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Sample records for clytia hemisphaerica cnidaria

  1. Acetylcholinesterase activity in Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Denker, Elsa; Chatonnet, Arnaud; Rabet, Nicolas

    2008-09-25

    Cholinesterase activity is known in representatives of all living organisms phyla but the origin of the cholinergic system as known in bilaterian animals is still undeciphered. In particular the implication of cholinesterases in the nervous system of non-bilaterian Metazoa is not well known. We thus chose to investigate this activity in the Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria) medusa. In toto histochemical staining revealed an acetylcholinesterase activity in the tentacle bulbs but not in the nervous system. Sequences homologous to acetylcholinesterase were searched within Clytia ESTs and compared to other sequences found in public databases.

  2. Ordered progression of nematogenesis from stem cells through differentiation stages in the tentacle bulb of Clytia hemisphaerica (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Denker, Elsa; Manuel, Michaël; Leclère, Lucas; Le Guyader, Hervé; Rabet, Nicolas

    2008-03-01

    Nematogenesis, the production of stinging cells (nematocytes) in Cnidaria, can be considered as a model neurogenic process. Most molecular data concern the freshwater polyp Hydra, in which nematocyte production is scattered throughout the body column ectoderm, the mature cells then migrating to the tentacles. We have characterized tentacular nematogenesis in the Clytia hemisphaerica hydromedusa and found it to be confined to the ectoderm of the tentacle bulb, a specialized swelling at the tentacle base. Analysis by a variety of light and electron microscope techniques revealed that while cellular aspects of nematogenesis are similar to Hydra, the spatio-temporal characteristics are markedly more ordered. The tentacle bulb nematogenic ectoderm (TBE) was found to be polarized, with a clear progression of successive nematoblast stages from a proximal zone (comprising a majority of undifferentiated cells) to the distal end where the tentacle starts. Pulse-chase labelling experiments demonstrated a continuous displacement of differentiating nematoblasts towards the tentacle tip, and that nematogenesis proceeds more rapidly in Clytia than in Hydra. Compact expression domains of orthologues of known nematogenesis-associated genes (Piwi, dickkopf-3, minicollagens and NOWA) were correspondingly staggered along the TBE. These distinct characteristics make the Clytia TBE a promising experimental system for understanding the mechanisms regulating nematogenesis.

  3. Are Hox genes ancestrally involved in axial patterning? Evidence from the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Chiori, Roxane; Jager, Muriel; Denker, Elsa; Wincker, Patrick; Da Silva, Corinne; Le Guyader, Hervé; Manuel, Michaël; Quéinnec, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The early evolution and diversification of Hox-related genes in eumetazoans has been the subject of conflicting hypotheses concerning the evolutionary conservation of their role in axial patterning and the pre-bilaterian origin of the Hox and ParaHox clusters. The diversification of Hox/ParaHox genes clearly predates the origin of bilaterians. However, the existence of a "Hox code" predating the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor and supporting the deep homology of axes is more controversial. This assumption was mainly based on the interpretation of Hox expression data from the sea anemone, but growing evidence from other cnidarian taxa puts into question this hypothesis. Hox, ParaHox and Hox-related genes have been investigated here by phylogenetic analysis and in situ hybridisation in Clytia hemisphaerica, an hydrozoan species with medusa and polyp stages alternating in the life cycle. Our phylogenetic analyses do not support an origin of ParaHox and Hox genes by duplication of an ancestral ProtoHox cluster, and reveal a diversification of the cnidarian HOX9-14 genes into three groups called A, B, C. Among the 7 examined genes, only those belonging to the HOX9-14 and the CDX groups exhibit a restricted expression along the oral-aboral axis during development and in the planula larva, while the others are expressed in very specialised areas at the medusa stage. Cross species comparison reveals a strong variability of gene expression along the oral-aboral axis and during the life cycle among cnidarian lineages. The most parsimonious interpretation is that the Hox code, collinearity and conservative role along the antero-posterior axis are bilaterian innovations.

  4. Are Hox Genes Ancestrally Involved in Axial Patterning? Evidence from the Hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria)

    PubMed Central

    Chiori, Roxane; Jager, Muriel; Denker, Elsa; Wincker, Patrick; Da Silva, Corinne; Le Guyader, Hervé; Manuel, Michaël; Quéinnec, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background The early evolution and diversification of Hox-related genes in eumetazoans has been the subject of conflicting hypotheses concerning the evolutionary conservation of their role in axial patterning and the pre-bilaterian origin of the Hox and ParaHox clusters. The diversification of Hox/ParaHox genes clearly predates the origin of bilaterians. However, the existence of a “Hox code” predating the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor and supporting the deep homology of axes is more controversial. This assumption was mainly based on the interpretation of Hox expression data from the sea anemone, but growing evidence from other cnidarian taxa puts into question this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Hox, ParaHox and Hox-related genes have been investigated here by phylogenetic analysis and in situ hybridisation in Clytia hemisphaerica, an hydrozoan species with medusa and polyp stages alternating in the life cycle. Our phylogenetic analyses do not support an origin of ParaHox and Hox genes by duplication of an ancestral ProtoHox cluster, and reveal a diversification of the cnidarian HOX9-14 genes into three groups called A, B, C. Among the 7 examined genes, only those belonging to the HOX9-14 and the CDX groups exhibit a restricted expression along the oral-aboral axis during development and in the planula larva, while the others are expressed in very specialised areas at the medusa stage. Conclusions/Significance Cross species comparison reveals a strong variability of gene expression along the oral-aboral axis and during the life cycle among cnidarian lineages. The most parsimonious interpretation is that the Hox code, collinearity and conservative role along the antero-posterior axis are bilaterian innovations. PMID:19156208

  5. In vivo imaging of epithelial wound healing in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica demonstrates early evolution of purse string and cell crawling closure mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Zach; Zellner, Katie; Kyriazes, Harry; Kraus, Christine M; Reynier, Jean-Baptiste; Malamy, Jocelyn E

    2017-12-19

    All animals have mechanisms for healing damage to the epithelial sheets that cover the body and line internal cavities. Epithelial wounds heal either by cells crawling over the wound gap, by contraction of a super-cellular actin cable ("purse string") that surrounds the wound, or some combination of the two mechanisms. Both cell crawling and purse string closure of epithelial wounds are widely observed across vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting early evolution of these mechanisms. Cnidarians evolved ~600 million years ago and are considered a sister group to the Bilateria. They have been much studied for their tremendous regenerative potential, but epithelial wound healing has not been characterized in detail. Conserved elements of wound healing in bilaterians and cnidarians would suggest an evolutionary origin in a common ancestor. Here we test this idea by characterizing epithelial wound healing in live medusae of Clytia hemisphaerica. We identified cell crawling and purse string-mediated mechanisms of healing in Clytia epithelium that appear highly analogous of those seen in higher animals, suggesting that these mechanisms may have emerged in a common ancestor. Interestingly, we found that epithelial wound healing in Clytia is 75 to >600 times faster than in cultured cells or embryos of other animals previously studied, suggesting that Clytia may provide valuable clues about optimized healing efficiency. Finally, in Clytia, we show that damage to the basement membrane in a wound gap causes a rapid shift between the cell crawling and purse string mechanisms for wound closure. This is consistent with work in other systems showing that cells marginal to a wound choose between a super-cellular actin cable or lamellipodia formation to close wounds, and suggests a mechanism underlying this decision. 1. Cell crawling and purse string mechanisms of epithelial wound healing likely evolved before the divergence of Cnidaria from the bilaterian lineage ~ 600mya 2. In

  6. A gonad-expressed opsin mediates light-induced spawning in the jellyfish Clytia

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga Artigas, Gonzalo; Lapébie, Pascal; Leclère, Lucas; Takeda, Noriyo; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Jékely, Gáspár

    2018-01-01

    Across the animal kingdom, environmental light cues are widely involved in regulating gamete release, but the molecular and cellular bases of the photoresponsive mechanisms are poorly understood. In hydrozoan jellyfish, spawning is triggered by dark-light or light-dark transitions acting on the gonad, and is mediated by oocyte maturation-inducing neuropeptide hormones (MIHs) released from the ectoderm. We determined in Clytia hemisphaerica that blue-cyan light triggers spawning in isolated gonads. A candidate opsin (Opsin9) was found co-expressed with MIH within specialised ectodermal cells. Opsin9 knockout jellyfish generated by CRISPR/Cas9 failed to undergo oocyte maturation and spawning, a phenotype reversible by synthetic MIH. Gamete maturation and release in Clytia is thus regulated by gonadal photosensory-neurosecretory cells that secrete MIH in response to light via Opsin9. Similar cells in ancestral eumetazoans may have allowed tissue-level photo-regulation of diverse behaviours, a feature elaborated in cnidarians in parallel with expansion of the opsin gene family. PMID:29303477

  7. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, S.; Naderi, G.A.; Shams Ardekani, M.R.; Sahebkar, A.; Airin, A.; Aslani, S.; Kasher, T.; Emami, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 μg mL-1) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 μg mL-1) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25657787

  8. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica.

    PubMed

    Asgary, S; Naderi, G A; Shams Ardekani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Airin, A; Aslani, S; Kasher, T; Emami, S A

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 μg mL(-1)) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 μg mL(-1)) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis with multiple markers indicates repeated loss of the adult medusa stage in Campanulariidae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Annette F; Boero, Ferdinando; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2006-03-01

    The Campanulariidae is a group of leptomedusan hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) that exhibit a diverse array of life cycles ranging from species with a free medusa stage to those with a reduced or absent medusa stage. Perhaps the best-known member of the taxon is Obelia which is often used as a textbook model of hydrozoan life history. However, Obelia medusae have several unique features leading to a hypothesis that Obelia arose, in a saltational fashion, from an ancestor that lacked a medusa, possibly representing an example of a rare evolutionary reversal. To address the evolution of adult sexual stages in Campanulariidae, a molecular phylogenetic approach was employed using two nuclear (18S rDNA and calmodulin) and two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) genes. Prior to the main analysis, we conducted a preliminary analysis of leptomedusan taxa which suggests that Campanulariidae as presently considered needs to be redefined. Campanulariid analyses are consistent with morphological understanding in that three major clades are recovered. However, several recognized genera are not monophyletic calling into question some "diagnostic" features. Furthermore, ancestral states were reconstructed using parsimony, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate possible evolutionary transitions in life-history stages. The results indicate that life-cycle transitions have occurred multiple times, and that Obelia might be derived from an ancestor with Clytia-like features.

  10. Pore-forming toxins in Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Marjetka; Anderluh, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    The ancient phylum of Cnidaria contains many aquatic species with peculiar lifestyle. In order to survive, these organisms have evolved attack and defense mechanisms that are enabled by specialized cells and highly developed venoms. Pore-forming toxins are an important part of their venomous arsenal. Along some other types, the most representative are examples of four protein families that are commonly found in other kingdoms of life: actinoporins, Cry-like proteins, aerolysin-like toxins and MACPF/CDC toxins. Some of the homologues of pore-forming toxins may serve other functions, such as in food digestion, development and response against pathogenic organisms. Due to their interesting physico-chemical properties, the cnidarian pore-forming toxins may also serve as tools in medical research and nanobiotechnological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phylogenomic Analyses Support Traditional Relationships within Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Felipe; Goetz, Freya E; Smith, Stephen A; Howison, Mark; Siebert, Stefan; Church, Samuel H; Sanders, Steven M; Ames, Cheryl Lewis; McFadden, Catherine S; France, Scott C; Daly, Marymegan; Collins, Allen G; Haddock, Steven H D; Dunn, Casey W; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-01-01

    Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses using different partition schemes and models of molecular evolution, as well as topology tests for alternative phylogenetic relationships, support the monophyly of Medusozoa, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Hydrozoa, and a clade consisting of Staurozoa, Cubozoa, and Scyphozoa. Support for the monophyly of Hexacorallia is weak due to the equivocal position of Ceriantharia. Taken together, these results further resolve deep cnidarian relationships, largely support traditional phylogenetic views on relationships, and provide a historical framework for studying the evolutionary processes involved in one of the most ancient animal radiations.

  12. Phylogenomic Analyses Support Traditional Relationships within Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Felipe; Goetz, Freya E.; Smith, Stephen A.; Howison, Mark; Siebert, Stefan; Church, Samuel H.; Sanders, Steven M.; Ames, Cheryl Lewis; McFadden, Catherine S.; France, Scott C.; Daly, Marymegan; Collins, Allen G.; Haddock, Steven H. D.; Dunn, Casey W.; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-01-01

    Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses using different partition schemes and models of molecular evolution, as well as topology tests for alternative phylogenetic relationships, support the monophyly of Medusozoa, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Hydrozoa, and a clade consisting of Staurozoa, Cubozoa, and Scyphozoa. Support for the monophyly of Hexacorallia is weak due to the equivocal position of Ceriantharia. Taken together, these results further resolve deep cnidarian relationships, largely support traditional phylogenetic views on relationships, and provide a historical framework for studying the evolutionary processes involved in one of the most ancient animal radiations. PMID:26465609

  13. Short Toxin-like Proteins Abound in Cnidaria Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Tirosh, Yitshak; Linial, Itai; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone) and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emphasized in training ClanTox include cysteines and their spacing along the sequences. Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin-like-proteins, the vast majority of which were previously unrecognized as toxins. An additional 394 short proteins exhibit characteristics of toxin-like proteins at a moderate degree of confidence. Remarkably, only 11% of the predicted toxin-like proteins were previously classified as toxins. Based on our prediction methodology and manual annotation, we inferred functions for over 400 of these proteins. Such functions include protease inhibitors, membrane pore formation, ion channel blockers and metal binding proteins. Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex environment of the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:23202321

  14. Short toxin-like proteins abound in Cnidaria genomes.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Yitshak; Linial, Itai; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal

    2012-11-16

    Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone) and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emphasized in training ClanTox include cysteines and their spacing along the sequences. Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin-like-proteins, the vast majority of which were previously unrecognized as toxins. An additional 394 short proteins exhibit characteristics of toxin-like proteins at a moderate degree of confidence. Remarkably, only 11% of the predicted toxin-like proteins were previously classified as toxins. Based on our prediction methodology and manual annotation, we inferred functions for over 400 of these proteins. Such functions include protease inhibitors, membrane pore formation, ion channel blockers and metal binding proteins. Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex environment of the aquatic ecosystem.

  15. The effect of paraquat inhalation on parkinsonism, organ morphology and anatomy of mice and its recovery with the application of etliringea hemisphaerica (blume, r.m. smith) crude extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslim, Choirul; Nurul Kamila, Santi

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to understand the effect of paraquat herbicide inhalation on Parkinsonism, morphology and anatomy change in mice, and its recovery with Etliringea hemisphaerica crude extract application. Sixty mice were placed into three following groups: group R0 were mice receiving standard food ransom, R1 were a group of mice receiving the regular food ransom plus inhalation of 1% paraquat, and R2 were a group of R1 plus obtaining 0,39mg/bw extract E. hemisphaerica (Bl.) R.M. Smith). After 2 X 7 days of sub-sequential application of both paraquat and “helani tulip” extract, we observed the effects. The examination included bradikinesia attitude, postural instability and rigidity, morphology and anatomy of brain, liver, blood, lung, and kidney. The data were tabulated and analyzed qualitative and semi quantitative description on the behavioural disorder, the alteration of morphology and anatomy, and their remedy based on Sander 2004, Junqueira and Carneiro, 2007. The results showed that the application of paraquat caused strong bradikinesia, postural instability and rigidity. The treatment of the extract was only resulting in the bradikinesia removal but was minor improving the consequence of postural instability and rigidity. Paraquat was not affecting the morphology of neural brain but was altering the morphology and anatomy of lung, liver, blood, and the kidney. In general, the negative impact of the paraquat was weakly eliminated by the treatment of “helani tulip” extract.

  16. [Morphogenetic foundations for increased evolutionary complexity in the organization of thecate hydroids shoots (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusa, Leptomedusae)].

    PubMed

    Kosevich, I A

    2012-01-01

    The morphogenetic approach is applied to analyze the diversity of spatial organization of shoots in thecate hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusa, Leptomedusae). The main tendencies and constraints of increased evolutionary complexity in thecate hydroids colonies are uncovered.

  17. Correction: Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nathaniel M; Lindner, Alberto; Raikova, Ekaterina V; Collins, Allen G; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2009-07-15

    Correction to Evans, N.M., Lindner, A., Raikova, E.V., Collins, A.G. and Cartwright, P. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the phylum Cnidaria. BMC Evol Biol, 2008, 8:139.

  18. Correction: Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Correction to Evans, N.M., Lindner, A., Raikova, E.V., Collins, A.G. and Cartwright, P. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the phylum Cnidaria. BMC Evol Biol, 2008, 8:139. PMID:19604374

  19. Transmission genetics of allorecognition in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    SciTech Connect

    Mokady, O.; Buss, L.W.

    1996-06-01

    Allorecognition is ubiquitous, or nearly so, amongst colonial invertebrates. Despite the prominent role that such phenomena have played both in evolutionary theory and in speculations on the origin of the vertebrate immune system, unambiguous data on the transmission genetics of fusibility (i.e., the ability of two individuals to fuse upon tissue contact) is lacking for any metazoan outside of the phylum Chordata. We have developed lines of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Phylum Cnidaria) inbred for fusibility and here report results of breeding experiments establishing that fusibility segregates as expected for a single locus with codominantly expressed alleles, with one sharedmore » allele producing a fusible phenotype. Surveys of fusibility in field populations and additional breeding experiments indicate the presence of an extensive allele series. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.« less

  20. Transmission Genetics of Allorecognition in Hydractinia Symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Mokady, O.; Buss, L. W.

    1996-01-01

    Allorecognition is ubiquitous, or nearly so, amongst colonial invertebrates. Despite the prominent role that such phenomena have played both in evolutionary theory and in speculations on the origin of the vertebrate immune system, unambiguous data on the transmission genetics of fusibility (i.e., the ability of two individuals to fuse upon tissue contact) is lacking for any metazoan outside of the phylum Chordata. We have developed lines of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Phylum Cnidaria) inbred for fusibility and here report results of breeding experiments establishing that fusibility segregates as expected for a single locus with codominantly expressed alleles, with one shared allele producing a fusible phenotype. Surveys of fusibility in field populations and additional breeding experiments indicate the presence of an extensive allele series. PMID:8725230

  1. Sea Anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) Toxins: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Frazão, Bárbara; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2012-01-01

    The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors) and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines), but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects) and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins. PMID:23015776

  2. Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) toxins: an overview.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Bárbara; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2012-08-01

    The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors) and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines), but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects) and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na⁺ and K⁺ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins.

  3. New phylogenomic and comparative analyses provide corroborating evidence that Myxozoa is Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jin-Mei; Xiong, Jie; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Yang, Ya-Lin; Yao, Bin; Zhou, Zhi-Gang; Miao, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Myxozoa, a diverse group of morphologically simplified endoparasites, are well known fish parasites causing substantial economic losses in aquaculture. Despite active research, the phylogenetic position of Myxozoa remains ambiguous. After obtaining the genome and transcriptome data of the myxozoan Thelohanellus kitauei, we examined the phylogenetic position of Myxozoa from three different perspectives. First, phylogenomic analyses with the newly sequenced genomic data strongly supported the monophyly of Myxozoa and that Myxozoa is sister to Medusozoa within Cnidaria. Second, we detected two homologs to cnidarian-specific minicollagens in the T. kitauei genome with molecular characteristics similar to cnidarian-specific minicollagens, suggesting that the minicollagen homologs in T. kitauei may have functions similar to those in Cnidaria and that Myxozoa is Cnidaria. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the minicollagens in myxozoans and medusozoans have a common ancestor. Third, we detected 11 of the 19 proto-mesodermalgenes in the T. kitauei genome, which were also present in the cnidarian Hydra magnipapillata, indicating Myxozoa is within Cnidaria. Thus, our results robustly support Myxozoa as a derived cnidarian taxon with an affinity to Medusozoa, helping to understand the diversity of the morphology, development and life cycle of Cnidaria and its evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Statolith formation in Cnidaria: effects of cadmium on Aurelia statoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Statolith formation in Cnidaria was reviewed with an emphasis on Aurelia statoliths. The review provides information on the chemical composition, mechanisms of initiation of mineralization, and effects of environmental factors on Cnidarian statolith formation. Environmental factors discussed included modified sea water ingredients, X-irradiation, clinostat rotation, and petroleum oil ingredients. A detailed account of the effects of cadmium on mineralization and demineralization of Aurelia statoliths is given. Cadmium at dosages of 2 to 4 micromoles significantly reduces statolith numbers in developing ephyrae. At a dosage of 3 micromoles, cadmium accelerates statolith loss in unfed ephyrae studied at 4 and 8 days following ephyrae release from strobilae. Cadmium, therefore, is shown to reduce statolith numbers in developing ephyrae and to cause greater reduction of statolith numbers in unfed ephyrae after 4 and 8 days than occurred in controls. Supplementation of Cd(2+)-containing artificial sea water (ASW) with calcium (3X and 5X ASW calcium content) results in higher numbers of statoliths at day 4 as compared with cadmium-treated ephyrae. At 8 days only the 5X calcium supplemented ASW is effective in enhancing statolith numbers in Cd(2+)-treated ephyrae. These results suggest that cadmium competes in some manner with calcium at the mineralizing sites of Aurelia.

  5. Invasion and Persistence of a Selfish Gene in the Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Matthew R.; Leigh, Jessica; Roger, Andrew J; Pemberton, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Background Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are superfluous, but are capable of invading populations that mix alleles by biasing their inheritance patterns through gene conversion. One model suggests that their long-term persistence is achieved through recurrent invasion. This circumvents evolutionary degeneration, but requires reasonable rates of transfer between species to maintain purifying selection. Although HEGs are found in a variety of microbes, we found the previous discovery of this type of selfish genetic element in the mitochondria of a sea anemone surprising. Methods/Principal Findings We surveyed 29 species of Cnidaria for the presence of the COXI HEG. Statistical analyses provided evidence for HEG invasion. We also found that 96 individuals of Metridium senile, from five different locations in the UK, had identical HEG sequences. This lack of sequence divergence illustrates the stable nature of Anthozoan mitochondria. Our data suggests this HEG conforms to the recurrent invasion model of evolution. Conclusions Ordinarily such low rates of HEG transfer would likely be insufficient to enable major invasion. However, the slow rate of Anthozoan mitochondrial change lengthens greatly the time to HEG degeneration: this significantly extends the periodicity of the HEG life-cycle. We suggest that a combination of very low substitution rates and rare transfers facilitated metazoan HEG invasion. PMID:17183657

  6. Invasion and persistence of a selfish gene in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Matthew R; Leigh, Jessica; Roger, Andrew J; Pemberton, Andrew J

    2006-12-20

    Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are superfluous, but are capable of invading populations that mix alleles by biasing their inheritance patterns through gene conversion. One model suggests that their long-term persistence is achieved through recurrent invasion. This circumvents evolutionary degeneration, but requires reasonable rates of transfer between species to maintain purifying selection. Although HEGs are found in a variety of microbes, we found the previous discovery of this type of selfish genetic element in the mitochondria of a sea anemone surprising. We surveyed 29 species of Cnidaria for the presence of the COXI HEG. Statistical analyses provided evidence for HEG invasion. We also found that 96 individuals of Metridium senile, from five different locations in the UK, had identical HEG sequences. This lack of sequence divergence illustrates the stable nature of Anthozoan mitochondria. Our data suggests this HEG conforms to the recurrent invasion model of evolution. Ordinarily such low rates of HEG transfer would likely be insufficient to enable major invasion. However, the slow rate of Anthozoan mitochondrial change lengthens greatly the time to HEG degeneration: this significantly extends the periodicity of the HEG life-cycle. We suggest that a combination of very low substitution rates and rare transfers facilitated metazoan HEG invasion.

  7. Proteomic analysis of symbiosome membranes in Cnidaria-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shao-En; Wang, Yu-Bao; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Wan-Nan Uang; Lu, Chi-Yu; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2010-03-01

    Symbiosomes are specific intracellular membrane-bound vacuoles containing microalgae in a mutualistic Cnidaria (host)-dinoflagellate (symbiont) association. The symbiosome membrane is originally derived from host plasma membranes during phagocytosis of the symbiont; however, its molecular components and functions are not clear. In order to investigate the protein components of the symbiosome membranes, homogenous symbiosomes were isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and their purities and membrane intactness examined by Western blot analysis for host contaminants and microscopic analysis using various fluorescent probes, respectively. Pure and intact symbiosomes were then subjected to biotinylation by a cell impermeant agent (Biotin-XX sulfosuccinimidyl ester) to label membrane surface proteins. The biotinylated proteins, both Triton X-100 soluble and insoluble fractions, were subjected to 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by MS using an LC-nano-ESI-MS/MS. A total of 17 proteins were identified. Based on their different subcellular origins and functional categories, it indicates that symbiosome membranes serve as the interface for interaction between host and symbiont by fulfilling several crucial cellular functions such as those of membrane receptors/cell recognition, cytoskeletal remodeling, ATP synthesis/proton homeostasis, transporters, stress responses/chaperones, and anti-apoptosis. The results of proteomic analysis not only indicate the molecular identity of the symbiosome membrane, but also provide insight into the possible role of symbiosome membranes during the endosymbiotic association.

  8. Some shallow-water hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the central east coast of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Calder, Dale R

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic account of 67 species, referable to 22 families and 40 genera, identified in a small collection of hydroids from the central Atlantic coast of Florida between Melbourne and Palm Beach. The fauna mostly comprises an assemblage of tropical western Atlantic species ranging northwards along the southeastern coast of the United States. One new species, Lafoea intorta, is described. Applying Reversal of Precedence provisions in zoological nomenclature, the widely-used generic name Halopteris Allman, 1877 is designated as valid and as a nomen protectum, while its virtually unused senior synonym Halicornaria Hincks, 1865 (not Halicornaria Allman, 1874) is reduced to a nomen oblitum. The genus Pasya Stechow, 1922 is resurrected for the hydroid generally known as Dynamena quadridentata (Ellis & Solander, 1786). Laomedea tottoni Leloup, 1935 is shown to be a junior objective synonym of Clytia fragilis Congdon, 1907, which in turn is a junior subjective synonym of Clytia linearis (Thornely, 1900). Obelia oxydentata Stechow, 1914 is recognized as distinct from O. bidentata Clark, 1875. Hincksella brevitheca Galea, 2009, first described from Cuba, is reported for only the second time; records of the species are added here from Grand Cayman Island and the Caribbean coast of Panama as well as from the Atlantic coast of Florida. Also reported for the second time is Antennella incerta Galea, 2010, previ-ously known only from Guadeloupe in the Caribbean Sea. The true Halopteris diaphana (Heller, 1868), known from the Mediterranean Sea and from Brazil, is reported for the first time from the western North Atlantic. Earlier records of the species in the region are based on misidentifications of H. alternata (Nutting, 1900). Male gonothecae of Halecium calderi Galea, 2010 are reported and illustrated for the first time.

  9. A new species of Arachnanthus from the Red Sea (Cnidaria, Ceriantharia).

    PubMed

    Stampar, Sérgio N; Didi, Suraia O El; Paulay, Gustav; Berumen, Michael L

    2018-01-01

    A new species of the genus Arachnanthus (Cnidaria: Ceriantharia), Arachnanthus lilith Stampar & El Didi, sp. n. , is described. This species is widely distributed in the Red Sea, and recorded from 2-30 m depths. Arachnanthus lilith Stampar & El Didi, sp. n. is the fifth species of the genus and the first recorded from the Red Sea. The number of labial tentacle pseudocycles, arrangement of mesenteries, and distribution of acontioids allow the differentiation of the new species from other species of the genus.

  10. Agent of Whirling Disease Meets Orphan Worm: Phylogenomic Analyses Firmly Place Myxozoa in Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Nesnidal, Maximilian P.; Helmkampf, Martin; Bruchhaus, Iris; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Myxozoa are microscopic obligate endoparasites with complex live cycles. Representatives are Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonids, and the enigmatic “orphan worm” Buddenbrockia plumatellae parasitizing in Bryozoa. Originally, Myxozoa were classified as protists, but later several metazoan characteristics were reported. However, their phylogenetic relationships remained doubtful. Some molecular phylogenetic analyses placed them as sister group to or even within Bilateria, whereas the possession of polar capsules that are similar to nematocysts of Cnidaria and of minicollagen genes suggest a close relationship between Myxozoa and Cnidaria. EST data of Buddenbrockia also indicated a cnidarian origin of Myxozoa, but were not sufficient to reject a closer relationship to bilaterians. Phylogenomic analyses of new genomic sequences of Myxobolus cerebralis firmly place Myxozoa as sister group to Medusozoa within Cnidaria. Based on the new dataset, the alternative hypothesis that Myxozoa form a clade with Bilateria can be rejected using topology tests. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this result is not affected by long branch attraction artifacts or compositional bias. PMID:23382916

  11. Comparative proteomics reveals recruitment patterns of some protein families in the venoms of Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Jaimes-Becerra, Adrian; Chung, Ray; Morandini, André C; Weston, Andrew J; Padilla, Gabriel; Gacesa, Ranko; Ward, Malcolm; Long, Paul F; Marques, Antonio C

    2017-10-01

    Cnidarians are probably the oldest group of animals to be venomous, yet our current picture of cnidarian venom evolution is highly imbalanced due to limited taxon sampling. High-throughput tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine venom composition of the scyphozoan Chrysaora lactea and two cubozoans Tamoya haplonema and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus. Protein recruitment patterns were then compared against 5 other cnidarian venom proteomes taken from the literature. A total of 28 putative toxin protein families were identified, many for the first time in Cnidaria. Character mapping analysis revealed that 17 toxin protein families with predominantly cytolytic biological activities were likely recruited into the cnidarian venom proteome before the lineage split between Anthozoa and Medusozoa. Thereafter, venoms of Medusozoa and Anthozoa differed during subsequent divergence of cnidarian classes. Recruitment and loss of toxin protein families did not correlate with accepted phylogenetic patterns of Cnidaria. Selective pressures that drive toxin diversification independent of taxonomic positioning have yet to be identified in Cnidaria and now warrant experimental consideration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microsatellite abundance across the Anthozoa and Hydrozoa in the phylum Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramos, Dannise V; Baums, Iliana B

    2014-10-27

    Microsatellite loci have high mutation rates and thus are indicative of mutational processes within the genome. By concentrating on the symbiotic and aposymbiotic cnidarians, we investigated if microsatellite abundances follow a phylogenetic or ecological pattern. Individuals from eight species were shotgun sequenced using 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology. Sequences from the three available cnidarian genomes (Nematostella vectensis, Hydra magnipapillata and Acropora digitifera) were added to the analysis for a total of eleven species representing two classes, three subclasses and eight orders within the phylum Cnidaria. Trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats were the most abundant motifs, followed by hexa- and dinucleotides. Pentanucleotides were the least abundant motif in the data set. Hierarchical clustering and log likelihood ratio tests revealed a weak relationship between phylogeny and microsatellite content. Further, comparisons between cnidaria harboring intracellular dinoflagellates and those that do not, show microsatellite coverage is higher in the latter group. Our results support previous studies that found tri- and tetranucleotides to be the most abundant motifs in invertebrates. Differences in microsatellite coverage and composition between symbiotic and non-symbiotic cnidaria suggest the presence/absence of dinoflagellates might place restrictions on the host genome.

  13. Agent of whirling disease meets orphan worm: phylogenomic analyses firmly place Myxozoa in Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Nesnidal, Maximilian P; Helmkampf, Martin; Bruchhaus, Iris; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Myxozoa are microscopic obligate endoparasites with complex live cycles. Representatives are Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonids, and the enigmatic "orphan worm" Buddenbrockia plumatellae parasitizing in Bryozoa. Originally, Myxozoa were classified as protists, but later several metazoan characteristics were reported. However, their phylogenetic relationships remained doubtful. Some molecular phylogenetic analyses placed them as sister group to or even within Bilateria, whereas the possession of polar capsules that are similar to nematocysts of Cnidaria and of minicollagen genes suggest a close relationship between Myxozoa and Cnidaria. EST data of Buddenbrockia also indicated a cnidarian origin of Myxozoa, but were not sufficient to reject a closer relationship to bilaterians. Phylogenomic analyses of new genomic sequences of Myxobolus cerebralis firmly place Myxozoa as sister group to Medusozoa within Cnidaria. Based on the new dataset, the alternative hypothesis that Myxozoa form a clade with Bilateria can be rejected using topology tests. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this result is not affected by long branch attraction artifacts or compositional bias.

  14. A new species of Arachnanthus from the Red Sea (Cnidaria, Ceriantharia)

    PubMed Central

    Stampar, Sérgio N.; Didi, Suraia O. El; Paulay, Gustav; Berumen, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Arachnanthus (Cnidaria: Ceriantharia), Arachnanthus lilith Stampar & El Didi, sp. n., is described. This species is widely distributed in the Red Sea, and recorded from 2–30 m depths. Arachnanthus lilith Stampar & El Didi, sp. n. is the fifth species of the genus and the first recorded from the Red Sea. The number of labial tentacle pseudocycles, arrangement of mesenteries, and distribution of acontioids allow the differentiation of the new species from other species of the genus. PMID:29674909

  15. Shared antigenicity between the polar filaments of myxosporeans and other Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Ringuette, Maurice J; Koehler, Anne; Desser, Sherwin S

    2011-02-01

    Nematocysts containing coiled polar filaments are a distinguishing feature of members of the phylum Cnidaria. As a first step to characterizing the molecular structure of polar filaments, a polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against a cyanogen bromide-resistant protein extract of mature cysts containing spores of Myxobolus pendula. The antiserum reacted only with proteins associated with extruded polar filaments. Western blot and whole-mount immunohistochemical analyses indicated a conservation of polar filament epitopes between M. pendula and 2 related cnidarians, i.e., the anthozoan, Nematostella vectensis, and the hydrozoan, Hydra vulgaris. This conservation of polar filament epitopes lends further support to a shared affinity between Myxozoa and cnidarians.

  16. Axial patterning and diversification in the cnidaria predate the Hox system.

    PubMed

    Kamm, Kai; Schierwater, Bernd; Jakob, Wolfgang; Dellaporta, Stephen L; Miller, David J

    2006-05-09

    Across the animal kingdom, Hox genes are organized in clusters whose genomic organization reflects their central roles in patterning along the anterior/posterior (A/P) axis . While a cluster of Hox genes was present in the bilaterian common ancestor, the origins of this system remain unclear (cf. ). With new data for two representatives of the closest extant phylum to the Bilateria, the sea anemone Nematostella and the hydromedusa Eleutheria, we argue here that the Cnidaria predate the evolution of the Hox system. Although Hox-like genes are present in a range of cnidarians, many of these are paralogs and in neither Nematostella nor Eleutheria is an equivalent of the Hox cluster present. With the exception of independently duplicated genes, the cnidarian genes are unlinked and in several cases are flanked by non-Hox genes. Furthermore, the cnidarian genes are expressed in patterns that are inconsistent with the Hox paradigm. We conclude that the Cnidaria/Bilateria split occurred before a definitive Hox system developed. The spectacular variety in morphological and developmental characteristics shown by extant cnidarians demonstrates that there is no obligate link between the Hox system and morphological diversity in the animal kingdom and that a canonical Hox system is not mandatory for axial patterning.

  17. The Evolution of MicroRNA Pathway Protein Components in Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Yehu; Praher, Daniela; Fredman, David; Technau, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, it became evident that posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs is a central biological process in both plants and animals. Yet, our knowledge about microRNA biogenesis and utilization in animals stems mostly from the study of Bilateria. In this study, we identified genes encoding the protein components of different parts of the microRNA pathway in Cnidaria, the likely sister phylum of Bilateria. These genes originated from three cnidarian lineages (sea anemones, stony corals, and hydras) that are separated by at least 500 My from one another. We studied the expression and phylogeny of the cnidarian homologs of Drosha and Pasha (DGCR8) that compose the microprocessor, the RNAse III enzyme Dicer and its partners, the HEN1 methyltransferase, the Argonaute protein effectors, as well as members of the GW182 protein family. We further reveal that whereas the bilaterian dicer partners Loquacious/TRBP and PACT are absent from Cnidaria, this phylum contains homologs of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein HYL1, the Dicer partner found in plants. We also identified HYL1 homologs in a sponge and a ctenophore. This finding raises questions regarding the independent evolution of the microRNA pathway in plants and animals, and together with the other results shed new light on the evolution of an important regulatory pathway. PMID:24030553

  18. The evolution of microRNA pathway protein components in Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Moran, Yehu; Praher, Daniela; Fredman, David; Technau, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, it became evident that posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs is a central biological process in both plants and animals. Yet, our knowledge about microRNA biogenesis and utilization in animals stems mostly from the study of Bilateria. In this study, we identified genes encoding the protein components of different parts of the microRNA pathway in Cnidaria, the likely sister phylum of Bilateria. These genes originated from three cnidarian lineages (sea anemones, stony corals, and hydras) that are separated by at least 500 My from one another. We studied the expression and phylogeny of the cnidarian homologs of Drosha and Pasha (DGCR8) that compose the microprocessor, the RNAse III enzyme Dicer and its partners, the HEN1 methyltransferase, the Argonaute protein effectors, as well as members of the GW182 protein family. We further reveal that whereas the bilaterian dicer partners Loquacious/TRBP and PACT are absent from Cnidaria, this phylum contains homologs of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein HYL1, the Dicer partner found in plants. We also identified HYL1 homologs in a sponge and a ctenophore. This finding raises questions regarding the independent evolution of the microRNA pathway in plants and animals, and together with the other results shed new light on the evolution of an important regulatory pathway.

  19. Isolation and identification of chitin in the black coral Parantipathes larix (Anthozoa: Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Kurek, Denis; Paasch, Silvia; Brunner, Eike; Born, René; Galli, Roberta; Stelling, Allison L; Sivkov, Viktor N; Petrova, Olga V; Vyalikh, Denis; Kummer, Kurt; Molodtsov, Serguei L; Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Ehrlich, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Until now, there is a lack of knowledge about the presence of chitin in numerous representatives of corals (Cnidaria). However, investigations concerning the chitin-based skeletal organization in different coral taxa are significant from biochemical, structural, developmental, ecological and evolutionary points of view. In this paper, we present a thorough screening for the presence of chitin within the skeletal formations of a poorly investigated Mediterranean black coral, Parantipathes larix (Esper, 1792), as a typical representative of the Schizopathidae family. Using a wide array variety of techniques ((13)C solid state NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, NEXAFS, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White Staining), we unambiguously show for the first time that chitin is an important component within the skeletal stalks as well as pinnules of this coral. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular phylogenetics of the siphonophora (Cnidaria), with implications for the evolution of functional specialization.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Casey W; Pugh, Philip R; Haddock, Steven H D

    2005-12-01

    Siphonophores are a group of pelagic colonial hydrozoans (Cnidaria) that have long been of general interest because of the division of labor between the polyps and medusae that make up these "superorganisms." These polyps and medusae are each homologous to free living animals but are generated by an incomplete asexual budding process that leaves them physiologically integrated. They are functionally specialized for different tasks and are precisely organized within each colony. The number of functional types of polyps and medusae varies across taxa, and different authors have used this character to construct phylogenies polarized in opposite directions, depending on whether they thought siphonophore evolution proceeded by a reduction or an increase in functional specialization. We have collected taxa across all major groups of siphonophores, many of which are found exclusively in the deep sea, using remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) and by SCUBA diving from ships in the open ocean. We have used 52 siphonophores and four outgroup taxa to estimate the siphonophore phylogeny with molecular data from the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S) and the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S). Parsimony reconstructions indicate that functionally specialized polyps and medusae have been gained and lost across the phylogeny. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of morphological data suggest that the transition rate for decreased functional specialization is greater than the transition rate for increased functional specialization for three out of the four investigated categories of polyps and medusae. The present analysis also bears on several long-standing questions about siphonophore systematics. It indicates that the cystonects are sister to all other siphonophores, a group that we call the Codonophora. We also find that the Calycophorae are nested within the Physonectae, and that the Brachystelia, a historically recognized grouping of

  1. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Polypodium hydriforme is a parasite with an unusual life cycle and peculiar morphology, both of which have made its systematic position uncertain. Polypodium has traditionally been considered a cnidarian because it possesses nematocysts, the stinging structures characteristic of this phylum. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies using 18S rDNA sequence data have challenged this interpretation, and have shown that Polypodium is a close relative to myxozoans and together they share a closer affinity to bilaterians than cnidarians. Due to the variable rates of 18S rDNA sequences, these results have been suggested to be an artifact of long-branch attraction (LBA). A recent study, using multiple protein coding markers, shows that the myxozoan Buddenbrockia, is nested within cnidarians. Polypodium was not included in this study. To further investigate the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium, we have performed phylogenetic analyses of metazoans with 18S and partial 28S rDNA sequences in a large dataset that includes Polypodium and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa. Results Analyses of a combined dataset of 18S and partial 28S sequences, and partial 28S alone, support the placement of Polypodium within Cnidaria. Removal of the long-branched myxozoans from the 18S dataset also results in Polypodium being nested within Cnidaria. These results suggest that previous reports showing that Polypodium and Myxozoa form a sister group to Bilateria were an artifact of long-branch attraction. Conclusion By including 28S rDNA sequences and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa, we demonstrate that previously conflicting hypotheses concerning the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium can be reconciled. Specifically, the data presented provide evidence that Polypodium is indeed a cnidarian and is either the sister taxon to Hydrozoa, or part of the hydrozoan clade, Leptothecata. The former hypothesis is consistent with the traditional view that Polypodium

  2. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nathaniel M; Lindner, Alberto; Raikova, Ekaterina V; Collins, Allen G; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2008-05-09

    Polypodium hydriforme is a parasite with an unusual life cycle and peculiar morphology, both of which have made its systematic position uncertain. Polypodium has traditionally been considered a cnidarian because it possesses nematocysts, the stinging structures characteristic of this phylum. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies using 18S rDNA sequence data have challenged this interpretation, and have shown that Polypodium is a close relative to myxozoans and together they share a closer affinity to bilaterians than cnidarians. Due to the variable rates of 18S rDNA sequences, these results have been suggested to be an artifact of long-branch attraction (LBA). A recent study, using multiple protein coding markers, shows that the myxozoan Buddenbrockia, is nested within cnidarians. Polypodium was not included in this study. To further investigate the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium, we have performed phylogenetic analyses of metazoans with 18S and partial 28S rDNA sequences in a large dataset that includes Polypodium and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa. Analyses of a combined dataset of 18S and partial 28S sequences, and partial 28S alone, support the placement of Polypodium within Cnidaria. Removal of the long-branched myxozoans from the 18S dataset also results in Polypodium being nested within Cnidaria. These results suggest that previous reports showing that Polypodium and Myxozoa form a sister group to Bilateria were an artifact of long-branch attraction. By including 28S rDNA sequences and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa, we demonstrate that previously conflicting hypotheses concerning the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium can be reconciled. Specifically, the data presented provide evidence that Polypodium is indeed a cnidarian and is either the sister taxon to Hydrozoa, or part of the hydrozoan clade, Leptothecata. The former hypothesis is consistent with the traditional view that Polypodium should be placed in its own

  3. Internal and external relationships of the Cnidaria: implications of primary and predicted secondary structure of the 5'-end of the 23S-like rDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Odorico, D M; Miller, D J

    1997-01-01

    Since both internal (class-level) and external relationships of the Cnidaria remain unclear on the basis of analyses of 18S and (partial) 16S rDNA sequence data, we examined the informativeness of the 5'-end of the 23S-like rDNA. Here we describe analyses of both primary and predicted secondary structure data for this region from the ctenophore Bolinopsis sp., the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, the sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila, and representatives of all four cnidarian classes. Primary sequence analyses clearly resolved the Cnidaria from other lower Metazoa, supported sister group relationships between the Scyphozoa and Cubozoa and between the Ctenophora and the Placozoa, and confirmed the basal status of the Anthozoa within the Cnidaria. Additionally, in the ctenophore, placozoan and sponge, non-canonical base pairing is required to maintain the secondary structure of the B12 region, whereas amongst the Cnidaria this is not the case. Although the phylogenetic significance of this molecular character is unclear, our analyses do not support the close relationship between Cnidaria and Placozoa suggested by previous studies. PMID:9061962

  4. Immunochemical Localization of GABAA Receptor Subunits in the Freshwater Polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Concas, A; Imperatore, R; Santoru, F; Locci, A; Porcu, P; Cristino, L; Pierobon, P

    2016-11-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, responding to GABA positive allosteric modulators, are present in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), one of the most primitive metazoans to develop a nervous system. We examined the occurrence and distribution of GABA A receptor subunits in Hydra tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies against different GABA A receptor subunits were used in Hydra membrane preparations. Unique protein bands, inhibited by the specific peptide, appeared at 35, 60, ∼50 and ∼52 kDa in membranes incubated with α3, β1, γ3 or δ antibodies, respectively. Immunohistochemical screening of whole mount Hydra preparations revealed diffuse immunoreactivity to α3, β1 or γ3 antibodies in tentacles, hypostome, and upper part of the gastric region; immunoreactive fibers were also present in the lower peduncle. By contrast, δ antibodies revealed a strong labeling in the lower gastric region and peduncle, as well as in tentacles. Double labeling showed colocalization of α3/β1, α3/γ3 and α3/δ immunoreactivity in granules or cells in tentacles and gastric region. In the peduncle, colocalization of both α3/β1 and α3/γ3 immunoreactivity was found in fibers running horizontally above the foot. These data indicate that specific GABA A receptor subunits are present and differentially distributed in Hydra body regions. Subunit colocalization suggests that Hydra GABA receptors are heterologous multimers, possibly sub-serving different physiological activities.

  5. Insights into the toxicological properties of a low molecular weight fraction from Zoanthus sociatus (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Pérez, Dany; Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; García-Delgado, Neivys; Sierra-Gómez, Yusvel; Castañeda, Olga; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-08-13

    The phylum Cnidaria is an ancient group of venomous animals, specialized in the production and delivery of toxins. Many species belonging to the class Anthozoa have been studied and their venoms often contain a group of peptides, less than 10 kDa, that act upon ion channels. These peptides and their targets interact with high affinity producing neurotoxic and cardiotoxic effects, and even death, depending on the dose and the administration pathway. Zoanthiniaria is an order of the Subclass Hexacorallia, class Anthozoa, and unlike sea anemone (order Actiniaria), neither its diversity of toxins nor the in vivo effects of the venoms has been exhaustively explored. In this study we assessed some toxicological tests on mice with a low molecular weight fraction obtained by gel filtration in Sephadex G-50 from Zoanthus sociatus crude extract. The gel filtration chromatogram at 280 nm revealed two major peaks, the highest absorbance corresponding to the low molecular weight fraction. The toxicological effects seem to be mostly autonomic and cardiotoxic, causing death in a dose dependent manner with a LD50 of 792 μg/kg. Moreover, at a dose of 600 μg/kg the active fraction accelerated the KCl-induced lethality in mice.

  6. Shallow-water zoantharians (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Central Indo-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, James D.; Poliseno, Angelo; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite the Central Indo-Pacific (CIP) and the Indonesian Archipelago being a well-known region of coral reef biodiversity, particularly in the ‘Coral Triangle’, little published information is available on its zoantharians (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia). In order to provide a basis for future research on the Indo-Pacific zoantharian fauna and facilitate comparisons between more well-studied regions such as Japan and the Great Barrier Reef, this report deals with CIP zoantharian specimens in the Naturalis collection in Leiden, the Netherlands; 106 specimens were placed into 24 morpho-species and were supplemented with 88 in situ photographic records from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. At least nine morpho-species are likely to be undescribed species, indicating that the region needs more research in order to properly understand zoantharian diversity within the CIP. The Naturalis’ zoantharian specimens are listed by species, as well as all relevant collection information, and in situ images are provided to aid in future studies on zoantharians in the CIP. PMID:25349499

  7. Gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Gareth J.; Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Knapp, Ingrid S.; Davy, Simon K.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted gross and microscopic characterizations of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific. We found growth anomalies (GA) to be the most commonly encountered lesion. Cases of discoloration and tissue loss were rare. GAs had a focal or multi-focal distribution and were predominantly nodular, exophytic, and umbonate. In scleractinians, the majority of GAs manifested as hyperplasia of the basal body wall (52% of cases), with an associated absence or reduction of polyp structure (mesenteries and filaments, actinopharynx and tentacles), and depletion of zooxanthellae in the gastrodermis of the upper body wall. In the soft corals Sinularia sp. and Lobophytum sp., GAs exclusively manifested as prominent hyperplasia of the coenenchyme with an increased density of solenia. In contrast to scleractinians, soft coral GAs displayed an inflammatory and necrotizing component with marked edema of the mesoglea, accompanied by infiltrates of variably-sized granular amoebocytes. Fungi, algae, sponges, and Crustacea were present in some scleractinian GAs, but absent in soft coral GAs. Fragmentation of tissues was a common finding in Acropora acuminata and Montipora cf. dilatata colonies with tissue loss, although no obvious causative agents were seen. Discoloration in the zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was found to be the result of necrosis, while in Lobophytum sp. discoloration was the result of zooxanthellar depletion (bleaching). Soft corals with discoloration or tissue loss showed a marked inflammatory response, however no obvious causative organisms were seen. Lesions that appeared similar at the gross level were revealed to be distinct by microscopy, emphasizing the importance of histopathology.

  8. Shallow-water zoantharians (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Central Indo-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James D; Poliseno, Angelo; Hoeksema, Bert W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the Central Indo-Pacific (CIP) and the Indonesian Archipelago being a well-known region of coral reef biodiversity, particularly in the 'Coral Triangle', little published information is available on its zoantharians (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia). In order to provide a basis for future research on the Indo-Pacific zoantharian fauna and facilitate comparisons between more well-studied regions such as Japan and the Great Barrier Reef, this report deals with CIP zoantharian specimens in the Naturalis collection in Leiden, the Netherlands; 106 specimens were placed into 24 morpho-species and were supplemented with 88 in situ photographic records from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. At least nine morpho-species are likely to be undescribed species, indicating that the region needs more research in order to properly understand zoantharian diversity within the CIP. The Naturalis' zoantharian specimens are listed by species, as well as all relevant collection information, and in situ images are provided to aid in future studies on zoantharians in the CIP.

  9. Characterization of heterotrimeric collagen molecules in a sea-pen (Cnidaria, Octocorallia).

    PubMed

    Tillet-Barret, E; Franc, J M; Franc, S; Garrone, R

    1992-01-15

    The collagen of a primitive invertebrate, the sea-pen Veretillum Cnidaria, Octocorallia), was studied with respect to its molecular-chain composition. The soft extracellular tissues (mesoglea) were solubilized by limited pepsin proteolysis and the collagen was isolated by selective precipitation at 0.7 M NaCl under acidic conditions. The pepsinized molecules were 260 nm in length, as demonstrated by electron microscope studies of rotary-shadowed molecules and of the segment-long-spacing crystallites obtained by dialysis against ATP. SDS/PAGE of the extract produced two main bands susceptible to bacterial collagenase, designated as the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chain, which were differentiated clearly by their CNBr cleavage products and the higher glycosylation rate of the alpha 2 chain. The latter finding corresponds with the high hydroxylysine content of the alpha 2 chain. The alpha 1/alpha 2 chain ratio observed in SDS/PAGE and the fact that only one peak was obtained by concanavalin-A affinity chromatography of a non-denatured 0.7 M NaCl extract demonstrate the alpha 1 [alpha 2]2 molecular structure of this collagen. These results contrast with data on the structure of other coelenterates (i.e. [alpha]3 for sea anemone collagen molecules and alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 for jellyfish collagen molecules). They are discussed in relation to the evolution of collagen.

  10. Insights into the Toxicological Properties of a Low Molecular Weight Fraction from Zoanthus sociatus (Cnidaria)

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Pérez, Dany; Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; García-Delgado, Neivys; Sierra-Gómez, Yusvel; Castañeda, Olga; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Cnidaria is an ancient group of venomous animals, specialized in the production and delivery of toxins. Many species belonging to the class Anthozoa have been studied and their venoms often contain a group of peptides, less than 10 kDa, that act upon ion channels. These peptides and their targets interact with high affinity producing neurotoxic and cardiotoxic effects, and even death, depending on the dose and the administration pathway. Zoanthiniaria is an order of the Subclass Hexacorallia, class Anthozoa, and unlike sea anemone (order Actiniaria), neither its diversity of toxins nor the in vivo effects of the venoms has been exhaustively explored. In this study we assessed some toxicological tests on mice with a low molecular weight fraction obtained by gel filtration in Sephadex G-50 from Zoanthus sociatus crude extract. The gel filtration chromatogram at 280 nm revealed two major peaks, the highest absorbance corresponding to the low molecular weight fraction. The toxicological effects seem to be mostly autonomic and cardiotoxic, causing death in a dose dependent manner with a LD50 of 792 μg/kg. Moreover, at a dose of 600 μg/kg the active fraction accelerated the KCl-induced lethality in mice. PMID:23945599

  11. The genus Diphasia L. Agassiz, 1862 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Northwest Africa.

    PubMed

    Gil, Marta; Ramil, Fran

    2017-12-12

    This paper is the result of the study of large collections of Sertulariidae Lamouroux, 1812 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina) obtained from continental margins of Northwest Africa by several Spanish and Norwegian surveys between 2004 and 2012. Material collected from Lusitanian seamounts by the French Seamount 1 expedition and from the Great Meteor Bank by the German survey Meteor 42/3 were also examined. A total of 12 species belonging to the genus Diphasia were studied and illustrated, and four new species were described: Diphasia leonisae n. sp., Diphasia saharica n. sp., Diphasia africana n. sp., and Diphasia anaramosae n. sp. Diphasia attenuata, Diphasia fallax and Diphasia tropica were not represented in the collections. However, they have been discussed here because they had been previously reported in the study area or in the eastern North Atlantic. One species was only identified to the genus level. The syntype material of Diphasia attenuata var. robusta Billard, 1924, neotype of Diphasia delagei Billard, 1912, and comparison material for the other species that have been preserved in several zoological collections were also examined. Besides, an identification key for these species is provided.

  12. The phylum Cnidaria and investigations of its toxins and venoms until 1990.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tom; Kem, William R

    2009-12-15

    Cnidarians are the largest phylum of generally toxic animals, yet their toxins and venoms have not received as much scientific attention as those of many terrestrial (snakes, scorpions, spiders, etc.) and even some marine animals (i.e. cone snails). Approximately 13,000 living cnidarian species have been described by systematists. A major rationale for their study in the past, besides scientific curiosity, was to better treat victims of their envenomation. While that goal remains a high priority, it is now appreciated that the toxins of these mostly marine animals can be very useful molecular probes for the analysis of ion channels involved in electrical signaling, immune responses and other signal transduction processes of biomedical interest. For instance, anaphylaxis was discovered by Richet (1905) during experiments with sea anemone and hydrozoan tentacular extracts. Similarly, it has recently been shown that a toxin from another sea anemone is able to potently inhibit T-lymphocyte proliferation in models of certain autoimmune diseases. Thus, these natural substances continue to be of relevance for understanding and treating human diseases. In addition to introducing phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata), we provide a short history of early (until about 1990) research on cnidarian toxins and venoms, to provide a perspective for appreciating the scientific advances of the past two decades that are summarized in the ensuing 19 papers in this special Toxicon issue.

  13. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Breedy, Odalisca

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  14. Evolution of Hox-like genes in Cnidaria: Study of Hydra Hox repertoire reveals tailor-made Hox-code for Cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Unni, Manu K; Gungi, Akhila; Agarwal, Pallavi; Galande, Sanjeev

    2015-11-01

    Hox and ParaHox genes play decisive roles in patterning the anterior-posterior body axis in Bilateria. Evolutionary origin of Hox genes and primary body axis predate the divergence of Bilateria and Cnidaria. However, function of Cnidarian Hox-like genes and their regulation in axis determination is obscure due to studies limited to a few representative model systems. Present investigation is conducted using Hydra, a Hydrozoan member of phylum Cnidaria, to gain insights into the roles of Cnidarian Hox-like genes in primary axis formation. Here, we report identification of six Hox-like genes from our in-house transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes shows bilaterian counterparts of Hox1, Gsx and Mox. Additionally, we report CnoxB_HVUL, CnoxC2_HVUL and CnoxC3_HVUL belonging to two Cnidarian specific groups. In situ hybridization analysis of Hydra homologues provided important clues about their possible roles in pattern formation of polyps and bud development. Specifically, Hox1_HVUL is regulated by Wnt signaling and plays critical role in head formation. Collating information about expression patterns of different Hox-like genes from previous reports and this study reveals no conformity within Cnidaria. Indicating that unlike in Bilateria, there is no consolidated Hox-code determining primary body axis in Cnidaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria.

  16. Internal anatomy of Haliclystus antarcticus (Cnidaria, Staurozoa) with a discussion on histological features used in Staurozoan taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lucília S; Collins, Allen G; Marques, Antonio C

    2013-12-01

    Stauromedusae have relatively few macromorphological characters, making both their taxonomy and identification difficult. For this reason, histological characters are also employed in the taxonomy of the group. This study presents a detailed description of the histomorphology of Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Cnidaria, Staurozoa). We make new observations for the species and for the class, and address functional, taxonomical, and evolutionary aspects of staurozoan histo-anatomy. A complete reconstruction of H. antarcticus body plan is used to guide a more detailed observation, based on light microscopy, of structures rarely cited in the literature, such as the intertentacular lobules, the ostia between adjacent perradial pockets, and the male and female gonadal vesicles. Two possible regions of nematocyst formation are hypothesized and discussed. We also provide a review of the current use of histological characters in the taxonomy of the group. Understanding the body plan of stauromedusae is a challenge, because each single individual presents characters found in medusae and in polyps of other medusozoans. Comprehensive histological descriptions are important to establish relations of homology within Staurozoa and Cnidaria, providing crucial data on their evolution. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Heavy metals affect nematocysts discharge response and biological activity of crude venom in the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Dossena, Silvia; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Pollution of marine ecosystems and, specifically, heavy metals contamination may compromise the physiology of marine animals with events occurring on a cellular and molecular level. The present study focuses on the effect of short-term exposure to heavy metals like Zinc, Cadmium, Cobalt and Lanthanum (2-10 mM) on the homeostasis of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa), a jellyfish abundant in the Mediterranean sea. This species possesses stinging organoids, termed nematocysts, whose discharge and concomitant delivery of venom underlie the survival of all Cnidaria. Nematocysts discharge response, elicited by combined chemico-physical stimulation, was verified on excised oral arms exposed to heavy metals for 20 min. In addition, the hemolytic activity of toxins, contained in the crude venom extracted from nematocysts isolated from oral arms, was tested on human erythrocytes, in the presence of heavy metals or their mixture. Treatment with heavy metals significantly inhibited both nematocysts discharge response and hemolytic activity of crude venom, in a dose-dependent manner, not involving oxidative events, that was irreversible in the case of Lanthanum. Our findings show that the homeostasis of Pelagia noctiluca, in terms of nematocysts discharge capability and effectiveness of venom toxins, is dramatically and rapidly compromised by heavy metals and confirm that this jellyfish is eligible as a model for ecotoxicological investigations. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The evolution of colony-level development in the Siphonophora (Cnidaria:Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Dunn, Casey W; Wagner, Günter P

    2006-12-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology has focused almost exclusively on multicellular organisms, but there are other relevant levels of biological organization that have remained largely neglected. Animal colonies are made up of multiple physiologically integrated and genetically identical units called zooids that are each homologous to solitary, free-living animals. Siphonophores, a group of pelagic hydrozoans (Cnidaria), have the most complex colony-level organization of all animals. Here the colony-level development of five siphonophore species, strategically sampled across the siphonophore phylogeny, is described from specimens collected using deep-sea submersibles and by self-contained underwater breathing apparatus diving. These species include three cystonects, Bathyphysa sibogae, Rhizophysa filiformis, and Rhizophysa eysenhardti, and two "physonects", Agalma elegans and Nanomia bijuga. These data, together with previous findings, are analyzed in a phylogenetic framework to reconstruct key features of the history of colony-level organization and development in the Siphonophora. It is shown that gonodendra and gastrozooids of the examined cystonects arise as independent buds directly on the stem, whereas probud subdivision (the origin of feeding, reproductive, and other zooids from a single bud) is a synapomorphy of the Codonophora. The origin of probud subdivision is associated with the origin of cormidia as integrated units of colony organization, and may have allowed for greater morphological and ecological diversification in the Codonophora relative to the Cystonectae. It is also found that symmetry is labile in siphonophores, with multiple gains and/or losses of directional asymmetry in the group. This descriptive work will enable future mechanistic and molecular studies of colony-level development in the siphonophores.

  19. Gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth J; Work, Thierry M; Aeby, Greta S; Knapp, Ingrid S; Davy, Simon K

    2011-02-01

    We conducted gross and microscopic characterizations of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific. We found growth anomalies (GA) to be the most commonly encountered lesion. Cases of discoloration and tissue loss were rare. GAs had a focal or multi-focal distribution and were predominantly nodular, exophytic, and umbonate. In scleractinians, the majority of GAs manifested as hyperplasia of the basal body wall (52% of cases), with an associated absence or reduction of polyp structure (mesenteries and filaments, actinopharynx and tentacles), and depletion of zooxanthellae in the gastrodermis of the upper body wall. In the soft corals Sinularia sp. and Lobophytum sp., GAs exclusively manifested as prominent hyperplasia of the coenenchyme with an increased density of solenia. In contrast to scleractinians, soft coral GAs displayed an inflammatory and necrotizing component with marked edema of the mesoglea, accompanied by infiltrates of variably-sized granular amoebocytes. Fungi, algae, sponges, and Crustacea were present in some scleractinian GAs, but absent in soft coral GAs. Fragmentation of tissues was a common finding in Acropora acuminata and Montipora cf. dilatata colonies with tissue loss, although no obvious causative agents were seen. Discoloration in the zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was found to be the result of necrosis, while in Lobophytum sp. discoloration was the result of zooxanthellar depletion (bleaching). Soft corals with discoloration or tissue loss showed a marked inflammatory response, however no obvious causative organisms were seen. Lesions that appeared similar at the gross level were revealed to be distinct by microscopy, emphasizing the importance of histopathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as major osmolytes in cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Paul H; Heppenstall, Marina; Ly, Steven; Andrell, Raymond M; Gates, Ruth D; Carter, Virginia L; Hagedorn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have been reported to obtain from the symbionts potential organic osmolytes such as glycerol, amino acids, and DMSP. However, corals and their endosymbionts have not been fully analyzed for osmolytes. We quantified small carbohydrates, free amino acids, methylamines, and DMSP in tissues of the corals Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocillopora meandrina, Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Porites lobata (all with symbionts) plus Tubastrea aurea (asymbiotic) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Hawaii). Glycine betaine, at 33-69 mmol/kg wet mass, was found to constitute 90% or more of the measured organic solutes in all except the Porites species. Those were dominated by proline betaine and dimethyltaurine. DMSP was found at 0.5-3 mmol/kg in all species with endosymbionts. Freshly isolated Symbiodinium from Fungia, P. damicornis, and P. compressa were also analyzed. DMSP and glycine betaine dominated in the first two; Porites endosymbionts had DMSP, proline betaine, and dimethyltaurine. In all specimens, glycerol and glucose were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography only at 0-1 mmol/kg wet mass. An enzymatic assay for glycerol plus glycerol 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate yielded 1-10 mmol/kg. Cassiopeia andromeda (upside-down jelly; Scyphozoan) and Aiptasia puchella (solitary anemone; Anthozoan) were also analyzed; both have endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. In both, glycine betaine, taurine, and DMSP were the dominant osmolytes. In summary, methylated osmolytes dominate in many Cnidaria; in those with algal symbionts, host and symbiont have similar methylated amino

  1. Overview of the genus Briareum (Cnidaria, Octocorallia, Briareidae) in the Indo-Pacific, with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; van Ofwegen, Leen P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The status of Indo-Pacific Briareum species (Cnidaria, Octocorallia, Briareidae) is reviewed by presenting their sclerite features and habitus descriptions. Following the re-examination of type material, museum specimens and newly collected specimens, a species identification key is provided. The species distributions are discussed and updated distribution ranges are depicted. Moreover, a new taxon, Briareum cylindrum sp. n. is described and depicted, whereas Briareum excavatum (Nutting, 1911) is synonymised with Briareum stechei (Kükenthal, 1908). Briareum hamrum (Gohar, 1948) is recorded from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea for the first time. Consequently, in total four Briareum species are recognized in the Indo-Pacific; Briareum hamrum from the western Indian Ocean, and Briareum cylindrum sp. n., Briareum stechei, and Briareum violaceum from the central and eastern Indo-Pacific region. PMID:26877697

  2. Overview of the genus Briareum (Cnidaria, Octocorallia, Briareidae) in the Indo-Pacific, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; van Ofwegen, Leen P

    2016-01-01

    The status of Indo-Pacific Briareum species (Cnidaria, Octocorallia, Briareidae) is reviewed by presenting their sclerite features and habitus descriptions. Following the re-examination of type material, museum specimens and newly collected specimens, a species identification key is provided. The species distributions are discussed and updated distribution ranges are depicted. Moreover, a new taxon, Briareum cylindrum sp. n. is described and depicted, whereas Briareum excavatum (Nutting, 1911) is synonymised with Briareum stechei (Kükenthal, 1908). Briareum hamrum (Gohar, 1948) is recorded from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea for the first time. Consequently, in total four Briareum species are recognized in the Indo-Pacific; Briareum hamrum from the western Indian Ocean, and Briareum cylindrum sp. n., Briareum stechei, and Briareum violaceum from the central and eastern Indo-Pacific region.

  3. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Yolk formation in a stony coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): insight into the evolution of vitellogenesis in nonbilaterian animals.

    PubMed

    Shikina, Shinya; Chen, Chieh-Jhen; Chung, Yi-Jou; Shao, Zi-Fan; Liou, Jhe-Yu; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2013-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is a major yolk protein precursor in numerous oviparous animals. Numerous studies in bilateral oviparous animals have shown that Vg sequences are conserved across taxa and that Vgs are synthesized by somatic-cell lineages, transported to and accumulated in oocytes, and eventually used for supporting embryogenesis. In nonbilateral animals (Polifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora), which are regarded as evolutionarily primitive, although Vg cDNA has been identified in 2 coral species from Cnidaria, relatively little is known about the characteristics of yolk formation in their bodies. To address this issue, we identified and characterized 2 cDNA encoding yolk proteins, Vg and egg protein (Ep), in the stony coral Euphyllia ancora. RT-PCR analysis revealed that expression levels of both Vg and Ep increased in the female colonies as coral approached the spawning season. In addition, high levels of both Vg and Ep transcripts were detected in the putative ovarian tissue, as determined by tissue distribution analysis. Further analyses using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry determined that, within the putative ovarian tissue, these yolk proteins are synthesized in the mesenterial somatic cells but not in oocytes themselves. Furthermore, Vg proteins that accumulated in eggs were most likely consumed during the coral embryonic development, as assessed by immunoblotting. The characteristics of Vg that we identified in corals were somewhat similar to those of Vg in bilaterian oviparous animals, raising the hypothesis that such characteristics were likely present in the oogenesis of some common ancestor prior to divergence of the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages.

  5. Evolutionary origins of germline segregation in Metazoa: evidence for a germ stem cell lineage in the coral Orbicella faveolata (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Barfield, Sarah; Aglyamova, Galina V; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-01-13

    The ability to segregate a committed germ stem cell (GSC) lineage distinct from somatic cell lineages is a characteristic of bilaterian Metazoans. However, the occurrence of GSC lineage specification in basally branching Metazoan phyla, such as Cnidaria, is uncertain. Without an independently segregated GSC lineage, germ cells and their precursors must be specified throughout adulthood from continuously dividing somatic stem cells, generating the risk of propagating somatic mutations within the individual and its gametes. To address the potential for existence of a GSC lineage in Anthozoa, the sister-group to all remaining Cnidaria, we identified moderate- to high-frequency somatic mutations and their potential for gametic transfer in the long-lived coral Orbicella faveolata (Anthozoa, Cnidaria) using a 2b-RAD sequencing approach. Our results demonstrate that somatic mutations can drift to high frequencies (up to 50%) and can also generate substantial intracolonial genetic diversity. However, these somatic mutations are not transferable to gametes, signifying the potential for an independently segregated GSC lineage in O. faveolata. In conjunction with previous research on germ cell development in other basally branching Metazoan species, our results suggest that the GSC system may be a Eumetazoan characteristic that evolved in association with the emergence of greater complexity in animal body plan organization and greater specificity of stem cell functions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Evolutionary origins of germline segregation in Metazoa: evidence for a germ stem cell lineage in the coral Orbicella faveolata (Cnidaria, Anthozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Barfield, Sarah; Aglyamova, Galina V.; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to segregate a committed germ stem cell (GSC) lineage distinct from somatic cell lineages is a characteristic of bilaterian Metazoans. However, the occurrence of GSC lineage specification in basally branching Metazoan phyla, such as Cnidaria, is uncertain. Without an independently segregated GSC lineage, germ cells and their precursors must be specified throughout adulthood from continuously dividing somatic stem cells, generating the risk of propagating somatic mutations within the individual and its gametes. To address the potential for existence of a GSC lineage in Anthozoa, the sister-group to all remaining Cnidaria, we identified moderate- to high-frequency somatic mutations and their potential for gametic transfer in the long-lived coral Orbicella faveolata (Anthozoa, Cnidaria) using a 2b-RAD sequencing approach. Our results demonstrate that somatic mutations can drift to high frequencies (up to 50%) and can also generate substantial intracolonial genetic diversity. However, these somatic mutations are not transferable to gametes, signifying the potential for an independently segregated GSC lineage in O. faveolata. In conjunction with previous research on germ cell development in other basally branching Metazoan species, our results suggest that the GSC system may be a Eumetazoan characteristic that evolved in association with the emergence of greater complexity in animal body plan organization and greater specificity of stem cell functions. PMID:26763699

  7. A new species of hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Hydridae) and molecular phylogenetic analysis of six congeners from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Tai; Deng, Li; Liu, Hong-Tao

    2012-12-01

    A new species of genus Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Hydridae), Hydra shenzhensis sp. nov. from Guangdong Province, China, is described and illustrated. Most polyps have five tentacles. Column length reaches 11 mm when relaxed. Buds do not acquire tentacles synchronously. Stenotele is broad and pyriform in shape, 1.2 times as long as its width. Holotrichous isorhiza is asymmetrical and slender (more than 2.7 times as long as its width), with transverse and slanting coils. Atrichous isorhiza is long, resembling a melon-seed in shape. Desmoneme is asymmetrically pyriform in shape. The new species, belonging to the vulgaris group, is dioecious; sexual reproduction was found to occur mostly during November and December under conditions of dense culture or food shortage. Two to thirteen testes, cone-like shape with papilla, formed beneath the tentacles. One to three ovaries, with an egg cup, milky white in color, formed on body column. Ninety percent of individuals developed only one ovum. On a mother polyp, a fertilized ovum developed an embryonic theca covering its surface. The embryotheca is brown, with a spine-like structure, covering a layer of transparent, membrane-like material. For phylogenetic analysis, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) of six hydra species collected from China was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Morphological characters in combination with molecular evidence support the hydra described here as a new species.

  8. Unravelling the nature of Waiparaconus, a pennatulacean (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) from the Late Mesozoic-Early Cainozoic of the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S; Campbell, Hamish J; Maurizot, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Enigmatic calcareous conical fossils have been known from marine Paleocene-Eocene sequences of New Zealand since the early 1870s. More recently, similar fossils have been recorded from both Late Cretaceous marine sequences of Western Australia, New Caledonia and Antarctica, and possibly from the Eocene of South America. The present paper extends the record to the late Cretaceous of New Caledonia. These remains are unlike any living taxa, and have been variously interpreted as molluscs (rudistid bivalves), cirripedes (stalked barnacles), annelids and inorganic structures. Assignation to the Cirripedia has been refuted by Buckeridge (1983, 1993), who proposed that the material would be better placed within the Cnidaria. We investigate this hypothesis in light of the New Caledonian material and by comparison with living gorgonians and pennatulaceans, and demonstrate that Waiparaconus is best placed within the Pennatulacea. Waiparaconus zelandicus varies in form somewhat, with 3 morphotypes defined and reinforced by geography. Comment is provided on the imperative to fit organic remains into known groups, with reflection on what may happen if taxa are left in insertae sedis. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Nematocyst discharge in Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) oral arms can be affected by lidocaine, ethanol, ammonia and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Marino, Angela; Dossena, Silvia; La Spada, Giuseppa

    2014-06-01

    Nematocyst discharge and concomitant delivery of toxins is triggered to perform both defence and predation strategies in Cnidarians, and may lead to serious local and systemic reactions in humans. Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) is a jellyfish particularly abundant in the Strait of Messina (Italy). After accidental contact with this jellyfish, not discharged nematocysts or even fragments of tentacles or oral arms may tightly adhere to the human skin and, following discharge, severely increase pain and the other adverse consequences of the sting. The aim of the present study is to verify if the local anesthetic lidocaine and other compounds, like alcohols, acetic acid and ammonia, known to provide pain relief after jellyfish stings, may also affect in situ discharge of nematocysts. Discharge was induced by a combined physico-chemical stimulation of oral arms by chemosensitizers (such as N-acetylated sugars, aminoacids, proteins and nucleotides), in the presence or absence of 1% lidocaine, 70% ethanol, 5% acetic acid or 20% ammonia, followed by mechanical stimulation by a non-vibrating test probe. The above mentioned compounds failed to induce discharge per se, and dramatically impaired the chemosensitizer-induced discharge response. We therefore suggest that prompt local treatment of the stung epidermis with lidocaine, acetic acid, ethanol and ammonia may provide substantial pain relief and help in reducing possible harmful local and systemic adverse reaction following accidental contact with P. noctiluca specimens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A diploblastic radiate animal at the dawn of cambrian diversification with a simple body plan: distinct from Cnidaria?

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kinya; Reimer, James D; Liu, Yunhuan; Yao, Xiaoyong; Kubo, Daisuke; Shu, Degan; Li, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Microfossils of the genus Punctatus include developmental stages such as blastula, gastrula, and hatchlings, and represent the most complete developmental sequence of animals available from the earliest Cambrian. Despite the extremely well-preserved specimens, the evolutionary position of Punctatus has relied only on their conical remains and they have been tentatively assigned to cnidarians. We present a new interpretation of the Punctatus body plan based on the developmental reconstruction aided by recent advances in developmental biology. Punctatus developed from a rather large egg, gastrulated in a mode of invagination from a coeloblastura, and then formed a mouth directly from the blastopore. Spiny benthic hatchlings were distinguishable from swimming or crawling ciliate larvae found in cnidarians and sponges. A mouth appeared at the perihatching embryonic stage and was renewed periodically during growth, and old mouths transformed into the body wall, thus elongating the body. Growing animals retained a small blind gut in a large body cavity without partitioning by septa and did not form tentacles, pedal discs or holdfasts externally. A growth center at the oral pole was sufficient for body patterning throughout life, and the body patterning did not show any bias from radial symmetry. Contrary to proposed cnidarian affinity, the Punctatus body plan has basic differences from that of cnidarians, especially concerning a spacious body cavity separating ectoderm from endoderm. The lack of many basic cnidarian characters in the body patterning of Punctatus leads us to consider its own taxonomic group, potentially outside of Cnidaria.

  11. Reaction of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Bivalvia) to Eugymnanthea inquilina (Cnidaria) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria) concurrent infestation.

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona; Petrić, Mirela; Hrabar, Jerko; Bočina, Ivana; Peharda, Melita

    2012-05-01

    In total 480 individuals of Mytilus galloprovincialis were sampled monthly from October 2009 to September 2010, at the shellfish farm in the Mali Ston Bay, south Adriatic Sea (Croatia) in order to assess the extent of pathology imposed by two parasites, Eugymnanthea inquilina (Cnidaria) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria). Although a deteriorating impact on host reproduction or condition index was lacking, we evidenced ultrastructural and functional alteration in host cells at the attachment site. Ultrastructural changes included hemocytic encapsulation of the turbellarian and cell desquamation in medusoid infestation. Caspase positive reaction inferred by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was triggered in cases of turbellarian infestation, in contrast with hydroids, suggesting that the former exhibits more complex host-parasite interaction, reflected in the persistent attempts of the parasite to survive bivalve reaction. We have evidenced that both organisms trigger specific host reaction that although not costly in terms of host reproductive cycle or growth, results in mild tissue destruction and hemocyte activation. A lower degree of tissue reaction was observed in cases of hydroid infestation, compared to turbellarian. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Diploblastic Radiate Animal at the Dawn of Cambrian Diversification with a Simple Body Plan: Distinct from Cnidaria?

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Kinya; Reimer, James D.; Liu, Yunhuan; Yao, Xiaoyong; Kubo, Daisuke; Shu, Degan; Li, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Microfossils of the genus Punctatus include developmental stages such as blastula, gastrula, and hatchlings, and represent the most complete developmental sequence of animals available from the earliest Cambrian. Despite the extremely well-preserved specimens, the evolutionary position of Punctatus has relied only on their conical remains and they have been tentatively assigned to cnidarians. We present a new interpretation of the Punctatus body plan based on the developmental reconstruction aided by recent advances in developmental biology. Results Punctatus developed from a rather large egg, gastrulated in a mode of invagination from a coeloblastura, and then formed a mouth directly from the blastopore. Spiny benthic hatchlings were distinguishable from swimming or crawling ciliate larvae found in cnidarians and sponges. A mouth appeared at the perihatching embryonic stage and was renewed periodically during growth, and old mouths transformed into the body wall, thus elongating the body. Growing animals retained a small blind gut in a large body cavity without partitioning by septa and did not form tentacles, pedal discs or holdfasts externally. A growth center at the oral pole was sufficient for body patterning throughout life, and the body patterning did not show any bias from radial symmetry. Conclusions Contrary to proposed cnidarian affinity, the Punctatus body plan has basic differences from that of cnidarians, especially concerning a spacious body cavity separating ectoderm from endoderm. The lack of many basic cnidarian characters in the body patterning of Punctatus leads us to consider its own taxonomic group, potentially outside of Cnidaria. PMID:23840375

  13. A novel myxosporean parasite Myxobolus klamathellus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) from native blue chub (Gila coerulea) in Klamath Lake, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Stephen Douglas; Banner, Craig Randall

    2017-01-01

    Blue chub, Gila coerulea Girard, 1856 is a freshwater cyprinid fish native to inland drainages of western North America. It has not previously been recorded as a host of any myxosporean parasite (Cnidaria: Myxosporea), despite myxosporeans being cosmopolitan in freshwater and marine fishes worldwide and sympatric with this host. Herein, we describe a novel myxosporean from subcutaneous cysts in native blue chub from Klamath Lake, Oregon. Myxospores were consistent with genus Myxobolus, being obovoid but compressed in thickness, length 14.3 ± 0.4 (13-15) μm, width 9.7 ± 0.4 (9-10) μm, thickness 7.7 ± 0.3 (7-8) μm; two polar capsules ovoid slightly dissimilar in size, length 6.4 ± 0.4 (6-7) μm, width 3.8 ± 0.3 (3-4) μm, with four (3-5) turns of the polar filament (tubule); capsule openings apical, one in each valve cell. The small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence was up to 97 % similar to Myxobolus spp. from other cyprinids from North America and Europe. Given the novel host, unique myxospore morphometrics, and DNA sequence, we describe this as Myxobolus klamathellus n. sp.

  14. Expression of Wnt pathway genes in polyps and medusa-like structures of Ectopleura larynx (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, Annalise M; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2013-01-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is conserved in its role in axial patterning throughout Metazoa. In some hydrozoans (Phylum Cnidaria), Wnt signaling is implicated in oral-aboral patterning of the different life cycle stages-the planula, polyp and medusa. Unlike most hydrozoans, members of Aplanulata lack a planula larva and the polyp instead develops directly from a brooded or encysted embryo. The Aplanulata species Ectopleura larynx broods such embryos within gonophores. These gonophores are truncated medusae that remain attached to the polyps from which they bud, and retain evolutionary remnants of medusa structures. In E. larynx, gonophores differ between males and females in their degree of medusa truncation, making them an ideal system for examining truncated medusa development. Using next-generation sequencing, we isolated genes from Wnt signaling pathways and examined their expression in E. larynx. Our data are consistent with the Wnt pathway being involved in axial patterning of the polyp and truncated medusa. Changes in the spatial expression of Wnt pathway genes are correlated with the development of different oral structures in male and female gonophores. The absence of expression of components of the Wnt pathway and presence of a Wnt pathway antagonist SFRP in the developing anterior end of the gonophore suggest that downregulation of the Wnt pathway could play a role in medusa reduction in E. larynx. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mitochondrial genome of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): A linear DNA molecule encoding a putative DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhiyong; Graf, Shannon; Chaga, Oleg Y; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2006-10-15

    The 16,937-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) molecule of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) - the first mtDNA sequence from the class Scypozoa and the first sequence of a linear mtDNA from Metazoa - has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs. In addition, two open reading frames of 324 and 969 base pairs in length have been found. The deduced amino-acid sequence of one of them, ORF969, displays extensive sequence similarity with the polymerase [but not the exonuclease] domain of family B DNA polymerases, and this ORF has been tentatively identified as dnab. This is the first report of dnab in animal mtDNA. The genes in A. aurita mtDNA are arranged in two clusters with opposite transcriptional polarities; transcription proceeding toward the ends of the molecule. The determined sequences at the ends of the molecule are nearly identical but inverted and lack any obvious potential secondary structures or telomere-like repeat elements. The acquisition of mitochondrial genomic data for the second class of Cnidaria allows us to reconstruct characteristic features of mitochondrial evolution in this animal phylum.

  16. The Transcriptome of the Zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Predicts a Basal Repertoire of Toxin-like and Venom-Auxiliary Polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne RL; Zhou, Hefeng; Lima, Érica P; Gomes, Paula B; Cai, Jing; Lou, Inchio; Pérez, Carlos D; Lee, Simon Ming; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids. Here, based on a transcriptome analysis of the zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis, numerous predicted polypeptides with canonical venom protein features are identified. These polypeptides comprise putative proteins from different toxin families: neurotoxic peptides, hemostatic and hemorrhagic toxins, membrane-active (pore-forming) proteins, protease inhibitors, mixed-function venom enzymes, and venom auxiliary proteins. The synthesis and functional analysis of two of these predicted toxin products, one related to the ShK/Aurelin family and the other to a recently discovered anthozoan toxin, displayed potent in vivo neurotoxicity that impaired swimming in larval zebrafish. Altogether, the complex array of venom-related transcripts that are identified in P. variabilis, some of which are first reported in Cnidaria, provides novel insight into the toxin distribution among species and might contribute to the understanding of composition and evolution of venom polypeptides in toxiferous animals. PMID:27566758

  17. The Transcriptome of the Zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Predicts a Basal Repertoire of Toxin-like and Venom-Auxiliary Polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne Rl; Zhou, Hefeng; Lima, Érica P; Gomes, Paula B; Cai, Jing; Lou, Inchio; Pérez, Carlos D; Lee, Simon Ming; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2016-10-05

    Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids. Here, based on a transcriptome analysis of the zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis, numerous predicted polypeptides with canonical venom protein features are identified. These polypeptides comprise putative proteins from different toxin families: neurotoxic peptides, hemostatic and hemorrhagic toxins, membrane-active (pore-forming) proteins, protease inhibitors, mixed-function venom enzymes, and venom auxiliary proteins. The synthesis and functional analysis of two of these predicted toxin products, one related to the ShK/Aurelin family and the other to a recently discovered anthozoan toxin, displayed potent in vivo neurotoxicity that impaired swimming in larval zebrafish. Altogether, the complex array of venom-related transcripts that are identified in P. variabilis, some of which are first reported in Cnidaria, provides novel insight into the toxin distribution among species and might contribute to the understanding of composition and evolution of venom polypeptides in toxiferous animals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Rapid divergence of histones in Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) and evolution of a novel histone involved in DNA damage response in hydra.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Ubhe, Suyog; Sirwani, Neha; Lohokare, Rasika; Galande, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    Histones are fundamental components of chromatin in all eukaryotes. Hydra, an emerging model system belonging to the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria, provides an ideal platform to understand the evolution of core histone components at the base of eumetazoan phyla. Hydra exhibits peculiar properties such as tremendous regenerative capacity, lack of organismal senescence and rarity of malignancy. In light of the role of histone modifications and histone variants in these processes it is important to understand the nature of histones themselves and their variants in hydra. Here, we report identification of the complete repertoire of histone-coding genes in the Hydra magnipapillata genome. Hydra histones were classified based on their copy numbers, gene structure and other characteristic features. Genomic organization of canonical histone genes revealed the presence of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 paired clusters in high frequency and also a cluster with all core histones along with H1. Phylogenetic analysis of identified members of H2A and H2B histones suggested rapid expansion of these groups in Hydrozoa resulting in the appearance of unique subtypes. Amino acid sequence level comparisons of H2A and H2B forms with bilaterian counterparts suggest the possibility of a highly mobile nature of nucleosomes in hydra. Absolute quantitation of transcripts confirmed the high copy number of histones and supported the canonical nature of H2A. Furthermore, functional characterization of H2A.X.1 and a unique variant H2A.X.2 in the gastric region suggest their role in the maintenance of genome integrity and differentiation processes. These findings provide insights into the evolution of histones and their variants in hydra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Thomas G; Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Ikebe, Chiho; Watling, Les; Smith, Craig R; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Data were collected from the UK-1 exploration area following the methods described in Glover et al. (2015b). Morphological and genetic data are presented for 10 species and 18 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 2 primnoid octocorals, 2 isidid octocorals, 1 anemone, 4 hydroids (including 2 pelagic siphonophores accidentally caught) and a scyphozoan jellyfish (in the benthic stage of the life cycle). Two taxa matched previously published genetic sequences (pelagic siphonophores), two taxa matched published morphological descriptions (abyssal primnoids described from the same locality in 2015) and the remaining 6 taxa are potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. We have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections. For some of the specimens we also provide image data collected at the seabed by ROV, wich may facilitate more accurate taxon designation in coming ROV or AUV surveys.

  20. Physiology and Evolution of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Early Diverging Animal Phyla: Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera and Ctenophora

    PubMed Central

    Senatore, Adriano; Raiss, Hamad; Le, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels serve dual roles in the cell, where they can both depolarize the membrane potential for electrical excitability, and activate transient cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals. In animals, Cav channels play crucial roles including driving muscle contraction (excitation-contraction coupling), gene expression (excitation-transcription coupling), pre-synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis (excitation-secretion coupling), regulation of flagellar/ciliary beating, and regulation of cellular excitability, either directly or through modulation of other Ca2+-sensitive ion channels. In recent years, genome sequencing has provided significant insights into the molecular evolution of Cav channels. Furthermore, expanded gene datasets have permitted improved inference of the species phylogeny at the base of Metazoa, providing clearer insights into the evolution of complex animal traits which involve Cav channels, including the nervous system. For the various types of metazoan Cav channels, key properties that determine their cellular contribution include: Ion selectivity, pore gating, and, importantly, cytoplasmic protein-protein interactions that direct sub-cellular localization and functional complexing. It is unclear when these defining features, many of which are essential for nervous system function, evolved. In this review, we highlight some experimental observations that implicate Cav channels in the physiology and behavior of the most early-diverging animals from the phyla Cnidaria, Placozoa, Porifera, and Ctenophora. Given our limited understanding of the molecular biology of Cav channels in these basal animal lineages, we infer insights from better-studied vertebrate and invertebrate animals. We also highlight some apparently conserved cellular functions of Cav channels, which might have emerged very early on during metazoan evolution, or perhaps predated it. PMID:27867359

  1. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Ikebe, Chiho; Watling, Les; Smith, Craig R; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area ‘UK-1’ in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Data were collected from the UK-1 exploration area following the methods described in Glover et al. (2015b). New information Morphological and genetic data are presented for 10 species and 18 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 2 primnoid octocorals, 2 isidid octocorals, 1 anemone, 4 hydroids (including 2 pelagic siphonophores accidentally caught) and a scyphozoan jellyfish (in the benthic stage of the life cycle). Two taxa matched previously published genetic sequences (pelagic siphonophores), two taxa matched published morphological descriptions (abyssal primnoids described from the same locality in 2015) and the remaining 6 taxa are potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. We have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections. For some of the specimens we also provide image data collected at the seabed by ROV, wich may facilitate more accurate taxon designation in coming ROV or AUV surveys. PMID:27660533

  2. Gene duplications are extensive and contribute significantly to the toxic proteome of nematocysts isolated from Acropora digitifera (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Gacesa, Ranko; Chung, Ray; Dunn, Simon R; Weston, Andrew J; Jaimes-Becerra, Adrian; Marques, Antonio C; Morandini, André C; Hranueli, Daslav; Starcevic, Antonio; Ward, Malcolm; Long, Paul F

    2015-10-13

    Gene duplication followed by adaptive selection is a well-accepted process leading to toxin diversification in venoms. However, emergent genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic evidence now challenges this role to be at best equivocal to other processess . Cnidaria are arguably the most ancient phylum of the extant metazoa that are venomous and such provide a definitive ancestral anchor to examine the evolution of this trait. Here we compare predicted toxins from the translated genome of the coral Acropora digitifera to putative toxins revealed by proteomic analysis of soluble proteins discharged from nematocysts, to determine the extent to which gene duplications contribute to venom innovation in this reef-building coral species. A new bioinformatics tool called HHCompare was developed to detect potential gene duplications in the genomic data, which is made freely available ( https://github.com/rgacesa/HHCompare ). A total of 55 potential toxin encoding genes could be predicted from the A. digitifera genome, of which 36 (65 %) had likely arisen by gene duplication as evinced using the HHCompare tool and verified using two standard phylogeny methods. Surprisingly, only 22 % (12/55) of the potential toxin repertoire could be detected following rigorous proteomic analysis, for which only half (6/12) of the toxin proteome could be accounted for as peptides encoded by the gene duplicates. Biological activities of these toxins are dominatedby putative phospholipases and toxic peptidases. Gene expansions in A. digitifera venom are the most extensive yet described in any venomous animal, and gene duplication plays a significant role leading to toxin diversification in this coral species. Since such low numbers of toxins were detected in the proteome, it is unlikely that the venom is evolving rapidly by prey-driven positive natural selection. Rather we contend that the venom has a defensive role deterring predation or harm from interspecific competition and overgrowth by

  3. Differential gene expression in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) assessed with multiple next-generation sequencing workflows.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Stefan; Robinson, Mark D; Tintori, Sophia C; Goetz, Freya; Helm, Rebecca R; Smith, Stephen A; Shaner, Nathan; Haddock, Steven H D; Dunn, Casey W

    2011-01-01

    We investigated differential gene expression between functionally specialized feeding polyps and swimming medusae in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) with a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy. We assembled a set of partial gene reference sequences from long-read data (Roche 454), and generated short-read sequences from replicated tissue samples that were mapped to the references to quantify expression. We collected and compared expression data with three short-read expression workflows that differ in sample preparation, sequencing technology, and mapping tools. These workflows were Illumina mRNA-Seq, which generates sequence reads from random locations along each transcript, and two tag-based approaches, SOLiD SAGE and Helicos DGE, which generate reads from particular tag sites. Differences in expression results across workflows were mostly due to the differential impact of missing data in the partial reference sequences. When all 454-derived gene reference sequences were considered, Illumina mRNA-Seq detected more than twice as many differentially expressed (DE) reference sequences as the tag-based workflows. This discrepancy was largely due to missing tag sites in the partial reference that led to false negatives in the tag-based workflows. When only the subset of reference sequences that unambiguously have tag sites was considered, we found broad congruence across workflows, and they all identified a similar set of DE sequences. Our results are promising in several regards for gene expression studies in non-model organisms. First, we demonstrate that a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy is an effective way to collect gene expression data when an annotated genome sequence is not available. Second, our replicated sampling indicates that expression profiles are highly consistent across field-collected animals in this case. Third, the impacts of partial reference sequences on the ability to detect DE can be mitigated through

  4. Insights into the transcriptional and translational mechanisms of linear organellar chromosomes in the box jellyfish Alatina alata (Cnidaria: Medusozoa: Cubozoa).

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Bentlage, Bastian; Collins, Allen G

    2016-09-01

    In most animals, the mitochondrial genome is characterized by its small size, organization into a single circular molecule, and a relative conservation of the number of encoded genes. In box jellyfish (Cubozoa, Cnidaria), the mitochondrial genome is organized into 8 linear mito-chromosomes harboring between one and 4 genes each, including 2 extra protein-coding genes: mt-polB and orf314. Such an organization challenges the traditional view of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) expression in animals. In this study, we investigate the pattern of mitochondrial gene expression in the box jellyfish Alatina alata, as well as several key nuclear-encoded molecular pathways involved in the processing of mitochondrial gene transcription. Read coverage of DNA-seq data is relatively uniform for all 8 mito-chromosomes, suggesting that each mito-chromosome is present in equimolar proportion in the mitochondrion. Comparison of DNA and RNA-seq based assemblies indicates that mito-chromosomes are transcribed into individual transcripts in which the beginning and ending are highly conserved. Expression levels for mt-polB and orf314 are similar to those of other mitochondrial-encoded genes, which provides further evidence for them having functional roles in the mitochondrion. Survey of the transcriptome suggests recognition of the mitochondrial tRNA-Met by the cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase counterpart and C-to-U editing of the cytoplasmic tRNA-Trp after import into the mitochondrion. Moreover, several mitochondrial ribosomal proteins appear to be lost. This study represents the first survey of mitochondrial gene expression of the linear multi-chromosomal mtDNA in box jellyfish (Cubozoa). Future exploration of small RNAs and the proteome of the mitochondrion will test the hypotheses presented herein.

  5. Pax gene diversity in the basal cnidarian Acropora millepora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): Implications for the evolution of the Pax gene family

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David J.; Hayward, David C.; Reece-Hoyes, John S.; Scholten, Ingo; Catmull, Julian; Gehring, Walter J.; Callaerts, Patrick; Larsen, Jill E.; Ball, Eldon E.

    2000-01-01

    Pax genes encode a family of transcription factors, many of which play key roles in animal embryonic development but whose evolutionary relationships and ancestral functions are unclear. To address these issues, we are characterizing the Pax gene complement of the coral Acropora millepora, an anthozoan cnidarian. As the simplest animals at the tissue level of organization, cnidarians occupy a key position in animal evolution, and the Anthozoa are the basal class within this diverse phylum. We have identified four Pax genes in Acropora: two (Pax-Aam and Pax-Bam) are orthologs of genes identified in other cnidarians; the others (Pax-Cam and Pax-Dam) are unique to Acropora. Pax-Aam may be orthologous with Drosophila Pox neuro, and Pax-Bam clearly belongs to the Pax-2/5/8 class. The Pax-Bam Paired domain binds specifically and preferentially to Pax-2/5/8 binding sites. The recently identified Acropora gene Pax-Dam belongs to the Pax-3/7 class. Clearly, substantial diversification of the Pax family occurred before the Cnidaria/higher Metazoa split. The fourth Acropora Pax gene, Pax-Cam, may correspond to the ancestral vertebrate Pax gene and most closely resembles Pax-6. The expression pattern of Pax-Cam, in putative neurons, is consistent with an ancestral role of the Pax family in neural differentiation and patterning. We have determined the genomic structure of each Acropora Pax gene and show that some splice sites are shared both between the coral genes and between these and Pax genes in triploblastic metazoans. Together, these data support the monophyly of the Pax family and indicate ancient origins of several introns. PMID:10781047

  6. Predicting suitable habitat for the gold coral Savalia savaglia (Bertoloni, 1819) (Cnidaria, Zoantharia) in the South Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Michela; Innocenti, Carlo; Canese, Simonepietro

    2014-06-01

    The gold coral Savalia savaglia (Cnidaria, Zoantharia) is a rare component of the mesophotic zone of the Mediterranean Sea and northeastern Atlantic Ocean. During two field campaigns along the Italian coast in the South Tyrrhenian Sea, two populations of this species were discovered. The specimens were filmed and photographed by means of a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). To identify the role of local bathymetry and other derived variables on presence and distribution of S. savaglia we used a Habitat Suitability (HS) modeling technique based on Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA), utilizing high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and ROV data. Among the set of environmental variables derived from multibeam data, slope, rugosity, eastness and distance to rocks, appear to be the main variables involved in S. savaglia distribution, pointing out that the habitat differs considerably from the mean environmental conditions over the study area, and that S. savaglia ecological niche is significantly narrower than the available habitat. The HS map was developed to differentiate the sea floor into suitability classes. The comparison between suitability classes and presence data showed that the HS map is coherent with the observed spatial distribution of the species. The most suitable habitat for S. savaglia is characterized by a rough sea floor with rocks that is steeply sloped, oriented northeast, and within a water depth range of 34-77 m. Our study suggests that predictive modeling is an approach that can be applied to other deep coral species to locate areas with a suitable habitat. Considering the difficulties to reach the habitats in which these species live, this approach could be essential to planning further studies that help define areas where the species may be present.

  7. Differential Gene Expression in the Siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) Assessed with Multiple Next-Generation Sequencing Workflows

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Stefan; Robinson, Mark D.; Tintori, Sophia C.; Goetz, Freya; Helm, Rebecca R.; Smith, Stephen A.; Shaner, Nathan; Haddock, Steven H. D.; Dunn, Casey W.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated differential gene expression between functionally specialized feeding polyps and swimming medusae in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) with a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy. We assembled a set of partial gene reference sequences from long-read data (Roche 454), and generated short-read sequences from replicated tissue samples that were mapped to the references to quantify expression. We collected and compared expression data with three short-read expression workflows that differ in sample preparation, sequencing technology, and mapping tools. These workflows were Illumina mRNA-Seq, which generates sequence reads from random locations along each transcript, and two tag-based approaches, SOLiD SAGE and Helicos DGE, which generate reads from particular tag sites. Differences in expression results across workflows were mostly due to the differential impact of missing data in the partial reference sequences. When all 454-derived gene reference sequences were considered, Illumina mRNA-Seq detected more than twice as many differentially expressed (DE) reference sequences as the tag-based workflows. This discrepancy was largely due to missing tag sites in the partial reference that led to false negatives in the tag-based workflows. When only the subset of reference sequences that unambiguously have tag sites was considered, we found broad congruence across workflows, and they all identified a similar set of DE sequences. Our results are promising in several regards for gene expression studies in non-model organisms. First, we demonstrate that a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy is an effective way to collect gene expression data when an annotated genome sequence is not available. Second, our replicated sampling indicates that expression profiles are highly consistent across field-collected animals in this case. Third, the impacts of partial reference sequences on the ability to detect DE can be mitigated through

  8. Benthic hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from bathyal and abyssal depths of the Northeast Atlantic held in the modern Discovery Collections.

    PubMed

    Cantero, Álvaro L Peña; Horton, Tammy

    2017-11-10

    The deep-sea benthic hydroid fauna remains poorly known, in part because of less frequent sampling than the shelf fauna, in part owing to the immense study area, and partly also because available samples have been little studied by experts. In order to correct this, deep-sea benthic hydroid material from the modern Discovery Collections has been studied. Samples come from localities in the North-East Atlantic including the Porcupine Seabight, Porcupine Abyssal Plain, Rockall Trough, Rockall Bank, and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Sixteen species belonging to 12 families and 16 genera were found. Leptothecata are clearly dominant, being represented by 14 species; the remaining species belong to Anthoathecata. Lafoeidae and Tiarannidae are the most diverse families with three species each; the remaining families being represented by a single species. The low species diversity is remarkable at the generic level, with each genus being represented by a single species. Hydroid occurrence is low: twelve species were found in ≤ 9% of stations; Amphinema biscayana has the highest occurrence (27% of stations). Fifteen species were recorded in the Porcupine Seabight, two in the Rockall Trough, one at Rockall Bank, one on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, and two at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The known bathymetric range for a third of the species is extended; the increase is particularly noteworthy in Amphinema biscayana, Acryptolaria crassicaulis, Clytia gigantea and Schizotricha profunda. Two distinct bathymetric groups are recognized: strictly deep-sea inhabitants and eurybathic species. Most species are globally distributed, some are widely distributed in the Atlantic, and others are limited to the North Atlantic or the Northeast Atlantic.

  9. Stalked jellyfishes (Cnidaria: Staurozoa) of South Africa, with the description of Calvadosia lewisi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lucília S; Branch, George M; Collins, Allen G; Hirano, Yayoi M; Marques, Antonio C; Griffiths, Charles L

    2017-02-03

    Stalked jellyfishes (Cnidaria: Staurozoa) are cryptic, benthic animals, known mainly from polar and temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere. We describe a new species, Calvadosia lewisi, from South Africa and review the staurozoan fauna of the region. Three other species are previously known from South Africa: Calvadosia capensis (Carlgren, 1938); Depastromorpha africana Carlgren, 1935; and Lipkea stephensoni Carlgren, 1933, but all of these are known from very few records and have been poorly illustrated and documented to date. We provide brief descriptions and photographic illustrations for each species and a list of local and global geographical records. Two (L. stephensoni and C. lewisi), but possibly three (D. africana), of the four known South African staurozoan species are endemic from South Africa. The new species, images, and extra distributional records presented here greatly improve knowledge of the staurozoan fauna in South Africa and, consequently, of the Southern Hemisphere.

  10. The Holo-Transcriptome of the Zoantharian Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): A Plentiful Source of Enzymes for Potential Application in Green Chemistry, Industrial and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    R L Morlighem, Jean-Étienne; Huang, Chen; Liao, Qiwen; Braga Gomes, Paula; Daniel Pérez, Carlos; de Brandão Prieto-da-Silva, Álvaro Rossan; Ming-Yuen Lee, Simon; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2018-06-13

    Marine invertebrates, such as sponges, tunicates and cnidarians (zoantharians and scleractinian corals), form functional assemblages, known as holobionts, with numerous microbes. This type of species-specific symbiotic association can be a repository of myriad valuable low molecular weight organic compounds, bioactive peptides and enzymes. The zoantharian Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) is one such example of a marine holobiont that inhabits the coastal reefs of the tropical Atlantic coast and is an interesting source of secondary metabolites and biologically active polypeptides. In the present study, we analyzed the entire holo-transcriptome of P. variabilis , looking for enzyme precursors expressed in the zoantharian-microbiota assemblage that are potentially useful as industrial biocatalysts and biopharmaceuticals. In addition to hundreds of predicted enzymes that fit into the classes of hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases that were found, novel enzyme precursors with multiple activities in single structures and enzymes with incomplete Enzyme Commission numbers were revealed. Our results indicated the predictive expression of thirteen multifunctional enzymes and 694 enzyme sequences with partially characterized activities, distributed in 23 sub-subclasses. These predicted enzyme structures and activities can prospectively be harnessed for applications in diverse areas of industrial and pharmaceutical biotechnology.

  11. Complex colony-level organization of the deep-sea siphonophore Bargmannia elongata (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) is directionally asymmetric and arises by the subdivision of pro-buds.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Casey W

    2005-12-01

    Siphonophores are free-swimming colonial hydrozoans (Cnidaria) composed of asexually produced multicellular zooids. These zooids, which are homologous to solitary animals, are functionally specialized and arranged in complex species-specific patterns. The coloniality of siphonophores provides an opportunity to study the major transitions in evolution that give rise to new levels of biological organization, but siphonophores are poorly known because they are fragile and live in the open ocean. The organization and development of the deep-sea siphonophore Bargmannia elongata is described here using specimens collected with a remotely operated underwater vehicle. Each bud gives rise to a precise, directionally asymmetric sequence of zooids through a stereotypical series of subdivisions, rather than to a single zooid as in most other hydrozoans. This initial description of development in a deep-sea siphonophore provides an example of how precise colony-level organization can arise, and illustrates that the morphological complexity of cnidarians is greater than is often assumed. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of higher-level relationships within Hydroidolina (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) using mitochondrial genome data and insight into their mitochondrial transcription.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Bentlage, Bastian; Cartwright, Paulyn; Yanagihara, Angel A; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Hopcroft, Russell R; Collins, Allen G

    2015-01-01

    Hydrozoans display the most morphological diversity within the phylum Cnidaria. While recent molecular studies have provided some insights into their evolutionary history, sister group relationships remain mostly unresolved, particularly at mid-taxonomic levels. Specifically, within Hydroidolina, the most speciose hydrozoan subclass, the relationships and sometimes integrity of orders are highly unsettled. Here we obtained the near complete mitochondrial sequence of twenty-six hydroidolinan hydrozoan species from a range of sources (DNA and RNA-seq data, long-range PCR). Our analyses confirm previous inference of the evolution of mtDNA in Hydrozoa while introducing a novel genome organization. Using RNA-seq data, we propose a mechanism for the expression of mitochondrial mRNA in Hydroidolina that can be extrapolated to the other medusozoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using the full set of mitochondrial gene sequences provide some insights into the order-level relationships within Hydroidolina, including siphonophores as the first diverging clade, a well-supported clade comprised of Leptothecata-Filifera III-IV, and a second clade comprised of Aplanulata-Capitata s.s.-Filifera I-II. Finally, we describe our relatively inexpensive and accessible multiplexing strategy to sequence long-range PCR amplicons that can be adapted to most high-throughput sequencing platforms.

  13. Parallel loss of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and mtDNA-encoded tRNAs in Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Haen, Karri M; Pett, Walker; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2010-10-01

    Unlike most animal mitochondrial (mt) genomes, which encode a set of 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) sufficient for mt protein synthesis, those of cnidarians have only retained one or two tRNA genes. Whether the missing cnidarian mt-tRNA genes relocated outside the main mt chromosome or were lost remains unclear. It is also unknown what impact the loss of tRNA genes had on other components of the mt translational machinery. Here, we explored the nuclear genome of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis for the presence of mt-tRNA genes and their corresponding mt aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRS). We detected no candidates for mt-tRNA genes and only two mt-aaRS orthologs. At the same time, we found that all but one cytosolic aaRS appear to be targeted to mitochondria. These results indicate that the loss of mt-tRNAs in Cnidaria is genuine and occurred in parallel with the loss of nuclear-encoded mt-aaRS. Our phylogenetic analyses of individual aaRS revealed that although the nearly total loss of mt-aaRS is rare, aaRS gene deletion and replacement have occurred throughout the evolution of Metazoa.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of higher-level relationships within Hydroidolina (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) using mitochondrial genome data and insight into their mitochondrial transcription

    PubMed Central

    Bentlage, Bastian; Cartwright, Paulyn; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Lindsay, Dhugal J.; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Collins, Allen G.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrozoans display the most morphological diversity within the phylum Cnidaria. While recent molecular studies have provided some insights into their evolutionary history, sister group relationships remain mostly unresolved, particularly at mid-taxonomic levels. Specifically, within Hydroidolina, the most speciose hydrozoan subclass, the relationships and sometimes integrity of orders are highly unsettled. Here we obtained the near complete mitochondrial sequence of twenty-six hydroidolinan hydrozoan species from a range of sources (DNA and RNA-seq data, long-range PCR). Our analyses confirm previous inference of the evolution of mtDNA in Hydrozoa while introducing a novel genome organization. Using RNA-seq data, we propose a mechanism for the expression of mitochondrial mRNA in Hydroidolina that can be extrapolated to the other medusozoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using the full set of mitochondrial gene sequences provide some insights into the order-level relationships within Hydroidolina, including siphonophores as the first diverging clade, a well-supported clade comprised of Leptothecata-Filifera III–IV, and a second clade comprised of Aplanulata-Capitata s.s.-Filifera I–II. Finally, we describe our relatively inexpensive and accessible multiplexing strategy to sequence long-range PCR amplicons that can be adapted to most high-throughput sequencing platforms. PMID:26618080

  15. A new species of Pseudomacrochiron Reddiah, 1969 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Macrochironidae) associated with scyphistomae of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) off Japan.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny; Yasuda, Akira; Yamada, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2012-02-01

    A new species of the Macrochironidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida), Pseudomacrochiron aureliae n. sp., is described based on adult specimens extracted from the gastrovacular cavity of the scyphistomae of Aurelia sp. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) collected in the Seto Inland Sea and Ise Bay off the coast of Japan. The new species differs from its congeners by having the following combination of characters: a caudal ramus with a length to width ratio of 3.1; an accessory flagellum on caudal setae II, III and VI; three apical setae on the maxillule; only setae I and II on the maxillary basis; two short spines on the female maxilliped claw (endopod); an armature of III, I, 4 on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 3; an armature of I, II, 2 on the terminal endopodal segment of leg 3; an armature of II, I, 4 on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 4; and a short free exopodal segment of leg 5 (length to width ratio of 1.4) armed with a long seta and short spine. P. aureliae n. sp. is the first member of the genus reported from off Japan and from the scyphistomae of its scyphozoan host.

  16. Molecular Phylogeny Demonstrates the Need for Taxonomic Reconsideration of Species Diversity of the Hydrocoral Genus Millepora (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Takama, Okuto; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; López, Cataixa; Reimer, James Davis

    2018-04-01

    Millepora (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Milleporidae) spp. are distributed throughout shallow subtropical and tropical marine environments in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean-Atlantic, and have traditionally been identified using pore characteristics and colony form. Until now, representatives of Millepora spp. on the island of Okinawa-jima, Japan, have been divided into five species; three branching species (Millepora intricata, M. tenera, M. dichotoma), one species with plate-like morphology (M. platyphylla), and one encrusting species (M. exaesa). There have been only a few reports from the Indo-Pacific that have studied the genetic diversity within Millepora spp., although phylogenetic analyses in the Caribbean-Atlantic have proven useful in delimiting closely-related species, while demonstrating that morphologically-based identification systems may have problems. In the present study, we sought to clarify taxonomic confusion of Millepora spp. in the Pacific by using sequence data of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-rDNA) of specimens from Okinawa, Japan and other localities (Johnston Atoll, Great Barrier Reef). Four separate clades were recovered from the ITS-rDNA analyses. Although we examined specimens of all three branching Millepora spp. previously reported from Okinawa-jima Island, in our phylogenetic analyses they were concentrated within a single clade, with only three specimens in other clades. Encrusting Millepora specimens were found within all clades, although it should be noted all species initially start as encrusting forms, and plate-like specimens were found within three clades. Our data also point to the existence of a previously unknown lineage within Millepora characterized by its ability to overgrow live scleractinian corals.

  17. Hidden among Sea Anemones: The First Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) Reveals a Novel Group of Hexacorals

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Barbeitos, Marcos S.; Brugler, Mercer R.; Crowley, Louise M.; Grajales, Alejandro; Gusmão, Luciana; Häussermann, Verena; Reft, Abigail; Daly, Marymegan

    2014-01-01

    Sea anemones (order Actiniaria) are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae). Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein). We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders

  18. An orientation-independent DIC microscope allows high resolution imaging of epithelial cell migration and wound healing in a Cnidarian model

    PubMed Central

    Malamy, Jocelyn; Shribak, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial cell dynamics can be difficult to study in intact animals or tissues. Here we use the medusa form of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, which is covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells, to test the efficacy of an orientation-independent differential interference contrast (OI-DIC) microscope for in vivo imaging of wound healing. OI-DIC provides an unprecedented resolution phase image of epithelial cells closing a wound in a live, non-transgenic animal model. In particular, the OI-DIC microscope equipped with a 40×/0.75NA objective lens and using the illumination light with wavelength 546 nm demonstrated a resolution of 460 nm. The repair of individual cells, the adhesion of cells to close a gap, and the concomitant contraction of these cells during closure is clearly visualized. PMID:29345317

  19. An orientation-independent DIC microscope allows high resolution imaging of epithelial cell migration and wound healing in a cnidarian model.

    PubMed

    Malamy, J E; Shribak, M

    2018-06-01

    Epithelial cell dynamics can be difficult to study in intact animals or tissues. Here we use the medusa form of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, which is covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells, to test the efficacy of an orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscope for in vivo imaging of wound healing. Orientation-independent differential interference contrast provides an unprecedented resolution phase image of epithelial cells closing a wound in a live, nontransgenic animal model. In particular, the orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscope equipped with a 40x/0.75NA objective lens and using the illumination light with wavelength 546 nm demonstrated a resolution of 460 nm. The repair of individual cells, the adhesion of cells to close a gap, and the concomitant contraction of these cells during closure is clearly visualized. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Type material of Acanthocephala, Nematoda and other non-helminths phyla (Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Daniela A; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Knoff, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    The third part of the catalogue of type material in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), comprising types deposited between 1979 and 2016, is presented to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part encompasses Acanthocephala, Nematoda and the other non-helminth phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda. Platyhelminthes was covered in the first (Monogenoidea) and second (Rhabditophora Trematoda and Cestoda) parts of the catalogue published in September 2016 and March 2017, respectively. The present catalogue comprises type material for 116 species distributed across five phyla, nine classes, 50 families, and 80 genera. Specific names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality, and specimens with their collection numbers and references. Species classification and nomenclature are updated.

  1. Type material of Acanthocephala, Nematoda and other non-helminths phyla (Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Daniela A.; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Knoff, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The third part of the catalogue of type material in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), comprising types deposited between 1979 and 2016, is presented to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part encompasses Acanthocephala, Nematoda and the other non-helminth phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda. Platyhelminthes was covered in the first (Monogenoidea) and second (Rhabditophora Trematoda and Cestoda) parts of the catalogue published in September 2016 and March 2017, respectively. The present catalogue comprises type material for 116 species distributed across five phyla, nine classes, 50 families, and 80 genera. Specific names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality, and specimens with their collection numbers and references. Species classification and nomenclature are updated. PMID:29134026

  2. Comparative study of Hippo pathway genes in cellular conveyor belts of a ctenophore and a cnidarian.

    PubMed

    Coste, Alicia; Jager, Muriel; Chambon, Jean-Philippe; Manuel, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway regulates growth rate and organ size in fly and mouse, notably through control of cell proliferation. Molecular interactions at the heart of this pathway are known to have originated in the unicellular ancestry of metazoans. They notably involve a cascade of phosphorylations triggered by the kinase Hippo, with subsequent nuclear to cytoplasmic shift of Yorkie localisation, preventing its binding to the transcription factor Scalloped, thereby silencing proliferation genes. There are few comparative expression data of Hippo pathway genes in non-model animal species and notably none in non-bilaterian phyla. All core Hippo pathway genes could be retrieved from the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus and the hydrozoan cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica, with the important exception of Yorkie in ctenophore. Expression study of the Hippo, Salvador and Scalloped genes in tentacle "cellular conveyor belts" of these two organisms revealed striking differences. In P. pileus, their transcripts were detected in areas where undifferentiated progenitors intensely proliferate and where expression of cyclins B and D was also seen. In C. hemisphaerica, these three genes and Yorkie are expressed not only in the proliferating but also in the differentiation zone of the tentacle bulb and in mature tentacle cells. However, using an antibody designed against the C. hemiphaerica Yorkie protein, we show in two distinct cell lineages of the medusa that Yorkie localisation is predominantly nuclear in areas of active cell proliferation and mainly cytoplasmic elsewhere. This is the first evidence of nucleocytoplasmic Yorkie shift in association with the arrest of cell proliferation in a cnidarian, strongly evoking the cell division-promoting role of this protein and its inhibition by the activated Hippo pathway in bilaterian models. Our results furthermore highlight important differences in terms of deployment and regulation of Hippo pathway genes between cnidarians and ctenophores.

  3. A safer, urea-based in situ hybridization method improves detection of gene expression in diverse animal species.

    PubMed

    Sinigaglia, Chiara; Thiel, Daniel; Hejnol, Andreas; Houliston, Evelyn; Leclère, Lucas

    2018-02-01

    In situ hybridization is a widely employed technique allowing spatial visualization of gene expression in fixed specimens. It has greatly advanced our understanding of biological processes, including developmental regulation. In situ protocols are today routinely followed in numerous laboratories, and although details might change, they all include a hybridization step, where specific antisense RNA or DNA probes anneal to the target nucleic acid sequence. This step is generally carried out at high temperatures and in a denaturing solution, called hybridization buffer, commonly containing 50% (v/v) formamide - a hazardous chemical. When applied to the soft-bodied hydrozoan medusa Clytia hemisphaerica, we found that this traditional hybridization approach was not fully satisfactory, causing extensive deterioration of morphology and tissue texture which compromised our observation and interpretation of results. We thus tested alternative solutions for in situ detection of gene expression and, inspired by optimized protocols for Northern and Southern blot analysis, we substituted the 50% formamide with an equal volume of 8M urea solution in the hybridization buffer. Our new protocol not only yielded better morphologies and tissue consistency, but also notably improved the resolution of the signal, allowing more precise localization of gene expression and reducing aspecific staining associated with problematic areas. Given the improved results and reduced manipulation risks, we tested the urea protocol on other metazoans, two brachiopod species (Novocrania anomala and Terebratalia transversa) and the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus, obtaining a similar reduction of aspecific probe binding. Overall, substitution of formamide by urea during in situ hybridization offers a safer alternative, potentially of widespread use in research, medical and teaching contexts. We encourage other workers to test this approach on their study organisms, and hope that they will also

  4. Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Technau, Ulrich; Steele, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, jellyfish and hydroids) to investigate the evolution of key aspects of animal development, such as the formation of the third germ layer (mesoderm), the nervous system and the generation of bilaterality. The recent sequencing of the Nematostella and Hydra genomes, and the establishment of methods for manipulating gene expression, have inspired new research efforts using cnidarians. Here, we present the main features of cnidarian models and their advantages for research, and summarize key recent findings using these models that have informed our understanding of the evolution of the developmental processes underlying metazoan body plan formation. PMID:21389047

  5. Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Technau, Ulrich; Steele, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    There is growing interest in the use of cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, jellyfish and hydroids) to investigate the evolution of key aspects of animal development, such as the formation of the third germ layer (mesoderm), the nervous system and the generation of bilaterality. The recent sequencing of the Nematostella and Hydra genomes, and the establishment of methods for manipulating gene expression, have inspired new research efforts using cnidarians. Here, we present the main features of cnidarian models and their advantages for research, and summarize key recent findings using these models that have informed our understanding of the evolution of the developmental processes underlying metazoan body plan formation.

  6. Soft Coral Sarcophyton (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia) Species Diversity and Chemotypes

    PubMed Central

    Aratake, Satoe; Tomura, Tomohiko; Saitoh, Seikoh; Yokokura, Ryouma; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Reimer, James Davis; Tanaka, Junichi; Maekawa, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Research on the soft coral genus Sarcophyton extends over a wide range of fields, including marine natural products and the isolation of a number of cembranoid diterpenes. However, it is still unknown how soft corals produce this diverse array of metabolites, and the relationship between soft coral diversity and cembranoid diterpene production is not clear. In order to understand this relationship, we examined Sarcophyton specimens from Okinawa, Japan, by utilizing three methods: morphological examination of sclerites, chemotype identification, and phylogenetic examination of both Sarcophyton (utilizing mitochondrial protein-coding genes MutS homolog: msh1) and their endosymbiotic Symbiodinium spp. (utilizing nuclear internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA: ITS- rDNA). Chemotypes, molecular phylogenetic clades, and sclerites of Sarcophyton trocheliophorum specimens formed a clear and distinct group, but the relationships between chemotypes, molecular phylogenetic clade types and sclerites of the most common species, Sarcophyton glaucum, was not clear. S. glaucum was divided into four clades. A characteristic chemotype was observed within one phylogenetic clade of S. glaucum. Identities of symbiotic algae Symbiodinium spp. had no apparent relation to chemotypes of Sarcophyton spp. This study demonstrates that the complex results observed for S. glaucum are due to the incomplete and complex taxonomy of this species group. Our novel method of identification should help contribute to classification and taxonomic reassessment of this diverse soft coral genus. PMID:22272344

  7. Soft coral Sarcophyton (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia) species diversity and chemotypes.

    PubMed

    Aratake, Satoe; Tomura, Tomohiko; Saitoh, Seikoh; Yokokura, Ryouma; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Reimer, James Davis; Tanaka, Junichi; Maekawa, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Research on the soft coral genus Sarcophyton extends over a wide range of fields, including marine natural products and the isolation of a number of cembranoid diterpenes. However, it is still unknown how soft corals produce this diverse array of metabolites, and the relationship between soft coral diversity and cembranoid diterpene production is not clear. In order to understand this relationship, we examined Sarcophyton specimens from Okinawa, Japan, by utilizing three methods: morphological examination of sclerites, chemotype identification, and phylogenetic examination of both Sarcophyton (utilizing mitochondrial protein-coding genes MutS homolog: msh1) and their endosymbiotic Symbiodinium spp. (utilizing nuclear internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA: ITS- rDNA). Chemotypes, molecular phylogenetic clades, and sclerites of Sarcophyton trocheliophorum specimens formed a clear and distinct group, but the relationships between chemotypes, molecular phylogenetic clade types and sclerites of the most common species, Sarcophyton glaucum, was not clear. S. glaucum was divided into four clades. A characteristic chemotype was observed within one phylogenetic clade of S. glaucum. Identities of symbiotic algae Symbiodinium spp. had no apparent relation to chemotypes of Sarcophyton spp. This study demonstrates that the complex results observed for S. glaucum are due to the incomplete and complex taxonomy of this species group. Our novel method of identification should help contribute to classification and taxonomic reassessment of this diverse soft coral genus.

  8. Biology and ecology of Irukandji jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa).

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Richardson, Anthony J; Winkel, Kenneth D; Fenner, Peter J; Lippmann, John; Hore, Russell; Avila-Soria, Griselda; Brewer, David; Kloser, Rudy J; Steven, Andy; Condie, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Irukandji stings are a leading occupational health and safety issue for marine industries in tropical Australia and an emerging problem elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Their mild initial sting frequently results in debilitating illness, involving signs of sympathetic excess including excruciating pain, sweating, nausea and vomiting, hypertension and a feeling of impending doom; some cases also experience acute heart failure and pulmonary oedema. These jellyfish are typically small and nearly invisible, and their infestations are generally mysterious, making them scary to the general public, irresistible to the media, and disastrous for tourism. Research into these fascinating species has been largely driven by the medical profession and focused on treatment. Biological and ecological information is surprisingly sparse, and is scattered through grey literature or buried in dispersed publications, hampering understanding. Given that long-term climate forecasts tend toward conditions favourable to jellyfish ecology, that long-term legal forecasts tend toward increasing duty-of-care obligations, and that bioprospecting opportunities exist in the powerful Irukandji toxins, there is a clear need for information to help inform global research and robust management solutions. We synthesise and contextualise available information on Irukandji taxonomy, phylogeny, reproduction, vision, behaviour, feeding, distribution, seasonality, toxins, and safety. Despite Australia dominating the research in this area, there are probably well over 25 species worldwide that cause the syndrome and it is an understudied problem in the developing world. Major gaps in knowledge are identified for future research: our lack of clarity on the socio-economic impacts, and our need for time series and spatial surveys of the species, make this field particularly enticing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Global Diversity and Review of Siphonophorae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Mapstone, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review the history of discovery of siphonophores, from the first formal description by Carl Linnaeus in 1785 to the present, is summarized, and species richness together with a summary of world-wide distribution of this pelagic group within the clade Hydrozoa discussed. Siphonophores exhibit three basic body plans which are briefly explained and figured, whilst other atypical body plans are also noted. Currently, 175 valid siphonophore species are recognized in the latest WoRMS world list, including 16 families and 65 genera. Much new information since the last review in 1987 is revealed from the first molecular analysis of the group, enabling identification of some new morphological characters diagnostic for physonect siphonophores. Ten types of nematocysts (stinging cells) are identified in siphonophores, more than in any other cnidarian; these are incorporated into batteries in the side branches of the tentacles in most species (here termed tentilla), and tentilla are reviewed in the last section of this paper. Their discharge mechanisms are explained and also how the tentilla of several physonect siphonophores are modified into lures. Of particular interest is the recent discovery of a previously unknown red fluorescent lure in the tentilla of the deep sea physonect Erenna, the first described example of emission of red light by an invertebrate to attract prey. PMID:24516560

  10. First record of a trophonema in black corals (Cnidaria: Antipatharia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, Daniel; Wagner, Daniel; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.

    2018-06-01

    The gametes of many groups of anthozoans contain a funnel-shaped cluster of specialized cells that facilitate the transport of nutritive substances, known as the trophonema. This structure has been found within all orders of anthozoans, with the exception of pennatulaceans, scleractinians, and antipatharians, the latter of which are commonly known as black corals. Based on the histological study of eight specimens of the black coral Dendrobathypathes grandis Opresko (Zool Med Leiden 76(22):411-442, 2002) from the southwestern Atlantic, we report for the first time the presence of a trophonema within the order Antipatharia. A trophonema was found only in oocytes from one of the seven female specimens studied. Since D. grandis contains the largest oocytes among antipatharians that have been studied to date, it remains unknown whether the presence of a trophonema is an exceptional case, or whether these structures have simply been overlooked in other black corals.

  11. Global diversity and review of Siphonophorae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Mapstone, Gillian M

    2014-01-01

    In this review the history of discovery of siphonophores, from the first formal description by Carl Linnaeus in 1785 to the present, is summarized, and species richness together with a summary of world-wide distribution of this pelagic group within the clade Hydrozoa discussed. Siphonophores exhibit three basic body plans which are briefly explained and figured, whilst other atypical body plans are also noted. Currently, 175 valid siphonophore species are recognized in the latest WoRMS world list, including 16 families and 65 genera. Much new information since the last review in 1987 is revealed from the first molecular analysis of the group, enabling identification of some new morphological characters diagnostic for physonect siphonophores. Ten types of nematocysts (stinging cells) are identified in siphonophores, more than in any other cnidarian; these are incorporated into batteries in the side branches of the tentacles in most species (here termed tentilla), and tentilla are reviewed in the last section of this paper. Their discharge mechanisms are explained and also how the tentilla of several physonect siphonophores are modified into lures. Of particular interest is the recent discovery of a previously unknown red fluorescent lure in the tentilla of the deep sea physonect Erenna, the first described example of emission of red light by an invertebrate to attract prey.

  12. Find structural aspects of anthozoan desmocyte development (phylum Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Tidball, J G

    1982-01-01

    The fine structural changes associated with the differentiation of skeletogenic cells into cells specialized in binding soft tissues onto skeletal structures are described in the gorgonian coral, Leptogorgia virgulata (Lam.). These binding cells are called desmocytes. The sequence of events in desmocyte development includes: growth of the plasma membrane, invagination of the mesoglea-end of the cell, expansion of the axis-end of the cell, loss of organelles involved in skeletogenesis, proliferation of double vesicles and transformation of double vesicles into cytoskeletal rods. Double vesicles appear either cup-shaped or as a vesicle within a vesicle in sectioned material. These observations of desmocyte development are compared to previous light microscopical observations desmocyte development in diverse forms of anthozoans. Similarities in desmocyte development throughout the class include invagination of the differentiating cell, formation of a pectinate mesogleal margin and formation of an array of cytoskeletal rods at the axis-end of the cell. Comparison with available information on the development and fine structure of desmocytes in the cnidarian classes Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa shows these similarities do not extend across class boundaries and, therefore, common ancestry between the three classes of cnidarian desmocytes seems remote if, indeed, such an ancestral cell existed at all.

  13. Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria) Oocytes' Contact Plate Structure and Development

    PubMed Central

    Adonin, Leonid S.; Shaposhnikova, Tatyana G.; Podgornaya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47) stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the “contact plate”. Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high Mr bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides Mr corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' Mr is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1) it attracts spermatozoids; (2) the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3) these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s); (4) contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida. PMID:23185235

  14. Caribbean Shallow-water Black Corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Sanchez, Juan Armando

    2005-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a complete key and guide to the species of black corals from the Caribbean reefs at depths shallower than about 100 m. The key to the species is mostly based on colonial features that are recognized in the field, although some closely related species can only be differentiated by microscopic skeletal features. Each species is illustrated with one or more photos showing the size and shape of the colony; many photos were taken in the natural environment to facilitate underwater identification. Additionally, a short description is provided of each species and their microscopic diagnostic charactersmore » are illustrated with the aid of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fifteen black coral species are found in relatively shallow-water in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and other parts of the tropical western Atlantic; these belong to the families Myriopathidae [Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray), T. tanacetum (Pourtales), T. barbadensis (Brook), T. thamnea (Warner), and Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas)]; Antipathidae [Antipathes lenta Pourtales, A. rubusifonnis Warner and Opresko, A. furcata Gray, A. umbratica Opresko, A. atlantica Gray, A. gracilis Gray, A. caribbeana Opresko, Stichopathes lutkeni Brook, and S. accidentalis (Gray)]; and Aphanipathidae [Rhipidipathes colombiana (Opresko and Sinchez)]. We hope that this guide will facilitate research on black corals on Caribbean reefs, where population surveys are urgently needed to evaluate or modify conservation policies.« less

  15. Ancient Venom Systems: A Review on Cnidaria Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Madio, Bruno; Nevalainen, Timo J.; Alewood, Paul F.; Fry, Bryan G.

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians are the oldest extant lineage of venomous animals. Despite their simple anatomy, they are capable of subduing or repelling prey and predator species that are far more complex and recently evolved. Utilizing specialized penetrating nematocysts, cnidarians inject the nematocyst content or “venom” that initiates toxic and immunological reactions in the envenomated organism. These venoms contain enzymes, potent pore forming toxins, and neurotoxins. Enzymes include lipolytic and proteolytic proteins that catabolize prey tissues. Cnidarian pore forming toxins self-assemble to form robust membrane pores that can cause cell death via osmotic lysis. Neurotoxins exhibit rapid ion channel specific activities. In addition, certain cnidarian venoms contain or induce the release of host vasodilatory biogenic amines such as serotonin, histamine, bunodosine and caissarone accelerating the pathogenic effects of other venom enzymes and porins. The cnidarian attacking/defending mechanism is fast and efficient, and massive envenomation of humans may result in death, in some cases within a few minutes to an hour after sting. The complexity of venom components represents a unique therapeutic challenge and probably reflects the ancient evolutionary history of the cnidarian venom system. Thus, they are invaluable as a therapeutic target for sting treatment or as lead compounds for drug design. PMID:26094698

  16. Amazonian waters harbour an ancient freshwater Ceratomyxa lineage (Cnidaria: Myxosporea).

    PubMed

    Zatti, Suellen A; Atkinson, Stephen D; Bartholomew, Jerri L; Maia, Antônio A M; Adriano, Edson A

    2017-05-01

    A new species of Ceratomyxa parasitizing the gall bladder of Cichla monoculus, an endemic cichlid fish from the Amazon basin in Brazil, is described using morphological and molecular data. In the bile, both immature and mature myxospores were found floating freely or inside elongated plasmodia: length 304 (196-402) μm and width 35.7 (18.3-55.1) μm. Mature spores were elongated and only slightly crescent-shaped in frontal view with a prominent sutural line between two valve cells, which had rounded ends. Measurements of formalin-fixed myxospores: length 6.3±0.6 (5.1-7.5) μm, thickness 41.2±2.9 (37.1-47.6) μm, posterior angle 147°. Lateral projections slightly asymmetric, with lengths 19.3±1.4μm and 20.5±1.3μm. Two ovoid, equal size polar capsules, length 2.6±0.3 (2-3.3) μm, width 2.5±0.4 (1.8-3.7) μm, located adjacent to the suture and containing polar filaments with 3-4 turns. The small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence of 1605 nt was no more than 97% similar to any other sequence in GenBank, and together with the host, locality and morphometric data, supports diagnosis of the parasite as a new species, Ceratomyxa brasiliensis n. sp. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses showed that C. brasiliensis n. sp. clustered within the marine Ceratomyxa clade, but was in a basally divergent lineage with two other freshwater species from the Amazon basin. Our results are consistent with previous studies that show Ceratomyxa species can cluster according to both geography and host ecotype, and that the few known freshwater species diverged from marine cousins relatively early in evolution of the genus, possibly driven by marine incursions into riverine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial activity in the common seawhip, Leptogorgia virgulata (Cnidaria: Gorgonaceae).

    PubMed

    Shapo, Jacqueline L; Moeller, Peter D; Galloway, Sylvia B

    2007-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity was examined in the gorgonian Leptogorgia virgulata (common seawhip) from South Carolina waters. Extraction and assay protocols were developed to identify antimicrobial activity in crude extracts of L. virgulata. Detection was determined by liquid growth inhibition assays using Escherichia coli BL21, Vibrio harveyii, Micrococcus luteus, and a Bacillus sp. isolate. This represents the first report of antimicrobial activity in L. virgulata, a temperate/sub-tropical coral of the western Atlantic Ocean. Results from growth inhibition assays guided a fractionation scheme to identify active compounds. Reverse-phase HPLC, HPLC-mass spectrometry, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy were used to isolate, purify, and characterize metabolites in antimicrobial fractions of L. virgulata. Corroborative HPLC-MS/NMR evidence validated the presence of homarine and a homarine analog, well-known emetic metabolites previously isolated from L. virgulata, in coral extracts. In subsequent assays, partially-purified L. virgulata fractions collected from HPLC-MS fractionation were shown to contain antimicrobial activity using M. luteus and V. harveyii. This study provides evidence that homarine is an active constituent of the innate immune system in L. virgulata. We speculate it may act synergistically with cofactors and/or congeners in this octocoral to mount a response to microbial invasion and disease.

  18. The global diversity of sea pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea).

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary C

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in deep-sea exploration technology coupled with an increase in worldwide biotic surveys, biological research, and underwater photography in shallow water marine regions such as coral reefs, has allowed for a relatively rapid expansion of our knowledge in the global diversity of many groups of marine organisms. This paper is part of the PLoS ONE review collection of WoRMS (the Worldwide Register of Marine Species), on the global diversity of marine species, and treats the pennatulacean octocorals, a group of cnidarians commonly referred to as sea pens or sea feathers. This also includes sea pansies, some sea whips, and various vermiform taxa. Pennatulaceans are a morphologically diverse group with an estimated 200 or more valid species, displaying worldwide geographic and bathymetric distributions from polar seas to the equatorial tropics and from intertidal flats to over 6100 m in depth. The paper treats new discoveries and taxa new to science, and provides greater resolution in geographic and bathymetric distributions data than was previously known, as well as descriptions of life appearances in life and in situ observations at diverse depth.

  19. Towards a phylogenetic classification of Leptothecata (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Miranda, Thaís P.; Peña Cantero, Álvaro L.; Barbeitos, Marcos S.; Marques, Antonio C.

    2016-01-01

    Leptothecata are hydrozoans whose hydranths are covered by perisarc and gonophores and whose medusae bear gonads on their radial canals. They develop complex polypoid colonies and exhibit considerable morphological variation among species with respect to growth, defensive structures and mode of development. For instance, several lineages within this order have lost the medusa stage. Depending on the author, traditional taxonomy in hydrozoans may be either polyp- or medusa-oriented. Therefore, the absence of the latter stage in some lineages may lead to very different classification schemes. Molecular data have proved useful in elucidating this taxonomic challenge. We analyzed a super matrix of new and published rRNA gene sequences (16S, 18S and 28S), employing newly proposed methods to measure branch support and improve phylogenetic signal. Our analysis recovered new clades not recognized by traditional taxonomy and corroborated some recently proposed taxa. We offer a thorough taxonomic revision of the Leptothecata, erecting new orders, suborders, infraorders and families. We also discuss the origination and diversification dynamics of the group from a macroevolutionary perspective. PMID:26821567

  20. Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Chang, E. Sally; Neuhof, Moran; Rubinstein, Nimrod D.; Diamant, Arik; Philippe, Hervé; Huchon, Dorothée; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-01-01

    The Myxozoa comprise over 2,000 species of microscopic obligate parasites that use both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts as part of their life cycle. Although the evolutionary origin of myxozoans has been elusive, a close relationship with cnidarians, a group that includes corals, sea anemones, jellyfish, and hydroids, is supported by some phylogenetic studies and the observation that the distinctive myxozoan structure, the polar capsule, is remarkably similar to the stinging structures (nematocysts) in cnidarians. To gain insight into the extreme evolutionary transition from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic endoparasite, we analyzed genomic and transcriptomic assemblies from two distantly related myxozoan species, Kudoa iwatai and Myxobolus cerebralis, and compared these to the transcriptome and genome of the less reduced cnidarian parasite, Polypodium hydriforme. A phylogenomic analysis, using for the first time to our knowledge, a taxonomic sampling that represents the breadth of myxozoan diversity, including four newly generated myxozoan assemblies, confirms that myxozoans are cnidarians and are a sister taxon to P. hydriforme. Estimations of genome size reveal that myxozoans have one of the smallest reported animal genomes. Gene enrichment analyses show depletion of expressed genes in categories related to development, cell differentiation, and cell–cell communication. In addition, a search for candidate genes indicates that myxozoans lack key elements of signaling pathways and transcriptional factors important for multicellular development. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the myxozoan body plan from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic parasitic cnidarian was accompanied by extreme reduction in genome size and gene content. PMID:26627241

  1. Ancient Venom Systems: A Review on Cnidaria Toxins.

    PubMed

    Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Yanagihara, Angel A; Madio, Bruno; Nevalainen, Timo J; Alewood, Paul F; Fry, Bryan G

    2015-06-18

    Cnidarians are the oldest extant lineage of venomous animals. Despite their simple anatomy, they are capable of subduing or repelling prey and predator species that are far more complex and recently evolved. Utilizing specialized penetrating nematocysts, cnidarians inject the nematocyst content or "venom" that initiates toxic and immunological reactions in the envenomated organism. These venoms contain enzymes, potent pore forming toxins, and neurotoxins. Enzymes include lipolytic and proteolytic proteins that catabolize prey tissues. Cnidarian pore forming toxins self-assemble to form robust membrane pores that can cause cell death via osmotic lysis. Neurotoxins exhibit rapid ion channel specific activities. In addition, certain cnidarian venoms contain or induce the release of host vasodilatory biogenic amines such as serotonin, histamine, bunodosine and caissarone accelerating the pathogenic effects of other venom enzymes and porins. The cnidarian attacking/defending mechanism is fast and efficient, and massive envenomation of humans may result in death, in some cases within a few minutes to an hour after sting. The complexity of venom components represents a unique therapeutic challenge and probably reflects the ancient evolutionary history of the cnidarian venom system. Thus, they are invaluable as a therapeutic target for sting treatment or as lead compounds for drug design.

  2. The Road To Cnidaria: History of Phylogeny of the Myxozoa.

    PubMed

    Foox, Jonathan; Siddall, Mark E

    2015-06-01

    Myxozoans are a clade of highly derived cnidarians. The phylogenetic identity of these extremely simplified parasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates had long been uncertain, with all early classifications designating Myxozoa as protists. Though suggestions were frequently made that the infective spores of these parasites are multicellular and possibly of cnidarian origin, it would take a phylogenetic analysis of ultrastructural developmental characters in combination with rRNA gene sequences to verify the Myxozoa as secondarily reduced cnidarians, sister to the polypoidozoan parasite Polypodium hydriforme . While a series of subsequent molecular studies suggested hypotheses of Myxozoa as basal bilaterians, triploblasts, or even nematodes, phylogenomic analyses with improved taxon sampling corroborated the landmark paper that verified the cnidarian nature of this group. This review of the body of phylogenetic work on Myxozoa aims to clarify historical progress and current knowledge, as well as to emphasize the opportune position that myxozoan biologists now are in, to address fundamental questions of cell biology of these parasites as well as the evolution of animal life.

  3. Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Chang, E Sally; Neuhof, Moran; Rubinstein, Nimrod D; Diamant, Arik; Philippe, Hervé; Huchon, Dorothée; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-12-01

    The Myxozoa comprise over 2,000 species of microscopic obligate parasites that use both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts as part of their life cycle. Although the evolutionary origin of myxozoans has been elusive, a close relationship with cnidarians, a group that includes corals, sea anemones, jellyfish, and hydroids, is supported by some phylogenetic studies and the observation that the distinctive myxozoan structure, the polar capsule, is remarkably similar to the stinging structures (nematocysts) in cnidarians. To gain insight into the extreme evolutionary transition from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic endoparasite, we analyzed genomic and transcriptomic assemblies from two distantly related myxozoan species, Kudoa iwatai and Myxobolus cerebralis, and compared these to the transcriptome and genome of the less reduced cnidarian parasite, Polypodium hydriforme. A phylogenomic analysis, using for the first time to our knowledge, a taxonomic sampling that represents the breadth of myxozoan diversity, including four newly generated myxozoan assemblies, confirms that myxozoans are cnidarians and are a sister taxon to P. hydriforme. Estimations of genome size reveal that myxozoans have one of the smallest reported animal genomes. Gene enrichment analyses show depletion of expressed genes in categories related to development, cell differentiation, and cell-cell communication. In addition, a search for candidate genes indicates that myxozoans lack key elements of signaling pathways and transcriptional factors important for multicellular development. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the myxozoan body plan from a free-living cnidarian to a microscopic parasitic cnidarian was accompanied by extreme reduction in genome size and gene content.

  4. Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinru; Zheng, Lianming; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae. This is the first evidence for back-transformation of sexually mature medusae into polyps in Aurelia sp.1. The resulting reconstruction of the schematic life cycle of Aurelia reveals the underestimated potential of life cycle reversal in scyphozoan medusae, with possible implications for biological and ecological studies. PMID:26690755

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the jellyfish, Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Eunji; Won, Yong-Jin; Lee, Woo-Jin; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-02-01

    We sequenced 16,775 bp of the linear mitochondrial DNA of the jellyfish Chrysaora quinquecirrha and characterized them. C. quinquecirrha has 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA with 3 tRNAs (tRNA-Leu, tRNA-Ser(TGA), tRNA-Met) as shown in Aurelia sp. nov. Both have another two PCGs such as helicase and orf363 with telomeres at both ends. The PCGs of C. quinquecirrha shows anti-G bias on 2nd and 3rd positions of PCGs as well as anti-C bias on 1st and 3rd positions of PCGs.

  6. Soluble organic matrices of aragonitic skeletons of Merulinidae (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Williams, C Terry

    2008-05-01

    Our interpretation of the overall taxonomy and evolution of the Scleractinia, the most important reef builders in tropical areas, has long depended exclusively on morphology of the calcareous skeletons. The reported series of physical and biochemical characterizations of skeletons and the mineralizing matrices extracted from the skeletons allow, for the first time, the level of biochemical diversity among corallites of the same family to be estimated. Similarities and differences observed in the micro- and nanostructures of the skeletons reflect those of the soluble organic matrices. Sulphur is mainly associated with sulphated acidic sugars. The role of sulphated sugars on the biomineralization processes is still underestimated. The resulting data suggest that environmental conditions may act on the mineralization process through the detailed compositions of the mineralizing matrices.

  7. Potential of DNA sequences to identify zoanthids (Cnidaria: Zoantharia).

    PubMed

    Sinniger, Frederic; Reimer, James D; Pawlowski, Jan

    2008-12-01

    The order Zoantharia is known for its chaotic taxonomy and difficult morphological identification. One method that potentially could help for examining such troublesome taxa is DNA barcoding, which identifies species using standard molecular markers. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) has been utilized to great success in groups such as birds and insects; however, its applicability in many other groups is controversial. Recently, some studies have suggested that barcoding is not applicable to anthozoans. Here, we examine the use of COI and mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA for zoanthid identification. Despite the absence of a clear barcoding gap, our results show that for most of 54 zoanthid samples, both markers could separate samples to the species, or species group, level, particularly when easily accessible ecological or distributional data were included. Additionally, we have used the short V5 region of mt 16S rDNA to identify eight old (13 to 50 years old) museum samples. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of COI and mt 16S rDNA as barcodes for Zoantharia, and recommend that either one or both of these markers be considered for zoanthid identification in the future.

  8. New records of Primnoidae (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) in Brazilian deep waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes, Renata C. M.; Loiola, Livia L.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of octocorals occurring in Brazilian deep waters is still lacking, with only a few studies conducted so far, most of which focused on large-scale marine habitats characterization. Primnoidae are common and characteristic of seamounts and deepwater coral banks, often providing habitat for other marine species. Although primnoids occur in all ocean basins, only Primnoella and Plumarella species were recorded along the Brazilian coast before this study. Primnoid specimens were obtained through dredging and remotely operated vehicles (ROV) sampling, collected by research projects conducted off the Brazilian coast, between 15 and 34°S. Taxonomic assessment resulted in 5 new records of Primnoidae genera in Brazil: Calyptrophora, Candidella, Dasystenella, Narella and Thouarella. The occurrences of Narella-off Salvador and Vitória, and in Campos Basin (935-1700 m), and Calyptrophora-in Campos Basin (1059-1152 m), are herein reported for the first time in the South Atlantic. Calyptrophora microdentata was previously known in Lesser Antilles, New England and Corner Rise Seamounts, between 686 and 2310 m. Candidella imbricata geographical distribution includes Western and Eastern Atlantic (514-2063 m and 815-2139 m, respectively), being registered herein in Campos Basin, between 1059 and 1605 m. Dasystenella acanthina collected off Rio Grande do Sul state (810 m) and occurs also off Argentina and Southern Ocean, between 150 and 5087 m. Plumarella diadema, which type locality is off São Sebastião, Brazil, has its geographical range extended northwards, occurring in Campos Basin (650 m). Thouarella koellikeri previously known for Patagonia and Antartic Peninsula, is registered for the off Brazil for the first time, in Campos Basin and off São Sebastião (609-659 m). There is a lot of work yet to be done in terms of taxonomic knowledge of Brazilian deep-sea octocorals. Research projects focusing on the investigations, including ROV sampling, of other geographical regions and depth ranges along Brazilian coast will certainly reveal other new octocorals occurrences and species.

  9. Nematogalectin, a nematocyst protein with GlyXY and galectin domains, demonstrates nematocyte-specific alternative splicing in Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung Shan; Takaku, Yasuharu; Momose, Tsuyoshi; Adamczyk, Patrizia; Özbek, Suat; Ikeo, Kazuho; Khalturin, Konstantin; Hemmrich, Georg; Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Holstein, Thomas W.; David, Charles N.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Taxonomically restricted genes or lineage-specific genes contribute to morphological diversification in metazoans and provide unique functions for particular taxa in adapting to specific environments. To understand how such genes arise and participate in morphological evolution, we have investigated a gene called nematogalectin in Hydra, which has a structural role in the formation of nematocysts, stinging organelles that are unique to the phylum Cnidaria. Nematogalectin is a 28-kDa protein with an N-terminal GlyXY domain (glycine followed by two hydrophobic amino acids), which can form a collagen triple helix, followed by a galactose-binding lectin domain. Alternative splicing of the nematogalectin transcript allows the gene to encode two proteins, nematogalectin A and nematogalectin B. We demonstrate that expression of nematogalectin A and B is mutually exclusive in different nematocyst types: Desmonemes express nematogalectin B, whereas stenoteles and isorhizas express nematogalectin B early in differentiation, followed by nematogalectin A. Like Hydra, the marine hydrozoan Clytia also has two nematogalectin transcripts, which are expressed in different nematocyte types. By comparison, anthozoans have only one nematogalectin gene. Gene phylogeny indicates that tandem duplication of nematogalectin B exons gave rise to nematogalectin A before the divergence of Anthozoa and Medusozoa and that nematogalectin A was subsequently lost in Anthozoa. The emergence of nematogalectin A may have played a role in the morphological diversification of nematocysts in the medusozoan lineage. PMID:20937891

  10. Origins of neurogenesis, a cnidarian view.

    PubMed

    Galliot, Brigitte; Quiquand, Manon; Ghila, Luiza; de Rosa, Renaud; Miljkovic-Licina, Marijana; Chera, Simona

    2009-08-01

    New perspectives on the origin of neurogenesis emerged with the identification of genes encoding post-synaptic proteins as well as many "neurogenic" regulators as the NK, Six, Pax, bHLH proteins in the Demosponge genome, a species that might differentiate sensory cells but no neurons. However, poriferans seem to miss some key regulators of the neurogenic circuitry as the Hox/paraHox and Otx-like gene families. Moreover as a general feature, many gene families encoding evolutionarily-conserved signaling proteins and transcription factors were submitted to a wave of gene duplication in the last common eumetazoan ancestor, after Porifera divergence. In contrast gene duplications in the last common bilaterian ancestor, Urbilateria, are limited, except for the bHLH Atonal-class. Hence Cnidaria share with Bilateria a large number of genetic tools. The expression and functional analyses currently available suggest a neurogenic function for numerous orthologs in developing or adult cnidarians where neurogenesis takes place continuously. As an example, in the Hydra polyp, the Clytia medusa and the Acropora coral, the Gsx/cnox2/Anthox-2 ParaHox gene likely supports neurogenesis. Also neurons and nematocytes (mechanosensory cells) share in hydrozoans a common stem cell and several regulatory genes indicating that they can be considered as sister cells. Performed in anthozoan and medusozoan species, these studies should tell us more about the way(s) evolution hazards achieved the transition from epithelial to neuronal cell fate, and about the robustness of the genetic circuitry that allowed neuromuscular transmission to arise and be maintained across evolution.

  11. Comparative study of the toxic effects of Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) and Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) venoms using cell-based assays.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Dalia; Brinkman, Diane L; Luna-Ramírez, Karen; Wright, Christine E; Dorantes-Aranda, Juan José

    2015-11-01

    The venoms of jellyfish cause toxic effects in diverse biological systems that can trigger local and systemic reactions. In this study, the cytotoxic and cytolytic effects of Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Chironex fleckeri venoms were assessed and compared using three in vitro assays. Venoms from both species were cytotoxic to fish gill cells and rat cardiomyocytes, and cytolytic in sheep erythrocytes. Both venoms decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the greatest difference in venom potencies was observed in the fish gill cell line, wherein C. fleckeri was 12.2- (P = 0.0005) and 35.7-fold (P < 0.0001) more potently cytotoxic than C. quinquecirrha venom with 30 min and 120 min cell exposure periods, respectively. Gill cells and rat cardiomyocytes exposed to venoms showed morphological changes characterised by cell shrinkage, clumping and detachment. The cytotoxic effects of venoms may be caused by a group of toxic proteins that have been previously identified in C. fleckeri and other cubozoan jellyfish species. In this study, proteins homologous to CfTX-1 and CfTX-2 toxins from C. fleckeri and CqTX-A toxin from Chironex yamaguchii were identified in C. quinquecirrha venom using tandem mass spectrometry. The presence and relative abundance of these proteins may explain the differences in venom potency between cubozoan and scyphozoan jellyfish and may reflect their importance in the action of venoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Catalog to families, genera, and species of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Fautin, Daphne Gail

    2016-08-01

    This book inventories all available (and some unavailable) names in the family, genus, and species groups of extant members of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia [cnidarian subclass Hexacorallia (Zoantharia) of class Anthozoa], providing a benchmark of names, their status, and taxon membership. I have attempted to make the compilation complete as of 2010; some names created after 2010 are included. The book is derived from a database I compiled that was available through a website. Most of the book is from the literature that defines taxa and documents their geographic distribution-primarily publications on nomenclature, taxonomy, and biogeography, but also some on ecology, pharmacology, reproductive biology, physiology, etc. of anemones (the common name for these groups); the reference section comprises 845 entries. As for previous anemone catalogs, this contains taxonomic as well as nomenclatural information,  the former based on subjective opinion of working biologists, the latter objectively verifiable and unchanging (except by action of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature).        Each family-group name, genus-group name, and original combination for species-group names has an entry. The entry contains the bibliographic reference to the publication in which each name was made available. This book contains for Corallimorpharia seven family names (four considered valid [57%]), 20 generic names (10 considered valid [50%] and one unavailable), and 65 species names (46 considered valid [70%]). It contains for Actiniaria 86 family names (50 considered valid [58%] and three unavailable), 447 generic names (264 considered valid [59%] and two unavailable), and 1427 species names (1101 considered valid [77%] and nine unavailable). Type specimens are inventoried from more than 50 natural history museums in Africa, Australia, Europe, New Zealand, and North America, including those with the largest collections of anemones; the geographic sources of specimens that were the bases of new names are identified. I resolve some nomenclatural issues, acting as First Reviser. A few taxonomic opinions are published for the first time. I have been unable to resolve a small number of problematic names having both nomenclatural and taxonomic problems. Molecular phylogenetic analyses are changing assignment of genera to families and species to genera. Systematics may change, but the basics of nomenclature remain unchanged in face of such alterations.        All actions are in accord with the principles of nomenclature enunciated in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. These include the type concept, the Principle of Coordination, and the Principle of Priority. Nomenclatural acts include the creation of new replacement names; seven actiniarian generic names and one species name that are junior homonyms but have been treated as valid are replaced and an eighth new genus name is created. I designate type species for two genera. Except for published misspellings, names are rendered correctly according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; I have altered spelling of some species names to conform to orthographic regulations. I place several species that had been assigned to genera now considered junior synonyms in the genus to which the type species was moved; experts on these anemones should determine whether those generic placements, which follow the nomenclatural rules, are taxonomically appropriate.        This inventory can be a useful starting point in assembling the literature and trying to understand the rationale for the creation and use of names for the taxonomic matters yet to be resolved.  Some nomenclatural conundra will not be resolved until taxonomic uncertainties are. A taxonomist familiar with the animals needs to ascertain whether the published synonymies are justified. If so, the senior synonym should be used, which, in many instances, will involve determining the proper generic assignment of the species and the correct rendering of the name; if changing the name would be disruptive, retaining the junior name would require an appeal to the Commission (Code Article 23.11).

  13. Evolutionary Diversification of Banded Tube-Dwelling Anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Stampar, Sergio N.; Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Silveira, Fabio L. d.; Morandini, André C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed. PMID:22815928

  14. Germ Cell Development in the Scleractinian Coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Shikina, Shinya; Chen, Chieh-Jhen; Liou, Jhe-Yu; Shao, Zi-Fan; Chung, Yi-Jou; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction of scleractinian coral is among the most important means of establishing coral populations. However, thus far, little is known about the mechanisms underlying coral gametogenesis. To better understand coral germ cell development, we performed a histological analysis of gametogenesis in Euphyllia ancora and characterized the coral homolog of the Drosophila germline marker gene vasa. The histological analysis revealed that E. ancora gametogenesis occurs in the mesenterial mesoglea between the mesenterial filaments and the retractor muscle bands. The development of germ cells takes approximately one year in females and half a year in males. Staining of tissue sections with an antibody against E. ancora Vasa (Eavas) revealed anti-Eavas immunoreactivity in the oogonia, early oocyte, and developing oocyte, but only faint or undetectable reactivity in developing oocytes that were >150 µm in diameters. In males, Eavas could be detected in the spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes but was only faintly detectable in the secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperms. Furthermore, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blotting analysis of unfertilized mature eggs proved the presence of Eavas transcripts and proteins, suggesting that Eavas may be a maternal factor. Vasa may represent a germ cell marker for corals, and would allow us to distinguish germ cells from somatic cells in coral bodies that have no distinct organs. PMID:22848529

  15. Germ cell development in the scleractinian coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Shikina, Shinya; Chen, Chieh-Jhen; Liou, Jhe-Yu; Shao, Zi-Fan; Chung, Yi-Jou; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction of scleractinian coral is among the most important means of establishing coral populations. However, thus far, little is known about the mechanisms underlying coral gametogenesis. To better understand coral germ cell development, we performed a histological analysis of gametogenesis in Euphyllia ancora and characterized the coral homolog of the Drosophila germline marker gene vasa. The histological analysis revealed that E. ancora gametogenesis occurs in the mesenterial mesoglea between the mesenterial filaments and the retractor muscle bands. The development of germ cells takes approximately one year in females and half a year in males. Staining of tissue sections with an antibody against E. ancora Vasa (Eavas) revealed anti-Eavas immunoreactivity in the oogonia, early oocyte, and developing oocyte, but only faint or undetectable reactivity in developing oocytes that were >150 µm in diameters. In males, Eavas could be detected in the spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes but was only faintly detectable in the secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperms. Furthermore, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blotting analysis of unfertilized mature eggs proved the presence of Eavas transcripts and proteins, suggesting that Eavas may be a maternal factor. Vasa may represent a germ cell marker for corals, and would allow us to distinguish germ cells from somatic cells in coral bodies that have no distinct organs.

  16. Exoskeletons of Bougainvilliidae and other Hydroidolina (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): structure and composition

    PubMed Central

    Marian, José Eduardo A.R.; Migotto, Alvaro Esteves; Marques, Antonio Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The exoskeleton is an important source of characters for the taxonomy of Hydroidolina. It originates as epidermal secretions and, among other functions, protects the coenosarc of the polypoid stage. However, comparative studies on the exoskeletal tissue origin, development, chemical, and structural characteristics, as well as its evolution and homology, are few and fragmented. This study compares the structure and composition of the exoskeleton and underlying coenosarc in members of “Anthoathecata” and some Leptothecata, but does so mainly in bougainvilliid polyps histological analyses. We also studied the development of the exoskeleton under experimental conditions. We identified three types of glandular epidermal cells related to the origin of the exoskeleton and the secretion of its polysaccharides component. The exoskeleton of the species studied is either bilayered (perisarc and exosarc, especially in bougainvilliids) or corneous (perisarc). The exoskeleton varies in chemical composition, structural rigidity, thickness, extension, and coverage in the different regions of the colony. In bilayered exoskeletons, the exosarc is produced first and appears to be a key step in the formation of the rigid exoskeleton. The exoskeleton contains anchoring structures such as desmocytes and “perisarc extensions.” PMID:28224050

  17. Post-embryonic larval development and metamorphosis of the hydroid Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, C.

    1990-09-01

    The morphology and histology of the planula larva of Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) and its metamorphosis into the primary polyp are described from light microscopic observations. The planula hatches as a differentiated gastrula. During the lecithotrophic larval period, large ectodermal mucous cells, embedded between epitheliomuscular cells, secrete a sticky slime. Two granulated cell types occur in the ectoderm that are interpreted as secretory and sensorynervous cells, but might also be representatives of only one cell type with a multiple function. The entoderm consists of yolk-storing gastrodermal cells, digestive gland cells, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes. The larva starts metamorphosis by affixing its blunt aboral pole to a substratum. While the planula flattens down, the mucous cells penetrate the mesolamella and migrate through the entoderm into the gastral cavity where they are lysed. Subsequently, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes migrate in the opposite direction, i.e. from entoderm to ectoderm. Then, the polypoid body organization, comprising head (hydranth), stem and foot, all covered by peridermal secretion, becomes recognisable. An oral constriction divides the hypostomal portion of the gastral cavity from the stomachic portion. Within the hypostomal entoderm, cells containing secretory granules differentiate. Following growth and the multiplication of tentacles, the head periderm disappears. A ring of gland cells differentiates at the hydranth's base. The positioning of cnidae in the tentacle ectoderm, penetration of the mouth opening and the multiplication of digestive gland cells enable the polyp to change from lecithotrophic to planktotrophic nutrition.

  18. Redescription of Alatina alata (Reynaud, 1830) (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    LEWIS, CHERYL; BENTLAGE, BASTIAN; YANAGIHARA, ANGEL; GILLAN, WILLIAM; VAN BLERK, JOHAN; KEIL, DANIEL P.; BELY, ALEXANDRA E.; COLLINS, ALLEN G.

    2016-01-01

    Here we establish a neotype for Alatina alata (Reynaud, 1830) from the Dutch Caribbean island of Bonaire. The species was originally described one hundred and eighty three years ago as Carybdea alata in La Centurie Zoologique—a monograph published by René Primevère Lesson during the age of worldwide scientific exploration. While monitoring monthly reproductive swarms of A. alata medusae in Bonaire, we documented the ecology and sexual reproduction of this cubozoan species. Examination of forty six A. alata specimens and additional archived multimedia material in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC revealed that A. alata is found at depths ranging from surface waters to 675 m. Additional studies have reported it at depths of up to 1607 m in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. Herein, we resolve the taxonomic confusion long associated with A. alata due to a lack of detail in the original description and conflicting statements in the scientific literature. A new cubozoan character, the velarial lappet, is described for this taxon. The complete description provided here serves to stabilize the taxonomy of the second oldest box jellyfish species, and provide a thorough redescription of the species. PMID:25112765

  19. Phylogeny and biogeography of Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydridae) using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Martínez, D E; Iñiguez, A R; Percell, K M; Willner, J B; Signorovitch, J; Campbell, R D

    2010-10-01

    The polyp hydra is ubiquitous in freshwater and is highly variable, with many species names assigned to different strains. Types of hydra do fall into four morphologically recognizable groups but many of the species determinations are confusing. To assess the diversity of hydra we collected 101 strains from six continents and built a phylogeny using three genetic markers. Each of the four well-defined groups of species represents a clade in our phylogeny. The green hydra group diverged first, followed by the braueri group and finally the sister groups vulgaris and oligactis. Each of eight species easily definable by morphological criteria represents a distinct clade in our phylogeny. Hydra of two clades, the green and the vulgaris hydra, are found on all continents (except Antarctica) and many islands, whereas hydra of the other two groups (braueri and oligactis) are restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. Our best estimate of the time of origin of hydra is about 60 Ma, long after the breakage of Pangea into northern and southern landmasses. Hydra appear to have diversified in the Northern Hemisphere, and their current diversity is greatest here. Two species were then able to disperse to the Southern Hemisphere, perhaps due to their thermal tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Revisiting the age, evolutionary history and species level diversity of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Schwentner, Martin; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2015-10-01

    The genus Hydra has long served as a model system in comparative immunology, developmental and evolutionary biology. Despite its relevance for fundamental research, Hydra's evolutionary origins and species level diversity are not well understood. Detailed previous studies using molecular techniques identified several clades within Hydra, but how these are related to described species remained largely an open question. In the present study, we compiled all published sequence data for three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S and ITS), complemented these with some new sequence data and delimited main genetic lineages (=hypothetical species) objectively by employing two DNA barcoding approaches. Conclusions on the species status of these main lineages were based on inferences of reproductive isolation. Relevant divergence times within Hydra were estimated based on relaxed molecular clock analyses with four genes (COI, 16S, EF1α and 28S) and four cnidarians fossil calibration points All in all, 28 main lineages could be delimited, many more than anticipated from earlier studies. Because allopatric distributions were common, inferences of reproductive isolation often remained ambiguous but reproductive isolation was rarely refuted. Our results support three major conclusions which are central for Hydra research: (1) species level diversity was underestimated by molecular studies; (2) species affiliations of several crucial 'workhorses' of Hydra evolutionary research were wrong and (3) crown group Hydra originated ∼200mya. Our results demonstrate that the taxonomy of Hydra requires a thorough revision and that evolutionary studies need to take this into account when interspecific comparisons are made. Hydra originated on Pangea. Three of four extant groups evolved ∼70mya ago, possibly on the northern landmass of Laurasia. Consequently, Hydra's cosmopolitan distribution is the result of transcontinental and transoceanic dispersal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiplexed pyrosequencing of nine sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Actiniaria) mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Foox, Jonathan; Brugler, Mercer; Siddall, Mark Edward; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-07-01

    Six complete and three partial actiniarian mitochondrial genomes were amplified in two semi-circles using long-range PCR and pyrosequenced in a single run on a 454 GS Junior, doubling the number of complete mitogenomes available within the order. Typical metazoan mtDNA features included circularity, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and length ranging from 17,498 to 19,727 bp. Several typical anthozoan mitochondrial genome features were also observed including the presence of only two transfer RNA genes, elevated A + T richness ranging from 54.9 to 62.4%, large intergenic regions, and group 1 introns interrupting NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, the latter of which possesses a homing endonuclease gene. Within the sea anemone Alicia sansibarensis, we report the first mitochondrial gene order rearrangement within the Actiniaria, as well as putative novel non-canonical protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analyses of all 13 protein-coding and 2 ribosomal genes largely corroborated current hypotheses of sea anemone interrelatedness, with a few lower-level differences.

  2. Two new species of gorgonian octocorals from the Tropical Eastern Pacific Biogeographic Region (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Gorgoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Breedy, Odalisca; Williams, Gary C; Guzman, Hector M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The gorgoniid Eugorgia is exclusively an eastern Pacific genus. It has a wide geographic and bathymetric range of distribution, found from California to Perú and extends down to 65 m deep. Two new species are herein described. The morphological characters were analyzed and illustrated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Eugorgia beebei sp. n. can be distinguished by its white, ascending, sparse colony growth. Eugorgia mutabilis sp. n. can be distinguished by its white colony that changes color after collection, and the conspicuous sharp-crested disc sclerites. From a morphological point of view the new species are related to the daniana-group, the rubens-group and the siedenburgae-group of Eugorgia; their affiliations, and the proposal of a new group are discussed. These new species increases the number of species in the genus to 15, and contribute to the knowledge of the eastern Pacific octocoral biodiversity. PMID:24294084

  3. A Phylogeny of the Family Poritidae (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) Based on Molecular and Morphological Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Yuko F.; Benzoni, Francesca; Arrigoni, Roberto; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Wallace, Carden C.; Fukami, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    The family Poritidae formerly included 6 genera: Alveopora, Goniopora, Machadoporites, Porites, Poritipora, and Stylaraea. Morphologically, the genera can be differentiated based on the number of tentacles, the number of septa and their arrangement, the length of the polyp column, and the diameter of the corallites. However, the phylogenetic relationships within and between the genera are unknown or contentious. On the one hand, Alveopora has been transferred to the Acroporidae recently because it was shown to be more closely related to this family than to the Poritidae by previous molecular studies. On the other hand, Goniopora is morphologically similar to 2 recently described genera, Machadoporites and Poritipora, particularly with regard to the number of septa (approximately 24), but they have not yet been investigated at the molecular level. In this study, we analyzed 93 samples from all 5 poritid genera and Alveopora using 2 genetic markers (the barcoding region of the mitochondrial COI and the ITS region of the nuclear rDNA) to investigate their phylogenetic relationships and to revise their taxonomy. The reconstructed molecular trees confirmed that Alveopora is genetically distant from all poritid genera but closely related to the family Acroporidae, whereas the other genera are genetically closely related. The molecular trees also revealed that Machadoporites and Poritipora were indistinguishable from Goniopora. However, Goniopora stutchburyi was genetically isolated from the other congeneric species and formed a sister group to Goniopora together with Porites and Stylaraea, thus suggesting that 24 septa could be an ancestral feature in the Poritidae. Based on these data, we move G. stutchburyi into a new genus, Bernardpora gen. nov., whereas Machadoporites and Poritipora are merged with Goniopora. PMID:24871224

  4. Distribution of sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) in Korea analyzed by environmental clustering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cha, H.-R.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Fautin, D.G.; Sandhei, P.

    2004-01-01

    Using environmental data and the geospatial clustering tools LOICZView and DISCO, we empirically tested the postulated existence and boundaries of four biogeographic regions in the southern part of the Korean peninsula. Environmental variables used included wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, tidal amplitude, and the chlorophyll spectral signal. Our analysis confirmed the existence of four biogeographic regions, but the details of the borders between them differ from those previously postulated. Specimen-level distribution records of intertidal sea anemones were mapped; their distribution relative to the environmental data supported the importance of the environmental parameters we selected in defining suitable habitats. From the geographic coincidence between anemone distribution and the clusters based on environmental variables, we infer that geospatial clustering has the power to delimit ranges for marine organisms within relatively small geographical areas.

  5. High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; Greenaway, Julie

    2011-01-01

    'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect 'animal personality' to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems.

  6. High In Situ Repeatability of Behaviour Indicates Animal Personality in the Beadlet Anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria)

    PubMed Central

    Briffa, Mark; Greenaway, Julie

    2011-01-01

    ‘Animal personality’ means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect ‘animal personality’ to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems. PMID:21755015

  7. A new genus and species of pennatulacean octocoral from equatorial West Africa (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Virgulariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of sea pen or virgulariid pennatulacean from the Gulf of Guinea in the tropical eastern Atlantic is described, and a key to the genera of the Virgulariidae is included. The new genus and species described here adds to the previously described five other genera of the family. It is distinguished by unique sclerite and polyp leaf characters from the superficially-similar genus Virgularia, which lacks conspicuous sclerites in the polyp leaves and coenenchyme (other than minute oval bodies that are generally <0.01 mm in length). PMID:26798304

  8. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Simões, Nuno; Tello-Musi, José Luis; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna.

  9. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Simões, Nuno; Tello-Musi, José Luis; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna. PMID:24146599

  10. Census of Cnidaria (Medusozoa) and Ctenophora from South American marine waters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Miranda, Thaís P; Araujo, Enilma M; Ayón, Patricia; Cedeño-Posso, Cristina M; Cepeda-Mercado, Amancay A; Córdova, Pablo; Cunha, Amanda F; Genzano, Gabriel N; Haddad, Maria Angélica; Mianzan, Hermes W; Migotto, Alvaro E; Miranda, Lucília S; Morandini, André C; Nagata, Renato M; Nascimento, Karine B; Júnior, Miodeli Nogueira; Palma, Sergio; Quiñones, Javier; Rodriguez, Carolina S; Scarabino, Fabrizio; Schiariti, Agustín; Stampar, Sérgio N; Tronolone, Valquíria B; Marques, Antonio C

    2016-11-17

    We have compiled available records in the literature for medusozoan cnidarians and ctenophores of South America. New records of species are also included. Each entry (i.e., identified species or still as yet not determined species referred to as "sp." in the literature) includes a synonymy list for South America, taxonomical remarks, notes on habit, and information on geographical occurrence. We have listed 800 unique determined species, in 958 morphotype entries: 5 cubozoans, 905 hydrozoans, 25 scyphozoans, 3 staurozoans, and 20 ctenophores. Concerning nomenclatural and taxonomical decisions, two authors of this census (Miranda, T.P. & Marques, A.C.) propose Podocoryna quitus as a nomen novum for the junior homonym Hydractinia reticulata (Fraser, 1938a); Euphysa monotentaculata Zamponi, 1983b as a new junior synonym of Euphysa aurata Forbes, 1848; and Plumularia spiralis Milstein, 1976 as a new junior synonym of Plumularia setacea (Linnaeus, 1758). Finally, we also reassign Plumularia oligopyxis Kirchenpauer, 1876 as Kirchenpaueria oligopyxis (Kirchenpauer, 1876) and Sertularella margaritacea Allman, 1885 as Symplectoscyphus margaritaceus (Allman, 1885).

  11. Appearance of Chelophyes appendiculata and Abylopsis tetragona (Cnidaria, Siphonophora) in the Bay of Villefranche, northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buecher, Emmanuelle

    1999-06-01

    The vertical and temporal distribution of two calycophoran siphonophores, Chelophyes appendiculata (Eschscholtz, 1829) and Abylopsis tetragona (Otto, 1823) in the Bay of Villefranche (northwestern Mediterranean) was investigated by an analysis of three different planktonic time series. A daily series (1993-1995) showed seasonal peaks of the nectophores of C. appendiculata during spring and particularly in late summer, while the abundance of A. tetragona remained similar throughout the year. A weekly series (1994-1995) showed that C. appendiculata (nectophores and eudoxids) became concentrated above the thermal discontinuity, in the most stratified and warm waters, whereas A. tetragona was collected in large numbers below this discontinuity. A 27-year survey (1966-1993) showed long-term fluctuations of these siphonophore populations, which became abundant in the Bay starting from 1980 and especially after 1984, when the water column grew warm and hypersaline, corresponding to a less rainy period. Temporal (seasonal and long-term) and bathymetric (between 10 and 60 m depth) successions of these two siphonophores were noted in this shallow coastal bay.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Lensia (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Siphonophora), based on the species morphology.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Eric Y; Ribeiro, Guilherme C; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2016-07-01

    Siphonophores are poorly studied despite their abundance and ecological importance in marine ecosystems. The genus Lensia Totton, 1932 contains the highest number of species within Siphonophora, but systematic studies of these organisms are scarce in the literature. This study presents a phylogenetic analysis for fifteen species of Lensia based on morphological data. The material for this study was obtained during two oceanographic campaigns made along the southeastern Brazilian coast. A total of twenty two characters of the anterior nectophore morphology were scored. The shortest trees were searched using parsimony (under different weighting regimes). All analyses provided the same topology: (M. kochi (D. dispar + D. bojani) (L. leloupi (L. havock (L. conoidea (L. subtilis; L. meteori; L. hardy; L. fowleri; (L. subtiloides (L. hotspur; L. cossack; L. campanella)); (L. multicristata (L. hunter (L. lelouveteau + L. grimaldii))). The monophyly of the genus Lensia is supported by the hydroecium measuring up to 1/4 the height of the nectosac.

  13. The relationship between gorgonian coral (Cnidaria: Gorgonacea) diseases and African dust storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weir-Brush, J. R.; Garrison, V.H.; Smith, G.W.; Shinn, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The number of reports of coral diseases has increased throughout the world in the last 20 years. Aspergillosis, which primarily affects Gorgonia ventalina and G. flabellum, is one of the few diseases to be characterized. This disease is caused by Aspergillus sydowii, a terrestrial fungus with a worldwide distribution. Upon infection, colonies may lose tissue, and ultimately, mortality may occur if the infection is not sequestered. The spores of A. sydowii are <5 ??m, small enough to be easily picked up by winds and dispersed over great distances. Aspergillosis is prevalent in the Caribbean, and it appears that this primarily terrestrial fungus has adapted to a marine environment. It has been proposed that dust storms originating in Africa may be one way in which potential coral pathogens are distributed and deposited into the marine environments of the Caribbean. To test the hypothesis that African dust storms transport and deposit pathogens, we collected air samples from both dust storms and periods of nondust in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Because we focused on fungal pathogens and used A. sydowii as a model, we isolated and cultured fungi on various types of media. Fungi including Aspergillus spp. were isolated from air samples taken from dust events and non-dust events. Twenty-three separate cultures and seven genera were isolated from dust event samples whereas eight cultures from five genera were isolated from non-dust air samples. Three isolates from the Virgin Islands dust event samples morphologically identified as Aspergillus spp. produced signs of aspergillosis in seafans, and the original pathogens were re-isolated from those diseased seafans fulfilling Koch's Postulates. This research supports the hypothesis that African dust storms transport across the Atlantic Ocean and deposit potential coral pathogens in the Caribbean.

  14. Comparative internal anatomy of Staurozoa (Cnidaria), with functional and evolutionary inferences

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Allen G.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Mills, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative efforts to understand the body plan evolution of stalked jellyfishes are scarce. Most characters, and particularly internal anatomy, have neither been explored for the class Staurozoa, nor broadly applied in its taxonomy and classification. Recently, a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis was derived for Staurozoa, allowing for the first broad histological comparative study of staurozoan taxa. This study uses comparative histology to describe the body plans of nine staurozoan species, inferring functional and evolutionary aspects of internal morphology based on the current phylogeny of Staurozoa. We document rarely-studied structures, such as ostia between radial pockets, intertentacular lobules, gametoducts, pad-like adhesive structures, and white spots of nematocysts (the last four newly proposed putative synapomorphies for Staurozoa). Two different regions of nematogenesis are documented. This work falsifies the view that the peduncle region of stauromedusae only retains polypoid characters; metamorphosis from stauropolyp to stauromedusa occurs both at the apical region (calyx) and basal region (peduncle). Intertentacular lobules, observed previously in only a small number of species, are shown to be widespread. Similarly, gametoducts were documented in all analyzed genera, both in males and females, thereby elucidating gamete release. Finally, ostia connecting adjacent gastric radial pockets appear to be universal for Staurozoa. Detailed histological studies of medusozoan polyps and medusae are necessary to further understand the relationships between staurozoan features and those of other medusozoan cnidarians. PMID:27812408

  15. Combining bathymetry, latitude, and phylogeny to understand the distribution of deep Atlantic hydroids (Cnidaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Marina O.; Marques, Antonio C.

    2018-03-01

    Water depth is associated with significant environmental changes and gradients that, together with biotic, geological, and evolutionary processes, define bathymetric ranges of individuals, populations, species, and even communities. However, inferences on bathymetric ranges of marine invertebrates are usually based on a few taxa or on restricted regional scales. In this study, we present a comprehensive literature survey of hydroids for the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent Arctic and Antarctic seas for records deeper than 50 m. We used these records in bathymetrical analyses along latitude and compared major patterns under an evolutionary framework. Our results show that hydroids are frequent inhabitants of the deep sea with mainly eurybathic species that extend their distributions from shallower to deeper waters, being rarely exclusively bathyal or abyssal. We also found increasing bathymetric ranges with mean depths of occurrence of the species for both families and regions. Moreover, vertical distribution proved to be taxonomically and regionally dependent, with reduced eurybathy in "Antarctic" species but increased eurybathy in "Tropical" and "Subtropical North" regions. Data also support early colonization of the deep sea in the evolution of the group. Finally, the unequal number of records across latitudes, scant at Equatorial and southern Tropical latitudes, provides evidence to the historically uneven sampling effort in the different regions of the Atlantic.

  16. A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera) from Alaska and Adjacent Waters

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Stephen D.; Lindner, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The stylasterid fauna of Alaska is revised, consisting of the description or redescription and illustration of 21 species, one additional subspecies, and a geographically adjacent species: Stylaster venustus. Six new species and one new subspecies are described: Errinopora fisheri, Errinopora undulata, Errinopora disticha, Errinopora dichotoma, Stylaster crassiseptum, Stylaster repandus, and Stylaster parageus columbiensis. Four subspecies are raised to species rank: Stylaster leptostylus, Stylaster trachystomus, Stylaster parageus, and Distichopora japonica, and five species and one subspecies were synonymized. A dichotomous key to the Errinopora species and tabular keys to the Errinopora and Alaskan Stylaster species are provided. The focus of the study was on the stylasterids from Alaska, primarily those from the diverse Aleutian Islands, but also including records from British Columbia. This is the first revisionary work on this fauna since the seminal report by Fisher in 1938. PMID:22303109

  17. The biology and ecology of black corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Daniel; Luck, Daniel G; Toonen, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Antipatharians, commonly known as black corals, are treasured by many cultures for medicinal purposes and to produce jewellery. Despite their economic and cultural importance, very little is known about the basic biology and ecology of black corals because most species inhabit deeper-water environments (>50m) which are logistically challenging to study. There has been a recent increase of studies focusing on antipatharians; however, these have not yet been comprehensively reviewed. This literature review seeks to summarize the available information on the biology and ecology of antipatharians. Although black corals occur throughout all oceans and from subtidal to abyssal depths, they are particularly common in tropical and subtropical regions at depths below 50m. Antipatharians are generally found in areas with hard substrates, low-light and strong currents. Under favourable conditions, some black coral species form dense aggregations to the point of becoming ecologically dominant. Zooplankton appears to be the major component of the diet of black corals, which feed as suspension feeders and use mucus and nematocysts to capture their prey. Previously categorized as azooxanthellate corals, recent research has revealed that many antipatharians appear capable of harbouring symbionts, but unlike other corals, dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium are generally not important to the nutrition of black corals. Antipatharians reproduce through both sexual and asexual processes. In general, polyps and colonies are gonochoric, with fertilization and larval development likely occurring externally; however, to date antipatharian larvae have only been observed for a single species. Antipatharians are generally slow-growing and long-lived organisms with maximum longevities ranging from decades to millennia. Black corals are more abundant with depth, a pattern which has been hypothesized to avoid competition with obligate photosynthetic fauna. Additionally, antipatharians may compete for space by using sweeper tentacles and secondary metabolites. With the exception of a few predators such as gastropods and green sea turtles, antipatharians appear to be little impacted by predation. Like other corals, antipatharians can be habitat engineers of importance to a myriad of associated organisms including arthropods, annelids, echinoderms, mollusks, sponges and cnidarians, several of which are adapted to live exclusively on black corals. Given that most black coral species inhabit remote environments, our understanding of these organisms will depend on our ability to effectively sample and study them. Future collections, particularly in deeper waters (>50m), will be needed to determine whether antipatharian species have limited biogeographical distributions or whether this has simply been an artefact of low sampling efforts away from population centres and taxonomic uncertainties within this group. Additionally, biological and ecological studies require increased sample sizes because most information is currently derived from the examination of only a handful of specimens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diseases affect cold-water corals too: Eunicella verrucosa (Cnidaria: Gorgonacea) necrosis in SW England.

    PubMed

    Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Pike, James; Munn, Colin B

    2007-06-29

    The first recorded incidence of cold-water coral disease was noted in Eunicella verrucosa, a coral on the international 'red list' of threatened species, at a marine protected area in SW England in 2002. Video surveys of 634 separate colonies at 13 sites revealed that disease outbreaks were widespread in SW England from 2003 to 2006. Coenchyme became necrotic in diseased specimens, leading to tissue sloughing and exposing skeletal gorgonin to settlement by fouling organisms. Sites where necrosis was found had significantly higher incidences of fouling. No fungi were isolated from diseased or healthy tissue, but significantly higher concentrations of bacteria occurred in diseased specimens. Of 21 distinct bacteria isolated from diseased tissues, 19 were Vibrionaceae, 15 were strains of Vibrio splendidus and 2 others closely matched Vibrio tasmaniensis. Vibrios isolated from E. verrucosa did not induce disease at 15 degrees C, but, at 20 degrees C, controls remained healthy and test gorgonians became diseased, regardless of whether vibrios were isolated from diseased or healthy colonies. Bacteria associated with diseased tissue produced proteolytic and cytolytic enzymes that damaged E. verrucosa tissue and may be responsible for the necrosis observed. Monitoring at the site where the disease was first noted showed new gorgonian recruitment from 2003 to 2006; some individuals had died and become completely overgrown, whereas others had continued to grow around a dead central area.

  19. The occurrence of Ophiocnemis marmorata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) associated with the rhizostome medusa Rhopilema hispidum (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagaraj, Govindan; Kumar, Pithchai Sampath; Morandini, André C.

    2008-11-01

    The association of scyphomedusae with invertebrates has been long known in the literature; especially with hyperiids amphipods. The association of echinoderms with jellyfish is not common and rarely recorded. We reported the association of the ophiuroid Ophiocnemis marmorata with the rhizostome scyphomedusa Rhopilema hispidum collected in Vellar estuary (on the southeast coast of India). O. marmorata is supposed to be a filter feeding ophiuroid, quite common in soft bottom of shallow waters. The brittle stars possibly seek for food supply, shelter and protection through the association.

  20. Genus Distichopora (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): from primary cyclosystem to adult pore organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puce, S.; Pica, D.; Brun, F.; Mancini, L.; Bavestrello, G.

    2012-09-01

    This investigation provides the first detailed description of the growth stages of two Distichopora species showing the formation of a primary cyclosystem and explaining the growth process leading from primary cyclosystem to adult pore organisation. The earliest observed stage is an oval calcareous disc from which, at a later stage, a primary cyclosystem raises up. Then, the addition of new gastropores and dactylopores leads to the pore rows typical of the genus. Using X-ray computed microtomography, we are able to visualise the dense canal network that permeates the coenosteum and envelops the gastropores and the dactylopores in all the observed growth stages. In both species, the thin canals surrounding the gastropores are responsible for the formation of the new gastropores that originate between the old ones, while the thin canals placed on the external side of the dactylopore rows produce the new dactylopores.

  1. [The gastrulation in Cnidaria: A key to understanding phylogeny or the chaos of secondary modifications?].

    PubMed

    Kraus, Yu A; Markov, A V

    2016-01-01

    The data revealed by comparative embryology of the basal (diploblastic) metazoans is traditionally considered a valuable potential source of information on the origin and early evolution of the animal kingdom and its major clades. Special attention is paid to the fundamental morphogenetic process of gastrulation during which the cells of the early embryo differentiate into the germ layers and the primary body plan is formed. Comparative analysis of gastrulation in different cnidarian taxa reveals high level of intergroup, intragroup, and individual variation. With few exceptions, there is no robust correlation between the type of gastrulation and the taxon. Current data do not support the idea that morphogenetic processes underlying cnidarian gastrulation can be divided into several distinct types. Rather, there is a continuum of equifinal ontogenetic trajectories. In cnidarians, the mode of gastrulation apparently depends less on the macroevolutionary history of the species than on various evolutionary plastic features, such as the oocyte size, the amount of yolk, the number of cells at the blastula (or morula) stage, the presence of phototrophic symbionts, or the ecology of the larva. Thus, in cnidarians, morphogenetic basis of gastrulation contains only a very weak phylogenetic signal and can have only limited application in phylogenetic reconstructions. On the other hand, comparative studies of the ontogeny of the basal metazoans shed light on the general rules of the evolution of morphogenetic processes that is crucial for understanding the early history of the animal kingdom.

  2. Cell-cell adhesion in the cnidaria: insights into the evolution of tissue morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Magie, Craig R; Martindale, Mark Q

    2008-06-01

    Cell adhesion is a major aspect of cell biology and one of the fundamental processes involved in the development of a multicellular animal. Adhesive mechanisms, both cell-cell and between cell and extracellular matrix, are intimately involved in assembling cells into the three-dimensional structures of tissues and organs. The modulation of adhesive complexes could therefore be seen as a central component in the molecular control of morphogenesis, translating information encoded within the genome into organismal form. The availability of whole genomes from early-branching metazoa such as cnidarians is providing important insights into the evolution of adhesive processes by allowing for the easy identification of the genes involved in adhesion in these organisms. Discovery of the molecular nature of cell adhesion in the early-branching groups, coupled with comparisons across the metazoa, is revealing the ways evolution has tinkered with this vital cellular process in the generation of the myriad forms seen across the animal kingdom.

  3. Comparison of morphological and genetic analyses reveals cryptic divergence and morphological plasticity in Stylophora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, F.; Yang, S.-Y.; Pichon, M.; Galli, P.; Chen, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    A combined morphological and genetic study of the coral genus Stylophora investigated species boundaries in the Gulf of Aden, Yemen. Two mitochondrial regions, including the hypervariable IGS9 spacer and the control region, and a fragment of rDNA were used for phylogenetic analysis. Results were compared by multivariate analysis on the basis of branch morphology and corallite morphometry. Two species were clearly discriminated by both approaches. The first species was characterised by small corallites and a low morphological variability and was ascribed to a new geographical record of Stylophora madagascarensis on the basis of its phylogenetic distinction and its morphological similarity to the type material. The second species was characterised by larger corallite size and greater morphological variability and was ascribed to Stylophora pistillata. The analysis was extended to the intrageneric level for other S. pistillata populations from the Red Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Strong internal divergence was evident in the genus Sty lophora. S. pistillata populations were split into two highly divergent Red Sea/Gulf of Aden and western Pacific lineages with significant morphological overlap, which suggests they represent two distinct cryptic species. The combined use of morphological and molecular approaches, so far proved to be a powerful tool for the re-delineation of species boundaries in corals, provided novel evidence of cryptic divergence in this group of marine metazoans.

  4. Novel Henneguya spp. (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from cichlid fish in the Amazon basin cluster by geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Zatti, Suellen Aparecida; Atkinson, Stephen D; Maia, Antônio A M; Bartholomew, Jerri L; Adriano, Edson A

    2018-03-01

    We describe three new Henneguya spp. (Myxobolidae) found parasitizing two species of cichlid fish from the Amazon basin, Brazil: H. tucunarei n. sp. from gill filaments of Cichla monoculus and H. tapajoensis n. sp. from gill filaments of Cichla pinima, both from the Tapajós River, Pará State and H. jariensis n. sp. in the fins of Cichla monoculus from the Jari River, Amapá State. We based descriptions on myxospore morphology and small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences, and used a phylogenetic analysis to compare the new Henneguya species with known relatives. Spores of the three species had similar morphology and morphometrics, but differed molecularly 5-7.5%, and were no more than 94% similar to any other sequence in GenBank. Together with having different hosts, these data supported the diagnosis of the parasites as distinct, novel species. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed that H. tucunarei n. sp., H. tapajoensis n. sp., and H. jariensis n. sp. plus Henneguya paraensis (which parasitizes Cichla temensis) formed a well-supported sub-clade of Henneguya parasites of cichlids from the Amazon basin, in a lineage sister to those in characiforms hosts. Our analysis was consistent with previous studies that suggest that aquatic environment and vertebrate host group are the strongest correlates with phylogenetic signals in the Myxobolidae.

  5. Neurotoxic and neuroactive compounds from Cnidaria: five decades of research….and more.

    PubMed

    Mariottini, Gian L; Bonello, Gaido; Giacco, Elisabetta; Pane, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians are numbered among the most venomous organisms. Their venoms are contained in intracellular capsules, nematocysts, which inject the content into preys/attackers through an eversion system resembling a syringe needle. Several cnidarian venoms have activity against the nervous system, being neurotoxic, or affect other systems whose functioning is under nerve control. Besides direct damage to nerve cells, the activity on ionic conductance, blockade of neuromuscular junctions, and influence on action potentials and on voltage-gated channels have been described. Therefore, cnidarians can be a useful source of nervous system-targeted compounds which could have, in perspective, a role in the therapy of some nervous system diseases. Following this idea, this article aims to review the existing data about the neuroactive properties of cnidarian venoms and their possible usefulness in tackling some neurological diseases as well as neurodegenerative age-related diseases whose incidence is expected to raise in the next decades owing to the increase of life expectancy.

  6. Two new species of Chrysopathes (Cnidaria : Anthozoa : Antipatharia) from the western Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Loiola, L. de Laia

    2008-02-01

    Two new species of Chrysopathes are described, C. oligocrada from Yucatan and Brazil, and C. micracantha from the southeastern coast of the U.S. and Brazil. Chrysopathes oligocrada is characterized by lateral pinnules mostly 7 8 mm long (to 2 cm); 18 21 primary pinnules per cm; anterior-most primary pinnules with no more than one secondary pinnule (absent on some); some posterior primaries with a single secondary pinnule; lateral primary pinnules usually simple, rarely with a single subpinnule; tertiary pinnules absent; pinnular spines to 0.07 mm. This species is similar to C. formosa Opresko 2003 from the Pacific; the latter speciesmore » differing in density of pinnulation (15 18 per cm) and size of the spines (to 0.16 mm). Chrysopathes micracantha is characterized by lateral pinnules mostly 5 6 mm long (to 2 cm); 24 33 primary pinnules per cm; anterior and posterior primary pinnules with as many as two subopposite secondary pinnules; lateral primary pinnules usually simple but with subpinnules on the thicker branches and stem; tertiary pinnules rarely present; pinnular spines to 0.1 mm. Chrysopathes micracantha is similar to C. speciosa Opresko 2003 from the Pacific, the latter species differing in a greater number of secondary pinnules per primary (three or more) and in size of the spines (to 0.18 mm).« less

  7. Infection dynamics of Kudoa inornata (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) in spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    de Buron, Isaure; Hill-Spanik, Kristina M; Haselden, Leeann; Atkinson, Stephen D; Hallett, Sascha L; Arnott, Stephen A

    2017-12-19

    Kudoa inornata is a myxosporean parasite that develops in the somatic muscle of spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus, an economically and ecologically important fish in estuaries and harbors in southeastern North America. In South Carolina (SC), USA, over 90% of wild adult spotted seatrout are infected. To inform potential mitigation strategies, we conducted 3 experiments using naïve sentinel seatrout and infectious stages of K. inornata naturally present in raw water from Charleston Harbor, SC, to determine (1) if K. inornata infection follows a seasonal pattern, and (2) how long it takes for myxospores to develop in fish muscle. Infection by K. inornata was determined by visual detection of myxospores in fish muscle squashes, and any visually negative samples were then assayed for K. inornata ribosomal DNA using novel parasite-specific PCR primers. We observed that K. inornata infection in seatrout followed a seasonal pattern, with high prevalence when water temperature was highest (27-31°C; July-September) and infections that were either covert (at ~13-15°C) or not detected (<13°C) at the lowest water temperatures in January-February. Myxospore development occurred within 476 degree-days, i.e. 2 wk in a typical SC summer. Infection was dependent on fish density, which limited presumptive actinospore dose. Our findings suggest that the life cycle of the parasite may be disrupted by preventing spore-rich seatrout carcasses (e.g. at angler cleaning stations) being thrown back into harbors and estuaries throughout the year.

  8. The innate immune repertoire in Cnidaria - ancestral complexity and stochastic gene loss

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David J; Hemmrich, Georg; Ball, Eldon E; Hayward, David C; Khalturin, Konstantin; Funayama, Noriko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Bosch, Thomas CG

    2007-01-01

    Background Characterization of the innate immune repertoire of extant cnidarians is of both fundamental and applied interest - it not only provides insights into the basic immunological 'tool kit' of the common ancestor of all animals, but is also likely to be important in understanding the global decline of coral reefs that is presently occurring. Recently, whole genome sequences became available for two cnidarians, Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis, and large expressed sequence tag (EST) datasets are available for these and for the coral Acropora millepora. Results To better understand the basis of innate immunity in cnidarians, we scanned the available EST and genomic resources for some of the key components of the vertebrate innate immune repertoire, focusing on the Toll/Toll-like receptor (TLR) and complement pathways. A canonical Toll/TLR pathway is present in representatives of the basal cnidarian class Anthozoa, but neither a classic Toll/TLR receptor nor a conventional nuclear factor (NF)-κB could be identified in the anthozoan Hydra. Moreover, the detection of complement C3 and several membrane attack complex/perforin domain (MAC/PF) proteins suggests that a prototypic complement effector pathway may exist in anthozoans, but not in hydrozoans. Together with data for several other gene families, this implies that Hydra may have undergone substantial secondary gene loss during evolution. Such losses are not confined to Hydra, however, and at least one MAC/PF gene appears to have been lost from Nematostella. Conclusion Consideration of these patterns of gene distribution underscores the likely significance of gene loss during animal evolution whilst indicating ancient origins for many components of the vertebrate innate immune system. PMID:17437634

  9. Complex neural architecture in the diploblastic larva of Clava multicornis (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Piraino, Stefano; Zega, Giuliana; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Leone, Antonella; Dell'Anna, Alessandro; Pennati, Roberta; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Schmid, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich

    2011-07-01

    The organization of the cnidarian nervous system has been widely documented in polyps and medusae, but little is known about the nervous system of planula larvae, which give rise to adult forms after settling and metamorphosis. We describe histological and cytological features of the nervous system in planulae of the hydrozoan Clava multicornis. These planulae do not swim freely in the water column but rather crawl on the substrate by means of directional, coordinated ciliary movement coupled to lateral muscular bending movements associated with positive phototaxis. Histological analysis shows pronounced anteroposterior regionalization of the planula's nervous system, with different neural cell types highly concentrated at the anterior pole. Transmission electron microscopy of planulae shows the nervous system to be unusually complex, with a large, orderly array of sensory cells at the anterior pole. In the anterior half of the planula, the basiectodermal plexus of neurites forms an extensive orthogonal network, whereas more posteriorly neurites extend longitudinally along the body axis. Additional levels of nervous system complexity are uncovered by neuropeptide-specific immunocytochemistry, which reveals distinct neural subsets having specific molecular phenotypes. Together these observations imply that the nervous system of the planula of Clava multicornis manifests a remarkable level of histological, cytological, and functional organization, the features of which may be reminiscent of those present in early bilaterian animals. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Reproductive biology of the black coral Antipathella wollastoni (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) in the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakka, Maria; Orejas, Covadonga; Sampaio, Iris; Monteiro, João; Parra, Hugo; Carreiro-Silva, Marina

    2017-11-01

    Antipathella wollastoni is an antipatharian species common to Macaronesia, occurring in depths between 20 and 1425 m. Despite its importance as a habitat-forming species, there is no information about its basic biology. The aim of the current study is to describe its reproductive strategy, gametogenic cycle and reproductive timing. Sampling was performed monthly on six tagged colonies during one year and specimens were histologically processed. A. wollastoni was found to be a gonochoric broadcast spawner. Gametogenesis took place within the primary transversal mesenteries, and followed an annual cycle. The reproductive season coincided with an increase in seawater temperature but spawning, inferred from the disappearance of gametes, likely happened after the sea surface temperature peak of the year (September 2009). Polyp fecundity ranged from 1 to 309 oocytes/polyp. A decrease in polyp fecundity was detected in samples at the higher pre-spawning maturity stage, indicating possible repetitive spawning or oocyte absorption. Intra-colonial comparisons revealed a longer duration of the reproductive cycle in the medial colony section, and a gradient of increased oocyte size towards the apical section, possibly due to intra-colonial differences in energy allocation between reproduction and other biological processes, or as a strategy against predation on gametes/larvae. Colony height was positively correlated with polyp fecundity indicating that the reproductive output increases with colony size.

  11. Prediction, location, collection and transport of jellyfish (Cnidaria) and their polyps.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Justin

    2009-03-01

    With growing interest in research and display of living jellyfish workers are realizing the difficulty in obtaining and maintaining a healthy collection consistently. This report identifies the causes for the uncertainty in locating specimens and summarizes the latest technology, techniques and avenues for acquiring jellyfish for captive maintenance. Responsibility inherent with jellyfish transport for the prevention of incidental escape is also discussed.

  12. Evolutionary diversification of banded tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Stampar, Sergio N; Maronna, Maximiliano M; Vermeij, Mark J A; Silveira, Fabio L d; Morandini, André C

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed.

  13. Motility, morphology and phylogeny of the plasmodial worm, Ceratomyxa vermiformis n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxozoa: Myxosporea).

    PubMed

    Adriano, E A; Okamura, B

    2017-02-01

    The Myxozoa demonstrate extensive morphological simplification and miniaturization relative to their free-living cnidarian ancestors. This is particularly pronounced in the highly derived myxosporeans, which develop as plasmodia and pseudoplasmodia. To date, motility in these stages has been linked with membrane deformation (e.g. as pseudopodia and mobile folds). Here we illustrate a motile, elongate plasmodium that undergoes coordinated undulatory locomotion, revealing remarkable convergence to a functional worm at the cellular level. Ultrastructural and confocal analyses of these plasmodia identify a highly differentiated external layer containing an actin-rich network, long tubular mitochondria, abundant microtubules, a secreted glycocalyx layer, and an internal region where sporogony occurs and which contains homogeneously distributed granular/fibrillar material. We consider how some of these features may support motility. We also describe the species based on spore morphology and SSU rDNA sequence data, undertake molecular phylogenetic analysis to place it within an early-diverging clade of the ceratomyxids, and evaluate the resultant implications for classification (validity of the genus Meglitschia) and for inferring early host environments (freshwater) of ceratomyxids.

  14. Trends in the Diversity, Distribution and Life History Strategy of Arctic Hydrozoa (Cnidaria)

    PubMed Central

    Ronowicz, Marta; Kukliński, Piotr; Mapstone, Gillian M.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first attempt to compile a comprehensive and updated species list for Hydrozoa in the Arctic, encompassing both hydroid and medusa stages and including Siphonophorae. We address the hypothesis that the presence of a pelagic stage (holo- or meroplanktonic) was not necessary to successfully recolonize the Arctic by Hydrozoa after the Last Glacial Maximum. Presence-absence data of Hydrozoa in the Arctic were prepared on the basis of historical and present-day literature. The Arctic was divided into ecoregions. Species were grouped into distributional categories according to their worldwide occurrences. Each species was classified according to life history strategy. The similarity of species composition among regions was calculated with the Bray-Curtis index. Average and variation in taxonomic distinctness were used to measure diversity at the taxonomic level. A total of 268 species were recorded. Arctic-boreal species were the most common and dominated each studied region. Nineteen percent of species were restricted to the Arctic. There was a predominance of benthic species over holo- and meroplanktonic species. Arctic, Arctic-Boreal and Boreal species were mostly benthic, while widely distributed species more frequently possessed a pelagic stage. Our results support hypothesis that the presence of a pelagic stage (holo- or meroplanktonic) was not necessary to successfully recolonize the Arctic. The predominance of benthic Hydrozoa suggests that the Arctic could have been colonised after the Last Glacial Maximum by hydroids rafting on floating substrata or recolonising from glacial refugia. PMID:25793294

  15. Faunistic survey of Hydromedusae (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from the coast of Paraná State, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Renato Mitsuo; Júnior, Miodeli Nogueira; Haddad, Maria Angélica

    2014-02-26

    This study is the first faunistic inventory of hydromedusae from the inner continental shelf of Paraná State. We describe the composition of hydromedusae species, collected with bottom-trawl and Hensen nets, in campaigns carried out from 1997 to 2006. We analyzed 17,797 specimens from 578 samples, and provide descriptions, photographs, and information about the biology of the 22 species found. All species had previous records from the Brazilian coast; however, this is the first record of Bougainvillia frondosa, Ectopleura dumortieri, Cirrholovenia tetranema, Eucheilota maculata, Gossea brachymera, Solmaris corona, and Amphogona apsteini for the coast of Paraná. Most species are typical of tropical and subtropical coastal waters from the South Brazilian Bight. However, Turritopsis nutricula, Niobia dendrotentaculata, Solmaris corona, and Aglaura hemistoma are abundant in oceanic waters, and Olindias sambaquiensis and Solmaris corona are associated with colder waters (<20°C). The current number of species known for the state is 26. Additional collection effort is needed in regions not sampled in this work, such as bays and offshore waters.

  16. First Record of Porpita porpita (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the coral reef ecosystem, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, M. Shah Nawaz; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman; Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md.; Hossain, M. Shahadat

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Porpita porpita is reported, for the first time, in the coral island of St. Martin's located in the southeastern coastal region of Bangladesh. P. porpita was found to occur in the lower littoral zone and beach rock pools, together with molluscan species, and collected during the pre-monsoon season when both water temperature (> 30°C) and salinity (> 30‰) tend to reach a maximum. This study recounts some details on the discovery and description of the species, and thus extends the global distribution and range limits of the genus Porpita.

  17. The innate immune repertoire in cnidaria--ancestral complexity and stochastic gene loss.

    PubMed

    Miller, David J; Hemmrich, Georg; Ball, Eldon E; Hayward, David C; Khalturin, Konstantin; Funayama, Noriko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of the innate immune repertoire of extant cnidarians is of both fundamental and applied interest--it not only provides insights into the basic immunological 'tool kit' of the common ancestor of all animals, but is also likely to be important in understanding the global decline of coral reefs that is presently occurring. Recently, whole genome sequences became available for two cnidarians, Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis, and large expressed sequence tag (EST) datasets are available for these and for the coral Acropora millepora. To better understand the basis of innate immunity in cnidarians, we scanned the available EST and genomic resources for some of the key components of the vertebrate innate immune repertoire, focusing on the Toll/Toll-like receptor (TLR) and complement pathways. A canonical Toll/TLR pathway is present in representatives of the basal cnidarian class Anthozoa, but neither a classic Toll/TLR receptor nor a conventional nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB could be identified in the anthozoan Hydra. Moreover, the detection of complement C3 and several membrane attack complex/perforin domain (MAC/PF) proteins suggests that a prototypic complement effector pathway may exist in anthozoans, but not in hydrozoans. Together with data for several other gene families, this implies that Hydra may have undergone substantial secondary gene loss during evolution. Such losses are not confined to Hydra, however, and at least one MAC/PF gene appears to have been lost from Nematostella. Consideration of these patterns of gene distribution underscores the likely significance of gene loss during animal evolution whilst indicating ancient origins for many components of the vertebrate innate immune system.

  18. Revisiting the phylogeny of Zoanthidea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): Staggered alignment of hypervariable sequences improves species tree inference.

    PubMed

    Swain, Timothy D

    2018-01-01

    The recent rapid proliferation of novel taxon identification in the Zoanthidea has been accompanied by a parallel propagation of gene trees as a tool of species discovery, but not a corresponding increase in our understanding of phylogeny. This disparity is caused by the trade-off between the capabilities of automated DNA sequence alignment and data content of genes applied to phylogenetic inference in this group. Conserved genes or segments are easily aligned across the order, but produce poorly resolved trees; hypervariable genes or segments contain the evolutionary signal necessary for resolution and robust support, but sequence alignment is daunting. Staggered alignments are a form of phylogeny-informed sequence alignment composed of a mosaic of local and universal regions that allow phylogenetic inference to be applied to all nucleotides from both hypervariable and conserved gene segments. Comparisons between species tree phylogenies inferred from all data (staggered alignment) and hypervariable-excluded data (standard alignment) demonstrate improved confidence and greater topological agreement with other sources of data for the complete-data tree. This novel phylogeny is the most comprehensive to date (in terms of taxa and data) and can serve as an expandable tool for evolutionary hypothesis testing in the Zoanthidea. Spanish language abstract available in Text S1. Translation by L. O. Swain, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois, 60604, USA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in the diversity, distribution and life history strategy of Arctic Hydrozoa (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Ronowicz, Marta; Kukliński, Piotr; Mapstone, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    This is the first attempt to compile a comprehensive and updated species list for Hydrozoa in the Arctic, encompassing both hydroid and medusa stages and including Siphonophorae. We address the hypothesis that the presence of a pelagic stage (holo- or meroplanktonic) was not necessary to successfully recolonize the Arctic by Hydrozoa after the Last Glacial Maximum. Presence-absence data of Hydrozoa in the Arctic were prepared on the basis of historical and present-day literature. The Arctic was divided into ecoregions. Species were grouped into distributional categories according to their worldwide occurrences. Each species was classified according to life history strategy. The similarity of species composition among regions was calculated with the Bray-Curtis index. Average and variation in taxonomic distinctness were used to measure diversity at the taxonomic level. A total of 268 species were recorded. Arctic-boreal species were the most common and dominated each studied region. Nineteen percent of species were restricted to the Arctic. There was a predominance of benthic species over holo- and meroplanktonic species. Arctic, Arctic-Boreal and Boreal species were mostly benthic, while widely distributed species more frequently possessed a pelagic stage. Our results support hypothesis that the presence of a pelagic stage (holo- or meroplanktonic) was not necessary to successfully recolonize the Arctic. The predominance of benthic Hydrozoa suggests that the Arctic could have been colonised after the Last Glacial Maximum by hydroids rafting on floating substrata or recolonising from glacial refugia.

  20. Circadian clocks in the cnidaria: environmental entrainment, molecular regulation, and organismal outputs.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Adam M; Tarrant, Ann M; Levy, Oren

    2013-07-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular network that translates predictable environmental signals, such as light levels, into organismal responses, including behavior and physiology. Regular oscillations of the molecular components of the clock enable individuals to anticipate regularly fluctuating environmental conditions. Cnidarians play important roles in benthic and pelagic marine environments and also occupy a key evolutionary position as the likely sister group to the bilaterians. Together, these attributes make members of this phylum attractive as models for testing hypotheses on roles for circadian clocks in regulating behavior, physiology, and reproduction as well as those regarding the deep evolutionary conservation of circadian regulatory pathways in animal evolution. Here, we review and synthesize the field of cnidarian circadian biology by discussing the diverse effects of daily light cycles on cnidarians, summarizing the molecular evidence for the conservation of a bilaterian-like circadian clock in anthozoan cnidarians, and presenting new empirical data supporting the presence of a conserved feed-forward loop in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Furthermore, we discuss critical gaps in our current knowledge about the cnidarian clock, including the functions directly regulated by the clock and the precise molecular interactions that drive the oscillating gene-expression patterns. We conclude that the field of cnidarian circadian biology is moving rapidly toward linking molecular mechanisms with physiology and behavior.

  1. Lack of genetic structure in the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae) across European seas.

    PubMed

    Stopar, Katja; Ramsak, Andreja; Trontelj, Peter; Malej, Alenka

    2010-10-01

    The genetic structure of the holopelagic scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca was inferred based on the study of 144 adult medusae. The areas of study were five geographic regions in two European seas (Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea). A 655-bp sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and a 645-bp sequence of two nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) were analyzed. The protein coding COI gene showed a higher level of divergence than the combined nuclear ITS fragment (haplotype diversity 0.962 vs. 0.723, nucleotide diversity 1.16% vs. 0.31%). Phylogeographic analysis on COI gene revealed two clades, the larger consisting of specimens from all sampling sites, and the smaller mostly formed of specimens from the Mediterranean Sea. Haplotype diversity was very high throughout the sampled area, and within sample diversity was higher than diversity among geographical regions. No strongly supported genetically or geographically distinct groups of P. noctiluca were found. The results - long distance dispersal, insignificant F(ST) values, lack of isolation by distance - pointed toward an admixture among Mediterranean and East Atlantic populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Two distinct, geographically overlapping lineages of the corallimorpharian Ricordea florida (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Ricordeidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Pratts, H.; Lado-Insua, T.; Rhyne, A. L.; Rodríguez-Matos, L.; Schizas, N. V.

    2011-06-01

    We examined the genetic variation of the corallimorpharian Ricordea florida; it is distributed throughout the Caribbean region and is heavily harvested for the marine aquarium trade. Eighty-four distinct individuals of R. florida were sequenced from four geographically distant Caribbean locations (Curaçao, Florida, Guadeloupe, and Puerto Rico). Analysis of the ribosomal nuclear region (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) uncovered two geographically partially overlapping genetic lineages in R. florida, probably representing two cryptic species. Lineage 1 was found in Florida and Puerto Rico, and Lineage 2 was found in Florida, Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, and Curaçao. Because of the multi-allelic nature of the ITS region, four individuals from Lineage 1 and six from Lineage 2 were cloned to evaluate the levels of hidden intra-individual variability. Pairwise genetic comparisons indicated that the levels of intra-individual and intra-lineage variability (<1%) were approximately an order of magnitude lower than the divergence (~9%) observed between the two lineages. The fishery regulations of the aquarium trade regard R. florida as one species. More refined regulations should take into account the presence of two genetic lineages, and they should be managed separately in order to preserve the long-term evolutionary potential of this corallimorpharian. The discovery of two distinct lineages in R. florida illustrates the importance of evaluating genetic variability in harvested species prior to the implementation of management policies.

  3. Invasive Ponto-Caspian hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia (hydrozoa: Cnidaria) in southern Baltic coastal lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obolewski, Krystian; Jarosiewicz, Anna; Ożgo, Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Cordylophora caspia Pall. is a highly invasive Ponto-Caspian colonial hydroid with a worldwide distribution. It is a biofouling organism colonizing industrial water installations and causing serious economic problems. Here, we give the first report of its occurrence in southern Baltic coastal lakes, and analyze its distribution in relation to environmental factors and likely colonization routes. Samples were collected from the stalks of Phragmites australis at the total of 102 sites in 15 lakes and lagoons. The species was most numerous in lagoons, i.e. ß-oligohaline water bodies with a surface hydrological connection with the sea, where it reached mean densities of 1200-4800 hydranths m-2. In regression tree analysis, chloride concentration, followed by pH, were the strongest explanatory variables for its occurrence, with highest densities observed at chloride concentration above 1.18 g Cl L-1 and pH 8.05-9.26. At pH 5.77-8.04 higher densities were observed at temperatures above 20.3 °C. Generally, within the range of parameters observed in our study, high densities of C. caspia were associated with high chloride concentration, pH, temperature and electrical conductivity values. The species was also present in freshwater lakes; these colonies may have the highest capacity for future invasions of such habitats. Within lakes, high densities were observed at canals connecting these water bodies with the sea, and at sites close to the inflow of rivers. This distribution pattern can facilitate its further spread into inland waters.

  4. Sexual reproduction of the Hawaiian black coral Antipathes griggi (Cnidaria: Antipatharia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.; Waller, R. G.; Montgomery, A. D.; Kelley, C. D.; Toonen, R. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Hawaiian black coral fishery has maintained steady catch levels for over 50 years. However, recent declines in the biomass of commercially valuable Hawaiian black corals question whether regulations need to be redefined for sustainable harvesting. Fishery management efforts are complicated by the limited information on the basic life history and reproduction of black corals. To address this knowledge gap, we used histological techniques to investigate sexual reproductive processes within Antipathes griggi, the dominant species targeted by the fishery. Our results indicate that A. griggi is likely gonochoric with a 1:1 sex ratio and has an annual reproductive cycle. Furthermore, the percentage of polyps containing gametes dropped continuously throughout the reproductive season, indicating that spawning occurs in successive events with greatest intensity between November and December. Current fishing regulations prohibit harvesting of colonies <90 cm in height in state waters, and colonies <120 cm in height in federal waters. This study indicates that ~80% meeting the state harvesting limit, and ~90% of colonies meeting the federal limit, are sexually mature. Therefore, increasing these minimum size harvesting limits would ensure that more colonies can reproduce before being exposed to fishing mortality. Although A. griggi can be found to depths of 100 m, it is rare below the 75 m depth limit at which commercial harvest occurs in Hawai`i. Thus, the supposed depth refuge from harvest does not really exist.

  5. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Four Anthozoan (Phylum Cnidaria) Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Sheila A; Crowder, Camerron M; Poole, Angela Z; Weis, Virginia M; Meyer, Eli

    2015-09-17

    Many nonmodel species exemplify important biological questions but lack the sequence resources required to study the genes and genomic regions underlying traits of interest. Reef-building corals are famously sensitive to rising seawater temperatures, motivating ongoing research into their stress responses and long-term prospects in a changing climate. A comprehensive understanding of these processes will require extending beyond the sequenced coral genome (Acropora digitifera) to encompass diverse coral species and related anthozoans. Toward that end, we have assembled and annotated reference transcriptomes to develop catalogs of gene sequences for three scleractinian corals (Fungia scutaria, Montastraea cavernosa, Seriatopora hystrix) and a temperate anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima). High-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries produced ~20-30 million reads per sample, and de novo assembly of these reads produced ~75,000-110,000 transcripts from each sample with size distributions (mean ~1.4 kb, N50 ~2 kb), comparable to the distribution of gene models from the coral genome (mean ~1.7 kb, N50 ~2.2 kb). Each assembly includes matches for more than half the gene models from A. digitifera (54-67%) and many reasonably complete transcripts (~5300-6700) spanning nearly the entire gene (ortholog hit ratios ≥0.75). The catalogs of gene sequences developed in this study made it possible to identify hundreds to thousands of orthologs across diverse scleractinian species and related taxa. We used these sequences for phylogenetic inference, recovering known relationships and demonstrating superior performance over phylogenetic trees constructed using single mitochondrial loci. The resources developed in this study provide gene sequences and genetic markers for several anthozoan species. To enhance the utility of these resources for the research community, we developed searchable databases enabling researchers to rapidly recover sequences for genes of interest. Our analysis of de novo assembly quality highlights metrics that we expect will be useful for evaluating the relative quality of other de novo transcriptome assemblies. The identification of orthologous sequences and phylogenetic reconstruction demonstrates the feasibility of these methods for clarifying the substantial uncertainties in the existing scleractinian phylogeny. Copyright © 2015 Kitchen et al.

  6. Ocular and extraocular expression of opsins in the rhopalium of Tripedalia cystophora (Cnidaria: Cubozoa).

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Jan; Zaharoff, Alexander K; Leung, Nicole Y; Garm, Anders; Oakley, Todd H

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of work on the neuroethology of cubozoans is based largely on the capabilities of the photoreceptive tissues, and it is important to determine the molecular basis of their light sensitivity. The cubozoans rely on 24 special purpose eyes to extract specific information from a complex visual scene to guide their behavior in the habitat. The lens eyes are the most studied photoreceptive structures, and the phototransduction in the photoreceptor cells is based on light sensitive opsin molecules. Opsins are photosensitive transmembrane proteins associated with photoreceptors in eyes, and the amino acid sequence of the opsins determines the spectral properties of the photoreceptors. Here we show that two distinct opsins (Tripedalia cystophora-lens eye expressed opsin and Tripedalia cystophora-neuropil expressed opsin, or Tc-leo and Tc-neo) are expressed in the Tripedalia cystophora rhopalium. Quantitative PCR determined the level of expression of the two opsins, and we found Tc-leo to have a higher amount of expression than Tc-neo. In situ hybridization located Tc-leo expression in the retinal photoreceptors of the lens eyes where the opsin is involved in image formation. Tc-neo is expressed in a confined part of the neuropil and is probably involved in extraocular light sensation, presumably in relation to diurnal activity.

  7. Molecular and ultrastructural studies of a fibrillar collagen from octocoral (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Orgel, Joseph P R O; Sella, Ido; Madhurapantula, Rama S; Antipova, Olga; Mandelberg, Yael; Kashman, Yoel; Benayahu, Dafna; Benayahu, Yehuda

    2017-09-15

    We report here the biochemical, molecular and ultrastructural features of a unique organization of fibrillar collagen extracted from the octocoral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi Collagen, the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom, is often defined as a structural component of extracellular matrices in metazoans. In the present study, collagen fibers were extracted from the mesenteries of S. ehrenbergi polyps. These fibers are organized as filaments and further compacted as coiled fibers. The fibers are uniquely long, reaching an unprecedented length of tens of centimeters. The diameter of these fibers is 9±0.37 μm. The amino acid content of these fibers was identified using chromatography and revealed close similarity in content to mammalian type I and II collagens. The ultrastructural organization of the fibers was characterized by means of high-resolution microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The fibers are composed of fibrils and fibril bundles in the range of 15 to 35 nm. These data indicate a fibrillar collagen possessing structural aspects of both types I and II collagen, a highly interesting and newly described form of fibrillar collagen organization. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. The black coral fauna (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) of Bermuda with new records.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Daniel; Shuler, Andrew

    2017-11-07

    The black coral fauna of Bermudan waters is poorly known, in large part due to the logistical challenges of surveying deep-water (>50 m) environments where most species occur. In 2016, the Nekton Expedition sought to survey the deep-water biodiversity around Bermuda using manned submersibles and mixed-gas technical SCUBA. A total of 28 black coral specimens were collected, and these were examined based on skeletal spine morphology, polyp morphology, colony branching pattern and in situ photographs. The specimens were assigned to seven species in three families and four genera, including (1) Antipathes atlantica Gray, 1857, (2) Antipathes furcata Gray, 1857, (3) Stichopathes pourtalesi Brook, 1889, (4) Stichopathes sp., (5) Distichopathes filix (Pourtales, 1867), (6) Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray, 1857), and (7) Tanacetipathes tanacetum (Pourtales, 1867). Of these, three species (Stichopathes sp., S. pourtalesi, and D. filix), one genus (Distichopathes) and one family (Aphanipathidae) are reported from Bermudan waters for the first time, thereby increasing the known black coral diversity of Bermuda to twelve species, five genera and four families. The diagnostic characters of the taxa identified as part of this study are illustrated and described.

  9. Circadian Clocks in the Cnidaria: Environmental Entrainment, Molecular Regulation, and Organismal Outputs

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Adam M.; Tarrant, Ann M.; Levy, Oren

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular network that translates predictable environmental signals, such as light levels, into organismal responses, including behavior and physiology. Regular oscillations of the molecular components of the clock enable individuals to anticipate regularly fluctuating environmental conditions. Cnidarians play important roles in benthic and pelagic marine environments and also occupy a key evolutionary position as the likely sister group to the bilaterians. Together, these attributes make members of this phylum attractive as models for testing hypotheses on roles for circadian clocks in regulating behavior, physiology, and reproduction as well as those regarding the deep evolutionary conservation of circadian regulatory pathways in animal evolution. Here, we review and synthesize the field of cnidarian circadian biology by discussing the diverse effects of daily light cycles on cnidarians, summarizing the molecular evidence for the conservation of a bilaterian-like circadian clock in anthozoan cnidarians, and presenting new empirical data supporting the presence of a conserved feed-forward loop in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Furthermore, we discuss critical gaps in our current knowledge about the cnidarian clock, including the functions directly regulated by the clock and the precise molecular interactions that drive the oscillating gene-expression patterns. We conclude that the field of cnidarian circadian biology is moving rapidly toward linking molecular mechanisms with physiology and behavior. PMID:23620252

  10. The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes.

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Schirosi, Roberto; Parisi, Maria Giovanna; Piraino, Stefano; Cammarata, Matteo

    2015-08-19

    The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758) for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%), whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9%) and inorganic matter (67.1%). The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia) and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones' mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest.

  11. Tentacle Transcriptome and Venom Proteome of the Pacific Sea Nettle, Chrysaora fuscescens (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Ponce, Dalia; Brinkman, Diane L; Potriquet, Jeremy; Mulvenna, Jason

    2016-04-05

    Jellyfish venoms are rich sources of toxins designed to capture prey or deter predators, but they can also elicit harmful effects in humans. In this study, an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify putative toxins and their potential role in the venom of the scyphozoan jellyfish Chrysaora fuscescens. A de novo tentacle transcriptome, containing more than 23,000 contigs, was constructed and used in proteomic analysis of C. fuscescens venom to identify potential toxins. From a total of 163 proteins identified in the venom proteome, 27 were classified as putative toxins and grouped into six protein families: proteinases, venom allergens, C-type lectins, pore-forming toxins, glycoside hydrolases and enzyme inhibitors. Other putative toxins identified in the transcriptome, but not the proteome, included additional proteinases as well as lipases and deoxyribonucleases. Sequence analysis also revealed the presence of ShKT domains in two putative venom proteins from the proteome and an additional 15 from the transcriptome, suggesting potential ion channel blockade or modulatory activities. Comparison of these potential toxins to those from other cnidarians provided insight into their possible roles in C. fuscescens venom and an overview of the diversity of potential toxin families in cnidarian venoms.

  12. Tentacle Transcriptome and Venom Proteome of the Pacific Sea Nettle, Chrysaora fuscescens (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Dalia; Brinkman, Diane L.; Potriquet, Jeremy; Mulvenna, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish venoms are rich sources of toxins designed to capture prey or deter predators, but they can also elicit harmful effects in humans. In this study, an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify putative toxins and their potential role in the venom of the scyphozoan jellyfish Chrysaora fuscescens. A de novo tentacle transcriptome, containing more than 23,000 contigs, was constructed and used in proteomic analysis of C. fuscescens venom to identify potential toxins. From a total of 163 proteins identified in the venom proteome, 27 were classified as putative toxins and grouped into six protein families: proteinases, venom allergens, C-type lectins, pore-forming toxins, glycoside hydrolases and enzyme inhibitors. Other putative toxins identified in the transcriptome, but not the proteome, included additional proteinases as well as lipases and deoxyribonucleases. Sequence analysis also revealed the presence of ShKT domains in two putative venom proteins from the proteome and an additional 15 from the transcriptome, suggesting potential ion channel blockade or modulatory activities. Comparison of these potential toxins to those from other cnidarians provided insight into their possible roles in C. fuscescens venom and an overview of the diversity of potential toxin families in cnidarian venoms. PMID:27058558

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia sp. nov. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Eunji; Won, Yong-Jin; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-02-01

    We sequenced 16,971 bp of the linear mitochondrial DNA of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. nov. and characterized it by comparing with Aurelia aurita. They had 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA with three tRNAs (tRNA-Leu, tRNA-Ser(TGA), tRNA-Met). Both have another two PCGs, orf969 and orf324 with telomeres at both ends. After comparison of Aurelia sp. nov. with Aurelia aurita, we found low-protein similarity of orf969 (59%) and orf324 (75%), respectively, while the other 13 PCGs showed 80% to 98% protein similarities.

  14. Metal bioaccumulation pattern by Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; García, Gregorio; García-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems highly vulnerable to human impacts because of their situation between terrestrial and marine environment. Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest lagoons of the Mediterranean Sea, placed in SE Spain and subjected to major human impacts, in particular the mining of metal sulphides. As a consequence, metal concentration in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, the present study has assessed the ability of Cotylorhiza tuberculata for bioaccumulating metals from sea water. Up to 65 individuals were sampled at 8 different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentration values for different elements considered were moderate (Pb: 0.04-29.50 ppm, Zn: 2.27-93.44 ppm, Cd: 0-0.67 ppm, As: 0.56-130.31 ppm) by dry weight of the jellyfish tissues (bell and oral arms combined), bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content because of their potential environmental and health implications.

  15. Pelagia benovici sp. nov. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): a new jellyfish in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Piraino, Stefano; Aglieri, Giorgio; Martell, Luis; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Melli, Valentina; Milisenda, Giacomo; Scorrano, Simonetta; Boero, Ferdinando

    2014-05-07

    A bloom of an unknown semaestome jellyfish species was recorded in the North Adriatic Sea from September 2013 to early 2014. Morphological analysis of several specimens showed distinct differences from other known semaestome species in the Mediterranean Sea and unquestionably identified them as belonging to a new pelagiid species within genus Pelagia. The new species is morphologically distinct from P. noctiluca, currently the only recognized valid species in the genus, and from other doubtful Pelagia species recorded from other areas of the world. Molecular analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA genes corroborate its specific distinction from P. noctiluca and other pelagiid taxa, supporting the monophyly of Pelagiidae. Thus, we describe Pelagia benovici sp. nov. Piraino, Aglieri, Scorrano & Boero.

  16. Universal target-enrichment baits for anthozoan (Cnidaria) phylogenomics: New approaches to long-standing problems.

    PubMed

    Quattrini, Andrea M; Faircloth, Brant C; Dueñas, Luisa F; Bridge, Tom C L; Brugler, Mercer R; Calixto-Botía, Iván F; DeLeo, Danielle M; Forêt, Sylvain; Herrera, Santiago; Lee, Simon M Y; Miller, David J; Prada, Carlos; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Ramírez-Portilla, Catalina; Sánchez, Juan A; Rodríguez, Estefanía; McFadden, Catherine S

    2018-03-01

    Anthozoans (e.g., corals, anemones) are an ecologically important and diverse group of marine metazoans that occur from shallow to deep waters worldwide. However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the ~7,500 species within this class is hindered by the lack of phylogenetically informative markers that can be reliably sequenced across a diversity of taxa. We designed and tested 16,306 RNA baits to capture 720 ultraconserved element loci and 1,071 exon loci. Library preparation and target enrichment were performed on 33 taxa from all orders within the class Anthozoa. Following Illumina sequencing and Trinity assembly, we recovered 1,774 of 1,791 targeted loci. The mean number of loci recovered from each species was 638 ± 222, with more loci recovered from octocorals (783 ± 138 loci) than hexacorals (475 ± 187 loci). Parsimony informative sites ranged from 26 to 49% for alignments at differing hierarchical taxonomic levels (e.g., Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Hexacorallia). The per cent of variable sites within each of three genera (Acropora, Alcyonium, and Sinularia) for which multiple species were sequenced ranged from 4.7% to 30%. Maximum-likelihood analyses recovered highly resolved trees with topologies matching those supported by other studies, including the monophyly of the order Scleractinia. Our results demonstrate the utility of this target-enrichment approach to resolve phylogenetic relationships from relatively old to recent divergences. Redesigning the baits with improved affinities to capture loci within each subclass will provide a valuable toolset to address systematic questions, further our understanding of the timing of diversifications and help resolve long-standing controversial relationships in the class Anthozoa. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The order Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815 (Cnidaria, Anthozoa: Hexacorallia): supraspecific classification and nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Low, Martyn E. Y.; Sinniger, Frederic; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many supraspecific zoantharian names have long and complicated histories. The present list is provided to advise researchers on the current state of supraspecific nomenclature of the zoantharians, particularly given the recent attention paid to the taxonomy, phylogeny, and biodiversity of this order. At the same time, several taxonomic issues brought to light by recent research are resolved. Details on the taxonomic and nomenclatural history of most groups are provided, along with appendices of invalid supraspecific names. PMID:28138291

  18. Two new species of Neozoanthus (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia, Zoantharia) from the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, James Davis; Irei, Yuka; Fujii, Takuma

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The zoanthid genus Neozoanthus was originally described in 1972 from a single species in Madagascar. This monotypic genus was placed within its own family, Neozoanthidae, given its unusual characters of only partial sand encrustation, and an endodermal sphincter muscle combined with a brachycnemic mesenterial arrangement. Recently, undescribed specimens of Neozoanthus were discovered thousands of kilometers away in both Australia and Japan. While the phylogenetic and evolutionary aspects of Neozoanthus spp. are now somewhat well understood, the new specimens remained undescribed. Here we describe the specimens as two new species, Neozoanthus uchina sp. n. from the Middle Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, and Neozoanthus caleyi sp. n. from the waters around Heron Island, on the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. Both species can be distinguished from each other and the type species, Neozoanthus tulearensis, by their distributions, oral disk colors, and average numbers of tentacles. Additionally, each species appears to have subtle differences in their cnidae. The division of Japanese and Australian specimens into two species is strongly supported by recently reported phylogenetic data. The discovery and description of these two species highlights how little is known of zoanthid species diversity in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:23275752

  19. Growth of the tropical zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) on reefs in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Janine F; Gomes, Paula B; Santana, Erika C; Silva, João M; Lima, Érica P; Santos, Andre M M; Pérez, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    In Brazilian reefs, zoanthids, especially Palythoa caribaeorum are fundamental for structuring the local benthic community. The objective of this study was to determine the growth rate of P. caribaeorum, and to assess the influence of the site (different beaches), season (dry and wet), location (intertidal or infralittoral zones), and human pressure associated with tourism. For one year we monitored the cover of P. caribaeorum in transects and focused on 20 colonies. We cut off a square (100 cm2) from the central part of the colony and monitored the bare area for four months in each season. The average growth rates varied from 0.015 and 0.021 cm.day(-1). The rate was homogeneous in all localities, and there was no influence from colony site, location, or touristic visitation, showing that the growth velocity may be an intrinsic characteristic of the species, with a strong genetic component. The growth rate of P. caribaeorum differed among months, and peaked in the first month after injury. The average cover varied from 6.2 to 22.9% and was lower on the reef visited by tourists. The present study corroborates the hypothesis that P. caribaeorum is important for coastal reef dynamics due to its fast and continuous growth.

  20. A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Based on Mitochondrial CO1 Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Cairns, Stephen D.; Stolarski, Jarosław; Blair, David; Miller, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Classical morphological taxonomy places the approximately 1400 recognized species of Scleractinia (hard corals) into 27 families, but many aspects of coral evolution remain unclear despite the application of molecular phylogenetic methods. In part, this may be a consequence of such studies focusing on the reef-building (shallow water and zooxanthellate) Scleractinia, and largely ignoring the large number of deep-sea species. To better understand broad patterns of coral evolution, we generated molecular data for a broad and representative range of deep sea scleractinians collected off New Caledonia and Australia during the last decade, and conducted the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis to date of the order Scleractinia. Methodology Partial (595 bp) sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were determined for 65 deep-sea (azooxanthellate) scleractinians and 11 shallow-water species. These new data were aligned with 158 published sequences, generating a 234 taxon dataset representing 25 of the 27 currently recognized scleractinian families. Principal Findings/Conclusions There was a striking discrepancy between the taxonomic validity of coral families consisting predominantly of deep-sea or shallow-water species. Most families composed predominantly of deep-sea azooxanthellate species were monophyletic in both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses but, by contrast (and consistent with previous studies), most families composed predominantly of shallow-water zooxanthellate taxa were polyphyletic, although Acroporidae, Poritidae, Pocilloporidae, and Fungiidae were exceptions to this general pattern. One factor contributing to this inconsistency may be the greater environmental stability of deep-sea environments, effectively removing taxonomic “noise” contributed by phenotypic plasticity. Our phylogenetic analyses imply that the most basal extant scleractinians are azooxanthellate solitary corals from deep-water, their divergence predating that of the robust and complex corals. Deep-sea corals are likely to be critical to understanding anthozoan evolution and the origins of the Scleractinia. PMID:20628613

  1. Cyphastreakausti sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), a new species of reef coral from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Jessica; Benzoni, Francesca; Baird, Andrew H; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    A new scleractinian coral species, Cyphastreakausti sp. n., is described from 13 specimens from the Red Sea. It is characterised by the presence of eight primary septa, unlike the other species of the genus, which have six, ten or 12 primary septa. The new species has morphological affinities with Cyphastreamicrophthalma, from which it can be distinguished by the lower number of septa (on average eight instead of ten), and smaller calices and corallites. This species was observed in the northern and central Red Sea and appears to be absent from the southern Red Sea.

  2. An illustrated key to the genera and subgenera of the Recent azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), with an attached glossary.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Stephen D; Kitahara, Marcelo V

    2012-01-01

    The 120 presently recognized genera and seven subgenera of the azooxanthellate Scleractinia are keyed using gross morphological characters of the corallum. All genera are illustrated with calicular and side views of coralla. All termes used in the key are defined in an illustrated glossary. A table of all species-level keys, both comprehensive and faunistic, is provided covering the last 40 years.

  3. Deep-Water Octocorals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) from the Galápagos and Cocos Islands. Part 1: Suborder Calcaxonia

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Stephen D.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen species of deep-water calcaxonian octocorals belonging to the families Primnoidae, Chrysogorgiidae, and Isididae collected from off the Galápagos and Cocos Islands are described and figured. Seven of these species are described as new; nine of the 13 are not known outside the Galápagos region. Of the four species occurring elsewhere, two also occur in the eastern Pacific, one off Hawaii, and one from off Antarctica. A key to the 22 Indo-Pacific species of Callogorgia is provided to help distinguish those species. PMID:29416390

  4. Leptohelia flexibilis gen. nov. et sp. nov., a remarkable deep-sea stylasterid (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae) from the southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Alberto; Cairns, Stephen D; Zibrowius, Helmut

    2014-12-24

    Leptohelia flexibilis gen. nov. et sp. nov., the first stylasterid with a combined calcified and non-calcified skeleton, is described from seamounts and the slope off the islands of New Caledonia, in the southwestern Pacific. The new species is distinguished from all other species of the family Stylasteridae by having a non-calcified organic axis, internal to the basal portion of the calcified corallum. The internal axis is flexible and enclosed by a series of up to 10 calcified annuli, allowing passive lateral bending of the colony. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Leptohelia flexibilis is a stylasterid coral and reveal that the species is closely related to Leptohelia microstylus comb. nov., a southwestern Pacific stylasterid that lacks an internal axis.

  5. Successional dynamics of marine fouling hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) at a finfish aquaculture facility in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bracale, Roberta; Carrion, Steven A.; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Lezzi, Marco; Gravili, Cinzia; Piraino, Stefano; Boero, Ferdinando

    2018-01-01

    Aquaculture is increasing rapidly to meet global seafood demand. Some hydroid populations have been linked to mortality and health issues in finfish and shellfish, but their dynamics in and around aquaculture farms remain understudied. In the present work, two experiments, each with 36 panels, tested colonization (factors: depth, season of immersion) and succession (factors: depth, submersion duration) over one year. Hydroid surface cover was estimated for each species, and data were analyzed with multivariate techniques. The assemblage of hydrozoans was species-poor, although species richness, frequency and abundance increased with time, paralleling the overall increase in structural complexity of fouling assemblages. Submersion duration and season of immersion were particularly important in determining the species composition of the assemblages in the succession and colonization experiments, respectively. Production of water-borne propagules, including medusae, from the hydroids was observed from locally abundant colonies, among them the well-known fouling species Obelia dichotoma, potentially representing a nuisance for cultured fish through contact-driven envenomations and gill disorders. The results illustrate the potential importance of fouling hydroids and their medusae to the health of organisms in the aquaculture industry. PMID:29608614

  6. Some Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Great Australian Bight in the collection of the South Australian Museum.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jeanette E

    2018-04-16

    This report adds to knowledge of the shelf hydroid fauna of the Great Australian Bight. Hydroids were collected by the South Australian Museum and Department of Primary Industries of South Australia (PIRSA). Well known species are annotated, poorly known species are redescribed and four new species are described.

  7. Molecular evidence of undescribed Ceratonova sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) in the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, from western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malakauskas, David M.; Snipes, Robert Benjamin; Thompson, Ann M.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    2016-01-01

    We used PCR to screen pooled individuals of Manayunkia speciosa from western Lake Erie, Michigan, USA for myxosporean parasites. Amplicons from positive PCRs were sequenced and showed a Ceratonova species in an estimated 1.1% (95% CI = 0.46%, 1.8%) of M. speciosa individuals. We sequenced 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and most of the 28S rDNA regions of this Ceratonova sp., and part of the protein-coding EF2 gene. Phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal and EF2 sequences showed the Lake Erie Ceratonova sp. is most similar to, but genetically distinct from, Ceratonova shasta. Marked interspecific polymorphism in all genes examined, including the ITS barcoding genes, along with geographic location suggests this is an undescribed Ceratonova species. COI sequences showed M. speciosa individuals in Michigan and California are the same species. These findings represent a third parasite in the genus Ceratonovapotentially hosted by M. speciosa.

  8. Edwardsia sojabio sp. n. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae), a new abyssal sea anemone from the Sea ofJapan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanamyan, Nadya; Sanamyan, Karen

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes new deep-water edwardsiid sea anemone Edwardsia sojabio sp. n. which is very common on soft muddy bottoms at lower bathyal and upper abyssal depths in the Sea of Japan. It was recorded in high quantity in depths between 2545 and 3550 m and is the second abyssal species of the genus Edwardsia.

  9. Patterns of Symbiodinium spp. associations within the family Aiptasiidae, a monophyletic lineage of symbiotic of sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Thornhill, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    Although the symbiotic relationships between dinoflagellates and cnidarians are well recognized, few studies have examined these associations from an evolutionary perspective. This is especially true for symbiotic sea anemones, in which many reports consist of an approximate species identification of the host, followed by the identification of the dinoflagellate symbiont using molecular genetic markers. To further explore the evolutionary history of sea anemone-dinoflagellate associations, we documented the diversity of Symbiodinium spp. in a monophyletic clade of sea anemones, the family Aiptasiidae. We combined information from several molecular genetic markers, including nuclear ITS2 and plastid cp23S-rDNA, to evaluate the patterns of evolution and diversification of Symbiodinium in the light of an existing phylogenetic framework for the sea anemone host. At the host family level, we found no evidence for coevolution or reciprocal phylogenies between host and endosymbiont. However, within some individual host species, Symbiodinium spp. exhibited patterns of host specialization and cladogenesis. This pattern suggests that coevolution between host and symbiont occurred within species and genera lineages, but that this process was regularly disrupted and symbiotic partners were recombined during the longer-term evolutionary history of the Aiptasiidae. Furthermore, we observed independent cases of phylogeographical partitioning of Symbiodinium within a single host species, suggesting that ecological speciation along an environmental gradient contributed to the diversity of associations found in nature.

  10. Spatial and size-frequency distribution of Acropora (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) species in Chinchorro Bank, Mexican Caribbean: implications for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Zepeda, A.; Hernández-Arana, H.; Carricart-Ganivet, J. P.

    2007-09-01

    The Mexican Government decreed Chinchorro Bank reef as a Biosphere Reserve in 1996. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial and size-frequency distribution of Acropora spp. in order to provide further knowledge and tools to enhance management. A field survey was conducted, within six regions, to locate and measure Acropora patches in the reef lagoon. Density, colony size and living tissue cover of Acropora colonies were evaluated using the line-intercept transect technique, combining direct observations and video transects. The results showed that Acropora spp. was preferentially distributed in the southern regions; where cover and density were high. Based on these results and considering that Acropora spp. produces landscape heterogeneity, which in turn generates shelter for other species, including some of considerable economic importance, then at least the South East region should be considered as a key area for Acropora species conservation, and should be included in the Chinchorro Bank management plan.

  11. Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem (South Brazilian Bight)

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Codina, Juan Carlos Ugaz

    2015-01-01

    The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous zooplankton in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45’S; 47°33’W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. Zooplankton samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (>70 m); warm (>20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3–0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most zooplankton absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of most species, which typically inhabit epipelagic warm waters. Even among migratory species, only a few (Aglaura hemistoma, Abylopsis tetragona eudoxids, Beroe sp., Thalia democratica, Salpa fusiformis) crossed the thermocline and reached the bottom layer. (ii) A general tendency of partial migrations, with variable intensity depending on the different species and developmental stages; populations tended to be more widely distributed through the water column during daylight, and to become more aggregated in the upper layer during the night, which can be explained based on the idea of the “hunger-satiation hypothesis”, maximizing feeding and minimizing the chances of being predated. PMID:26637179

  12. [Spectral diversity among the members of the family of Green Fluorescent Protein in hydroid jellyfish (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)].

    PubMed

    Ianushevich, Iu G; Shagin, D A; Fradkov, A F; Shakhbazov, K S; Barsova, E V; Gurskaia, N G; Labas, Iu A; Matts, M V; Luk'ianov, k A; Lul'ianov, S A

    2005-01-01

    The cDNAs encoding the genes of new proteins homologous to the well-known Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) from the hydroid jellyfish Aequorea victoria were cloned. Two green fluorescent proteins from one un-identified anthojellyfish, a yellow fluorescent protein from Phialidium sp., and a nonfluorescent chromoprotein from another unidentified anthojellyfish were characterized. Thus, a broad diversity of GFP-like proteins among the organisms of the class Hydrozoa in both spectral properties and primary structure was shown.

  13. Revision of the genus Adelogorgia Bayer, 1958 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia) with the description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Breedy, Odalisca; Guzman, Hector M

    2018-01-05

    The genus Adelogorgia is distinguished from other holaxonians in having conspicuously ornamented double-disc sclerites and leaf clubs in the coenenchyme, and non-mineralised axis cores. The two eastern Pacific species currently recognised as Adelogorgia are diagnosed and illustrated. Three new species for the genus are described from new localities and depth ranges. Analysis of external and internal characters, especially sclerite colours and sizes, and colony colour, shape and branching, allows separating the species. An identification key to the five species is provided, as well as a character table for comparisons. This study was based on newly collected specimens from 50 to 200 m deep, and re-examination of all historical material. We conclude that the genus comprises five valid species with a wider distribution than previously reported. This research is a contribution to the octocoral systematics and biodiversity from mesophotic and deep waters.

  14. Deep-water scleractinian corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from 2010-2011 INDEMARES expeditions to the Galicia Bank (Spain, northeast Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Altuna, Alvaro

    2017-11-23

    During surveys in the Galicia Bank (northeastern Atlantic) in the years 2010-2011 (INDEMARES project), 25 species of scleractinian corals corals were collected in a depth interval of 744-1764 m. Most interesting species are described and depicted. Additionally, species list and remarks are given for the 23 species dredged in the bank during the 1987 SEAMOUNT 1 expedition at 675-1125 m depth.From a literature review and new records from Galicia Bank given herein, 31 species of scleractinian corals are known from this seamount in a depth interval of 614-1764 m depth. Six are colonial and 25 solitary, with 17 occurring on hard bottoms and 14 on soft bottoms. Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata are the most widely distributed species in both number of stations and depth range of specimens collected alive. Some species were recorded outside their previously known bathymetric ranges in the northeastern Atlantic. Javania pseudoalabastra is first documented for the Iberian Peninsula and Spanish faunas. Thrypticotrochus sp. is first collected from the Atlantic Ocean.

  15. A new Fenestrulina (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) commensal with tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria, Ceriantharia) in the tropical southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leandro M; Stampar, Sergio N

    2014-03-21

    A new species of cheilostome bryozoan, Fenestrulina commensalis n. sp., was collected in December 2008 by scuba at 5-10 meters depth at Guaibura Beach, Guarapari, Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The specimen was found associated with tubes of the cerianthid Pachycerianthus sp., representing the first commensal association between a bryozoan and a tube-dwelling anemone. Fenestrulina commensalis n. sp. is the third species of the genus found in Brazilian waters; it is distinguished from other Atlantic species of Fenestrulina by its small angular orificial condyles, a single oral spine and basal anchoring rhizoids arising from abfrontal pore chambers. Morphological adaptations to encrust the tubes of cerianthids include anchoring rootlets and weakly contiguous zooids. These morphological features allow the colony the flexibility to grow around the tube and feed relatively undisturbed by silt and detritus, being raised well above the soft-sediment substratum in which the tube-anemone grows.

  16. Occurrence and biogeography of hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from deep-water coral habitats off the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Nizinski, Martha S.; Ross, Steve W.

    2008-06-01

    Deep-water coral habitats off the southeastern USA (SEUS) support diverse fish and invertebrate assemblages, but are poorly explored. This study is the first to report on the hydroids collected from these habitats in this area. Thirty-five species, including two species that are likely new to science, were identified from samples collected primarily by manned submersible during 2001-2005 from deep-water coral habitats off North Carolina to east-central Florida. Eleven of the species had not been reported since the 19th to mid-20th century. Ten species, and one family, the Rosalindidae, are documented for the first time in the SEUS. Latitudinal ranges of 15 species are extended, and the deepest records in the western North Atlantic for 10 species are reported. A species accumulation curve illustrated that we continue to add to our knowledge of hydroid diversity in these habitats. Sexually mature individuals were collected for 19 species during the summer to early autumn months. Most of the observed species (89%) liberate planula larvae as part of their life cycles, suggesting that these species exhibit a reproductive strategy that reduces the risk of dispersal to sub-optimal habitats. Hydroids occurred across various substrata including coral rubble, live corals, rock and other animal hosts including hydroids themselves. All observed species were regionally widespread with typically deep-neritic to bathyal sub-tropical/tropical distributions. Hydroid assemblages from deep-water SEUS coral habitats were most similar to those from adjacent deep-water habitats off the SEUS (17 shared species), and those in the Straits of Florida/Bahamas and Caribbean/West Indian regions (14 and 8 shared species, respectively). The similarity to sub-tropical and tropical assemblages and the richness of plumularioids in the SEUS deep-water coral habitats support the idea of a Pleistocene intrusion of tropical species northwards following an intensification of the Gulf Stream from the Caribbean.

  17. Myxobolus sp. and Henneguya sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae) natural co-infection in the kidney of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae).

    PubMed

    Manrique, Wilson Gómez; Figueiredo, Mayra Araguaia Pereira; de Andrade Belo, Marco Antonio; Martins, Maurício Laterça; Molnár, Kálmán

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the myxozoan infection and histopathology of the kidney of freshwater fish Piaractus mesopotamicus from intensive fish farming in Brazil. A total of 55 fish were examined for myxozoan infection. Infected organs were processed by usual histology and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN). From the total of 55 fish analyzed, 47 (85.45%) presented myxospores, being 9.09% (5/55) only with Myxobolus sp., 5.45% (3/55) only with Henneguya sp., and 70.91% (39/55) presenting both parasites. The presence of myxospores was associated with histological alterations in both stromal and renal parenchyma. Myxospores were found mostly in the peritubular interstitial tissue and in low intensity in the glomerulus which caused nuclear hypertrophy and loss of Bowman space. An increase in the glomerular tuft and a reduction in the lumen of the collector tubules were also observed, besides the high number of melanomacrophage cells in the glomerulus. This study reports for the first time detection of myxozoan mixed infection in one organ of pacu and discuss the possible transportation of myxospores in the circulating blood.

  18. Symbiotic association between Solanderia secunda (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Solanderiidae) and Medioantenna variopinta sp. nov. (Annelida, Polychaeta, Polynoidae) from North Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Martin, Daniel; Britayev, Temir A.

    2011-12-01

    A mimic scale-worm was found associated with the athecate hydroid Solanderia secunda, commonly found on reefs of the NW coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The species resembled Medioantenna clavata Imajima 1997, which was originally described without any reference to a symbiotic mode of life and later reported to be living on a solanderiid hydroid both in Japanese waters. A detailed morphological analysis led us to consider the Indonesian specimens as a new species, namely Medioantenna variopinta sp. nov., which is congeneric with the Japanese species. The new species differs from the type material of M. clavata as it has elytra with one prominent finger-like papilla and all neurochaetae with unidentate tip, instead of an elytral lump and both unidentate and bidentate neurochaetae on segment two. In turn, the Japanese worms associated with Solanderia are here referred to our new species. Two morphological features in M. variopinta sp. nov. are rather unusual among scale-worms. One of them is its extremely high level of bilateral asymmetry and antero-posterior variability in elytral distribution and the other one is its elongated, upwardly directed nephridial papillae. The morphology and geographical distribution of the host together with the known characteristics of the symbiotic association have also been highlighted.

  19. Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem (South Brazilian Bight).

    PubMed

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Codina, Juan Carlos Ugaz

    2015-01-01

    The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous zooplankton in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45'S; 47°33'W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. Zooplankton samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (>70 m); warm (>20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3-0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most zooplankton absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of most species, which typically inhabit epipelagic warm waters. Even among migratory species, only a few (Aglaura hemistoma, Abylopsis tetragona eudoxids, Beroe sp., Thalia democratica, Salpa fusiformis) crossed the thermocline and reached the bottom layer. (ii) A general tendency of partial migrations, with variable intensity depending on the different species and developmental stages; populations tended to be more widely distributed through the water column during daylight, and to become more aggregated in the upper layer during the night, which can be explained based on the idea of the "hunger-satiation hypothesis", maximizing feeding and minimizing the chances of being predated.

  20. Reconstructing skeletal fiber arrangement and growth mode in the coral Porites lutea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia): a confocal Raman microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, M.; Nehrke, G.

    2012-11-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) mapping was used to investigate the microstructural arrangement and organic matrix distribution within the skeleton of the coral Porites lutea. Relative changes in the crystallographic orientation of crystals within the fibrous fan-system could be mapped, without the need to prepare thin sections, as required if this information is obtained by polarized light microscopy. Simultaneously, incremental growth lines can be visualized without the necessity of etching and hence alteration of sample surface. Using these methods two types of growth lines could be identified: one corresponds to the well-known incremental growth layers, whereas the second type of growth lines resemble denticle finger-like structures (most likely traces of former spines or skeletal surfaces). We hypothesize that these lines represent the outer skeletal surface before another growth cycle of elongation, infilling and thickening of skeletal areas continues. We show that CRM mapping with high spatial resolution can significantly improve our understanding of the micro-structural arrangement and growth patterns in coral skeletons.

  1. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    PubMed

    Isomura, Naoko; Iwao, Kenji; Fukami, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  2. A case of modular phenotypic plasticity in the depth gradient for the gorgonian coral Antillogorgia bipinnata (Cnidaria: Octocorallia).

    PubMed

    Calixto-Botía, Iván; Sánchez, Juan A

    2017-02-17

    Phenotypic plasticity, as a phenotypic response induced by the environment, has been proposed as a key factor in the evolutionary history of corals. A significant number of octocoral species show high phenotypic variation, exhibiting a strong overlap in intra- and inter-specific morphologic variation. This is the case of the gorgonian octocoral Antillogorgia bipinnata (Verrill 1864), which shows three polyphyletic morphotypes along a bathymetric gradient. This research tested the phenotypic plasticity of modular traits in A. bipinnata with a reciprocal transplant experiment involving 256 explants from two morphotypes in two locations and at two depths. Vertical and horizontal length and number of new branches were compared 13 weeks following transplant. The data were analysed with a linear mixed-effects model and a graphic approach by reaction norms. At the end of the experiment, 91.8% of explants survived. Lower vertical and horizontal growth rates and lower branch promotion were found for deep environments compared to shallow environments. The overall variation behaved similarly to the performance of native transplants. In particular, promotion of new branches showed variance mainly due to a phenotypic plastic effect. Globally, environmental and genotypic effects explain the variation of the assessed traits. Survival rates besides plastic responses suggest an intermediate scenario between adaptive plasticity and local adaptation that may drive a potential process of adaptive divergence along depth cline in A. bipinnata.

  3. Reproductive biology of the deep-water coral Acanella arbuscula (Phylum Cnidaria: Class Anthozoa: Order Alcyonacea), northwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beazley, Lindsay I.; Kenchington, Ellen L.

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive life-history of deep-water corals is important for assessing their vulnerability to anthropogenic impacts. Yet, the reproductive biology of many deep-water corals, especially members of the subclass Octocorallia, has not been examined. We used histological techniques to describe the reproductive biology of the deep-water gorgonian coral Acanella arbuscula from the northwest Atlantic. All colonies examined were gonochoric, and no embryos or planula larvae were observed in the polyps. Mean polyp-level fecundity (females: 21.0±17.5 oocytes polyp-1, and males: 13.9±13.5 sperm sacs polyp-1) is high compared to other deep-water gorgonians, and polyps closer to the branch tips had the highest fecundities in both females and males. The presence of large oocytes (maximum diameter 717.8 μm) suggests that A. arbuscula produces lecithotrophic larvae. Despite the potentially high fecundity and small size at first reproduction, the paucity of information on dispersal and recruitment, combined with its longevity, vulnerability to bottom fishing gear, and ecological role as a structure-forming species, still warrants the classification of A. arbuscula as a vulnerable marine ecosystem indicator.

  4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and related molecules in the sea fan Eunicella cavolini (Cnidaria: Octocorallia): a biochemical and immunohistochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Girosi, Laura; Ferrando, Sara; Beltrame, Francesco; Ciarcia, Gaetano; Diaspro, Alberto; Fato, Marco; Magnone, Mirko; Raiteri, Luca; Ramoino, Paola; Tagliafierro, Grazia

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study has been the biochemical demonstration of the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the Mediterranean sea fan Eunicella cavolini by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, and the description of the distribution pattern of GABA and its related molecules, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) and one of the GABA receptors (GABA(B) R) by immunohistochemical methods. The interrelationships of GABA, GAD and GABA receptor immunoreactivity have been established by using double-immunohistochemical methods and confocal microscopy. The immunodetection of monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies has revealed GABA immunoreactivity throughout the polyp tissue, both in neuronal and non-neuronal elements. GAD immunoreactivity has been mostly localized in the neuronal compartment, contacting epithelial and muscular elements. GABA(B) R immunoreactivity appears particularly intense in the nematocytes and in the oocyte envelope; its presence in GAD-immunoreactive neurons in the tentacles suggests an autocrine type of regulation. Western blot analysis has confirmed that a GABA(B) R, with a molecular weight of 142 kDa, similar to that of rat brain, is present in E. cavolini polyp tissue. The identification of the sites of the synthesis, vesicular transport, storage and reception of GABA strongly suggests the presence of an almost complete set of GABA-related molecules for the functioning of the GABAergic system in this simple nervous system. The distribution of these different immunoreactivities has allowed us to hypothesize GABA involvement in nematocyst discharge, in body wall and enteric muscular contraction, in neuronal integration and in male gametocyte differentiation.

  5. The unusual toxicity and stability properties of crude venom from isolated nematocysts of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Marino, A; Crupi, R; Rizzo, G; Morabito, R; Musci, G; La Spada, G

    2007-09-17

    We have firstly investigated the toxicological activity by hemolytic assay of crude extract obtained by sonication of holotrichous isorhiza isolated nematocysts of the Scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca, collected in the Strait of Messina. The hemolytic activity was both time- and dose-dependent on fish, rabbit, chicken and human red blood cells. At lowest doses rabbit and chicken erythrocytes were the most sensitive, whereas those of eel were the most resistant to the crude extract. Different storage conditions, such as -20 degrees C, -80 degrees C for up to 6 months and lyophilization, did not affect the stability of crude venom. Moreover, neither treatment at 4 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 37 degrees C for different time periods ranging between 30 min and 24 h, nor harsh thermal treatment at 80 degrees C and 100 degrees C affected the hemolytic power. The crude venom resulted even stable towards proteolysis and alkaline pH values.

  6. Characterising the enzymatic profile of crude tentacle extracts from the South Atlantic jellyfish Olindias sambaquiensis (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Knittel, Paloma S; Long, Paul F; Brammall, Lucas; Marques, Antonio C; Almeida, Michelle T; Padilla, Gabriel; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M

    2016-09-01

    Jellyfish venoms are of medical and biotechnological importance, with toxins displaying antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-tumor activities. Although proteolytic enzymes have also been described, detailed characterisation of these proteins is scant in Olindias spp. High throughput mass spectrometry profiling of cnidarian venoms has become increasingly popular since the first description of the proteomic profile of putative toxins isolated from nematocysts of the hydrozoan jellyfish Olindias sambaquiensis describing the presence of orthologous enzymes as presented in venoms of advanced species as snakes. Rigorous bioinformatics analyses can aid functional annotation, but biochemical assays are prerequisite to unambiguously assign toxic function to a peptide or protein. Here we present results that experimentally confirm previously predicted proteomic analysis that crude venom extracts from tentacles of O. sambaquiensis are composed of polypeptides with metalloproteinase, serine proteinase and phospholipases A2 activities. Surprisingly, levels of serine proteinase and phospholipase A2 activities were comparable to those observed in venoms of Bothrops snakes which were used as positive controls in this study. Hence, these data offer new opportunities to explore serine proteinase and phospholipase A2 activities in the clinical sequelae following O. sambaquiensis envenomation, with future possible biopharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Elucidating the evolutionary relationships of the Aiptasiidae, a widespread cnidarian-dinoflagellate model system (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Metridioidea).

    PubMed

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones of the family Aiptasiidae sensu Grajales and Rodríguez (2014) are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments, including several species widely used as model systems for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. Although previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones recovered Aiptasiidae as polyphyletic, they only included a sparse sample in terms of its taxonomic diversity and membership of the family had not been yet revised. This study explores the phylogenetic relationships of this family using five molecular markers and including newly collected material from the geographical distribution of most of the currently described genera and species. We find a monophyletic family Aiptasiidae. All the currently proposed genera were recovered as monophyletic units, a finding also supported by diagnostic morphological characters. Our results confirm Bellactis and Laviactis as members of Aiptasiidae, also in agreement with previous morphological studies. The monophyly of the group is congruent with the morphological homogeneity of the members of this family. The obtained results also allow discussing the evolution of morphological characters within the family. Furthermore, we find evidence for and describe a new cryptic species, Exaiptasia brasiliensis sp. nov., based on molecular data, geographical distribution, and the identity of its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patterns of trace element bioaccumulation in jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon from SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; Peñas Castejón, Jose Matías; García, Gregorio

    2016-09-15

    The effects of an abandoned mining area, exploited for centuries in the mining district of Cartagena-La Union, result in a continuous supply of heavy metals into the Mar Menor coastal lagoon after rain episodes. As a consequence, concentration of trace elements in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, this study assessed the ability of Rhizostoma pulmo to bioaccumulate trace elements. A total of 57 individuals were sampled at eight different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentrations of different analyzed elements (Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were moderate, bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content, because of their potential environmental and health implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental control of asexual reproduction and somatic growth of Aurelia spp. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) polyps from the Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hubot, Nathan; Lucas, Cathy H.

    2017-01-01

    Polyps of two moon jellyfish species, Aurelia coerulea and A. relicta, from two Adriatic Sea coastal habitats were incubated under multiple combinations of temperature (14, 21°C), salinity (24, 37 ppt) and food regime (9.3, 18.6, 27.9 μg C ind−1 week−1) to comparatively assess how these factors may influence major asexual reproduction processes in the two species. Both species exhibited a shared pattern of budding mode (Directly Budded Polyps: DBP; Stolonal Budded Polyps: SBP), with DBP favoured under low food supply (9.3 μg C ind −1 week−1) and low temperature (14°C), and SBP dominant under high temperature (21°C). However, A. coerulea showed an overall higher productivity than A. relicta, in terms of budding and podocyst production rates. Further, A. coerulea exhibited a wide physiological plasticity across different temperatures and salinities as typical adaptation to ecological features of transitional coastal habitats. This may support the hypothesis that the invasion of A. coerulea across coastal habitats worldwide has been driven by shellfish aquaculture, with scyphistoma polyps and resting stages commonly found on bivalve shells. On the contrary, A. relicta appears to be strongly stenovalent, with cold, marine environmental optimal preferences (salinity 37 ppt, T ranging 14–19°C), corroborating the hypothesis of endemicity within the highly peculiar habitat of the Mljet lake. By exposing A. relicta polyps to slightly higher temperature (21°C), a previously unknown developmental mode was observed, by the sessile polyp regressing into a dispersive, temporarily unattached and tentacle-less, non-feeding stage. This may allow A. relicta polyps to escape climatic anomalies associated to warming of surface layers and deepening of isotherms, by moving into deeper, colder layers. Overall, investigations on species-specific eco-physiological and ontogenetic potentials of polyp stages may contribute to clarify the biogeographic distribution of jellyfish and the phylogenetic relationships among evolutionary related sister clades. PMID:28614409

  10. Crude venom from nematocysts of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) elicits a sodium conductance in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, Rossana; Costa, Roberta; Rizzo, Valentina; Remigante, Alessia; Nofziger, Charity; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela; Paulmichl, Markus; Dossena, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Cnidarians may negatively impact human activities and public health but concomitantly their venom represents a rich source of bioactive substances. Pelagia noctiluca is the most venomous and abundant jellyfish of the Mediterranean Sea and possesses a venom with hemolytic and cytolytic activity for which the mechanism is largely unknown. Here we show that exposure of mammalian cells to crude venom from the nematocysts of P. noctiluca profoundly alters the ion conductance of the plasma membrane, therefore affecting homeostatic functions such as the regulation and maintenance of cellular volume. Venom-treated cells exhibited a large, inwardly rectifying current mainly due to permeation of Na+ and Cl-, sensitive to amiloride and completely abrogated following harsh thermal treatment of crude venom extract. Curiously, the plasma membrane conductance of Ca2+ and K+ was not affected. Current-inducing activity was also observed following delivery of venom to the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane, consistent with a pore-forming mechanism. Venom-induced NaCl influx followed by water and consequent cell swelling most likely underlie the hemolytic and cytolytic activity of P. noctiluca venom. The present study underscores unique properties of P. noctiluca venom and provides essential information for a possible use of its active compounds and treatment of envenomation.

  11. Environmental control of asexual reproduction and somatic growth of Aurelia spp. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) polyps from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hubot, Nathan; Lucas, Cathy H; Piraino, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Polyps of two moon jellyfish species, Aurelia coerulea and A. relicta, from two Adriatic Sea coastal habitats were incubated under multiple combinations of temperature (14, 21°C), salinity (24, 37 ppt) and food regime (9.3, 18.6, 27.9 μg C ind-1 week-1) to comparatively assess how these factors may influence major asexual reproduction processes in the two species. Both species exhibited a shared pattern of budding mode (Directly Budded Polyps: DBP; Stolonal Budded Polyps: SBP), with DBP favoured under low food supply (9.3 μg C ind -1 week-1) and low temperature (14°C), and SBP dominant under high temperature (21°C). However, A. coerulea showed an overall higher productivity than A. relicta, in terms of budding and podocyst production rates. Further, A. coerulea exhibited a wide physiological plasticity across different temperatures and salinities as typical adaptation to ecological features of transitional coastal habitats. This may support the hypothesis that the invasion of A. coerulea across coastal habitats worldwide has been driven by shellfish aquaculture, with scyphistoma polyps and resting stages commonly found on bivalve shells. On the contrary, A. relicta appears to be strongly stenovalent, with cold, marine environmental optimal preferences (salinity 37 ppt, T ranging 14-19°C), corroborating the hypothesis of endemicity within the highly peculiar habitat of the Mljet lake. By exposing A. relicta polyps to slightly higher temperature (21°C), a previously unknown developmental mode was observed, by the sessile polyp regressing into a dispersive, temporarily unattached and tentacle-less, non-feeding stage. This may allow A. relicta polyps to escape climatic anomalies associated to warming of surface layers and deepening of isotherms, by moving into deeper, colder layers. Overall, investigations on species-specific eco-physiological and ontogenetic potentials of polyp stages may contribute to clarify the biogeographic distribution of jellyfish and the phylogenetic relationships among evolutionary related sister clades.

  12. First evidence of inbreeding, relatedness and chaotic genetic patchiness in the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Aglieri, Giorgio; Papetti, Chiara; Zane, Lorenzo; Milisenda, Giacomo; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Genetic drift and non-random mating seldom influence species with large breeding populations and high dispersal potential, characterized by unstructured gene pool and panmixia at a scale lower than the minimum dispersal range of individuals. In the present study, a set of nine microsatellite markers was developed and used to investigate the spatio-temporal genetic patterns of the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Homozygote excess was detected at eight loci, and individuals exhibited intra-population relatedness higher than expected by chance in at least three samples. This result was supported by the presence of siblings in at least 5 out 8 samples, 4 of which contained full-sib in addition to half-sib dyads. Having tested and ruled out alternative explanations as null alleles, our results suggest the influence of reproductive and behavioural features in shaping the genetic structure of P. noctiluca, as outcomes of population genetics analyses pointed out. Indeed, the genetic differentiation among populations was globally small but highlighted: a) a spatial genetic patchiness uncorrelated with distance between sampling locations, and b) a significant genetic heterogeneity between samples collected in the same locations in different years. Therefore, despite its extreme dispersal potential, P. noctiluca does not maintain a single homogenous population, but rather these jellyfish appear to have intra-bloom localized recruitment and/or individual cohesiveness, whereby siblings more likely swarm together as a single group and remain close after spawning events. These findings provide the first evidence of family structures and consequent genetic patchiness in a species with highly dispersive potential throughout its whole life cycle, contributing to understanding the patterns of dispersal and connectivity in marine environments.

  13. Physiological and chemical analysis of neurotransmitter candidates at a fast excitatory synapse in the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter A V; Trapido-Rosenthal, H G

    2009-12-01

    Motor nerve net (MNN) neurons in the jellyfish Cyanea capillata communicate with one another by way of fast, bidirectional excitatory chemical synapses. As is the case with almost all identified chemical synapses in cnidarians, the identity of the neurotransmitter at these synapses is unclear. MNN neurons are large enough for stable intracellular recordings. This, together with the fact that they can be exposed, providing unlimited access to them and to their synapses, prompted a study of the action of a variety of neurotransmitter candidates, including those typically associated with fast synapses in higher animals. Only the amino acids taurine and beta-alanine produced physiological responses consistent with those of the normal EPSP in these cells. Moreover, chemical analysis revealed that both taurine and beta-alanine are present in the neurons and released by depolarization. These various findings strongly suggest that either or both of these amino acids, or a closely related compound is the neurotransmitter at the fast chemical synapses between MNN neurons.

  14. First Evidence of Inbreeding, Relatedness and Chaotic Genetic Patchiness in the Holoplanktonic Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria)

    PubMed Central

    Aglieri, Giorgio; Papetti, Chiara; Zane, Lorenzo; Milisenda, Giacomo; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Genetic drift and non-random mating seldom influence species with large breeding populations and high dispersal potential, characterized by unstructured gene pool and panmixia at a scale lower than the minimum dispersal range of individuals. In the present study, a set of nine microsatellite markers was developed and used to investigate the spatio-temporal genetic patterns of the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Homozygote excess was detected at eight loci, and individuals exhibited intra-population relatedness higher than expected by chance in at least three samples. This result was supported by the presence of siblings in at least 5 out 8 samples, 4 of which contained full-sib in addition to half-sib dyads. Having tested and ruled out alternative explanations as null alleles, our results suggest the influence of reproductive and behavioural features in shaping the genetic structure of P. noctiluca, as outcomes of population genetics analyses pointed out. Indeed, the genetic differentiation among populations was globally small but highlighted: a) a spatial genetic patchiness uncorrelated with distance between sampling locations, and b) a significant genetic heterogeneity between samples collected in the same locations in different years. Therefore, despite its extreme dispersal potential, P. noctiluca does not maintain a single homogenous population, but rather these jellyfish appear to have intra-bloom localized recruitment and/or individual cohesiveness, whereby siblings more likely swarm together as a single group and remain close after spawning events. These findings provide the first evidence of family structures and consequent genetic patchiness in a species with highly dispersive potential throughout its whole life cycle, contributing to understanding the patterns of dispersal and connectivity in marine environments. PMID:24977703

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of a novel myxosporean parasite Myxobolus bejeranoi n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) from hybrid tilapia in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lövy, Alena; Smirnov, Margarita; Brekhman, Vera; Ofek, Tamir; Lotan, Tamar

    2018-02-01

    Myxosporean infections can cause severe damage to commercially grown tilapia. Here, we report a novel myxosporean that was found in gills of Oreochromis aureus male × Oreochromis niloticus female, which is an important aquaculture tilapia hybrid in Israel. Three-month-old fish were found to have cysts located in gill muscle tissue, which were filled with both immature and mature spores. Affected fish displayed higher mortality rate. Spore dimensions (10.8 ± 0.7 μm length × 6.8 ± 0.6 μm width) and molecular characterization using 18S ribosomal DNA revealed that the unknown parasite belongs in the Myxobolus clade. Based on the infection site, spore morphology and molecular characterization, we describe this parasite as Myxobolus bejeranoi n. sp. (MF401455). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the new species is most closely related to two Myxobolus spp. from O. niloticus in Egypt and Ghana.

  16. Reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum and Protopalythoa valilbilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) from the southeastern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, H K; Silveira, F L

    2005-02-01

    The reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum (Duchassaing & Michelotti 1860) and Protopalythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898) was studied through monthly samples from tagged colonies from June 1996 to June 1997, in Sao Sebastiao channel, São Paulo, Brazil (45 degrees 26'W, 23 degrees 50'S). The gametogenesis was similar to that of other zoanthids as shown by histological preparations. Oocyte diameters and maturation stages of testis vesicles were evaluated on squash preparations. Both species showed sequential protogynic hermaphroditism, with high frequency of fertile polyps (83% in P. variabilis and 72% in P. caribaeorun), high frequency of colonies in female sex condition (65.3% of P variabilis and 41.7% of P caribaeorum), and apparently continuous gametogenesis. In P. caribaribaeonrum, egg release was continuous and sperm release took place during half of the analyzed period. In P. variabilis, egg and sperm release occurred in April-May and February-March 1997, respectively.

  17. Using hydrofluoric acid for morphological investigations of Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): a critical assessment of methodology and necessity.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James Davis; Nakachi, Shu; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi; Hashiguchi, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Zoanthids comprise an order of benthic, generally colonial cnidarians, which can usually be distinguished from other hexacorallians by embedded sand and detritus in their mesoglea to help strengthen their structure. These animals are becoming increasingly important research subjects in biochemistry and other research fields. Their inclusion of both calcium and silica results in the need for both decalcification and desilification for internal morphological examinations. Since the methodology of hydrofluoric acid (HF) desilification has rarely been documented in zoanthids, histological surveys for zoanthid taxonomy have often been abandoned and their taxonomy is often problematic. Recent investigations utilizing molecular methods have brought a clearer understanding of zoanthid diversity, but standardization of HF treatments are still needed to provide a link between molecular and more traditional techniques, and to properly examine specimens for which molecular methods may not be an option (e.g., formalin-preserved specimens, etc.). Here, we use both "straight" HF and, for the first time with zoanthids, buffered HF (BHF) treatments at different treatment lengths (1-48 h) on polyps from three different species of zoanthids for histological examination. Section conditions were judged based on the presence/absence of embedded detritus, drag marks, and tissue condition. Results show that the BHF treatment resulted in slightly better tissue conditions for all specimens, and suggest that desilification works well regardless of treatment time for species with smaller (polyp diameter <0.5 cm), less heavily encrusted polyps. Desilification of heavily encrusted Palythoa mutuki polyps were still problematic, with at least 24 h treatment needed. To aid future research, we provide guidelines for HF treatments of zoanthid specimens.

  18. Echinophyllia tarae sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), a new reef coral species from the Gambier Islands, French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    Benzoni, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new shallow water scleractinian coral species, Echinophyllia tarae sp. n., is described from the Gambier Islands, French Polynesia. It is characterized by an encrusting corallum, a few large and highly variable corallites with protruding walls, and distinctive costosepta. This coral was observed in muddy environments where several colonies showed partial mortality and re-growth. The new species has morphological affinities with both Echinophyllia echinata and with Echinomorpha nishihirai, from which it can be distinguished on the basis of the diameter and the protrusion of the largest corallite, the thickness of the septa, and the development of the size of the crown of paliform lobes. PMID:23950677

  19. INTERSPECIFIC AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF THE CORALLIMORPHARIAN CORYNACTIS CALIFORNICA (CNIDARIA: ANTHOZOA): EFFECTS ON SYMPATRIC CORALS AND SEA ANEMONES.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Nanette E

    1987-08-01

    Corallimorpharians are sessile cnidarians that are morphologically similar to the actiniarian sea anemones and scleractinian corals. This study describes for the first time the behavioral mechanism and effects of aggression by a corallimorpharian. Polyps of the temperate clonal corallimorpharian Corynactis californica extruded their mesenteries and associated filaments onto members of certain species of sea anemones and corals. They did not exhibit this behavior intraspecifically, and members of different clones of C. californica remained expanded upon contact. In contrast, members of four species of corals and zoanthids responded to contact with C. californica by contracting their tentacles, and members of three sea anemone species bent or moved away, detached from the substrate, or attacked using their aggressive structures. When interspecific contact was prolonged, individuals of C. californica extruded filaments onto, and killed polyps of, the sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima and Metridium senile within 3 weeks, and the corals Astrangia lajollaensis and Balanophyllia elegans within 4-10 months under laboratory conditions. The use of extruded mesenterial filaments by C. californica to attack members of other anthozoan species is similar to the aggressive behavior exhibited by many scleractinian reef corals. Field observations suggest that C. californica may use this agonistic behavior during interspecific competition for space on hard marine substrate.

  20. Control of head morphogenesis in an invertebrate asexually produced larva-like bud ( Cassiopea andromeda; Cnidaria: Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Thieme, Claudia; Hofmann, Dietrich Kurt

    2003-04-01

    Scyphopolyps of Cassiopea andromeda propagate asexually by forming larva-like buds which separate from the parent in a developmentally quiescent state. These buds metamorphose into sessile polyps when exposed to specific biogenic, chemical inducers. Morphogenesis of transversely dissected buds indicates the presence of pattern-determining signals; whereas the basal bud fragments may still form a complete scyphistoma the apical bud fragments develop spontaneously in the absence of an inducer into a polyp head without stalk and foot. Based on these findings Neumann (dissertation, Cologne University, 1980) postulated a head-inhibiting signal which is released at the basal pole and inhibits head formation at the apical end. Contrary to this hypothesis dissection itself might induce the development of head structures. The present study deals with the control of polyp head formation in C. andromeda. It concentrates on two points, namely the postulated head inhibitor and the involvement of compounds known to act during metamorphosis (the enzyme protein kinase C and the specific metamorphosis inducer Z-GPGGPA). We found that compared to intact buds and apical bud fragments transversely incised buds reached an intermediate stage of head development. This confirms Neumann's hypothesis. Consequently we focused on the mode of action and the chemical nature of the head-inhibiting signal in C. andromeda. Our results indicate that the head inhibitor may be included in one of six pooled fractions isolated from bud homogenate via gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column. The inhibitor is supposed to be water-soluble and to have a molecular weight of 850-1,500 Da. Furthermore we prove that head formation is not promoted by the metamorphosis-inducer Z-GPGGPA but is prevented by the inhibitors psychosine, chelerythrine and RO-32-0432 showing the involvement of protein kinase C in this process.

  1. Preliminary Study on Nematocyst Types and Venom Isolation of Cassiopea andromeda Forskål, 1775 (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülşahin, Nurçin

    2016-01-01

    Nematocyst types of Cassiopea andromeda were investigated. Medusae samples were taken from Güllük Bay, Muğla, Turkey. Nematocyst samples from oral arms of C. andromeda were observed on light microscope and photographed. Birhopaloid and a-isorhiza nematocyst types were found in C. andromeda. Moreover, it was seen that nematocyst sizes increased with increasing the bell diameters of the individuals. Also, the venom of the species was isolated and injected intramuscularly to Cyprinus carpio juveniles. Signs of partial paralysis, raking, and immobilized fins were observed in the juveniles consequently. Death was observed for the fishes which were 3-4 g in the range of weight. This study is a preliminary work on nematocysts and venom of C. andromeda. Further studies on neurotoxic effects of nematocyst venoms of this species should follow.

  2. Cyphastrea kausti sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), a new species of reef coral from the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bouwmeester, Jessica; Benzoni, Francesca; Baird, Andrew H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new scleractinian coral species, Cyphastrea kausti sp. n., is described from 13 specimens from the Red Sea. It is characterised by the presence of eight primary septa, unlike the other species of the genus, which have six, ten or 12 primary septa. The new species has morphological affinities with Cyphastrea microphthalma, from which it can be distinguished by the lower number of septa (on average eight instead of ten), and smaller calices and corallites. This species was observed in the northern and central Red Sea and appears to be absent from the southern Red Sea. PMID:25931952

  3. Occurrence of two novel actinospore types (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) in fish farms in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Milanin, Tiago; Atkinson, Stephen D; Silva, Márcia R M; Alves, Roberto G; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R; Ribeiro, Amanda M; Maia, Antonio A M

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the involvement of oligochaetes in the life cycles of fresh water myxozoan parasites in Brazil. In a fish farm in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, we examined 192 oligochaetes and found that two (1%) released Aurantiactinomyxon type actinospores. We identified infected oligochaetes by morphology: both were Pristina synclites, from family Naididae. This is the first report of the involvement of this species in the life cycle of myxozoans. Small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of Aurantiactinomyxon type 1 (1882 nt) and Aurantiactinomyxon type 2 (1900 nt) did not match any previously sequenced myxozoan in the NCBI database, with the highest BLAST search similarities of 83% with Myxobolus batalhensis MF361090 and 93% with Henneguya maculosus KF296344, respectively, and the two aurantiactinomyxons were only 75% similar to each other (over ~ 1900 bases). Phylogenetic analyses showed that Aurantiactinomyxon type 1 had closest affinities with myxozoans from fish hosts in Order Characiformes, and Aurantiactinomyxon type 2 had affinities with myxozoans from fish of Order Siluriformes.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a steroidogenic enzyme, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 14, from the stony coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Shikina, Shinya; Chung, Yi-Jou; Chiu, Yi-Ling; Huang, Yi-Jie; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2016-03-01

    Sex steroids play a fundamental role not only in reproduction but also in various other biological processes in vertebrates. Although the presence of sex steroids has been confirmed in cnidarians (e.g., coral, sea anemone, jellyfish, and hydra), which are basal metazoans, only a few studies to date have characterized steroidogenesis-related genes in cnidarians. Based on a transcriptomic analysis of the stony coral Euphyllia ancora, we identified the steroidogenic enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 14 (17beta-hsd 14), an oxidative enzyme that catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent inactivation of estrogen/androgen (estradiol to estrone and testosterone to androstenedione) in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. ancora 17beta-Hsd 14 (Ea17beta-Hsd 14) clusters with other animal 17beta-HSD 14s but not with other members of the 17beta-HSD family. Subsequent quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a lack of correlation of Ea17beta-hsd 14 transcript levels with the coral's reproductive cycle. In addition, Ea17beta-hsd 14 transcript and protein were detected in all tissues examined, such as the tentacles, mesenterial filaments, and gonads, at similar levels in both sexes, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and Western blotting with an anti-Ea17beta-Hsd 14 antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Ea17beta-Hsd 14 is mainly distributed in the endodermal regions of the polyps, but the protein was also observed in all tissues examined. These results suggest that Ea17beta-Hsd 14 is involved in important functions that commonly occur in endodermal cells or has multiple functions in different tissues. Our data provide information for comparison with advanced animals as well as insight into the evolution of steroidogenesis-related genes in metazoans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New records of the deep-sea anemone Phelliactis callicyclus Riemann-Zurneck, 1973 (Cnidaria, Actiniaria, Hormathiidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, M E; Hinojosa-Corona, A; Ayón-Parente, M

    2016-10-20

    Specimens of a deep-sea anemone were observed in photographs and video footage taken with the Remotely Operated Vehicle JASON (WHOI Deep Submergence Laboratory) in the Gulf of California, Mexico, in May 2008. Comparison of our material with photographs and description of this species available in literature indicate that the sea anemones filmed during the JASON survey are most likely to represent Phelliactis callicyclus Riemann-Zurneck, 1973. This species has previously been reported from a locality in the Gulf of California near the present record. During the JASON survey, 28 specimens of P. callicyclus were spotted in 27 locations during six dives. The specimens occurred on angular rock outcrops along the escarpments of the transform faults of the Gulf of California, between depths of 993-2543 m and at temperatures ranging from 2.3 to 4.5°C. Based on these new records, Phelliactis callicyclus appears to be widely spread in the Gulf of California.

  6. Interannual variability, growth, reproduction and feeding of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in the Straits of Messina (Central Mediterranean Sea): Linkages with temperature and diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, S.; Pansera, M.; Granata, A.; Guglielmo, L.

    2013-02-01

    To identify some of the possible environmental factors stimulating the increasingly frequent outbreaks of the scyphomedusa Pelagia noctiluca in the Straits of Messina, we investigated its abundance, growth, reproduction and feeding over a 4-year period, from 2007 to 2011, at two coastal sites. Using either field investigations and manipulative experiments we show that, among the various factors considered, shifts in water temperature (influencing medusae metabolism, growth and reproduction rates) and the size structure of the zooplankton community (their natural preys) can promote the proliferation of P. noctiluca. In particular, we show that increased temperature let jellyfishes to grow more rapidly and reach exceptional sizes. We also report a peculiar opportunistic behavior of P. noctiluca, which makes this species a potentially strong competitor in the pelagic trophic web of the Straits ecosystem. We therefore propose that more frequent P. noctiluca outbreaks stimulated by increasing sea surface temperature and shifts in their prey availability and composition would become, in the near future, a major cause of ecosystem shift.

  7. Species-specific crab predation on the hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), subsequent crab mortality, and possible ecological consequences.

    PubMed

    Carman, Mary R; Grunden, David W; Govindarajan, Annette F

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a unique trophic interaction between the cryptogenic and sometimes highly toxic hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. and the spider crab Libinia dubia . We assessed species-specific predation on the Gonionemus medusae by crabs found in eelgrass meadows in Massachusetts, USA. The native spider crab species L. dubia consumed Gonionemus medusae, often enthusiastically, but the invasive green crab Carcinus maenus avoided consumption in all trials. One out of two blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus ) also consumed Gonionemus , but this species was too rare in our study system to evaluate further. Libinia crabs could consume up to 30 jellyfish, which was the maximum jellyfish density treatment in our experiments, over a 24-hour period. Gonionemus consumption was associated with Libinia mortality. Spider crab mortality increased with Gonionemus consumption, and 100% of spider crabs tested died within 24 h of consuming jellyfish in our maximum jellyfish density containers. As the numbers of Gonionemus medusae used in our experiments likely underestimate the number of medusae that could be encountered by spider crabs over a 24-hour period in the field, we expect that Gonionemus may be having a negative effect on natural Libinia populations. Furthermore, given that Libinia overlaps in habitat and resource use with Carcinus , which avoids Gonionemus consumption, Carcinus populations could be indirectly benefiting from this unusual crab-jellyfish trophic relationship.

  8. First Detailed Record of Symbiosis Between a Sea Anemone and Homoscleromorph Sponge, With a Description of Tempuractis rinkai gen. et sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae).

    PubMed

    Izumi, Takato; Ise, Yuji; Yanagi, Kensuke; Shibata, Daisuke; Ueshima, Rei

    2018-04-01

    A new species in a new genus of sea anemone, Tempuractis rinkai gen. et sp. nov., was discovered at several localities along the temperate rocky shores of Japan. The new species is approximately 4 mm in length and has been assigned to family Edwardsiidae, because it has eight macrocnemes, lacks sphincter and basal muscles, and possesses rounded aboral end. The sea anemone, however, also has a peculiar body shape unlike that of any other known taxa. This new species resembles some genera, especially Drillactis and Nematostella, in smooth column surface without nemathybomes or tenaculi, but is distinguishable from them by several morphological features: the presence of holotrichs and absence of nematosomes. Furthermore, this edwardsiid species exhibits a peculiar symbiotic ecology with sponges. Therefore, a new genus, Tempuractis, is proposed for this species. In the field, T. rinkai sp. nov. was always found living inside homosclerophorid sponge of the genus Oscarella, which suggests a possible obligate symbiosis between Porifera and Actiniaria. The benefit of this symbiosis is discussed on the basis of observations of live specimens, both in the aquarium and field. This is the first report of symbiosis between a sea anemone and a homoscleromorph sponge.

  9. The 'Antenna Balloon Anemone' Found in the Seto Inland Sea: New Genus and Species of Sea Anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi (Cnidaria, Actinaria, Haloclavidae).

    PubMed

    Izumi, Takato; Yanagi, Kensuke; Fujita, Toshihiko

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we report the identification of a sea anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi, collected in the Seto Inland Sea, which represents a new genus and new species. This new species has unusual tentacle and mesenterial arrangements that have not been observed in other species of Haloclavidae. There are 12 regular marginal tentacles and two 'antenna tentacles,' with the latter always rising upward and located on the oral disk near the mouth; the species is also characterized by its peculiar mesenterial pairs, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme. Furthermore, this species shows an interesting behavior: it can inflate its body like a balloon, lift above the seafloor, and drift with the sea current. The presence of a single, strong siphonoglyph, physa-like aboral end, and the lack of sphincter muscle classify this sea anemone within Haloclavidae. It resembles Peachia species, but cannot be classified in this genus as the new species has two pairs of mesenteries, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme, and irregular antenna tentacles. Therefore, we propose a new genus Antennapeachia to accommodate this species.

  10. A new genus and species of isanthid sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chilean Patagonia, Anthoparactis fossii n. gen. et sp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häussermann, Verena; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2014-09-01

    We describe a new genus and species of sea anemone from Chilean Patagonia. Anthoparactis fossii n. gen. et sp. adds another acontiate genus and species to the family Isanthidae Carlgren, 1938. Anthoparactis n. gen. differs from the other isanthid genera in having the same number of mesenteries distally and proximally, acontia with basitrichs only, and a column with verrucae distally. Anthoparactis fossii n. sp. differs from the most similar species, Isoparactis fionae Lauretta et al., 2013, in the number of cycles of mesenteries and tentacles, structures of the column, colour pattern of the oral disc, cnidae, and geographical distribution. Isanthidae now includes seven genera and 11 species.

  11. A new genus of soft coral of the family Alcyoniidae (Cnidaria, Octocorallia) with re-description of a new combination and description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Benayahu, Yehuda; McFadden, Catherine S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new genus, Aldersladum (family Alcyoniidae), is established to accommodate a previously described species, Efflatounaria sodwanae Benayahu, 1993 (family Xeniidae) from Sodwana Bay, South Africa that was wrongly assigned to the latter genus. This species is redescribed and a second new species, Aldersladum jengi from Penghu Is., Taiwan, is described. The diagnostic features of the new genus include the presence of only figure-eight shaped platelets in all parts of the colony, thus differentiating it from all known genera of the Alcyoniidae. Based on examination of additional material from other localities, the zoogeographical distribution of the genus is confirmed to include the coral reefs of South Africa, Kenya, Gulf of Oman, Taiwan and Japan. Phylogenetic analyses of two mitochondrial genes strongly support its placement in the family Alcyoniidae. PMID:21594162

  12. Morphological, histological and molecular characterization of three Myxobolus species (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) from silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Richardson in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Gu, Zemao; Liu, Yang

    2018-05-01

    Three Myxobolus species were obtained from silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Richardson in China. In the present study, we supplemented their taxonomic characteristics by the morphological, histological and molecular methods. Myxobolus kiuchowensis Chen in Chen et Ma, 1998 formed small ellipsoidal plasmodia in the intestinal wall of bighead carp. Its spores appeared asymmetrical obovate in frontal view and fusiform in lateral view. Tiny mamillary protrusion in the anterior of some spores was observed. Two pyriform polar capsules were unequal. Histologically, M. kiuchowensis infected the tunica muscularis of host intestine. Myxobolus abitus Li et Nie, 1973 formed sausage-like plasmodia in the gills of silver carp. Its spores appeared oblate in frontal view and fusiform in lateral view. Two pyriform polar capsules were unequal and an obvious inter-capsule appendix was observed. Histological examination revealed that M. abitus developed in the interlamellar-epithelium of host gills. Myxobolus pavlovskii (Akhmerov, 1954) Landsberg et Lom, 1991 formed sausage-like plasmodia both in the gills of silver carp and bighead carp. Spores of M. pavlovskii were proximate oval in frontal view and fusiform in lateral view. Two pyriform polar capsules were unequal. The BLAST search indicated the SSU rDNA sequences of M. kiuchowensis and M. abitus were not identical to any sequence, however, the SSU rDNA sequences of M. pavlovskii were identical to that of M. pavlovskii recorded previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the present three species robustly clustered together in Cyprinid group and Asia group. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Timoides agassizii Bigelow, 1904, little-known hydromedusa (Cnidaria), appears briefly in large numbers off Oman, March 2011, with additional notes about species of the genus Timoides.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Jasmine; Kharusi, Lubna Al; Mills, Claudia E; Ghielani, Hamed; Marzouki, Mohammad Al

    2013-12-11

    A bloom of the hydromedusan jellyfish, Timoides agassizii, occurred in February 2011 off the coast of Sohar, Al Batinah, Sultanate of Oman, in the Gulf of Oman. This species was first observed in 1902 in great numbers off Haddummati Atoll in the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean and has rarely been seen since. The species appeared briefly in large numbers off Oman in 2011 and subsequent observation of our 2009 samples of zooplankton from Sohar revealed that it was also present in low numbers (two collected) in one sample in 2009; these are the first records in the Indian Ocean north of the Maldives. Medusae collected off Oman were almost identical to those recorded previously from the Maldive Islands, Papua New Guinea, the Marshall Islands, Guam, the South China Sea, and Okinawa. T. agassizii is a species that likely lives for several months. It was present in our plankton samples together with large numbers of the oceanic siphonophore Physalia physalis only during a single month's samples, suggesting that the temporary bloom off Oman was likely due to the arrival of mature, open ocean medusae into nearshore waters. We see no evidence that T. agassizii has established a new population along Oman, since if so, it would likely have been present in more than one sample period. We are unable to deduce further details of the life cycle of this species from blooms of many mature individuals nearshore, about a century apart. Examination of a single damaged T. agassizii medusa from Guam, calls into question the existence of its congener, T. latistyla, known only from a single specimen.

  14. The biogenic reefs formed by the alien polychaete Hydroides dianthus (Serpulidae, Annelida) favor the polyp stage of Aurelia coerulea (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in a coastal artificial lake.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting; Wang, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Blooms of the moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea frequently occur in coastal waters. The increased availability of substrates for the settlement and proliferation of polyps due to the expansion of artificial structures in coastal areas has been proposed as a possible contributing factor in jellyfish blooms. This paper investigates whether a marine artificial lake (Fenghuang Lake) provides additional substrates for A. coerulea polyps and contributes to jellyfish blooms. High densities of A. coerulea ephyrae were discovered in this lake, with a mean density of 41 individuals/m 3 and a maximum measured density of 128 individuals/m 3 . Meanwhile, A. coerulea ephyrae were also found in the two emptying channels outside the lake, with a mean density of 13 individuals/m 3 . Underwater surveys revealed that dense colonies of A. coerulea polyps occurred mainly on biogenic reefs formed by a polychaete, which was identified as an invasive serpulid species Hydroides dianthus, based on the phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial COI gene sequences. Our study highlights the potential modification of habitats by the alien polychaete H. dianthus, which might provide complex benthic habits suitable for the settlement and proliferation of A. coerulea polyps and may contribute to jellyfish blooms in the marine artificial lake and nearby coastal waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes Suggest that Stony Corals Are Monophyletic but Most Families of Stony Corals Are Not (Order Scleractinia, Class Anthozoa, Phylum Cnidaria)

    PubMed Central

    Fukami, Hironobu; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Budd, Ann F.; Collins, Allen; Wallace, Carden; Chuang, Yao-Yang; Chen, Chienhsun; Dai, Chang-Feng; Iwao, Kenji; Sheppard, Charles; Knowlton, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Modern hard corals (Class Hexacorallia; Order Scleractinia) are widely studied because of their fundamental role in reef building and their superb fossil record extending back to the Triassic. Nevertheless, interpretations of their evolutionary relationships have been in flux for over a decade. Recent analyses undermine the legitimacy of traditional suborders, families and genera, and suggest that a non-skeletal sister clade (Order Corallimorpharia) might be imbedded within the stony corals. However, these studies either sampled a relatively limited array of taxa or assembled trees from heterogeneous data sets. Here we provide a more comprehensive analysis of Scleractinia (127 species, 75 genera, 17 families) and various outgroups, based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b), with analyses of nuclear genes (ß-tubulin, ribosomal DNA) of a subset of taxa to test unexpected relationships. Eleven of 16 families were found to be polyphyletic. Strikingly, over one third of all families as conventionally defined contain representatives from the highly divergent “robust” and “complex” clades. However, the recent suggestion that corallimorpharians are true corals that have lost their skeletons was not upheld. Relationships were supported not only by mitochondrial and nuclear genes, but also often by morphological characters which had been ignored or never noted previously. The concordance of molecular characters and more carefully examined morphological characters suggests a future of greater taxonomic stability, as well as the potential to trace the evolutionary history of this ecologically important group using fossils. PMID:18795098

  16. Mitochondrial and nuclear genes suggest that stony corals are monophyletic but most families of stony corals are not (Order Scleractinia, Class Anthozoa, Phylum Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Fukami, Hironobu; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Budd, Ann F; Collins, Allen; Wallace, Carden; Chuang, Yao-Yang; Chen, Chienhsun; Dai, Chang-Feng; Iwao, Kenji; Sheppard, Charles; Knowlton, Nancy

    2008-09-16

    Modern hard corals (Class Hexacorallia; Order Scleractinia) are widely studied because of their fundamental role in reef building and their superb fossil record extending back to the Triassic. Nevertheless, interpretations of their evolutionary relationships have been in flux for over a decade. Recent analyses undermine the legitimacy of traditional suborders, families and genera, and suggest that a non-skeletal sister clade (Order Corallimorpharia) might be imbedded within the stony corals. However, these studies either sampled a relatively limited array of taxa or assembled trees from heterogeneous data sets. Here we provide a more comprehensive analysis of Scleractinia (127 species, 75 genera, 17 families) and various outgroups, based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b), with analyses of nuclear genes (ss-tubulin, ribosomal DNA) of a subset of taxa to test unexpected relationships. Eleven of 16 families were found to be polyphyletic. Strikingly, over one third of all families as conventionally defined contain representatives from the highly divergent "robust" and "complex" clades. However, the recent suggestion that corallimorpharians are true corals that have lost their skeletons was not upheld. Relationships were supported not only by mitochondrial and nuclear genes, but also often by morphological characters which had been ignored or never noted previously. The concordance of molecular characters and more carefully examined morphological characters suggests a future of greater taxonomic stability, as well as the potential to trace the evolutionary history of this ecologically important group using fossils.

  17. Myxobolus lepomis n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae), a gill myxozoan infecting Lepomis marginatus Holbrook and Lepomis miniatus Jordan (Perciformes: Centrarchidae), in the Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Baumgartner, Wes A; Barger, Michael A; Griffin, Matt J

    2017-05-01

    A parasitological survey of freshwater fishes in the Big Thicket National Preserve in southeast Texas revealed myxozoan infections in two species of sunfish, Lepomis marginatus Holbrook and Lepomis miniatus Jordan (Perciformes: Centrarchidae). Pseudocysts were elongate-oval, 988 × 485 µm (ex L. marginatus) and 800 × 606 µm (ex L. miniatus) and demonstrated a predilection to the edge of the primary gill lamellae. Myxospores consistent with the genus Myxobolus were oblong, 16.8-21.3 (19.0 ± 0.9) µm long, 7.0-8.8 (7.9 ± 0.5) µm wide and 5.3-6.1 (5.8 ± 0.3) µm thick (ex L. marginatus) and 17.2-20.3 (18.8 ± 0.7) µm long, 7.5-9.9 (8.7 ± 0.6) µm wide, and 6.8-7.2 (7.0 ± 0.2) µm thick (ex L. miniatus); with 2 pyriform polar capsules 8.3-9.8 (9.0 ± 0.5) µm long, 2.2-2.7 (2.5 ± 0.2) µm wide (ex L. marginatus) and 9.2-10.5 (10.0 ± 0.4) µm long, 2.2-3.0 (2.8 ± 0.2) µm wide (ex L. miniatus). Statistically, the measurements of spore body width, polar capsule length, and polar capsule width were significantly different between myxospores from L. marginatus and L. miniatus. However, intraspecific genetic variability between isolates at the 18S rRNA gene was negligible, with < 0.8% variability across > 2,000 bp of sequence. The isolates shared no significant sequence similarity with any myxozoan deposited in the GenBank nucleotide database. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the 18S rRNA gene from both L. marginatus and L. miniatus placed the isolates within a clade of myxozoan parasites of perciform fishes. Based on shared tissue and host family tropism, overlapping morphological characters and high degrees of sequence conservation at the 18S rRNA gene, we propose these isolates as morphologically distinct, genetically conspecific representatives of M. lepomis n. sp. from the gills of L. marginatus and L. miniatus in the Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, USA.

  18. Simulation and observations of annual density banding in skeletons of Montastraea (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) growing under thermal stress associated with ocean warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worum, F.P.; Carricart-Ganivet, J. P.; Benson, L.; Golicher, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a model of annual density banding in skeletons of Montastraea coral species growing under thermal stress associated with an ocean-warming scenario. The model predicts that at sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) <29??C, high-density bands (HDBs) are formed during the warmest months of the year. As temperature rises and oscillates around the optimal calcification temperature, an annual doublet in the HDB (dHDB) occurs that consists of two narrow HDBs. The presence of such dHDBs in skeletons of Montastraea species is a clear indication of thermal stress. When all monthly SSTs exceed the optimal calcification temperature, HDBs form during the coldest, not the warmest, months of the year. In addition, a decline in mean-annual calcification rate also occurs during this period of elevated SST. A comparison of our model results with annual density patterns observed in skeletons of M. faveolata and M. franksi, collected from several localities in the Mexican Caribbean, indicates that elevated SSTs are already resulting in the presence of dHDBs as a first sign of thermal stress, which occurs even without coral bleaching. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  19. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Octocorallia), a new bubblegum coral species from a seamount in the tropical Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Zhan, Zifeng; Xu, Kuidong

    2017-07-01

    A new species of bubblegum coral, Paragorgia rubra sp. nov., discovered from a seamount at a water depth of 373 m near the Yap Trench is studied using morphological and molecular approaches. Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. is the fourth species of the genus found in the tropical Western Pacific. The new gorgonian is red-colored, uniplanar, and measures approximately 530 mm high and 440 mm wide, with autozooids distributed only on one side of the colony. Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. is most similar to P. kaupeka Sánchez, 2005, but differs distinctly in the polyp ovals with large and compound protuberances (vs. small and simple conical protuberances) and the medullar spindles possessing simple conical protuberances (vs. compound protuberances). Moreover, P. rubra sp. nov. differs from P. kaupeka in the smaller length/width ratio of surface radiates (1.53 vs. 1.75). The genetic distance of the mtMutS gene between P. rubra sp. nov. and P. kaupeka is 0.66%, while the intraspecific distances within Paragorgia Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1857 except the species P. regalis complex are no more than 0.5%, further supporting the establishment of the new species. Furthermore, the ITS2 secondary structure of P. rubra sp. nov. is also different from those of congeners. Phylogenetic analyses indicate Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. and P. kaupeka form a clade, which branched early within Paragorgia and diversified approximately 15 Mya.

  20. Mitogenome rearrangement in the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) involves a long-term evolving group I intron.

    PubMed

    Emblem, Åse; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Evertsen, Jussi; Johansen, Steinar D

    2011-11-01

    Group I introns are genetic insertion elements that invade host genomes in a wide range of organisms. In metazoans, however, group I introns are extremely rare, so far only identified within mitogenomes of hexacorals and some sponges. We sequenced the complete mitogenome of the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa, the dominating deep sea reef-building coral species in the North Atlantic Ocean. The mitogenome (16,150 bp) has the same gene content but organized in a unique gene order compared to that of other known scleractinian corals. A complex group I intron (6460 bp) inserted in the ND5 gene (position 717) was found to host seven essential mitochondrial protein genes and one ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis supports a vertical inheritance pattern of the ND5-717 intron among hexacoral mitogenomes with no examples of intron loss. Structural assessments of the Lophelia intron revealed an unusual organization that lacks the universally conserved ωG at the 3' end, as well as a highly compact RNA core structure with overlapping ribozyme and protein coding capacities. Based on phylogenetic and structural analyses we reconstructed the evolutionary history of ND5-717, from its ancestral protist origin, through intron loss in some early metazoan lineages, and into a compulsory feature with functional implications in hexacorals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of relationships in Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Atlantic ocean using mtMutS and nad2 genes tree reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, K. J.; Herrera, S.; Gubili, C.; Tyler, P. A.; Rogers, A.; Hauton, C.

    2012-12-01

    Despite being an abundant group of significant ecological importance the phylogenetic relationships of the Octocorallia remain poorly understood and very much understudied. We used 1132 bp of two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, nad2 and mtMutS (previously referred to as msh1), to construct a phylogeny for 161 octocoral specimens from the Atlantic, including both Isididae and non-Isididae species. We found that four clades were supported using a concatenated alignment. Two of these (A and B) were in general agreement with the of Holaxonia-Alcyoniina and Anthomastus-Corallium clades identified by previous work. The third and fourth clades represent a split of the Calcaxonia-Pennatulacea clade resulting in a clade containing the Pennatulacea and a small number of Isididae specimens and a second clade containing the remaining Calcaxonia. When individual genes were considered nad2 largely agreed with previous work with MtMutS also producing a fourth clade corresponding to a split of Isididae species from the Calcaxonia-Pennatulacea clade. It is expected these difference are a consequence of the inclusion of Isisdae species that have undergone a gene inversion in the mtMutS gene causing their separation in the MtMutS only tree. The fourth clade in the concatenated tree is also suspected to be a result of this gene inversion, as there were very few Isidiae species included in previous work tree and thus this separation would not be clearly resolved. A~larger phylogeny including both Isididae and non Isididae species is required to further resolve these clades.

  2. A survey of the distribution of the PKD-parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Cnidaria: Myxozoa: Malacosporea) in salmonids in Norwegian rivers - additional information gleaned from formerly collected fish.

    PubMed

    Mo, T A; Jørgensen, A

    2017-05-01

    The malacosporean Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae was detected in kidneys from Atlantic salmon parr in 64 of 91 sampled Norwegian rivers. Using real-time PCR, this parasite was found to be present in Atlantic salmon parr in rivers along the whole coast, from the northernmost and southernmost areas of the country. In addition, T. bryosalmonae was found in kidneys from brown trout parr in 17 of 19 sampled rivers in south-east Norway, and in Arctic charr sampled in the River Risfjordelva, located at the northernmost edge of the European mainland. In conclusion, T. bryosalmonae has a widespread distribution in salmonids in Norwegian watercourses. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by T. bryosalmonae and PKD-induced mortality has been observed in salmonids in several Norwegian rivers and it can be speculated that more PKD outbreaks will occur as a result of climate change. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Taxonomy and species boundaries in the coral genus Favia Milne Edwards and Haime, 1857 (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) from Thailand revealed by morphological and genetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongjandtre, N.; Ridgway, T.; Cook, L. G.; Huelsken, T.; Budd, A. F.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2012-06-01

    While Faviidae is a widely and uniformly distributed coral family throughout the Indo-Pacific, the extensive phenotypic plasticity of colony surface and corallite features often confounds the use of macromorphological characters in species identification, and contributes to conflict between traditional classification and molecular analyses of the group. Recent advances in morphological and molecular techniques now provide a suite of methods to re-address coral taxonomy in complex groups, such as that represented by the Faviidae. This study combines morphologic measurements including "3D coordinates landmarks" data with phylogenetic assessments of nuclear (ITS) and mitochondrial (COI-trnM) DNA to assess species boundaries in nine species of Faviidae with para-septothecal walls from Thailand. Strong concordance was found between morphological features and a priori groupings based on both morphospecies and genetically defined groups (ITS and COI-trnM). Favia truncatus was the most well-defined species based on morphological analyses, and it was also shown to be monophyletic using phylogenetic analyses. Besides F. truncatus, the only other species that was found to be monophyletic in analyses of both genes was F. cf. helianthoides, but its skeletal morphology overlapped with the F. favus species complex (comprised of F. favus, F. speciosa, F. matthaii and F. rotumana). Although not genetically monophyletic, the F. favus species complex and F. pallida were fairly well delineated morphologically. Morphospecies within the F. favus species complex are therefore possibly a result of genetic drift and/or stable polymorphisms driven by divergent selection. These results represent a first step toward a taxonomic revision of the Indo-Pacific Favia, which will integrate morphological methods with the study of type material, genetic information, reproductive data, and tests of phenotypic plasticity—given that multiple lines of evidence are needed to resolve ambiguous species and assign species names.

  4. Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. A new species of clausophyid calycophoran siphonophore (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa), Kephyes hiulcus sp. nov., widely distributed throughout the world's oceans.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Mary Matilda; Lindsay, Dhugal John

    2017-04-03

    A new species of clausophyid siphonophore, Kephyes hiulcus sp. nov. is described. It can most easily be differentiated from its congener Kephyes ovata by the shape of the hydroecium in the anterior nectophore of the polygastric stage. This is open over the entire height of the nectophore in K. hiulcus sp. nov., and it is this character from which its specific name is derived. This species was found in the eastern and western Pacific Ocean, as well as the Celebes and Mediterranean Seas, indicating that this species is both relatively common and geographically widespread.

  6. Offshore dispersion of ephyrae and medusae of Aurelia aurita s.l. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) from port enclosures: Physical and biological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makabe, Ryosuke; Takeoka, Hidetaka; Uye, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l. have been increasingly significant, particularly in human perturbed coastal waters, where numerous artificial constructions increase suitable habitat for polyp populations. We examined the spatiotemporal dispersion process in 6 ports of ephyrae of A. aurita after release from strobilating polyps, to offshore waters of northern Harima Nada (eutrophic eastern Inland Sea of Japan) from January to May 2010. Almost exclusive occurrence of the ephyra stage in the ports demonstrated that their seeding polyps reside in the port enclosures, and liberated ephyrae are rapidly exported offshore by tidal water exchange. Post-ephyra stages occurred primarily outside the ports, and their age increased gradually offshore, ca. up to 9 km off the ports, and the pattern of age increase could be simulated by a simple diffusion model. However, there was an abrupt decline in A. aurita density beyond ca. 3 km off the shore, where jellyfish-eating Chrysaora pacifica medusae were prevalent. We conclude that physical forces are primarily responsible for offshore dispersion of A. aurita, and a biological factor, i.e. predation by C. pacifica, jointly affects the distribution pattern of A. aurita.

  7. Myxosporea (Cnidaria : Myxozoa) infecting the saddled seabream Oblada melanura (L. 1758) (Teleostei : Sparidae) and the painted comber Serranus scriba (L. 1758) (Teleostei : Serranidae) in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Laamiri, Sayef

    2017-05-19

    First parasitological surveys of Myxozoa are performed on the sparid saddled seabream Oblada melanura (Linnaeus, 1758) and the serranid painted comber Serranus scriba (Linnaeus, 1758) caught from the Bay of Bizerte and the Gulf of Tunis respectively in Northeast Tunisia, Western Mediterranean. In this study, 6 bivalvulid myxosporean species belonging to the 3 genera Ceratomyxa Thélohan, 1892, Myxodavisia Zhao, Zhou, Kent & Whipps, 2008 and Zschokkella Auerbach, 1910, are isolated infecting their hosts. Two species Ceratomyxa sp. 1 ex O. melanura (Prevalence (P) = 36%) and Ceratomyxa sp. 2 ex O. melanura (P = 13%) infected the saddled seabream and four species Ceratomyxa sp. 1 ex S. scriba (P = 11.7%), Ceratomyxa sp. 2 ex S. scriba (P = 6.7%), Myxodavisia sp. (P = 8.3%) and Zschokkella sp. (P = 5.6%) infected the painted comber. These myxosporeans differ, in vegetative stages and/or in mature spores, from all the previously known congeneric species, and are described here on the basis of their morphological and morphometric features, their host and tissue specificities and their biogeographical distribution. This is the first report of myxosporean infections in O. melanura and S. scriba. The occurrence of two ceratomyxid species in each host species supports that the genus Ceratomyxa is host-specific not only in sparids but also in serranids, which agrees with data previously obtained from Sparidae in Mediterranean Sea and from Serranidae in GBR, Australia. A member of the myxosporean genus Myxodavisia is recorded from the Mediterranean Sea for the first time, and Zschokkella spp. infections have not previously been recorded from a host in Serranidae. During the examination, a several cases of Co-infection among myxosporeans, both with two and three species, are provided and statistically studied. Indeed, 5% of the breams and 9.4% of the combers are infected with more than one myxosporean parasite. The relationship between myxosporean infections and some biological parameters are pointed out. A higher prevalence of myxosporean infection is coincided with the peak period of spawning activity in May-June for S. scriba. For both hosts, analysis using Fulton's condition factor (K) has revealed no significant difference between infected and non-infected fishes. Clinically, no external signs of disease have been occurred in infected hosts, but some changes in the bile fluid, colour, and viscosity and in the gall bladder 's tissue are examined in S. scriba.

  8. Abundant box jellyfish, Chironex sp. (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropidae), discovered at depths of over 50 m on western Australian coastal reefs.

    PubMed

    Keesing, John K; Strzelecki, Joanna; Stowar, Marcus; Wakeford, Mary; Miller, Karen J; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Liu, Dongyan

    2016-02-29

    Box jellyfish cause human fatalities and have a life cycle and habit associated with shallow waters (<5 m) in mangrove creeks, coastal beaches, embayments. In north-western Australia, tow video and epibenthic sled surveys discovered large numbers (64 in a 1500 m tow or 0.05 m(-2)) of Chironex sp. very near to the benthos (<50 cm) at depths of 39-56 m. This is the first record of a population of box jellyfish closely associated with the benthos at such depths. Chironex were not widespread, occurring only in 2 of 33 tow videos and 3 of 41 epibenthic sleds spread over 2000 km(2). All Chironex filmed or captured were on low to medium relief reefs with rich filter feeder communities. None were on soft sediment habitat despite these habitats comprising 49% of all sites. The importance of the reef habitat to Chironex remains unclear. Being associated with filter feeder communities might represent a hazard, and other studies have shown C. fleckeri avoid habitats which represent a risk of entanglement of their tentacles. Most of our observations were made during the period of lowest tidal current flow in the morning. This may represent a period favourable for active hunting for prey close to the seabed.

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Pocillopora (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) contains two variable regions: the putative D-loop and a novel ORF of unknown function.

    PubMed

    Flot, Jean-François; Tillier, Simon

    2007-10-15

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two individuals attributed to different morphospecies of the scleractinian coral genus Pocillopora have been sequenced. Both genomes, respectively 17,415 and 17,422 nt long, share the presence of a previously undescribed ORF encoding a putative protein made up of 302 amino acids and of unknown function. Surprisingly, this ORF turns out to be the second most variable region of the mitochondrial genome (1% nucleotide sequence difference between the two individuals) after the putative control region (1.5% sequence difference). Except for the presence of this ORF and for the location of the putative control region, the mitochondrial genome of Pocillopora is organized in a fashion similar to the other scleractinian coral genomes published to date. For the first time in a cnidarian, a putative second origin of replication is described based on its secondary structure similar to the stem-loop structure of O(L), the origin of L-strand replication in vertebrates.

  10. Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from INDEMARES 2010-2012 expeditions to the Avilés Canyon System (Bay of Biscay, Spain, northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuna, Álvaro; Ríos, Pilar

    2014-09-01

    Twenty-eight species of scleractinian corals were collected between 55 and 2,291 m depth during INDEMARES 2010-2012 expeditions to the Avilés Canyon System and the near continental shelf (Bay of Biscay). Most interesting species are described and all depicted. All species were already known from the northeast Atlantic, although some are seldom reported. Deltocyathus eccentricus and Flabellum chunii are northernmost records in the eastern Atlantic, and species first collected from the Bay of Biscay. From a literature review and new records given herein, 31 species of Scleractinia are known from the Avilés Canyon System. Live specimens of six species were recorded outside their previously known bathymetric ranges in the Bay of Biscay and nearby areas, either at shallower depths ( Caryophyllia sarsiae, Monomyces pygmaea, Stephanocyathus nobilis), or deeper depths ( C. atlantica, C. sarsiae, Enallopsammia rostrata, Solenosmilia variabilis). Desmophyllum cristagalli has the widest bathymetric range (551-2,291 m), and Lophelia pertusa is the most widely distributed species (24 stations). Tabulating the number of live species occurring in each 100-m depth interval of the canyon system, highest species richness occurs in the 700-800-, 800-900-, and 1,400-1,500-m depth intervals (11 species). The habitat-forming species L. pertusa and Madrepora oculata were abundant in some stations building well-developed coral banks. Live colonies of the big-sized species S. variabilis and E. rostrata co-occurred at the deepest station sampled that yielded scleractinia (2,291 m).

  11. Morphological, histopathological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus theinensis n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) infecting an Indian major carp, Labeo bata in a cold water wetland in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya; Kaur, Harpreet

    2017-09-01

    A myxozoan parasite belonging to the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) was isolated from the gill lamellae of Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822) inhabiting Ranjit Sagar Wetland in Northern parts of Punjab, India. Histopathology of the infected gills indicated lamellar distortion due to the presence of plasmodia. The intensity of infection was recorded to be moderate as indicated by gill plasmodial index (GPI = 2). The plasmodia were microscopic, ovoid, creamish white, 2.0-4.0 mm in diameter containing 300-400 number of myxospores. The myxospores were broadly pyriform in shape, measuring 8.27 × 4.41 µm, having a prominent pore at the anterior end. The polar capsule was pyriform in shape, measuring 4.15 × 4.10 µm, containing a polar filament coiled perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of myxospore body making 6-7 turns. At molecular level, the analysis of 18S rDNA sequence of T. theinensis n. sp. demonstrated maximum homogeneity of 99 % with T. filli (KR340464) as only 2 gaps were found due to the difference of the last 20 base pairs at the 3' end of T. theinensis n. sp. The current study emphasizes the need for caution when dealing with members of species complex.

  12. Jellyfish as prey: frequency of predation and selective foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Milisenda, Giacomo; Rosa, Sara; Fuentes, Veronica L; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops.

  13. Jellyfish as Prey: Frequency of Predation and Selective Foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Veronica L.; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops. PMID:24727977

  14. Species–specific crab predation on the hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), subsequent crab mortality, and possible ecological consequences

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Mary R.; Grunden, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a unique trophic interaction between the cryptogenic and sometimes highly toxic hydrozoan clinging jellyfish Gonionemus sp. and the spider crab Libinia dubia. We assessed species–specific predation on the Gonionemus medusae by crabs found in eelgrass meadows in Massachusetts, USA. The native spider crab species L. dubia consumed Gonionemus medusae, often enthusiastically, but the invasive green crab Carcinus maenus avoided consumption in all trials. One out of two blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) also consumed Gonionemus, but this species was too rare in our study system to evaluate further. Libinia crabs could consume up to 30 jellyfish, which was the maximum jellyfish density treatment in our experiments, over a 24-hour period. Gonionemus consumption was associated with Libinia mortality. Spider crab mortality increased with Gonionemus consumption, and 100% of spider crabs tested died within 24 h of consuming jellyfish in our maximum jellyfish density containers. As the numbers of Gonionemus medusae used in our experiments likely underestimate the number of medusae that could be encountered by spider crabs over a 24-hour period in the field, we expect that Gonionemus may be having a negative effect on natural Libinia populations. Furthermore, given that Libinia overlaps in habitat and resource use with Carcinus, which avoids Gonionemus consumption, Carcinus populations could be indirectly benefiting from this unusual crab–jellyfish trophic relationship. PMID:29085761

  15. Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. and Myxobolus minutus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae) from the gills of the smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Cypriniformes: Castostomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Catostomidae) is native to North American waterways and occasionally grown in pond aquaculture. Species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 have been reported from the gills, integument, and intestinal tract of buffalo fish, although there is ambiguity in ...

  16. Benthic Community Response to Dredging Borrow Pits, Panama City Beach, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    mollusks (19 percent). The remaining 33 species (9 percent) were divided among 11 groups: Cnidaria , Platyhelminthes, Nemertinea, Nematoda, Phoronida...collected. On a percentage basis, more than half were annelids (55 percent), 19 percent were mollusks, 18 percent were arthropods, Cnidaria and...ISLANC MCTEL (STATICIk 1) - CCNTRCL ANIC EXPERIMENTAL I, l/7e SPECIES -TT -PEClT CNIDARIA ACTINIARIA (SEA ANEMONES) UNIOENTIFIED SP. 3 0.218 0 0.0

  17. A Study of the Invertebrates and Fishes of Salt Marshes in Two Oregon Estuaries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    TAXON Level Level Debris TAXON Level Level Debris Marsh Marsh Line Marsh Marsh Line Cnidaria Coleopr era Halaoampa s? p. A Carabidae A A A Turbellaria A...HAB ITAT H fAB ITAT TAXON Tidal Tidal Flat Tidal Tidal Flat Lan Creek Sandy Mudd TAXON PA Creek SandyMdd Cnidaria A A Tanaidacea Nemertea A A Pancolus...INVERTEBRATES Phylum Protozoa Subphylum Sarcomastigophora Class Rhizopodea Order Foraminifera Phylum Cnidaria Class Anthozoa Subclass Zoantharia Order

  18. Ocean enemy's lasting sting: chronic cutaneous reaction after Cnidarian attack.

    PubMed

    Naumann, D; Hejmadi, R K; Evriviades, D

    2013-01-01

    Cnidaria stings cause a wide range of cutaneous and systemic symptoms, normally occurring shortly after the venomous insult (1). We report a case of worsening cutaneous reaction over an eight-year period following a Cnidaria attack sustained whilst maritime swimming. The lesion was characterised by severe, ulcerating chronic inflammation that required wide local excision and skin grafting. Prevention and early identification of Cnidaria envenomation is important for those treating maritime swimmers.

  19. Benthic Community Response to Hypoxia: Baseline Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    were represented by six different phyla, namely Annelida, Sipuncula, Arthropoda, Cnidaria , Mollusca and Echinodermata (Table II). The phylum Annelida...was solely represented by polychaetes and the phylum Cnidaria was represented solely by hydroids. However, the phylum Mollusca was represented by

  20. Effects of Three Species of Aquatic Plants on Macroinvertebrates in Lake Seminole, Georgia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Amphipoda) were found only in sediments, and two groups (Lepidoptera and Cnidaria ) were only on macrophytes. Chronomids comprised over 50 percent of the...verticillata (HAD), N. odorata (NYM), and P. nodous (PTM) at Lake Seminole, Georgia, July 14, 1987 F.....Taxon. HAD TNYM ’"PTM" Cnidaria Hydra sp. 27

  1. A Guide to the Principal Marine Fouling Organisms, with Particular Reference to Cockburn Sound, W.A.,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    4. HYDROIDS (Phylum Cnidaria , Class Hydrozoa) 7 4.1 General 7 4.2 Common Species 7 4.3 Other Species 8 4.4 References 8 5. TUBEWORMS (Phylum Annelida...Classification of the Calcareous Sponges, British Museum (National History), London, England. 693 pp. 4. HYDROIDS (Phylum Cnidaria , Class Hydrozoa) 4.1

  2. Deep-water Hydrozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) in the Sea of Japan, collected during the 51st Cruise of R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev, with description Opercularella angelikae, sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.

    2013-02-01

    A report is given about Hydrozoa collected at depths between 455 and 3666 m in the Sea of Japan during the Russian-German expedition on R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev. Ten species were found, with four of them being typical bathyal-abyssal and abyssal zones. A new species, Opercularella angelikae, is described, and it was the dominant hydroid in samples from 970 to 3660 m. Four eurybathic species characteristics of the Sea of Japan were sampled between 455 and 582 m. Abyssal (pseudoabyssal after Andriashev, 1979) hydroid fauna in the Sea of Japan is reported. The hypothesis that an exclusively deep-water fauna is lacking in abyssal regions of the Sea of Japan is disputed. The author's personal opinion considered concerning the borders of 1000 m between shallow and deep hydrozoan species in the Sea of Japan.

  3. Morphological, histopathological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus pathankotensis n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea: Myxozoa) infecting an Indian minor carp, Labeo dero Hamilton, 1822 from a cold water wetland in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Gupta, Aditya

    2017-11-22

    A new myxobolid, Thelohanellus pathankotensis parasitizing gill lamellae and caudal fins of the Indian minor carp Labeo dero has been described using light microscopy, histopathology and molecular analyses. The fish host was collected from a cold water wetland, Ranjit Sagar Wetland, Punjab, India located 32 ̊ 26 ̍ 30 ̎ N Latitude and 75 ̊ 43 ̍ 30 ̎ E Longitude. The prevalence of infection was 30%. The plasmodia were located in the gill lamellae and the caudal fins were cylindrical and whitish, 0.8-1.0 mm in size containing about 150-300 myxospores. The myxospores had a mean length of 9.70 ± 0.50 µm, width 3.85 ± 0.27 µm, mean length of polar capsule 3.0 ± 0.15 µm, width 2.68 ± 0.08 µm. The 18S rDNA nucleotide with 1098 bp of Thelohanellus pathankotensis n. sp. (accession number KU516661) clustered phylogenetically with other myxozoan parasites, with the species most closely related was T. sp. PBS- 2015 with 92% homogeneity and T. boggoti with 98% homogeneity. The intensity of infection or the mean abundance was determined by the gill plasmodial index (GPI) based on the number of countable plasmodia. The myxospores of the present species differed from others previously described infecting the hosts of family Cyprinidae, same tissue location and geographical location.

  4. Macrofouling of deep-sea instrumentation after three years at 3690 m depth in the Charlie Gibbs fracture zone, mid-Atlantic ridge, with emphasis on hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, R.; Shields, M. A.; Jamieson, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Macrofouling is a common problem when deploying underwater instrumentation for long periods of time. It is a problem which can effect scientific experiments and monitoring missions though the creation of artificial reefs (thus increasing local biological activity) and reduce the quality of scientific data. Macrofouling is an issue typically considered to be restricted to the photic zones and is absent or negligible in the deep sea. To the contrary, the recovery of an accidentally lost deep-sea lander after 3 years submergence at 3960 m on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (North Atlantic) revealed dense colonisation of macrofouling organisms. These organisms were found attached to all surfaces of the lander regardless of orientation and materials. The occurrence of such deep-sea macrofouling should be carefully investigated given the recent developments in long-term deep-sea observatory networks.

  5. Environmental Impact Research Program. Ecological Effects of Rubble-Mound Breakwater Construction and Channel Dredging at West Harbor, Ohio (Western Lake Erie).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Harbor, Ohio (August 1981-1983) Taxa* Percent Porifera (Spongil a) 0.01 Cnidaria (Hydra) 0.30 Rhabdocoela 0.35 Tricladida 0.16 Nemertinea 0.14 Nematoda...Breakwaters at West Harbor. Ohio (April 1982-September 1983) Taxa* Percent * Cnidaria (Hydra) 5.98 Rhabdocoela 0.14 Tricladida 0.37 Nemertinea 0.11 Nematoda...3 3.0 OL!GOCHAE1A 23 85 2t 2000 CHIRONOMIDAE 3 8 0 163 CNIDARIA 0 2 0 30 BRYOZDA + + + 4 4.0 OLIGOCHAETA 325 56 148 7836 CHIRONOMIDAE 26 13 21

  6. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Some Iranian Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Naderinasab, Mahboobe; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra; Barzin, Mohammad; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Male and female leaves and fruits of eleven different taxons of Iranian conifers (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis, C. sempervirens var. sempervirens, C. sempervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, J. excelsa subsp. excelsa, J. excelsa subsp. polycarpos, J. foetidissima, J. oblonga, J. sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata) were collected from different localities of Iran, dried and extracted with methanol. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The extracts were screened qualitatively using four different methods, the disc diffusion, hole plate, cylinder agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each extract were determined by the agar dilution method. The best result was obtained by means of hole plate method in qualitative determination of antimicrobial activities of extracts and the greatest activity was found against S. aureus in all tested methods. PMID:24250573

  7. Sciences's Super Star

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magie, Craig; Bossert, Patricia; Aramli, Lili; Thomsen, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Animal biology is fascinating for its incredible diversity in life strategies. These strategies amaze scientists and can also fire the enthusiasm of science students. One group of animals impressive in this way is the phylum "Cnidaria," containing some 10,000 invertebrate species that include jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, hydroids,…

  8. Turning Mechanics During Swimming by Oblate Hydromedusae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, J.; Colin, S.; Sutherland, K.; Gemmell, B. J.

    2016-02-01

    Maneuverability is critical to the success of many species. Selective forces acting over millions of years have resulted in a range of capabilities currently unmatched by machines. Thus, understanding animal control of fluids for maneuvering has both biological and engineering applications. Medusae are radially symmetrical swimmers that must use asymmetric body motions to change direction during turning maneuvers. But what types of asymmetric motions are useful and how do they interact with surrounding fluids to generate rotational forces? We used high speed digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to investigate comparative swimming patterns of three hydromedusan species (Aequorea victoria, Clytia gregaria and Mitrocoma cellularia). We provide evidence for consistent animal-fluid interactions that underlie turning mechanics of oblate hydromedusae and provide new insights into the modulation and control of vorticity for low-speed animal maneuvering.

  9. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) – cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage – and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) – cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. Results We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Conclusions Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that

  10. Cnidarian microRNAs frequently regulate targets by cleavage.

    PubMed

    Moran, Yehu; Fredman, David; Praher, Daniela; Li, Xin Z; Wee, Liang Meng; Rentzsch, Fabian; Zamore, Phillip D; Technau, Ulrich; Seitz, Hervé

    2014-04-01

    In bilaterians, which comprise most of extant animals, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the majority of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) via base-pairing of a short sequence (the miRNA "seed") to the target, subsequently promoting translational inhibition and transcript instability. In plants, many miRNAs guide endonucleolytic cleavage of highly complementary targets. Because little is known about miRNA function in nonbilaterian animals, we investigated the repertoire and biological activity of miRNAs in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a representative of Cnidaria, the sister phylum of Bilateria. Our work uncovers scores of novel miRNAs in Nematostella, increasing the total miRNA gene count to 87. Yet only a handful are conserved in corals and hydras, suggesting that microRNA gene turnover in Cnidaria greatly exceeds that of other metazoan groups. We further show that Nematostella miRNAs frequently direct the cleavage of their mRNA targets via nearly perfect complementarity. This mode of action resembles that of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and plant miRNAs. It appears to be common in Cnidaria, as several of the miRNA target sites are conserved among distantly related anemone species, and we also detected miRNA-directed cleavage in Hydra. Unlike in bilaterians, Nematostella miRNAs are commonly coexpressed with their target transcripts. In light of these findings, we propose that post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs functions differently in Cnidaria and Bilateria. The similar, siRNA-like mode of action of miRNAs in Cnidaria and plants suggests that this may be an ancestral state.

  11. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Roure, Béatrice; Philippe, Hervé; Collins, Allen G; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2013-01-09

    Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) - cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage - and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) - cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that the shared morphological characters in

  12. The Occurrence of Type S1A Serine Proteases in Sponge and Jellyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, Ana; Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    Although serine proteases are found in all kinds of cellular organisms and many viruses, the classic "chymotrypsin family" (Group S1A by th e 1998 Barrett nomenclature) has an unusual phylogenetic distribution , being especially common in animals, entirely absent from plants and protists, and rare among fungi. The distribution in Bacteria is larg ely restricted to the genus Streptomyces, although a few isolated occ urrences in other bacteria have been reported. The family may be enti rely absent from Archaea. Although more than a thousand sequences have been reported for enzymes of this type from animals, none of them ha ve been from early diverging phyla like Porifera or Cnidaria, We now report the existence of Group SlA serine proteases in a sponge (phylu m Porifera) and a jellyfish (phylum Cnidaria), making it safe to conc lude that all animal groups possess these enzymes.

  13. A blooming jellyfish in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Licandro, P.; Conway, D. V. P.; Daly Yahia, M. N.; Fernandez de Puelles, M. L.; Gasparini, S.; Hecq, J. H.; Tranter, P.; Kirby, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    A long-term time series of plankton records collected by the continuous plankton recorder (CPR) Survey in the northeast Atlantic indicates an increased occurrence of Cnidaria since 2002. In the years 2007 and 2008, outbreaks of the warm-temperate scyphomedusa, Pelagia noctiluca, appeared in CPR samples between 45° N to 58° N and 1° W to 26° W. Knowing the biology of this species and its occurrence in the adjacent Mediterranean Sea, we suggest that P. noctiluca may be exploiting recent hydroclimatic changes in the northeast Atlantic to increase its extent and intensity of outbreaks. In pelagic ecosystems, Cnidaria can affect fish recruitment negatively. Since P. noctiluca is a highly venomous species, outbreaks can also be detrimental to aquaculture and make bathing waters unusable, thus having profound ecological and socio-economic consequences. PMID:20375044

  14. A stem-group cnidarian described from the mid-Cambrian of China and its significance for cnidarian evolution.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae-yoon; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Chan; Lee, Seung-bae; Han, Zuozhen; Chough, Sung Kwun; Choi, Duck K

    2011-08-23

    Palaeontological data of extinct groups often sheds light on the evolutionary sequences leading to extant groups, but has failed to resolve the basal metazoan phylogeny including the origin of the Cnidaria. Here we report the occurrence of a stem-group cnidarian, Cambroctoconus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cambrian of China, which is a colonial organism with calcareous octagonal conical cup-shaped skeletons. It bears cnidarian features including longitudinal septa arranged in octoradial symmetry and colonial occurrence, but lacks a jelly-like mesenchyme. Such morphological characteristics suggest that the colonial occurrence with polyps of octoradial symmetry is the plesiomorphic condition of the Cnidaria and appeared earlier than the jelly-like mesenchyme during the course of evolution. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. A stem-group cnidarian described from the mid-Cambrian of China and its significance for cnidarian evolution

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae-yoon; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Chan; Lee, Seung-bae; Han, Zuozhen; Chough, Sung Kwun; Choi, Duck K.

    2011-01-01

    Palaeontological data of extinct groups often sheds light on the evolutionary sequences leading to extant groups, but has failed to resolve the basal metazoan phylogeny including the origin of the Cnidaria. Here we report the occurrence of a stem-group cnidarian, Cambroctoconus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cambrian of China, which is a colonial organism with calcareous octagonal conical cup-shaped skeletons. It bears cnidarian features including longitudinal septa arranged in octoradial symmetry and colonial occurrence, but lacks a jelly-like mesenchyme. Such morphological characteristics suggest that the colonial occurrence with polyps of octoradial symmetry is the plesiomorphic condition of the Cnidaria and appeared earlier than the jelly-like mesenchyme during the course of evolution. PMID:21863009

  16. Zooplankton Aggregation Near Sills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    Other species of pteropods , chaetognaths, 2 DRDC Atlantic ECR 2004-086 ctenophores, and cnidaria are sometimes present, and known to migrate...strength (these are soft-bodied animals). The exception to this is the hard-shelled planktonic pteropod Limacina helicina, which for typical...animal size near 2 mm have a target strength at 200 kHz near -76 dB (Stanton et al. 1998), more similar to that of adult euphausiids. A few pteropods

  17. Dendrogramma, New Genus, with Two New Non-Bilaterian Species from the Marine Bathyal of Southeastern Australia (Animalia, Metazoa incertae sedis) – with Similarities to Some Medusoids from the Precambrian Ediacara

    PubMed Central

    Just, Jean; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg; Olesen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    A new genus, Dendrogramma, with two new species of multicellular, non-bilaterian, mesogleal animals with some bilateral aspects, D. enigmatica and D. discoides, are described from the south-east Australian bathyal (400 and 1000 metres depth). A new family, Dendrogrammatidae, is established for Dendrogramma. These mushroom-shaped organisms cannot be referred to either of the two phyla Ctenophora or Cnidaria at present, because they lack any specialised characters of these taxa. Resolving the phylogenetic position of Dendrogramma depends much on how the basal metazoan lineages (Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria) are related to each other, a question still under debate. At least Dendrogramma must have branched off before Bilateria and is possibly related to Ctenophora and/or Cnidaria. Dendrogramma, therefore, is referred to Metazoa incertae sedis. The specimens were fixed in neutral formaldehyde and stored in 80% ethanol and are not suitable for molecular analysis. We recommend, therefore, that attempts be made to secure new material for further study. Finally similarities between Dendrogramma and a group of Ediacaran (Vendian) medusoids are discussed. PMID:25184248

  18. Changing Hydrozoan Bauplans by Silencing Hox-Like Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Wolfgang; Schierwater, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory genes of the Antp class have been a major factor for the invention and radiation of animal bauplans. One of the most diverse animal phyla are the Cnidaria, which are close to the root of metazoan life and which often appear in two distinct generations and a remarkable variety of body forms. Hox-like genes have been known to be involved in axial patterning in the Cnidaria and have been suspected to play roles in the genetic control of many of the observed bauplan changes. Unfortunately RNAi mediated gene silencing studies have not been satisfactory for marine invertebrate organisms thus far. No direct evidence supporting Hox-like gene induced bauplan changes in cnidarians have been documented as of yet. Herein, we report a protocol for RNAi transfection of marine invertebrates and demonstrate that knock downs of Hox-like genes in Cnidaria create substantial bauplan alterations, including the formation of multiple oral poles (“heads”) by Cnox-2 and Cnox-3 inhibition, deformation of the main body axis by Cnox-5 inhibition and duplication of tentacles by Cnox-1 inhibition. All phenotypes observed in the course of the RNAi studies were identical to those obtained by morpholino antisense oligo experiments and are reminiscent of macroevolutionary bauplan changes. The reported protocol will allow routine RNAi studies in marine invertebrates to be established. PMID:17668071

  19. Diversity of Cnidarian Muscles: Function, Anatomy, Development and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Leclère, Lucas; Röttinger, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform muscle contractions is one of the most important and distinctive features of eumetazoans. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians (sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydroids) hold an informative phylogenetic position for understanding muscle evolution. Here, we review current knowledge on muscle function, diversity, development, regeneration and evolution in cnidarians. Cnidarian muscles are involved in various activities, such as feeding, escape, locomotion and defense, in close association with the nervous system. This variety is reflected in the large diversity of muscle organizations found in Cnidaria. Smooth epithelial muscle is thought to be the most common type, and is inferred to be the ancestral muscle type for Cnidaria, while striated muscle fibers and non-epithelial myocytes would have been convergently acquired within Cnidaria. Current knowledge of cnidarian muscle development and its regeneration is limited. While orthologs of myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD have yet to be found in cnidarian genomes, striated muscle formation potentially involves well-conserved myogenic genes, such as twist and mef2 . Although satellite cells have yet to be identified in cnidarians, muscle plasticity (e.g., de- and re-differentiation, fiber repolarization) in a regenerative context and its potential role during regeneration has started to be addressed in a few cnidarian systems. The development of novel tools to study those organisms has created new opportunities to investigate in depth the development and regeneration of cnidarian muscle cells and how they contribute to the regenerative process.

  20. Diversity of Cnidarian Muscles: Function, Anatomy, Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Leclère, Lucas; Röttinger, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The ability to perform muscle contractions is one of the most important and distinctive features of eumetazoans. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians (sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydroids) hold an informative phylogenetic position for understanding muscle evolution. Here, we review current knowledge on muscle function, diversity, development, regeneration and evolution in cnidarians. Cnidarian muscles are involved in various activities, such as feeding, escape, locomotion and defense, in close association with the nervous system. This variety is reflected in the large diversity of muscle organizations found in Cnidaria. Smooth epithelial muscle is thought to be the most common type, and is inferred to be the ancestral muscle type for Cnidaria, while striated muscle fibers and non-epithelial myocytes would have been convergently acquired within Cnidaria. Current knowledge of cnidarian muscle development and its regeneration is limited. While orthologs of myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD have yet to be found in cnidarian genomes, striated muscle formation potentially involves well-conserved myogenic genes, such as twist and mef2. Although satellite cells have yet to be identified in cnidarians, muscle plasticity (e.g., de- and re-differentiation, fiber repolarization) in a regenerative context and its potential role during regeneration has started to be addressed in a few cnidarian systems. The development of novel tools to study those organisms has created new opportunities to investigate in depth the development and regeneration of cnidarian muscle cells and how they contribute to the regenerative process. PMID:28168188

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Emami, S. A.; Asili, J.; Mohagheghi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of α-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than α-tocopherol. PMID:17965761

  2. Interannual abundance changes of gelatinous carnivore zooplankton unveil climate-driven hydrographic variations in the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Mariaelena; Molinero, Juan C; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M; Pardal, Miguel A; Primo, Ana L; Nyitrai, Daniel; Marques, Sónia C

    2016-09-01

    The persistent massive blooms of gelatinous zooplankton recorded during recent decades may be indicative of marine ecosystem changes. In this study, we investigated the potential influence of the North Atlantic climate (NAO) variability on decadal abundance changes of gelatinous carnivore zooplankton in the Mondego estuary, Portugal, over the period 2003-2013. During the 11-year study, the community of gelatinous carnivores encompassed a larger diversity of hydromedusae than siphonophores; the former dominated by Obelia spp., Lizzia blondina, Clythia hemisphaerica, Liriope tetraphylla and Solmaris corona, while the latter dominated by Muggiaea atlantica. Gelatinous carnivore zooplankton displayed marked interannual variability and mounting species richness over the period examined. Their pattern of abundance shifted towards larger abundances ca. 2007 and significant phenological changes. The latter included a shift in the mean annual pattern (from unimodal to bimodal peak, prior and after 2007 respectively) and an earlier timing of the first annual peak concurrent with enhanced temperatures. These changes were concurrent with the climate-driven environmental variability mainly controlled by the NAO, which displayed larger variance after 2007 along with an enhanced upwelling activity. Structural equation modelling allowed depicting cascading effects derived from the NAO influence on regional climate and upwelling variability further shaping water temperature. Such cascading effect percolated the structure and dynamics of the community of gelatinous carnivore zooplankton in the Mondego estuary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mycorrhizal associations of the exotic hickory trees, Carya laciniosa and Carya cordiformis, grown in Kórnik Arboretum in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz; Wilgan, Robin; Karliński, Leszek; Kujawska, Marta; Janowski, Daniel

    2018-06-22

    We studied mycorrhizal associations of North American Carya laciniosa and Carya cordiformis trees, successfully acclimated to local habitat conditions of the historic Kórnik Arboretum in Poland, in order to better understand mycorrhizal host range extensions in new environments. The root systems of Carya seedlings (1-3 years old), regenerated under a canopy of mature hickory trees, were analyzed using microscopic, morphological, and molecular techniques. Our results, for the first time, indicate that C. laciniosa and C. cordiformis have both arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal associations. In the cleared and stained roots of both Carya species, typical structures of arbuscular mycorrhizae (vesicles, arbuscules, hyphal coils, and intercellular nonseptate hyphae) were detected. On the basis of ITS rDNA sequencing, 40 ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa were revealed, with 25 on C. laciniosa and 19 on C. cordiformis. Only four fungal species (Cenococcum geophilum sensu lato, Russula recondita, Xerocomellus cisalpinus, Humaria hemisphaerica) were shared by both Carya species. The high number of infrequent fungal taxa found, as well as the calculated richness estimator, indicates that the real ectomycorrhizal community of C. laciniosa and C. cordiformis is probably richer. The ability of the exotic Carya species to form arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal linkages with native fungi could be a factor in the successful establishment of these tree species under the conditions of Kórnik Arboretum.

  4. Seasonal and vertical distributional patterns of siphonophores and medusae in the Chiloé Interior Sea, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Sergio; Silva, Nelson; Cristina Retamal, María; Castro, Leonardo

    2011-03-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of jellyfish was assessed in the Chiloé Inland sea, in the northern area of the Chilean Patagonia. A total of 41 species of cnidarians (8 siphonophores, 31 hydromedusae, 2 scyphomedusae) were collected. Eleven jellyfish species were recorded for the first time in the area. Species richness was higher in spring than in winter (37 vs. 25 species, respectively). Species such as Muggiaea atlantica, Solmundella bitentaculata, and Clytia simplex were extremely abundant in spring. The total abundance (408,157 ind 1000 m -3) was 18 times higher in spring than in winter (22,406 ind 1000 m -3). The horizontal distribution of the most abundant species (four in winter, five in spring) showed decreasing abundances in the north-south direction in winter and spring. Peak abundances occurred in the northern microbasins (Reloncaví Fjord, Reloncaví and Ancud gulfs), where the water column stability, phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance were higher, compared with the southern microbasins (Corcovado Gulf, Boca del Guafo). During the spring higher jellyfish abundance season, the vertical distribution of the dominant species (except M. atlantica) showed peak values at mid-depth (30-50 m) and in the deepest sampled layer (50-200 m). This vertical distribution pattern reduced seaward transport in the shallowest layer through estuarine circulation and also limited mortality by predation in the more illuminated shallow layers. Thus, jellyfish were able to remain in the interior waters during the season of maximum biological production.

  5. The Rise and Fall of TRP-N, an Ancient Family of Mechanogated Ion Channels, in Metazoa

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Andreas; Schmitz, Gregor; Reft, Abigail; Özbek, Suat; Thurm, Ulrich; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Mechanoreception, the sensing of mechanical forces, is an ancient means of orientation and communication and tightly linked to the evolution of motile animals. In flies, the transient-receptor-potential N protein (TRP-N) was found to be a cilia-associated mechanoreceptor. TRP-N belongs to a large and diverse family of ion channels. Its unusually long N-terminal repeat of 28 ankyrin domains presumably acts as the gating spring by which mechanical energy induces channel gating. We analyzed the evolutionary origins and possible diversification of TRP-N. Using a custom-made set of highly discriminative sequence profiles we scanned a representative set of metazoan genomes and subsequently corrected several gene models. We find that, contrary to other ion channel families, TRP-N is remarkably conserved in its domain arrangements and copy number (1) in all Bilateria except for amniotes, even in the wake of several whole-genome duplications. TRP-N is absent in Porifera but present in Ctenophora and Placozoa. Exceptional multiplications of TRP-N occurred in Cnidaria, independently along the Hydra and the Nematostella lineage. Molecular signals of subfunctionalization can be attributed to different mechanisms of activation of the gating spring. In Hydra this is further supported by in situ hybridization and immune staining, suggesting that at least three paralogs adapted to nematocyte discharge, which is key for predation and defense. We propose that these new candidate proteins help explain the sensory complexity of Cnidaria which has been previously observed but so far has lacked a molecular underpinning. Also, the ancient appearance of TRP-N supports a common origin of important components of the nervous systems in Ctenophores, Cnidaria, and Bilateria. PMID:26100409

  6. Assembly of the cnidarian camera-type eye from vertebrate-like components.

    PubMed

    Kozmik, Zbynek; Ruzickova, Jana; Jonasova, Kristyna; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Vopalensky, Pavel; Kozmikova, Iryna; Strnad, Hynek; Kawamura, Shoji; Piatigorsky, Joram; Paces, Vaclav; Vlcek, Cestmir

    2008-07-01

    Animal eyes are morphologically diverse. Their assembly, however, always relies on the same basic principle, i.e., photoreceptors located in the vicinity of dark shielding pigment. Cnidaria as the likely sister group to the Bilateria are the earliest branching phylum with a well developed visual system. Here, we show that camera-type eyes of the cubozoan jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, use genetic building blocks typical of vertebrate eyes, namely, a ciliary phototransduction cascade and melanogenic pathway. Our findings indicative of parallelism provide an insight into eye evolution. Combined, the available data favor the possibility that vertebrate and cubozoan eyes arose by independent recruitment of orthologous genes during evolution.

  7. Catalog of taxa introduced by Luitfried Salvini-Plawen (1939-2014).

    PubMed

    Affenzeller, Susanne; Steiner, Gerhard

    2017-10-17

    Luitfried Salvini-Plawen was one of the most distinguished researchers for molluscan phylogenetic systematics of the last decades. In his publications he described a total of 193 species: 134 Solenogastres, 34 Caudofoveata, 14 interstitial Gastropoda, one polyplacophoran and the remaining comprising Cnidaria, Priapulida, Kamptozoa, and Echinodermata. In addition, he introduced 47 genus-group names and 54 names for family-level and higher taxa. This catalog comprises lists of all taxon names published by Luitfried Salvini-Plawen. The catalog entries contain taxonomic information, original citations, type localities and type collections. It aims to facilitate further research on these and related taxa.

  8. Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Invertebrates-Derived Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Jung, Jee H; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    It is known that marine invertebrates, including sponges, tunicates, cnidaria or mollusks, host affluent and various communities of symbiotic microorganisms. The microorganisms associated with the invertebrates metabolized various biologically active compounds, which could be an important resource for the discovery and development of potentially novel drugs. In this review, the new compounds with antimicrobial activity isolated from marine invertebrate-derived microorganisms in the last decade (2004-2014) will be presented, with focus on the relevant antimicrobial activities, origin of isolation, and information of strain species. New compounds without antimicrobial activity were not revealed.

  9. Development and myogenesis of the vermiform Buddenbrockia (Myxozoa) and implications for cnidarian body plan evolution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The enigmatic wormlike parasite Buddenbrockia plumatellae has recently been shown to belong to the Myxozoa, which are now supported as a clade within Cnidaria. Most myxozoans are morphologically extremely simplified, lacking major metazoan features such as epithelial tissue layers, gut, nervous system, body axes and gonads. This hinders comparisons to free-living cnidarians and thus an understanding of myxozoan evolution and identification of their cnidarian sister group. However, B. plumatellae is less simplified than other myxozoans and therefore is of specific significance for such evolutionary considerations. Methods We analyse and describe the development of major body plan features in Buddenbrockia worms using a combination of histology, electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Results Early developmental stages develop a primary body axis that shows a polarity, which is manifested as a gradient of tissue development, enabling distinction between the two worm tips. This polarity is maintained in adult worms, which, in addition, often develop a pore at the distal tip. The musculature comprises tetraradially arranged longitudinal muscle blocks consisting of independent myocytes embedded in the extracellular matrix between inner and outer epithelial tissue layers. The muscle fibres are obliquely oriented and in fully grown worms consistently form an angle of 12° with respect to the longitudinal axis of the worm in each muscle block and hence confer chirality. Connecting cells form a link between each muscle block and constitute four rows of cells that run in single file along the length of the worm. These connecting cells are remnants of the inner epithelial tissue layer and are anchored to the extracellular matrix. They are likely to have a biomechanical function. Conclusions The polarised primary body axis represents an ancient feature present in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria. The tetraradial arrangement of musculature is

  10. Marine Envenomation.

    PubMed

    Hornbeak, Kirsten B; Auerbach, Paul S

    2017-05-01

    Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. This article reviews common marine envenomations, exploring causative species, clinical presentation, and current treatment recommendations. Recommendations are included for cnidaria, sponges, bristle worms, crown-of-thorns starfish, sea urchins, venomous fish, stingrays, cone snails, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, and sea snakes. Immediate and long-term treatment options and management of common sequelae are reviewed. Antivenom administration, treatment of anaphylaxis, and surgical indications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assembly of the cnidarian camera-type eye from vertebrate-like components

    PubMed Central

    Kozmik, Zbynek; Ruzickova, Jana; Jonasova, Kristyna; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Vopalensky, Pavel; Kozmikova, Iryna; Strnad, Hynek; Kawamura, Shoji; Piatigorsky, Joram; Paces, Vaclav; Vlcek, Cestmir

    2008-01-01

    Animal eyes are morphologically diverse. Their assembly, however, always relies on the same basic principle, i.e., photoreceptors located in the vicinity of dark shielding pigment. Cnidaria as the likely sister group to the Bilateria are the earliest branching phylum with a well developed visual system. Here, we show that camera-type eyes of the cubozoan jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, use genetic building blocks typical of vertebrate eyes, namely, a ciliary phototransduction cascade and melanogenic pathway. Our findings indicative of parallelism provide an insight into eye evolution. Combined, the available data favor the possibility that vertebrate and cubozoan eyes arose by independent recruitment of orthologous genes during evolution. PMID:18577593

  12. The Last Common Ancestor of Most Bilaterian Animals Possessed at Least Nine Opsins

    PubMed Central

    Pairett, Autum N.; Pankey, M. Sabrina; Serb, Jeanne M.; Speiser, Daniel I.; Swafford, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The opsin gene family encodes key proteins animals use to sense light and has expanded dramatically as it originated early in animal evolution. Understanding the origins of opsin diversity can offer clues to how separate lineages of animals have repurposed different opsin paralogs for different light-detecting functions. However, the more we look for opsins outside of eyes and from additional animal phyla, the more opsins we uncover, suggesting we still do not know the true extent of opsin diversity, nor the ancestry of opsin diversity in animals. To estimate the number of opsin paralogs present in both the last common ancestor of the Nephrozoa (bilaterians excluding Xenoacoelomorpha), and the ancestor of Cnidaria + Bilateria, we reconstructed a reconciled opsin phylogeny using sequences from 14 animal phyla, especially the traditionally poorly-sampled echinoderms and molluscs. Our analysis strongly supports a repertoire of at least nine opsin paralogs in the bilaterian ancestor and at least four opsin paralogs in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria + Bilateria. Thus, the kernels of extant opsin diversity arose much earlier in animal history than previously known. Further, opsins likely duplicated and were lost many times, with different lineages of animals maintaining different repertoires of opsin paralogs. This phylogenetic information can inform hypotheses about the functions of different opsin paralogs and can be used to understand how and when opsins were incorporated into complex traits like eyes and extraocular sensors. PMID:28172965

  13. GFP-like proteins as ubiquitous metazoan superfamily: evolution of functional features and structural complexity.

    PubMed

    Shagin, Dmitry A; Barsova, Ekaterina V; Yanushevich, Yurii G; Fradkov, Arkady F; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Labas, Yulii A; Semenova, Tatiana N; Ugalde, Juan A; Meyers, Ann; Nunez, Jose M; Widder, Edith A; Lukyanov, Sergey A; Matz, Mikhail V

    2004-05-01

    Homologs of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), including the recently described GFP-like domains of certain extracellular matrix proteins in Bilaterian organisms, are remarkably similar at the protein structure level, yet they often perform totally unrelated functions, thereby warranting recognition as a superfamily. Here we describe diverse GFP-like proteins from previously undersampled and completely new sources, including hydromedusae and planktonic Copepoda. In hydromedusae, yellow and nonfluorescent purple proteins were found in addition to greens. Notably, the new yellow protein seems to follow exactly the same structural solution to achieving the yellow color of fluorescence as YFP, an engineered yellow-emitting mutant variant of GFP. The addition of these new sequences made it possible to resolve deep-level phylogenetic relationships within the superfamily. Fluorescence (most likely green) must have already existed in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and therefore GFP-like proteins may be responsible for fluorescence and/or coloration in virtually any animal. At least 15 color diversification events can be inferred following the maximum parsimony principle in Cnidaria. Origination of red fluorescence and nonfluorescent purple-blue colors on several independent occasions provides a remarkable example of convergent evolution of complex features at the molecular level.

  14. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA.

    PubMed

    Medina, M; Collins, A G; Silberman, J D; Sogin, M L

    2001-08-14

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino-Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combined data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of a monophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny.

  15. Broad Phylogenetic Occurrence of the Oxygen-Binding Hemerythrins in Bilaterians

    PubMed Central

    Schrago, Carlos G.; Halanych, Kenneth M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Animal tissues need to be properly oxygenated for carrying out catabolic respiration and, as such, natural selection has presumably favored special molecules that can reversibly bind and transport oxygen. Hemoglobins, hemocyanins, and hemerythrins (Hrs) fulfill this role, with Hrs being the least studied. Knowledge of oxygen-binding proteins is crucial for understanding animal physiology. Hr genes are present in the three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota; however, within Animalia, Hrs has been reported only in marine species in six phyla (Annelida, Brachiopoda, Priapulida, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, and Arthropoda). Given this observed Hr distribution, whether all metazoan Hrs share a common origin is circumspect. We investigated Hr diversity and evolution in metazoans, by employing in silico approaches to survey for Hrs from of 120 metazoan transcriptomes and genomes. We found 58 candidate Hr genes actively transcribed in 36 species distributed in 11 animal phyla, with new records in Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes. Moreover, we found that “Hrs” reported from Cnidaria and Arthropoda were not consistent with that of other metazoan Hrs. Contrary to previous suggestions that Hr genes were absent in deuterostomes, we find Hr genes present in deuterostomes and were likely present in early bilaterians, but not in nonbilaterian animal lineages. As expected, the Hr gene tree did not mirror metazoan phylogeny, suggesting that Hrs evolutionary history was complex and besides the oxygen carrying capacity, the drivers of Hr evolution may also consist of secondary functional specializations of the proteins, like immunological functions. PMID:29016798

  16. Impact of Scyphozoan Venoms on Human Health and Current First Aid Options for Stings

    PubMed Central

    Remigante, Alessia; Costa, Roberta; La Spada, Giuseppa

    2018-01-01

    Cnidaria include the most venomous animals of the world. Among Cnidaria, Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) are ubiquitous, abundant, and often come into accidental contact with humans and, therefore, represent a threat for public health and safety. The venom of Scyphozoa is a complex mixture of bioactive substances—including thermolabile enzymes such as phospholipases, metalloproteinases, and, possibly, pore-forming proteins—and is only partially characterized. Scyphozoan stings may lead to local and systemic reactions via toxic and immunological mechanisms; some of these reactions may represent a medical emergency. However, the adoption of safe and efficacious first aid measures for jellyfish stings is hampered by the diffusion of folk remedies, anecdotal reports, and lack of consensus in the scientific literature. Species-specific differences may hinder the identification of treatments that work for all stings. However, rinsing the sting site with vinegar (5% acetic acid) and the application of heat (hot pack/immersion in hot water) or lidocaine appear to be substantiated by evidence. Controlled clinical trials or reliable models of envenomation are warranted to confirm the efficacy and safety of these approaches and identify possible species-specific exceptions. Knowledge of the precise composition of Scyphozoa venom may open the way to molecule-oriented therapies in the future. PMID:29570625

  17. Cytotoxic and Cytolytic Cnidarian Venoms. A Review on Health Implications and Possible Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern for its influence on human activities and public health. During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from several Cnidaria that have been tested in order to evaluate some fundamental parameters, such as the activity on cell survival, functioning and metabolism, and to improve the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of these compounds. In agreement with the modern tendency aimed to avoid the utilization of living animals in the experiments and to substitute them with in vitro systems, established cell lines or primary cultures have been employed to test cnidarian extracts or derivatives. Several cnidarian venoms have been found to have cytotoxic properties and have been also shown to cause hemolytic effects. Some studied substances have been shown to affect tumour cells and microorganisms, so making cnidarian extracts particularly interesting for their possible therapeutic employment. The review aims to emphasize the up-to-date knowledge about this subject taking in consideration the importance of such venoms in human pathology, the health implications and the possible therapeutic application of these natural compounds. PMID:24379089

  18. The Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775). Distribution, Ecology, Toxicity and Epidemiology of Stings. A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Giacco, Elisabetta; Pane, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts) produce remarkable effects on human skin, such as erythema, swelling, burning and vesicles, and at times further severe dermonecrotic, cardio- and neurotoxic effects, which are particularly dangerous in sensitive subjects. In several zones the toxicity of jellyfish is a very important health problem, thus it has stimulated the research on these organisms; to date toxicological research on Cnidarian venoms in the Mediterranean region is not well developed due to the weak poisonousness of venoms of jellyfish and anemones living in this area. In spite of this, during last decades several problems were also caused in the Mediterranean by stinging consequent to Cnidarian blooms mainly caused by Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775) which is known to be the most venomous Mediterranean jellyfish. This paper reviews the knowledge on this jellyfish species, particularly considering its occurrence and toxicity. PMID:19005582

  19. Structural molecular components of septate junctions in cnidarians point to the origin of epithelial junctions in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ganot, Philippe; Zoccola, Didier; Tambutté, Eric; Voolstra, Christian R; Aranda, Manuel; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Septate junctions (SJs) insure barrier properties and control paracellular diffusion of solutes across epithelia in invertebrates. However, the origin and evolution of their molecular constituents in Metazoa have not been firmly established. Here, we investigated the genomes of early branching metazoan representatives to reconstruct the phylogeny of the molecular components of SJs. Although Claudins and SJ cytoplasmic adaptor components appeared successively throughout metazoan evolution, the structural components of SJs arose at the time of Placozoa/Cnidaria/Bilateria radiation. We also show that in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata, the structural SJ component Neurexin IV colocalizes with the cortical actin network at the apical border of the cells, at the place of SJs. We propose a model for SJ components in Cnidaria. Moreover, our study reveals an unanticipated diversity of SJ structural component variants in cnidarians. This diversity correlates with gene-specific expression in calcifying and noncalcifying tissues, suggesting specific paracellular pathways across the cell layers of these diploblastic animals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrototaro, F.; D'Onghia, G.; Corriero, G.; Matarrese, A.; Maiorano, P.; Panetta, P.; Gherardi, M.; Longo, C.; Rosso, A.; Sciuto, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gravili, C.; Boero, F.; Taviani, M.; Tursi, A.

    2010-03-01

    The biodiversity of the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) coral bank is summarized and its description is updated using data collected by means of underwater video systems, benthic samplers and fishing gears. A total of 222 living species have been recorded within the coral bank area in the depth range 280-1121 m. The most abundant benthic taxa recorded are Porifera (36 species) followed by Mollusca (35) and Cnidaria (31). The scleractinian corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are the main colonial species in the structure of the SML bank. Annelida, Crustacea and Bryozoa have been found with 24, 23 and 19 species, respectively. A total of 40 species of demersal fish have been recorded. Other faunal taxa were found with small numbers of species. One hundred and thirty-five species are new for the SML bank, 31 of which represent new records for the north-western Ionian Sea (2 Porifera, 17 Cnidaria, 1 Mollusca, 3 Annelida, 2 Crustacea, 4 Bryozoa and 4 Echinodermata). The finding of the annelid Harmothoë vesiculosa represents the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. The SML coral bank represents a biodiversity "hot-spot" on the bathyal bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Silberman, Jeffrey

    2001-06-21

    We studied the evolutionary relationships among basal metazoan lineages by using complete large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences for 23 taxa. After identifying competing hypotheses, we performed maximum likelihood searches for trees conforming to each hypothesis. Kishino-Hasegawa tests were used to determine whether the data (LSU, SSU, and combined) reject any of the competing hypotheses. We also conducted unconstrained tree searches, compared the resulting topologies, and calculated bootstrap indices. Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests were applied to determine whether the data reject any of the topologies resulting from the constrained and unconstrained tree searches. LSU, SSU, and the combinedmore » data strongly contradict two assertions pertaining to sponge phylogeny. Hexactinellid sponges are not likely to be the basal lineage of amonophyletic Porifera or the sister group to all other animals. Instead, Hexactinellida and Demospongia form a well-supported clade of siliceous sponges, Silicea. It remains unclear, on the basis of these data alone, whether the calcarean sponges are more closely related to Silicea or to nonsponge animals. The SSU and combined data reject the hypothesis that Bilateria is more closely related to Ctenophora than it is to Cnidaria, whereas LSU data alone do not refute either hypothesis. LSU and SSU data agree in supporting the monophyly of Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Metazoa. LSU sequence data reveal phylogenetic structure in a data set with limited taxon sampling. Continued accumulation of LSU sequences should increase our understanding of animal phylogeny.« less

  2. Characterisation of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Three Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Young, Neil D.; Doyle, Jason; Llewellyn, Lyndon; Klueter, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is an enzyme catalysing the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), the latter being an essential messenger molecule for a range of biological processes. Whilst its role in higher vertebrates is well understood little is known about the role of this enzyme in early metazoan groups. For instance, NOS-mediated signalling has been associated with Cnidaria-algal symbioses, however controversy remains about the contribution of enzyme activities by the individual partners of these mutualistic relationships. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a modified citrulline assay we successfully measured NOS activity in three cnidarian-algal symbioses: the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, the hard coral Acropora millepora, and the soft coral Lobophytum pauciflorum, so demonstrating a wide distribution of this enzyme in the phylum Cnidaria. Further biochemical (citrulline assay) and histochemical (NADPH-diaphorase) investigations of NOS in the host tissue of L. pauciflorum revealed the cytosolic and calcium dependent nature of this enzyme and its in situ localisation within the coral's gastrodermal tissue, the innermost layer of the body wall bearing the symbiotic algae. Interestingly, enzyme activity could not be detected in symbionts freshly isolated from the cnidarians, or in cultured algal symbionts. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that NOS-mediated NO release may be host-derived, a finding that has the potential to further refine our understanding of signalling events in cnidarian-algal symbioses. PMID:20442851

  3. Characterisation of nitric oxide synthase in three cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Young, Neil D; Doyle, Jason; Llewellyn, Lyndon; Klueter, Anke

    2010-04-28

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is an enzyme catalysing the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), the latter being an essential messenger molecule for a range of biological processes. Whilst its role in higher vertebrates is well understood little is known about the role of this enzyme in early metazoan groups. For instance, NOS-mediated signalling has been associated with Cnidaria-algal symbioses, however controversy remains about the contribution of enzyme activities by the individual partners of these mutualistic relationships. Using a modified citrulline assay we successfully measured NOS activity in three cnidarian-algal symbioses: the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, the hard coral Acropora millepora, and the soft coral Lobophytum pauciflorum, so demonstrating a wide distribution of this enzyme in the phylum Cnidaria. Further biochemical (citrulline assay) and histochemical (NADPH-diaphorase) investigations of NOS in the host tissue of L. pauciflorum revealed the cytosolic and calcium dependent nature of this enzyme and its in situ localisation within the coral's gastrodermal tissue, the innermost layer of the body wall bearing the symbiotic algae. Interestingly, enzyme activity could not be detected in symbionts freshly isolated from the cnidarians, or in cultured algal symbionts. These results suggest that NOS-mediated NO release may be host-derived, a finding that has the potential to further refine our understanding of signalling events in cnidarian-algal symbioses.

  4. Cytotoxic and cytolytic cnidarian venoms. A review on health implications and possible therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi

    2013-12-27

    The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern for its influence on human activities and public health. During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from several Cnidaria that have been tested in order to evaluate some fundamental parameters, such as the activity on cell survival, functioning and metabolism, and to improve the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of these compounds. In agreement with the modern tendency aimed to avoid the utilization of living animals in the experiments and to substitute them with in vitro systems, established cell lines or primary cultures have been employed to test cnidarian extracts or derivatives. Several cnidarian venoms have been found to have cytotoxic properties and have been also shown to cause hemolytic effects. Some studied substances have been shown to affect tumour cells and microorganisms, so making cnidarian extracts particularly interesting for their possible therapeutic employment. The review aims to emphasize the up-to-date knowledge about this subject taking in consideration the importance of such venoms in human pathology, the health implications and the possible therapeutic application of these natural compounds.

  5. Estimation of divergence times in cnidarian evolution based on mitochondrial protein-coding genes and the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunji; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jae-Seong; Song, Jun-Im; Seo, Tae-Kun; Won, Yong-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The phylum Cnidaria is comprised of remarkably diverse and ecologically significant taxa, such as the reef-forming corals, and occupies a basal position in metazoan evolution. The origin of this phylum and the most recent common ancestors (MRCAs) of its modern classes remain mostly unknown, although scattered fossil evidence provides some insights on this topic. Here, we investigate the molecular divergence times of the major taxonomic groups of Cnidaria (27 Hexacorallia, 16 Octocorallia, and 5 Medusozoa) on the basis of mitochondrial DNA sequences of 13 protein-coding genes. For this analysis, the complete mitochondrial genomes of seven octocoral and two scyphozoan species were newly sequenced and combined with all available mitogenomic data from GenBank. Five reliable fossil dates were used to calibrate the Bayesian estimates of divergence times. The molecular evidence suggests that cnidarians originated 741 million years ago (Ma) (95% credible region of 686-819), and the major taxa diversified prior to the Cambrian (543 Ma). The Octocorallia and Scleractinia may have originated from radiations of survivors of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction, which matches their fossil record well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pyrosequencing reveals diverse microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Diverse sessile organisms inhabit the coral reef ecosystems, including corals, sponges, and sea anemones. In the past decades, scleractinian corals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia) and their associated microorganisms have attracted much attention. Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) are commonly found in coral reefs. However, little is known about the community structure of zoanthid-associated microbiota. In this study, the microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae in the South China Sea was investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. As a result, 2,353 bacterial, 583 archaeal, and 36 eukaryotic microbial ribotypes were detected, respectively. A total of 22 bacterial phyla (16 formally described phyla and six candidate phyla) were recovered. Proteobacteria was the most abundant group, followed by Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria. High-abundance Rhizobiales and diverse Chloroflexi were observed in the bacterial community. The archaeal population was composed of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, with Marine Group I as the dominant lineage. In particular, Candidatus Nitrosopumilus dominated the archaeal community. Besides bacteria and archaea, the zoanthid harbored eukaryotic microorganisms including fungi and algae though their diversity was very low. This study provided the first insights into the microbial community associated with P. australiae by 454 pyrosequencing, consequently laid a basis for the understanding of the association of P. australiae-microbes symbioses.

  7. Systematic analysis of microfauna indicator values for treatment performance in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Qi, Rong; Yang, Min

    2013-07-01

    The indicator values of microfauna functional groups and species for treatment performance were systematically evaluated based on the continuous monitoring of the entire microfauna communities including both protozoa and metazoa over a period of 14 months, in two parallel full-scale municipal wastewater treatment systems in a plant in Beijing, China. A total of 57 species of ciliates, 14 species (units) of amoebae, 14 species (units) of flagellates and 4 classes of small metazoa were identified, with Arcella hemisphaerica, Vorticella striata, Vorticella convallaria, Epistylis plicatilis and small flagellates (e.g. Bodo spp.) as the dominant protozoa, and rotifers as the dominant metazoa. The abundance of the sessile ciliates was correlated with the removals of BOD5 (Pearson's r = 0.410, p < 0.05) and CODcr (r = 0.397, p < 0.05) while the testate amoebae was significantly positively related to nitrification (r = 0.523, p < 0.01). At the same time, some other associations were also identified: the abundances of the large flagellates (r = 0.447, p < 0.01), the metazoa (r = 0.718, p < 0.01) and species Aspidisca sulcata (r = 0.337, p < 0.05) were positively related to nitrification; the abundance of Aspidisca costata was correlated to the TN (total nitrogen) removal (r = -0.374, p < 0.05 ); the abundances of the sessile species Carchesium polypinum (r = 0.458, p < 0.01) and E. plicatilis (r = 0.377, p < 0.05) were correlated with the removal of suspended solids.

  8. PSP toxin levels and plankton community composition and abundance in size-fractionated vertical profiles during spring/summer blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank, 2007, 2008, and 2010: 2. Plankton community composition and abundance.

    PubMed

    Petitpas, Christian M; Turner, Jefferson T; Deeds, Jonathan R; Keafer, Bruce A; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Milligan, Peter J; Shue, Vangie; White, Kevin D; Anderson, Donald M

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Gulf of Maine Toxicity (GOMTOX) project, we determined Alexandrium fundyense abundance, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin levels in various plankton size fractions, and the community composition of potential grazers of A. fundyense in plankton size fractions during blooms of this toxic dinoflagellate in the coastal Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank in spring and summer of 2007, 2008, and 2010. PSP toxins and A. fundyense cells were found throughout the sampled water column (down to 50 m) in the 20-64 μm size fractions. While PSP toxins were widespread throughout all size classes of the zooplankton grazing community, the majority of the toxin was measured in the 20-64 μm size fraction. A. fundyense cellular toxin content estimated from field samples was significantly higher in the coastal Gulf of Maine than on Georges Bank. Most samples containing PSP toxins in the present study had diverse assemblages of grazers. However, some samples clearly suggested PSP toxin accumulation in several different grazer taxa including tintinnids, heterotrophic dinoflagellates of the genus Protoperidinium , barnacle nauplii, the harpacticoid copepod Microsetella norvegica , the calanoid copepods Calanus finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp., the marine cladoceran Evadne nordmanni , and hydroids of the genus Clytia . Thus, a diverse assemblage of zooplankton grazers accumulated PSP toxins through food-web interactions. This raises the question of whether PSP toxins pose a potential human health risk not only from nearshore bivalve shellfish, but also potentially from fish and other upper-level consumers in zooplankton-based pelagic food webs.

  9. Differential Responses to Wnt and PCP Disruption Predict Expression and Developmental Function of Conserved and Novel Genes in a Cnidarian

    PubMed Central

    Lapébie, Pascal; Ruggiero, Antonella; Barreau, Carine; Chevalier, Sandra; Chang, Patrick; Dru, Philippe; Houliston, Evelyn; Momose, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have used Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify, without bilaterian bias, regulators of cnidarian embryonic patterning. Transcriptome comparison between un-manipulated Clytia early gastrula embryos and ones in which the key polarity regulator Wnt3 was inhibited using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Wnt3-MO) identified a set of significantly over and under-expressed transcripts. These code for candidate Wnt signaling modulators, orthologs of other transcription factors, secreted and transmembrane proteins known as developmental regulators in bilaterian models or previously uncharacterized, and also many cnidarian-restricted proteins. Comparisons between embryos injected with morpholinos targeting Wnt3 and its receptor Fz1 defined four transcript classes showing remarkable correlation with spatiotemporal expression profiles. Class 1 and 3 transcripts tended to show sustained expression at “oral” and “aboral” poles respectively of the developing planula larva, class 2 transcripts in cells ingressing into the endodermal region during gastrulation, while class 4 gene expression was repressed at the early gastrula stage. The preferential effect of Fz1-MO on expression of class 2 and 4 transcripts can be attributed to Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) disruption, since it was closely matched by morpholino knockdown of the specific PCP protein Strabismus. We conclude that endoderm and post gastrula-specific gene expression is particularly sensitive to PCP disruption while Wnt-/β-catenin signaling dominates gene regulation along the oral-aboral axis. Phenotype analysis using morpholinos targeting a subset of transcripts indicated developmental roles consistent with expression profiles for both conserved and cnidarian-restricted genes. Overall our unbiased screen allowed systematic identification of regionally expressed genes and provided functional support for a shared eumetazoan developmental regulatory gene set with both predicted and previously

  10. Differential responses to Wnt and PCP disruption predict expression and developmental function of conserved and novel genes in a cnidarian.

    PubMed

    Lapébie, Pascal; Ruggiero, Antonella; Barreau, Carine; Chevalier, Sandra; Chang, Patrick; Dru, Philippe; Houliston, Evelyn; Momose, Tsuyoshi

    2014-09-01

    We have used Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify, without bilaterian bias, regulators of cnidarian embryonic patterning. Transcriptome comparison between un-manipulated Clytia early gastrula embryos and ones in which the key polarity regulator Wnt3 was inhibited using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Wnt3-MO) identified a set of significantly over and under-expressed transcripts. These code for candidate Wnt signaling modulators, orthologs of other transcription factors, secreted and transmembrane proteins known as developmental regulators in bilaterian models or previously uncharacterized, and also many cnidarian-restricted proteins. Comparisons between embryos injected with morpholinos targeting Wnt3 and its receptor Fz1 defined four transcript classes showing remarkable correlation with spatiotemporal expression profiles. Class 1 and 3 transcripts tended to show sustained expression at "oral" and "aboral" poles respectively of the developing planula larva, class 2 transcripts in cells ingressing into the endodermal region during gastrulation, while class 4 gene expression was repressed at the early gastrula stage. The preferential effect of Fz1-MO on expression of class 2 and 4 transcripts can be attributed to Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) disruption, since it was closely matched by morpholino knockdown of the specific PCP protein Strabismus. We conclude that endoderm and post gastrula-specific gene expression is particularly sensitive to PCP disruption while Wnt-/β-catenin signaling dominates gene regulation along the oral-aboral axis. Phenotype analysis using morpholinos targeting a subset of transcripts indicated developmental roles consistent with expression profiles for both conserved and cnidarian-restricted genes. Overall our unbiased screen allowed systematic identification of regionally expressed genes and provided functional support for a shared eumetazoan developmental regulatory gene set with both predicted and previously unexplored

  11. Diversity and evolution of myxozoan minicollagens and nematogalectins.

    PubMed

    Shpirer, Erez; Chang, E Sally; Diamant, Arik; Rubinstein, Nimrod; Cartwright, Paulyn; Huchon, Dorothée

    2014-09-29

    Myxozoa are a diverse group of metazoan parasites with a very simple organization, which has for decades eluded their evolutionary origin. Their most prominent and characteristic feature is the polar capsule: a complex intracellular structure of the myxozoan spore, which plays a role in host infection. Striking morphological similarities have been found between myxozoan polar capsules and nematocysts, the stinging structures of cnidarians (corals, sea anemones and jellyfish) leading to the suggestion that Myxozoa and Cnidaria share a more recent common ancestry. This hypothesis has recently been supported by phylogenomic evidence and by the identification of a nematocyst specific minicollagen gene in the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Here we searched genomes and transcriptomes of several myxozoan taxa for the presence of additional cnidarian specific genes and characterized these genes within a phylogenetic context. Illumina assemblies of transcriptome or genome data of three myxozoan species (Enteromyxum leei, Kudoa iwatai, and Sphaeromyxa zaharoni) and of the enigmatic cnidarian parasite Polypodium hydriforme (Polypodiozoa) were mined using tBlastn searches with nematocyst-specific proteins as queries. Several orthologs of nematogalectins and minicollagens were identified. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that myxozoans possess three distinct minicollagens. We found that the cnidarian repertoire of nematogalectins is more complex than previously thought and we identified additional members of the nematogalectin family. Cnidarians were found to possess four nematogalectin/ nematogalectin-related genes, while in myxozoans only three genes could be identified. Our results demonstrate that myxozoans possess a diverse array of genes that are taxonomically restricted to Cnidaria. Characterization of these genes provide compelling evidence that polar capsules and nematocysts are homologous structures and that myxozoans are highly degenerate cnidarians. The

  12. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Groves B.; Bay, Line K.; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  13. Evolution and development of brain networks: from Caenorhabditis elegans to Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Marcus; Varier, Sreedevi

    2011-01-01

    Neural networks show a progressive increase in complexity during the time course of evolution. From diffuse nerve nets in Cnidaria to modular, hierarchical systems in macaque and humans, there is a gradual shift from simple processes involving a limited amount of tasks and modalities to complex functional and behavioral processing integrating different kinds of information from highly specialized tissue. However, studies in a range of species suggest that fundamental similarities, in spatial and topological features as well as in developmental mechanisms for network formation, are retained across evolution. 'Small-world' topology and highly connected regions (hubs) are prevalent across the evolutionary scale, ensuring efficient processing and resilience to internal (e.g. lesions) and external (e.g. environment) changes. Furthermore, in most species, even the establishment of hubs, long-range connections linking distant components, and a modular organization, relies on similar mechanisms. In conclusion, evolutionary divergence leads to greater complexity while following essential developmental constraints.

  14. Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert

    2017-07-03

    Synthesis of sugars from simple carbon sources is critical for survival of animals under limited nutrient availability. Thus, sugar-synthesizing enzymes should be present across the entire metazoan spectrum. Here, we explore the evolution of glucose and trehalose synthesis using a phylogenetic analysis of enzymes specific for the two pathways. Our analysis reveals that the production of trehalose is the more ancestral biochemical process, found in single cell organisms and primitive metazoans, but also in insects. The gluconeogenic-specific enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) first appears in Cnidaria, but is also present in Echinodermata, Mollusca and Vertebrata. Intriguingly, some species of nematodes and arthropods possess the genes for both pathways. Moreover, expression data from Drosophila suggests that G6Pase and, hence, gluconeogenesis, initially had a neuronal function. We speculate that in insects-and possibly in some vertebrates-gluconeogenesis may be used as a means of neuronal signaling.

  15. Benthic assemblages, biodiversity and invasiveness in marinas and commercial harbours: an investigation using a bioindicator group.

    PubMed

    Megina, Cesar; González-Duarte, Manuel M; López-González, Pablo J

    2016-01-01

    Fouling communities on artificial marine structures are generally different from benthic communities in natural rocky habitats. However, they may also differ among different types of artificial structures. Two artificial structures in direct contact with arriving vessels were compared: floating pontoons within recreational marinas, and sea-walls within commercial harbours. Natural rocky habitats were used as a reference, and the genus Eudendrium (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) was chosen as a bioindicator. The assemblages were different among the three types of habitat studied, with different species characterising each habitat. The probability of finding an invasive Eudendrium species was significantly higher on pontoons. Diversity was the lowest on pontoons, but it was not significantly different between sea-walls and natural rocks. In general, a barrier to the spread of exotic species exists between harbours and natural rocky habitats. Floating pontoons seem to be a less suitable habitat for native fauna and a key element in marine biological invasions.

  16. T-box and homeobox genes from the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus: comparison of Brachyury, Tbx2/3 and Tlx in basal metazoans and bilaterians.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Cosimo; Spring, Jürg

    2005-09-12

    Most animals are classified as Bilateria and only four phyla are still extant as outgroups, namely Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria and Ctenophora. These non-bilaterians were not considered to have a mesoderm and hence mesoderm-specific genes. However, the T-box gene Brachyury could be isolated from sponges, placozoans and cnidarians. Here, we describe the first Brachyury and a Tbx2/3 homologue from a ctenophore. In addition, analysing T-box and homeobox genes under comparable conditions in all four basal phyla lead to the discovery of novel T-box genes in sponges and cnidarians and a Tlx homeobox gene in the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus. The conservation of the T-box and the homeobox genes suggest that distinct subfamilies with different roles in bilaterians were already split in non-bilaterians.

  17. [Morphofunctional organization of reserve stem cells providing for asexual and sexual reproduction of invertebrates].

    PubMed

    Isaeva, V V; Akhmadieva, A V; Aleksandriova, Ia N; Shukaliuk, A I

    2009-01-01

    Published and original data indicating evolutionary conservation of the morphofunctional organization of reserve stem cells providing for asexual and sexual reproduction of invertebrates are reviewed. Stem cells were studied in representatives of five animal types: archeocytes in sponge Oscarella malakhovi (Porifera), large interstitial cells in colonial hydroid Obelia longissima (Cnidaria), neoblasts in an asexual race of planarian Girardia tigrina (Platyhelmintes), stem cells in colonial rhizocephalans Peltogasterella gracilis, Polyascus polygenea, and Thylacoplethus isaevae (Arthropoda), and colonial ascidian Botryllus tuberatus (Chordata). Stem cells in animals of such diverse taxa feature the presence of germinal granules, are positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity (at marker of embryonic stem cells and primary germ cells in vertebrates), and rhizocephalan stem cells express the vasa-like gene (such genes are expressed in germline cells of different metazoans). The self-renewing pool of stem cells is the cellular basis of the reproductive strategy including sexual and asexual reproduction.

  18. Mechanisms for eco-immunity in a changing enviroment: how does the coral innate immune system contend with climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traylor-Knowles, N. G.

    2016-02-01

    Innate immunity plays a central role in maintaining homeostasis, and within the context of impending climate change scenarios, understanding how this system works is critical. However, the actual mechanisms involved in the evolution of the innate immune system are largely unknown. Cnidaria (including corals, sea anemones and jellyfish) are well suited for studying the fundamental functions of innate immunity because they share a common ancestor with bilaterians. This study will highlight the transcriptomic changes during a heat shock in the coral Acropora hyacinthus of American Samoa, examining the temporal changes, every half an hour for 5 hours. We hypothesize that genes involved in innate immunity, and extracellular matrix maintenance will be key components to the heat stress response. This presentation will highlight the novel role of the tumor necrosis factor receptor gene family as a responder to heat stress and present future directions for this developing field in coral reef research.

  19. Novel scenarios of early animal evolution--is it time to rewrite textbooks?

    PubMed

    Dohrmann, Martin; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-09-01

    Understanding how important phenotypic, developmental, and genomic features of animals originated and evolved is essential for many fields of biological research, but such understanding depends on robust hypotheses about the phylogenetic interrelationships of the higher taxa to which the studied species belong. Molecular approaches to phylogenetics have proven able to revolutionize our knowledge of organismal evolution. However, with respect to the deepest splits in the metazoan Tree of Life-the relationships between Bilateria and the four non-bilaterian phyla (Porifera, Placozoa, Ctenophora, and Cnidaria)-no consensus has been reached yet, since a number of different, often contradictory, hypotheses with sometimes spectacular implications have been proposed in recent years. Here, we review the recent literature on the topic and contrast it with more classical perceptions based on analyses of morphological characters. We conclude that the time is not yet ripe to rewrite zoological textbooks and advocate a conservative approach when it comes to developing scenarios of the early evolution of animals.

  20. Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Synthesis of sugars from simple carbon sources is critical for survival of animals under limited nutrient availability. Thus, sugar-synthesizing enzymes should be present across the entire metazoan spectrum. Here, we explore the evolution of glucose and trehalose synthesis using a phylogenetic analysis of enzymes specific for the two pathways. Our analysis reveals that the production of trehalose is the more ancestral biochemical process, found in single cell organisms and primitive metazoans, but also in insects. The gluconeogenic-specific enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) first appears in Cnidaria, but is also present in Echinodermata, Mollusca and Vertebrata. Intriguingly, some species of nematodes and arthropods possess the genes for both pathways. Moreover, expression data from Drosophila suggests that G6Pase and, hence, gluconeogenesis, initially had a neuronal function. We speculate that in insects—and possibly in some vertebrates—gluconeogenesis may be used as a means of neuronal signaling. PMID:28121487

  1. The Radiata and the evolutionary origins of the bilaterian body plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martindale, Mark Q.; Finnerty, John R.; Henry, Jonathan Q.

    2002-01-01

    The apparent conservation of cellular and molecular developmental mechanisms observed in a handful of bilaterian metazoans has spawned a "race" to reconstruct the bilaterian ancestor. Knowledge of this ancestor would permit us to reconstruct the evolutionary changes that have occurred along specific bilaterian lineages. However, comparisons among extant bilaterians provide an unnecessarily limited view of the ancestral bilaterian. Since the original bilaterians are believed by many to be derived from a radially symmetrical ancestor, additional evidence might be obtained by examining present-day radially symmetrical animals. We briefly review pertinent features of the body plans of the extant radial eumetazoan phyla, the Cnidaria, and Ctenophora, in the context of revealing potential evolutionary links to the bilaterians.

  2. Eumetazoan fossils in terminal Proterozoic phosphorites?

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shuhai; Yuan, Xunlai; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2000-01-01

    Phosphatic sedimentary rocks preserve a record of early animal life different from and complementary to that provided by Ediacaran fossils in terminal Proterozoic sandstones and shales. Phosphorites of the Doushantuo Formation, South China, contain eggs, egg cases, and stereoblastulae that document animals of unspecified phylogenetic position; small fossils containing putative spicules may specifically record the presence of sponges. Microfossils recently interpreted as the preserved gastrulae of cnidarian and bilaterian metazoans can alternatively be interpreted as conventional algal cysts and/or egg cases modified by diagenetic processes known to have had a pervasive influence on Doushantuo phosphorites. Regardless of this interpretation, evidence for Doushantuo eumetazoans is provided by millimeter-scale tubes that display tabulation and apical budding characteristic of some Cnidaria, especially the extinct tabulates. Like some Ediacaran remains, these small, benthic, colonial fossils may represent stem-group eumetazoans or stem-group cnidarians that lived in the late Proterozoic ocean. PMID:11095754

  3. Cnidarian internal stinging mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, Ami; Zlotkin, Eliahu; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Stinging mechanisms generally deliver venomous compounds to external targets. However, nematocysts, the microscopic stinging organelles that are common to all members of the phylum Cnidaria, occur and act in both external and internal tissue structures. This is the first report of such an internal piercing mechanism. This mechanism identifies prey items within the body cavity of the sea anemone and actively injects them with cytolytic venom compounds. Internal tissues isolated from sea anemones caused the degradation of live Artemia salina nauplii in vitro. When examined, the nauplii were found to be pierced by discharged nematocysts. This phenomenon is suggested to aid digestive phagocytic processes in a predator otherwise lacking the means to masticate its prey. PMID:19129118

  4. Characterizing the spatiotemporal expression of RNAs and proteins in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Wolenski, Francis S; Layden, Michael J; Martindale, Mark Q; Gilmore, Thomas D; Finnerty, John R

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to reconstruct the early evolution of animal genes and proteins, there is an increasing focus on basal animal lineages such as sponges, cnidarians, ctenophores and placozoans. Among the basal animals, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum Cnidaria) has emerged as a leading laboratory model organism partly because it is well suited to experimental techniques for monitoring and manipulating gene expression. Here we describe protocols adapted for use in Nematostella to characterize the expression of RNAs by in situ hybridization using either chromogenic or fluorescence immunohistochemistry (~1 week), as well as to characterize protein expression by whole-mount immunofluorescence (~3 d). We also provide a protocol for labeling cnidocytes (~3 h), the phylum-specific sensory-effector cell type that performs a variety of functions in cnidarians, including the delivery of their venomous sting. PMID:23579779

  5. A Sulfilimine Bond Identified in Collagen IV

    PubMed Central

    Vanacore, Roberto; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Voehler, Markus; Sanders, Charles R.; Conrads, Thomas P.; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Dawson, Philip E.; Hudson, Billy G.

    2010-01-01

    Collagen IV networks are ancient proteins of basement membranes that underlie epithelia in metazoa from sponge to human. The networks provide structural integrity to tissues and serve as ligands for integrin cell-surface receptors. They are assembled by oligomerization of triple-helical protomers and are covalently cross-linked, a key reinforcement that stabilizes networks. We used Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to show that a sulfilimine bond (-S=N-) crosslinks hydroxylysine-211 and methionine-93 of adjoining protomers, a bond not previously found in biomolecules. This bond, the nitrogen analog of a sulfoxide, appears to have arisen at the divergence of sponge and cnidaria, an adaptation of the extracellular matrix in response to mechanical stress in metazoan evolution. PMID:19729652

  6. Structural basis for the fast maturation of Arthropoda green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Evdokimov, Artem G; Pokross, Matthew E; Egorov, Nikolay S; Zaraisky, Andrey G; Yampolsky, Ilya V; Merzlyak, Ekaterina M; Shkoporov, Andrey N; Sander, Ian; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Chudakov, Dmitriy M

    2006-01-01

    Since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) in 1992, a family of known GFP-like proteins has been growing rapidly. Today, it includes more than a hundred proteins with different spectral characteristics cloned from Cnidaria species. For some of these proteins, crystal structures have been solved, showing diversity in chromophore modifications and conformational states. However, we are still far from a complete understanding of the origin, functions and evolution of the GFP family. Novel proteins of the family were recently cloned from evolutionarily distant marine Copepoda species, phylum Arthropoda, demonstrating an extremely rapid generation of fluorescent signal. Here, we have generated a non-aggregating mutant of Copepoda fluorescent protein and solved its high-resolution crystal structure. It was found that the protein β-barrel contains a pore, leading to the chromophore. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that this feature is critical for the fast maturation of the chromophore. PMID:16936637

  7. Polypodium sp. (Coelenterata) infection of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suppes, V. Charles; Meyer, Fred P.

    1975-01-01

    Parasitism of fish by coelenterates is rare and the first North American infection was reported in sturgeon (Hoffman et al., 1974, J Parasitol 60: 548-550). In the USSR parasitism of sturgeon (Acipenser sp.) eggs by the coelenterate Polypodium hydriforme Ussov 1885 has long been reported and investigated [Raikova, 1959, in Parasites of Freshwater Fish and the Biological Basis for their Control. Bull State Sci Res Inst Lake and River Fish. XLIX. Eng. transl. No. TT61-31056, O. T. S., U. S. Dep. Commerce, Washington, D. C., 1962, 235 p.: Raikova, 1973, (Proc Second Internat Symp on Cnidaria), Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 20: 165-173]. This report represents the first known infection of Polypodium in the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula).

  8. The Early ANTP Gene Repertoire: Insights from the Placozoan Genome

    PubMed Central

    Schierwater, Bernd; Kamm, Kai; Srivastava, Mansi; Rokhsar, Daniel; Rosengarten, Rafael D.; Dellaporta, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of ANTP genes in the Metazoa has been the subject of conflicting hypotheses derived from full or partial gene sequences and genomic organization in higher animals. Whole genome sequences have recently filled in some crucial gaps for the basal metazoan phyla Cnidaria and Porifera. Here we analyze the complete genome of Trichoplax adhaerens, representing the basal metazoan phylum Placozoa, for its set of ANTP class genes. The Trichoplax genome encodes representatives of Hox/ParaHox-like, NKL, and extended Hox genes. This repertoire possibly mirrors the condition of a hypothetical cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. The evolution of the cnidarian and bilaterian ANTP gene repertoires can be deduced by a limited number of cis-duplications of NKL and “extended Hox” genes and the presence of a single ancestral “ProtoHox” gene. PMID:18716659

  9. CnidBase: The Cnidarian Evolutionary Genomics Database

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Joseph F.; Finnerty, John R.

    2003-01-01

    CnidBase, the Cnidarian Evolutionary Genomics Database, is a tool for investigating the evolutionary, developmental and ecological factors that affect gene expression and gene function in cnidarians. In turn, CnidBase will help to illuminate the role of specific genes in shaping cnidarian biodiversity in the present day and in the distant past. CnidBase highlights evolutionary changes between species within the phylum Cnidaria and structures genomic and expression data to facilitate comparisons to non-cnidarian metazoans. CnidBase aims to further the progress that has already been made in the realm of cnidarian evolutionary genomics by creating a central community resource which will help drive future research and facilitate more accurate classification and comparison of new experimental data with existing data. CnidBase is available at http://cnidbase.bu.edu/. PMID:12519972

  10. Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., interpreted as a muscular cnidarian impression from the Late Ediacaran period (approx. 560 Ma).

    PubMed

    Liu, Alexander G; Matthews, Jack J; Menon, Latha R; McIlroy, Duncan; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-10-22

    Muscle tissue is a fundamentally eumetazoan attribute. The oldest evidence for fossilized muscular tissue before the Early Cambrian has hitherto remained moot, being reliant upon indirect evidence in the form of Late Ediacaran ichnofossils. We here report a candidate muscle-bearing organism, Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., from approximately 560 Ma strata in Newfoundland, Canada. This taxon exhibits sediment moulds of twisted, superimposed fibrous bundles arranged quadrilaterally, extending into four prominent bifurcating corner branches. Haootia is distinct from all previously published contemporaneous Ediacaran macrofossils in its symmetrically fibrous, rather than frondose, architecture. Its bundled fibres, morphology, and taphonomy compare well with the muscle fibres of fossil and extant Cnidaria, particularly the benthic Staurozoa. Haootia quadriformis thus potentially provides the earliest body fossil evidence for both metazoan musculature, and for Eumetazoa, in the geological record.

  11. Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., interpreted as a muscular cnidarian impression from the Late Ediacaran period (approx. 560 Ma)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alexander G.; Matthews, Jack J.; Menon, Latha R.; McIlroy, Duncan; Brasier, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle tissue is a fundamentally eumetazoan attribute. The oldest evidence for fossilized muscular tissue before the Early Cambrian has hitherto remained moot, being reliant upon indirect evidence in the form of Late Ediacaran ichnofossils. We here report a candidate muscle-bearing organism, Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., from approximately 560 Ma strata in Newfoundland, Canada. This taxon exhibits sediment moulds of twisted, superimposed fibrous bundles arranged quadrilaterally, extending into four prominent bifurcating corner branches. Haootia is distinct from all previously published contemporaneous Ediacaran macrofossils in its symmetrically fibrous, rather than frondose, architecture. Its bundled fibres, morphology, and taphonomy compare well with the muscle fibres of fossil and extant Cnidaria, particularly the benthic Staurozoa. Haootia quadriformis thus potentially provides the earliest body fossil evidence for both metazoan musculature, and for Eumetazoa, in the geological record. PMID:25165764

  12. Deposition of organic matter on a high-energy sand beach by a mass stranding of the cnidarian Velella velella (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Paul F.

    1986-10-01

    Strandings of cnidaria occur commonly on exposed shorelines. In some years, large numbers of the chondrophoran Velella velella (L.) are stranded on Pacific beaches of North America. The quantity of organic material deposited on an Oregon beach by one of three mass strandings in 1984 was measured. An average of 2573 g ash-free dry weight (AFDW) was deposited per meter of shoreline, representing 1223 g m -1 of carbon and 347 g m -1 of nitrogen. No significant reduction in AFDW m -1 of the decomposing material was observed in the first three days. The drying mat of stranded material was broken apart by wave action after nine days and most of the material was absent after twelve days. Measurement of microbial and primary production in the period following a stranding may help to determine how long nutrients derived from the stranded material are retained in the beach and surf system.

  13. Methodological approaches for nanotoxicology using cnidarian models.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Tortiglione, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    The remarkable amenability of aquatic invertebrates to laboratory manipulation has already made a few species belonging to the phylum Cnidaria as attracting systems for exploring animal development. The proliferation of molecular and genomic tools, including the whole genomic sequence of the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris and the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, further enhances the promise of these species to investigate the evolution of key aspects of development biology. In addition, the facility with which cnidarian population can be investigated within their natural ecological context suggests that these models may be profitably expanded to address important questions in ecology and toxicology. In this review, we explore the traits that make Hydra and Nematostella exceptionally attractive model organisms in context of nanotoxicology, and highlight a number of methods and developments likely to further increase that utility in the near future.

  14. Cnidarian Neurotoxic Peptides Affecting Central Nervous System Targets.

    PubMed

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández-Guzmán, Ulises; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Natural products from animal venoms have been used widely in the discovery of novel molecules with particular biological activities that enable their use as potential drug candidates. The phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals zoanthids, hydrozoans, etc.) is the most ancient venomous phylum on earth. Its venoms are composed of a complex mixture of peptidic compounds with neurotoxic and cytolitic properties that have shown activity on mammalian systems despite the fact that they are naturally targeted against fish and invertebrate preys, mainly crustaceans. For this reason, cnidarian venoms are an interesting and vast source of molecules with a remarkable activity on central nervous system, targeting mainly voltage-gated ion channels, ASIC channels, and TRPV1 receptors. In this brief review, we list the amino acid sequences of most cnidarian neurotoxic peptides reported to date. Additionally, we propose the inclusion of a new type of voltage-gated sea anemone sodium channel toxins based on the most recent reports.

  15. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  16. Somatostatin signaling system as an ancestral mechanism: Myoregulatory activity of an Allatostatin-C peptide in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Alzugaray, María Eugenia; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Ronderos, Jorge Rafael

    2016-08-01

    The coordination of physiological processes requires precise communication between cells. Cellular interactions allow cells to be functionally related, facilitating the maintaining of homeostasis. Neuropeptides functioning as intercellular signals are widely distributed in Metazoa. It is assumed that neuropeptides were the first intercellular transmitters, appearing early during the evolution. In Cnidarians, neuropeptides are mainly involved in neurotransmission, acting directly or indirectly on epithelial muscle cells, and thereby controlling coordinated movements. Allatostatins are a group of chemically unrelated neuropeptides that were originally characterized based on their ability to inhibit juvenil hormone synthesis in insects. Allatostatin-C has pleiotropic functions, acting as myoregulator in several insects. In these studies, we analyzed the myoregulatory effect of Aedes aegypti Allatostatin-C in Hydra sp., a member of the phylum Cnidaria. Allatostatin-C peptide conjugated with Qdots revealed specifically distributed cell populations that respond to the peptide in different regions of hydroids. In vivo physiological assays using Allatostatin-C showed that the peptide induced changes in shape and length in tentacles, peduncle and gastrovascular cavity. The observed changes were dose and time dependent suggesting the physiological nature of the response. Furthermore, at highest doses, Allatostatin-C induced peristaltic movements of the gastrovascular cavity resembling those that occur during feeding. In silico search of putative Allatostatin-C receptors in Cnidaria showed that genomes predict the existence of proteins of the somatostatin/Allatostatin-C receptors family. Altogether, these results suggest that Allatostatin-C has myoregulatory activity in Hydra sp, playing a role in the control of coordinated movements during feeding, indicating that Allatostatin-C/Somatostatin based signaling might be an ancestral mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Octocoral Mitochondrial Genomes Provide Insights into the Phylogenetic History of Gene Order Rearrangements, Order Reversals, and Cnidarian Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Diego F.; Baco, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    We use full mitochondrial genomes to test the robustness of the phylogeny of the Octocorallia, to determine the evolutionary pathway for the five known mitochondrial gene rearrangements in octocorals, and to test the suitability of using mitochondrial genomes for higher taxonomic-level phylogenetic reconstructions. Our phylogeny supports three major divisions within the Octocorallia and show that Paragorgiidae is paraphyletic, with Sibogagorgia forming a sister branch to the Coralliidae. Furthermore, Sibogagorgia cauliflora has what is presumed to be the ancestral gene order in octocorals, but the presence of a pair of inverted repeat sequences suggest that this gene order was not conserved but rather evolved back to this apparent ancestral state. Based on this we recommend the resurrection of the family Sibogagorgiidae to fix the paraphyly of the Paragorgiidae. This is the first study to show that in the Octocorallia, mitochondrial gene orders have evolved back to an ancestral state after going through a gene rearrangement, with at least one of the gene orders evolving independently in different lineages. A number of studies have used gene boundaries to determine the type of mitochondrial gene arrangement present. However, our findings suggest that this method known as gene junction screening may miss evolutionary reversals. Additionally, substitution saturation analysis demonstrates that while whole mitochondrial genomes can be used effectively for phylogenetic analyses within Octocorallia, their utility at higher taxonomic levels within Cnidaria is inadequate. Therefore for phylogenetic reconstruction at taxonomic levels higher than subclass within the Cnidaria, nuclear genes will be required, even when whole mitochondrial genomes are available. PMID:25539723

  18. Regeneration of the Rhopalium and the Rhopalial Nervous System in the Box Jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora.

    PubMed

    Stamatis, Sebastian-Alexander; Worsaae, Katrine; Garm, Anders

    2018-02-01

    Cubozoans have the most intricate visual apparatus within Cnidaria. It comprises four identical sensory structures, the rhopalia, each of which holds six eyes of four morphological types. Two of these eyes are camera-type eyes that are, in many ways, similar to the vertebrate eye. The visual input is used to control complex behaviors, such as navigation and obstacle avoidance, and is processed by an elaborate rhopalial nervous system. Several studies have examined the rhopalial nervous system, which, despite a radial symmetric body plan, is bilaterally symmetrical, connecting the two sides of the rhopalium through commissures in an extensive neuropil. The four rhopalia are interconnected by a nerve ring situated in the oral margin of the bell, and together these structures constitute the cubozoan central nervous system. Cnidarians have excellent regenerative capabilities, enabling most species to regenerate large body areas or body parts, and some species can regenerate completely from just a few hundred cells. Here we test whether cubozoans are capable of regenerating the rhopalia, despite the complexity of the visual system and the rhopalial nervous system. The results show that the rhopalia are readily regrown after amputation and have developed most, if not all, neural elements within two weeks. Using electrophysiology, we investigated the functionality of the regrown rhopalia and found that they generated pacemaker signals and that the lens eyes showed a normal response to light. Our findings substantiate the amazing regenerative ability in Cnidaria by showing here the complex sensory system of Cubozoa, a model system proving to be highly applicable in studies of neurogenesis.

  19. Broad Phylogenetic Occurrence of the Oxygen-Binding Hemerythrins in Bilaterians.

    PubMed

    Costa-Paiva, Elisa M; Schrago, Carlos G; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2017-10-01

    Animal tissues need to be properly oxygenated for carrying out catabolic respiration and, as such, natural selection has presumably favored special molecules that can reversibly bind and transport oxygen. Hemoglobins, hemocyanins, and hemerythrins (Hrs) fulfill this role, with Hrs being the least studied. Knowledge of oxygen-binding proteins is crucial for understanding animal physiology. Hr genes are present in the three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota; however, within Animalia, Hrs has been reported only in marine species in six phyla (Annelida, Brachiopoda, Priapulida, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, and Arthropoda). Given this observed Hr distribution, whether all metazoan Hrs share a common origin is circumspect. We investigated Hr diversity and evolution in metazoans, by employing in silico approaches to survey for Hrs from of 120 metazoan transcriptomes and genomes. We found 58 candidate Hr genes actively transcribed in 36 species distributed in 11 animal phyla, with new records in Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes. Moreover, we found that "Hrs" reported from Cnidaria and Arthropoda were not consistent with that of other metazoan Hrs. Contrary to previous suggestions that Hr genes were absent in deuterostomes, we find Hr genes present in deuterostomes and were likely present in early bilaterians, but not in nonbilaterian animal lineages. As expected, the Hr gene tree did not mirror metazoan phylogeny, suggesting that Hrs evolutionary history was complex and besides the oxygen carrying capacity, the drivers of Hr evolution may also consist of secondary functional specializations of the proteins, like immunological functions. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. DNA Barcoding the Medusozoa using mtCOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortman, Brian D.; Bucklin, Ann; Pagès, Francesc; Youngbluth, Marsh

    2010-12-01

    The Medusozoa are a clade within the Cnidaria comprising the classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Cubozoa. Identification of medusozoan species is challenging, even for taxonomic experts, due to their fragile forms and complex, morphologically-distinct life history stages. In this study 231 sequences for a portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (mtCOI) gene were obtained from 95 species of Medusozoans including; 84 hydrozoans (61 siphonophores, eight anthomedusae, four leptomedusae, seven trachymedusae, and four narcomedusae), 10 scyphozoans (three coronatae, four semaeostomae, two rhizostomae, and one stauromedusae), and one cubozoan. This region of mtCOI has been used as a DNA barcode (i.e., a molecular character for species recognition and discrimination) for a diverse array of taxa, including some Cnidaria. Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) genetic distances between sequence variants within species ranged from 0 to 0.057 (mean 0.013). Within the 13 genera for which multiple species were available, K2P distance between congeneric species ranged from 0.056 to 0.381. A cluster diagram generated by Neighbor Joining (NJ) using K2P distances reliably clustered all barcodes of the same species with ≥99% bootstrap support, ensuring accurate identification of species. Intra- and inter-specific variation of the mtCOI gene for the Medusozoa are appropriate for this gene to be used as a DNA barcode for species-level identification, but not for phylogenetic analysis or taxonomic classification of unknown sequences at higher taxonomic levels. This study provides a set of molecular tools that can be used to address questions of speciation, biodiversity, life-history, and population boundaries in the Medusozoa.

  1. Trends in the Discovery of New Marine Natural Products from Invertebrates over the Last Two Decades – Where and What Are We Bioprospecting?

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990–2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  2. Trends in the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates over the last two decades--where and what are we bioprospecting?

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990-2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  3. Conserved intron positions in FGFR genes reflect the modular structure of FGFR and reveal stepwise addition of domains to an already complex ancestral FGFR.

    PubMed

    Rebscher, Nicole; Deichmann, Christina; Sudhop, Stefanie; Fritzenwanker, Jens Holger; Green, Stephen; Hassel, Monika

    2009-10-01

    We have analyzed the evolution of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase genes throughout a wide range of animal phyla. No evidence for an FGFR gene was found in Porifera, but we tentatively identified an FGFR gene in the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The gene encodes a protein with three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single-pass transmembrane, and a split tyrosine kinase domain. By superimposing intron positions of 20 FGFR genes from Placozoa, Cnidaria, Protostomia, and Deuterostomia over the respective protein domain structure, we identified ten ancestral introns and three conserved intron groups. Our analysis shows (1) that the position of ancestral introns correlates to the modular structure of FGFRs, (2) that the acidic domain very likely evolved in the last common ancestor of triploblasts, (3) that splicing of IgIII was enabled by a triploblast-specific insertion, and (4) that IgI is subject to substantial loss or duplication particularly in quickly evolving genomes. Moreover, intron positions in the catalytic domain of FGFRs map to the borders of protein subdomains highly conserved in other serine/threonine kinases. Nevertheless, these introns were introduced in metazoan receptor tyrosine kinases exclusively. Our data support the view that protein evolution dating back to the Cambrian explosion took place in such a short time window that only subtle changes in the domain structure are detectable in extant representatives of animal phyla. We propose that the first multidomain FGFR originated in the last common ancestor of Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria. Additional domains were introduced mainly in the ancestor of triploblasts and in the Ecdysozoa.

  4. Octocoral mitochondrial genomes provide insights into the phylogenetic history of gene order rearrangements, order reversals, and cnidarian phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Diego F; Baco, Amy R

    2014-12-24

    We use full mitochondrial genomes to test the robustness of the phylogeny of the Octocorallia, to determine the evolutionary pathway for the five known mitochondrial gene rearrangements in octocorals, and to test the suitability of using mitochondrial genomes for higher taxonomic-level phylogenetic reconstructions. Our phylogeny supports three major divisions within the Octocorallia and show that Paragorgiidae is paraphyletic, with Sibogagorgia forming a sister branch to the Coralliidae. Furthermore, Sibogagorgia cauliflora has what is presumed to be the ancestral gene order in octocorals, but the presence of a pair of inverted repeat sequences suggest that this gene order was not conserved but rather evolved back to this apparent ancestral state. Based on this we recommend the resurrection of the family Sibogagorgiidae to fix the paraphyly of the Paragorgiidae. This is the first study to show that in the Octocorallia, mitochondrial gene orders have evolved back to an ancestral state after going through a gene rearrangement, with at least one of the gene orders evolving independently in different lineages. A number of studies have used gene boundaries to determine the type of mitochondrial gene arrangement present. However, our findings suggest that this method known as gene junction screening may miss evolutionary reversals. Additionally, substitution saturation analysis demonstrates that while whole mitochondrial genomes can be used effectively for phylogenetic analyses within Octocorallia, their utility at higher taxonomic levels within Cnidaria is inadequate. Therefore for phylogenetic reconstruction at taxonomic levels higher than subclass within the Cnidaria, nuclear genes will be required, even when whole mitochondrial genomes are available. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Nervous system immunohistochemistry of the parasitic cnidarian Polypodium hydriforme at its free-living stage.

    PubMed

    Raikova, Ekaterina V; Raikova, Olga I

    2016-04-01

    Polypodium hydriforme, the only species in Polypodiozoa, which is currently considered a class of Cnidaria, and likely a sister group to Medusozoa (together with Myxozoa), is a cnidarian adapted to intracellular parasitism inside sturgeon oocytes. Free-living P. hydriforme lives on river bottoms; it walks on supporting tentacles and uses sensory tentacles to capture food and bring it to the mouth. The nervous system of free-living P. hydriforme was studied by confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry using antibodies to FMRF-amide and α-tubulin combined with phalloidin-staining of F-actin fibres. A sensory FMRF-amide immunoreactive (IR) nerve net and an α-tubulin IR nerve net have been identified. The FMRF-amide IR nerve net underlies the epidermis along the tentacles and around the mouth; it consists of neurites emanating from epidermal sensory cells and basiepidermal ganglion cells, and it connects with cnidocytes. A deeper-lying α-tubulin IR nerve net occurs only in tentacles and looks like chains of different-sized beads crossing the mesoglea and entwining muscles. Anti-α-tubulin staining also reveals microtubules in muscle cells following the longitudinal muscle fibres or the thin circular F-actin fibres of the tentacles. Cnidocytes in the tentacles are embedded in a regular hexagonal non-neural network formed by the tubulin IR cytoskeleton of epidermal cells. Cnidocils of the cnidocytes around the mouth and in walking tentacles are identical, but those in sensory tentacles differ in length and width. The possible homology of the tubulin IR nerve net with motor nerve nets of cnidarians is discussed. The absence of a classic nerve ring around the mouth and the lack of specialised sense organs are considered to be plesiomorphic characters for Cnidaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of CYP443D1 (CYP74 clan) of Nematostella vectensis as a first cnidarian epoxyalcohol synthase and insights into its catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Toporkova, Yana Y; Gorina, Svetlana S; Mukhitova, Fakhima K; Hamberg, Mats; Ilyina, Tatyana M; Mukhtarova, Lucia S; Grechkin, Alexander N

    2017-10-01

    The CYP74 clan enzymes are responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive oxylipins in higher plants, some Proteobacteria, brown and green algae, and Metazoa. A novel putative CYP74 clan gene CYP443D1 of the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis, Cnidaria) has been cloned, and the properties of the corresponding recombinant protein have been studied in the present work. The recombinant CYP443D1 was incubated with the 9- and 13-hydroperoxides of linoleic and α-linolenic acids (9-HPOD, 13-HPOD, 9-HPOT, and 13-HPOT, respectively), as well as with the 9-hydroperoxide of γ-linolenic acid (γ-9-HPOT) and 15-hydroperoxide of eicosapentaenoic acid (15-HPEPE). The enzyme was active towards all C 18 -hydroperoxides with some preference to 9-HPOD. In contrast, 15-HPEPE was a poor substrate. The CYP443D1 specifically converted 9-HPOD into the oxiranyl carbinol 1, (9S,10R,11S,12Z)-9,10-epoxy-11-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid. Both 18 O atoms from [ 18 O 2 -hydroperoxy]9-HPOD were virtually quantitatively incorporated into product 1. Thus, the CYP443D1 exhibited epoxyalcohol synthase (EAS) activity. The 18 O labelling data demonstrated that the reaction mechanism included three sequential steps: (1) hydroperoxyl homolysis, (2) oxy radical rearrangement into epoxyallylic radical, (3) hydroxyl rebound, resulting in oxiranyl carbinol formation. The 9-HPOT and γ-9-HPOT were also specifically converted into the oxiranyl carbinols, 15,16- and 6,7-dehydro analogues of compound 1, respectively. The 13-HPOD was converted into erythro- and threo-isomers of oxiranyl carbinol, as well as oxiranyl vinyl carbinols. The obtained results allow assignment of the name "N. vectensis EAS" (NvEAS) to CYP443D1. The NvEAS is a first EAS detected in Cnidaria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Epibenthic assemblages of the Tail of the Grand Bank and Flemish Cap (northwest Atlantic) in relation to environmental parameters and trawling intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Alberto; Kenchington, Ellen; Mora, José

    2016-03-01

    The structure, composition and distribution of epibenthic invertebrate assemblages on the Tail of the Grand Bank of Newfoundland and Flemish Cap (northwest Atlantic) were sampled using depth-stratified trawls. Faunal analysis of 152 uniquely identified taxa produced hierarchical synoptic tables of species associations with diagnostic indicators based on species fidelity. Twelve spatially coherent epibenthic megafaunal assemblages were identified, each with relatively sharp faunal boundaries and unique species attributes. These assemblages were shown a posteriori through ANOSIM to have statistically different species compositions, and were nested within three major regional-scale faunal groups: (I) the continental shelf of the Tail of the Grand Bank, typified by the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa and the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma; (II) the upper slope of the Grand Bank and top of Flemish Cap, typified by the sponges Radiella hemisphaerica and Iophon piceum and the sea star Ceramaster granularis; and (III) the lower slope of the Grand Bank and Flemish Cap, typified by the sea urchin Phormosoma placenta, and the sea pens Anthoptilum grandiflorum and Funiculina quadrangularis. Comparisons with literature on benthic species associations from a half century ago suggest that the assemblages identified herein have persisted in the area at least for decades. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) identified a well-defined biological gradient along the first axis with very high species turn-over. Ten environmental variables (including Trawling Intensity) were significantly correlated with the ordinated data. At one extreme the continental shelf faunal group (I) was associated with shallow depth (mostly, less than 200 m), coarse sediments and cold and fresh water associated with the Labrador Current. At the other extreme the lower slope faunal group (III; stations below 500-600 m throughout the study area) was strongly associated with deep water, muddy sediments, and

  8. Structure of the red fluorescent protein from a lancelet (Branchiostoma lanceolatum): a novel GYG chromophore covalently bound to a nearby tyrosine

    SciTech Connect

    Pletnev, Vladimir Z., E-mail: vzpletnev@gmail.com; Pletneva, Nadya V.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.

    The crystal structure of the novel red emitting fluorescent protein from lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Chordata) revealed an unusual five residues cyclic unit comprising Gly58-Tyr59-Gly60 chromophore, the following Phe61 and Tyr62 covalently bound to chromophore Tyr59. A key property of proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family is their ability to form a chromophore group by post-translational modifications of internal amino acids, e.g. Ser65-Tyr66-Gly67 in GFP from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria (Cnidaria). Numerous structural studies have demonstrated that the green GFP-like chromophore represents the ‘core’ structure, which can be extended in red-shifted proteins owing to modifications of the protein backbonemore » at the first chromophore-forming position. Here, the three-dimensional structures of green laGFP (λ{sub ex}/λ{sub em} = 502/511 nm) and red laRFP (λ{sub ex}/λ{sub em} ≃ 521/592 nm), which are fluorescent proteins (FPs) from the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Chordata), were determined together with the structure of a red variant laRFP-ΔS83 (deletion of Ser83) with improved folding. Lancelet FPs are evolutionarily distant and share only ∼20% sequence identity with cnidarian FPs, which have been extensively characterized and widely used as genetically encoded probes. The structure of red-emitting laRFP revealed three exceptional features that have not been observed in wild-type fluorescent proteins from Cnidaria reported to date: (i) an unusual chromophore-forming sequence Gly58-Tyr59-Gly60, (ii) the presence of Gln211 at the position of the conserved catalytic Glu (Glu222 in Aequorea GFP), which proved to be crucial for chromophore formation, and (iii) the absence of modifications typical of known red chromophores and the presence of an extremely unusual covalent bond between the Tyr59 C{sup β} atom and the hydroxyl of the proximal Tyr62. The impact of this covalent bond on the red emission and the large Stokes

  9. Biogeography of jellyfish in the North Atlantic, by traditional and genomic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licandro, P.; Blackett, M.; Fischer, A.; Hosia, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kirby, R. R.; Raab, K.; Stern, R.; Tranter, P.

    2014-11-01

    Scientific debate on whether the recent increase in reports of jellyfish outbreaks is related to a true rise in their abundance, have outlined the lack of reliable records of Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Here we describe different data sets produced within the EU program EUROBASIN, which have been assembled with the aim of presenting an up to date overview of the diversity and standing stocks of jellyfish in the North Atlantic region. Using a net adapted to sample gelatinous zooplankton quantitatively, Cnidaria and Ctenophora were collected in the epipelagic layer during spring-summer 2010-2013, in inshore and offshore waters between 59-68° N Lat and 62° W-5° E Long. Jellyfish were also identified and counted in samples opportunistically collected by other sampling equipment in the same region and at two coastal stations in the Bay of Biscay and in the Gulf of Cadiz. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples collected in 2009-2012 were re-analysed with the aim of identifying the time and location of Cnidarian blooms across the North Atlantic basin. Overall the data show high variability in jellyfish abundance and diversity, mainly in relation with different water masses and with the bathymetry. Higher densities were generally recorded on the shelves, where populations tend to be more diversified due to the presence of meropelagic medusae. Comparisons of net records from the G.O. Sars transatlantic cruise show that information on jellyfish diversity differs significantly depending on the sampling gear utilised. Indeed, the big trawls mostly collect relatively large scyphozoan and hydrozoan species, while small hydrozoans and early stages of ctenophora are only caught by smaller nets. Based on CPR data from 2009-2012, blooms of Cnidarians occurred in all seasons across the whole North Atlantic basin. Molecular analysis revealed that, in contrast with what was previously hypothesized, the CPR is able to detect blooms of meroplanktonic and holoplanktonic hydrozoans and

  10. Small-scale distribution of deep-sea demersal nekton and other megafauna in the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felley, J. D.; Vecchione, M.; Wilson, R. R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Videotapes from manned submersibles diving in the area of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge were used to investigate the distribution of fishes, large crustaceans, epifaunal and sessile organisms, and environmental features along a series of transects. Submersibles MIR 1 and MIR 2 conducted paired dives in an area of mixed sediment and rock (beginning depth ca. 3000 m) and on a large pocket of abyssal-like sediments (depth ca. 4000 m). In the shallower area, the submersibles passed over extremely heterogeneous terrain with a diversity of nekton, epifaunal forms and sessile forms. In the first pair of dives, MIR 1 rose along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from 3000 to 1700 m, while MIR 2 remained near the 3000 m isobath. Nekton seen in these relatively shallow dives included large and small macrourids (genus Coryphaenoides), shrimp (infraorder Penaeidea), Halosauropsis macrochir, Aldrovandia sp., Antimora rostrata, and alepocephalids. The last two were more characteristic of the upper areas of the slope reached by MIR 1, as it rose along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to depths less than 3000 m. Distributions of some forms seemed associated with depth and/or the presence of hard substrate. Sessile organisms such as sponges and large cnidaria were more likely to be found in rocky areas. The second pair of dives occurred in an abyssal area and the submersibles passed over sediment-covered plains, with little relief and many fewer countable organisms and features. The most evident of these were holes, mounds, small cerianthid anemones, small macrourids and the holothurian Benthodytes sp. A few large macrourids and shrimp also were seen in these deeper dives, as well as squat lobsters ( Munidopsis sp.). Sponges and larger cnidaria were mostly associated with a few small areas of rocky substrate. Holes and mounds showed distributions suggesting large-scale patterning. Over all dives, most sessile and epifaunal forms showed clumped distributions. However, large

  11. Old Weapons for New Wars: Bioactive Molecules From Cnidarian Internal Defense Systems.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Trapani M; Giovanna, Parisi M; Maria, Maisano; Angela, Mauceri; Matteo, Cammarata

    2016-01-01

    The renewed interest in the study of genes of immunity in Cnidaria has led to additional information to the scenario of the first stages of immunity evolution revealing the cellular processes involved in symbiosis, in the regulation of homeostasis and in the fight against infections. The recent study with new molecular and functional approach on these organisms have therefore contributed with unexpected information on the knowledge of the stages of capturing activities and defense mechanisms strongly associated with toxin production. Cnidarians are diblastic aquatic animals with radial symmetry; they represent the ancestral state of Metazoa, they are the simplest multicellular organisms that have reached the level of tissue organization.The Cnidaria phylum has evolved using biotoxins as defense or predation mechanisms for ensure survival in hostile and competitive environments such as the seas and oceans. From benthic and pelagic species a large number of toxic compounds that have been determined can have an active role in the development of various antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial functions. Although the immune defense response of these animals is scarcely known, the tissues and the mucus produced by cnidarians are involved in immune defense and contain a large variety of peptides such as sodium and potassium channel neurotoxins, cytolysins, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), acid-sensing ion channel peptide toxins (ASICs) and other toxins, classified following biochemical and pharmacological studies on the basis of functional, molecular and structural parameters. These basal metazoan in fact, are far from "simple" in the range of methods at their disposal to deal with potential prey but also invading microbes and pathogens. They could also take advantage of the multi-functionality of some of their toxins, for example, some bioactive molecules have characteristics of toxicity associated with a potential antimicrobial activity. The interest in cnidarians was

  12. Histology and ultrastructure of the coenenchyme of the octocoral Swiftia exserta, a model organism for innate immunity/graft rejection.

    PubMed

    Menzel, L P; Tondo, C; Stein, B; Bigger, C H

    2015-04-01

    The octocoral Swiftia exserta has been utilized extensively in our laboratory to study innate immune reactions in Cnidaria such as wound healing, auto- and allo-graft reactions, and for some classical "foreign body" phagocytosis experiments. All of these reactions occur in the coenenchyme of the animal, the colonial tissue surrounding the axial skeleton in which the polyps are embedded, and do not rely on nematocysts or directly involve the polyps. In order to better understand some of the cellular reactions occurring in the coenenchyme, the present study employed several cytochemical methods (periodic acid-Schiff reaction, Mallory's aniline blue collagen stain, and Gomori's trichrome stain) and correlated the observed structures with electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission). Eight types of cells were apparent in the coenenchyme of S. exserta, exclusive of gastrodermal tissue: (i) epithelial ectoderm cells, (ii) oblong granular cells, (iii) granular amoebocytes, (iv) morula-like cells, (v) mesogleal cells, (vi) sclerocytes, (vii) axial epithelial cells, and (viii) cnidocytes with mostly atrichous isorhiza nematocysts. Several novel organizational features are now apparent from transmission electron micrographs: the ectoderm consists of a single layer of flat epithelial cells, the cell types of the mesoglea extend from beneath the thin ectoderm throughout the mesogleal cell cords, the organization of the solenia gastroderm consists of a single layer of cells, and two nematocyst types have been found. A new interpretation of the cellular architecture of S. exserta, and more broadly, octocoral biology is now possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Unusually Long Palindromes Are Abundant in Mitochondrial Control Regions of Insects and Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Arunkumar, K. P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2006-01-01

    Background Palindromes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes. In the present investigation we carried out a comprehensive analysis of palindromes in the mitochondrial control regions (CRs) of several animal groups to study their frequency, distribution and architecture to gain insights into the origin of replication of mtDNA. Methodology/Principal Findings Many species of Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca and Annelida harbor palindromes and inverted repeats (IRs) in their CRs. Lower animals like cnidarians and higher animal groups like chordates are almost devoid of palindromes and IRs. The study revealed that palindrome occurrence is positively correlated with the AT content of CRs, and that IRs are likely to give rise to longer palindromes. Conclusions/Significance The present study attempts to explain possible reasons and gives in silico evidence for absence of palindromes and IRs from CR of vertebrate mtDNA and acquisition and retention of the same in insects. Study of CRs of different animal phyla uncovered unique architecture of this locus, be it high abundance of long palindromes and IRs in CRs of Insecta and Nematoda, or short IRs of 10–20 nucleotides with a spacer region of 12–14 bases in subphylum Chelicerata, or nearly complete of absence of any long palindromes and IRs in Vertebrata, Cnidaria and Echinodermata. PMID:17205114

  14. Long-term changes in the planktonic cnidarian community in a mesoscale area of the NW Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Gili, Josep-Maria; Grinyó, Jordi; Raya, Vanesa; Sabatés, Ana

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, possible long-term changes in the planktonic cnidarian community were investigated by analyzing (1) species and community spatial distribution patterns, (2) variations in abundance and (3) changes in species richness during three mesoscale surveys representative of the climatic and anthropogenic changes that have occurred during the last three decades (years: 1983, 2004 and 2011) in the NW Mediterranean. These surveys were conducted during the summer (June) along the Catalan coast. All surveys covered the same area, used the same sampling methodology, and taxonomic identification was conducted by the same team of experts. An increase in the abundance of total cnidaria was found from 1983 to 2011. The siphonophore Muggiaea atlantica and the hydromedusa Aglaura hemistoma were the most abundant species, while Muggiaea kochii presented the largest abundance increment over time. Temperature was the main environmental parameter driving significant differences in the cnidarian community composition, abundance and spatial distribution patterns among the surveys. Our results suggest that in the current climate change scenario, warm-water species abundances will be positively favored, and the community will suffer changes in their latitudinal distribution patterns. We consider it extremely important to study and monitor gelatinous zooplankton in mesoscale spatial areas to understand not only long-term changes in abundances but also changes in their spatial distributions since spatial changes are sensitive indicators of climate change. PMID:29715282

  15. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

  16. Animal Mitochondrial DNA as We Do Not Know It: mt-Genome Organization and Evolution in Nonbilaterian Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Pett, Walker

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is commonly described as a small, circular molecule that is conserved in size, gene content, and organization. Data collected in the last decade have challenged this view by revealing considerable diversity in animal mitochondrial genome organization. Much of this diversity has been found in nonbilaterian animals (phyla Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Porifera), which, from a phylogenetic perspective, form the main branches of the animal tree along with Bilateria. Within these groups, mt-genomes are characterized by varying numbers of both linear and circular chromosomes, extra genes (e.g. atp9, polB, tatC), large variation in the number of encoded mitochondrial transfer RNAs (tRNAs) (0–25), at least seven different genetic codes, presence/absence of introns, tRNA and mRNA editing, fragmented ribosomal RNA genes, translational frameshifting, highly variable substitution rates, and a large range of genome sizes. This newly discovered diversity allows a better understanding of the evolutionary plasticity and conservation of animal mtDNA and provides insights into the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms shaping mitochondrial genomes. PMID:27557826

  17. Back in time: a new systematic proposal for the Bilateria.

    PubMed

    Baguñà, Jaume; Martinez, Pere; Paps, Jordi; Riutort, Marta

    2008-04-27

    Conventional wisdom suggests that bilateral organisms arose from ancestors that were radially, rather than bilaterally, symmetrical and, therefore, had a single body axis and no mesoderm. The two main hypotheses on how this transformation took place consider either a simple organism akin to the planula larva of extant cnidarians or the acoel Platyhelminthes (planuloid-acoeloid theory), or a rather complex organism bearing several or most features of advanced coelomate bilaterians (archicoelomate theory). We report phylogenetic analyses of bilaterian metazoans using quantitative (ribosomal, nuclear and expressed sequence tag sequences) and qualitative (HOX cluster genes and microRNA sets) markers. The phylogenetic trees obtained corroborate the position of acoel and nemertodermatid flatworms as the earliest branching extant members of the Bilateria. Moreover, some acoelomate and pseudocoelomate clades appear as early branching lophotrochozoans and deuterostomes. These results strengthen the view that stem bilaterians were small, acoelomate/pseudocoelomate, benthic organisms derived from planuloid-like organisms. Because morphological and recent gene expression data suggest that cnidarians are actually bilateral, the origin of the last common bilaterian ancestor has to be put back in time earlier than the cnidarian-bilaterian split in the form of a planuloid animal. A new systematic scheme for the Bilateria that includes the Cnidaria is suggested and its main implications discussed.

  18. The TALE face of Hox proteins in animal evolution.

    PubMed

    Merabet, Samir; Galliot, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Hox genes are major regulators of embryonic development. One of their most conserved functions is to coordinate the formation of specific body structures along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis in Bilateria. This architectural role was at the basis of several morphological innovations across bilaterian evolution. In this review, we traced the origin of the Hox patterning system by considering the partnership with PBC and Meis proteins. PBC and Meis belong to the TALE-class of homeodomain-containing transcription factors and act as generic cofactors of Hox proteins for AP axis patterning in Bilateria. Recent data indicate that Hox proteins acquired the ability to interact with their TALE partners in the last common ancestor of Bilateria and Cnidaria. These interactions relied initially on a short peptide motif called hexapeptide (HX), which is present in Hox and non-Hox protein families. Remarkably, Hox proteins can also recruit the TALE cofactors by using specific PBC Interaction Motifs (SPIMs). We describe how a functional Hox/TALE patterning system emerged in eumetazoans through the acquisition of SPIMs. We anticipate that interaction flexibility could be found in other patterning systems, being at the heart of the astonishing morphological diversity observed in the animal kingdom.

  19. The TALE face of Hox proteins in animal evolution

    PubMed Central

    Merabet, Samir; Galliot, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Hox genes are major regulators of embryonic development. One of their most conserved functions is to coordinate the formation of specific body structures along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis in Bilateria. This architectural role was at the basis of several morphological innovations across bilaterian evolution. In this review, we traced the origin of the Hox patterning system by considering the partnership with PBC and Meis proteins. PBC and Meis belong to the TALE-class of homeodomain-containing transcription factors and act as generic cofactors of Hox proteins for AP axis patterning in Bilateria. Recent data indicate that Hox proteins acquired the ability to interact with their TALE partners in the last common ancestor of Bilateria and Cnidaria. These interactions relied initially on a short peptide motif called hexapeptide (HX), which is present in Hox and non-Hox protein families. Remarkably, Hox proteins can also recruit the TALE cofactors by using specific PBC Interaction Motifs (SPIMs). We describe how a functional Hox/TALE patterning system emerged in eumetazoans through the acquisition of SPIMs. We anticipate that interaction flexibility could be found in other patterning systems, being at the heart of the astonishing morphological diversity observed in the animal kingdom. PMID:26347770

  20. Phylogeny Drives Large Scale Patterns in Australian Marine Bioactivity and Provides a New Chemical Ecology Rationale for Future Biodiscovery

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A.; Logan, Murray; Doyle, Jason; Fromont, Jane; Battershill, Christopher N.; Ericson, Gavin; Wolff, Carsten W.; Muirhead, Andrew; Kearns, Phillip; Abdo, David; Kininmonth, Stuart; Llewellyn, Lyndon

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years of Australian marine bioresources collecting and research by the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) has explored the breadth of latitudinally and longitudinally diverse marine habitats that comprise Australia’s ocean territory. The resulting AIMS Bioresources Library and associated relational database integrate biodiversity with bioactivity data, and these resources were mined to retrospectively assess biogeographic, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns in cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and central nervous system (CNS)-protective bioactivity. While the bioassays used were originally chosen to be indicative of pharmaceutically relevant bioactivity, the results have qualified ecological relevance regarding secondary metabolism. In general, metazoan phyla along the deuterostome phylogenetic pathway (eg to Chordata) and their ancestors (eg Porifera and Cnidaria) had higher percentages of bioactive samples in the assays examined. While taxonomy at the phylum level and higher-order phylogeny groupings helped account for observed trends, taxonomy to genus did not resolve the trends any further. In addition, the results did not identify any biogeographic bioactivity hotspots that correlated with biodiversity hotspots. We conclude with a hypothesis that high-level phylogeny, and therefore the metabolic machinery available to an organism, is a major determinant of bioactivity, while habitat diversity and ecological circumstance are possible drivers in the activation of this machinery and bioactive secondary metabolism. This study supports the strategy of targeting phyla from the deuterostome lineage (including ancestral phyla) from biodiverse marine habitats and ecological niches, in future biodiscovery, at least that which is focused on vertebrate (including human) health. PMID:24040076

  1. The Origin of Mucosal Immunity: Lessons from the Holobiont Hydra.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Katja; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2016-11-01

    Historically, mucosal immunity-i.e., the portion of the immune system that protects an organism's various mucous membranes from invasion by potentially pathogenic microbes-has been studied in single-cell epithelia in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts of vertebrates. Phylogenetically, mucosal surfaces appeared for the first time about 560 million years ago in members of the phylum Cnidaria. There are remarkable similarities and shared functions of mucosal immunity in vertebrates and innate immunity in cnidarians, such as Hydra species. Here, we propose a common origin for both systems and review observations that indicate that the ultimately simple holobiont Hydra provides both a new perspective on the relationship between bacteria and animal cells and a new prism for viewing the emergence and evolution of epithelial tissue-based innate immunity. In addition, recent breakthroughs in our understanding of immune responses in Hydra polyps reared under defined short-term gnotobiotic conditions open up the potential of Hydra as an animal research model for the study of common mucosal disorders. Copyright © 2016 Schröder and Bosch.

  2. Cloning of noggin gene from hydra and analysis of its functional conservation using Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Chandramore, Kalpana; Ito, Yuzuro; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    Hydra, a member of phylum Cnidaria that arose early in evolution, is endowed with a defined axis, organized nervous system, and active behavior. It is a powerful model system for the elucidation of evolution of developmental mechanisms in animals. Here, we describe the identification and cloning of noggin-like gene from hydra. Noggin is a secreted protein involved at multiple stages of vertebrate embryonic development including neural induction and is known to exert its effects by inhibiting the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Sequence analysis revealed that hydra Noggin shows considerable similarity with its orthologs at the amino acid level. When microinjected in the early Xenopus embryos, hydra noggin mRNA induced a secondary axis in 100% of the injected embryos, demonstrating functional conservation of hydra noggin in vertebrates. This was further confirmed by the partial rescue of Xenopus embryos by hydra noggin mRNA from UV-induced ventralization. By using animal cap assay in Xenopus embryos, we demonstrate that these effects of hydra noggin in Xenopus embryos are because of inhibition of BMP signaling by Noggin. Our data indicate that BMP/Noggin antagonism predates the bilaterian divergence and is conserved during the evolution.

  3. Generation of transgenic Hydra by embryo microinjection.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Celina E; Lin, Haifan; Steele, Robert E

    2014-09-11

    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the sister group to all bilaterians, Hydra can shed light on fundamental biological processes shared among multicellular animals. Hydra is used as a model for the study of regeneration, pattern formation, and stem cells. However, research efforts have been hampered by lack of a reliable method for gene perturbations to study molecular function. The development of transgenic methods has revitalized the study of Hydra biology(1). Transgenic Hydra allow for the tracking of live cells, sorting to yield pure cell populations for biochemical analysis, manipulation of gene function by knockdown and over-expression, and analysis of promoter function. Plasmid DNA injected into early stage embryos randomly integrates into the genome early in development. This results in hatchlings that express transgenes in patches of tissue in one or more of the three lineages (ectodermal epithelial, endodermal epithelial, or interstitial). The success rate of obtaining a hatchling with transgenic tissue is between 10% and 20%. Asexual propagation of the transgenic hatchling is used to establish a uniformly transgenic line in a particular lineage. Generating transgenic Hydra is surprisingly simple and robust, and here we describe a protocol that can be easily implemented at low cost.

  4. SciTech Connect

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Scotto di Vettimo, Maria Rosaria; Malvindi, Maria Ada

    It is generally accepted that silica (SiO{sub 2}) is not toxic. But the increasing use of silica nanoparticles (SiO{sub 2}NPs) in many different industrial fields has prompted the careful investigation of their toxicity in biological systems. In this report, we describe the effects elicited by SiO{sub 2}NPs on animal and cell physiology. Stable and monodisperse amorphous silica nanoparticles, 25 nM in diameter, were administered to living Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria). The dose-related effects were defined by morphological and behavioral assays. The results revealed an all-or-nothing lethal toxicity with a rather high threshold (35 nM NPs) and a LT50 of 38 h.more » At sub lethal doses, the morphophysiological effects included: animal morphology alterations, paralysis of the gastric region, disorganization and depletion of tentacle specialized cells, increase of apoptotic and collapsed cells, and reduction of the epithelial cell proliferation rate. Transcriptome analysis (RNAseq) revealed 45 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in stress response and cuticle renovation. Our results show that Hydra reacts to SiO{sub 2}NPs, is able to rebalance the animal homeostasis up to a relatively high doses of SiO{sub 2}NPs, and that the physiological modifications are transduced to gene expression modulation.« less

  5. Peptide-gated ion channels and the simple nervous system of Hydra.

    PubMed

    Gründer, Stefan; Assmann, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Neurons either use electrical or chemical synapses to communicate with each other. Transmitters at chemical synapses are either small molecules or neuropeptides. After binding to their receptors, transmitters elicit postsynaptic potentials, which can either be fast and transient or slow and longer lasting, depending on the type of receptor. Fast transient potentials are mediated by ionotropic receptors and slow long-lasting potentials by metabotropic receptors. Transmitters and receptors are well studied for animals with a complex nervous system such as vertebrates and insects, but much less is known for animals with a simple nervous system like Cnidaria. As cnidarians arose early in animal evolution, nervous systems might have first evolved within this group and the study of neurotransmission in cnidarians might reveal an ancient mechanism of neuronal communication. The simple nervous system of the cnidarian Hydra extensively uses neuropeptides and, recently, we cloned and functionally characterized an ion channel that is directly activated by neuropeptides of the Hydra nervous system. These results demonstrate the existence of peptide-gated ion channels in Hydra, suggesting they mediate fast transmission in its nervous system. As related channels are also present in the genomes of the cnidarian Nematostella, of placozoans and of ctenophores, it should be considered that the early nervous systems of cnidarians and ctenophores have co-opted neuropeptides for fast transmission at chemical synapses. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. A secreted antibacterial neuropeptide shapes the microbiome of Hydra.

    PubMed

    Augustin, René; Schröder, Katja; Murillo Rincón, Andrea P; Fraune, Sebastian; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Herbst, Eva-Maria; Wittlieb, Jörg; Schwentner, Martin; Grötzinger, Joachim; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2017-09-26

    Colonization of body epithelial surfaces with a highly specific microbial community is a fundamental feature of all animals, yet the underlying mechanisms by which these communities are selected and maintained are not well understood. Here, we show that sensory and ganglion neurons in the ectodermal epithelium of the model organism hydra (a member of the animal phylum Cnidaria) secrete neuropeptides with antibacterial activity that may shape the microbiome on the body surface. In particular, a specific neuropeptide, which we call NDA-1, contributes to the reduction of Gram-positive bacteria during early development and thus to a spatial distribution of the main colonizer, the Gram-negative Curvibacter sp., along the body axis. Our findings warrant further research to test whether neuropeptides secreted by nerve cells contribute to the spatial structure of microbial communities in other organisms.Certain neuropeptides, in addition to their neuromodulatory functions, display antibacterial activities of unclear significance. Here, the authors show that a secreted neuropeptide modulates the distribution of bacterial communities on the body surface during development of the model organism Hydra.

  7. The Origin of Mucosal Immunity: Lessons from the Holobiont Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Historically, mucosal immunity—i.e., the portion of the immune system that protects an organism’s various mucous membranes from invasion by potentially pathogenic microbes—has been studied in single-cell epithelia in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts of vertebrates. Phylogenetically, mucosal surfaces appeared for the first time about 560 million years ago in members of the phylum Cnidaria. There are remarkable similarities and shared functions of mucosal immunity in vertebrates and innate immunity in cnidarians, such as Hydra species. Here, we propose a common origin for both systems and review observations that indicate that the ultimately simple holobiont Hydra provides both a new perspective on the relationship between bacteria and animal cells and a new prism for viewing the emergence and evolution of epithelial tissue-based innate immunity. In addition, recent breakthroughs in our understanding of immune responses in Hydra polyps reared under defined short-term gnotobiotic conditions open up the potential of Hydra as an animal research model for the study of common mucosal disorders. PMID:27803185

  8. Maintenance of a Protein Structure in the Dynamic Evolution of TIMPs over 600 Million Years

    PubMed Central

    Nicosia, Aldo; Maggio, Teresa; Costa, Salvatore; Salamone, Monica; Tagliavia, Marcello; Mazzola, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering the events leading to protein evolution represents a challenge, especially for protein families showing complex evolutionary history. Among them, TIMPs represent an ancient eukaryotic protein family widely distributed in the animal kingdom. They are known to control the turnover of the extracellular matrix and are considered to arise early during metazoan evolution, arguably tuning essential features of tissue and epithelial organization. To probe the structure and molecular evolution of TIMPs within metazoans, we report the mining and structural characterization of a large data set of TIMPs over approximately 600 Myr. The TIMPs repertoire was explored starting from the Cnidaria phylum, coeval with the origins of connective tissue, to great apes and humans. Despite dramatic sequence differences compared with highest metazoans, the ancestral proteins displayed the canonical TIMP fold. Only small structural changes, represented by an α-helix located in the N-domain, have occurred over the evolution. Both the occurrence of such secondary structure elements and the relative solvent accessibility of the corresponding residues in the three-dimensional structures raises the possibility that these sites represent unconserved element prone to accept variations. PMID:26957029

  9. Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in sea anemones.

    PubMed

    Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Ozbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael

    2012-04-07

    Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficiency in sea water is further demonstrated by the rapid paralysis of fish or crustacean larvae upon application of recombinant Nv1 into their medium. Analysis of other anemone species reveals that in Anthopleura elegantissima, Type I neurotoxins also appear in gland cells, whereas in the common species Anemonia viridis, Type I toxins are localized to both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells. The nematocyte-based and gland cell-based envenomation mechanisms may reflect substantial differences in the ecology and feeding habits of sea anemone species. Overall, the immunolocalization of neurotoxins to gland cells changes the common view in the literature that sea anemone neurotoxins are produced and delivered only by stinging nematocytes, and raises the possibility that this toxin-secretion mechanism is an ancestral evolutionary state of the venom delivery machinery in sea anemones.

  10. EvolMarkers: a database for mining exon and intron markers for evolution, ecology and conservation studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenhong; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2012-09-01

    Recent innovations in next-generation sequencing have lowered the cost of genome projects. Nevertheless, sequencing entire genomes for all representatives in a study remains expensive and unnecessary for most studies in ecology, evolution and conservation. It is still more cost-effective and efficient to target and sequence single-copy nuclear gene markers for such studies. Many tools have been developed for identifying nuclear markers, but most of these have focused on particular taxonomic groups. We have built a searchable database, EvolMarkers, for developing single-copy coding sequence (CDS) and exon-primed-intron-crossing (EPIC) markers that is designed to work across a broad range of phylogenetic divergences. The database is made up of single-copy CDS derived from BLAST searches of a variety of metazoan genomes. Users can search the database for different types of markers (CDS or EPIC) that are common to different sets of input species with different divergence characteristics. EvolMarkers can be applied to any taxonomic group for which genome data are available for two or more species. We included 82 genomes in the first version of EvolMarkers and have found the methods to be effective across Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropod, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata and plants. We demonstrate the effectiveness of searching for CDS markers within annelids and show how to find potentially useful intronic markers within the lizard Anolis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of the Scleractinian Coral Stylophora pistillata

    PubMed Central

    Salmon-Divon, Mali; Katzenellenbogen, Mark; Tambutté, Sylvie; Bertucci, Anthony; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Deleury, Emeline; Allemand, Denis; Levy, Oren

    2014-01-01

    The principal architects of coral reefs are the scleractinian corals; these species are divided in two major clades referred to as “robust” and “complex” corals. Although the molecular diversity of the “complex” clade has received considerable attention, with several expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries and a complete genome sequence having been constructed, the “robust” corals have received far less attention, despite the fact that robust corals have been prominent focal points for ecological and physiological studies. Filling this gap affords important opportunities to extend these studies and to improve our understanding of the differences between the two major clades. Here, we present an EST library from Stylophora pistillata (Esper 1797) and systematically analyze the assembled transcripts compared to putative homologs from the complete proteomes of six well-characterized metazoans: Nematostella vectensis, Hydra magnipapillata, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Ciona intestinalis and Homo sapiens. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the Stylophora pistillata ESTs were performed against several Cnidaria from the Scleractinia, Actiniaria and Hydrozoa, as well as against other stony corals separately. Functional characterization of S. pistillata transcripts into KOG/COG categories and further description of Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways showed that the assembled EST library provides sufficient data and coverage. These features of this new library suggest considerable opportunities for extending our understanding of the molecular and physiological behavior of “robust” corals. PMID:24551124

  12. Biochemical and Electrophysiological Characterization of Two Sea Anemone Type 1 Potassium Toxins from a Geographically Distant Population of Bunodosoma caissarum

    PubMed Central

    Orts, Diego J. B.; Peigneur, Steve; Madio, Bruno; Cassoli, Juliana S.; Montandon, Gabriela G.; Pimenta, Adriano M. C.; Bicudo, José E. P. W.; Freitas, José C.; Zaharenko, André J.; Tytgat, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) venom is an important source of bioactive compounds used as tools to study the pharmacology and structure-function of voltage-gated K+ channels (KV). These neurotoxins can be divided into four different types, according to their structure and mode of action. In this work, for the first time, two toxins were purified from the venom of Bunodosoma caissarum population from Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Brazil. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis reveals that BcsTx1 and BcsTx2 are the newest members of the sea anemone type 1 potassium channel toxins. Their functional characterization was performed by means of a wide electrophysiological screening on 12 different subtypes of KV channels (KV1.1–KV1.6; KV2.1; KV3.1; KV4.2; KV4.3; hERG and Shaker IR). BcsTx1 shows a high affinity for rKv1.2 over rKv1.6, hKv1.3, Shaker IR and rKv1.1, while Bcstx2 potently blocked rKv1.6 over hKv1.3, rKv1.1, Shaker IR and rKv1.2. Furthermore, we also report for the first time a venom composition and biological activity comparison between two geographically distant populations of sea anemones. PMID:23466933

  13. Proteomic characterisation of toxins isolated from nematocysts of the South Atlantic jellyfish Olindias sambaquiensis.

    PubMed

    Weston, Andrew J; Chung, Ray; Dunlap, Walter C; Morandini, André C; Marques, Antonio C; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M; Ward, Malcolm; Padilla, Gabriel; da Silva, Luiziana Ferreira; Andreakis, Nikos; Long, Paul F

    2013-09-01

    Surprisingly little is known of the toxic arsenal of cnidarian nematocysts compared to other venomous animals. Here we investigate the toxins of nematocysts isolated from the jellyfish Olindias sambaquiensis. A total of 29 unique ms/ms events were annotated as potential toxins homologous to the toxic proteins from diverse animal phyla, including cone-snails, snakes, spiders, scorpions, wasp, bee, parasitic worm and other Cnidaria. Biological activities of these potential toxins include cytolysins, neurotoxins, phospholipases and toxic peptidases. The presence of several toxic enzymes is intriguing, such as sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase B (SMase B) that has only been described in certain spider venoms, and a prepro-haystatin P-IIId snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) that activates coagulation factor X, which is very rare even in snake venoms. Our annotation reveals sequence orthologs to many representatives of the most important superfamilies of peptide venoms suggesting that their origins in higher organisms arise from deep eumetazoan innovations. Accordingly, cnidarian venoms may possess unique biological properties that might generate new leads in the discovery of novel pharmacologically active drugs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sea water acidification affects osmotic swelling, regulatory volume decrease and discharge in nematocytes of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Marino, Angela; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C; La Spada, Giuseppa

    2013-01-01

    Increased acidification/PCO2 of sea water is a threat to the environment and affects the homeostasis of marine animals. In this study, the effect of sea water pH changes on the osmotic phase (OP), regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and discharge of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) nematocytes, collected from the Strait of Messina (Italy), was assessed. Isolated nematocytes, suspended in artificial sea water (ASW) with pH 7.65, 6.5 and 4.5, were exposed to hyposmotic ASW of the same pH values and their osmotic response and RVD measured optically in a special flow through chamber. Nematocyte discharge was analyzed in situ in ASW at all three pH values. At normal pH (7.65), nematocytes subjected to hyposmotic shock first expanded osmotically and then regulated their cell volume within 15 min. Exposure to hyposmotic ASW pH 6.5 and 4.5 compromised the OP and reduced or totally abrogated the ensuing RVD, respectively. Acidic pH also significantly reduced the nematocyte discharge response. Data indicate that the homeostasis and function of Cnidarians may be altered by environmental changes such as sea water acidification, thereby validating their use as novel bioindicators for the quality of the marine environment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Rot, Chagai; Goldfarb, Itay; Ilan, Micha; Huchon, Dorothée

    2006-09-14

    The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria), in which group I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera). A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida). This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the putative intron has group I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a putative homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis.

  16. Phylogeny drives large scale patterns in Australian marine bioactivity and provides a new chemical ecology rationale for future biodiscovery.

    PubMed

    Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A; Logan, Murray; Doyle, Jason; Fromont, Jane; Battershill, Christopher N; Ericson, Gavin; Wolff, Carsten W; Muirhead, Andrew; Kearns, Phillip; Abdo, David; Kininmonth, Stuart; Llewellyn, Lyndon

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years of Australian marine bioresources collecting and research by the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) has explored the breadth of latitudinally and longitudinally diverse marine habitats that comprise Australia's ocean territory. The resulting AIMS Bioresources Library and associated relational database integrate biodiversity with bioactivity data, and these resources were mined to retrospectively assess biogeographic, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns in cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and central nervous system (CNS)-protective bioactivity. While the bioassays used were originally chosen to be indicative of pharmaceutically relevant bioactivity, the results have qualified ecological relevance regarding secondary metabolism. In general, metazoan phyla along the deuterostome phylogenetic pathway (eg to Chordata) and their ancestors (eg Porifera and Cnidaria) had higher percentages of bioactive samples in the assays examined. While taxonomy at the phylum level and higher-order phylogeny groupings helped account for observed trends, taxonomy to genus did not resolve the trends any further. In addition, the results did not identify any biogeographic bioactivity hotspots that correlated with biodiversity hotspots. We conclude with a hypothesis that high-level phylogeny, and therefore the metabolic machinery available to an organism, is a major determinant of bioactivity, while habitat diversity and ecological circumstance are possible drivers in the activation of this machinery and bioactive secondary metabolism. This study supports the strategy of targeting phyla from the deuterostome lineage (including ancestral phyla) from biodiverse marine habitats and ecological niches, in future biodiscovery, at least that which is focused on vertebrate (including human) health.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome and evolutionary analysis of Turritopsis dohrnii, the "immortal" jellyfish with a reversible life-cycle.

    PubMed

    Lisenkova, A A; Grigorenko, A P; Tyazhelova, T V; Andreeva, T V; Gusev, F E; Manakhov, A D; Goltsov, A Yu; Piraino, S; Miglietta, M P; Rogaev, E I

    2017-02-01

    Turritopsis dohrnii (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina, Anthoathecata) is the only known metazoan that is capable of reversing its life cycle via morph rejuvenation from the adult medusa stage to the juvenile polyp stage. Here, we present a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of T. dohrnii, which harbors genes for 13 proteins, two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs. The T. dohrnii mt genome is characterized by typical features of species in the Hydroidolina subclass, such as a high A+T content (71.5%), reversed transcriptional orientation for the large rRNA subunit gene, and paucity of CGN codons. An incomplete complementary duplicate of the cox1 gene was found at the 5' end of the T. dohrnii mt chromosome, as were variable repeat regions flanking the chromosome. We identified species-specific variations (nad5, nad6, cob, and cox1 genes) and putative selective constraints (atp8, nad1, nad2, and nad5 genes) in the mt genes of T. dohrnii, and predicted alterations in tertiary structures of respiratory chain proteins (NADH4, NADH5, and COX1 proteins) of T. dohrnii. Based on comparative analyses of available hydrozoan mt genomes, we also determined the taxonomic relationships of T. dohrnii, recovering Filifera IV as a paraphyletic taxon, and assessed intraspecific diversity of various Hydrozoa species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary analysis of length and GC content variation in the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of marine animals.

    PubMed

    Chow, S; Ueno, Y; Toyokawa, M; Oohara, I; Takeyama, H

    2009-01-01

    Length and guanine-cytosine (GC) content of the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) were compared across a wide variety of marine animal species, and its phylogenetic utility was investigated. From a total of 773 individuals representing 599 species, we only failed to amplify the ITS1 sequence from 87 individuals by polymerase chain reaction with universal ITS1 primers. No species was found to have an ITS1 region shorter than 100 bp. In general, the ITS1 sequences of vertebrates were longer (318 to 2,318 bp) and richer in GC content (56.8% to 78%) than those of invertebrates (117 to 1,613 bp and 35.8% to 71.3%, respectively). Specifically, gelatinous animals (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) were observed to have short ITS1 sequences (118 to 422 bp) with lower GC content (35.8% to 61.7%) than the other animal taxa. Mollusca and Crustacea were diverse groups with respect to ITS1 length, ranging from 108 to 1,118 and 182 to 1,613 bp, respectively. No universal relationship between length and GC content was observed. Our data indicated that ITS1 has a limited utility for phylogenetic analysis as obtaining confident sequence alignment was often impossible between different genera of the same family and even between congeneric species.

  19. The histology of Nanomia bijuga (Hydrozoa: Siphonophora)

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Stefan; Bhattacharyya, Pathikrit; Dunn, Casey W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The siphonophore Nanomia bijuga is a pelagic hydrozoan (Cnidaria) with complex morphological organization. Each siphonophore is made up of many asexually produced, genetically identical zooids that are functionally specialized and morphologically distinct. These zooids predominantly arise by budding in two growth zones, and are arranged in precise patterns. This study describes the cellular anatomy of several zooid types, the stem, and the gas‐filled float, called the pneumatophore. The distribution of cellular morphologies across zooid types enhances our understanding of zooid function. The unique absorptive cells in the palpon, for example, indicate specialized intracellular digestive processing in this zooid type. Though cnidarians are usually thought of as mono‐epithelial, we characterize at least two cellular populations in this species which are not connected to a basement membrane. This work provides a greater understanding of epithelial diversity within the cnidarians, and will be a foundation for future studies on N. bijuga, including functional assays and gene expression analyses. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B:435–449, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26036693

  20. Electrogenesis in the lower Metazoa and implications for neuronal integration

    PubMed Central

    Meech, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Electrogenic communication appears to have evolved independently in a variety of animal and plant lineages. Considered here are metazoan cells as disparate as the loose three-dimensional parenchyma of glass sponges, the two-dimensional epithelial sheets of hydrozoan jellyfish and the egg cell membranes of the ctenophore Beroe ovata, all of which are capable of generating electrical impulses. Neuronal electrogenesis may have evolved independently in ctenophores and cnidarians but the dearth of electrophysiological data relating to ctenophore nerves means that our attention is focused on the Cnidaria, whose nervous systems have been the subject of extensive study. The aim here is to show how their active and passive neuronal properties interact to give integrated behaviour. Neuronal electrogenesis, goes beyond simply relaying ‘states of excitement’ and utilizes the equivalent of a set of basic electrical ‘apps’ to integrate incoming sensory information with internally generated pacemaker activity. A small number of membrane-based processes make up these analogue applications. Passive components include the decremental spread of current determined by cellular anatomy; active components include ion channels specified by their selectivity and voltage dependence. A recurring theme is the role of inactivating potassium channels in regulating performance. Although different aspects of cnidarian behaviour are controlled by separate neuronal systems, integrated responses and coordinated movements depend on interactions between them. Integrative interactions discussed here include those between feeding and swimming, between tentacle contraction and swimming and between slow and fast swimming in the hydrozoan jellyfish Aglantha digitale. PMID:25696817

  1. Scyphomedusae of the Mediterranean: state of the art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    D'Ambra, Isabella; Malej, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    Scyphomedusae (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Scyphozoa) are perceived as a nuisance due to their sudden outbreaks that negatively affect human activities (particularly tourism and fisheries) mainly because of their stings. A brief review of the history of scyphozoan blooms in the Mediterranean and updated information available after 2010 point to an increase in scyphozoan outbreaks. Whilst the negative effects on public health, aquaculture, coastal industrial activities and fisheries operations are undeniable, the effects on the ecosystem are not well defined. We focus on the trophic interactions between scyphomedusae and fish, highlighting that the negative effects of scyphomedusae on fish stocks exerted through direct predation on early life stages of fish and competition for plankton are at present speculative. In favor of a positive effect of scyphomedusae on fish populations, the reports of predation upon scyphozoans are increasing, which suggests that predators may benefit from the availability of scyphozoans by shifting their diet toward jelly prey. Additionally, scyphomedusae may provide nursery habitats to early life stages of ecologically and economically important forage fishes and other organisms which shelter underneath their bells. Together with these ecosystem services, compounds extracted from scyphozoan tissues and venoms are having a variety of biomedical applications and are likely to contribute to treat a growing number of diseases, including cancer. Our analysis highlights that a re-evaluation of the balance between "positive" and "negative" effects of scyphomedusae on the ecosystem and human activities is needed and provides indications on potential directions for future studies.

  2. Histology and ultrastructure of the coenenchyme of the octocoral Swiftia exserta, a model organism for innate immunity/graft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, L.P.; Tondo, C.; Stein, B.; Bigger, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    The octocoral Swiftia exserta has been utilized extensively in our laboratory to study innate immune reactions in Cnidaria such as wound healing, auto- and allo-graft reactions, and for some classical “foreign body” phagocytosis experiments. All of these reactions occur in the coenenchyme of the animal, the colonial tissue surrounding the axial skeleton in which the polyps are embedded, and do not rely on nematocysts or directly involve the polyps. In order to better understand some of the cellular reactions occurring in the coenenchyme, the present study employed several cytochemical methods (periodic acid–Schiff reaction, Mallory’s aniline blue collagen stain, and Gomori’s trichrome stain) and correlated the observed structures with electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission). Eight types of cells were apparent in the coenenchyme of S. exserta, exclusive of gastrodermal tissue: (i) epithelial ectoderm cells, (ii) oblong granular cells, (iii) granular amoebocytes, (iv) morula-like cells, (v) mesogleal cells, (vi) sclerocytes, (vii) axial epithelial cells, and (viii) cnidocytes with mostly atrichous isorhiza nematocysts. Several novel organizational features are now apparent from transmission electron micrographs: the ectoderm consists of a single layer of flat epithelial cells, the cell types of the mesoglea extend from beneath the thin ectoderm throughout the mesogleal cell cords, the organization of the solenia gastroderm consists of a single layer of cells, and two nematocyst types have been found. A new interpretation of the cellular architecture of S. exserta, and more broadly, octocoral biology is now possible. PMID:25596959

  3. Origin of animal multicellularity: precursors, causes, consequences—the choanoflagellate/sponge transition, neurogenesis and the Cambrian explosion

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Evolving multicellularity is easy, especially in phototrophs and osmotrophs whose multicells feed like unicells. Evolving animals was much harder and unique; probably only one pathway via benthic ‘zoophytes’ with pelagic ciliated larvae allowed trophic continuity from phagocytic protozoa to gut-endowed animals. Choanoflagellate protozoa produced sponges. Converting sponge flask cells mediating larval settling to synaptically controlled nematocysts arguably made Cnidaria. I replace Haeckel's gastraea theory by a sponge/coelenterate/bilaterian pathway: Placozoa, hydrozoan diploblasty and ctenophores were secondary; stem anthozoan developmental mutations arguably independently generated coelomate bilateria and ctenophores. I emphasize animal origin's conceptual aspects (selective, developmental) related to feeding modes, cell structure, phylogeny of related protozoa, sequence evidence, ecology and palaeontology. Epithelia and connective tissue could evolve only by compensating for dramatically lower feeding efficiency that differentiation into non-choanocytes entails. Consequentially, larger bodies enabled filtering more water for bacterial food and harbouring photosynthetic bacteria, together adding more food than cell differentiation sacrificed. A hypothetical presponge of sessile triploblastic sheets (connective tissue sandwiched between two choanocyte epithelia) evolved oogamy through selection for larger dispersive ciliated larvae to accelerate benthic trophic competence and overgrowing protozoan competitors. Extinct Vendozoa might be elaborations of this organismal grade with choanocyte-bearing epithelia, before poriferan water channels and cnidarian gut/nematocysts/synapses evolved. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’. PMID:27994119

  4. A switch in disulfide linkage during minicollagen assembly in Hydra nematocysts.

    PubMed

    Engel, U; Pertz, O; Fauser, C; Engel, J; David, C N; Holstein, T W

    2001-06-15

    The smallest known collagens with only 14 Gly-X-Y repeats referred to as minicollagens are the main constituents of the capsule wall of nematocysts. These are explosive organelles found in Hydra, jellyfish, corals and other Cnidaria. Minicollagen-1 of Hydra recombinantly expressed in mammalian 293 cells contains disulfide bonds within its N- and C-terminal Cys-rich domains but no interchain cross-links. It is soluble and self-associates through non-covalent interactions to form 25-nm-long trimeric helical rod-like molecules. We have used a polyclonal antibody prepared against the recombinant protein to follow the maturation of minicollagens from soluble precursors present in the endoplasmic reticulum and post-Golgi vacuoles to the disulfide-linked insoluble assembly form of the wall. The switch from intra- to intermolecular disulfide bonds is associated with 'hardening' of the capsule wall and provides an explanation for its high tensile strength and elasticity. The process is comparable to disulfide reshuffling between the NC1 domains of collagen IV in mammalian basement membranes.

  5. Characterization of Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis and Transcriptome Wide Identification of Cnidarian Homologues

    PubMed Central

    Bennici, Carmelo; Biondo, Girolama; Di Natale, Marilena; Masullo, Tiziana; Monastero, Calogera; Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Tagliavia, Marcello; Cuttitta, Angela

    2018-01-01

    Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera, Exaiptasia pallida, Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure. The pattern of mRNA expression profile was also defined in A. viridis. These analyses revealed a constitutive mRNA expression especially in tissues with active proliferation. Additionally, the transcriptional profile of A. viridis TCTP (AvTCTP) after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showed induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. These results suggest the involvement of AvTCTP in the sea anemone defensome taking part in environmental stress and immune responses. PMID:29324689

  6. Nowa, a novel protein with minicollagen Cys-rich domains, is involved in nematocyst formation in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Engel, Ulrike; Ozbek, Suat; Streitwolf-Engel, Ruth; Petri, Barbara; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Holstein, Thomas W; Oezbek, Suat; Engel, Ruth

    2002-10-15

    The novel protein Nowa was identified in nematocysts, explosive organelles of Hydra, jellyfish, corals and other CNIDARIA: Biogenesis of these organelles is complex and involves assembly of proteins inside a post-Golgi vesicle to form a double-layered capsule with a long tubule. Nowa is the major component of the outer wall, which is formed very early in morphogenesis. The high molecular weight glycoprotein has a modular structure with an N-terminal sperm coating glycoprotein domain, a central C-type lectin-like domain, and an eightfold repeated cysteine-rich domain at the C-terminus. Interestingly, the cysteine-rich domains are homologous to the cysteine-rich domains of minicollagens. We have previously shown that the cysteines of these minicollagen cysteine-rich domains undergo an isomerization process from intra- to intermolecular disulfide bonds, which mediates the crosslinking of minicollagens to networks in the inner wall of the capsule. The minicollagen cysteine-rich domains present in both proteins provide a potential link between Nowa in the outer wall and minicollagens in the inner wall. We propose a model for nematocyst formation that integrates cytoskeleton rearrangements around the post-Golgi vesicle and protein assembly inside the vesicle to generate a complex structure that is stabilized by intermolecular disulfide bonds.

  7. Venom Proteome of the Box Jellyfish Chironex fleckeri

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Diane L.; Aziz, Ammar; Loukas, Alex; Potriquet, Jeremy; Seymour, Jamie; Mulvenna, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The nematocyst is a complex intracellular structure unique to Cnidaria. When triggered to discharge, the nematocyst explosively releases a long spiny, tubule that delivers an often highly venomous mixture of components. The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In an effort to identify toxins that could be responsible for the serious health effects caused by C. fleckeri and related species, we used a proteomic approach to profile the protein components of C. fleckeri venom. Collectively, 61 proteins were identified, including toxins and proteins important for nematocyte development and nematocyst formation (nematogenesis). The most abundant toxins identified were isoforms of a taxonomically restricted family of potent cnidarian proteins. These toxins are associated with cytolytic, nociceptive, inflammatory, dermonecrotic and lethal properties and expansion of this important protein family goes some way to explaining the destructive and potentially fatal effects of C. fleckeri venom. Venom proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) were further characterized using toxin-specific antibodies and phosphoprotein/glycoprotein-specific stains. Results indicated that glycosylation is a common PTM of the toxin family while a lack of cross-reactivity by toxin-specific antibodies infers there is significant divergence in structure and possibly function among family members. This study provides insight into the depth and diversity of protein toxins produced by harmful box jellyfish and represents the first description of a cubozoan jellyfish venom proteome. PMID:23236347

  8. The alternative NADH dehydrogenase is present in mitochondria of some animal taxa.

    PubMed

    Matus-Ortega, Macario Genaro; Salmerón-Santiago, Karina Gabriela; Flores-Herrera, Oscar; Guerra-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Martínez, Federico; Rendón, Juan Luis; Pardo, Juan Pablo

    2011-09-01

    The distribution of the alternative NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) in the living world was explored. The enzyme, although present in representatives of all living kingdoms, does not have a universal distribution. With the exception of ε-proteobacteria, the enzyme was found in all eubacterial groups. In contrast with the known presence of the NDH-2 in Archaea, the alternative oxidase (AOX) is absent in this group. With regard to the Eukarya domain, the NDH-2 was found in representatives of Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. In the latter, however, the presence of the enzyme was restricted to some primitive Metazoa (Placozoa and Cnidaria), and two members of the Deuterostomate lineage of the Bilateria (Echinodermata and Urochordata). No evidence for the presence of the NDH-2 was found in any representative of the Protostomate branch of the Bilateria, contrasting with the existence of the AOX in this same group. It is worth mentioning that those animal species containing the NDH-2 also have an AOX. The actual distribution of the NDH-2 in the various living kingdoms is discussed within the framework of the endosymbiotic theory; in addition, a hypothesis is proposed to explain the disappearance of the alternative NDH-2 and AOX from the majority of the animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Cytotoxic Effects of Aqueous Extracts from the Edible Sea Anemones Anemonia sulcata and Actinia equina.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tânia Costa; de Andrade, Paula Branquinho; Paiva-Martins, Fátima; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, David Micael

    2017-03-17

    Marine invertebrates have been attracting the attention of researchers for their application in nutrition, agriculture, and the pharmaceutical industry, among others. Concerning sea anemones (Cnidaria), little is known regarding their metabolic profiles and potential value as a source of pharmacologically-active agents. In this work, the chemical profiles of two species of sea anemones Actinia equina and Anemonia sulcata , were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) and its impact upon immune and gastric cells was evaluated. In both species, the methylpyridinium alkaloid homarine was the major compound in aqueous extracts. The extracts were effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced levels of nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a macrophage model of inflammation. Both the extracts and the alkaloid homarine were effective in inhibiting phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂), a pivotal enzyme in the initial steps of the inflammatory cascade. In order to mimic the oral consumption of these extracts; their effect upon human gastric cells was evaluated. While no caspase-9 activation was detected, the fact that the endoplasmic reticulum-resident caspase-4, and also caspase-3, were activated points to a non-classical mechanism of apoptosis in human gastric cells. This work provides new insights on the toxicity and biological potential of sea anemones increasingly present in human nutrition.

  10. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An ancient role for nuclear beta-catenin in the evolution of axial polarity and germ layer segregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wikramanayake, Athula H.; Hong, Melanie; Lee, Patricia N.; Pang, Kevin; Byrum, Christine A.; Bince, Joanna M.; Xu, Ronghui; Martindale, Mark Q.

    2003-01-01

    The human oncogene beta-catenin is a bifunctional protein with critical roles in both cell adhesion and transcriptional regulation in the Wnt pathway. Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has been implicated in developmental processes as diverse as elaboration of embryonic polarity, formation of germ layers, neural patterning, spindle orientation and gap junction communication, but the ancestral function of beta-catenin remains unclear. In many animal embryos, activation of beta-catenin signalling occurs in blastomeres that mark the site of gastrulation and endomesoderm formation, raising the possibility that asymmetric activation of beta-catenin signalling specified embryonic polarity and segregated germ layers in the common ancestor of bilaterally symmetrical animals. To test whether nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is involved in axial identity and/or germ layer formation in 'pre-bilaterians', we examined the in vivo distribution, stability and function of beta-catenin protein in embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Here we show that N. vectensis beta-catenin is differentially stabilized along the oral-aboral axis, translocated into nuclei in cells at the site of gastrulation and used to specify entoderm, indicating an evolutionarily ancient role for this protein in early pattern formation.

  12. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Localized expression of a dpp/BMP2/4 ortholog in a coral embryo

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, David C.; Samuel, Gabrielle; Pontynen, Patricia C.; Catmull, Julian; Saint, Robert; Miller, David J.; Ball, Eldon E.

    2002-01-01

    As the closest outgroup to the Bilateria, the Phylum Cnidaria is likely to be critical to understanding the origins and evolution of body axes. Proteins of the decapentaplegic (DPP)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2/4 subfamily are central to the specification of the dorsoventral (D/V) axis in bilateral animals, albeit with an axis inversion between arthropods and chordates. We show that a dpp/BMP2/4 ortholog (bmp2/4-Am) is present in the reef-building scleractinian coral, Acropora millepora (Class Anthozoa) and that it is capable of causing phenotypic effects in Drosophila that mimic those of the endogenous dpp gene. We also show that, during coral embryonic development, bmp2/4-Am expression is localized in an ectodermal region adjacent to the blastopore. Thus, a representative of the DPP/BMP2/4 subfamily of ligands was present in the common ancestor of diploblastic and triploblastic animals where it was probably expressed in a localized fashion during development. A localized source of DPP/BMP2/4 may have already been used in axis formation in this ancestor, or it may have provided a means by which an axis could evolve in triploblastic animals. PMID:12048233

  14. Ceramide Phosphoethanolamine Biosynthesis in Drosophila Is Mediated by a Unique Ethanolamine Phosphotransferase in the Golgi Lumen♦

    PubMed Central

    Vacaru, Ana M.; van den Dikkenberg, Joep; Ternes, Philipp; Holthuis, Joost C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) is a vital component of mammalian membranes, providing mechanical stability and a structural framework for plasma membrane organization. Its production involves the transfer of phosphocholine from phosphatidylcholine onto ceramide, a reaction catalyzed by SM synthase in the Golgi lumen. Drosophila lacks SM and instead synthesizes the SM analogue ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE) as the principal membrane sphingolipid. The corresponding CPE synthase shares mechanistic features with enzymes mediating phospholipid biosynthesis via the Kennedy pathway. Using a functional cloning strategy, we here identified a CDP-ethanolamine:ceramide ethanolamine phosphotransferase as the enzyme responsible for CPE production in Drosophila. CPE synthase constitutes a new branch within the CDP-alcohol phosphotransferase superfamily with homologues in Arthropoda (insects, spiders, mites, scorpions), Cnidaria (Hydra, sea anemones), and Mollusca (oysters) but not in most other animal phyla. The enzyme resides in the Golgi complex with its active site facing the lumen, contrary to the membrane topology of other CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases. Our findings open up an important new avenue to address the biological role of CPE, an enigmatic membrane constituent of a wide variety of invertebrate and marine organisms. PMID:23449981

  15. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as ‘marine invertebrates’. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remarkably, species of corals (Cnidaria) living in non-exploited ecosystems also suffer from devastating infectious diseases that display intriguing similarities with those affecting farmed animals. Infectious diseases affecting wild and farmed animals that are present in marine environments are predicted to increase in the future. This paper summarizes the role of the main pathogens and their interaction with host immunity, with a specific focus on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and pathogen resistance against AMPs. We provide a detailed review of penaeid shrimp AMPs and their role at the interface between the host and its resident/pathogenic microbiota. We also briefly describe the relevance of marine invertebrate AMPs in an applied context. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides’. PMID:27160602

  16. From Offshore to Onshore: Multiple Origins of Shallow-Water Corals from Deep-Sea Ancestors

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Alberto; Cairns, Stephen D.; Cunningham, Clifford W.

    2008-01-01

    Shallow-water tropical reefs and the deep sea represent the two most diverse marine environments. Understanding the origin and diversification of this biodiversity is a major quest in ecology and evolution. The most prominent and well-supported explanation, articulated since the first explorations of the deep sea, holds that benthic marine fauna originated in shallow, onshore environments, and diversified into deeper waters. In contrast, evidence that groups of marine organisms originated in the deep sea is limited, and the possibility that deep-water taxa have contributed to the formation of shallow-water communities remains untested with phylogenetic methods. Here we show that stylasterid corals (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae)—the second most diverse group of hard corals—originated and diversified extensively in the deep sea, and subsequently invaded shallow waters. Our phylogenetic results show that deep-water stylasterid corals have invaded the shallow-water tropics three times, with one additional invasion of the shallow-water temperate zone. Our results also show that anti-predatory innovations arose in the deep sea, but were not involved in the shallow-water invasions. These findings are the first robust evidence that an important group of tropical shallow-water marine animals evolved from deep-water ancestors. PMID:18560569

  17. Conservation of miRNA-mediated silencing mechanisms across 600 million years of animal evolution.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Marta; Kirchner, Marieluise; Aharoni, Reuven; Ciolli Mattioli, Camilla; van den Bruck, David; Gutkovitch, Nadya; Modepalli, Vengamanaidu; Selbach, Matthias; Moran, Yehu; Chekulaeva, Marina

    2017-01-25

    Our current knowledge about the mechanisms of miRNA silencing is restricted to few lineages such as vertebrates, arthropods, nematodes and land plants. miRNA-mediated silencing in bilaterian animals is dependent on the proteins of the GW182 family. Here, we dissect the function of GW182 protein in the cnidarian Nematostella, separated by 600 million years from other Metazoa. Using cultured human cells, we show that Nematostella GW182 recruits the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complexes via its tryptophan-containing motifs, thereby inhibiting translation and promoting mRNA decay. Further, similarly to bilaterians, GW182 in Nematostella is recruited to the miRNA repression complex via interaction with Argonaute proteins, and functions downstream to repress mRNA. Thus, our work suggests that this mechanism of miRNA-mediated silencing was already active in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. First Description of Sulphur-Oxidizing Bacterial Symbiosis in a Cnidarian (Medusozoa) Living in Sulphidic Shallow-Water Environments.

    PubMed

    Abouna, Sylvie; Gonzalez-Rizzo, Silvina; Grimonprez, Adrien; Gros, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of thioautotrophic bacterial symbiosis in the giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila, there has been great impetus to investigate such partnerships in other invertebrates. In this study, we present the occurrence of a sulphur-oxidizing symbiosis in a metazoan belonging to the phylum Cnidaria in which this event has never been described previously. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) observations and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXs) analysis, were employed to unveil the presence of prokaryotes population bearing elemental sulphur granules, growing on the body surface of the metazoan. Phylogenetic assessments were also undertaken to identify this invertebrate and microorganisms in thiotrophic symbiosis. Our results showed the occurrence of a thiotrophic symbiosis in a cnidarian identified as Cladonema sp. This is the first report describing the occurrence of a sulphur-oxidizing symbiosis in a cnidarian. Furthermore, of the two adult morphologies, the polyp and medusa, this mutualistic association was found restricted to the polyp form of Cladonema sp.

  19. Fouling assemblage of benthic plastic debris collected from Mersin Bay, NE Levantine coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gündoğdu, Sedat; Çevik, Cem; Karaca, Serkan

    2017-11-15

    The Mediterranean is an ecosystem that faces more and more microplastic pollution every day. This causes the whole of the Mediterranean to face the negative effects of plastic pollution. This study examines the state of plastic debris and fouling organisms found on it in one of the areas most affected by plastic pollution, Mersin Bay. As a result, a total of 3.88kg plastic (mean=0,97kg; n=120; 2670item/km 2 ; 86,3kg/km 2 ) was collected and based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, it was determined that this total contained 9 types of plastics. 17 different fouling species belonging to 6 phylum (Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Cnidaria, Mollusca) 7 class and 11 order were discovered on plastics. Spirobranchus triqueter, Hydroides sp. and Neopycnodonte cochlear were the most abundant species. In the end, the example of Mersin Bay shows that plastic debris as a substrate can contain a very high diversity of life just like natural substrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental impact of bleufin tuna aquaculture on benthic assemblages in the western coast of Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Castaneda, V.

    2013-05-01

    Sea-cage farming results in a constant rain of organic waste onto the surrounding benthos. In Baja California there is growing concern over the effects of sea-cages on the local environment: sediment chemistry and benthic communities. Samples were taken in 18 stations using a Van veen grab (0.1 m2) in Bahía Salsipuedes, Baja California in 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008. Organisms belonging to 7 Phyla were collected: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Cnidaria, Sipuncula and Bryozoa. Polychaetes were the dominant group followed by crustaceans and mollusks. Polychaetes were represented by 37 families and 157 species. Best represented families were Paraonidae, Cirratulidae, Spionidae, Glyceridae and Maldanidae. This study shows that in the NW area of the bay organic carbon (2.54%) and organic nitrogen (0.95%) are being accumulated (higher concentrations and lower Eh values) and smaller opportunistic species are increasing rapidly near the tuna pens. It is crucial to maintain "healthy" macrofaunal populations in order to enhance decomposition of organic matter and to prevent its excessive accumulation. The most abundant polychaete species were Aphelochaeta multifinis, Mediomastus ambiseta, Prionospio steenstrupi Spiophanes bombyx, Apoprionospio pygnaea, Paraonella sp, Monticellina sp, Aricidea (Allia) ramosa, Spiophanes bombyx and Levinsenia gracilis. The dominant trophic groups were deposit-feeders and carnivores. The buildup of organic matter on the seafloor has attracted scavenger species particularly peracarid crustaceans. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) separated stations depending of the distance to the tuna pens.

  1. Coral Reef Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Helen T.

    Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These ecosystems have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.

  2. Historical macrobenthic community assemblages in the Avilés Canyon, N Iberian Shelf: Baseline biodiversity information for a marine protected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louzao, Maite; Anadón, Nuria; Arrontes, Julio; Álvarez-Claudio, Consuelo; Fuente, Dulce María; Ocharan, Francisco; Anadón, Araceli; Acuña, José Luis

    2010-02-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems are highly diverse, and European countries seek to protect these environments by identifying conservation targets. One of these is the Avilés Canyon, southern Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic, Spain. We present the first analysis of historical benthic communities (1987-1988) of this canyon ecosystem, which is a valuable source of biodiversity baseline information. We found 810 taxa divided in five main macrobenthic assemblages, showing a highly diverse benthic community. Bathymetry was the major structuring agent of benthic community, separating shallow (assemblages I and II, 31 to 307 m depth) from deep stations (assemblages III, IV and V, 198 to 1400 m depth). Especially diverse was assemblage IV, located at the easternmost part of the continental slope (378-1100 m depth) where we found reef-forming corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. These and other communities (sea-pens [Order Pennatulacea, Phylum Cnidaria] and burrowing macrofauna) represent key habitats in NE Atlantic continental slopes, which are currently threatened. The present dataset has produced the most comprehensive assessment of diversity in this area to date, focusing on the taxonomic groups which may best reflect the health of the marine ecosystem and supporting previous studies which indicate that the continental slope of the southern Bay of Biscay hosts key benthic habitats.

  3. Vertical distribution and diel migration of macrozooplankton in the St. Lawrence marine system (Canada) in relation with the cold intermediate layer thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Michel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Descroix, Aurélie

    2009-01-01

    Vertical distribution of various species and stages of macrozooplankton (euphausiacea, chaetognatha, cnidaria, mysidacea, amphipoda) were determined for different times of the day and related to the physical environment. Stratified sampling with the BIONESS was carried out during seven cruises in spring and fall 1998, 2000, and 2001, and fall 1999, in two different habitats in the St. Lawrence marine system: the lower St. Lawrence Estuary and the NW Gulf of St. Lawrence. Our results indicate that the various macrozooplankton species were distributed throughout the whole water column including the surface layer, the cold intermediate layer (CIL), and the deep layer at different times of day and night in both areas during all periods. Moreover, three types of migrational patterns were observed within this zooplanktonic community: (1) nocturnal ascent by the whole population, (2) segregation into two groups; one which performed nocturnal accent and another which remained in the deep, and (3) no detectable migration. We also observed that the diel vertical migration (DVM) amplitude in most of the macrozooplankton species varied as a function of physical factors, in particular the spatio-temporal variations of the CIL thermal properties, including the upper and the lower limits of the CIL and the depth of the CIL core temperature. Finally, the different DVM patterns coupled with estuarine circulation patterns and bottom topography could place animals in different flow regimes by night and by day and contribute to their retention (aggregation) and/or dispersion in different areas, time of the day, and seasons.

  4. Endobacterial morphotypes in nudibranch cerata tips: a SEM analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Christian; Doepke, Hilke

    2013-06-01

    The SEM investigation of nudibranch cerata material exhibits endobacterial morphotypes found in 12 out of 13 species tested: Aeolidia papillosa, Berghia caerulescens, Coryphella brownii, Coryphella lineata, Coryphella verrucosa, Cuthona amoena, Facelina coronata, Flabellina pedata, Dendronotus frondosus, Doto coronata, Tritonia plebeia and Janolus cristatus. Endobacteria could not be detected inside Tritonia hombergi. Endobacterial morphology found inside nudibranch species was compared to bacterial morphotypes detected earlier in tentacles of cnidarian species. SEM micrographs show endobacterial analogy among nudibranch species, but also similarity to cnidarian endobacteria investigated earlier. Of course, morphological data of microbes do not allow their identification. However, since most of these nudibranch species prey on cnidaria, it cannot be excluded that many of the endobacteria detected inside nudibranch species may originate from their cnidarian prey. Our previous data describing genetic affiliation of endobacteria from nudibranchian and cnidarian species support this assumption. Dominant coccoid endobacteria mostly exhibit smooth surface and are tightly packed as aggregates and/or wrapped in envelopes. Such bacterial aggregate type has been described previously in tentacles of the cnidarian species Sagartia elegans. Similar coccoid bacteria, lacking envelopes were also found in other nudibranch species. A different type of coccoid bacteria, characterized by a rough surface, was detected inside cerata of the nudibranch species Berghia caerulescens, and surprisingly, inside tentacles of the cnidarian species Tubularia indivisa. In contrast to cnidarian endobacteria, rod-shaped microorganisms are largely absent in nudibranch cerata.

  5. Metazoan meiofauna in deep-sea canyons and adjacent open slopes: A large-scale comparison with focus on the rare taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchelli, S.; Gambi, C.; Zeppilli, D.; Danovaro, R.

    2010-03-01

    Metazoan meiofaunal abundance, total biomass, nematode size and the richness of taxa were investigated along bathymetric gradients (from the shelf break down to ca. 5000-m depth) in six submarine canyons and on five adjacent open slopes of three deep-sea regions. The investigated areas were distributed along >2500 km, on the Portuguese to the Catalan and South Adriatic margins. The Portuguese and Catalan margins displayed the highest abundances, biomass and richness of taxa, while the lowest values were observed in the Central Mediterranean Sea. The comparison between canyons and the nearby open slopes showed the lack of significant differences in terms of meiofaunal abundance and biomass at any sampling depth. In most canyons and on most slopes, meiofaunal variables did not display consistent bathymetric patterns. Conversely, we found that the different topographic features were apparently responsible for significant differences in the abundance and distribution of the rare meiofaunal taxa (i.e. taxa accounting for <1% of total meiofaunal abundance). Several taxa belonging to the temporary meiofauna, such as larvae/juveniles of Priapulida, Holothuroidea, Ascidiacea and Cnidaria, were encountered exclusively on open slopes, while others (including the Tanaidacea and Echinodea larvae) were found exclusively in canyons sediments. Results reported here indicate that, at large spatial scales, differences in deep-sea meiofaunal abundance and biomass are not only controlled by the available food sources, but also by the region or habitat specific topographic features, which apparently play a key role in the distribution of rare benthic taxa.

  6. Gigantic oocytes in the deep sea black coral Dendrobathypathes grandis (Antipatharia) from the Mar del Plata submarine canyon area (southwestern Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, Daniel; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.

    2017-10-01

    The black coral Dendrobathypathes grandis (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) is studied for the first time in the southwestern Atlantic off Argentina. This is the only antipatharian reported from the Atlantic between 35°S and 54°S. Eleven specimens were collected at depths of 819-2204 m during three expeditions to the Mar del Plata submarine canyon (2012-2013); seven were females. The species is gonochoric, and the polyps in female colonies contain up to nine oocytes per polyp, which can reach 1500 μm in diameter. In contrast, the largest oocyte currently reported for antipatharians is 500 μm, and usual diameters do not exceed 200 μm. These large oocytes have over 20 times more volume than the biggest oocyte reported, but over 800 times more volume when compared with the common oocyte size of the group. Sperm size and morphology is similar to previous data from other species. As in previous studies, neither embryos nor larvae were found in any specimens. This species was previously only reported from waters off South Georgia Island, and so these specimens expand the known distribution north by 1800 km.

  7. Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagavathi, Balasubramanaian; Das, Bandana; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan; Raja, Kuzhanthaivel

    2011-06-01

    The ecological aspects of meiofaunal communities in the Muthupettai mangrove forest, East coast of India, has not been investigated in the last two decades. Surface water temperature ranged from 23.5 °C to 31.8 °C. Salinity varied from 24 to 34 ppt, while water pH fluctuated from 7.4 to 8.3. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged from 3.86 to 5.33 mg/l. Meiofauna analysis in this study identified a total of 106 species from the mangrove and adjacent open sea area of Sethukuda. Among these, 56 species of foraminiferans, 20 species of nematodes, 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, 4 species of ostrocodes, and 2 species of rotifers were identified. Furthermore, a single species was identified from the following groups: ciliophora, cnidaria, gnathostomulida, insecta, propulida, bryozoa and polychaete larvae. Meiofaunal density varied between 12029 to 23493 individuals 10 cm/m2. The diversity index ranged from 3.515 to 3.680, species richness index varied from 6.384 to 8.497, and evenness index varied from 0.839 to 0876 in the mangrove area and adjacent open sea.

  8. Hox, Wnt, and the evolution of the primary body axis: insights from the early-divergent phyla

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Joseph F; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2007-01-01

    The subkingdom Bilateria encompasses the overwhelming majority of animals, including all but four early-branching phyla: Porifera, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Cnidaria. On average, these early-branching phyla have fewer cell types, tissues, and organs, and are considered to be significantly less specialized along their primary body axis. As such, they present an attractive outgroup from which to investigate how evolutionary changes in the genetic toolkit may have contributed to the emergence of the complex animal body plans of the Bilateria. This review offers an up-to-date glimpse of genome-scale comparisons between bilaterians and these early-diverging taxa. Specifically, we examine these data in the context of how they may explain the evolutionary development of primary body axes and axial symmetry across the Metazoa. Next, we re-evaluate the validity and evolutionary genomic relevance of the zootype hypothesis, which defines an animal by a specific spatial pattern of gene expression. Finally, we extend the hypothesis that Wnt genes may be the earliest primary body axis patterning mechanism by suggesting that Hox genes were co-opted into this patterning network prior to the last common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Reviewed by Pierre Pontarotti, Gáspár Jékely, and L Aravind. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18078518

  9. Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia

    2014-06-01

    The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35‧S to 59°33‧W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

  10. First Description of Sulphur-Oxidizing Bacterial Symbiosis in a Cnidarian (Medusozoa) Living in Sulphidic Shallow-Water Environments

    PubMed Central

    Abouna, Sylvie; Gonzalez-Rizzo, Silvina; Grimonprez, Adrien; Gros, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the discovery of thioautotrophic bacterial symbiosis in the giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila, there has been great impetus to investigate such partnerships in other invertebrates. In this study, we present the occurrence of a sulphur-oxidizing symbiosis in a metazoan belonging to the phylum Cnidaria in which this event has never been described previously. Methodology/Principal Findings Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) observations and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXs) analysis, were employed to unveil the presence of prokaryotes population bearing elemental sulphur granules, growing on the body surface of the metazoan. Phylogenetic assessments were also undertaken to identify this invertebrate and microorganisms in thiotrophic symbiosis. Our results showed the occurrence of a thiotrophic symbiosis in a cnidarian identified as Cladonema sp. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report describing the occurrence of a sulphur-oxidizing symbiosis in a cnidarian. Furthermore, of the two adult morphologies, the polyp and medusa, this mutualistic association was found restricted to the polyp form of Cladonema sp. PMID:26011278

  11. Structural Insights Into the Evolutionary Paths of Oxylipin Biosynthetic Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.-S.; Nioche, P.; Hamberg, M.

    2009-05-20

    The oxylipin pathway generates not only prostaglandin-like jasmonates but also green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which confer characteristic aromas to fruits and vegetables. Although allene oxide synthase (AOS) and hydroperoxide lyase are atypical cytochrome P450 family members involved in the synthesis of jasmonates and GLVs, respectively, it is unknown how these enzymes rearrange their hydroperoxide substrates into different products. Here we present the crystal structures of Arabidopsis thaliana AOS, free and in complex with substrate or intermediate analogues. The structures reveal an unusual active site poised to control the reactivity of an epoxyallylic radical and its cation by means of interactionsmore » with an aromatic {pi}-system. Replacing the amino acid involved in these steps by a non-polar residue markedly reduces AOS activity and, unexpectedly, is both necessary and sufficient for converting AOS into a GLV biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, by combining our structural data with bioinformatic and biochemical analyses, we have discovered previously unknown hydroperoxide lyase in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, AOS in coral, and epoxyalcohol synthase in amphioxus. These results indicate that oxylipin biosynthetic genes were present in the last common ancestor of plants and animals, but were subsequently lost in all metazoan lineages except Placozoa, Cnidaria and Cephalochordata.« less

  12. A puzzling homology: a brittle star using a putative cnidarian-type luciferase for bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Delroisse, Jérôme; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Blaue, Stefanie; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Eeckhaut, Igor; Flammang, Patrick; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    Bioluminescence relies on the oxidation of a luciferin substrate catalysed by a luciferase enzyme. Luciferins and luciferases are generic terms used to describe a large variety of substrates and enzymes. Whereas luciferins can be shared by phylogenetically distant organisms which feed on organisms producing them, luciferases have been thought to be lineage-specific enzymes. Numerous light emission systems would then have co-emerged independently along the tree of life resulting in a plethora of non-homologous luciferases. Here, we identify for the first time a candidate luciferase of a luminous echinoderm, the ophiuroid Amphiura filiformis Phylogenomic analyses identified the brittle star predicted luciferase as homologous to the luciferase of the sea pansy Renilla (Cnidaria), contradicting with the traditional viewpoint according to which luciferases would generally be of convergent origins. The similarity between the Renilla and Amphiura luciferases allowed us to detect the latter using anti- Renilla luciferase antibodies. Luciferase expression was specifically localized in the spines which were demonstrated to be the bioluminescent organs in vivo However, enzymes homologous to the Renilla luciferase but unable to trigger light emission were also identified in non-luminous echinoderms and metazoans. Our findings strongly indicate that those enzymes, belonging to the haloalkane dehalogenase family, might then have been convergently co-opted into luciferases in cnidarians and echinoderms. In these two benthic suspension-feeding species, similar ecological pressures would constitute strong selective forces for the functional shift of these enzymes and the emergence of bioluminescence. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. The cnidarian Hydractinia echinata employs canonical and highly adapted histones to pack its DNA.

    PubMed

    Török, Anna; Schiffer, Philipp H; Schnitzler, Christine E; Ford, Kris; Mullikin, James C; Baxevanis, Andreas D; Bacic, Antony; Frank, Uri; Gornik, Sebastian G

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarians are a group of early branching animals including corals, jellyfish and hydroids that are renowned for their high regenerative ability, growth plasticity and longevity. Because cnidarian genomes are conventional in terms of protein-coding genes, their remarkable features are likely a consequence of epigenetic regulation. To facilitate epigenetics research in cnidarians, we analysed the histone complement of the cnidarian model organism Hydractinia echinata using phylogenomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and mRNA in situ hybridisations. We find that the Hydractinia genome encodes 19 histones and analyse their spatial expression patterns, genomic loci and replication-dependency. Alongside core and other replication-independent histone variants, we find several histone replication-dependent variants, including a rare replication-dependent H3.3, a female germ cell-specific H2A.X and an unusual set of five H2B variants, four of which are male germ cell-specific. We further confirm the absence of protamines in Hydractinia. Since no protamines are found in hydroids, we suggest that the novel H2B variants are pivotal for sperm DNA packaging in this class of Cnidaria. This study adds to the limited number of full histone gene complements available in animals and sets a comprehensive framework for future studies on the role of histones and their post-translational modifications in cnidarian epigenetics. Finally, it provides insight into the evolution of spermatogenesis.

  14. Functional Characterization of Cnidarian HCN Channels Points to an Early Evolution of Ih.

    PubMed

    Baker, Emma C; Layden, Michael J; van Rossum, Damian B; Kamel, Bishoy; Medina, Monica; Simpson, Eboni; Jegla, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    HCN channels play a unique role in bilaterian physiology as the only hyperpolarization-gated cation channels. Their voltage-gating is regulated by cyclic nucleotides and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Activation of HCN channels provides the depolarizing current in response to hyperpolarization that is critical for intrinsic rhythmicity in neurons and the sinoatrial node. Additionally, HCN channels regulate dendritic excitability in a wide variety of neurons. Little is known about the early functional evolution of HCN channels, but the presence of HCN sequences in basal metazoan phyla and choanoflagellates, a protozoan sister group to the metazoans, indicate that the gene family predates metazoan emergence. We functionally characterized two HCN channel orthologs from Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) to determine which properties of HCN channels were established prior to the emergence of bilaterians. We find Nematostella HCN channels share all the major functional features of bilaterian HCNs, including reversed voltage-dependence, activation by cAMP and PIP2, and block by extracellular Cs+. Thus bilaterian-like HCN channels were already present in the common parahoxozoan ancestor of bilaterians and cnidarians, at a time when the functional diversity of voltage-gated K+ channels was rapidly expanding. NvHCN1 and NvHCN2 are expressed broadly in planulae and in both the endoderm and ectoderm of juvenile polyps.

  15. Lineage-specific evolution of cnidarian Wnt ligands.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Katrin; Lotan, Tamar; Sanders, Steve M; Cartwright, Paulyn; Frank, Uri

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the evolution of Wnt genes in cnidarians and the expression pattern of all Wnt ligands in the hydrozoan Hydractinia echinata. Current views favor a scenario in which 12 Wnt sub-families were jointly inherited by cnidarians and bilaterians from their last common ancestor. Our phylogenetic analyses clustered all medusozoan genes in distinct, well-supported clades, but many orthologous relationships between medusozoan Wnts and anthozoan and bilaterian Wnt genes were poorly supported. Only seven anthozoan genes, Wnt2, Wnt4, Wnt5, Wnt6, Wnt 10, Wnt11, and Wnt16 were recovered with strong support with bilaterian genes and of those, only the Wnt2, Wnt5, Wnt11, and Wnt16 clades also included medusozoan genes. Although medusozoan Wnt8 genes clustered with anthozoan and bilaterian genes, this was not well supported. In situ hybridization studies revealed poor conservation of expression patterns of putative Wnt orthologs within Cnidaria. In polyps, only Wnt1, Wnt3, and Wnt7 were expressed at the same position in the studied cnidarian models Hydra, Hydractinia, and Nematostella. Different expression patterns are consistent with divergent functions. Our data do not fully support previous assertions regarding Wnt gene homology, and suggest a more complex history of Wnt family genes than previously suggested. This includes high rates of sequence divergence and lineage-specific duplications of Wnt genes within medusozoans, followed by functional divergence over evolutionary time scales. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cnidarian-like embryos associated with the first shelly fossils in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchinsky, Artem; Bengtson, Stefan; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann

    1999-07-01

    Phosphatized spheroids, ˜0.5 mm in diameter, in the Lower Cambrian Manykay Formation at the Bol'shaya Kuonamka River in northern Sakha (Yakutia) are interpreted as cnidarian embryos of late developmental stages. One of the poles has a double cross-like structure, consisting of two sets of four bands each. The bands of the upper set radiate at 90° from each other; those of the lower set also radiate at about right angles from each other, but the set is rotated 45° in respect to the upper set. Although there is a resemblance to the cross-like arrangements of cells in pregastrulation spiralian eggs, in particular those of annelids, the combined evidence favors an interpretation of the bands as incipient tentacles of a cnidarian actinula larva. The embryos occur with one of the first assemblages of shelly fossils in northern Siberia, that of the Angustiochrea lata zone. The co-occurring shelly fossils, anabaritids, probably also represent the phylum Cnidaria, but because their tubes have a consistent triradial symmetry, the connection with the tetraradially symmetrical embryos is problematic. The size of the embryos suggests that they are nonplanktotrophic, and the presence of actinula-like features suggests the lack of a free planula stage.

  17. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid concentrations and HSP 70-HSP 90 (stress protein) expression over an annual cycle: useful tools to detect feeding constraints in a benthic suspension feeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Sergio; Snyder, Mark J.; Gili, Josep-Marìa

    2006-03-01

    In the present paper we suggest an effect of seasonal variations in food availability on two ecophysiological parameters in a warm temperate benthic suspension feeder: the tissue concentrations of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids on the one hand, and the expression of stress proteins (HSP 70 and 90, inducible and/or constitutive) on the other hand. The concentrations of biomacromolecules have already been used to describe bentho-pelagic and reproductive processes, but this is the first time that stress protein expression is suggested to be directly related with food constraints in marine organisms. Paramuricea clavata (Cnidaria: Gorgonacea) express HSP 70 and 90 (constitutive and/or inducible) throughout the seasonal cycle, and HSP 70 levels are twice as high as the levels of HSP 90. In summer and autumn, when seston availability to suspension feeders was low, P. clavata showed low levels of carbohydrates and lipids, but high levels of HSPs expression. The levels of HSP 70 and 90 expression fit with negative exponential functions of carbohydrate and lipid concentrations. We suggest a direct effect of food availability on the studied ecophysiological parameters while the effect of temperature may be rather indirect. HSP expression as well as the tissue concentrations of carbohydrate and lipids may be used as biomarkers of environmental changes and seston availability to benthic suspension feeders.

  18. An adaptable chromosome preparation methodology for use in invertebrate research organisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Accorsi, Alice; He, Shuonan; Guerrero-Hernández, Carlos; Sivagnanam, Shamilene; McKinney, Sean; Gibson, Matthew; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2018-02-26

    The ability to efficiently visualize and manipulate chromosomes is fundamental to understanding the genome architecture of organisms. Conventional chromosome preparation protocols developed for mammalian cells and those relying on species-specific conditions are not suitable for many invertebrates. Hence, a simple and inexpensive chromosome preparation protocol, adaptable to multiple invertebrate species, is needed. We optimized a chromosome preparation protocol and applied it to several planarian species (phylum Platyhelminthes), the freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (phylum Mollusca), and the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum Cnidaria). We demonstrated that both mitotically active adult tissues and embryos can be used as sources of metaphase chromosomes, expanding the potential use of this technique to invertebrates lacking cell lines and/or with limited access to the complete life cycle. Simple hypotonic treatment with deionized water was sufficient for karyotyping; growing cells in culture was not necessary. The obtained karyotypes allowed the identification of differences in ploidy and chromosome architecture among otherwise morphologically indistinguishable organisms, as in the case of a mixed population of planarians collected in the wild. Furthermore, we showed that in all tested organisms representing three different phyla this protocol could be effectively coupled with downstream applications, such as chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization. Our simple and inexpensive chromosome preparation protocol can be readily adapted to new invertebrate research organisms to accelerate the discovery of novel genomic patterns across the branches of the tree of life.

  19. Indoles induce metamorphosis in a broad diversity of jellyfish, but not in a crown jelly (Coronatae).

    PubMed

    Helm, Rebecca R; Dunn, Casey W

    2017-01-01

    Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms-in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa). To better understand the molecular mechanisms that may coordinate these different forms of metamorphosis, we tested two compounds first identified to induce metamorphosis in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita (indomethacin and 5-methoxy-2-methylindole) on a broad diversity of medusozoan polyps. We discovered that indole-containing compounds trigger metamorphosis across a broad diversity of species. All tested discomedusan polyps metamorphosed in the presence of both compounds, including species representatives of several major lineages within the clade (Pelagiidae, Cyaneidae, both clades of Rhizostomeae). In a cubozoan, low levels of 5-methoxy-2-methylindole reliably induced complete and healthy metamorphosis. In contrast, neither compound induced medusa metamorphosis in a coronate scyphozoan, or medusa production in either hydrozoan tested. Our results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis is mediated by a conserved induction pathway within discomedusan scyphozoans, and possibly cubozoans. However, failure of these compounds to induce metamorphosis in a coronate suggests this induction mechanism may have been lost in this clade, or is convergent between Scyphozoa and Cubozoa.

  20. Jellyfish stinging is driven by the moving front of the nematocyst's tubule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavit, Uri; Park, Sinwook; Piriatinskiy, Gadi; Yossifon, Gilad; Lotan, Tamar

    2017-11-01

    Nematocysts are ultra-fast stinging organelles that are utilized by the Cnidaria phylum for prey capture, defense and locomotion. They consist of a capsule and a tubule and exert high pressure and acceleration to penetrate the target organism. Previous studies report that the ejection and elongation of the tubule are driven by a buildup of osmotic potential in the capsule. We question this explanation using a microfluidic system that controls the osmotic potential by directing the tubule through oil, where no osmotic potential can develop, while keeping the capsule in water. It was found that the time needed for elongation through oil is orders of magnitude larger than through water. Our mathematical model shows that the p γGlu concentration in the tubule is higher than in the capsule and the internal pressure that develops there serves as the elongation driving force. These findings imply that modifications of the environment along the tubule route have the potential to slow down the process and reduce its impact. This may shed light on prey defense strategies, human protection against jellyfish stinging, the use of nematocysts for drug delivery and exploration of osmotic based methods for nanotubes production and elongation.

  1. DNA barcoding commercially important aquatic invertebrates of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Emre; Atar, Hasan Hüseyin

    2013-08-01

    DNA barcoding was used in order to identify aquatic invertebrates sampled from fisheries bycatch and discards. A total of 440 unique cytochrome c oxidase sub unit I (COI) barcodes were generated for 22 species from three important phyla (Arthropoda, Cnidaria, and Mollusca). All the species were sequenced and submitted to GenBank and Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) databases using 654 bp-long fragment of mitochondrial COI gene. Two of them (Pontastacus leptodactylus and Rapana bezoar) were first records of the species for the BOLD database and six of them (Carcinus aestuarii, Loligo vulgaris, Melicertus kerathurus, Nephrops norvegicus, Scyllarides latus, and Scyllarus arctus) were first standard (>648 bp) COI barcode records for the GenBank database. COI barcodes were analyzed for nucleotide composition, nucleotide pair frequencies, and Kimura's two-parameter genetic distance. Mean genetic distance among species was found increasing at higher taxonomic levels. Neighbor-joining trees generated were congruent with morphometric-based taxonomic classification. Findings of this study clearly demonstrate that DNA barcodes could be used as an efficient molecular tool in identification of not only target species from fisheries but also bycatch and discard species, and so it could provide us leverage for a better understanding in monitoring and management of fisheries and biodiversity.

  2. Epizoanthus spp. associations revealed using DNA markers: a case study from Kochi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James Davis; Hirose, Mamiko; Nishisaka, Taiki; Sinniger, Frederic; Itani, Gyo

    2010-09-01

    Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) of the genus Epizoanthus are often found in association with other marine invertebrates, including gastropods and hermit crabs. However, little information exists on the specificity and nature of these associations due to a lack of investigation into Epizoanthus species diversity, and the taxonomy of Epizoanthus is therefore confused. In this study, analyses of morphological data (tentacle number, polyp size, etc) and molecular data (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 = COI, 16S ribosomal DNA = 16S rDNA) were used to examine Epizoanthus specimens from Tosa Bay, Kochi, Japan. The Epizoanthus specimens were found on both live gastropods (Gemmula unedo) and hermit crabs (Paguristes palythophilus) inhabiting G. unedo and G. cosmoi shells. While morphological analyses did not show clear differences between examined specimens, both COI and mt 16S rDNA clearly divided the specimens into two groups, one associated only with hermit crabs (= Epizoanthus sp. C), and another associated only with living gastropods (= Epizoanthus sp. S). Unexpectedly, DNA sequences from both groups did not match with two previously reported Epizoanthus species from Japan (E. indicus, E. ramosus), indicating they both may be undescribed species. These results highlight the utility of DNA "barcoding" of unknown zoanthids, and will provide a foundation for re-examinations of Epizoanthus species diversity and specificity, which will be critical in understanding the evolution of these unique marine invertebrates.

  3. Novel Kunitz-like Peptides Discovered in the Zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum through Transcriptome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qiwen; Li, Shengnan; Siu, Shirley Weng In; Yang, Binrui; Huang, Chen; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne R L; Wong, Clarence Tsun Ting; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2018-02-02

    Palythoa caribaeorum (class Anthozoa) is a zoanthid that together jellyfishes, hydra, and sea anemones, which are venomous and predatory, belongs to the Phyllum Cnidaria. The distinguished feature in these marine animals is the cnidocytes in the body tissues, responsible for toxin production and injection that are used majorly for prey capture and defense. With exception for other anthozoans, the toxin cocktails of zoanthids have been scarcely studied and are poorly known. Here, on the basis of the analysis of P. caribaeorum transcriptome, numerous predicted venom-featured polypeptides were identified including allergens, neurotoxins, membrane-active, and Kunitz-like peptides (PcKuz). The three predicted PcKuz isotoxins (1-3) were selected for functional studies. Through computational processing comprising structural phylogenetic analysis, molecular docking, and dynamics simulation, PcKuz3 was shown to be a potential voltage gated potassium-channel inhibitor. PcKuz3 fitted well as new functional Kunitz-type toxins with strong antilocomotor activity as in vivo assessed in zebrafish larvae, with weak inhibitory effect toward proteases, as evaluated in vitro. Notably, PcKuz3 can suppress, at low concentration, the 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity on the locomotive behavior of zebrafish, which indicated PcKuz3 may have a neuroprotective effect. Taken together, PcKuz3 figures as a novel neurotoxin structure, which differs from known homologous peptides expressed in sea anemone. Moreover, the novel PcKuz3 provides an insightful hint for biodrug development for prospective neurodegenerative disease treatment.

  4. Functional studies on the role of Notch signaling in Hydractinia development.

    PubMed

    Gahan, James M; Schnitzler, Christine E; DuBuc, Timothy Q; Doonan, Liam B; Kanska, Justyna; Gornik, Sebastian G; Barreira, Sofia; Thompson, Kerry; Schiffer, Philipp; Baxevanis, Andreas D; Frank, Uri

    2017-08-01

    The function of Notch signaling was previously studied in two cnidarians, Hydra and Nematostella, representing the lineages Hydrozoa and Anthozoa, respectively. Using pharmacological inhibition in Hydra and a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches in Nematostella, it was shown in both animals that Notch is required for tentacle morphogenesis and for late stages of stinging cell maturation. Surprisingly, a role for Notch in neural development, which is well documented in bilaterians, was evident in embryonic Nematostella but not in adult Hydra. Adult neurogenesis in the latter seemed to be unaffected by DAPT, a drug that inhibits Notch signaling. To address this apparent discrepancy, we studied the role of Notch in Hydractinia echinata, an additional hydrozoan, in all life stages. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mediated mutagenesis, transgenesis, and pharmacological interference we show that Notch is dispensable for Hydractinia normal neurogenesis in all life stages but is required for the maturation of stinging cells and for tentacle morphogenesis. Our results are consistent with a conserved role for Notch in morphogenesis and nematogenesis across Cnidaria, and a lineage-specific loss of Notch dependence in neurogenesis in hydrozoans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Two Streptomyces species producing antibiotic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory compounds are widespread among intertidal macroalgae and deep-sea coral reef invertebrates from the central Cantabrian Sea.

    PubMed

    Braña, Alfredo F; Braña, Afredo F; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Nava, Herminio; González, Verónica; Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Molina, Axayacatl; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Streptomycetes are widely distributed in the marine environment, although only a few studies on their associations to algae and coral ecosystems have been reported. Using a culture-dependent approach, we have isolated antibiotic-active Streptomyces species associated to diverse intertidal marine macroalgae (Phyllum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta), from the central Cantabrian Sea. Two strains, with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities, were found to inhabit these coastal environments, being widespread and persistent over a 3-year observation time frame. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strains were identified as Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus M-27 and Streptomyces carnosus M-40. Similar isolates to these two strains were also associated to corals and other invertebrates from deep-sea coral reef ecosystem (Phyllum Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, Sipuncula, and Anelida) living up to 4.700-m depth in the submarine Avilés Canyon, thus revealing their barotolerant feature. These two strains were also found to colonize terrestrial lichens and have been repeatedly isolated from precipitations from tropospheric clouds. Compounds with antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. Antitumor compounds with antibacterial activities and members of the anthracycline family (daunomycin, cosmomycin B, galtamycin B), antifungals (maltophilins), anti-inflamatory molecules also with antituberculosis properties (lobophorins) were identified in this work. Many other compounds produced by the studied strains still remain unidentified, suggesting that Streptomyces associated to algae and coral ecosystems might represent an underexplored promising source for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  6. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease.

    PubMed

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-05-26

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as 'marine invertebrates'. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remarkably, species of corals (Cnidaria) living in non-exploited ecosystems also suffer from devastating infectious diseases that display intriguing similarities with those affecting farmed animals. Infectious diseases affecting wild and farmed animals that are present in marine environments are predicted to increase in the future. This paper summarizes the role of the main pathogens and their interaction with host immunity, with a specific focus on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and pathogen resistance against AMPs. We provide a detailed review of penaeid shrimp AMPs and their role at the interface between the host and its resident/pathogenic microbiota. We also briefly describe the relevance of marine invertebrate AMPs in an applied context.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): developing community resources to study diverse invertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Mónica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W; Ryan, Joseph F; Schulze, Anja; Wörheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E; Diaz, M Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-François; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, François; Moroz, Leonid L; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rhodes, Adelaide; Santos, Scott R; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the "invertebrates," but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a "Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance" (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  8. A puzzling homology: a brittle star using a putative cnidarian-type luciferase for bioluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Blaue, Stefanie; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Eeckhaut, Igor; Flammang, Patrick; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Bioluminescence relies on the oxidation of a luciferin substrate catalysed by a luciferase enzyme. Luciferins and luciferases are generic terms used to describe a large variety of substrates and enzymes. Whereas luciferins can be shared by phylogenetically distant organisms which feed on organisms producing them, luciferases have been thought to be lineage-specific enzymes. Numerous light emission systems would then have co-emerged independently along the tree of life resulting in a plethora of non-homologous luciferases. Here, we identify for the first time a candidate luciferase of a luminous echinoderm, the ophiuroid Amphiura filiformis. Phylogenomic analyses identified the brittle star predicted luciferase as homologous to the luciferase of the sea pansy Renilla (Cnidaria), contradicting with the traditional viewpoint according to which luciferases would generally be of convergent origins. The similarity between the Renilla and Amphiura luciferases allowed us to detect the latter using anti-Renilla luciferase antibodies. Luciferase expression was specifically localized in the spines which were demonstrated to be the bioluminescent organs in vivo. However, enzymes homologous to the Renilla luciferase but unable to trigger light emission were also identified in non-luminous echinoderms and metazoans. Our findings strongly indicate that those enzymes, belonging to the haloalkane dehalogenase family, might then have been convergently co-opted into luciferases in cnidarians and echinoderms. In these two benthic suspension-feeding species, similar ecological pressures would constitute strong selective forces for the functional shift of these enzymes and the emergence of bioluminescence. PMID:28381628

  9. Sterol patterns of cultured zooxanthellae isolated from marine invertebrates: Synthesis of gorgosterol and 23-desmethylgorgosterol by aposymbiotic algae.

    PubMed

    Withers, N W; Kokke, W C; Fenical, W; Djerassi, C

    1982-06-01

    QUANTITATIVE STEROL COMPOSITIONS OF CULTURED ZOOXANTHELLAE ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS PACIFIC AND ATLANTIC INVERTEBRATE HOSTS: Zoanthus sociatus (a zoanthid), Oculina diffusa (a scleractian coral), Tridacna gigas (a giant clam), Melibe pilosa (a nudibranch), and Aiptasia pulchella (a sea anemone) are reported. The results clearly demonstrate large differences in sterol patterns of zooxanthellae and that there is no obvious relationship between the taxonomic affiliation of the host and the sterol pattern of its isolated symbiont. The sterols of the zooxanthellae of O. diffusa (Cnidaria) and T. gigas (Mollusca) are qualitatively equivalent. Based on the structures of the two major free sterols synthesized by each alga, the zooxanthellae from different hosts were separated into three distinct groups. It was also found that an aposymbiotic alga can synthesize the unique marine sterols gorgosterol and 23-desmethylgorgosterol. Most of the sterols were identified by using mass spectroscopy and 360-MHz proton magnetic resonance. Spectroscopic data are reported for four novel sterols-(23,24R)-dimethyl-5alpha-cholest-(22E)-en-3beta-o l, 23-methyl-5alpha-cholest-22E-en-3beta-ol, cholesta-5,14-dien-3beta-ol, and 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-cholesta-8(14)-24-dien-3beta-ol.

  10. Evolutionary transitions in symbioses: dramatic reductions in bathymetric and geographic ranges of Zoanthidea coincide with loss of symbioses with invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Swain, Timothy D

    2010-06-01

    Two fundamental symbiosis-based trophic types are recognized among Zoanthidea (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): fixed carbon is either obtained directly from zooxanthellae photosymbionts or from environmental sources through feeding with the assistance of host-invertebrate behaviour and structure. Each trophic type is characteristic of the suborders of Zoanthidea and is associated with substantial distributional asymmetries: suborder Macrocnemina are symbionts of invertebrates and have global geographic and bathymetric distributions and suborder Brachycnemina are hosts of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae and are restricted to tropical photic zones. While exposure to solar radiation could explain the bathymetric asymmetry it does not explain the geographic asymmetry, nor is it clear why evolutionary transitions to the zooxanthellae-free state have apparently occurred within Macrocnemina but not within Brachycnemina. To better understand the transitions between symbiosis-based trophic types of Zoanthidea, a concatenated data set of nuclear and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences were used to test hypotheses of monophyly for groups defined by morphology and symbiosis, and to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions of morphological and symbiotic characters. The results indicate that the morphological characters that define Macrocnemina are plesiomorphic and the characters that define its subordinate taxa are homoplasious. Symbioses with invertebrates have ancient and recent transitions with a general pattern of stability in host associations through evolutionary time. The reduction in distribution of Zoanthidea is independent of the evolution of zooxanthellae symbiosis and consistent with hypotheses of the benefits of invertebrate symbioses, indicating that the ability to persist in most habitats may have been lost with the termination of symbioses with invertebrates.

  11. Pharmacological Potential of Phylogenetically Diverse Actinobacteria Isolated from Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems of the Submarine Avilés Canyon in the Cantabrian Sea.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; González, Verónica; Braña, Alfredo F; Palacios, Juan J; Otero, Luis; Fernández, Jonathan; Molina, Axayacatl; Kulik, Andreas; Vázquez, Fernando; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as an unexplored source for natural product discovery. Eighty-seven deep-sea coral reef invertebrates were collected during an oceanographic expedition at the submarine Avilés Canyon (Asturias, Spain) in a range of 1500 to 4700 m depth. From these, 18 cultivable bioactive Actinobacteria were isolated, mainly from corals, phylum Cnidaria, and some specimens of phyla Echinodermata, Porifera, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Sipuncula. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, all isolates belong to the phylum Actinobacteria, mainly to the Streptomyces genus and also to Micromonospora, Pseudonocardia and Myceligenerans. Production of bioactive compounds of pharmacological interest was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques and subsequent database comparison. Results reveal that deep-sea isolated Actinobacteria display a wide repertoire of secondary metabolite production with a high chemical diversity. Most identified products (both diffusible and volatiles) are known by their contrasted antibiotic or antitumor activities. Bioassays with ethyl acetate extracts from isolates displayed strong antibiotic activities against a panel of important resistant clinical pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungi, all of them isolated at two main hospitals (HUCA and Cabueñes) from the same geographical region. The identity of the active extracts components of these producing Actinobacteria is currently being investigated, given its potential for the discovery of pharmaceuticals and other products of biotechnological interest.

  12. Evidence for a large expansion and subfunctionalisation of globin genes in sea anemones.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hayden L; Pavasovic, Ana; Surm, Joachim M; Phillips, Matthew J; Prentis, Peter J

    2018-06-27

    The globin gene superfamily has been well-characterised in vertebrates, however, there has been limited research in early-diverging lineages, such as phylum Cnidaria. This study aimed to identify globin genes in multiple cnidarian lineages, and use bioinformatic approaches to characterise the evolution, structure and expression of these genes. Phylogenetic analyses and in silico protein predictions showed that all cnidarians have undergone an expansion of globin genes, which likely have a hexacoordinate protein structure. Our protein modelling has also revealed the possibility of a single pentacoordinate globin lineage in anthozoan species. Some cnidarian globin genes displayed tissue and development specific expression with very few orthologous genes similarly expressed across species. Our phylogenetic analyses also revealed that eumetazoan globin genes form a polyphyletic relationship with vertebrate globin genes. Overall, our analyses suggest that a Ngb-like and GbX-like gene were most likely present in the globin gene repertoire for the last common ancestor of eumetazoans. The identification of a large-scale expansion and subfunctionalisation of globin genes in actiniarians provides an excellent starting point to further our understanding of the evolution and function of the globin gene superfamily in early-diverging lineages.

  13. A genetic approach to the origin of Millepora sp. in the eastern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, C.; Clemente, S.; Almeida, C.; Brito, A.; Hernández, M.

    2015-06-01

    Many species have experienced recent range expansions due to human-mediated processes, such as the unintentional transport on ships or plastic waste and ocean warming, which facilitates many tropical species to tolerate living beyond their normal limit of distribution, with a potential impact on autochthonous assemblages. In September 2008, three colonies of the fire coral Millepora sp. (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) were found on the southeastern coast of Tenerife (Canary Islands), though this species had been previously described to have a circumtropical distribution with Cape Verde Islands as its northern limit of distribution in the eastern Atlantic. The aim of this study was to determine the origin of these new colonies in the Canary Islands (11°N of its previously known northernmost limit of distribution) using variation in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene as a molecular marker. In order to do that, Millepora samples from Tenerife and Cape Verde Islands were collected for molecular analyses, and COI sequences from Caribbean samples listed in GenBank were also included in the analysis. Our results showed that all the specimens from Tenerife were genetically identical, suggesting that the colonization of the Canary Islands was the result of a very recent and strong founder effect. The nucleotide sequences of the samples from the Cape Verde and the Canary Islands were closer to the Caribbean than between themselves, pointing to the Caribbean population as the source population for both archipelagos, through independent founder events. The fact that Millepora sp. arrived to Cape Verde long before arriving to the Canaries (pleistocene fossils have been found in that archipelago) suggests that the habitat requirements for this species did not exist before in the Canarian archipelago. Therefore, the rising seawater temperatures recently registered in the Canary Islands could have facilitated the settlement of reef-forming corals drifting across the two basins of

  14. Three Cambrian fossils assembled into an extinct body plan of cnidarian affinity.

    PubMed

    Ou, Qiang; Han, Jian; Zhang, Zhifei; Shu, Degan; Sun, Ge; Mayer, Georg

    2017-08-15

    The early Cambrian problematica Xianguangia sinica , Chengjiangopenna wangii , and Galeaplumosus abilus from the Chengjiang biota (Yunnan, China) have caused much controversy in the past and their phylogenetic placements remain unresolved. Here we show, based on exceptionally preserved material (85 new specimens plus type material), that specimens previously assigned to these three species are in fact parts of the same organism and propose that C. wangii and G. abilus are junior synonyms of X. sinica Our reconstruction of the complete animal reveals an extinct body plan that combines the characteristics of the three described species and is distinct from all known fossil and living taxa. This animal resembled a cnidarian polyp in overall morphology and having a gastric cavity partitioned by septum-like structures. However, it possessed an additional body cavity within its holdfast, an anchoring pit on the basal disk, and feather-like tentacles with densely ciliated pinnules arranged in an alternating pattern, indicating that it was a suspension feeder rather than a predatory actiniarian. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony suggest that X. sinica is a stem-group cnidarian. This relationship implies that the last common ancestor of X. sinica and crown cnidarians was probably a benthic, polypoid animal with a partitioned gastric cavity and a single mouth/anus opening. This extinct body plan suggests that feeding strategies of stem cnidarians may have been drastically different from that of their crown relatives, which are almost exclusively predators, and reveals that the morphological disparity of total-group Cnidaria is greater than previously assumed.

  15. Compound-Specific Amino Acid Isotopic Analysis of Benthic Food Webs in the Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Cooper, L. W.; Biasatti, D. M.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chukchi Sea is known for locally high standing stocks of benthic macrofauna and strong coupling between pelagic-benthic components of the ecosystem. However, benthic food structure is not fully understood, due to varied sources of particulate organic matter (POM) and the high diversity of benthic invertebrates. We provide the first demonstration of the application of compound-specific amino acid isotope analysis to study the dietary sources and trophic structure for this Arctic marginal sea. About 20 stations in Chukchi Sea were sampled during cruises in August of 2012 and 2013. At each station, phytoplankton, POM and benthic fauna were collected, processed and analyzed using GC-C-IRMS (gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry). Among benthic fauna, dominant species included the following taxonomic groups: Ophiuroidea, Amphipoda, Polychaeta, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Cnidaria. The benthic fauna showed similar patterns of individual amino acid δ13C, with glycine the most enriched in 13C and leucine the most depleted in 13C. Specific amino acids including phenylalanine showed spatial variability in δ13C and δ15N values within the sampled area, indicating contributions of different dietary sources including phytoplankton, sea ice algae, benthic algae and terrestrial organic materials. δ15N values of individual amino acids such as the difference between glutamic acid and phenylalanine, i.e. Δ15Nglu-phe (δ15Nglu - δ15Nphe), were also used to identify trophic levels of benthic invertebrates relative to estimates available from bulk δ15N values. These data will ultimately be used to evaluate the spatial variability of organic carbon sources and trophic level interactions of dominant benthic species in the Chukchi Sea.

  16. The mineralogical responses of marine calcifiers to CO2-induced ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    We have conducted 6-month laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of pCO2-induced reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state on biocalcification by 18 aragonitic and calcitic (low-high Mg) taxa representing eight of the major marine calcifying groups: Chlorophyta; Rhodophyta; Crustacea; Bivalvia; Gastropoda; Annelida; Cnidaria; and Echinodermata. The CaCO3 saturation states of the experimental seawaters, constrained by intercalibrated determinations of pH, alkalinity, and DIC, were attained with bubbled air-CO2 mixtures of 400 (ambient), 600, 900, and 2850 ppm pCO2, yielding Ωarag of 2.5 (ambient), 2.0, 1.5, 0.7, respectively. We previously showed that while rates of net calcification obtained from buoyant weighing declined with increasing pCO2 for nearly half of the species investigated, a nearly equal number exhibited constant or, in some cases, increased calcification under moderately (600 ppm) or extremely (900 or 2850 ppm) elevated pCO2. The organisms' investigated in this study secrete various forms of CaCO3, which differ in crystallographic structure and therefore solubility: aragonite and high-Mg are generally more soluble than low-Mg calcite. We have employed powder x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy to quantify changes in the organisms' skeletal mineralogy (aragonite:calcite ratio) and Mg-content (MgCO3:CaCO3 ratio) that occurred in response to the prescribed reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state. We will compare calcification and mineralogical response patterns amongst the organisms to elucidate the role of mineral lability in driving species-specific responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification.

  17. Seasonal monitoring of deep-sea megabenthos in Barkley Canyon cold seep by internet operated vehicle (IOV).

    PubMed

    Doya, Carolina; Chatzievangelou, Damianos; Bahamon, Nixon; Purser, Autun; De Leo, Fabio C; Juniper, S Kim; Thomsen, Laurenz; Aguzzi, Jacopo

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the processes shaping deep-sea benthic communities at seasonal scales in cold-seep environments is incomplete. Cold seeps within highly dynamic regions, such as submarine canyons, where variable current regimes may occur, are particularly understudied. Novel Internet Operated Vehicles (IOVs), such as tracked crawlers, provide new techniques for investigating these ecosystems over prolonged periods. In this study a benthic crawler connected to the NEPTUNE cabled infrastructure operated by Ocean Networks Canada was used to monitor community changes across 60 m2 of a cold-seep area of the Barkley Canyon, North East Pacific, at ~890 m depth within an Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Short video-transects were run at 4-h intervals during the first week of successive calendar months, over a 14 month period (February 14th 2013 to April 14th 2014). Within each recorded transect video megafauna abundances were computed and changes in environmental conditions concurrently measured. The responses of fauna to environmental conditions as a proxy of seasonality were assessed through analysis of abundances in a total of 438 video-transects (over 92 h of total footage). 7698 fauna individuals from 6 phyla (Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Mollusca, and Chordata) were logged and patterns in abundances of the 7 most abundant taxa (i.e. rockfish Sebastidae, sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria, hagfish Eptatretus stoutii, buccinids (Buccinoidea), undefined small crabs, ctenophores Bolinopsis infundibulum, and Scyphomedusa Poralia rufescens) were identified. Patterns in the reproductive behaviour of the grooved tanner crab (Chionnecetes tanneri) were also indicated. Temporal variations in biodiversity and abundance in megabenthic fauna was significantly influenced by variabilities in flow velocity flow direction (up or down canyon), dissolved oxygen concentration and month of study. Also reported here for the first time are transient mass aggregations of grooved tanner

  18. Responses to High Seawater Temperatures in Zooxanthellate Octocorals

    PubMed Central

    Sammarco, Paul W.; Strychar, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Cnidaria in the western Pacific. We hypothesize that this relationship may have taxonomic implications for other obligate zooxanthellate cnidarians subject to bleaching. PMID:23405104

  19. Developmental Progression in the Coral Acropora digitifera Is Controlled by Differential Expression of Distinct Regulatory Gene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Bermudez, Alejandro; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Ramirez-Portilla, Catalina; Hidaka, Michio; Mikheyev, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Corals belong to the most basal class of the Phylum Cnidaria, which is considered the sister group of bilaterian animals, and thus have become an emerging model to study the evolution of developmental mechanisms. Although cell renewal, differentiation, and maintenance of pluripotency are cellular events shared by multicellular animals, the cellular basis of these fundamental biological processes are still poorly understood. To understand how changes in gene expression regulate morphogenetic transitions at the base of the eumetazoa, we performed quantitative RNA-seq analysis during Acropora digitifera’s development. We collected embryonic, larval, and adult samples to characterize stage-specific transcription profiles, as well as broad expression patterns. Transcription profiles reconstructed development revealing two main expression clusters. The first cluster grouped blastula and gastrula and the second grouped subsequent developmental time points. Consistently, we observed clear differences in gene expression between early and late developmental transitions, with higher numbers of differentially expressed genes and fold changes around gastrulation. Furthermore, we identified three coexpression clusters that represented discrete gene expression patterns. During early transitions, transcriptional networks seemed to regulate cellular fate and morphogenesis of the larval body. In late transitions, these networks seemed to play important roles preparing planulae for switch in lifestyle and regulation of adult processes. Although developmental progression in A. digitifera is regulated to some extent by differential coexpression of well-defined gene networks, stage-specific transcription profiles appear to be independent entities. While negative regulation of transcription is predominant in early development, cell differentiation was upregulated in larval and adult stages. PMID:26941230

  20. Hydra myc2, a unique pre-bilaterian member of the myc gene family, is activated in cell proliferation and gametogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, Markus; Glasauer, Stella; Valovka, Taras; Breuker, Kathrin; Hobmayer, Bert; Bister, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The myc protooncogene encodes the Myc transcription factor which is the essential part of the Myc–Max network controlling fundamental cellular processes. Deregulation of myc leads to tumorigenesis and is a hallmark of many human cancers. We have recently identified homologs of myc (myc1, myc2) and max in the early diploblastic cnidarian Hydra and have characterized myc1 in detail. Here we show that myc2 is transcriptionally activated in the interstitial stem cell system. Furthermore, in contrast to myc1, myc2 expression is also detectable in proliferating epithelial stem cells throughout the gastric region. myc2 but not myc1 is activated in cycling precursor cells during early oogenesis and spermatogenesis, suggesting that the Hydra Myc2 protein has a possible non-redundant function in cell cycle progression. The Myc2 protein displays the principal design and properties of vertebrate Myc proteins. In complex with Max, Myc2 binds to DNA with similar affinity as Myc1–Max heterodimers. Immunoprecipitation of Hydra chromatin revealed that both Myc1 and Myc2 bind to the enhancer region of CAD, a classical Myc target gene in mammals. Luciferase reporter gene assays showed that Myc1 but not Myc2 transcriptionally activates the CAD promoter. Myc2 has oncogenic potential when tested in primary avian fibroblasts but to a lower degree as compared to Myc1. The identification of an additional myc gene in Cnidaria, a phylum that diverged prior to bilaterians, with characteristic expression patterns in tissue homeostasis and developmental processes suggests that principle functions of myc genes have arisen very early in metazoan evolution. PMID:24771621

  1. Molecular phylogenetic study in genus Hydra.

    PubMed

    Kawaida, Hitomi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Tachida, Hidenori; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka

    2010-11-15

    Among 8000-9000 species of Cnidaria, only several dozens of species of Hydrozoa have been found in the fresh water. Hydra is such a fresh water polyp and has been used as a good material for research in developmental biology, regeneration and pattern formation. Although the genus Hydra has only a few ten species, its distribution is cosmopolitan. The phylogenetic relationship between hydra species is fascinating from the aspect of evolutionary biology and biogeography. However, only a few molecular phylogenetic studies have been reported on hydra. Therefore, we conducted a molecular phylogenetic study of the genus Hydra based on mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide sequences using a hydra collection that has been kept in the National Institute of Genetics (NIG) of Japan. The results support the idea that four species groups comprise the genus Hydra. Within the viridissima group (green hydra) and braueri group, genetic distances between strains were relatively large. In contrast, genetic distances between strains among the vulgaris and oligactis groups were small irrespective of their geographic distribution. The vulgaris group strains were classified at least (as far as our investigated samples) into three sub-groups, vulgaris sub-group, carnea sub-group, and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group. All of the vulgaris sub-group and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group strains were collected in Eurasia. The carnea sub-group strains in NIG collection were all collected in North America. A few newly collected samples in Japan, however, suggested belonging to the carnea sub-group according to the molecular phylogenic analysis. This suggests a trans-Pacific distribution of the carnea sub-group hydra. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequential development of apical-basal and planar polarities in aggregating epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra.

    PubMed

    Seybold, Anna; Salvenmoser, Willi; Hobmayer, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Apical-basal and planar cell polarities are hallmarks of metazoan epithelia required to separate internal and external environments and to regulate trans- and intracellular transport, cytoskeletal organization, and morphogenesis. Mechanisms of cell polarization have been intensively studied in bilaterian model organisms, particularly in early embryos and cultured cells, while cell polarity in pre-bilaterian tissues is poorly understood. Here, we have studied apical-basal and planar polarization in regenerating (aggregating) clusters of epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra, a simple representative of the ancestral, pre-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria. Immediately after dissociation, single epitheliomuscular cells do not exhibit cellular polarity, but they polarize de novo during aggregation. Reestablishment of the Hydra-specific epithelial bilayer is a result of short-range cell sorting. In the early phase of aggregation, apical-basal polarization starts with an enlargement of the epithelial apical-basal diameter and by the development of belt-like apical septate junctions. Specification of the basal pole of epithelial cells occurs shortly later and is linked to synthesis of mesoglea, development of hemidesmosome-like junctions, and formation of desmosome-like junctions connecting the basal myonemes of neighbouring cells. Planar polarization starts, while apical-basal polarization is already ongoing. It is executed gradually starting with cell-autonomous formation, parallelization, and condensation of myonemes at the basal end of each epithelial cell and continuing with a final planar alignment of epitheliomuscular cells at the tissue level. Our findings reveal that epithelial polarization in Hydra aggregates occurs in defined steps well accessible by histological and ultrastructural techniques and they will provide a basis for future molecular studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pre-Bilaterian Origins of the Hox Cluster and the Hox Code: Evidence from the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Joseph F.; Mazza, Maureen E.; Pang, Kevin; Matus, David Q.; Baxevanis, Andreas D.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Finnerty, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Background Hox genes were critical to many morphological innovations of bilaterian animals. However, early Hox evolution remains obscure. Phylogenetic, developmental, and genomic analyses on the cnidarian sea anemone Nematostella vectensis challenge recent claims that the Hox code is a bilaterian invention and that no “true” Hox genes exist in the phylum Cnidaria. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses of 18 Hox-related genes from Nematostella identify putative Hox1, Hox2, and Hox9+ genes. Statistical comparisons among competing hypotheses bolster these findings, including an explicit consideration of the gene losses implied by alternate topologies. In situ hybridization studies of 20 Hox-related genes reveal that multiple Hox genes are expressed in distinct regions along the primary body axis, supporting the existence of a pre-bilaterian Hox code. Additionally, several Hox genes are expressed in nested domains along the secondary body axis, suggesting a role in “dorsoventral” patterning. Conclusions/Significance A cluster of anterior and posterior Hox genes, as well as ParaHox cluster of genes evolved prior to the cnidarian-bilaterian split. There is evidence to suggest that these clusters were formed from a series of tandem gene duplication events and played a role in patterning both the primary and secondary body axes in a bilaterally symmetrical common ancestor. Cnidarians and bilaterians shared a common ancestor some 570 to 700 million years ago, and as such, are derived from a common body plan. Our work reveals several conserved genetic components that are found in both of these diverse lineages. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that a set of developmental rules established in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians is still at work today. PMID:17252055

  4. Trichoplax adhaerens reveals a network of nuclear receptors sensitive to 9-cis-retinoic acid at the base of metazoan evolution

    PubMed Central

    Novotný, Jan Philipp; Chughtai, Ahmed Ali; Kostrouchová, Markéta; Kostrouchová, Veronika; Kostrouch, David; Kaššák, Filip; Kaňa, Radek; Schierwater, Bernd; Kostrouchová, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Trichoplax adhaerens, the only known species of Placozoa is likely to be closely related to an early metazoan that preceded branching of Cnidaria and Bilateria. This animal species is surprisingly well adapted to free life in the World Ocean inhabiting tidal costal zones of oceans and seas with warm to moderate temperatures and shallow waters. The genome of T. adhaerens (sp. Grell) includes four nuclear receptors, namely orthologue of RXR (NR2B), HNF4 (NR2A), COUP-TF (NR2F) and ERR (NR3B) that show a high degree of similarity with human orthologues. In the case of RXR, the sequence identity to human RXR alpha reaches 81% in the DNA binding domain and 70% in the ligand binding domain. We show that T. adhaerens RXR (TaRXR) binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) with high affinity, as well as high specificity and that exposure of T. adhaerens to 9-cis-RA regulates the expression of the putative T. adhaerens orthologue of vertebrate L-malate-NADP+ oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.40) which in vertebrates is regulated by a heterodimer of RXR and thyroid hormone receptor. Treatment by 9-cis-RA alters the relative expression profile of T. adhaerens nuclear receptors, suggesting the existence of natural ligands. Keeping with this, algal food composition has a profound effect on T. adhaerens growth and appearance. We show that nanomolar concentrations of 9-cis-RA interfere with T. adhaerens growth response to specific algal food and causes growth arrest. Our results uncover an endocrine-like network of nuclear receptors sensitive to 9-cis-RA in T. adhaerens and support the existence of a ligand-sensitive network of nuclear receptors at the base of metazoan evolution. PMID:28975052

  5. Flexibly deployed Pax genes in eye development at the early evolution of animals demonstrated by studies on a hydrozoan jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hiroshi; Tschopp, Patrick; Graziussi, Daria F; Stierwald, Michael; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter J

    2010-08-10

    Pax transcription factors are involved in a variety of developmental processes in bilaterians, including eye development, a role typically assigned to Pax-6. Although no true Pax-6 gene has been found in nonbilateral animals, some jellyfish have eyes with complex structures. In the cubozoan jellyfish Tripedalia, Pax-B, an ortholog of vertebrate Pax-2/5/8, had been proposed as a regulator of eye development. Here we have isolated three Pax genes (Pax-A, Pax-B, and Pax-E) from Cladonema radiatum, a hydrozoan jellyfish with elaborate eyes. Cladonema Pax-A is strongly expressed in the retina, whereas Pax-B and Pax-E are highly expressed in the manubrium, the feeding and reproductive organ. Misexpression of Cladonema Pax-A induces ectopic eyes in Drosophila imaginal discs, whereas Pax-B and Pax-E do not. Furthermore, Cladonema Pax-A paired domain protein directly binds to the 5' upstream region of eye-specific Cladonema opsin genes, whereas Pax-B does not. Our data suggest that Pax-A, but not Pax-B or Pax-E, is involved in eye development and/or maintenance in Cladonema. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Pax-6, Pax-B, and Pax-A belong to different Pax subfamilies, which diverged at the latest before the Cnidaria-Bilateria separation. We argue that our data, showing the involvement of Pax genes in hydrozoan eye development as in bilaterians, supports the monophyletic evolutionary origin of all animal eyes. We then propose that during the early evolution of animals, distinct classes of Pax genes, which may have played redundant roles at that time, were flexibly deployed for eye development in different animal lineages.

  6. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  7. Transdermal delivery of scopolamine by natural submicron injectors: in-vivo study in pig.

    PubMed

    Shaoul, Esther; Ayalon, Ari; Tal, Yossi; Lotan, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made a notable contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. While transdermal delivery systems would appear to provide an attractive solution for local and systemic drug delivery, only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through the outer layer of the skin. The most difficult to deliver in this way are hydrophilic drugs. The aquatic phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish and hydra, is one of the most ancient multicellular phyla that possess stinging cells containing organelles (cnidocysts), comprising a sophisticated injection system. The apparatus is folded within collagenous microcapsules and upon activation injects a thin tubule that immediately penetrates the prey and delivers its contents. Here we show that this natural microscopic injection system can be adapted for systemic transdermal drug delivery once it is isolated from the cells and uploaded with the drug. Using a topically applied gel containing isolated natural sea anemone injectors and the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, we found that the formulated injectors could penetrate porcine skin and immediately deliver this hydrophilic drug. An in-vivo study in pigs demonstrated, for the first time, rapid systemic delivery of scopolamine, with T(max) of 30 minutes and C(max) 5 times higher than in controls treated topically with a scopolamine-containing gel without cnidocysts. The ability of the formulated natural injection system to penetrate a barrier as thick as the skin and systemically deliver an exogenous compound presents an intriguing and attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery.

  8. Transdermal Delivery of Scopolamine by Natural Submicron Injectors: In-Vivo Study in Pig

    PubMed Central

    Shaoul, Esther; Ayalon, Ari; Tal, Yossi; Lotan, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made a notable contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. While transdermal delivery systems would appear to provide an attractive solution for local and systemic drug delivery, only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through the outer layer of the skin. The most difficult to deliver in this way are hydrophilic drugs. The aquatic phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish and hydra, is one of the most ancient multicellular phyla that possess stinging cells containing organelles (cnidocysts), comprising a sophisticated injection system. The apparatus is folded within collagenous microcapsules and upon activation injects a thin tubule that immediately penetrates the prey and delivers its contents. Here we show that this natural microscopic injection system can be adapted for systemic transdermal drug delivery once it is isolated from the cells and uploaded with the drug. Using a topically applied gel containing isolated natural sea anemone injectors and the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, we found that the formulated injectors could penetrate porcine skin and immediately deliver this hydrophilic drug. An in-vivo study in pigs demonstrated, for the first time, rapid systemic delivery of scopolamine, with Tmax of 30 minutes and Cmax 5 times higher than in controls treated topically with a scopolamine-containing gel without cnidocysts. The ability of the formulated natural injection system to penetrate a barrier as thick as the skin and systemically deliver an exogenous compound presents an intriguing and attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:22363770

  9. Harry Beal Torrey (1873-1970) of California, USA, and his research on hydroids and other coelenterates.

    PubMed

    Calder, Dale R

    2013-01-10

    Harry Beal Torrey was born on 22 May 1873 in Boston, Massachusetts. Two years later his family moved to Oakland, California. Torrey earned B.S. and M.S. degrees in zoology from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1895 and 1898 respectively, a Ph.D. in zoology from Columbia University in 1903, and an M.D. from the Medical College of Cornell University in 1927. He began his academic career as a marine biologist, investigating taxonomy, reproduction, morphology, development, regeneration, and behaviour of cnidarians of the west coast of the United States, but his research interests soon shifted to experimental biology and endocrinology. He eventually entered the field of medicine, specializing in public health, and served as a physician and hospital administrator. Torrey held academic positions at the University of California, Berkeley (1895-1912), the Marine Biological Association of San Diego (1903-1912), Reed College (1912-1920), the University of Oregon (1920-1926), and Stanford University (1928-1938). Following retirement from academia, he served as Director of the Children's Hospital of the East Bay, Oakland, California, from 1938 to 1942. In retirement, he continued an association with the University of California at Berkeley, near his home. Of 84 publications by him listed herein, 31 dealt with coelenterates. This paper focuses on his early research on coelenterate biology, and especially his contributions to taxonomy of hydroids. He was author or coauthor of six genera and 48 species-group taxa of Cnidaria, and he also described one new species each of Ctenophora and Phoronida. Although he abandoned systematic work early in his career, his most widely cited publication is a taxonomic monograph on hydroids of the west coast of North America, published in 1902. He died, at age 97, on 9 September 1970.

  10. Expression and phylogenetic analysis of the zic gene family in the evolution and development of metazoans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background zic genes are members of the gli/glis/nkl/zic super-family of C2H2 zinc finger (ZF) transcription factors. Homologs of the zic family have been implicated in patterning neural and mesodermal tissues in bilaterians. Prior to this study, the origin of the metazoan zic gene family was unknown and expression of zic gene homologs during the development of early branching metazoans had not been investigated. Results Phylogenetic analyses of novel zic candidate genes identified a definitive zic homolog in the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, two gli/glis/nkl-like genes in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, confirmed the presence of three gli/glis/nkl-like genes in Porifera, and confirmed the five previously identified zic genes in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. In the cnidarian N. vectensis, zic homologs are expressed in ectoderm and the gastrodermis (a bifunctional endomesoderm), in presumptive and developing tentacles, and in oral and sensory apical tuft ectoderm. The Capitella teleta zic homolog (Ct-zic) is detectable in a subset of the developing nervous system, the foregut, and the mesoderm associated with the segmentally repeated chaetae. Lastly, expression of gli and glis homologs in Mnemiopsis. leidyi is detected exclusively in neural cells in floor of the apical organ. Conclusions Based on our analyses, we propose that the zic gene family arose in the common ancestor of the Placozoa, Cnidaria and Bilateria from a gli/glis/nkl-like gene and that both ZOC and ZF-NC domains evolved prior to cnidarian-bilaterian divergence. We also conclude that zic expression in neural ectoderm and developing neurons is pervasive throughout the Metazoa and likely evolved from neural expression of an ancestral gli/glis/nkl/zic gene. zic expression in bilaterian mesoderm may be related to the expression in the gastrodermis of a cnidarian-bilaterian common ancestor. PMID:21054859

  11. Evidence for participation of GCS1 in fertilization of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: Implication of a common mechanism of sperm–egg fusion in plants and animals

    SciTech Connect

    Ebchuqin, Eerdundagula; Yokota, Naoto; Yamada, Lixy

    Highlights: • GCS1 is a sperm transmembrane protein that is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. • The GCS1 gene is present not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals. • NvGCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and GCS1 protein exists in sperm of a sea anemone. • Anti-GCS1 antibodies inhibited the fertilization, showing the participation in fertilization. - Abstract: It has been reported that GCS1 (Generative Cell Specific 1) is a transmembrane protein that is exclusively expressed in sperm cells and is essential for gamete fusion in flowering plants. The GCS1 gene is presentmore » not only in angiosperms but also in unicellular organisms and animals, implying the occurrence of a common or ancestral mechanism of GCS1-mediated gamete fusion. In order to elucidate the common mechanism, we investigated the role of GCS1 in animal fertilization using a sea anemone (Cnidaria), Nematostella vectensis. Although the existence of the GCS1 gene in N. vectensis has been reported, the expression of GCS1 in sperm and the role of GCS1 in fertilization are not known. In this study, we showed that the GCS1 gene is expressed in the testis and that GCS1 protein exists in sperm by in situ hybridization and proteomic analysis, respectively. Then we made four peptide antibodies against the N-terminal extracellular region of NvGCS1. These antibodies specifically reacted to NvGCS1 among sperm proteins on the basis of Western analysis and potently inhibited fertilization in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that sperm GCS1 plays a pivotal role in fertilization, most probably in sperm–egg fusion, in a starlet sea anemone, suggesting a common gamete-fusion mechanism shared by eukaryotic organisms.« less

  12. Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Rot, Chagai; Goldfarb, Itay; Ilan, Micha; Huchon, Dorothée

    2006-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria), in which group I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera). Results A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida). This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the putative intron has group I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a putative homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Conclusion Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis. PMID:16972986

  13. Extending the family table: insights into the FGF superfamily from beyond vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Fibroblast Growth Factors much focus has been placed on elucidating the roles for each vertebrate FGF ligand, receptor, and regulating molecules in the context of vertebrate development, human disorders and cancer. Studies in human, mouse, Xenopus, chick, and zebrafish have gone a long way to help us understand [AS1]which FGFs are involved in which processes. However, in recent years, as more genomes are sequenced, more information is becoming available from many non-vertebrate models and a more complete picture of the FGF superfamily as a whole is emerging. In some cases less redundancy in the FGF signaling system in invertebrate models may allow for more mechanistic insights. Studies in cnidaria have highlighted how ancient FGF signaling is, and helped provide insight into the evolution of the FGF gene family. Work in C. elegans has shown that different splice forms can be used for functional specificity in invertebrate FGF signaling. Comparing FGFs from Ciona to those in vertebrates and FGFs from Tribolium to Drosophila reveals some important clues as to the process of gene loss, duplication and subfunctionalization of FGFs throughout evolution. Finally, comparing all members of the FGF ligand superfamily reveals variability in many properties, which may point to a feature of FGFs as being highly adaptable with regards to protein structure and mechanism. Further studies on FGF signaling outside of vertebrates is likely to complement work in vertebrates by contributing many insights to the FGF field as a whole and providing unexpected information that could be used for medical applications. PMID:20860061

  14. Breakdown of Phylogenetic Signal: A Survey of Microsatellite Densities in 454 Shotgun Sequences from 154 Non Model Eukaryote Species

    PubMed Central

    Meglécz, Emese; Nève, Gabriel; Biffin, Ed; Gardner, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Microsatellites are ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes. A more complete understanding of their origin and spread can be gained from a comparison of their distribution within a phylogenetic context. Although information for model species is accumulating rapidly, it is insufficient due to a lack of species depth, thus intragroup variation is necessarily ignored. As such, apparent differences between groups may be overinflated and generalizations cannot be inferred until an analysis of the variation that exists within groups has been conducted. In this study, we examined microsatellite coverage and motif patterns from 454 shotgun sequences of 154 Eukaryote species from eight distantly related phyla (Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Onychophora, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata and Streptophyta) to test if a consistent phylogenetic pattern emerges from the microsatellite composition of these species. It is clear from our results that data from model species provide incomplete information regarding the existing microsatellite variability within the Eukaryotes. A very strong heterogeneity of microsatellite composition was found within most phyla, classes and even orders. Autocorrelation analyses indicated that while microsatellite contents of species within clades more recent than 200 Mya tend to be similar, the autocorrelation breaks down and becomes negative or non-significant with increasing divergence time. Therefore, the age of the taxon seems to be a primary factor in degrading the phylogenetic pattern present among related groups. The most recent classes or orders of Chordates still retain the pattern of their common ancestor. However, within older groups, such as classes of Arthropods, the phylogenetic pattern has been scrambled by the long independent evolution of the lineages. PMID:22815847

  15. Locomotor adaptations of some gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Bone, Q

    1985-01-01

    Swimming behaviour and locomotor adaptations are described in chaetognaths, larvacean tunicates, some cnidaria, and thaliacean tunicates. The first two groups swim by oscillating a flattened tail, the others by jet propulsion. In chaetognaths, the locomotor muscle fibres are extensively coupled and relatively sparsely innervated, they exhibit compound spike-like potentials. The motoneurons controlling the rhythmic activity of the locomotor muscle lie in a ventral ganglion whose organization is briefly described. Rhythmic swimming bursts in larvaceans are similarly driven by a caudal ganglion near the base of the tail, but each caudal muscle cell is separately innervated by two sets of motor nerves, as well as being coupled to its neighbours. The external epithelium is excitable, and linked to the caudal ganglion by the axons of central cells. Mechanical stimulation of the epithelium evokes receptor potentials followed by action potentials and by bursts of rapid swimming. The trachyline medusa Aglantha and the small siphonophore Chelophyes also show rapid escape responses; in Aglantha these are driven by a specialized giant axon system lacking in other hydromedusae, and in Chelophyes. Slow swimming in Aglantha apparently involves a second nerve supply to the same muscle sheets used in rapid swimming, whereas in Chelophyes slow swimming results from the activity of the smaller posterior nectophore. Slow swimming in siphonophores is more economical than the rapid responses. In the hydrozoan medusa Polyorchis (as in Chelophyes) action potentials in the locomotor muscle sheet change in shape during swimming bursts, and their duration is related to the size of the medusa; they are not simply triggers of muscular contraction. The two groups of thaliacean tunicates are specialized differently. Doliolum is adapted for single rapid jet pulses (during which it achieves instantaneous velocities of 50 body lengths s-l), whilst salps are adapted for slow continuous swimming. The

  16. The Presence of a Functionally Tripartite Through-Gut in Ctenophora Has Implications for Metazoan Character Trait Evolution.

    PubMed

    Presnell, Jason S; Vandepas, Lauren E; Warren, Kaitlyn J; Swalla, Billie J; Amemiya, Chris T; Browne, William E

    2016-10-24

    The current paradigm of gut evolution assumes that non-bilaterian metazoan lineages either lack a gut (Porifera and Placozoa) or have a sac-like gut (Ctenophora and Cnidaria) and that a through-gut originated within Bilateria [1-8]. An important group for understanding early metazoan evolution is Ctenophora (comb jellies), which diverged very early from the animal stem lineage [9-13]. The perception that ctenophores possess a sac-like blind gut with only one major opening remains a commonly held misconception [4, 5, 7, 14, 15]. Despite descriptions of the ctenophore digestive system dating to Agassiz [16] that iden