months later to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitudes, and habits. RESULTS Children in the intervention group showed a 10.9% increase in weighted score, compared with 5.3% in controls. The absolute adjusted difference was 3.90 units (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64–6.16; P <.001). Among parents, the equivalent statistics were 8.9% and 3.1%, respectively (absolute difference 4.08 units; 95% CI, 2.03 to 6.12; P <.001), and among teachers, 9.4% and 2.5%, respectively (absolute difference 5.36 units; 95% CI, −0.29–11.01; P = .06). In the intervened cohort 1 year after the intervention, children still showed a significant increase in weighted score (absolute difference of 6.38 units; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS A preschool-based intervention aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and habits related to healthy diet and active lifestyle is feasible, efficacious, and sustainable in very young children. PMID:23062403

  20. Krill oil for cardiovascular risk prevention: is it for real?

    PubMed

    Backes, James M; Howard, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in cardiovascular health. Although it is suggested that individuals obtain these nutrients through diet, many prefer to rely on supplements. Fish oil supplements are widely used, yet large capsule sizes and tolerability make them less than ideal. Recently, krill oil has emerged as a potential alternative for omega-3 supplementation. This article will discuss what is known about krill oil and its potential use in cardiovascular risk prevention.

  1. Krill Oil for Cardiovascular Risk Prevention: Is It for Real?

    PubMed Central

    Backes, James M.; Howard, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in cardiovascular health. Although it is suggested that individuals obtain these nutrients through diet, many prefer to rely on supplements. Fish oil supplements are widely used, yet large capsule sizes and tolerability make them less than ideal. Recently, krill oil has emerged as a potential alternative for omega-3 supplementation. This article will discuss what is known about krill oil and its potential use in cardiovascular risk prevention. PMID:25477562

  2. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: a comparison of commonly used risk scoring programs.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Sükrü

    2013-12-01

    Several calculation modalities are used today for cardiovascular risk assessment. Cardiovascular risk assessment should be performed in all hypertensive patients. Risk assessment methods being based on the population in which the patient lives and the inclusion of factors such as ethnicity variations, socioeconomic status, and medication use will contribute to improvements in risk assessments. The results should be shared with the patient, and modifiable risk factors must be effectively treated.

  3. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    do Prado Junior, Pedro Paulo; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: los cambios en el estilo de vida están relacionados con la exposición temprana de los adolescentes a las comorbilidades asociadas a la enfermedad cardiovascular. Estas condiciones pueden tener consecuencias en la edad adulta. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de riesgo cardiovascular y factores asociados en las tres fases de la adolescencia. Métodos: estudio transversal que incluye a adolescentes de 10-19 años en la ciudad de Viçosa, distribuidos en tres fases. Se evaluaron las pruebas de laboratorio, el índice de masa corporal clasificadas en Z-score, según el sexo y la edad, y el porcentaje de grasa corporal, clasificados por sexo. Se utilizó la prueba de chi-cuadrado, la partición de chi-cuadrado con corrección de Bonferroni y la regresión de Poisson. El nivel de significación fue < 0,05. El proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la UFV en humanos. Resultados: el sobrepeso, la grasa corporal, el perfil lipídico, el comportamiento sedentario y la historia de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la familia fueron los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más prevalentes entre los adolescentes. Los adolescentes tenían tasas más altas de sobrepeso y grasa. En cuanto a las etapas, la inicial mostró un mayor porcentaje de individuos con comportamiento sedentario, sobrepeso y colesterol total y LDL en comparación con otras fases. Los individuos con cambios en el estado nutricional eran más propensos a desarrollar hipertensión, cambios en el colesterol total, LDL, triglicéridos, insulina, HOMA y HDL bajo, en comparación con los individuos sanos. Conclusiones: los factores de riesgo cardiovascular se han observado en personas cada vez más jóvenes y son factores importantes para identificar una población en riesgo.

  4. [Cardiovascular risk factors prevalence among patients with dyslipidemia in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Machado-Alba, Jorge E; Machado-Duque, Manuel E

    2013-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the ten years risk of cardio-cerebrovascular event in patients with dyslipidemia who were affiliated to the Colombian health system. A retrospective study was carried out in a random and stratified sample of 551 patients with dyslipidemia, from a population of 41,201 people with lipid-lowering therapy in ten Colombian cities between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical variables were taken from medical records, as well as risk factors. To establish the 10-year cardiovascular risk was used Framingham algorithm. 311 patients were included, 56.4% of them were women, mean age 64.9 ± 10.8 years. The mean probability of developing a cardiovascular event at 10 years was 14%. Other cardiovascular risk factors found were hypertension (93.2%), male older than 55 years (35.8%), women older than 65 years (28.1%), diabetes mellitus (28.5%), family history of coronary heart disease (17.2%), personal history of heart disease or stroke (16.7%) and smoking (6.4%). The types of dyslipidemia by frequency were: mixed (46.6%), isolated hypercholesterolemia (29.4%) and hypertriglyceridaemia (20.3%). Patients were men and women older than 65 years, mainly suffering mixed dyslipidemia, and have a 14.0% probability of suffering a cardiovascular event in the next 10 years. It should promote healthy public policies to reduce the presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  5. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; de Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults. Methods The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (χ2) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05). Results The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed. Conclusion The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue. PMID:26466060

  6. Cardiovascular risk associated with sodium-containing medicines.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M; George, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    It is widely recognized that excess sodium intake increases the risk of hypertension, and this subsequently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Although efforts are being made to reduce sodium intake in the population in general, there are concerns that a considerable sodium load can be ingested via certain effervescent, dispersible, and soluble formulations of medicines. Reducing dietary sodium intake in the general population has resulted in a significant reduction in cardiovascular disease outcomes. However, no previous studies have highlighted the potential risk of cardiovascular disease by taking sodium-containing medicines such as soluble forms of aspirin, paracetamol, ibuprofen, and other common drugs. We recently conducted a nested case-control study in the UK general population using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink to study the long-term use of sodium-containing medicines and cardiovascular outcomes. The results showed that compared with standard formulations, patients who took sodium-containing medicines were 16% more likely to develop cardiovascular events (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 - 1.21). The risks for stroke and hypertension were even higher, (1.22 [1.16 - 1.29] and 7.18 [6.74 - 7.65]), respectively. Sodium-containing formulations should be prescribed with caution only if the perceived benefits outweigh the risks.

  7. Vasomotor symptoms, estradiol levels and cardiovascular risk profile in women.

    PubMed

    Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Samsioe, Göran N; Grobbee, Diederick E; Nilsson, Peter M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2010-07-01

    We investigated whether menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are related to an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Furthermore, we examined the association between estradiol levels and VMS, and whether an association between VMS and cardiovascular risk factors can be explained by estradiol levels. We used data from a Swedish population-based sample of 5857 women, aged 50-64 years. Data on VMS and potential confounders were collected by questionnaires. Body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), glucose, blood pressure, lipid profile and estradiol levels were measured. Symptoms of flushing/sweats were reported by 55% and sweats by 31% of all women. Estradiol concentrations were significantly lower in women with VMS. After multivariate adjustment, women with symptoms of sweats had a statistically significantly higher BMI, waist hip ratio, total cholesterol level, LDL level, triglycerides level, glucose level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These patterns did not change after correction for estradiol. The associations between flushing/sweats combined and cardiovascular risk factors were less pronounced. Women with VMS have a less favorable cardiovascular risk profile. Although estradiol levels were significantly lower among women with VMS, the increased cardiovascular risk profile cannot be explained by circulating estradiol levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between low education and higher global cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Scaglione, Alessandra; Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of educational status on global cardiovascular risk in a southern Italian urban population. The study population consisted of 488 consecutive outpatients aged 18 years and older. Educational status was categorized according to the number of years of formal education as follows: (1) low education group (<10 years) and (2) medium-high education group (10-15 years). In both groups, cardiometabolic comorbidities (obesity, visceral obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, microalbuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy) and global cardiovascular risk, according to international guidelines, were analyzed. Left ventricular mass index and ejection fraction by echocardiography and E/A ratio, by pulsed-wave Doppler, were calculated. The low education group was characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of patients with visceral obesity (P=.021), hypertension (P=.010), metabolic syndrome (P=.000), and microalbuminuria (P=.000) and greater global cardiovascular risk (P=.000). Significantly increased levels of microalbuminuria (P=.000) and significantly decreased values of E/A ratio (P=.000) were also detected in the low education group. Global cardiovascular risk correlated directly with waist-to-hip ratio (P=.010), microalbuminuria (P=.015), and the metabolic syndrome (P>.012) and inversely with educational status (P=.000). Education was independently (P=.000) associated with global cardiovascular risk. These data indicate a strong association between low education and cardiometabolic comorbidities suitable to influence the evolution of chronic degenerative diseases. Preventive strategies need to be more efficient and more effective in this patient population.

  9. Relationship between sleep duration and Framingham cardiovascular risk score and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Im, Eui; Kim, Gwang-Sil

    2017-09-01

    Studies have shown sleep duration to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension. However, whether sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the prevalence of CVD irrespective of conventional CV-risk factor, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, has not been well established for the Korean population.A total of 23,878 individuals aged 18 years or older from the 2007-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. We evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and CV-event risk using the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FRS; ≥10% or ≥20%) and the prevalence of CVD.After adjusting for traditional risk factors of CVD, a short sleep duration (≤5 hours) yielded odds ratios (OR) of 1.344 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.200-1.505) for intermediate to high risk and 1.357 (95% CI, 1.140-1.614) for high risk. A long sleep duration (≥9 hours) was also associated with both intermediate to high (OR 1.142, 95% CI 1.011-1.322) and high cardiovascular FRS (OR 1.276, 95% CI 1.118-1.457).Both short and long sleep durations were related with high CVD risk, irrespective of established CVD risk, and a short sleep duration was associated with a higher prevalence of CVD than an optimal or long sleep duration.

  10. Prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia in primary care patients at moderate-very high risk of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk perception.

    PubMed

    Plana, Nuria; Ibarretxe, Daiana; Cabré, Anna; Ruiz, Emilio; Masana, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aim to determine atherogenic dyslipidemia prevalence in primary care patients at moderate-very high cardiovascular risk and its associated cardiovascular risk perception in Spain. This cross-sectional study included 1137 primary care patients. Patients had previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, SCORE risk ≥ 3, severe hypertension or dyslipidemia. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as low HDL-C (<40 mg/dL [males], <50 mg/dL [females]) and elevated triglycerides (≥ 150 mg/dL). A visual analog scale was used to define a perceived cardiovascular disease risk score. Mean age was 63.9 ± 9.7 years (64.6% males). The mean BMI was 29.1 ± 4.3 kg/m(2), and mean waist circumference 104.2 ± 12.7 cm (males), and 97.2 ± 14.0 cm (females). 29.4% were smokers, 76.4% had hypertension, 48.0% were diabetics, 24.7% had previous myocardial infarction, and 17.8% peripheral arterial disease. European guidelines classified 83.6% at very high cardiovascular risk. Recommended HDL-C levels were achieved by 50.1% of patients and 37.3% had triglycerides in the reference range. Target LDL-C was achieved by 8.8%. The overall atherogenic dyslipidemia prevalence was 27.1% (34.1% in diabetics). This prevalence in patients achieving target LDL-C was 21.4%. Cardiovascular risk perceived by patients was 4.3/10, while primary care physicians scored 5.7/10. When LDL-C levels are controlled, atherogenic dyslipidemia is more prevalent in those patients at highest cardiovascular risk and with diabetes. This highlights the importance of intervention strategies to prevent the residual vascular risk in this population. Both patients and physicians underestimated cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Do women with fibromyalgia present higher cardiovascular disease risk profile than healthy women? The al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Manzano, Pedro; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Gavilán-Carrera, Blanca; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the cardiovascular disease risk profile of women with fibromyalgia and compare it with control women; and to test whether physical activity is associated with the cardiovascular disease risk profile in this population. This cross-sectional study comprised 436 women with fibromyalgia (51.4±7.5 years old) and 217 controls (48.4±9.6 years old) from Andalusia, Spain. Clinical data, waist circumference, body fat percentage, resting heart rate, blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was objectively assessed with accelerometry. A clustering of individual cardiovascular disease risk factors was represented by the number of cigarettes/day, adiposity, mean arterial pressure, resting heart rate and cardiorespiratory fitness. Women with fibromyalgia presented higher waist circumference and body fat percentage, greater number of cigarettes/day consumption and lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness after controlling for age, marital status, educational level, occupational status, medication for cholesterol and monthly regular menstruation (all, p<.05). Women with fibromyalgia showed higher clustered cardiovascular disease risk than control women after controlling for the potential confounders described above (p<.001). Women with fibromyalgia who did not meet moderate-to-vigorous physical activity recommendations showed increased clustered cardiovascular disease risk after adjusting for the potential confounders described above (p<.001). Women with fibromyalgia may present higher risk of cardiovascular disease than controls. Inadequate levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity may play a significant role as an additional predisposing factor for cardiovascular disease risk in this population.

  12. The CLUES study: a cluster randomized clinical trial for the evaluation of cardiovascular guideline implementation in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The appropriate care for people with cardiovascular risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality. One strategy for improving the care for these patients involves the implementation of evidence-based guidelines. To date, little research concerning the impact of such implementation strategies in our setting has been published. Aims. To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted tailored intervention in the implementation of three cardiovascular risk-related guidelines (hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia) in primary care in the Basque Health Service compared with usual implementation. Methods/Design A two-year cluster randomized clinical trial in primary care in two districts in the Basque Health Service. All primary care units are randomized. Data from all patients with diabetes, hypertension and those susceptible to coronary risk screening will be analyzed. Interventions. The control group will receive standard implementation. The experimental group will receive a multifaceted tailored implementation strategy, including a specific web page and workshops for family physicians and nurses. Endpoints. Primary endpoints: annual request for glycosylated hemoglobin, basic laboratory tests for hypertension, cardiovascular risk screening (women between 45–74 and men between 40–74 years old). Secondary endpoints: other process and clinical guideline indicators. Analysis: Data will be extracted from centralized computerized medical records. Analysis will be performed at a primary care unit level weighted by cluster size. Discussion The main contribution of our study is that it seeks to identify an effective strategy for cardiovascular guideline implementation in primary care in our setting. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN88876909 PMID:24156549

  13. Noninvasive Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of the Asymptomatic Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Budoff, Matthew J.; Raggi, Paolo; Beller, George A.; Berman, Daniel S.; Druz, Regina S.; Malik, Shaista; Rigolin, Vera H.; Weigold, Wm. Guy; Soman, Prem

    2017-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes is well established; diabetes is associated with at least a 2-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease. Approximately two-thirds of deaths among persons with diabetes are related to cardiovascular disease. Previously, diabetes was regarded as a “coronary risk equivalent,” implying a high 10-year cardiovascular risk for every diabetes patient. Following the original study by Haffner et al., multiple studies from different cohorts provided varying conclusions on the validity of the concept of coronary risk equivalency in patients with diabetes. New guidelines have started to acknowledge the heterogeneity in risk and include different treatment recommendations for diabetic patients without other risk factors who are considered to be at lower risk. Furthermore, guidelines have suggested that further risk stratification in patients with diabetes is warranted before universal treatment. The Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology systematically reviewed all modalities commonly used for risk stratification in persons with diabetes mellitus and summarized the data and recommendations. This document reviews the evidence regarding the use of noninvasive testing to stratify asymptomatic patients with diabetes with regard to coronary heart disease risk and develops an algorithm for screening based on available data. PMID:26846937

  14. Influence of Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyle Characteristics on Cardiovascular Disease After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eric J.; Baker, K. Scott; Lee, Stephanie J.; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L.; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Khera, Nandita; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Syrjala, Karen L.; Martin, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on the risk of cardiovascular disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients and Methods HCT survivors of ≥ 1 year treated from 1970 to 2010 (n = 3,833) were surveyed from 2010 to 2011 on current cardiovascular health and related lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, recreational physical activity). Responses (n = 2,362) were compared with those from a matched general population sample (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES]; n = 1,192). Results Compared with NHANES participants, HCT survivors (median age, 55.9 years; median 10.8 years since HCT; 71.3% allogeneic) had higher rates of cardiomyopathy (4.0% v 2.6%), stroke (4.8% v 3.3%), dyslipidemia (33.9% v 22.3%), and diabetes (14.3% v 11.7%; P < .05 for all comparisons). Prevalence of hypertension was similar (27.9% v 30.0%), and survivors were less likely to have ischemic heart disease (6.1% v 8.9%; P < .01). Among HCT survivors, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were independent risk factors for ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy, and smoking was associated with ischemic heart disease and diabetes (odds ratios [ORs], 1.8 to 2.1; P = .02). Obesity was a risk factor for post-transplantation hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes (ORs ≥ 2.0; P < .001). In contrast, lower fruit/vegetable intake was associated with greater risk of dyslipidemia and diabetes (ORs, 1.4 to 1.8; P ≤ .01), and lower physical activity level was associated with greater risk of hypertension and diabetes (ORs, 1.4 to 1.5; P < .05). Healthier lifestyle characteristics among HCT survivors attenuated risk of all cardiovascular conditions assessed. Conclusion Attention of clinicians to conventional cardiovascular risk factors and modifiable lifestyle characteristics offers hope of reducing serious cardiovascular morbidity after HCT. PMID:24297944

  15. [Risk perception and communication: from diabetes to cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Gianinazzi, F; Bodenmann, P; Izzo, F; Voeffray Favre, A C; Rossi, I; Ruiz, J

    2010-06-09

    Evidence-based medicine has enabled to approach disease in a more rational and scientific way. Clinical research has identified behaviours and risk factors that could cause disease often "silent" at the beginning, such as diabetes. Despite the clear impact of these evidences on public health, it seems that the individual risk perception level remains weak. To mention as well, the health professionals very often have a different views, which makes it difficult to communicate the risk with patients. In this article we describe the principles of risk perception, the diabetes related risk perception concerning cardiovascular complications, and suggest some practical strategies and tools which could improve risk communication in the everyday practice.

  16. [Cardiovascular risk factors in psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Rebrov, A P; Nikitina, N M; Gaĭdukova, I Z

    2011-01-01

    To study the role of conventional and new factors of cardiovascular risk in development of atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PA). Sixty patients with psoriatic arthritis, 414 RA patients and 79 healthy controls entered the trial. All of them had no manifestations of cardiovascular diseases. Screening was made of the leading risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular complications, thickness of the complex intima-media (TIM) of the carotid arteries, vascular wall stiffness were measured, vasoregulatory function of the endothelium, markers of endothelial damage were examined. Patients with psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis were found to have increased TIM of the carotid arteries, high incidence of atherosclerotic plaques, increased stiffness, damage of the vascular wall, affected endothelial vasoregulation. These alterations were associated with high arthritis activity, systemic manifestations, seropositivity by rheumatoid factor (in RA), presence of entesitis, uveitis and dactilitis (in psoriatic arthritis), dislipidemia, arterial hypertension (AH). To determine cardiovascular risk in patients with arthritis, it is necessary to consider not only standard risk factors (dislipidemia and AH), but also severity of systemic inflammation, arterial stiffness, endothelial damage and ability of the vascular wall to relax reflecting endothelial dysfunction.

  17. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  18. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  19. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among College Students: Knowledge, Perception, and Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Dieu-My T.; Zimmerman, Lani M.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Shurmur, Scott W.; Pullen, Carol H.; Yates, Bernice C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. Participants: The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience…

  20. Nocturnal indicators of increased cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Waloszek, Joanna M; Woods, Michael J; Byrne, Michelle L; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Murray, Greg; Raniti, Monika; Allen, Nicholas B; Trinder, John

    2016-04-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults, and recent literature suggests preclinical signs of cardiovascular risk are also present in depressed adolescents. No study has examined the effect of clinical depression on cardiovascular factors during sleep. This study examined the relationship between clinical depression and nocturnal indicators of cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls from the general community (13-18 years old; 11 clinically depressed, eight healthy control). Continuous beat-to-beat finger arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored via Portapres and electrocardiogram, respectively. Cardiovascular data were averaged over each hour for the first 6 h of sleep, as well as in 2-min epochs of stable sleep that were then averaged within sleep stages. Data were also averaged across 2-min epochs of pre-sleep wakefulness and the first 5 min of continuous non-rapid eye movement sleep to investigate the blood pressure dipping response over the sleep-onset period. Compared with controls, depressed adolescents displayed a similar but significantly elevated blood pressure profile across sleep. Depressed adolescents had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures across the entire night (P < 0.01), as well as during all sleep stages (P < 0.001). Depressed adolescents also had higher blood pressure across the sleep-onset period, but the groups did not differ in the rate of decline across the period. Higher blood pressure during sleep in depressed adolescent females suggests that depression has a significant association with cardiovascular functioning during sleep in adolescent females, which may increase risk for future cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Cardiovascular Risks in Long Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Witham, Bethany Rolfe; Babbitt, Keven

    Distance running has become increasingly popular since the 1970s. Despite the health benefits, long-distance running has been associated with an increased risk for cardiac events. Healthcare professionals should be familiar with distance running cardiac risk factors and preparticipation screening recommendations from the American Heart Association, and should screen and educate patients during healthcare encounters. Nurses are particularly well suited to educate runners on risks and symptoms of cardiac dysfunction.

  2. Gender disparities in the assessment and management of cardiovascular risk in primary care: the AusHEART study.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Fiona; Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Cass, Alan; Chalmers, John; Morgan, Claire; Patel, Anushka; Peiris, David; Weekes, Andrew; Anderson, Craig

    2011-06-01

    Studies indicate ongoing gender-based differences in the prevention, detection and management of cardiovascular disease. The aims of this study were to determine whether there are differences in general practitioners' (GPs') perceptions of a patient's cardiovascular risk compared with the patient's estimated risk and in the patient's subsequent medical management according to patient sex. The Australian Hypertension and Absolute Risk Study (AusHEART) was a nationally representative, cluster-stratified, cross-sectional survey among 322 GPs. Each GP was asked to collect data on cardiovascular disease risk factors and their management in 15-20 consecutive patients (age ≥55 years) who presented between April and June, 2008. They were also asked to estimate each patient's absolute risk of a cardiovascular event in the next five years. The main outcomes were the Adjusted Framingham risk, GP estimated risk and proportion of patients receiving blood pressure-lowering, statin and antiplatelet therapy. A total of 5293 patients were recruited to the study, of whom 2968 (56%) were women. Among patients without established cardiovascular disease, the level of agreement between the GP estimated risk and the Adjusted Framingham risk was poor (<50%) and was similarly so for men (kappa coefficient 0.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.21) and women (0.19; 95% CI 0.16-0.22; P homogeneity = 0.57). For patients with established cardiovascular disease, however, women were more likely to be assigned by the GP to a lower risk category (66% vs. 54%, P < 0.001) and less likely to be prescribed combination (blood pressure-lowering, statin and antiplatelet) (44% vs. 56%, P < 0.001) therapy compared with men, even after adjusting for patient age. Cardiovascular risk is underrecognized and undertreated in Australian primary care patients, with women apparently disproportionately affected. These findings underscore the importance of initiatives to raise awareness of

  3. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative. PMID:21976880

  4. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS): characterising patients with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtinen, Rami; Viik, Jari; Lehtimäki, Terho; Niemelä, Kari; Nikus, Kjell; Niemi, Mari; Kallio, Janne; Kööbi, Tiit; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Kähönen, Mika

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS) is to construct a risk profile – using genetic, haemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG) markers – of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases, events and deaths. Methods and design All patients scheduled for an exercise stress test at Tampere University Hospital and willing to participate have been and will be recruited between October 2001 and December 2007. The final number of participants is estimated to reach 5,000. Technically successful data on exercise tests using a bicycle ergometer have been collected of 2,212 patients (1,400 men and 812 women) by the end of 2004. In addition to repeated measurement of heart rate and blood pressure, digital high-resolution ECG at 500 Hz is recorded continuously during the entire exercise test, including the resting and recovery phases. About 20% of the patients are examined with coronary angiography. Genetic variations known or suspected to alter cardiovascular function or pathophysiology are analysed to elucidate the effects and interactions of these candidate genes, exercise and commonly used cardiovascular medications. Discussion FINCAVAS compiles an extensive set of data on patient history, genetic variation, cardiovascular parameters, ECG markers as well as follow-up data on clinical events, hospitalisations and deaths. The data enables the development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as assessments of the importance of existing markers. PMID:16515696

  5. Central autonomic network mediates cardiovascular responses to acute inflammation: Relevance to increased cardiovascular risk in depression?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Neil A.; Cooper, Ella; Voon, Valerie; Miles, Ken; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a risk factor for both depression and cardiovascular disease. Depressed mood is also a cardiovascular risk factor. To date, research into mechanisms through which inflammation impacts cardiovascular health rarely takes into account central effects on autonomic cardiovascular control, instead emphasizing direct effects of peripheral inflammatory responses on endothelial reactivity and myocardial function. However, brain responses to inflammation engage neural systems for motivational and homeostatic control and are expressed through depressed mood state and changes in autonomic cardiovascular regulation. Here we combined an inflammatory challenge, known to evoke an acute reduction in mood, with neuroimaging to identify the functional brain substrates underlying potentially detrimental changes in autonomic cardiovascular control. We first demonstrated that alterations in the balance of low to high frequency (LF/HF) changes in heart rate variability (a measure of baroreflex sensitivity) could account for some of the inflammation-evoked changes in diastolic blood pressure, indicating a central (rather than solely local endothelial) origin. Accompanying alterations in regional brain metabolism (measured using 18FDG-PET) were analysed to localise central mechanisms of inflammation-induced changes in cardiovascular state: three discrete regions previously implicated in stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity, the dorsal anterior and posterior cingulate and pons, strongly mediated the relationship between inflammation and blood pressure. Moreover, activity changes within each region predicted the inflammation-induced shift in LF/HF balance. These data are consistent with a centrally-driven component originating within brain areas supporting stressor evoked blood pressure reactivity. Together our findings highlight mechanisms binding psychological and physiological well-being and their perturbation by peripheral inflammation. PMID:23416033

  6. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342

  7. Cardiovascular risk awareness, treatment, and control in urban Latin America.

    PubMed

    Silva, Honorio; Hernandez-Hernandez, Rafael; Vinueza, Raul; Velasco, Manuel; Boissonnet, Carlos Pablo; Escobedo, Jorge; Silva, H Elif; Pramparo, Palmira; Wilson, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Effective prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases require regular screening for risk factors, high awareness of the condition, effective treatment of the identified risk factors, and adherence to the prescribed treatment. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America study was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study of major cardiovascular risk factors-including hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia-in 7 Latin American cities. This report presents data on assessment, diagnosis, extent, and effectiveness of treatment, adherence to treatment, and reasons for nonadherence. Data were collected through household questionnaire-based interviews administered to 5383 men and 6167 women, 25-64 years of age, living in the following cities: Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Participants also completed a clinic visit for anthromorphometric and laboratory assessments. Rates of prior diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes were high (64% and 78% of affected individuals, respectively) but relatively low for hypercholesterolemia (41%). The majority of affected individuals (hypercholesterolemia 88%, diabetes 67%, and hypertension 53%) were untreated. Among individuals who were receiving pharmacologic treatment, targets for control of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were achieved by 51%, 16%, and 52%, respectively. Adherence to treatment was observed in 69% of individuals with hypertension, 63% with diabetes, and 66% with hypercholesterolemia. Forgetfulness was the major cause of nonadherence for all 3 conditions. There is a substantial need for increasing patient education, diagnosis, treatment, adherence, and control of cardiovascular risk factors in the 7 Latin American cities.

  8. Validity of cardiovascular risk prediction models in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Mansell, Holly; Stewart, Samuel Alan; Shoker, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Predicting cardiovascular risk is of great interest in renal transplant recipients since cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality. To conduct a systematic review to assess the validity of cardiovascular risk prediction models in this population. Five databases were searched (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, and Web of Science) and cohort studies with at least one year of follow-up were included. Variables that described population characteristics, study design, and prognostic performance were extracted. The Quality in Prognostic Studies (QUIPS) tool was used to evaluate bias. Seven studies met the criteria for inclusion, of which, five investigated the Framingham risk score and three used a transplant-specific model. Sample sizes ranged from 344 to 23,575, and three studies lacked sufficient event rates to confidently reach conclusion. Four studies reported discrimination (as measured by c-statistic), which ranged from 0.701 to 0.75, while only one risk model was both internally and externally validated. The Framingham has underestimated cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, but these studies have not been robust. A risk prediction model has been externally validated at least on one occasion, but comprehensive validation in multiple cohorts and impact analysis are recommended before widespread clinical application is advocated.

  9. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in paramedics.

    PubMed

    Hegg-Deloye, S; Brassard, P; Prairie, J; Larouche, D; Jauvin, N; Poirier, P; Tremblay, A; Corbeil, P

    2015-10-01

    Occupational stress and obesity are very prevalent in emergency workers. Some studies have also associated high tobacco consumption rates with occupational stress. Each of these factors is known to increase cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of occupational stress, overweight and tobacco consumption in paramedics. This cross-sectional study of paramedics consisted in a self-report survey of 44 questions divided into two sections. The first section collected demographic information and the second evaluated occupational stressors. The questions were designed to determine the prevalence of work-related psychosocial factors, overweight (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) and tobacco consumption (cig/day ≥ 1). The demand-control-social support model and the effort-reward model were used to estimate job strain, iso-strain and imbalance in effort and reward. More than 88 % of paramedics reported at least one cardiovascular risk factor, with males reporting more risk factors than females. Ninety percent of male paramedics reported occupational stress, 12 % reported smoking, and 79 % were overweight or obese by self-report. The prevalence of occupational stress and smoking was similar for female paramedics, but with a lower prevalence of overweight (37 %). By self-report, nine out of ten paramedics are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Both individual and organizational efforts should be made to educate and support paramedics and their organizations in reducing these workers' cardiovascular risk.

  10. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular risk: recommendations for treatment.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, Christopher; Davila, Maria I; Bhat, Mallika; Frishman, William H; Weiss, Irene A

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHy), the mildest form of hyperthyroidism, is diagnosed in patients having a persistently low or undetectable serum concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal free T4 and T3 concentrations. Although overt hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, the cardiovascular risk of SHy is controversial. Multiple studies have demonstrated an increased risk of atrial fibrillation, especially in older individuals with TSH levels <0.1 mU/L. The effects of SHy on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are not clear, but recent meta-analyses suggest a modest increase in mortality, with the risk increasing with age and associated with the lowest TSH levels. The long-term consequences of SHy in young- and middle-aged adults, and in those with TSH levels are mildly low, are uncertain. For these reasons, guidelines for treatment are based on patient age, the degree of TSH suppression, symptoms consistent with hyperthyroidism, and overall cardiovascular and osteoporotic fracture risks.

  11. [Hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk: lessons from randomized trials].

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, André

    2010-04-20

    Diabetes is a major cardiovascular risk factor However, hyperglycemia is much more closely associated with microangiopathy than with macrovascular complications. Epidemiologic studies have shown a 15% increase of myocardial infarction for 1% increase in HbA1c level. It is accepted but not absolutely demonstrated, that reduction of HbA1c results in an equal reduction of cardiovascular events. An initial good glycemic control has long-term benefical effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease. On the contrary, benefit of an intensive glucose control is not demonstrated in diabetic patients with previous myocardial infarction. Two recent studies (ACCORD and VADT) showed an increase of cardiovascular mortality by severe hypoglycemia. In diabetic patients with previous myocardial infarction, glycemic goal must be modulated by the hypoglycaemic risk. A goal of 7.5% HbA1c seems reasonable for the diabetic patients treated by sulfonylureas or insulin, at risk of hypoglycaemia. HbA1c target < 7% remains the general goal and HbA1c target < 6.5% is appropriated to the patients treated by insulin sensitizing medications without risk of hypoglycaemia.

  12. Association of atopic dermatitis with cardiovascular risk factors and diseases.

    PubMed

    Standl, Marie; Tesch, Falko; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Rodríguez, Elke; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Kronenberg, Florian; Schulz, Holger; Koletzko, Sibylle; Schikowski, Tamara; von Berg, Andrea; Lehmann, Irina; Berdel, Dietrich; Heinrich, Joachim; Schmitt, Jochen; Weidinger, Stephan

    2016-12-20

    Epidemiological studies suggested an association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we investigate associations and potential underlying pathways of AD and CVD in large cohort studies: the AOK PLUS cohort (n=1.2Mio), the GINIplus/LISAplus birth cohorts (n=2286), and the KORA F4 cohort (n=2990). Additionally, metabolomics in KORA F4 and established cardiovascular risk loci in genome-wide data on 10,788 AD cases and 30,047 controls were analyzed. Longitudinal analysis of AD patients in AOK PLUS showed slightly increased risk for incident angina pectoris (AP) (adjusted risk ratio 1.17; 95%-confidence interval 1.12-1.23), hypertension (1.04 (1.02-1.06)) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (1.15 (1.11-1.19)) but not for myocardial infarction (MI) (1.05 (0.99-1.12) and stroke (1.02 (0.98-1.07)). In KORA F4 and GINIplus/LISAplus, AD was not associated with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and no differences in metabolite levels were detected. There was no robust evidence for shared genetic risk variants of AD and CVD. This study indicates only a marginally increased risk for AP, hypertension and PAD and no increased risk for MI or stroke in AD patients. Relevant associations of AD with CVRFs reported in US-populations could not be confirmed. Likewise, AD patients did not have increased genetic risk factors for CVD.

  13. Cardiovascular risk in Mozambique: who should be treated for hypertension?

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Albertino; Padrão, Patricia; Silva-Matos, Carla; Prista, António; Azevedo, Ana; Lunet, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Aim To estimate the proportion of Mozambicans eligible for pharmacological treatment for hypertension, according to single risk factor and total cardiovascular risk approaches. Methods A representative sample of Mozambicans aged 40–64 years (n = 1116) was evaluated according to the WHO STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS). We measured blood pressure (BP) and 12-h fasting blood glucose levels and collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and use of antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs. We estimated the 10-year risk of a fatal or nonfatal major cardiovascular event (WHO/lnternational Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts), and computed the proportion of untreated participants eligible for pharmacological treatment for hypertension, according to BP values alone and accounting also for the total cardiovascular risk (WHO guidelines for assessment and management of cardiovascular diseases). Results Among the Mozambicans aged 40–64 years and not taking antihypertensive drugs, less than 4% were classified as having cardiovascular risk at least 20% whereas the prevalence of SBP/DBP at least 140/90 mmHg was nearly 40%. A total of 19.8% of 40–64-year-olds would be eligible for pharmacological treatment of hypertension according to the WHO guidelines, all of whom had SBP/DBP at least 160/100 mmHg. Conclusion Among the Mozambicans aged 40–64 years not taking antihypertensive drugs and having SBP/DBP at least 140/90 mmHg, only half were eligible for pharmacological treatment according to the WHO guidelines. Taking the latter into account, when defining strategies to control hypertension at a population level, may allow a more efficient use of the scarce resources available in developing settings. PMID:24220589

  14. Impact of using different SCORE tables for estimating cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Núria; Cuixart, Lluís; Osorio, Dimelza; Bottaro, David; Puig, Mireia; Joaniquet, Xavier; Marcos, Albert; Casasa, Albert

    2014-02-01

    In Spain, various SCORE tables are available to estimate cardiovascular risk: tables for low-risk countries, tables calibrated for the Spanish population, and tables that include high-density lipoprotein values. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of using one or another SCORE table in clinical practice. In a cross-sectional study carried out in two primary health care centers, individuals aged 40 to 65 years in whom blood pressure and total cholesterol levels were recorded between March 2010 and March 2012 were selected. Patients with diabetes or a history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using SCORE for low-risk countries, SCORE with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the calibrated SCORE. Cardiovascular risk was estimated in 3716 patients. The percentage of patients at high or very high risk was 1.24% with SCORE with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 4.73% with the low-risk SCORE, and 15.44% with the calibrated SCORE (P<.01). Treatment with lipid-lowering drugs would be recommended in 10.23% of patients using the calibrated SCORE, 3.12% of patients using the low-risk SCORE, and 0.67% of patients using SCORE with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The calibrated SCORE table classifies a larger number of patients at high or very high risk than the SCORE for low-risk countries or the SCORE with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Therefore, its use would imply treating more patients with lipid-lowering medication. Validation studies are needed to assess the most appropriate SCORE table for use in our setting. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal Malays: effects of diabetic parentage.

    PubMed

    Choo, Keng Ee; Lau, Kim Bee; Davis, Wendy A; Chew, Peng Hong; Jenkins, Alicia J; Davis, Timothy M E

    2007-04-01

    Diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly in Asian populations but the influence of a family history of diabetes on cardiovascular risk is unknown. To assess this relationship, 120 urban-dwelling Malays were recruited to a cross-sectional case-control study. Sixty were pre-pubertal children, 30 of diabetic parentage (Group 1) and 30 with no diabetes family history (Group 2). Group 1 and 2 subjects were the offspring of adults with (Group 3) or without (Group 4) type 2 diabetes. Subjects were assessed for clinical and biochemical variables defining cardiovascular risk. Principal component analysis assessed clustering of variables in the children. Group 1 subjects had a higher mean waist:hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and HbA(1c) than those in Group 2, and a lower HDL:total cholesterol ratio (P<0.03). Although there were no correlations between Group 1 and 3 subjects for cardiovascular risk variables, significant associations were found in Groups 2 and 4, especially HbA(1c) and insulin sensitivity (P< or =0.004). Of five separate clusters of variables (factors) identified amongst the children, the strongest comprised diabetic parentage, HbA(1c), insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. Features of the metabolic syndrome are becoming evident in the young non-obese children of diabetic Malays, suggesting that lifestyle factors merit particular attention in this group.

  16. Environmental Endocrine Disruption of Energy Metabolism and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kirkley, Andrew G.; Sargis, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases have increased at an astounding rate in recent decades. While poor diet and physical inactivity are central drivers, these lifestyle changes alone fail to fully account for the magnitude and rapidity of the epidemic. Thus, attention has turned to identifying novel risk factors, including the contribution of environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals. Epidemiological and preclinical data support a role for various contaminants in the pathogenesis of diabetes. In addition to the vascular risk associated with dysglycemia, emerging evidence implicates multiple pollutants in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reviewed herein are studies linking endocrine disruptors to these key diseases that drive significant individual and societal morbidity and mortality. Identifying chemicals associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease as well as their mechanisms of action is critical for developing novel treatment strategies and public policy to mitigate the impact of these diseases on human health. PMID:24756343

  17. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what about cocoa and chocolate?

    PubMed

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    Cocoa flavonoids are able to reduce cardiovascular risk by improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure (BP). Interest in the biological activities of cocoa is daily increasing. A recent meta-analysis shows flavanol-rich cocoa administration decreases mean systolic (-4.5mm Hg; p<0.001) and diastolic (-2.5mm Hg; p<0.001) BP. A 3-mm Hg systolic BP reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on cardiovascular health focusing on putative mechanisms of action and nutritional and "pharmacological" viewpoints. Cocoa consumption could play a pivotal role in human health.

  18. [Risk Factor Analysis of Pneumonia after Cardiovascular Surgery].

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Shuichi; Nakamura, Ken; Uchida, Tetsuro; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki; Morikane, Keita

    2016-08-01

    Pneumonia is a major and life-threatening complication after cardiovascular surgery. The objective of our study was to describe epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of pneumonia after cardiovascular surgery. From January 2007 to December 2011, 511 consecutive patients (age 67.3±11.9;336 men, 175 women) were enrolled in this study. Pneumonia was diagnosed according to Centers of Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria for healthcare associated infection. Data collection included preoperative, intraoperative, and post-operative variables. The overall incidence of pneumonia was 72 cases(14.0%). The mortality in pneumonia group was significantly higher than that in non-pneumonia group (16.6% vs 4.3%, Odds ratio 4.4 p<0.001). Multi-logistic analysis revealed that elderly patient, preoperative congestive heart failure, preoperative hemodialysis, and operation of the thoracic aorta were independent risk factors for pneumonia after cardiovascular surgery.

  19. Cholesterol Lowering in Intermediate-Risk Persons without Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Salim; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles; Zhu, Jun; Xavier, Denis; Liu, Lisheng; Pais, Prem; López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Leiter, Lawrence A; Dans, Antonio; Avezum, Alvaro; Piegas, Leopoldo S; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Keltai, Katalin; Keltai, Matyas; Sliwa, Karen; Peters, Ron J G; Held, Claes; Chazova, Irina; Yusoff, Khalid; Lewis, Basil S; Jansky, Petr; Khunti, Kamlesh; Toff, William D; Reid, Christopher M; Varigos, John; Sanchez-Vallejo, Gregorio; McKelvie, Robert; Pogue, Janice; Jung, Hyejung; Gao, Peggy; Diaz, Rafael; Lonn, Eva

    2016-05-26

    Previous trials have shown that the use of statins to lower cholesterol reduces the risk of cardiovascular events among persons without cardiovascular disease. Those trials have involved persons with elevated lipid levels or inflammatory markers and involved mainly white persons. It is unclear whether the benefits of statins can be extended to an intermediate-risk, ethnically diverse population without cardiovascular disease. In one comparison from a 2-by-2 factorial trial, we randomly assigned 12,705 participants in 21 countries who did not have cardiovascular disease and were at intermediate risk to receive rosuvastatin at a dose of 10 mg per day or placebo. The first coprimary outcome was the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, and the second coprimary outcome additionally included revascularization, heart failure, and resuscitated cardiac arrest. The median follow-up was 5.6 years. The overall mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 26.5% lower in the rosuvastatin group than in the placebo group. The first coprimary outcome occurred in 235 participants (3.7%) in the rosuvastatin group and in 304 participants (4.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.91; P=0.002). The results for the second coprimary outcome were consistent with the results for the first (occurring in 277 participants [4.4%] in the rosuvastatin group and in 363 participants [5.7%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.88; P<0.001). The results were also consistent in subgroups defined according to cardiovascular risk at baseline, lipid level, C-reactive protein level, blood pressure, and race or ethnic group. In the rosuvastatin group, there was no excess of diabetes or cancers, but there was an excess of cataract surgery (in 3.8% of the participants, vs. 3.1% in the placebo group; P=0.02) and muscle symptoms (in 5.8% of the participants, vs. 4.7% in the

  20. Cannabis use: signal of increasing risk of serious cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Jouanjus, Emilie; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Micallef, Joelle

    2014-04-23

    Cannabis is known to be associated with neuropsychiatric problems, but less is known about complications affecting other specified body systems. We report and analyze 35 recent remarkable cardiovascular complications following cannabis use. In France, serious cases of abuse and dependence in response to the use of psychoactive substances must be reported to the national system of the French Addictovigilance Network. We identified all spontaneous reports of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis use collected by the French Addictovigilance Network from 2006 to 2010. We described the clinical characteristics of these cases and their evolution: 1.8% of all cannabis-related reports (35/1979) were cardiovascular complications, with patients being mostly men (85.7%) and of an average age of 34.3 years. There were 22 cardiac complications (20 acute coronary syndromes), 10 peripheral complications (lower limb or juvenile arteriopathies and Buerger-like diseases), and 3 cerebral complications (acute cerebral angiopathy, transient cortical blindness, and spasm of cerebral artery). In 9 cases, the event led to patient death. Increased reporting of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis and their extreme seriousness (with a death rate of 25.6%) indicate cannabis as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease in young adults, in line with previous findings. Given that cannabis is perceived to be harmless by the general public and that legalization of its use is debated, data concerning its danger must be widely disseminated. Practitioners should be aware that cannabis may be a potential triggering factor for cardiovascular complications in young people.

  1. [Coffee and cardiovascular disease risk: yin and yang].

    PubMed

    Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Marchioli, Roberto

    2008-11-01

    Many epidemiological studies have addressed the effects of coffee on cardiovascular disease. Most case-control studies suggest an increased risk in high coffee consumers, whereas cohort studies indicate no clear association with cardiovascular risk. Several aspects could be considered to explain and/or reconcile these inconsistencies. Selection bias and recall bias may explain a positive association supported by case-control studies. An inadequate adjustment for many confounding factors (i.e., smoking, poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, etc.) could also affect the relationship between coffee consumption and cardiovascular risk. Moreover, coffee contains several biologically active substances that may have either beneficial or harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. The development of complete/partial tolerance to some caffeine effects in habitual drinkers adds to the complexity of coffee effects. Variation in cup size and methods of coffee preparation may also explain some conflicting results. As it is not reasonable to conduct randomized controlled trials, it is recommended that coffee consumption be moderate in healthy people and limited in individuals at high risk.

  2. Developing and Evaluating a Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownson, Ross C.; Mayer, Jeffrey P.; Dusseault, Patricia; Dabney, Sue; Wright, Kathleen; Jackson-Thompson, Jeannette; Malone, Bernard; Goodman, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development and baseline evaluation data from the Ozark Heart Health Project, a community-based cardiovascular disease risk reduction program in rural Missouri that targeted smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Several Ozark counties participated in either intervention or control groups, and researchers conducted surveillance…

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction. The Problems Facing the School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, James H.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive health education program stressing the development of sound health habits should be offered to all students from kindergarten through twelfth grade. Such programs could help to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease by educating students of current practices that add to the risk of disease. (CJ)

  4. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  5. Developing and Evaluating a Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownson, Ross C.; Mayer, Jeffrey P.; Dusseault, Patricia; Dabney, Sue; Wright, Kathleen; Jackson-Thompson, Jeannette; Malone, Bernard; Goodman, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development and baseline evaluation data from the Ozark Heart Health Project, a community-based cardiovascular disease risk reduction program in rural Missouri that targeted smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Several Ozark counties participated in either intervention or control groups, and researchers conducted surveillance…

  6. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction. The Problems Facing the School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, James H.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive health education program stressing the development of sound health habits should be offered to all students from kindergarten through twelfth grade. Such programs could help to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease by educating students of current practices that add to the risk of disease. (CJ)

  8. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, George A.; Lowing, Larry

    1997-01-01

    This study examined cardiovascular risk factors in Black first-year college students (N=238). Students completed surveys about blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking, and physical activity. Results found low rates of high blood pressure, low awareness of cholesterol levels, and low numbers of students who smoked. Females had lower physical…

  9. [Cardiovascular risk parameters, metabolic syndrome and alcohol consumption by workers].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; López González, Ángel Arturo; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Capdevila-García, Luisa; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of alcohol consumption is high in the general population and generates specific problems at the workplace. To establish benchmarks between levels of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk variables and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study of 7,644 workers of Spanish companies (2,828 females and 4,816 males). Alcohol consumption and its relation to cardiovascular risk was assessed using Framingham calibrated for the Spanish population (REGICOR) and SCORE, and metabolic syndrome was assessed using modified ATPIII and IDF criteria and Castelli and atherogenic index and triglycerides/HDL ratio. A multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression and odds ratios were estimated. Statistically significant differences were seen in the mean values of the different parameters studied in prevalence of metabolic syndrome, for both sexes and with modified ATPIII, IDF and REGICOR and SCORE. The sex, age, alcohol, and smoking variables were associated to cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome. Physical exercise and stress are only associated to with some of them. The alcohol consumption affects all cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome, being more negative the result in high level drinkers. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, George A.; Lowing, Larry

    1997-01-01

    This study examined cardiovascular risk factors in Black first-year college students (N=238). Students completed surveys about blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking, and physical activity. Results found low rates of high blood pressure, low awareness of cholesterol levels, and low numbers of students who smoked. Females had lower physical…

  11. Metabolic Acidosis-Induced Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Souto, Gema; Donapetry, Cristóbal; Calviño, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Microalbuminuria has been conclusively established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and there is evidence of an association between insulin resistance and microalbuminuria, the former preceding the latter in prospective studies. It has been demonstrated that even the slightest degree of metabolic acidosis produces insulin resistance in healthy humans. Many recent epidemiological studies link metabolic acidosis indicators with insulin resistance and systemic hypertension. The strongly acidogenic diet consumed in developed countries produces a lifetime acidotic state, exacerbated by excess body weight and aging, which may result in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, contributing to cardiovascular risk, along with genetic causes, lack of physical exercise, and other factors. Elevated fruits and vegetables consumption has been associated with lower diabetes incidence. Diseases featuring severe atheromatosis and elevated cardiovascular risk, such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney failure, are typically characterized by a chronic state of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic patients consume particularly acidogenic diets, and deficiency of insulin action generates ketone bodies, creating a baseline state of metabolic acidosisworsened by inadequate metabolic control, which creates a vicious circle by inducing insulin resistance. Even very slight levels of chronic kidney insufficiency are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may be explained at least in part by deficient acid excretory capacity of the kidney and consequent metabolic acidosis-induced insulin resistance. PMID:21352078

  12. Change in Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Progression of Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Linda F.; Katz, Ronit; Cushman, Mary; Sarnak, Mark; Shlipak, Michael G.; Kuller, Lewis; Newman, Anne B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior studies evaluating the relationship of kidney disease with cardiovascular risk factors have been limited by their cross-sectional design. We evaluated the change in lipids, inflammatory and procoagulant biomarkers with decline in kidney function in a nested case-cohort study in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based study of adults aged >65 years. Methods Individuals with an increase in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dl (baseline to 3 years later, n = 207) were matched to controls of similar age, race, gender, diabetes and baseline serum creatinine, but whose change in creatinine was <0.3 mg/dl. Baseline and change in risk factors were analyzed with conditional logistic regression. Results Changes in C-reactive protein were similar. In contrast, cases had larger increases in fibrinogen (OR 1.38 per standard deviation, 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.76) and factor VIII [1.38 (1.10–1.72)] and larger decreases in HDL [OR 0.80 (0.64, 1.00)]. Change in interleukin-6 was greater in cases than controls, but this did not persist after multivariate adjustment. However, in linear regression, change in interleukin-6 was correlated with change in creatinine. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors and kidney function may change concurrently. This could lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease as kidney function worsens. PMID:18948687

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Behavioral Contracting in Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    The use of behavioral contracting in exercise programs has been shown to be effective in increasing the frequency of exercise activity and in reducing dropout rates. A study was undertaken to examine the impact of three cardiovascular risk factors (poor physical fitness, obesity, and smoking) on both client willingness to sign a behavioral…

  14. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overv...

  15. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  16. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  17. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Healthy Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Kathy V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in 57 healthy older individuals were measured (blood pressure, lipids and lipoproteins, and lifestyle behaviors) via a personal health questionnaire. Results indicated that, though the subjects were generally healthy, their lifestyle behaviors, particularly diet and physical activity, could be improved. (SM)

  18. Method and apparatus for assessing cardiovascular risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Paul (Inventor); Bigger, J. Thomas (Inventor); Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The method for assessing risk of an adverse clinical event includes detecting a physiologic signal in the subject and determining from the physiologic signal a sequence of intervals corresponding to time intervals between heart beats. The long-time structure of fluctuations in the intervals over a time period of more than fifteen minutes is analyzed to assess risk of an adverse clinical event. In a preferred embodiment, the physiologic signal is an electrocardiogram and the time period is at least fifteen minutes. A preferred method for analyzing the long-time structure variability in the intervals includes computing the power spectrum and fitting the power spectrum to a power law dependence on frequency over a selected frequency range such as 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-2 Hz. Characteristics of the long-time structure fluctuations in the intervals is used to assess risk of an adverse clinical event.

  19. Erectile dysfunction, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risks: facts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Edward; Pastuszak, Alexander W.

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual dysfunction, and shares many risk factors with systemic conditions including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). ED is considered to be an independent risk factor for CVD and can be a harbinger of future cardiovascular events. Given this relationship, each encounter for ED should be viewed by healthcare providers as an opportunity to screen for CVD and other comorbid conditions, including the MetS, that can significantly affect a man’s overall health. While universally accepted screening guidelines are lacking, expert panels do recommend an approach to risk stratification in men with ED. In this review, we discuss the current state of understanding of the relationship between ED, the MetS, and CV risk, and how this impacts the approach to the patient presenting with ED. PMID:28217448

  20. Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Michelle A.; Petersen, Kristina S.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk. PMID:28635680

  1. Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Michelle A; Petersen, Kristina S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-06-21

    Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.

  2. The portfolio diet for cardiovascular risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Josse, Andrea R; Wong, Julia M W; Nguyen, Tri H; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2007-12-01

    Prompted by current dietary recommendations for the control of serum cholesterol to new targets to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and by the CHD risk reduction claims made for certain foods or food components, studies are now being undertaken using combinations of cholesterol-lowering foods in one diet (eg, a dietary portfolio) rather than single foods to achieve more effective dietary control of serum cholesterol. This approach has increased the potential relevance of dietary therapy and may yield nutrition strategies that bridge the gap between what is regarded as a good diet and drug therapy.

  3. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2), gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m(2), gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life.

  4. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. Methods The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Results Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). Conclusions The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. PMID:27500154

  5. Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Mellitus: Complication of the Disease or of Antihyperglycemic Medications.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, C A; Lingvay, I; Vuylsteke, V; Koffarnus, R L; McGuire, D K

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the principal complication and the leading cause of death for patients with diabetes (DM). The efficacy of antihyperglycemic treatments on cardiovascular disease risk remains uncertain. Cardiovascular risk factors are affected by antihyperglycemic medications, as are many intermediate markers of cardiovascular disease. Here we summarize the evidence assessing the cardiovascular effects of antihyperglycemic medications with regard to risk factors, intermediate markers of disease, and clinical outcomes.

  6. Cost effectiveness of ramipril treatment for cardiovascular risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Malik, I; Bhatia, V; Kooner, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the cost effectiveness of ramipril treatment in patients at low, medium, and high risk of cardiovascular death.
DESIGN—Population based cost effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the health care provider in the UK. Effectiveness was modelled using data from the HOPE (heart outcome prevention evaluation) trial. The life table method was used to predict mortality in a medium risk cohort, as in the HOPE trial (2.44% annual mortality), and in low and high risk groups (1% and 4.5% annual mortality, respectively).
SETTING—UK population using 1998 government actuary department data.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Cost per life year gained at five years and lifetime treatment with ramipril.
RESULTS—Cost effectiveness was £36 600, £13 600, and £4000 per life year gained at five years and £5300, £1900, and £100 per life year gained at 20 years (lifetime treatment) in low, medium, and high risk groups, respectively. Cost effectiveness at 20 years remained well below that of haemodialysis (£25 000 per life year gained) over a range of potential drug costs and savings. Treatment of the HOPE population would cost the UK National Health Service (NHS) an additional £360 million but would prevent 12 000 deaths per annum.
CONCLUSIONS—Ramipril is cost effective treatment for cardiovascular risk reduction in patients at medium, high, and low pretreatment risk, with a cost effectiveness comparable with the use of statins. Implementation of ramipril treatment in a medium risk population would result in a major reduction in cardiovascular deaths but would increase annual NHS spending by £360 million.


Keywords: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; cardiovascular risk; cost effectiveness; ramipril PMID:11303006

  7. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with

  8. Cardiovascular risks associated with incident and prevalent periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke and total CVD. In a prospective cohort of 39,863 predominantly white women, age ≥45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status [prevalent (18%), incident (7.3%) versus never (74.7%)] were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25-2.38) for MI, 1.41 (1.02-1.95) for ischaemic stroke and 1.27 (1.06-1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00-1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04-1.56) for MI, 1.12 (0.91-1.37) for ischaemic stroke and 1.15 (1.03-1.28) for total CVD. New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Incident and Prevalent Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Aim While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and total CVD. Material and Methods In a prospective cohort of 39863 predominantly white women, age ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status (prevalent [18%], incident [7.3%] vs. never [74.7%]) were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Results Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14–1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25–2.38) for MI, 1.41(1.02–1.95) for ischemic stroke, and 1.27(1.06–1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00–1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04–1.56) for MI, 1.12(0.91–1.37) for ischemic stroke, and 1.15(1.03–1.28) for total CVD. Conclusion New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. PMID:25385537

  10. Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk: 5 years on.

    PubMed

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2013-10-01

    Calcium supplements have been widely used by older men and women. However, in little more than a decade, authoritative recommendations have changed from encouraging the widespread use of calcium supplements to stating that they should not be used for primary prevention of fractures. This substantial shift in recommendations has occurred as a result of accumulated evidence of marginal antifracture efficacy, and important adverse effects from large randomized controlled trials of calcium or coadministered calcium and vitamin D supplements. In this review, we discuss this evidence, with a particular focus on increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements, which we first described 5 years ago. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D marginally reduce total fractures but do not prevent hip fractures in community-dwelling individuals. They also cause kidney stones, acute gastrointestinal events, and increase the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Any benefit of calcium supplements on preventing fracture is outweighed by increased cardiovascular events. While there is little evidence to suggest that dietary calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is also little evidence that it is associated with fracture risk. Therefore, for the majority of people, dietary calcium intake does not require close scrutiny. Because of the unfavorable risk/benefit profile, widespread prescribing of calcium supplements to prevent fractures should be abandoned. Patients at high risk of fracture should be encouraged to take agents with proven efficacy in preventing vertebral and nonvertebral fractures.

  11. Sesame street: changing cardiovascular risks for a lifetime.

    PubMed

    Peñalvo, José L; Céspedes, Jaime; Fuster, Valentín

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors continues increasing, as its onset is drifting toward younger populations. The development of these factors is greatly influenced by lifestyle habits. It is known that early behaviors persist during childhood and are perpetuated in the adult. Research has proven that lifelong-acquired behavior is unlikely to change, and therefore acquisition of healthy behaviors should begin as early in life as possible. In this report we described the strategy and first stages of a school-based program aiming at promoting (cardiovascular) health through a multilevel intervention supported by Sesame Street materials and educational background.

  12. Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk reduction with PPAR agonists.

    PubMed

    Kuusisto, Johanna; Andrulionyte, Laura; Laakso, Markku

    2007-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Three isoforms, PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and PPARdelta, which are encoded by separate genes, have been identified. The PPARs act as gene regulators of various metabolic pathways in energy and lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and inflammation. Two key classes of synthetic compounds, fibrates and thiazolidinediones (glitazones), activate PPARalpha and PPARgamma, respectively. Both of these drugs have several properties that prevent atherosclerosis in the vascular wall and reduce the levels of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, clinical trials have not produced convincing evidence that cardiovascular disease is prevented with the use of PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists.

  13. Gut microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Ussher, John R; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Arduini, Arduino

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have alluded to the importance of the intestinal microflora in controlling whole-body metabolic homeostasis and organ physiology. In particular, it has been suggested that the hepatic production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) from gut microbiota-derived trimethylamine (TMA) may enhance cardiovascular risk via promoting atherosclerotic lesion development. The source of TMA production via the gut microbiota appears to originate from 2 principle sources, either phosphatidylcholine/choline and/or L-carnitine. Therefore, it has been postulated that consumption of these dietary sources, which are often found in large quantities in red meats, may be critical factors promoting cardiovascular risk. In contrast, a number of studies demonstrate beneficial properties for l-carnitine consumption against metabolic diseases including skeletal muscle insulin resistance and ischemic heart disease. Furthermore, fish are a significant source of TMAO, but dietary fish consumption and fish oil supplementation may exhibit positive effects on cardiovascular health. In this mini-review we will discuss the discrepancies regarding L-carnitine supplementation and its possible negative effects on cardiovascular risk through potential increases in TMAO production, as well as its positive effects on metabolic health via increasing glucose metabolism in the muscle and heart.

  14. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Miriam B.; Kaar, Jill L.; Welsh, Jean A.; Van Horn, Linda V.; Feig, Daniel I.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Patel, Mahesh J.; Munos, Jessica Cruz; Krebs, Nancy F.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. METHODS AND RESULTS For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. CONCLUSIONS Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children <2 years of age. Although added sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. PMID:27550974

  15. [Relevance of diabetes in high cardiovascular risk hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Segura, Julián; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Fernández, Sandra; Ruilope, Luis M

    2013-10-05

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of target organ damage (TOD) and established cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) against a group of hypertensives with type 2 diabetes. We included 4,725 hypertensive patients, 62% male, mean age 64 (SD 12) years, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, independently of the number of associated CVRF (N=2,608), or non-diabetics, in which case we required the presence of 3 CVRF (N=2,117). The prevalence of established CVD (clinical interview) and TOD (left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram, microalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate) were estimated. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes had an older age and more marked obesity. Furthermore, these patients showed a higher prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria, renal failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and CVD compared with nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more CVRF. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of TOD or established CVD were associated independently with the presence of diabetes. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes have a higher prevalence of LOD and CVD compared to nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more CVRF. Although both situations are included in the high cardiovascular risk stratum, it would be expected an increased incidence of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive diabetic patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiovascular risk according to educational status in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kaul, Vijay; Agrawal, Aachu; Guptha, Soneil; Gupta, V P

    2010-11-01

    Influence of socioeconomic status on cardiovascular risk has not been well studied in low income countries. To determine risks in various educational status (ES) subjects we performed a study in India. Epidemiological study was performed in years 1999-2003 in Jaipur (India) for coronary risk factors among 1280 adults 20-59 years (men 619, women 661). ES was categorized into low (education ≤5 years); middle (6-12 years) and high (>12 years). Prevalence of risk factors and Framingham risk scores were determined. Low ES was in 306, middle in 436 and high in 538. In low, middle and high ES respectively age-adjusted prevalence (%) of smoking was 19.0, 19.3, and 11.7; obesity 9.5, 16.7, and 22.1, hypertension 15.3, 30.5, and 44.0; hypercholesterolemia ≥200mg/dl 46.0, 48.4, and 54.6; low HDL cholesterol <40mg/dl 46.4, 56.4, and 38.3; metabolic syndrome 20.9, 25.7, and 28.6; and diabetes 6.9, 5.5, and 26.4. Framingham risk score was 5.7±4.8, 6.3±5.7 and 4.7±5.1 and calculated cardiovascular risk probability 5.2±5.7, 6.8±7.8 and 5.2±6.0 (P(trend)<0.05). Framingham risk score was significantly greater in low and middle ES (6.1±5.3) compared to high (4.7±5.1) (p<0.001). Adjustment for smoking attenuated the risk. Low and middle educational status urban subjects in India have greater cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Roles of miR-17-92 Cluster in Cardiovascular Development and Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Huanyu; Liu, Zhuyuan

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs and miRs) are a large class of noncoding, single-stranded, small RNA molecules. The precise control of their expression is essential for keeping tissue homeostasis and normal development of organisms. Thus, unbalanced expression of miRNAs is a hallmark of many diseases. Two to dozens of miRNAs can form into a miRNA cluster, and the miR-17-92 cluster is one of them. Although firstly described as an oncogenic miRNA cluster, the miR-17-92 cluster has also been found to play critical role in normal cardiac development and cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on the characteristics and functions of miR-17-92 cluster in heart. PMID:28164128

  18. Increased cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes in Dallas County.

    PubMed

    Das, Sandeep R; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Stanek, Harold G; de Lemos, James A; Dobbins, Robert L; McGuire, Darren K

    2006-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in the United States. We assess the prevalence of diabetes in Dallas County, quantify the association between diabetes and subclinical cardiovascular disease, and assess the use of evidence-based cardiovascular disease risk-modifying therapies. This study uses data from 3392 participants aged 30 to 65 years from the Dallas Heart Study, a probability-based, multiethnic sample of residents living in Dallas County, Texas. Three primary outcomes were examined: (1) diabetes prevalence, (2) adjusted odds ratios for detectable coronary calcium stratified by diabetes diagnosis status, and (3) rates of use of evidence-based cardiovascular disease risk-modifying therapies among subjects with diabetes stratified by diabetes diagnosis status. The estimated prevalence of diabetes in Dallas County was 7.8%, with >40% of diabetic patients undiagnosed before participation in the Dallas Heart Study. Both previously diagnosed and previously undiagnosed diabetes were independently associated with the presence of coronary artery calcium (diagnosed: OR 3.55, 95% CI 1.56-8.05) (undiagnosed: OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.39-6.39). The rates of use of aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins were suboptimal, and blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets were rarely met, especially among subjects with previously undiagnosed diabetes. Diabetes is prevalent and is associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease; this association is present even at the time of diagnosis. Despite the cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes, evidence-based risk-modifying therapies continue to be underused, and therapeutic targets remain unmet, especially among people unaware of their diabetes diagnosis.

  19. Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michael J; Green, Daniel J

    2009-12-01

    In humans, exercise training and moderate to high levels of physical activity are protective against cardiovascular disease. In fact they are 40% more protective than predicted based on the changes in traditional risk factors (blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes etc.) that they cause. In this review, we highlight the positive effects of exercise on endothelial function and the autonomic nervous system. We also ask if these effects alone, or in combination, might explain the protective effects of exercise against cardiovascular disease that appear to be independent of traditional risk factor modification. Our goal is to use selected data from our own work and that of others to stimulate debate on the nature and cause of the 'risk factor gap' associated with exercise and physical activity.

  20. [Cardiovascular risk factors in users with severe mental disorder].

    PubMed

    Paños-Martínez, Montserrat; Patró-Moncunill, Ester; Santiago-Barragán, Ángel-María; Marti-Mestre, Marc; Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Escayola-Maranges, Anna; Granero-Lázaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk (RCV) in users with a Severe Mental Disorder (SMD) attended in mental health service in ParcTaulí (Sabadell - Barcelona). This is an observational, descriptive and transversal study of the factors of cardiovascular risk in 789 users with SMD. The instrument used was the scale of assessment of the Registre Gironí del Cor, which estimates the risk of cardiovascular disease. 26.6% of the sample has RCV (22.5% moderate, 3.8% high and 0.3% very high). The analysis of the modifiable risk factors shows that 16.5% of the patients are hypertensive, 55.2% are smokers, 19.77% have hyperglycaemia (8.2% of whom are diagnosed of diabetes mellitus), 40.2% have obesity, 36.2% overweight and 47.27% hypercholesterolemia. The study confirms that the prevalence of the RVC in SMD users is greater than the RCV in general population and it's associated to the presence of modifiable risk factors. Health education carried out by nurses is the best to prevent the RCV in SMD users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiovascular risk management in rheumatoid arthritis patients still suboptimal: the Implementation of Cardiovascular Risk Management in Rheumatoid Arthritis project.

    PubMed

    van den Oever, Inge A M; Heslinga, Maaike; Griep, Ed N; Griep-Wentink, Hanneke R M; Schotsman, Rob; Cambach, Walter; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Smulders, Yvo M; Lems, Willem F; Boers, Maarten; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Peters, Mike J L; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Nurmohamed, Micheal T

    2017-09-01

    To assess the 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk score and to identify treatment and undertreatment of CV risk factors in patients with established RA. Demographics, CV risk factors and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were assessed by questionnaire. To calculate the 10-year CV risk score according to the Dutch CV risk management guideline, systolic blood pressure was measured and cholesterol levels were determined from fasting blood samples. Patients were categorized into four groups: indication for treatment but not treated; inadequately treated, so not meeting goals (systolic blood pressure ⩽140 mmHg and/or low-density lipoprotein ⩽2.5 mmol/l); adequately treated; or no treatment necessary. A total of 720 consecutive RA patients were included, 375 from Reade and 345 from the Antonius Hospital. The mean age of patients was 59 years (s.d. 12) and 73% were female. Seventeen per cent of the patients had a low 10-year CV risk (<10%), 21% had an intermediate risk (10-19%), 53% a high risk (⩾20%) and 9% had CVD. In total, 69% had an indication for preventive treatment (cholesterol-lowering or antihypertensive drugs). Of those, 42% received inadequate treatment and 40% received no treatment at all. Optimal CV risk management remains a major challenge and better awareness and management are urgently needed to reduce the high risk of CVD in the RA population.

  2. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2016-03-08

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk.

  3. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Purvis, Taylor E.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show—by using two 8-d laboratory protocols—that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8–15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3–29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26858430

  4. Duration of Lactation and Risk Factors for Maternal Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Ray, Roberta M.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Cauley, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine dose-response relationships between the cumulative number of months women lactated and postmenopausal risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Methods: We examined data from 139,681 postmenopausal women (median age 63 years) who reported at least 1 live birth upon enrolling in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational study or controlled trials. Multivariable models were used to control for sociodemographic (age, parity, race, education, income, age at menopause), lifestyle, and family history variables when examining the impact of duration of lactation on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity (body mass index(BMI) at or above 30), hypertension, self-reported diabetes, hyperlipidemia, prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease. Results: Dose-response relationships were observed; in fully-adjusted models, women who reported a lifetime history of more than 12 months of lactation were less likely to have hypertension (OR=0.88, p<0.001), diabetes (OR= 0.80, p<0.001), hyperlipidemia (OR=0.81, p<0.001) or cardiovascular disease (OR= 0.91, p=0.008) than women who never breastfed, but they were not less likely to be obese. In models adjusted for all above variables and BMI, similar relationships were seen. Over an average of 7.9 years of postmenopausal participation in the WHI, women with a single live birth who breastfed for 7-12 months were significantly less likely to develop cardiovascular disease (HR 0.72 (0.53 to 0.97)) than women who never breastfed. Conclusion: Among postmenopausal women, increased duration of lactation was associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19384111

  5. Genetic profiling for risk reduction in human cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Puckelwartz, Megan J; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2014-03-12

    Cardiovascular disease is a major health concern affecting over 80,000,000 people in the U.S. alone. Heart failure, cardiomyopathy, heart rhythm disorders, atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation have significant heritable contribution. Supported by familial aggregation and twin studies, these cardiovascular diseases are influenced by genetic variation. Family-based linkage studies and population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have each identified genes and variants important for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The advent of next generation sequencing has ushered in a new era in the genetic diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, and this is especially evident when considering cardiomyopathy, a leading cause of heart failure. Cardiomyopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by morphologically abnormal heart with abnormal function. Genetic testing for cardiomyopathy employs gene panels, and these panels assess more than 50 genes simultaneously. Despite the large size of these panels, the sensitivity for detecting the primary genetic defect is still only approximately 50%. Recently, there has been a shift towards applying broader exome and/or genome sequencing to interrogate more of the genome to provide a genetic diagnosis for cardiomyopathy. Genetic mutations in cardiomyopathy offer the capacity to predict clinical outcome, including arrhythmia risk, and genetic diagnosis often provides an early window in which to institute therapy. This discussion is an overview as to how genomic data is shaping the current understanding and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  6. [Therapeutic Strategies. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia in elderly and women].

    PubMed

    Morales, Clotilde; Royuela, Meritxell

    2013-01-01

    The management of cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia are justified in guidelines. In the elderly, when they are in primary prevention, recommendations are controversial, even if there is evidence in reducing morbidity. In secondary prevention, between 65 and 85 years, there is enough evidence to recommend statins. The decision to start or to continue further treatment must be complemented by comprehensive assessment of the risk-benefit factor. In elderly patients we have to support in decision-making, we take clinical judgment and not just the age criteria. In women the risk is underestimated and may be untreated. The recomendations are the same as in men. During pregnancy there are particular recommendations.

  7. A review of cardiovascular risk factors in US military personnel.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Leigh K; Turner, Barbara S; Stotts, Nancy A; Dracup, Kathleen A

    2008-01-01

    As the civilian population exhibits increasing trends in major cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in younger age groups, the US military is observing similar trends. These worrisome developments are seen even in young adulthood. Despite the need for a fit, combat-ready force, increases in CV risk are increasingly evident in the military population. This review provides an overview of coronary artery disease in the young and the prevalence of risk factors in the military population. With increases in current military operations in an acutely stressful environment, the role of stress and the manifestation of CV disease are also examined.

  8. A systematic review on the clustering and co-occurrence of multiple risk behaviours.

    PubMed

    Meader, Nick; King, Kristelle; Moe-Byrne, Thirimon; Wright, Kath; Graham, Hilary; Petticrew, Mark; Power, Chris; White, Martin; Sowden, Amanda J

    2016-07-29

    Risk behaviours, such as smoking and physical inactivity account for up to two-thirds of all cardiovascular deaths, and are associated with substantial increased mortality in many conditions including cancer and diabetes. As risk behaviours are thought to co-occur in individuals we conducted a systematic review of studies addressing clustering or co-occurrence of risk behaviours and their predictors. As the main aim of the review was to inform public health policy in England we limited inclusion to studies conducted in the UK. Key databases were searched from 1990 to 2016. We included UK based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigated risk behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet. High heterogeneity precluded meta-analyses. Thirty-seven studies were included in the review (32 cross-sectional and five longitudinal). Most studies investigated unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, alcohol misuse, and smoking. In general adult populations, there was relatively strong evidence of clustering between alcohol misuse and smoking; and unhealthy diet and smoking. For young adults, there was evidence of clustering between sexual risk behaviour and smoking, sexual risk behaviour and illicit drug use, and sexual risk behaviour and alcohol misuse. The strongest associations with co-occurrence and clustering of multiple risk behaviours were occupation (up to 4-fold increased odds in lower SES groups) and education (up to 5-fold increased odds in those with no qualifications). Among general adult populations, alcohol misuse and smoking was the most commonly identified risk behaviour cluster. Among young adults, there was consistent evidence of clustering found between sexual risk behaviour and substance misuse. Socio-economic status was the strongest predictor of engaging in multiple risk behaviours. This suggests the potential for interventions targeting multiple risk behaviours either sequentially or concurrently particularly where there is

  9. The forgotten majority: unfinished business in cardiovascular risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Libby, Peter

    2005-10-04

    Despite meaningful progress in the identification of risk factors and the development of highly effective clinical tools, deaths from cardiovascular disease continue to increase worldwide. Sparked by an obesity epidemic, the metabolic syndrome and the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes have led to an upsurge of cardiovascular risk. Although pharmacologic treatments with the statin class of drugs have reduced cholesterol levels and lowered mortality rates, several large controlled clinical trials, including the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study, the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events trial, the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention studies, and Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease study, have indicated that cardiovascular events continue to occur in two thirds of all patients. Follow-up studies, such as the Heart Protection Study and the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy/Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction-22 trials, reinforced these earlier results. Although therapy with gemfibrozil, a fibric acid derivative, showed reduced occurrence of cardiovascular events in the Helsinki Heart Study and the Veterans Affairs HDL Intervention Trial, results of other studies, e.g., the Bezafibrate Intervention Program and the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention study, showed less encouraging results. Although lifestyle modifications, such as improved diet and increased exercise levels, benefit general health and the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in particular, most people continue to resist changes in their daily routines. Thus, physicians must continue to educate their patients regarding an optimal balance of drug therapy and personal behavior.

  10. Modern obesity pharmacotherapy: weighing cardiovascular risk and benefit.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Jonathan W; Wiviott, Stephen D

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a major correlate of cardiovascular disease. Weight loss improves cardiovascular risk factors and has the potential to improve outcomes. Two drugs, phentermine plus topiramate and lorcaserin, have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the indication of obesity; a third, bupropion plus naltrexone, is under consideration for approval. In clinical trials, these drugs cause weight loss and improve glucose tolerance, lipid profile, and, with the exception of bupropion plus naltrexone, blood pressure. However, their effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. In defining appropriate roles for these drugs in preventive cardiology, it is important to remember the checkered history of drugs for obesity. New weight-loss drugs share the serotonergic and sympathomimetic mechanisms that proved harmful in the cases of Fen-Phen and sibutramine, respectively, albeit with significant differences. Given these risks, randomized cardiovascular outcomes trials are needed to establish the safety, and potential benefit, of these drugs. This review will discuss the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity, existing efficacy and safety data for the novel weight-loss drugs, and issues in the design of postapproval clinical trials.

  11. Dietary lignans: physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julia; Dwyer, Johanna; Adlercreutz, Herman; Scalbert, Augustin; Jacques, Paul; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed lignan physiology and lignan intervention and epidemiological studies to determine if they decreased the risks of cardiovascular disease in Western populations. Five intervention studies using flaxseed lignan supplements indicated beneficial associations with C-reactive protein and a meta-analysis, which included these studies, also suggested a lowering effect on plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three intervention studies using sesamin supplements indicated possible lipid and blood pressure lowering associations. Eleven human observational epidemiological studies examined dietary intakes of lignans in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Five showed decreased risk with either increasing dietary intakes of lignans or increased levels of serum enterolactone (an enterolignan used as a biomarker of lignan intake), five studies were of borderline significance, and one was null. The associations between lignans and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease are promising, but are yet not well established, perhaps due to low lignan intakes in habitual Western diets. At the higher doses used in intervention studies, associations were more evident. PMID:20883417

  12. [Motivation to change unhealthy life styles and cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Manchón, David; Alvarez-García, Gema María; González-López, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Study the relationship between motivation to change unhealthy life styles and cardiovascular risk. Cross sectional study, random, stratified by age, carried out in the field of primary care with a sample of 369 people. It was felt that with smoking or smoking cessation active consumption less than a year, the physical habit was valued at work and leisure, food habits were assessed in adherence to mediterranean diet and the stages of motivation were categorized precontemplative phase to maintenance phase. The cardiovascular risk was stratified with the SCORE table calibrated in Spain. The 49.6% were men and 50.4% were women, with an average age of 41.2 years. The prevalence of smoking was 31.4% (95% CI 26.56-36,30), 58% in sedentary lifestyle (95% CI 52.27-62,63) and 68% for bad diet (95% CI 63.97-73,69). The 69.8% of smokers, 77.8% of sedentary and 48.4% of people without proper diet was precontemplative to change their lifestyles. Precontemplative stages in unhealthy life styles have association with risk factors and increase the global cardiovascular risk. The transtheoretical model is a useful tool for the assessment of unhealthy behaviors in lifestyles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. BELFAST centenarians: a case of optimised cardiovascular risk?

    PubMed

    Bennati, E; Murphy, A; Cambien, F; Whitehead, A S; Archbold, G P R; Young, I S; Rea, I M

    2010-01-01

    Centenarians are reservoirs of genetic and environmental information to successful ageing and local centenarian groups may help us to understand some of these secrets. The current centenarian cohort in Belfast survived the 1970s epidemic of death from coronary heart disease in Northern Ireland, where cardiovascular mortality was almost highest in the world. These centenarians provided an opportunity to assess biological and genetic factors important in cardiovascular risk and ageing. Thirty-five (27 female, 8 male) centenarians, participants of the Belfast Elderly Longitudinal Free-living Ageing STudy (BELFAST), were community-living and of good cognition at enrollment. Centenarians showed median Body Mass Index (BMI) at 25.7, systolic blood pressure 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure 90 mmHg respectively, and fasting glucose of 5.54 mmol/l with no sex-related difference. Lipoproteins showed median cholesterol 5.3, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) 1.10 and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) 3.47 micromol/l respectively. Centenarian smokers showed no different blood pressure or lipid measurements compared with non-smokers. Malondialdehyde, a measure of lipid peroxidation, was low at 1.19, and measures of antioxidant status showed variable results. Male centenarians did not carry any of the vascular risk genotypes studied-Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) and Methylenetetrafolatedehydrogenase reductase (MTFHR), though this was not true for female centenarians. This small local study shows, apart from age, that Belfast centenarians carry a reasonably optimized risk profile with respect to cardiovascular disease. There is also some evidence suggesting that vascular risk factors and genotypes may be tolerated differently between the male and female centenarians. Maintaining an optimized cardiovascular risk profile seems likely to improve the chance of becoming a centenarian, especially for males.

  14. Attributable Risk Estimate of Severe Psoriasis on Major Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nehal N.; Yu, YiDing; Pinnelas, Rebecca; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Shin, Daniel B.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that psoriasis, particularly if severe, may be a risk factor for major adverse cardiac events such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and mortality from cardiovascular disease. We compared the risk of major adverse cardiac events between patients with psoriasis and the general population and estimated the attributable risk of severe psoriasis. Methods We performed a cohort study in the General Practice Research Database. Severe psoriasis was defined as receiving a psoriasis diagnosis and systemic therapy (N=3,603). Up to 4 patients without psoriasis were selected from the same practices and start dates for each patient with psoriasis (N=14,330). Results Severe psoriasis was a risk factor for major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio 1.53; 95% confidence interval 1.26, 1.85) after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, tobacco use and hyperlipidemia. After fully adjusted analysis, severe psoriasis conferred an additional 6.2% absolute risk of 10-year major adverse cardiac events. Conclusions Severe psoriasis confers an additional 6.2% absolute risk of 10-year rate of major adverse cardiac events compared to the general population. This potentially has important therapeutic implications for cardiovascular risk stratification and prevention in patients with severe psoriasis. Future prospective studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:21787906

  15. 177 cardiovascular risk factors, classified in 10 categories, to be considered in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases: an update of the original 1982 article containing 96 risk factors.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y; Lee, A Y; Beckman, S L; Simon, R; Lorberboym, M; Duvvi, H; Heller, S I; Urich, C

    1996-01-01

    The first comprehensive listing of cardiovascular risk factors was presented in this journal in 1982 in the article, "96 Cardiovascular Risk Factors" (by Y. Omura & S. Heller), which was the most extensive list of cardiovascular risk factors written on the subject at that time. Since then, much research has been carried out to identify cardiovascular risk factors; according to the authors' most recent computer search, close to 9,000 articles appeared between 1982 and 1996. Upon initial review of most of the abstracts of these articles, we were surprised to find that the number of cardiovascular risk factors has increased significantly (79 new factors in addition to those we published in 1982). With a few exceptions (7 risk factors are now considered to be questionable), those we listed in 1982 are still valid today, and have been further confirmed with additional data and improved technology. Through reviewing the abstracts of these articles, we found about 177 cardiovascular risk factors, including most of the 96 previously listed. Of the original 96, we have identified those now considered to be questionable, e.g. taking oral contraceptives, which today contain significantly lower doses of estrogen than in the past and are therefore much safer. All 177 cardiovascular risk factors are classified into the following 10 major categories, with the 11th category listing those factors now considered to be questionable: 1) Nutrition-Related Cardiovascular Risk Factors (33 risk factors) 2) Internal Cardiovascular Risk Factors Identifiable by Laboratory Tests: Abnormal Blood & Tissue Chemistry Findings Related to Cardiovascular Diseases (35 risk factors) 3) Drug, Chemical, Hormonal, and Nutritional Supplement Intake (Including Drug-Drug Interaction and Drug-Food Interaction) As Cardiovascular Risk Factors (34 risk factors) 4) Signs and Symptoms Associated With a High Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases (33 risk factors) 5) Non-Invasively Detectable Abnormal Laboratory

  16. Patients’ Perceptions of Cholesterol, Cardiovascular Disease Risk, and Risk Communication Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Roberta E.; Parker, Donna R.; Eaton, Charles B.; Borkan, Jeffrey M.; Gramling, Robert; Cover, Rebecca T.; Ahern, David K.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite some recent improvement in knowledge about cholesterol in the United States, patient adherence to cholesterol treatment recommendations remains suboptimal. We undertook a qualitative study that explored patients’ perceptions of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and their reactions to 3 strategies for communicating CVD risk. METHODS We conducted 7 focus groups in New England using open-ended questions and visual risk communication prompts. The multidisciplinary study team performed qualitative content analysis through immersion/crystallization processes and analyzing coded reports using NVivo qualitative coding software. RESULTS All participants were aware that “high cholesterol” levels adversely affect health. Many had, however, inadequate knowledge about hypercholesterolemia and CVD risk, and few knew their cholesterol numbers. Many assumed they had been tested and their cholesterol concentrations were healthy, even if their physicians had not mentioned it. Standard visual representations showing statistical probabilities of risk were assessed as confusing and uninspiring. A strategy that provides a cardiovascular risk-adjusted age was evaluated as clear, memorable, relevant, and potentially capable of motivating people to make healthful changes. A few participants in each focus group were concerned that a cardiovascular risk-adjusted age that was greater than chronological age would frighten patients. CONCLUSIONS Complex explanations about cholesterol and CVD risk appear to be insufficient for motivating behavior change. A cardiovascular risk-adjusted age calculator is one strategy that may engage patients in recognizing their CVD risk and, when accompanied by information about risk reduction, may be helpful in communicating risk to patients. PMID:16735521

  17. Proteomic-Based Detection of a Protein Cluster Dysregulated during Cardiovascular Development Identifies Biomarkers of Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Anjali K.; Krauthammer, Michael; Li, Puyao; Davidov, Eugene; Butler, Lucas C.; Copel, Joshua; Katajamaa, Mikko; Oresic, Matej; Buhimschi, Irina; Buhimschi, Catalin; Snyder, Michael; Madri, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular development is vital for embryonic survival and growth. Early gestation embryo loss or malformation has been linked to yolk sac vasculopathy and congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, the molecular pathways that underlie these structural defects in humans remain largely unknown hindering the development of molecular-based diagnostic tools and novel therapies. Methodology/Principal Findings Murine embryos were exposed to high glucose, a condition known to induce cardiovascular defects in both animal models and humans. We further employed a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins differentially expressed in embryos with defects from those with normal cardiovascular development. The proteins detected by mass spectrometry (WNT16, ST14, Pcsk1, Jumonji, Morca2a, TRPC5, and others) were validated by Western blotting and immunoflorescent staining of the yolk sac and heart. The proteins within the proteomic dataset clustered to adhesion/migration, differentiation, transport, and insulin signaling pathways. A functional role for several proteins (WNT16, ADAM15 and NOGO-A/B) was demonstrated in an ex vivo model of heart development. Additionally, a successful application of a cluster of protein biomarkers (WNT16, ST14 and Pcsk1) as a prenatal screen for CHDs was confirmed in a study of human amniotic fluid (AF) samples from women carrying normal fetuses and those with CHDs. Conclusions/Significance The novel finding that WNT16, ST14 and Pcsk1 protein levels increase in fetuses with CHDs suggests that these proteins may play a role in the etiology of human CHDs. The information gained through this bed-side to bench translational approach contributes to a more complete understanding of the protein pathways dysregulated during cardiovascular development and provides novel avenues for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, beneficial to fetuses at risk for CHDs. PMID:19156209

  18. Adolescent dietary intakes predict cardiometabolic risk clustering.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lynn L; Singer, Martha R; Bradlee, M Loring; Daniels, Stephen R

    2016-03-01

    To prospectively examine the relation between adolescent dietary intake and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) clustering at the end of adolescence. Data from the NHLBI Growth and Health Study on 1369 girls enrolled at ages 9-10 in 1987-1988 and followed for 10 years were used to estimate the relative risk of having multiple (≥2 or ≥3) risk factors in late adolescence associated with usual food intake patterns from 9 to 17 years of age. Mean food intakes were derived from multiple 3-day diet records and CMR factors included larger waist circumference, insulin resistance, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, and elevated systolic or diastolic blood pressures. Of 1369 subjects, 18.4 % girls had 3-6 prevalent risk factors by the end of adolescence and 35.0 % had at least two. Higher intakes of fruit and non-starchy vegetables, dairy, and grains were independently associated with having fewer risk factors as were eating patterns characterized by higher combined intakes of these food groups. After adjusting for age, race, socio-economic status, height, physical activity, and television watching, girls with high intakes of dairy and fruits and non-starchy vegetables (vs. those with lower intakes of both) were nearly 50 % less likely to have three or more CMR factors in late adolescence; girls with higher intakes of grains plus fruits and non-starchy vegetables were nearly 60 % less likely. These results suggest that healthy food consumption patterns during adolescence may prevent accumulation of cardiometabolic risk.

  19. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality: The role of shared family factors and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kjøllesdal, M K R; Ariansen, I; Mortensen, L H; Davey Smith, G; Næss, Ø

    2016-12-01

    To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974-2003) were linked with data from the Norwegian Family Based Life Course Study, the National Educational Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. The study population consisted of participants with at least one full sibling among the health survey participants ( n=271,310). Data were available on CVD risk factors, including weight, height, blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking. The hazards ratio (HR) of CVD mortality was 3.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-3.96) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The HRs were little altered in the within-sibship analyses. Adjusted for risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality in the cohort analyses was 2.05 (CI 1.77-2.37) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The respective HR in the within-sibship analyses was 2.46 (CI 1.48-2.24). Using a sibling design, we did not find that the association between education and CVD mortality was confounded by early life factors shared by siblings, but it was explained to a large extent by CVD risk factors. These results suggest that reducing levels of CVD risk factors could have the greatest effect on mortality in less well-educated people.

  20. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Gansevoort, Ron T; de Boer, Rudolf A; Brouwers, Frank P; Feskens, Edith Jm; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan Jl; Joosten, Michel M

    2016-05-01

    Observational studies on dietary potassium and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations. Long-term prospective studies with multiple 24-h urinary samples for accurate estimation of habitual potassium intake, however, are scarce. We examined the association between urinary potassium excretion and risk of blood pressure-related cardiovascular outcomes. We studied 7795 subjects free of cardiovascular events at baseline in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease study, a prospective, observational cohort with oversampling of subjects with albuminuria at baseline. Main cardiovascular outcomes were CVD [including ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and vascular interventions], IHD, stroke, and new-onset heart failure (HF). Potassium excretion was measured in two 24-h urine specimens at the start of the study (1997-1998) and midway through follow-up (2001-2003). Baseline median urinary potassium excretion was 70 mmol/24 h (IQR: 56-84 mmol/24 h). During a median follow-up of 10.5 y (IQR: 9.9-10.8 y), a total of 641 CVD, 465 IHD, 172 stroke, and 265 HF events occurred. After adjustment for age and sex, inverse associations were observed between potassium excretion and risk [HR per each 26-mmol/24-h (1-g/d) increase; 95% CI] of CVD (0.87; 0.78, 0.97) and IHD (0.86; 0.75, 0.97), as well as nonsignificant inverse associations for risk of stroke (0.85; 0.68, 1.06) and HF (0.94; 0.80, 1.10). After further adjustment for body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and urinary sodium and magnesium excretion, urinary potassium excretion was not statistically significantly associated with risk (multivariable-adjusted HR per 1-g/d increment; 95% CI) of CVD (0.96; 0.85, 1.09), IHD (0.90; 0.81, 1.04), stroke (1.09; 0.86, 1.39), or HF (0.99; 0.83, 1.18). No associations were observed between the sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio and risk of CVD, IHD, stroke, or HF. In this cohort with oversampling of subjects

  1. Heart Rate Variability Dynamics for the Prognosis of Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Villegas, Juan F.; Lam-Espinosa, Eric; Ramirez-Moreno, David F.; Calvo-Echeverry, Paulo C.; Agredo-Rodriguez, Wilfredo

    2011-01-01

    Statistical, spectral, multi-resolution and non-linear methods were applied to heart rate variability (HRV) series linked with classification schemes for the prognosis of cardiovascular risk. A total of 90 HRV records were analyzed: 45 from healthy subjects and 45 from cardiovascular risk patients. A total of 52 features from all the analysis methods were evaluated using standard two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test). The results of the statistical procedure provided input to multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks, radial basis function (RBF) neural networks and support vector machines (SVM) for data classification. These schemes showed high performances with both training and test sets and many combinations of features (with a maximum accuracy of 96.67%). Additionally, there was a strong consideration for breathing frequency as a relevant feature in the HRV analysis. PMID:21386966

  2. Disparities in multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases - Delaware, 2011.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sangeeta

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of multiple risk factors for Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) and to identify disparities in risk status among population subgroups in Delaware. As a secondary analysis the study will also analyze self-reported CVD prevalence overall and discuss differences in prevalence by age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, employment status, and county of residence. Analysis was conducted using Delaware data for 4,777 respondents from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Survey participants having greater than or equal to two of the following risk factors: obesity, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, current smoking, and diabetes mellitus were considered as having multiple risk factors for CVD. In 2011, the prevalence of CVD in Delaware was 8.61 percent (95 percent Confidence Interval [CI, 7.55, 9.66]). Overall, 22.51 percent (95 percent CI, 20.62-24.40) of persons reported having no risk factors, 32.30 percent (95 percent CI, 30.31-34.28) reported one risk factor, and 45.20 percent (95 percent CI, 43.18-47.21) reported multiple risk factors. Prevalence of multiple risk factors was higher for the aged, less educated, and unemployed. Disparities by gender and race were not significant. Sussex County had a higher prevalence of CVD multiple risk factors, 53.18 percent (95 percent CI, 49.47-56.89) followed by Kent County, 49.75 percent (95 percent CI, 45.92-53.58). One of the priority goals of Healthy People 2020 is to improve cardiovascular health and quality of life through prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors for heart attack and stroke and also prevention of repeat cardiovascular events. This study indicates that in 2011 a higher proportion of the Delaware population had multiple risk factors for heart disease and stroke, particularly certain population subgroups defined by socioeconomic status. Development of effective prevention programs targeting populations with

  3. Framingham cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Juliana Rico; dos Santos, Isac Pinheiro; de Camargo, Lilian Flosi; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; de Toledo, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa; Monteiro, Sally Cristina Moutinho

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition that has been associated to a risk factor for the development of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship still needs to be clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk in obese patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 obese patients were evaluated for anthropometric data (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, body fat), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glycemia and periodontal parameters (visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL)). Results: Patients were divided into two groups according to the periodontal characteristics found: Group O-PD: Obese patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 45), 22 men and 23 women; and Group O-sPD: Obese patients without chronic periodontitis (n = 42), 17 men and 25 women. Patients had a BMI mean of 35.2 (±5.1) kg/m2 . Group O-PD showed a similarity between the genders regarding age, SBP, DBP, cholesterol, HDL, GBI, VPI, PPD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥4 mm. O-PD women showed greater glycemia level and smoking occurrence, but O-PD men presented a 13% - risk over of developing coronary artery disease in 10 years than O-PD women, 9% - risk over than O-sPD men and 15% - risk over than O-sPD women, by the Framingham Score. Conclusions: It was concluded that obesity and periodontal disease are cardiovascular risk factors and that the two associated inflammatory conditions potentially increases the risk for heart diseases. PMID:24744538

  4. Cannabis Use: Signal of Increasing Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jouanjus, Emilie; Lapeyre‐Mestre, Maryse; Micallef, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabis is known to be associated with neuropsychiatric problems, but less is known about complications affecting other specified body systems. We report and analyze 35 recent remarkable cardiovascular complications following cannabis use. Methods and Results In France, serious cases of abuse and dependence in response to the use of psychoactive substances must be reported to the national system of the French Addictovigilance Network. We identified all spontaneous reports of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis use collected by the French Addictovigilance Network from 2006 to 2010. We described the clinical characteristics of these cases and their evolution: 1.8% of all cannabis‐related reports (35/1979) were cardiovascular complications, with patients being mostly men (85.7%) and of an average age of 34.3 years. There were 22 cardiac complications (20 acute coronary syndromes), 10 peripheral complications (lower limb or juvenile arteriopathies and Buerger‐like diseases), and 3 cerebral complications (acute cerebral angiopathy, transient cortical blindness, and spasm of cerebral artery). In 9 cases, the event led to patient death. Conclusions Increased reporting of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis and their extreme seriousness (with a death rate of 25.6%) indicate cannabis as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease in young adults, in line with previous findings. Given that cannabis is perceived to be harmless by the general public and that legalization of its use is debated, data concerning its danger must be widely disseminated. Practitioners should be aware that cannabis may be a potential triggering factor for cardiovascular complications in young people. PMID:24760961

  5. Cardiovascular risks to young persons on the athletic field.

    PubMed

    Maron, B J

    1998-09-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths of young athletes, which are usually associated with physical exertion, continue to achieve high public visibility and generate considerable concern. Despite broad community participation in sports, such catastrophes are uncommon, occurring in about 1/200000 high school athletes per academic year. Various unsuspected congenital cardiovascular diseases are usually responsible; the most common lesions are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and several congenital coronary artery anomalies. Selected reports suggest that arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia may be a more common cause of these deaths than previously suspected. In some trained athletes with borderline increases in thickness of the left ventricular wall, mild morphologic expression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can often be distinguished from the physiologic consequences of athlete's heart by noninvasive clinical assessment and testing. In addition, the recognized cardiovascular risks of the athletic field are now extended to include cardiac arrest resulting from relatively modest, nonpenetrating chest blows produced by projectiles (such as baseballs) or bodily contact in the absence of underlying cardiac disease and without structural injury to the chest wall or heart. These uncommon but usually fatal events seem to result when chest impact occurs precisely during the vulnerable phase of repolarization, and they may be reduced by use of softer baseballs. Preparticipation screening for cardiovascular disease, consisting of standard history and physical examination, is customary practice for most high school and college athletes in the United States. Evidence suggests, however, that the present screening process for cardiovascular disease in high school athletes may be largely inadequate, given the content of the approved screening questionnaires (which serve as guidelines for the process) and the use of examiners with little cardiovascular training. This emphasizes the need for

  6. Bedtime Dosing of Antihypertensive Medications Reduces Cardiovascular Risk in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Diana E.; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R.

    2011-01-01

    Time of ingestion of hypertension medications can affect circadian patterns of BP, but whether this translates into an effect on clinical outcomes is unknown. Here, in an open-label trial, we randomly assigned 661 patients with CKD either to take all prescribed hypertension medications upon awakening or to take at least one of them at bedtime. We measured 48-hour ambulatory BP at baseline and 3 months after any adjustment in treatment or, at the least, annually. After a median follow-up of 5.4 years, patients who took at least one BP-lowering medication at bedtime had an adjusted risk for total cardiovascular events (a composite of death, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, revascularization, heart failure, arterial occlusion of lower extremities, occlusion of the retinal artery, and stroke) that was approximately one-third that of patients who took all medications upon awakening (adjusted HR 0.31; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.46; P < 0.001). Bedtime dosing demonstrated a similar significant reduction in risk for a composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke (adjusted HR 0.28; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.61; P < 0.001). Furthermore, patients on bedtime treatment had a significantly lower mean sleep-time BP and a greater proportion demonstrated control of their ambulatory BP (56% versus 45%, P = 0.003). Each 5-mmHg decrease in mean sleep-time systolic BP was associated with a 14% reduction in the risk for cardiovascular events during follow-up (P < 0.001). In conclusion, among patients with CKD and hypertension, taking at least one antihypertensive medication at bedtime improves control of BP and reduces the risk for cardiovascular events. PMID:22025630

  7. Thyroid Function, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Incident Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Seth S; Daya, Natalie; Lutsey, Pamela L; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Fretz, Anna; McEvoy, John W; Blumenthal, Roger S; Coresh, Josef; Greenland, Philip; Kottgen, Anna; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular outcomes in mild thyroid dysfunction (treatment controversial) and moderate or severe dysfunction (treatment standard) remain uncertain. To examine cross-sectional and prospective associations of thyroid function with cardiovascular risk factors and events. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, we measured concentrations of thyrotropin, free thyroxine, and total triiodothyronine (T3) in stored serum samples originally collected in 1990-1992. We used multivariable linear regression to assess cross-sectional associations of thyroid function with cardiovascular risk factors and Cox regression to assess prospective associations with cardiovascular events. Follow-up occurred through 31 December 2014. General community. Black and white men and women from the United States, without prior myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or heart failure. Cross-sectional outcomes were blood pressure, glycemic markers, and blood lipids. Prospective outcomes were adjudicated fatal and nonfatal MI and stroke. Among 11,359 participants (57 ± 6 years, 58% women), thyroid function was more strongly associated with blood lipids than blood pressure or glycemic measures. Mean adjusted differences in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were +15.1 (95% confidence interval: 10.5 to 19.7) and +3.2 (0.0 to 6.4) mg/dL in those with moderate/severe and mild chemical hypothyroidism, relative to euthyroidism; an opposite pattern was seen in hyperthyroidism. Similar differences were seen in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. With a 22.5-year median follow-up, 1102 MIs and 838 strokes occurred, with similar outcomes among baseline thyroid function groups and by T3 concentrations. Hypothyroidism is associated with hyperlipidemia, but the magnitude is small in mild chemical hypothyroidism, and cardiovascular outcomes are similar between thyroid function groups.

  8. Hardware-software approach for neonatal cardiovascular risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Hermida, R C; Ayala, D E; Fernández, J R; Fraga, J M

    1994-01-01

    Genetic risk is a primary contributing factor to the predisposition of a newborn child to elevated blood pressure later in life. To determine whether there is a correlation between potential genetic risk as established by family history and measured physiologic variables in the neonate, the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates of 150 newborn babies were automatically monitored at about 30-minute intervals for 48 hours with a Nippon Colin device, starting early after birth. Circadian parameters (obtained by the linear least-squares fit of a 24-hour cosine curve to each individual series) and descriptive statistics for the three circulatory variables were used in a multiple-regression analysis to compute a linear prediction function for a neonatal cardiovascular risk score. This score was obtained for each neonate on the basis of the presence or absence of overt cardiovascular disease, elevated blood pressure, or obesity across two generations, those of the newborn's parents and grandparents. Results from multiple regression indicate that the best model for prediction of the risk score includes the circadian amplitudes of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the circadian range of heart rate, and the 90% range and standard deviation of diastolic blood pressure. The multiple correlation coefficient between the predicted and the computed risk scales is 0.666, a value that, although statistically significant (p < 0.001), is still low for a generalized practical use of the model in predicting risk.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Patients' knowledge of risk and protective factors for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Wartak, Siddharth A; Friderici, Jennifer; Lotfi, Amir; Verma, Ashish; Kleppel, Reva; Naglieri-Prescod, Deborah; Rothberg, Michael B

    2011-05-15

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The American Heart Association has proposed improving overall cardiovascular health by promoting 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health, including health behaviors (not smoking, regular exercise, and healthy diet) and health factors (ideal body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose). The patients' knowledge of these 7 components is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of patients at 4 primary care and 1 cardiology clinic. The survey measured demographic data, personal behaviors/health factors, cardiovascular disease history, and knowledge about these 7 components. A multivariate model was developed to assess patient characteristics associated with high knowledge scores. Of the 2,200 surveys distributed, 1,702 (77%) were returned with sufficient responses for analysis. Of these, 49% correctly identified heart disease as the leading cause of death, and 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35% to 39%) correctly identified all 7 components. The average respondent identified 4.9 components (95% CI 4.7 to 5.0). The lowest recognition rates were for exercise (57%), fruit/vegetable consumption (58%), and diabetes (63%). In a multivariate model, knowledge of all 7 components was positively associated with high school education or greater (odds ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.52) and white ethnicity (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.50), and negatively associated with attending an urban neighborhood clinic (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82). In conclusion, just >1/3 of patients could identify all 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health. Educational efforts should target patients in low socioeconomic strata and focus on improving knowledge about healthy diet and regular exercise. Although patients with diabetes were more likely than those without diabetes to recognize their risk, 1 in 5 were not aware that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  10. Association of grip strength with cardiovascular risk markers.

    PubMed

    Gubelmann, Cédric; Vollenweider, Peter; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2017-03-01

    Background Mechanisms underlying the association between grip strength and cardiovascular mortality are poorly understood. We aimed to assess the association of grip strength with a panel of cardiovascular risk markers. Design The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 3468 adults aged 50-75 years (1891 women) from a population-based sample in Lausanne, Switzerland. Methods Grip strength was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer. Cardiovascular risk markers included anthropometry, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiposity, inflammatory and other metabolic markers. Results In both genders, grip strength was negatively associated with fat mass (Pearson correlation coefficient: women: -0.170, men: -0.198), systolic blood pressure (women: -0.096, men: -0.074), fasting glucose (women: -0.048, men: -0.071), log-transformed leptin (women: -0.074, men: -0.065), log-transformed high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (women: -0.101, men: -0.079) and log-transformed homocysteine (women: -0.109, men: -0.060). In men, grip strength was also positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (0.068), total (0.106) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.082), and negatively associated with interleukin-6 (-0.071); in women, grip strength was negatively associated with triglycerides (-0.064) and uric acid (-0.059). After multivariate adjustment, grip strength was negatively associated with waist circumference (change per 5 kg increase in grip strength: -0.82 cm in women and -0.77 cm in men), fat mass (-0.56% in women; -0.27% in men) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-6.8% in women; -3.2% in men) in both genders, and with body mass index (0.22 kg/m(2)) and leptin (-2.7%) in men. Conclusion Grip strength shows only moderate associations with cardiovascular risk markers. The effect of muscle strength as measured by grip strength on cardiovascular disease does not seem to be mediated by cardiovascular risk markers.

  11. Cardiovascular risk reduction among African Americans: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Watson, Karol E

    2008-01-01

    African Americans are at greater risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than European Americans or Asians. They also bear a disproportionately greater burden from type-2 diabetes mellitus. Not as much access to healthcare and less intensive use of available therapies may explain some of these disparities. However, the high prevalence of potentially modifiable risk factors, particularly hypertension and dyslipidemia, in African Americans also provides great opportunity for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in this population. In addition to lifestyle approaches, achieving aggressive goals for blood pressure (< or =130/80 mmHg) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (<100 mg/dL, or <70 mg/dL for patients at very high cardiovascular risk, including those with diabetes) will necessitate the use of effective pharmacologic therapies. Clinical trial data indicate that antihypertensive regimens, particularly those that include a diuretic, are as effective in African Americans as in other racial/ethnic groups. Moreover, potent statins have been shown to decrease low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol to goal levels in African-American patients.

  12. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors, nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lisa Gracia, M; Córdoba Alonso, A; Hernández Hernández, J L; Pérez Montes, R; Napal Lecumberri, J J

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the importance of cardiovascular risk factors, ultrasound findings in the supra-aortic trunk and the presence of anticoagulated nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and in a control group. A cross-sectional study was conducted of all patients with RVO consecutively referred to the office of internal medicine, comparing them with a control group. We analysed clinical, electrocardiographic and ultrasound variables. We studied 212 patients (114 men and 98 women) with RVO and 212 controls (95 men and 117 women) of similar ages. Arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus were significantly more prevalent in the patients with RVO than in the controls (73.6 vs. 50%, 64.6 vs. 48.6% and 27.8 vs. 12.3%, respectively). We observed arteriosclerotic lesions in the supra-aortic trunk in 55% of the patients with RVO. The patients with RVO and NVAF had a greater burden of cardiovascular risk factors than the controls with NVAF. There were no differences in terms of the international normalised ratio or in the use of direct anticoagulants between the cases and controls with NVAF. Cardiovascular risk factors (especially arterial hypertension) and arteriosclerotic involvement of the supra-aortic trunk are highly prevalent in RVO. Anticoagulation does not appear to be effective in preventing RVO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal schoolchildren in Angola

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Amílcar BT; Rodrigues, Sérgio L; Baldo, Marcelo P; Mill, José Geraldo; Silva, Amílcar BT; Capingana, Daniel P; Magalhães, Pedro; Gonçalves, Mauer AA; Mateus, Miguel SB; Molina, Maria del Carmen B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Methods The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide, especially in countries with accelerated economic growth. We determined the prevalence of and associations between overweight/ obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal (seven- to 11-year-old) schoolchildren (both genders, n = 198) in Luanda, Angola. Biochemical (fasting blood) and clinical examinations were obtained in a single visit. Data are reported as prevalence (95% confidence intervals) and association (r, Pearson). Results Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 17.7% (12.4–23.0%), high blood pressure (BP < 90% percentile) was 14.6% (9.7–19.5%), elevated glucose level was 16.7% (11.5–21.9%) and total cholesterol level < 170 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/l) was 69.2% (62.8–75.6%). Significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic BP (r = 0.46 and 0.40, respectively; p < 0.05) were found. No association between BMI and elevated glucose or cholesterol levels was found. Conclusion The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was high in pre-pubertal schoolchildren in Angola and fat accumulation was directly associated with blood pressure increase but not with other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:27805243

  15. Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and psoriasis in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farshchian, Mahmoud; Ansar, Akram; Sobhan, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. There is overwhelming evidence on the higher risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with psoriasis as a result of hyperlipidemia, which is more common in these patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between the cardiovascular risk factors and psoriasis. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 55 patients with psoriasis and 55 matched (sex and age) controls were entered the study at the Department of Dermatology between March 2011 and March 2013. Blood samples were obtained following 14 hours fasting status and serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were determined using standard laboratory methods, and other variables such as sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and the type of disease were recorded. Results Our findings showed that levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and smoking were significantly higher in psoriatic patients when compared with controls, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol was not significantly different between two groups. Body mass index of psoriatic patients was not significantly higher than controls. Patients with psoriasis also had an increased prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion Our findings further verify lipid abnormalities in psoriatic patients. Psoriasis is associated with higher rate of hypertension, which may be resulted in increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in these patients. Thus, serum lipid profile and blood pressure in all patients with psoriasis, regardless of disease severity, deserve consideration to be checked. PMID:26300652

  16. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  17. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  18. Markers of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Nonfunctional Adrenal Incidentaloma Patients without Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Cansu, Güven Barış; Sarı, Ramazan; Yılmaz, Nusret; Özdem, Sebahat; Çubuk, Metin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Data regarding cardiovascular risk in patients with non-functional adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI) are limited. The objectives of this study are to investigate markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease like carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and leptin levels in NFAI patients without traditional cardiovascular risk factors and healthy control group. Methods: This study involved 35 patients with NFAI (11 males, 24 females; mean age, 52.4±7.7 years) and 35 healthy subjects as control group (11 males, 24 females; mean age, 51.8±7.2 years). CIMT was evaluated by ultrasonographical methods. PWV and AIx were measured with TensioClinic arteriograph system. Serum leptin and sCD40L levels were measured by ELISA. Results: In NFAI patients group; CIMT (p<0.001), PWV (p<0.001), AIx brachial (p<0.001) and AIx aorta (p=0.008) were found higher than the control group. Cortisol levels after 1mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) were higher (p=0.006) and DHEASO4 levels were lower (p=0.008) in NFAI patients than control group. We found that CIMT had positive correlation with age (r=0.484, p<0.005), triglycerides (r=0.378, p<0.005) and cortisol level after 1 mg DST (r=0.346, p<0.005); PWV had positive correlation with total cholesterol (r=0.338, p<0.005) triglycerides (r=0.335, p<0.05) and insulin levels (r=0.426, p<0.005); AIx brachial had a positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0414, p<0.05) and negative correlation with DHEASO4 (r=-0.380, p<0.005); leptin levels had a positive correlation with body mass index (r=0.541, p<0.001) and HOMA-IR index. Conclusion: We showed that subjects with NFAI without traditional cardiovascular risk factors featured several disturbances (CIMT, PWV and AIx) compared to the control group that could be attributable to increased cardiovascular risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Dietary fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular diseases risk.

    PubMed

    Alissa, Eman M; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-06-13

    Diet is likely to be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this article, we will review the evidence linking the consumption of fruit and vegetables and CVD risk. The initial evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption has a protective effect against CVD came from observational studies. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the benefit of fruit and vegetable intake on the occurrence of CVD and whether the optimal intake is five portions or greater. Results from randomized controlled trials do not show conclusively that fruit and vegetable intake protects against CVD, in part because the dietary interventions have been of limited intensity to enable optimal analysis of their putative effects. The protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables may not only include some of the known bioactive nutrient effects dependent on their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and electrolyte properties, but also include their functional properties, such as low glycemic load and energy density. Taken together, the totality of the evidence accumulated so far does appear to support the notion that increased intake of fruits and vegetables may reduce cardiovascular risk. It is clear that fruit and vegetables should be eaten as part of a balanced diet, as a source of vitamins, fiber, minerals, and phytochemicals. The evidence now suggests that a complicated set of several nutrients may interact with genetic factors to influence CVD risk. Therefore, it may be more important to focus on whole foods and dietary patterns rather than individual nutrients to successfully impact on CVD risk reduction. A clearer understanding of the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular risk would provide health professionals with significant information in terms of public health and clinical practice.

  20. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Future Cardiovascular Event Risk in Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Stephen T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Hanis, Craig L.; Milic, Natasa M.; Garovic, Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is a risk factor for future hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This may reflect an underlying familial predisposition or persistent damage caused by the hypertensive pregnancy. We sought to isolate the effect of hypertension in pregnancy by comparing the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in women who had hypertension in pregnancy and their sisters who did not using the dataset from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study, which examined the genetics of hypertension in white, black, and Hispanic siblings. This analysis included all sibships with at least one parous woman and at least one other sibling. After gathering demographic and pregnancy data, BP and serum analytes were measured. Disease-free survival was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with their sisters who did not have hypertension in pregnancy, women who had hypertension in pregnancy were more likely to develop new onset hypertension later in life, after adjusting for body mass index and diabetes (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.27–2.42). A sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy was also associated with an increased risk of hypertension in brothers and unaffected sisters, whereas an increased risk of cardiovascular events was observed in brothers only. These results suggest familial factors contribute to the increased risk of future hypertension in women who had hypertension in pregnancy. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of nonfamilial factors. Furthermore, a sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy may be a novel familial risk factor for future hypertension. PMID:26315531

  1. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Future Cardiovascular Event Risk in Siblings.

    PubMed

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Turner, Stephen T; Mosley, Thomas H; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hanis, Craig L; Milic, Natasa M; Garovic, Vesna D

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is a risk factor for future hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This may reflect an underlying familial predisposition or persistent damage caused by the hypertensive pregnancy. We sought to isolate the effect of hypertension in pregnancy by comparing the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in women who had hypertension in pregnancy and their sisters who did not using the dataset from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study, which examined the genetics of hypertension in white, black, and Hispanic siblings. This analysis included all sibships with at least one parous woman and at least one other sibling. After gathering demographic and pregnancy data, BP and serum analytes were measured. Disease-free survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with their sisters who did not have hypertension in pregnancy, women who had hypertension in pregnancy were more likely to develop new onset hypertension later in life, after adjusting for body mass index and diabetes (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.42). A sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy was also associated with an increased risk of hypertension in brothers and unaffected sisters, whereas an increased risk of cardiovascular events was observed in brothers only. These results suggest familial factors contribute to the increased risk of future hypertension in women who had hypertension in pregnancy. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of nonfamilial factors. Furthermore, a sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy may be a novel familial risk factor for future hypertension.

  2. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk.

  3. Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2007-11-01

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is one of the three commercially important fruits native to North America. Cranberries are a particularly rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, including phenolic acids (benzoic, hydroxycinnamic, and ellagic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols). A growing body of evidence suggests that polyphenols, including those found in cranberries, may contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by increasing the resistance of LDL to oxidation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, reducing blood pressure, and via other anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Research regarding the bioactivity of cranberries and their constituents on risk factors for CVD is reviewed.

  4. Cardiovascular risk in operators under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katia; Deyanov, Christo; Israel, Mishel

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the long-term effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the cardiovascular system. Two groups of exposed operators (49 broadcasting (BC) station and 61 TV station operators) and a control group of 110 radiorelay station operators, matched by sex and age, with similar job characteristics except for the radiofrequency EMR were studied. The EMR exposure was assessed and the time-weighted average (TWA) was calculated. The cardiovascular risk factors arterial pressure, lipid profile, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease were followed. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly higher in the two exposed groups. It was found that the radiofrequency EMR exposure was associated with greater chance of becoming hypertensive and dyslipidemic. The stepwise multiple regression equations showed that the SBP and TWA predicted the high TC and high LDL-C, while the TC, age and abdominal obesity were predictors for high SBP and DBP. In conclusion, our data show that the radiofrequency EMR contributes to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system.

  5. Iron: Protector or Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease? Still Controversial

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing organic biomolecule oxidation. This process is the basis of numerous pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The relationship between iron and cardiovascular disease was proposed in 1981 by Jerome Sullivan. Since then, numerous epidemiological studies have been conducted to test this hypothesis. The aim of this review is to present the main findings of the chief epidemiological studies published during the last 32 years, since Sullivan formulated his iron hypothesis, suggesting that this element might act as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have analyzed 55 studies, of which 27 supported the iron hypothesis, 20 found no evidence to support it and eight were contrary to the iron hypothesis. Our results suggest that there is not a high level of evidence which supports the hypothesis that the iron may be associated with CVD. Despite the large number of studies published to date, the role of iron in cardiovascular disease still generates a fair amount of debate, due to a marked disparity in results. PMID:23857219

  6. Association between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular risk in individuals with type-2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Babu Lal; Kochar, Dhanpat Kumar; Agarwal, Tulsi Das; Choudhary, Raghvendra; Kochar, Abhishek

    2009-01-01

    Background: Erectile dysfunction in type-2 diabetes may be an independent marker for coronary artery disease. Present study was undertaken to investigate whether type-2 diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction without having overt cardiovascular disease had increased cardiovascular risk. Aim: To find out correlation between ED and cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. Methods: Fifty type-2 diabetic patients were assessed for erectile dysfunction using international index of erectile dysfunction (IIEF-5), which include questionnaire and cardiovascular risk assessment by multiparameter cardiovascular analysis device (periscope). Results: The prevalence of erectile dysfunction in type-2 diabetics was very high (78%), mild, moderate and severe ED was present in 6, 36 and 36%, respectively. The total cardiovascular risk was more in patients with ED in comparison to patients without ED (34.87 ± 18.82 vs 20.91 ± 11.03 p = 0.002). The mean 10-years coronary risk and cardiac risk was 12.00 + 9.60 and 22.23 + 14.14 (p = 0.029) and 13.36 ± 1.22 and 28.85 ± 4.13 (p 0.002) in patients without ED and with ED respectively. The mean vascular and atherosclerosis risk was 28.73 ± 13.94 and 39.38 ± 19.51 (p > 0.05) and 26.18 ± 10.31 and 33.92 ± 13.40 (p > 0.05) in patients without ED and with ED, respectively. Total cardiovascular risk was found to increase with age, duration of diabetes and HbA1c levels. Conclusion: The total cardiovascular risk increases with increasing severity of erectile dysfunction in type-2 diabetic patients without having overt cardiovascular disease. PMID:20336196

  7. Fat distribution, physical activity and cardiovascular risk among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    White, J; Jago, R

    2013-03-01

    It is not clear whether changes in waist circumference (WC), sums of skinfold thickness (SSF), or levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence are associated with cardiovascular risk factors, or if associations are independent or interactive. In a US cohort of adolescent girls (n = 617-904) girls, examined at ages 12 and 14, WC, SSF, PA, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP & DBP) were assessed. Fasting blood samples were used to determine concentrations of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL-C and LDL-C), and apolipoprotein A1 and B (Apo-A1 and Apo-B). After adjustment for change in SSF and PA, increases in WC were associated with change in TG (z = 1.73, 95% CI = 0.77, 2.69), TC (z = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.90), HDL-C (z = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.37, -0.01), LDL-C (z = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.80), Apo-A1 (z = -0.52, 95% CI = -1.02, -0.02), Apo-B (z = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.97) and SBP levels (z = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.47). Associations between changes in SSF and PA with cardiovascular risk were eliminated after adjustment for WC, and all interactions between WC, SSF and PA were non-significant at conventional levels. Changes in WC were independently associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas changes in SSF and PA were not. Clinicians should consider the routine screening of WC to monitor cardiovascular health in adolescent girls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Cystatin C and cardiovascular risk in the general population].

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Javier; Tranche-Iparraguirre, Salvador; Marín-Iranzo, Rafael; Fernández-Rodríguez, Eloy; Riesgo-García, Alba; García-Casas, Juan; Hevia-Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2010-04-01

    Cystatin C has been proposed as a novel marker of renal function and as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of an elevated cystatin C level in the general population and its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. This descriptive epidemiologic cross-sectional study involved a simple randomized sample of individuals aged >49 years from the general population, and was based on personal health records. From the final selection of 415 individuals, 359 underwent cystatin C measurement using a immunonephelometric assay. The cut-point used was that recommended for the method in adults. Of the 359 individuals (mean+/-standard deviation age, 64+/-10 years, 63.5% female) studied, 17.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.4%-21.2%) had an elevated cystatin C level. The mean level was 0.81+/-0.21 mg/L, and increased with age. Elevation of the cystatin C level was associated with: older age (P< .0001); high measures of systolic blood pressure (P< .0001), hemoglobin A1c (P=.031), triglycerides (P=.019), homocysteine (P< .0001), C-reactive protein (P=.015), fibrinogen (P=.006) and microalbuminuria (P=.001); and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (P=.021) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (P< .0001). Associated cardiovascular diseases included coronary heart disease (P=.013) and heart failure (P=.038). The main factors independently associated with an elevated cystatin C level were diabetes (odds ratio [OR]=5.37), male sex (OR=4.91) and decreased glomerular filtration (OR=0.83). The prevalence of an elevated cystatin C level in the general population was found to be high and was associated with the presence of classical cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and chronic renal disease, along with higher levels of C-reactive protein, homocysteine and fibrinogen.

  9. Reliability of Cardiovascular Risk Calculators to Estimate Accurately the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, Patompong; Matteson, Eric L; Crowson, Cynthia S

    2017-09-01

    Chronic inflammation is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but most risk calculators, including the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) risk score do not account for it. These calculators underestimate cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. To date, how these scores perform in the estimation of CVD risk in patients with sarcoidosis has not been assessed. In this study, the FRS and the ACC/AHA risk score were calculated for a previously identified cohort of patients with incident cases of sarcoidosis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, from 1989 to 2013 as well as their gender- and age-matched comparators. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was estimated as the ratio of the predicted and observed numbers of CVD events. All CVD events were identified by diagnosis codes and were verified by individual medical record reviews. The predicted number of CVD events among 188 cases by FRS was 11.8 and the observed number of CVD events was 34, which corresponded to an SIR of 2.88 (95% confidence interval 2.06 to 4.04). FRS underestimated the risk of CVD events in patients with sarcoidosis by gender, age and severity of sarcoidosis. The predicted number of CVD events among cases by ACC/AHA risk score was 4.6 and the observed number of CVD events was 19, corresponding to an SIR of 4.11 (95% confidence interval 2.62 to 6.44). In conclusion, the FRS and the ACC/AHA risk score underestimate the risk of CVD in patients with sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Clare C.W.; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; McManus, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters in Hong Kong. Methods Male firefighters (n = 387) were randomly selected from serving firefighters in Hong Kong (n = 5,370) for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, known cardiovascular diseases). One-third (Target Group) were randomly selected for the assessment of off-duty leisure-time physical activity using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed, as well as cardiovascular workload using heart rate monitoring for each firefighter for four “normal” 24-hour working shifts and during real-situation simulated scenarios. Results Overall, 33.9% of the firefighters had at least two cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the Target Group, firefighters who had higher leisure-time physical activity had a lower resting heart rate and a lower average working heart rate, and spent a smaller proportion of time working at a moderate-intensity cardiovascular workload. Firefighters who had moderate aerobic fitness and high leisure-time physical activity had a lower peak working heart rate during the mountain rescue scenario compared with firefighters who had low leisure-time physical activities. Conclusion Leisure-time physical activity conferred significant benefits during job tasks of moderate cardiovascular workload in firefighters in Hong Kong. PMID:26929827

  11. Endothelial function and cardiovascular risk stratification in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mulvagh, S L; Behrenbeck, T; Lahr, B A; Bailey, K R; Zais, T G; Araoz, P A; Miller, V M

    2010-02-01

    Peripheral arterial, endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated reactive hyperemia is reduced in individuals with atherosclerosis. This study tested the hypothesis that digital tonometry, as a surrogate of endothelial function, is useful to stratify cardiovascular risk in recently menopausal women who are asymptomatic for cardiovascular disease. Women undergoing screening for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) were evaluated for conventional risk factors, flow-mediated reactive hyperemia by digital tonometry (RHI), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by ultrasound, and coronary arterial calcium (CAC) by 64-slice CT scanner. One hundred and two non-diabetic Caucasian women (53.0 +/- 2.3 years old, 18.0 +/- 9.0 months past their last menses) participated; 72% were never-smokers. Fourteen women had positive CAC scores (range 0.5-133 Agatston units); CIMT ranged from 0.57 to 1.06 mm. RHI ranged from 1.26 to 5.44. RHI did not correlate with time past menopause, CAC, CIMT, total cholesterol or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. The significant negative correlation of RHI with body mass index (r = -0.21, p = 0.031) was lost in non-smokers (r = - 0.17, p = 0.14). There was also a negative correlation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with CAC, both in the overall group and non-smokers (rho = -0.20, p = 0.05 and rho = -0.27, p = 0.02, respectively). RHI varies widely in healthy women within the first 3 years of menopause. RHI was not associated with standard risk assessment algorithms, CAC or CIMT. RHI may indicate an additional, independent component and non-invasive tool to further stratify cardiovascular risk in recently menopausal women. As KEEPS continues, data on RHI will provide information regarding hormonal therapy, endovascular biology and atherosclerotic risk.

  12. [Vascular age and cardiovascular risk in patients suffering from stroke].

    PubMed

    Goeh Akue, E; Afassinou, Y M; Ido, B J F; Pio, M; Baragou, S; Pessinaba, S; Kumako, V; Belo, M

    2015-06-01

    To determine the vascular age of patients suffering from stroke and their cardiovascular risk at 10 years and to compare their vascular age to their real age. It was about a descriptive and retrospective study carried up from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2013 at the neurologic clinic of the University teaching hospital Sylvanus Olympio of Lome from patients' files with a confirmed diagnostic of stroke according to the clinical examination and the scanner data. One hundred and ninety-four patients were related to our study. They were shared-out into 101 men and 93 women equal to a sex-ratio (man/woman) of 1.08. The average real age was of 57.6 ± 13.7 years. High blood pressure was the main risk factor with a prevailing rate of 86.6%, followed by the total hypercholesterolemia (54.3%), the hypocholesterolemia HDL (22.7%), diabetes (10.8%) and nicotinism addiction (4.1%). The average vascular age for all patients was of 68.23 years. The average difference between the real age and the vascular age was of 10 years. The average cardiovascular risk at 10 years in our study was of 13.2%. The vascular age of patients suffering from stroke at the University teaching hospital Sylvanus Olympio of Lome is 10 years higher than their real age. This condition considerably increases their risk of cardiovascular diseases. The screening and the early care about vascular risk factors appear therefore of utmost importance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  13. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Ryan J.; Prizment, Anna E.; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the two leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as two separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (e.g. obesity, diabetes), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. While chronic inflammation is an indispensible feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, but there are now millions of cancer survivors at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiologic studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  14. Nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2016-12-01

    If we are to gain a full and complete understanding of mechanisms of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent type 1 diabetes mechanistic risk markers must be developed that predict risk accurately and which can be used as endpoints for short or intermediate term intervention studies aimed at reducing risk. A variety of biochemical and vascular markers have potential to meet these requirements. Biochemical markers include markers of inflammation, oxidation, and endothelial damage. Vascular markers include static and dynamic measures of arterial function. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes demonstrate alterations in many of these markers. For many of the biochemical markers precise cut-off points with high sensitivity and specificity are not available and many of the vascular measures require specific equipment and are operator dependent.

  15. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  16. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans

    PubMed Central

    Eyres, Michael F.; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C.

    2016-01-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26946252

  17. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Valeria; Slobodianik, Nora; Pallaro, Anabel; Bello, Mabel; Geissler, Catherine

    2007-09-01

    hypercholesterolemia, hypercortisolemia and low levels of essential fatty acids, oestrogens and antioxidant vitamins are more prevalent in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) than in the general population. This study aims (1) to compare cardiovascular risk parameters in-patients with AN and controls, and (2) to compare the parameters in-patients on admission and at four month follow up. Blood samples and anthropometry were taken from patients with AN on admission (N=30) and matched controls (N=30). Twenty one patients were re-tested after four months of treatment. Total cholesterol, LDL, Apo B and fibrinogen concentrations were elevated in patients on admission compared with controls, while retinol and tocopherol were decreased. Low levels of T3, T4 and estradiol were correlated with increased cholesterol values. After treatment there was a tendency for most of the abnormal markers to normalise. However, HDL levels decreased leaving patients with an undesirable lipid profile. Cardiovascular disease is not commonly a problem in these patients, however, with age, and without treatment, the cardiovascular risk may increase.

  18. ISPD Cardiovascular and Metabolic Guidelines in Adult Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Part I - Assessment and Management of Various Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Angela Yee Moon; Brimble, K Scott; Brunier, Gillian; Holt, Stephen G; Jha, Vivekanand; Johnson, David W; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kooman, Jeroen P; Lambie, Mark; McIntyre, Chris; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease contributes significantly to the adverse clinical outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Numerous cardiovascular risk factors play important roles in the development of various cardiovascular complications. Of these, loss of residual renal function is regarded as one of the key cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with an increased mortality and cardiovascular death. It is also recognized that PD solutions may incur significant adverse metabolic effects in PD patients. The International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) commissioned a global workgroup in 2012 to formulate a series of recommendations regarding lifestyle modification, assessment and management of various cardiovascular risk factors, as well as management of the various cardiovascular complications including coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmia (specifically atrial fibrillation), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and sudden cardiac death, to be published in 2 guideline documents. This publication forms the first part of the guideline documents and includes recommendations on assessment and management of various cardiovascular risk factors. The documents are intended to serve as a global clinical practice guideline for clinicians who look after PD patients. The ISPD workgroup also identifies areas where evidence is lacking and further research is needed.

  19. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    PubMed

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  20. [Cardiovascular risk factors in an Arab and Hispanic working population].

    PubMed

    Valdivielso, P; García, A; de Rus, I; Avila, J M; Andrade, R; Escolar, J L; González, P

    1991-07-01

    318 records of male workers, 169 Spanish and 149 Arab were retrospectively studied in 1987 at the "Gabinete de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo" (Council for Safety and Hygiene in the Workplace) in Ceuta in order to prove the hypothesis that 2 different ethnic groups living in the same geographic area have a non-equal distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. The Spanish group showed a higher prevalence in blood hypertension, diabetes, glucose intolerance, obesity and alcohol intake, compared to the Arab group. Smoking and high levels of seric cholesterol were similar in both groups, however, medium levels of seric cholesterol were lower in the Arab group. Family histories of cardiovascular disease were very rare in the latter mentioned group. These observations suggested a major predisposition to ischemic cardiopathy in the Spanish group.

  1. Prediction models for early risk detection of cardiovascular event.

    PubMed

    Purwanto; Eswaran, Chikkannan; Logeswaran, Rajasvaran; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Rashid

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death globally. More people die of CVDs each year than from any other disease. Over 80% of CVD deaths occur in low and middle income countries and occur almost equally in male and female. In this paper, different computational models based on Bayesian Networks, Multilayer Perceptron,Radial Basis Function and Logistic Regression methods are presented to predict early risk detection of the cardiovascular event. A total of 929 (626 male and 303 female) heart attack data are used to construct the models.The models are tested using combined as well as separate male and female data. Among the models used, it is found that the Multilayer Perceptron model yields the best accuracy result.

  2. Associations of cardiovascular risk factors in Al Ain- United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Baynouna, Latifa M; Revel, Anthony D; Nagelkerke, Nico JD; Jaber, Tariq M; Omar, Aziza O; Ahmed, Nader M; Nazirudeen, Mohammad K; Al Sayed, Mamdouh F; Nour, Fuad A; Abdouni, Sameh

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last 30 years the citizens of the United Arab Emirates have experienced major changes in life-style secondary to increased affluence. Currently, 1 in 5 adults have diabetes mellitus, but the associations (clustering) among risk factors, as well as the relevance of the concept of the metabolic syndrome, in this population is unknown. Aim To investigate the prevalence and associations among cardiovascular risk factors in this population, and explore to what extent associations can be explained by the metabolic syndrome according to ATP-III criteria. Method A community based survey, of conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease was conducted among 817 national residents of Al Ain city, UAE. These factors were fasting blood sugar, blood pressure, lipid profile, BMI, waist circumference, smoking, or CHD family history. Odds ratios between risks factors, both unadjusted and adjusted for age and sex as well as adjusted for age, sex, and metabolic syndrome were calculated. Results Various risk factors were positively associated in this population; associations that are mostly unexplained by confounding by age and sex. For example, hypertension and diabetes were still strongly related (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7–3.7) after adjustment. An increased waist circumference showed similar relationship with hypertension (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.5–3.5). Diabetes was related to an increased BMI (OR 1.5; 96% CI 1.0–2.3). Smoking was also associated with diabetes (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.3). Further adjustment for metabolic syndrome reduced some associations but several remained. Conclusion In this population risk-factors cluster, but associations do not appear to be explained by the presence/absence of the ATP-III metabolic syndrome. Associations provide valuable information in planning interventions for screening and management. PMID:19371412

  3. Interrelated aldosterone and parathyroid hormone mutually modify cardiovascular mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan; Rus-Machan, Jutta; Meinitzer, Andreas; Brandenburg, Vincent M; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kapl, Martin; Grammer, Tanja; Ritz, Eberhard; Horina, Jörg H; Kleber, Marcus E; Pieske, Burkert; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Toplak, Hermann; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Amrein, Karin; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried

    2015-04-01

    Inappropriate aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Accumulating evidence suggests bidirectional interplay between aldosterone and PTH. We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) and PTH and subsequently tested whether the interaction between PAC and PTH modified the risk of cardiovascular death. PAC [78.0 (48.0-123.0) pg/mL], ARR [6.4 (2.9-12.9) pg/mL/pg/mL] and PTH concentration [median: 29.0 (22.0-40.0) pg/mL] were measured in 3074 patients (mean age: 62.5 ± 10.6 years; 30.3% women) referred to coronary angiography in a tertiary care center in Southwest Germany. Using multiple linear regression analysis, PAC and ARR emerged as an independent predictor of higher PTH concentrations (β=0.12 and 0.21, P<0.001 for both) irrespective of intake of antihypertensive treatment, 25(OH)D, kidney function, serum calcium, phosphate, magnesium, cortisol, NT-pro-BNP, soluble α-klotho and FGF-23 concentration. After a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 512 (16.7%) participants had died due to fatal cardiovascular events. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that both PAC and PTH were independently associated with cardiovascular mortality, with a potential synergistic interaction (P=0.028). PAC and PTH are exclusively associated with cardiovascular death in subjects with PTH and PAC concentrations above the median, respectively (PAC: HR per log SD: 1.14; 95% CI 1.02-1.29; P=0.026; PTH: HR per log SD: 1.18; 95% CI 1.02-1.37; P=0.031). Higher PAC and ARR were independently associated with PTH. PAC was independently related to incident cardiovascular mortality exclusively in patients with elevated PTH and vice versa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [From risk charts to guidelines: tools for evaluation and management of cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Castello, Cristina; Colivicchi, Furio; Sclavo, Mariagrazia; Uguccioni, Massimo; Ebert, Alberto Genovesi; Abrignani, Maurizio G; Faggiano, Pompilio; Riccio, Carmine

    2006-03-01

    Despite the wide improvement of diagnostic techniques and the introduction of effective pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic strategies aimed to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, their incidence and lethality are still elevated, with economic implications increasingly less sustainable by the public medical systems. The modern practice of cardiovascular prevention requires, thus, that diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, both at population level and on the single patient, should be more and more precise, effective, and appropriate. From this point of view, a correct global cardiovascular risk stratification assumes a preponderant relevance, in order to allow an adequate therapeutical response. For this purpose several work instruments, as risk charts and guidelines, namely dedicated to arterial hypertension and dyslipidemias, were developed and offered to clinicians interested in cardiovascular prevention. The aim of this review is to illustrate, in synthesis, those instruments, aiming to facilitate their implementation, thus reducing the actual gap between theoretical indications and the real world.

  5. Cardiovascular Disease in CKD in Children: Update on Risk Factors, Risk Assessment, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Amy C; Mitsnefes, Mark M

    2009-01-01

    In young adults with onset of chronic kidney disease in childhood, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. The likely reason for increased cardiovascular disease in these patients is high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related cardiovascular disease risk factors during childhood chronic kidney disease. Early markers of cardiomyopathy, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction and early markers of atherosclerosis, such as increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, carotid arterial wall stiffness and coronary artery calcification are frequently found in this patient population. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of recent advances in the understanding and management of cardiovascular disease risks in this population. PMID:19619845

  6. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, Lucia; Nobili, Valerio; Anania, Caterina; Verdecchia, Paola; Chiesa, Claudio

    2011-07-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver histology severity and outcomes in the absence of chronic alcohol use. The mildest form is simple steatosis in which triglycerides accumulate within hepatocytes. A more advanced form of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, includes inflammation and liver cell injury, progressive to cryptogenic cirrhosis. NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The recent rise in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity likely explains the NAFLD epidemic worldwide. NAFLD is strongly associated with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and most patients have evidence of insulin resistance. Thus, NAFLD shares many features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a highly atherogenic condition, and this has stimulated interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated with a significantly greater overall mortality than in the general population, as well as with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of classical atherosclerotic risk factors. Yet, several studies including the pediatric population have reported independent associations between NAFLD and impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation and increased carotid artery intimal medial thickness-two reliable markers of subclinical atherosclerosis-after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. Therefore, the rising prevalence of obesity-related MetS and NAFLD in childhood may lead to a parallel increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In children, the cardiovascular system remains plastic and damage-reversible if early and appropriate interventions are established effectively. Therapeutic goals for NAFLD should address nutrition, physical activity, and avoidance of smoking to prevent not only end-stage liver disease but also CVD.

  7. Lower levels of sodium intake and reduced cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Cook, Nancy R; Appel, Lawrence J; Whelton, Paul K

    2014-03-04

    Recent studies have raised the possibility of adverse effects of low sodium, particularly <2300 mg/d, on cardiovascular disease; however, these paradoxical findings might have resulted from suboptimal measurement of sodium and potential biases related to indication or reverse causation. Phases 1 and 2 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) collected multiple 24-hour urine specimens among prehypertensive individuals. During extended post-trial surveillance, 193 cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease deaths occurred among 2275 participants not in a sodium reduction intervention with 10 (TOHP II) or 15 (TOHP I) years of post-trial follow-up. Median sodium excretion was 3630 mg/d, with 1.4% of the participants having intake <1500 mg/d and 10% <2300 mg/d, consistent with national levels. Compared with those with sodium excretion of 3600 to <4800 mg/d, risk for those with sodium <2300 mg/d was 32% lower after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-1.37; P for trend=0.13). There was a linear 17% increase in risk per 1000 mg/d increase in sodium (P=0.05). Spline curves supported a linear association of sodium with cardiovascular events, which continued to decrease from 3600 to 2300 and 1500 mg/d, although the data were sparse at the lowest levels. Controlling for creatinine levels had little effect on these results. Results from the TOHP studies, which overcome the major methodological challenges of prior studies, are consistent with overall health benefits of reducing sodium intake to the 1500 to 2300 mg/d range in the majority of the population, in agreement with current dietary guidelines.

  8. Cardiovascular surgery risk prediction from the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Motomura, Noboru; Yozu, Ryohei; Kyo, Shunei; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have developed cardiovascular surgery outcome prediction models using only patient risk factors, but surgery outcomes from the patient's perspective seem to differ between hospitals. We have developed outcome prediction models that incorporate preoperative patient risks, as well as hospital processes and structure. Data were collected from the Japan Cardiovascular Database for patients scheduled for cardiovascular surgery between January 2005 and December 2007. We analyzed 33,821 procedures in 102 hospitals. Logistic regression was used to generate risk models, which were then validated through split-sample validation. Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P values for structures and processes in the mortality prediction model were as follows: "hospital annual adult cardiac surgery volume (continuous; every 1 procedure increase per year)" (odds ratio, 0.998; confidence interval, 0.997-0.999; P < .001); "recommended staffing and equipment" (odds ratio, 0.75; confidence interval, 0.64-0.87; P < .001); "daily conferences with cardiologists" (odds ratio, 0.79; confidence interval, 0.60-1.02; P = .073); "intensivists involved in postsurgical management" (odds ratio, 0.89; confidence interval, 0.77-1.02; P = .90); "public hospitals" (odds ratio, 0.80; confidence interval, 0.70-0.93; P = .003); "surgeons lacking miscellaneous duties" (odds ratio, 0.80; confidence interval, 0.70-0.93; P = .003); and "surgeons who work no more than 32 hours per week" (odds ratio, 0.55; confidence interval, 0.32-0.95; P = .032). The mortality prediction model had a C-index of 0.85 and a Hosmer-Lemeshow P value of .79. Our models yielded good discrimination and calibration, so they may prove useful for hospital selection based on individual patient risks and circumstances. Improved surgeon work environments were also shown to be important for both surgeons and patients. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  9. Integration of suboptimal health status and endothelial dysfunction as a new aspect for risk evaluation of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kupaev, Vitalii; Borisov, Oleg; Marutina, Ekaterina; Yan, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is recognized as a subclinical, reversible stage of chronic disease. Association has been confirmed between SHS and cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that SHS may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. This study explored integrated risk assessment of cardiovascular disease by combining SHS questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) and indicators of endothelial dysfunction. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 459 residents of Samara, Russia, who had no history of clinical diagnosed disease and did not receive any treatment in the last 2 weeks. The SHS score was derived from the data collected in the SHSQ-25. Blood pressure, body mass index, and glucose and lipid levels (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, cholesterol and triglycerides) were measured by physical examination and laboratory performance. The relationship between SHS and endothelial dysfunction was examined using Pearson's correlation linear regression analysis. Cluster analysis was performed to identify systemic patterns arising from exposure to a variety of risk factors. Significant correlations were observed between index of endothelial function and the overall performance of SHS (r = -0.31, p < 0.05), and individual scales of the questionnaire SHSQ-25: fatigue (r = -0.36, p < 0.05), mental (r = -0.29, p < 0.05), and the cardiovascular system (r = -0.36). Based on cluster analysis, all subjects were grouped into five clusters: (1) optimal health status, (2) SHS at low risk of disease states, (3) SHS with a high risk of non-cardiac pathologies profile, (4) SHS of low risk of cardiovascular disease, and (5) SHS with high risk of cardiovascular disease. SHS is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Integration of suboptimal health status and endothelial dysfunction provides a novel tool to allow people to get a more holistic picture of both subjective and objective health measures, and also

  10. Collaborative Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Primary Care II (CCARP II)

    PubMed Central

    Yakiwchuk, Erin M.; Jorgenson, Derek; Mansell, Kerry; Laubscher, Tessa; LeBras, Marlys

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous pharmacist interventions to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk have been limited by low patient enrolment. The primary aim of this study was to implement a collaborative pharmacist intervention that used a systematic case-finding procedure to identify and manage patients with uncontrolled CV risk factors. Methods: This was an uncontrolled, program implementation study. We implemented a collaborative pharmacist intervention in a primary care clinic. All adults presenting for an appointment with a participating physician were systematically screened and assessed for CV risk factor control by the pharmacist. Recommendations for risk factor management were communicated on a standardized form, and the level of pharmacist follow-up was determined on a case-by-case basis. We recorded the proportion of adults exhibiting a moderate to high Framingham risk score and at least 1 uncontrolled risk factor. In addition, we assessed before-after changes in CV risk factors. Results: Of the 566 patients who were screened prior to visiting a participating physician, 186 (32.9%) exhibited moderate or high CV risk along with at least 1 uncontrolled risk factor. Physicians requested pharmacist follow-up for 60.8% (113/186) of these patients. Of the patients receiving the pharmacist intervention, 65.5% (74/113) were at least 50% closer to 1 or more of their risk factor targets by the end of the study period. Significant risk factor improvements from baseline were also observed. Discussion: Through implementation of a systematic case-finding approach that was carried out by the pharmacist on behalf of the clinic team, a large number of patients with uncontrolled risk factors were identified, assessed and managed with a collaborative intervention. Conclusion: Systematic case finding appears to be an important part of a successful intervention to identify and manage individuals exhibiting uncontrolled CV risk factors in a primary care setting. PMID:24093040

  11. Low Birth Weight as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood and Adolescence? The PEP Family Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Haas, Gerda-Maria; Liepold, Evelyn; Schwandt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. Because data in children and adolescents are sparse and controversial, we assessed the association of birth weight with CVD risk factors in German youths. We categorized 843 urban children and adolescents aged 3-18 years by quintiles of birth weight and measured nine traditional risk factors in terms of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL-C, Non HDL-C and triglycerides (TG). SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Mean values and prevalence of nine anthropometric and lipid risk variables were equally distributed over the five birth weight groups. Though risk factors clustered between 3.0 kg and 4.0 kg of birth weight in both genders we found only one significant correlation of birth weight with TG for males and females and another one for HDL-C in males. The strongest clustering of significant regression coefficients occurred in the 2(nd) birth weight quintile for SBP (ß 0.018), TC (ß -0.050), LDL-C (ß -0.039), non LDL-C (ß -0.049) and log TG (ß -0.001) in males and females. Overall we did not find significant associations between birth weight and nine traditional cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. However, the 2(nd) quintile of birth weight might suggest clustering of risk factors.

  12. CYCLOOXYGENASE POLYMORPHISMS AND RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS: THE ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK IN COMMUNITIES (ARIC) STUDY

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandins modulate cardiovascular disease risk. We genotyped 2212 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants (1,023 incident coronary heart disease (CHD) cases; 270 incident ischemic stroke cases; 919 non-cases) with available DNA for polymorphisms in PTGS1 an...

  13. Testosterone therapy and cardiovascular risk: advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Miner, Martin M; Caliber, Monica; Guay, Andre T; Khera, Mohit; Traish, Abdulmaged M

    2015-02-01

    Two recent studies raised new concerns regarding cardiovascular (CV) risks with testosterone (T) therapy. This article reviews those studies as well as the extensive literature on T and CV risks. A MEDLINE search was performed for the years 1940 to August 2014 using the following key words: testosterone, androgens, human, male, cardiovascular, stroke, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, heart attack, death, and mortality. The weight and direction of evidence was evaluated and level of evidence (LOE) assigned. Only 4 articles were identified that suggested increased CV risks with T prescriptions: 2 retrospective analyses with serious methodological limitations, 1 placebo-controlled trial with few major adverse cardiac events, and 1 meta-analysis that included questionable studies and events. In contrast, several dozen studies have reported a beneficial effect of normal T levels on CV risks and mortality. Mortality and incident coronary artery disease are inversely associated with serum T concentrations (LOE IIa), as is severity of coronary artery disease (LOE IIa). Testosterone therapy is associated with reduced obesity, fat mass, and waist circumference (LOE Ib) and also improves glycemic control (LOE IIa). Mortality was reduced with T therapy in 2 retrospective studies. Several RCTs in men with coronary artery disease or heart failure reported improved function in men who received T compared with placebo. The largest meta-analysis to date revealed no increase in CV risks in men who received T and reduced CV risk among those with metabolic disease. In summary, there is no convincing evidence of increased CV risks with T therapy. On the contrary, there appears to be a strong beneficial relationship between normal T and CV health that has not yet been widely appreciated.

  14. Cardiovascular disease risk of abdominal obesity vs. metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wildman, Rachel P; McGinn, Aileen P; Lin, Juan; Wang, Dan; Muntner, Paul; Cohen, Hillel W; Reynolds, Kristi; Fonseca, Vivian; Sowers, MaryFran R

    2011-04-01

    It remains unclear whether abdominal obesity increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk independent of the metabolic abnormalities that often accompany it. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the independent effects of abdominal obesity vs. metabolic syndrome and diabetes on the risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. The Framingham Offspring, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, and Cardiovascular Health studies were pooled to assess the independent effects of abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88 cm for women) vs. metabolic syndrome (excluding the waist circumference criterion) and diabetes on risk for incident CHD and stroke in 20,298 men and women aged ≥45 years. The average follow-up was 8.3 (s.d. 1.9) years. There were 1,766 CVD events. After adjustment for demographic factors, smoking, alcohol intake, number of metabolic syndrome components, and diabetes, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval): 1.09 (0.98, 1.20)). However, after adjustment for demographics, smoking, alcohol intake, and abdominal obesity, having 1-2 metabolic syndrome components, the metabolic syndrome and diabetes were each associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD (2.12 (1.80, 2.50), 2.82 (1.92, 4.12), and 5.33 (3.37, 8.41), respectively). Although abdominal obesity is an important clinical tool for identification of individuals likely to possess metabolic abnormalities, these data suggest that the metabolic syndrome and diabetes are considerably more important prognostic indicators of CVD risk.

  15. Calcium Supplement Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Women

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Julie M.; Curhan, Gary C.; Sun, Qi; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rimm, Eric B.; Taylor, Eric N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some recent reports suggest that calcium supplements may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Purpose The objective was to examine the independent associations between calcium supplement use and risk of CVD. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of supplemental calcium use and incident CVD in 74,245 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984–2008) free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Calcium supplement intake was assessed every four years. Outcomes were incident coronary heart disease (CHD) (nonfatal or fatal MI) and stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic), confirmed by medical record review. Results During 24 years of follow-up, 4,565 cardiovascular events occurred (2,709 CHD and 1,856 strokes). At baseline, women who took calcium supplements had higher levels of physical activity, smoked less, and had lower trans fat intake compared with those who did not take calcium supplements. After multivariable adjustment for age, body mass index, dietary calcium, vitamin D intake, and other CVD risk factors, the relative risk of CVD for women taking >1,000mg/day of calcium supplements compared with none was 0.82 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.92; p for trend <0.001). For women taking >1,000mg/day of calcium supplements compared with none, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk for CHD was 0.71 (0.61 to 0.83; p for trend<0.001) and for stroke was 1.03 (0.87 to 1.21; p for trend=0.61). The relative risks were similar in analyses limited to non-smokers, women without hypertension, and women who had regular physical exams. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that calcium supplement intake increases CVD risk in women. PMID:24803331

  16. Sleep time and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Rey-López, J P; de Carvalho, H B; de Moraes, A C F; Ruiz, J R; Sjöström, M; Marcos, A; Polito, A; Gottrand, F; Manios, Y; Kafatos, A; Molnar, D; Widhalm, K; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to examine the association between adolescents' sleep time and a cardiometabolic risk score. A second aim was to examine associations between sleep time and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Adolescents (N=699; ages, 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study were examined. Sleep time was reported by a questionnaire. Physical activity (PA) was assessed by accelerometry (n=497). Cardiometabolic risk factors measurements included insulin resistance, blood pressure, adiposity markers, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lipids. A cardiovascular disease risk score was computed. Associations were examined by a multilevel regression analysis (linear for individual risk factors and Poisson for the clustered risk score). For school days no association was found between sleep time and cardiometabolic risk factors. At weekend days, the prevalence ratio (PR) of having a clustered risk score increased by 15% for each additional hour of sleep controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES); however, the prevalence disappeared when adjusting for PA. In European adolescents sleep time is not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors when important confounders are considered. Future research about sleep cardiovascular risk factors should register other sleep dimensions (sleep patterns or disturbances) to provide a better insight in this scientific field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of high cardiovascular risk profiles for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. General Framingham Risk Profile (GFRP) and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts were used to assess CV risk in DM in Oman. The GFRP identified more patients with medium-risk DM; GFRP and WHO/ISH identified essentially equal numbers at very high risk. These were then used to evaluate statin usage in Oman, including economics. Google lists innumerable tools from organizations, hospitals, practitioners, magazines, societies, clinics, and medical associations. The GFRP and WHO/ISH calculations provided useful DM assessment of populations in Oman. Other major risk models are Adult Treatment Panel III, based on Framingham, and Reynolds Risk Score; the latter incorporates other factors such as family history, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin A(1c) (in DM). These models are useful in assessing specific populations. Individual practitioners with limited time may just evaluate patients as low, medium, and high CV risk based on general knowledge and then treat.

  18. Effects of transdermal estrogen replacement therapy on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Menon, Dileep V; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease increases dramatically after menopause in women, implicating estrogen as having a protective role in the cardiovascular system. However, recent large clinical trials have failed to show cardiovascular benefit, and have even demonstrated possible harmful effects, of opposed and unopposed estrogen in postmenopausal women. While these findings have led to a revision of guidelines such that they discourage the use of estrogen for primary or secondary prevention of heart disease in postmenopausal women, many investigators have attributed the negative results in clinical trials to several flaws in study design, including the older age of study participants and the initiation of estrogen late after menopause.Because almost all clinical trials use oral estrogen as the primary form of hormone supplementation, another question that has arisen is the importance of the route of estrogen administration with regards to the cardiovascular outcomes. During oral estrogen administration, the concentration of estradiol in the liver sinusoids is four to five times higher than that in the systemic circulation. This supraphysiologic concentration of estrogen in the liver can modulate the expression of many hepatic-derived proteins, which are not observed in premenopausal women. In contrast, transdermal estrogen delivers the hormone directly into the systemic circulation and, thus, avoids the first-pass hepatic effect.Although oral estrogen exerts a more favorable influence than transdermal estrogen on traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as high- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, recent studies have indicated that oral estrogen adversely influences many emerging risk factors in ways that are not seen with transdermal estrogen. Oral estrogen significantly increases levels of acute-phase proteins such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A; procoagulant factors such as prothrombin fragments 1+2; and several

  19. Sex Difference in Cardiovascular Risk: Role of Pulse Pressure Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Regnault, Véronique; Thomas, Frédérique; Safar, Michel E.; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary; Khalil, Raouf A.; Pannier, Bruno; Lacolley, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to explore whether the carotid/brachial pulse pressure (C/B-PP) ratio selectively predicts the gender difference in age-related cardiovascular death. Background Hypertension and cardiovascular complications are more severe in men and post-menopausal women than in pre-menopausal women. C-PP is lower than B-PP, and the C/B-PP ratio is a physiological marker of PP amplification between C and B arteries which tends toward 1.0 with age. Methods The study involved 72,437 men (aged 41.0±11.1 years, mean±SD) and 52,714 women (39.5±11.6 years). C-PP was calculated for each gender by a multiple regression analysis including B-PP, age, height and risk factors, a method validated beforehand in a subgroup of 834 subjects. During the 12 years of follow-up, 3028 men and 969 women died. Results In the total population, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI) of C/B-PP ratio were: (i) for all cause mortality: men, 1.51 (1.47–1.56), women, 2.46 (2.27–2.67) (p<0.0001); (ii) for cardiovascular mortality: men, 1.81 (1.70–1.93), women, 4.46 (3.66–5.45) (p<0.0001). The C/B-PP impact on mortality did not significantly increase from younger men to those over 55, from: 1.44 (1.31–1.58) to 1.65 (1.48–1.84), but increased significantly with age in women: 3.19 (2.08–4.89) vs 5.60 (4.17–7.50) (p<0.01). Thus the mortality impact of C/B-PP ratio was 3-fold higher in women than in men over 55. Conclusions The C/B amplification is highly predictive of differences in cardiovascular risk between men and women. In post-menopausal women, the attenuation of PP amplification, mainly related to increased aortic stiffness, contributes to the significant increase in cardiovascular risk. PMID:22575315

  20. Risk of cardiac arrhythmias during hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Chow, Elaine; Bernjak, Alan; Williams, Scott; Fawdry, Robert A; Hibbert, Steve; Freeman, Jenny; Sheridan, Paul J; Heller, Simon R

    2014-05-01

    Recent trials of intensive glycemic control suggest a possible link between hypoglycemia and excess cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemia might cause arrhythmias through effects on cardiac repolarization and changes in cardiac autonomic activity. Our aim was to study the risk of arrhythmias during spontaneous hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients with cardiovascular risk. Twenty-five insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of cardiovascular disease or two or more risk factors underwent simultaneous continuous interstitial glucose and ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring. Frequency of arrhythmias, heart rate variability, and markers of cardiac repolarization were compared between hypoglycemia and euglycemia and between hyperglycemia and euglycemia matched for time of day. There were 134 h of recording at hypoglycemia, 65 h at hyperglycemia, and 1,258 h at euglycemia. Bradycardia and atrial and ventricular ectopic counts were significantly higher during nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with euglycemia. Arrhythmias were more frequent during nocturnal versus daytime hypoglycemia. Excessive compensatory vagal activation after the counterregulatory phase may account for bradycardia and associated arrhythmias. QT intervals, corrected for heart rate, >500 ms and abnormal T-wave morphology were observed during hypoglycemia in some participants. Hypoglycemia, frequently asymptomatic and prolonged, may increase the risk of arrhythmias in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. This is a plausible mechanism that could contribute to increased cardiovascular mortality during intensive glycemic therapy.

  1. Risk factors and underlying cardiovascular diseases in incident ESRD patients.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Attilio; Marcelli, Daniele; D'Andrea, Antonello; Cice, Gennaro; D'Isa, Salvatore; Cappabianca, Fabio; Pacchiano, Giulia; D'Amato, Roberta; Oggero, Anna Rita; Bonanno, Domenico; Pergamo, Ornella; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and of CVD on admission to hemodialysis. Data were collected in 31 Italian clinics belonging to a clinic network using a prospective database (EuCliD), the main purpose of which is the support of quality assurance. Six hundred and thirty-six patients, mean age 63.9+/-15.4 years, admitted between January 1, 2000 and September 30, 2003, were separated into two groups on the basis of presence of CVD and observed for a median follow-up period of 16 months. In the CVD group, patients were significantly older and the percentage of diabetics and smokers was significantly greater than in the CVD-free group. There were no significant differences between the groups in term of uremia-related risk factors. According to logistic regression analysis evaluating the impact of traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors, only smoking habit (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.25-2.79) and diabetes (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.19-2.95) were associated with a higher relative risk for the presence of CVD at baseline. At the time of admission, CVD was present in 27% of patients. The following de novo development of CVD was observed: hypertensive disease (0.28 new cases/100 pt-years), ischemic heart disease (0.71 new cases/100 pt-years), other forms of heart disease (1.57 new cases/100 pt-years), disease of arteries, arterioles, etc. (1.85 new cases/100 pt-years) and cerebrovascular disease (0.71 new cases/100 pt-years). The rate of developing de novo CVD events was 3.70 per 100 patient-years. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is already high at admission to dialysis. Despite the care provided to dialysis patients, a significant proportion of patients develop de novo CVD.

  2. Relationships of different types of event to cardiovascular death in trials of antihypertensive treatment: an aid to definition of total cardiovascular disease risk in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zambon, Antonella; Arfè, Andrea; Corrao, Giovanni; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Guidelines for management of cardiovascular diseases stratify absolute cardiovascular risk into categories with a high-risk threshold defined at a 20% cardiovascular events risk in 10 years, but it is unclear whether only major events or the Framingham-extended definition should be considered. The 2013 ESH-ESC hypertension guidelines, instead, define cardiovascular risk as a risk of cardiovascular death in 10 years, as in the SCORE model, setting the threshold for high risk at the 5% level. It would be therefore convenient to know the quantitative relationship between the risks of the different outcomes adopted by the different guidelines, especially because some outcome definitions include serious nonfatal cardiovascular events relevant in cardiovascular prevention. We have therefore analysed these relationships in trials of antihypertensive therapy as an aid to defining total cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Sixty-one trials were identified, and 51 retained for analysis of the relationship of cardiovascular death to the incidence of all-cause death, major cardiovascular events and inclusive (Framingham) cardiovascular events. The relationship between cardiovascular death rates and each type of event rates was explored by fitting flexible regression models. The included trials provided 15164 cardiovascular deaths and 1674427 patient-years. The relation of each event rate to cardiovascular death rate was best explained by a model considering the logarithm of each event rate as a dependent variable and the logarithm of cardiovascular death rate as a predictor. Mean patients' age and treatment were also predictors, but to a minor extent. The increase of the incidence rates of all types of events was less steep the higher the CV death rate: the rate ratios of all-cause death to cardiovascular death were 2.2, 1.9 and 1.8 at low-moderate (cardiovascular death <5% in 10 years), high (cardiovascular death 5% to <10%) and very high risk (cardiovascular death

  3. Health-risk appraisal with or without disease management for worksite cardiovascular risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Maron, David J; Forbes, Barbara L; Groves, Jay R; Dietrich, Mary S; Sells, Patrick; DiGenio, Andres G

    2008-01-01

    Worksite health promotion programs use health risk appraisal (HRA) surveys to identify employees at increased risk, then provide a range of interventions to encourage high-risk individuals to improve their health. Our objective was to determine how the intensity of intervention after HRA affected cardiovascular risk after 1 year, comparing individual follow-up counseling with environmental supports. 133 employees of Vanderbilt University with cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned to worksite HRA plus targeted disease management (DM group) or HRA plus information about worksite health promotion programs (HRA group). The DM group received longitudinal individualized counseling for risk reduction, whereas the HRA group members received one feedback session about their risk factors and information about free worksite health promotion programs. The main outcome measure was the difference between groups in the change in average Framingham risk score from baseline to 1 year. There was no significant baseline difference between groups in the Framingham risk score. Among DM participants, the mean (SD) Framingham risk score decreased by 22.6%; among HRA participants, the mean score rose by 4.3% (P = .017 for the difference between groups). In this study of employees with cardiovascular risk factors, HRA followed by individual counseling was more effective than providing information about free worksite health promotion programs.

  4. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Albrecht, Sandra S

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of research has examined whether racial/ethnic residential segregation contributes to health disparities, but recent findings in the literature, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, have not been summarized. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with CVD risk published between January 2011 and July 2014. The majority of studies of black segregation showed higher segregation was related to higher CVD risk, although relationships were less clear for certain outcomes. Relationships among Hispanics were more mixed and appeared to vary widely by factors such as gender, country of origin, racial identity, and acculturation. Implications for research on racial/ethnic disparities in CVD and lingering gaps in the literature are discussed as well.

  5. Metabolic endotoxemia: a molecular link between obesity and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ana Luísa; Coelho, João; Couto, Luciana; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Roncon-Albuquerque, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality. Several molecular mechanisms underlying this association have been implied, among which the intestinal barrier has gained a growing interest. In experimental models of obesity, significant alterations in the intestinal barrier lead to increased intestinal permeability, favoring translocation of microbiome-derived lipopolysaccharide to the bloodstream. This has been shown to result in a two- to threefold increase in its serum concentrations, a threshold named 'metabolic endotoxemia' (ME). ME may trigger toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory activation, eliciting a chronic low-grade proinflammatory and pro-oxidative stress status, which may result in high CV risk and target-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the potential molecular implications of ME on several CV risk factors, such as obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress, as well as its potential impact on the development of CV target-organ disease.

  6. Omega-6 fatty acids: Opposing associations with risk-The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Graciela E; März, Winfried; Lorkowski, Stefan; von Schacky, Clemens; Kleber, Marcus E

    Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-6 PUFA) are recommended in European cardiovascular prevention guidelines. However, individual fatty acids have distinct biological functions, and there have been conflicting reports about the association of omega-6 PUFA with cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of individual omega-6 fatty acids with mortality in a cohort of patients referred for coronary angiography. Omega-6 PUFA proportions were measured in erythrocytes at baseline in a total of 3259 patients participating in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study using the HS-Omega-3 Index method. Associations of omega-6 PUFA with mortality were analyzed by Cox regression with adjustment for conventional risk factors. During a median follow-up of 10.0 years, 975 patients (29.9%) died, 614 patients (18.8%) from cardiovascular causes. γ-Linolenic acid was inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities in models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors with hazard ratios of 0.88 (0.82-0.95) and 0.86 (0.79-0.95) per 1-standard deviation increase, respectively. Adrenic acid and docosapentaenoic acid ω-6 were both directly associated with risk with hazard ratio of 1.10 (1.30-1.18) and 1.12 (1.05-1.19) for all-cause mortality, respectively. No association was found for arachidonic acid. We observed opposing associations of individual omega-6 PUFA with mortality risk. While LA and γ-linolenic acid were associated with reduced risk, there was a direct association for adrenic acid and docosapentaenoic acid. These differences do not support the use of omega-6 PUFA concentrations as a single combined metric, and the prognostic value of each individual member should be examined separately. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Cardiovascular risk factors and life and occupational stress among policemen].

    PubMed

    Czaja-Miturai, Izabela; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Szymczak, Wieslaw; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown an association between work-related stress and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. ever, only a few studies concerned the police. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the general and work-related stress, and the functioning of the circulatory system in the police staff. The study group consisted of 126 policemen (aged 37.8 +/- 7.3 years), with average employment duration of 14.4 +/- 7 years. The study comprised the assessment of health status based on the medical examination and medical history of identified diseases, cardiovascular risk factors and symptoms, dietary habits, physical activity, intake of drugs, data on the family history, determinations of serum total cholesterol, HDL and LDL fractions, triglycerides, and fasting glycemia . The stress level was assessed using the Questionnaire for the Subjective Assessment of Work and Perceived Stress Scale. On medical examination hypertension was found in 36% of the people under study. Chest discomfort was reported by 60% of the subjects. Average body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and LDI, were elevated (22.7 +/- 4.1, 222.6 +/- 41.7 mg/dl and 142.7 +/- 39.7 mg/dl, respectively). Mean triglyceride, HDL fraction and fasting glucose levels were normal in the whole group. The levels of general and occupational stress were 34.914.8 and 128.0+33.3, respectively, being higher than in other occupational groups. In the group with the highest level of stress, there were significantly more people with circulatory problems (81%), drinking strong alcohol at least once a week (27%), working in a 3-shift system (40.5%) and working overtime (44%). The results show that the police are a group at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to work-related stress.

  8. Different Impacts of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mansego, Maria L.; Redon, Josep; Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Real, Jose T.; Martinez, Fernando; Blesa, Sebastian; Gonzalez-Albert, Veronica; Saez, Guillermo T.; Carmena, Rafael; Chaves, Felipe J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress (OS) status in subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. With this in mind, we have studied three models of high cardiovascular risk: hypertension (HT) with and without metabolic syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) with and without insulin resistance. Oxidative stress markers (oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehide) together with the activity of antioxidant enzyme triad (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and activation of both pro-oxidant enzyme (NAPDH oxidase components) and AGTR1 genes, as well as antioxidant enzyme genes (CuZn-SOD, CAT, GPX1, GSR, GSS and TXN) were measured in mononuclear cells of controls (n = 20) and patients (n = 90) by assessing mRNA levels. Activity of some of these antioxidant enzymes was also tested. An increase in OS and pro-oxidant gene mRNA values was observed in patients compared to controls. The hypertensive group showed not only the highest OS values, but also the highest pro-oxidant activation compared to those observed in the other groups. In addition, in HT a significantly reduced antioxidant activity and mRNA induction of antioxidant genes were found when compared to controls and the other groups. In FH and FCH, the activation of pro-oxidant enzymes was also higher and antioxidant ones lower than in the control group, although it did not reach the values obtained in hypertensives. The thioredoxin system was more activated in patients as compared to controls, and the highest levels were in hypertensives. The increased oxidative status in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors is a consequence of both the activation of pro-oxidant mechanisms and the reduction of the antioxidant ones. The altered response of the main cytoplasmic antioxidant systems largely contributes to OS despite the apparent attempt of the thioredoxin system to control it. PMID

  9. Menopausal complaints are associated with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Grobbee, Diederick E; Pop, Victor J M; Keyzer, Jules J; Wijnands-van Gent, Colette J M; Samsioe, Göran N; Nilsson, Peter M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2008-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that women with vasomotor symptoms differ from those without with respect to cardiovascular risk factors or responses to exogenous hormone therapy. We studied whether the presence and extent of menopausal complaints are associated with cardiovascular risk profile. Data were used from a population-based sample of 5523 women, aged 46 to 57 years, enrolled between 1994 and 1995. Data on menopausal complaints and potential confounders were collected by questionnaires. Total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index were measured. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Night sweats were reported by 38% and flushing by 39% of women. After multivariate adjustment, women with complaints of flushing had a 0.27-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.39) higher cholesterol level, a 0.60-kg/m(2) (95% CI: 0.35 to 0.84) higher BMI, a 1.59-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.52 to 2.67) higher systolic blood pressure, and a 1.09-mm Hg (95% CI: 0.48 to 1.69) higher diastolic blood pressure compared with asymptomatic women. Flushing was also associated with hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.25 to 1.84) and hypertension (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.34). Results were similar for complaints of night sweating. The findings support the view that menopausal complaints are associated with a less favorable cardiovascular risk profile. These findings substantiate the view that differences in the presence of menopausal symptoms as a reason for using hormone therapy could explain discrepant findings between observational research and trials.

  10. [Cardiovascular risk factors and carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Cantú-Brito, C; Rodríguez-Saldaña, J; Reynoso-Marenco, M T; Marmolejo-Henderson, R; Barinagarrementeria-Aldatz, F

    1999-01-01

    To assess the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors in a general elderly population of Mexico City. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to investigate carotid atherosclerosis in 145 CUPA (a research project) participants, between July 1993 and January 1996. The outcome was then related to cardiovascular risk factors. Prevalence of ultrasound-detected carotid atherosclerosis was 64.8%. Intimal-medial thickening was detected in 64 subjects (44.1%) and carotid plaques in 82 (56.5%); Fifty-two subjects had both intimal-medial thickening and plaques. However, only 8 subjects had carotid plaques with severe stenosis (5.5%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions (male 61.9%, female 66.0%). Carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age (p < 0.0001), high blood pressure (p < 0.001), isolated systolic hypertension (p = 0.01), hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.04), and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.06). Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis increased progressively with the number of vascular risk factors. There was a high prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in this general elderly population of Mexico City, and was almost equal to that reported in developed western countries. Age, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were the strongest predictors of atherosclerosis.

  11. Socioeconomic disparities in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Millar, W J; Wigle, D T

    1986-01-01

    Despite a general decline in mortality rates in recent decades, these rates are substantially higher among lower socioeconomic groups. To determine target groups for preventive health promotion programs, the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic group in Canadian adults aged 20 to 69 years was examined through comparison of estimates from the 1978-79 Canada Health Survey, the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the labour force smoking surveys of 1975 and 1983. Level of education was used as a measure of socioeconomic status. The risk factors considered were cigarette smoking, overweight, obesity, elevated diastolic blood pressure, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, elevated serum cholesterol level, diabetes mellitus and the conjoint use of oral contraceptives and cigarettes. The prevalence of the risk factors tended to be higher among men and women with a low level of education. The results were consistent with those of recent Canadian studies showing that both men and women in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease. PMID:3484656

  12. Functional foods and cardiovascular disease risk: building the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lynn L

    2011-10-01

    To review the concept of functional foods and to summarize recent evidence on functional foods and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Recent studies have examined the use of antioxidant vitamins and found no support for a beneficial effect on CVD risk, lipid levels or blood pressure. The evolving data also provide little support for a cardioprotective effect of soy protein. The role of soluble fiber in cardiovascular health has been of interest for many years and new studies support important beneficial effects on lipids as well as total CVD risk. In addition, the benefits of fish intake and nut consumption have been recently affirmed. Two promising areas of investigation from a functional food perspective are studies of phytosterols and milk-derived tripeptides. Plant stanol esters have been shown to have strong lipid-lowering effects, whereas milk-derived tripeptides directly benefited blood pressure. The functional food market has grown exponentially in recent years. Our understanding of the health benefits of foods and nutrients is continually evolving. Careful attention to the strength of the scientific evidence will help to ensure that it is used appropriately to guide the development of the next generation of health-promoting functional foods.

  13. Biomarkers for cardiovascular risk assessment in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Ferber, Philippe; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Cutler, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, are characterized by a high prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), which constitutes the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among such patients. Although such effects are partly explained by a higher prevalence of traditional CV risk factors, many studies indicate that such factors do not fully explain the enhanced CV risk in these patients. In addition, risk stratification algorithms based upon traditional CV risk factors are not as predictive in autoimmune diseases as in the general population. For these reasons, the timely and accurate assessment of CV risk in these high-risk populations still remains an unmet clinical need. An enhanced contribution of different inflammatory components of the immune response, as well as autoimmune elements (e.g. autoantibodies, autoantigens, and cellular response), has been proposed to underlie the incremental CV risk observed in these populations. Recent advances in proteomic tools have contributed to the discovery of proteins involved in CVDs, including some that may be suitable to be used as biological markers. In this review we summarize the main markers in the field of CVDs associated with autoimmunity, as well as the recent advances in proteomic technology and their application for biomarker discovery in autoimmune disease.

  14. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using the SCORE risk index.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Otávio Augusto Martins; Nazário, Nazaré Otília; de Magalhães Souza Fialho, Sônia Cristina; Fialho, Guilherme Loureiro; de Oliveira, Fernando José Savóia; de Castro, Gláucio Ricardo Werner; Pereira, Ivânio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes systemic involvement and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To analyze the prediction index of 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular disease event in female RA patients versus controls. Case-control study with analysis of 100 female patients matched for age and gender versus 100 patients in the control group. For the prediction of 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular disease event, the SCORE and modified SCORE (mSCORE) risk indexes were used, as suggested by EULAR, in the subgroup with two or more of the following: duration of disease ≥10 years, RF and/or anti-CCP positivity, and extra-articular manifestations. The prevalence of analyzed comorbidities was similar in RA patients compared with the control group (p>0.05). The means of the SCORE risk index in RA patients and in the control group were 1.99 (SD: 1.89) and 1.56 (SD: 1.87) (p=0.06), respectively. The means of mSCORE index in RA patients and in the control group were 2.84 (SD=2.86) and 1.56 (SD=1.87) (p=0.001), respectively. By using the SCORE risk index, 11% of RA patients were classified as of high risk, and with the use of mSCORE risk index, 36% were at high risk (p<0.001). The SCORE risk index is similar in both groups, but with the application of the mSCORE index, we recognized that RA patients have a higher 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular disease event, and this reinforces the importance of factors inherent to the disease not measured in the SCORE risk index, but considered in mSCORE risk index. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in first year university students].

    PubMed

    Girotto, C A; Vacchino, M N; Spillmann, C A; Soria, J A

    1996-12-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their relation to a self-reported family history of disease was examined in 3,357 first year university students of Mar del Plata University (Argentine). The prevalence of family disease was 27.5% for hypercholesterolemia, 42.1% for hypertension, 26.9% for diabetes mellitus, 27.2% for obesity and 42.1% for cardiovascular disease. The percentual of 80.7% of the population surveyed showed at least one of these diseases in their previous family history. The prevalence of hypertension (systolic blood pressure levels > or = 140 mmHg) or/and diastolic blood pressure levels > or = 90 mmHg) was 7.0%. Hypertension was related to Body Mass Index (BMI), male sex and age. The percentual of 14.4% presented hypercholesterolemia (> or = 210 mg/dl), which was associated with age, BMI and family history of obesity and hypercholesterolemia. Nine hundred and eleven subjects (27.1%) were smokers. Differences related to sex were not found. Smoking was positively related to age and the career they had chosen. The examination detected one hundred and twenty-three (3.7%) students with cardiac problems. This was associated with a family history of cardiovascular disease. Preventive measures were suggested.

  16. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  18. Use of Chronic Kidney Disease to Enhance Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in Those at Medium Risk.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi

    2015-01-01

    Based on global cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment for example using the Framingham risk score, it is recommended that those with high risk should be treated and those with low risk should not be treated. The recommendation for those of medium risk is less clear and uncertain. We aimed to determine whether factoring in chronic kidney disease (CKD) will improve CV risk prediction in those with medium risk. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of 905 subjects in a primary care clinic setting. Baseline CV risk profile and serum creatinine in 1998 were captured from patients record. Framingham general cardiovascular disease risk score (FRS) for each patient was computed. All cardiovascular disease (CVD) events from 1998-2007 were captured. Overall, patients with CKD had higher FRS risk score (25.9% vs 20%, p = 0.001) and more CVD events (22.3% vs 11.9%, p = 0.002) over a 10-year period compared to patients without CKD. In patients with medium CV risk, there was no significant difference in the FRS score among those with and without CKD (14.4% vs 14.6%, p = 0.84) However, in this same medium risk group, patients with CKD had more CV events compared to those without CKD (26.7% vs 6.6%, p = 0.005). This is in contrast to patients in the low and high risk group where there was no difference in CVD events whether these patients had or did not have CKD. There were more CV events in the Framingham medium risk group when they also had CKD compared those in the same risk group without CKD. Hence factoring in CKD for those with medium risk helps to further stratify and identify those who are actually at greater risk, when treatment may be more likely to be indicated.

  19. Association Between Living in Food Deserts and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Kelli, Heval M; Hammadah, Muhammad; Ahmed, Hina; Ko, Yi-An; Topel, Matthew; Samman-Tahhan, Ayman; Awad, Mossab; Patel, Keyur; Mohammed, Kareem; Sperling, Laurence S; Pemu, Priscilla; Vaccarino, Viola; Lewis, Tene; Taylor, Herman; Martin, Greg; Gibbons, Gary H; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2017-09-01

    Food deserts (FD), neighborhoods defined as low-income areas with low access to healthy food, are a public health concern. We evaluated the impact of living in FD on cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) with the hypothesis that people living in FD will have an unfavorable CVD risk profile. We further assessed whether the impact of FD on these measures is driven by area income, individual household income, or area access to healthy food. We studied 1421 subjects residing in the Atlanta metropolitan area who participated in the META-Health study (Morehouse and Emory Team up to Eliminate Health Disparities; n=712) and the Predictive Health study (n=709). Participants' zip codes were entered into the United States Food Access Research Atlas for FD status. Demographic data, metabolic profiles, hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) levels, oxidative stress markers (glutathione and cystine), and arterial stiffness were evaluated. Mean age was 49.4 years, 38.5% male and 36.6% black. Compared with those not living in FD, subjects living in FD (n=187, 13.2%) had a higher prevalence of hypertension and smoking, higher body mass index, fasting glucose, and 10-year risk for CVD. They also had higher hs-CRP (P=0.014), higher central augmentation index (P=0.015), and lower glutathione level (P=0.003), indicative of increased oxidative stress. Area income and individual income, rather than food access, were associated with CVD risk measures. In a multivariate analysis that included food access, area income and individual income, both low-income area and low individual household income, were independent predictors of a higher 10-year risk for CVD. Only low individual income was an independent predictor of higher hs-CRP and augmentation index. Although living in FD is associated with a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors and preclinical indices of CVD, these associations are mainly driven by area income and individual income rather

  20. Maternal relationship during adolescence predicts cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Doom, Jenalee R; Gunnar, Megan R; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-04-01

    The current study investigated whether greater maternal support during adolescence is associated with lower levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood, and whether maternal support serves as a moderator or a mediator of the socioeconomic status (SES) and CVD risk association. In addition, potential moderators and mediators of the association between adult CVD risk and adolescent maternal support and SES were tested. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 11,013), we examined relations between maternal support during adolescence (M = 15.3 years) and CVD risk in young adulthood (M = 28.7 years) via path analysis. Maternal support was assessed by a composite of adolescent and mother report. CVD risk was calculated with a Framingham-based prediction model that uses age, sex, body mass index, smoking, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, and use of antihypertensive medication. Greater maternal support in adolescence was related to lower CVD risk in young adulthood (B = -0.56, 95% CI: -0.91 to -0.20, p < .01). The interaction between adolescent SES and maternal support was not significant, (p > .05), but there was an interaction between maternal support and race such that African American adolescents were more sensitive than Whites to the effects of maternal support on CVD risk (B = -0.90, 95% CI: -1.56, -0.25, p < .01). In addition, there was no evidence that maternal support mediated the association between SES and CVD risk (p > .05), and there was no association between SES and maternal support (p > .05), adjusting for confounders. However, the relations of adolescent maternal support and SES to adult CVD risk were mediated by young adult health behaviors and financial stress but not by depressive symptoms. Greater maternal support during adolescence appears to act independently of SES when impacting CVD risk and may operate through health behaviors and financial stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk in a semirural community in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chia Yook; Pengal, Srinivas

    2009-10-01

    It has been argued that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not very prevalent in developing countries, particularly in a rural community. This study examined the prevalence of CVD risk of a semirural community in Malaysia through an epidemiological survey. Subjects were invited to a free health screening service carried out over a period of 6 weeks. Then, a follow-up study of the initial nonresponders was done in the villages that showed a poorer response. The survey was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > or =140/90 mm Hg. The Framingham Coronary Disease Risk Prediction Score (FRS) was used as a measure of CVD risk. A total of 1417 subjects participated in this survey. The response rate was 56%. A follow-up survey of the nonresponders did not show any differences from the initial responders in any systematic way. The prevalence of CVD risk factors was high in both men and women. The mean (+/-SD) FRS was 9.4 (+/-2.5) and 11.3 (+/-4.1) for men and women, respectively. The mean predicted coronary heart disease (CHD) risk was high at 20% to 25% for men and medium at 11% to 13% for women. Overall, 55.8% of the men had >20% risk of having a CHD event in the next 10 years whereas women's risk was lower, with 15.1% having a risk of > or =20%. The prevalence of CVD risk even in a semirural community of a developing country is high. Every effort should be made to lower these risk factors.

  2. A Contemporary Review of the Relationship between Red Meat Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bronzato, Sofia; Durante, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases burden is increasing due to aging populations and represents one of the major health issues worldwide. Dietary habits have been extensively studied in the cardiovascular field despite the difficulty in the quantification of the assumption of each single food and the observation that several foods affect cardiovascular risk with opposite effects. Moreover, some older findings have been reverted by more recent studies. Red meat has been widely studied in this context, and it has been suggested to increase cardiovascular risk primarily by causing dyslipidemia. Our aim is to review the relationship between red meat assumption and cardiovascular risk and to present novel findings regarding their link. PMID:28656096

  3. Ten-year cardiovascular risk assessment in university students.

    PubMed

    Uvacsek, Martina; Kneffel, Zs; Tóth, M; Johnson, A W; Vehrs, P; Myrer, J W; Hager, R

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for more than half of all deaths in the European region. The aim of the study was to compare body composition, blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), family history, activity behaviors, and the 10-year risk of having a heart attack between 166 university students (21.62 ± 2.59 yrs) from Utah (USA) and 198 students (22.11 ± 2.51 yrs) from Hungary. Ninety-two percent of the Hungarian students and 100% of the Utah students had an estimated 10-year Framingham risk score of 1% or less. The high prevalence of low risk was primarily due to the young age of study participants, healthy body composition and non-smoking behavior. Hungarians who had higher 10-year risk of heart attack had significantly higher waist hip ratio (WHR), TC, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and were smokers compared to those Hungarians with lower risk. The self-reported physical activity levels between the two groups of students were not different. In conclusion the young men and women who participated in this study were, for the most part healthy; however the smoking habits and the lower physical activity of the Hungarian students likely elevated their risk of CVD.

  4. Cardiovascular risk profile of young adults: changes over time.

    PubMed

    Tralhão, António; Sousa, Pedro Jerónimo; Ferreira, António Miguel; Miranda, Mafalda; Monge, José Carlos; Tomé, António; Duarte, José Maria

    2014-03-01

    The high prevalence and natural history of atherosclerosis make young people important targets for cardiovascular prevention. This study aimed to analyze changes over time in the cardiovascular risk profile of a population of healthy young adults. We studied 923 Portuguese Air Force applicants between 1991 and 2007, divided into two-year periods. In addition to cardiovascular risk factors, the Framingham score and HeartScore were calculated for age 65. Cochran-Armitage and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests for trend were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Mean age was 19.2 ± 2.3 years (p = 0.34) and 55 applicants (6%) were female (p = 0.56). Mean body mass index was 22.4 ± 2.5 kg (p for trend 0.35). The number of smokers decreased over the study period (11.6 vs. 7.0%, p for trend 0.02). Of the total number of applicants, 122 (13.2%) were classified as hypertensive. Mean systolic blood pressure was 127 ± 12 mmHg and increased significantly over time (122 ± 13 vs. 128 ± 11 mmHg, p for trend <0.001). Hypercholesterolemia was found in 108 applicants (11.7%) and total cholesterol showed an improvement (170 ± 35 vs. 155 ± 26 mg/dl, p for trend <0.001). The mean modified Framingham score was 12.6 ± 5.1 and improved over the study period (12.9 ± 5.9% vs. 11.9 ± 4.7%, p for trend 0.006). The mean modified HeartScore was 3.2 ± 1.4 and remained unchanged (p for trend 0.10). In our population, except for an increase in systolic blood pressure values, there was an overall improvement in cardiovascular risk from 1991 to 2007. Further studies are needed to better assess the situation in Portugal and help devise preventive strategies in young people. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of cluster recovery for small area relative risk models.

    PubMed

    Rotejanaprasert, Chawarat

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of disease risk is often considered via relative risk. The comparison of relative risk estimation methods with "true risk" scenarios has been considered on various occasions. However, there has been little examination of how well competing methods perform when the focus is clustering of risk. In this paper, a simulated evaluation of a range of potential spatial risk models and a range of measures that can be used for (a) cluster goodness of fit, (b) cluster diagnostics are considered. Results suggest that exceedence probability is a poor measure of hot spot clustering because of model dependence, whereas residual-based methods are less model dependent and perform better. Local deviance information criteria measures perform well, but conditional predictive ordinate measures yield a high false positive rate.

  6. Could human cold adaptation decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Kralova Lesna, I; Rychlikova, J; Vavrova, L; Vybiral, S

    2015-08-01

    The impact of repeated exposure to cold and cold adaptation on human cardiovascular health is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of cold adaptation on cardiovascular risk factors, thyroid hormones and the capacity of humans to reset the damaging effect of oxidative stress. Ten well cold-adapted winter swimmers (CA) and 16 non-adapted controls (CON) were enroled in this experiment to test whether cold adaptation could influence the parameters of lipoprotein metabolism, cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), homocysteine, thyroid hormones, antioxidant defence markers (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1)) and oxidative stress markers (concentration of conjugated dienes (CD)). A decreased apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 (ApoB/ApoA1) ratio was found in the CA group (p<0.05), but other lipoprotein parameters, including CEC, did not differ significantly. Plasma homocysteine was lower in CA subjects in comparison with controls (p<0.05). Higher triiodothyronine (T3) values were observed in the CA compared to the CON (p<0.05) group, but TSH and other thyroid hormones did not differ between both groups. CA subjects had lower activity of GPX1 (p<0.05), lower concentrations of CD (p<0.05) and increased activities of PON1 (p<0.001) compared to CON subjects. A trend for decreased activity of CAT (p=0.06) in CA compared to CON groups was also observed, but GSH levels did not differ significantly. Zn concentration was higher in the CA group than in the CON group (p<0.001). Human cold adaptation can influence oxidative stress markers. Trends towards the improvement of cardiovascular risk factors in cold-adapted subjects also indicate the positive effect of cold adaptation on cardio-protective mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palatini, Paolo; Casiglia, Edoardo; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Głuszek, Jerzy; Jankowski, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Saladini, Francesca; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Van Bortel, Luc; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP) measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured carefully under standardized patient conditions. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement and is a well recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Systolic BP and pulse pressure in the ascending aorta may be lower than pressures measured in the upper limb, especially in young individuals. A number of studies suggest closer correlation of end-organ damage with central BP than with peripheral BP, and central BP may provide additional prognostic information regarding cardiovascular risk. Moreover, BP-lowering drugs can have differential effects on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics compared with brachial BP. This may explain the greater beneficial effect provided by newer antihypertensive drugs beyond peripheral BP reduction. Although many methodological problems still hinder the wide clinical application of parameters of arterial stiffness, these will likely contribute to cardiovascular assessment and management in future clinical practice. Each of the abovementioned parameters reflects a different characteristic of the atherosclerotic process, involving functional and/or morphological changes in the vessel wall. Therefore, acquiring simultaneous measurements of different parameters of vascular function and structure could theoretically enhance the power to improve risk stratification. Continuous technological effort is necessary to refine our methods of investigation in order to detect early arterial abnormalities. Arterial stiffness and its consequences represent the great challenge of the twenty-first century for

  8. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in the U.S. Astronaut Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.

  9. Gaps in Addressing Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Assessing Performance Using Cardiovascular Quality Indicators.

    PubMed

    Barber, Claire E H; Esdaile, John M; Martin, Liam O; Faris, Peter; Barnabe, Cheryl; Guo, Selynne; Lopatina, Elena; Marshall, Deborah A

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major comorbidity for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study sought to determine the performance of 11 recently developed CVD quality indicators (QI) for RA in clinical practice. Medical charts for patients with RA (early disease or biologic-treated) followed at 1 center were retrospectively reviewed. A systematic assessment of adherence to 11 QI over a 2-year period was completed. Performance on the QI was reported as a percentage pass rate. There were 170 charts reviewed (107 early disease and 63 biologic-treated). The most frequent CVD risk factors present at diagnosis (early disease) and biologic start (biologic-treated) included hypertension (26%), obesity (25%), smoking (21%), and dyslipidemia (15%). Performance on the CVD QI was highly variable. Areas of low performance (< 10% pass rates) included documentation of a formal CVD risk assessment, communication to the primary care physician (PCP) that patients with RA were at increased risk of CVD, body mass index documentation and counseling if overweight, communication to a PCP about an elevated blood pressure, and discussion of risks and benefits of antiinflammatories in patients at CVD risk. Rates of diabetes screening and lipid screening were 67% and 69%, respectively. The area of highest performance was observed for documentation of intent to taper corticosteroids (98%-100% for yrs 1 and 2, respectively). Gaps in CVD risk management were found and highlight the need for quality improvements. Key targets for improvement include coordination of CVD care between rheumatology and primary care, and communication of increased CVD risk in RA.

  10. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in the U.S. Astronaut Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.

  11. Prevalence of obesity and associated cardiovascular risk: the DARIOS study.

    PubMed

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Grau, María; Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Dégano, Irene R; de León, Antonio Cabrera; Guembe, Maria Jesús; Alzamora, María Teresa; Vega-Alonso, Tomás; Robles, Nicolás R; Ortiz, Honorato; Rigo, Fernando; Mayoral-Sanchez, Eduardo; Tormo, Maria José; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2013-06-05

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Spanish population as measured with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) and to determine the associated cardiovascular risk factors. Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. Participants aged 35-74 years were asked about the history of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Height, weight, WC, blood pressure, glycaemia, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary risk were measured. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), general obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), suboptimal WC (≥ 80 cm and < 88 in women, ≥ 94 and < 102 in men), abdominal obesity (WC ≥88 cm ≥102 cm in women and men, respectively) and WHtR ≥0.5 was estimated, standardized for the European population. We included 28,743 individuals. The prevalence of overweight and suboptimal WC was 51% and 30% in men and 36% and 22% in women, respectively; general obesity was 28% in both sexes and abdominal obesity 36% in men and 55% in women. The prevalence of WHtR ≥0.5 was 89% and 77% in men and women, respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were significantly associated with abnormal increased values of BMI, WC and WHtR. Hypertension showed the strongest association with overweight [OR = 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.81-2.21) and OR = 2.10 (1.91-2.31)]; suboptimal WC [OR = 1.78 (1.60-1.97) and OR = 1.45 (1.26-1.66)], with general obesity [OR = 4.50 (4.02-5.04), and OR = 5.20 (4.70-5.75)] and with WHtR ≥0.5 [OR = 2.94 (2.52-3.43), and OR = 3.02 (2.66-3.42)] in men and women respectively, besides abdominal obesity in men only [OR = 3.51 (3.18-3.88)]. Diabetes showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity in women [OR = 3,86 (3,09-4,89). The prevalence of obesity in Spain was high. Overweight, suboptimal WC, general, abdominal obesity and

  12. MEASURES OF OBESITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AMONG MEN AND WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Gelber, Rebecca P.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Orav, E. John; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Kurth, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We examined associations between anthropometric measures (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) and risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD, including nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death). Background Controversy exists regarding the optimal approach to measure adiposity, and the utility of BMI has been questioned. Methods Participants included 16,332 men in the Physicians’ Health Study (mean age 61, 1991) and 32,700 women in the Women’s Health Study (mean age 61, 1999). We used Cox proportional hazards models to determine relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for developing CVD according to self-reported anthropometric indices. Results A total of 1505 CVD cases occurred in men, and 414 occurred in women (median follow-up, 14.2 and 5.5 years, respectively). While WHtR demonstrated statistically the strongest associations with CVD and best model fit, CVD risk increased linearly and significantly with higher levels of all indices. Adjusting for confounders, the RR (CI) for CVD was 0.58 (0.32–1.05) for men with the lowest WHtR (<0.45) and 2.36 (1.61–3.47) for the highest WHtR (≥0.69; versus WHtR 0.49-<0.53). Among women, the RR (95% CI) was 0.65 (0.33– 1.31) for those with the lowest WHtR (<0.42) and 2.33 (1.66–3.28) for the highest WHtR (≥0.68; versus WHtR 0.47- <0.52). Conclusions WHtR demonstrated statistically the best model fit and strongest associations with CVD. However, as compared to BMI, differences in cardiovascular risk assessment using other indices were small and likely not clinically consequential. Our findings emphasize that higher levels of adiposity, however measured, confer increased risk of CVD. PMID:18702962

  13. [Research on distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular based on cluster analysis].

    PubMed

    YANG, Xu-Jie; XIAO, Shi-Ying

    2015-09-01

    To discuss the distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, the patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular were cluster analyzed by means of simple statistics and cluster analysis. Clustering variables were composed of patent applications, patent maintained number, related papers' quantity, etc. Chinese herbal compound patents' holders were divided into four categories according to their different scientific research and patent strength. It is the magic weapon for Chinese herbal compound patents' holders that have scientific research patents' transforming and make coordination of patent protection and scientific innovation.

  14. Postmenopausal therapy reduces catalase activity and attenuates cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Vera S; Nakamura, Rui Tsutomu; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M; Faria, Eliana Cotta de

    2012-11-01

    Menopause can lead to alterations in women's health, with changes in the oxidative status of postmenopausal women in whom information regarding the influence of hormone therapy (HT) on antioxidant enzyme activities is limited. To evaluate the influence of HT on catalase activity; concentrations of lipids and lipoprotein, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, nitrates, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and carotid thickness in postmenopausal women. Ninety-four consecutive women were allocated to one of four groups, without HT and with HT. The latter group was subdivided into women using estrogen and those using estrogen plus progestogen therapy. Plasma biochemical parameters and common carotid intima-media thickness measurements were performed. HT antagonized the decrease in catalase activity after menopause, but had no effect on the levels of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, lipid peroxide, nitrate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or on the common carotid intima-media thickness. Multivariate analysis showed that estrogen-based HT attenuated the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and the intima-media thickness of the common carotid. This study indicates that HT in postmenopausal women produces beneficial antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic effects by ameliorating the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles, increasing plasma catalase activity and attenuating the association between cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis.

  15. Lipoprotein (a) and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Ástrid Camêlo; Leal, Adriana Amorim de F; Ramos, Nathaly de Medeiros N; Neto, José de Alencar F; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da S; Medeiros, Carla Campos M

    2013-12-01

    To review the relationship between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children and adolescents. This systematic review included studies from 2001 to 2011, a ten-year time period. Epidemiological studies with children and/or adolescents published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and fully available online were included. The searches were performed in Science Direct, PubMed/Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) and Cochrane Library databases, using the following combination of key-words: "lipoprotein a" and "cardiovascular diseases" and "obesity". Overall, 672 studies were obtained but only seven were included. Some studies assessed the family history for CVD. In all of them, Lp(a) levels were increased in patients with family history for CVD. There was also a positive correlation between Lp(a) and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels, suggesting an association between Lp(a) levels and the lipid profile. The evidence that CVD may originate in childhood and adolescence leads to the need for investigating the risk factors during this period in order to propose earlier and possibly more effective interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates.

  16. Lipoprotein (a) and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Palmeira, Ástrid Camêlo; Leal, Adriana Amorim de F.; Ramos, Nathaly de Medeiros N.; de Alencar F., José; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da S.; Medeiros, Carla Campos M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: This systematic review included studies from 2001 to 2011, a ten-year time period. Epidemiological studies with children and/or adolescents published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and fully available online were included. The searches were performed in Science Direct, PubMed/Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) and Cochrane Library databases, using the following combination of key-words: "lipoprotein a" and "cardiovascular diseases" and "obesity". DATA SYNTHESIS: Overall, 672 studies were obtained but only seven were included. Some studies assessed the family history for CVD. In all of them, Lp(a) levels were increased in patients with family history for CVD. There was also a positive correlation between Lp(a) and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels, suggesting an association between Lp(a) levels and the lipid profile. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence that CVD may originate in childhood and adolescence leads to the need for investigating the risk factors during this period in order to propose earlier and possibly more effective interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:24473960

  17. Inheritance pattern of familial hypercholesterolemia and markers of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Kusters, D Meeike; Avis, Hans J; Braamskamp, Marjet J; Huijgen, Roeland; Wijburg, Frits A; Kastelein, John J; Wiegman, Albert; Hutten, Barbara A

    2013-09-01

    Studies in children and adults have resulted in conflicting evidence in the quest for the answer to the hypothesis that offspring from hypercholesterolemic mothers might have an increased cardiovascular risk. Previous studies might have suffered from limitations such as cohort size and clinical sampling bias. We therefore explored this hypothesis in large cohorts of both subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and unaffected siblings in a wide age range. In three cohorts (cohort 1: n = 1,988, aged 0-18 years; cohort 2: n = 300, 8-30 years; cohort 3: n = 369, 18-60 years), we measured lipid and lipoproteins as well as carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in offspring from FH mothers versus FH fathers. For LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and c-IMT, we performed a pooled analysis. No significant differences could be observed in c-IMT, lipid, or lipoprotein levels from offspring of FH mothers versus FH fathers. Pooled analyses showed no significant differences for either LDL cholesterol [mean difference 0.02 (-0.06,0.11) mmol/l, P = 0.60], TGs [mean difference 0.07 (0.00,0.14) mmol/l, P = 0.08], or c-IMT [mean difference -0.00 (-0.01,0.01) mm, P = 0.86]. Our data do not support the hypothesis that cardiovascular risk markers are different between offspring from FH mothers and FH fathers.

  18. Update on Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Diagnosis, Cardiovascular Risk, and Novel Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In recent studies, the reported prevalence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) has been higher than in previous reports. Although cascade genetic screening is a good option for efficient identification of affected patients, diagnosis using only clinical criteria is more common in real clinical practice. Cardiovascular risk is much higher in FH patients due to longstanding low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) burden and is also influenced by other risk factors. Although guidelines emphasize aggressive LDL-C reduction, the majority of patients cannot reach the LDL-C goal by conventional pharmacotherapy. Novel therapeutics such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors have shown strong lipid lowering efficacy and are expected to improve treatment results in FH patients. PMID:28116871

  19. Chinese immigrants' management of their cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    King, Kathryn M; LeBlanc, Pamela; Carr, William; Quan, Hude

    2007-11-01

    The authors have undertaken a series of grounded theory studies to describe and explain how ethnocultural affiliation and gender influence the process that cardiac patients undergo when faced with making behavior changes associated with reducing their cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Data were collected through audiorecorded semistructured interviews (using an interpreter as necessary), and the authors analyzed the data using constant comparative methods. The core variable that emerged through the series of studies was "meeting the challenge." Here, the authors describe the findings from a sample of Chinese immigrants (10 men, 5 women) to Canada. The process of managing CVD risk for the Chinese immigrants was characterized by their extraordinary diligence in seeking multiple sources of information to enable them to manage their health.

  20. Relation of physical activity to cardiovascular disease mortality and the influence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Reddigan, Jacinta I; Ardern, Chris I; Riddell, Michael C; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2011-11-15

    Physical activity can improve several metabolic risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality. We sought to evaluate the extent to which metabolic risk factors mediate the association between physical activity and CVD mortality and whether physical activity provides protective effects against CVD mortality in healthy adults and those with metabolic risk factors. A sample of 10,261 adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with public-access mortality data linkage (follow-up 13.4 ± 3.9 years) was used. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire and classified into inactive, light, and moderate/vigorous activity categories. Metabolic risk factors (dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, inflammation, and insulin resistance) were categorized using clinical thresholds. After adjusting for basic confounders, engaging in light or moderate/vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality (p < 0.05). Adjustment for each risk-factor set only slightly attenuated this relation. When all risk-factor sets were added to the model simultaneously, light (hazard ratio 0.72, 0.62 to 0.84) and moderate/vigorous (hazard ratio 0.72, 0.62 to 0.85) activity remained at lower risk of CVD mortality. In addition, physical activity provided protective effects for CVD mortality in healthy subjects and those with metabolic risk factors in isolation or in clusters. In conclusion, physical activity was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality independent of traditional and inflammatory risk factors. Taken together these results suggest that physical activity may protect against CVD mortality regardless of the presence of metabolic risk factors.

  1. Does albuminuria predict renal risk and/or cardiovascular risk in obese type 2 diabetic patients?

    PubMed Central

    Bentata, Yassamine; Abouqal, Redouane

    2014-01-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a marker of renal and cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (DT2). What about the obese patient with DT2? Does albuminuria predict the progression of renal disease and/or cardiovascular disease? The objective of this study is to determine the link between albuminuria, renal risk and cardiovascular risk in a cohort of obese DT2 patients. This is a prospective study begun in September 2006. It included DT2 patients presenting obesity defined by a body mass index (BMI)>30 Kg/m2. Three groups of patients were defined: normo-albuminuria (Urinary Albumin Excretion UAE<30 mg/day or Albumin Creatinine Ratio ACR<30 mg/g), micro-albuminuria (UAE=30-300 mg/day or ACR=30-300 mg/g) and macro-albuminuria (UAE>300 mg/day or ACR>300 mg/g). Data on 144 obese DT2 patients were compiled: The mean age of our patients was 59 ± 9 years and the sex ratio 0.26. The incidence of ESRD was higher in the macro-albuminuria group than in the two other groups (26.5% vs. 1.2%, p<0.001). The incidence of cardiovascular events was 15.4%, 14.3% and 23.5% in the normo, micro and macro-albuminuria groups (p=0.48). A history of cardiovascular comorbidities was the main cardiovascular risk in multivariate analysis (0R=15.07; 95% CI=5.30-42.82; p<0.001) and the low admission GFR (0R=5.67; 95% CI=1.23-9.77; p=0.008) was the main factor for progression of kidney disease in multivariate analysis. Albuminuria may be a better marker of kidney disease progression than of cardiovascular risk in the obese DT2 patient, according to our results. However, to accurately demonstrate the link albuminuria - renal risk and albuminuria - cardiovascular risk in the obese DT2 patient, additional studies using very strict criteria of selection and judgment are needed. PMID:24551483

  2. Understanding cardiovascular risk in hemophilia: A step towards prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Sousos, Nikolaos; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Vakalopoulou, Sofia; Garipidou, Vasileia

    2016-04-01

    Advances in hemophilia care have led to increased life expectancy and new challenges in the management of the aging hemophilia population, including cardiovascular risk. Despite the deep knowledge into cardiovascular disease in terms of pathophysiology, risk prediction, prevention, early detection and management gained over the last decades, studies in hemophiliacs are scarce and mainly descriptive. As a growing amount of evidence points towards a similar or increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in hemophilia compared to the general population, the role of non-traditional, disease-related and treatment-related cardiovascular risk factors remains under investigation. Better understanding of cardiovascular risk in hemophilia is mandatory for proper cardiovascular risk prevention and management. Therefore, this review aims to summarize current knowledge on cardiovascular risk in hemophilia patients focusing on a) cardiovascular risk factors (traditional, non-traditional, disease-related and treatment-related), b) cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and c) cardiovascular prevention and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla; Guimarães, Armênio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Methods Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). Results One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW. PMID:23740400

  4. Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion.

  5. [Cardiovascular risk factors in the population at risk of poverty and social exclusión].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Fernández, Carlos; Vaquero-Abellán, Manuel; Ruíz-Gandara, África; Romero-Saldaña, Manuel; Álvarez-López, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Detect if there are differences in prevalence, distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and risk according to REGICOR and SCORE's function; between people belonging to different occupational classes and population at risk of social exclusion. Cross-sectional. SITE: Occupational health unit of the City Hall of Córdoba. Sample availability of 628 people, excluding 59 by age or incomplete data. The group of municipal workers was obtained randomly while all contracted exclusion risk was taken. No preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic actions that modify the course of the previous situation of workers were applied. Smoke, glucose, lipids, blood pressure and BMI as main variables. T-student were used for comparison of means and percentages for Chi(2). Statistical significance attached to an alpha error <5% and confidence interval with a 95% security. Receiver operator curves (ROC) were employed to find out what explanatory variables predict group membersh