POLARBEAR CMB Polarization Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishino, H.; Ade, P.; Akiba, Y.; Anthony, A.; Arnold, K.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapmann, S.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M. A.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Flanigan, D.; Fuller, G.; Ghribi, A.; Grainger, W.; Halverson, N.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Howard, J.; Hyland, P.; Inoue, Y.; Jaffe, A.; Jaehnig, G.; Kaneko, Y.; Katayama, N.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Kimura, N.; Kisner, T.; Lee, A. T.; Le Jeune, M.; Linder, E.; Lungu, M.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N. J.; Morii, H.; Moyerman, S.; Myers, M. J.; O'Brient, R.; Okamura, T.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Quealy, E.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Shimizu, A.; Shimon, M.; Shimmin, C.; Sholl, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Spieler, H.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Tomaru, T.; Tucker, C.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.
POLARBEAR is a ground-based experiment in the Atacama desert in hile, measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. One of the science goals of POLARBEAR is to detect the B-mode polarization pattern of the CMB produced by primordial gravitational waves from the epoch of inflation. The detection of the B-mode polarization provides strong evidence for inflationary cosmological models. POLARBEAR is expected to reach a sensitivity to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.025 at 95% confidence level, using the data from two years of observation. With a beam size of 3.5 arcminutes, POLARBEAR is also sensitive to B-mode polarization signals at small-angular scales produced by weak gravitational lensing of large-scale structure. POLARBEAR is expected to provide a constraint on the sum of neutrino masses because of their effect on the large-scale structure. POLARBEAR was deployed in late 2011 and started observing in early 2012 at 150 GHz with an array of 1,274 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. The current status of the POLARBEAR experiment is reported.
Primordial magnetism in CMB polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pogosian, Levon
2014-03-01
A large scale B-mode signal in the CMB polarization would constitute a smoking gun of Inflation and is the main target of several ongoing and upcoming experiments. In this contribution, I consider distinguishing features of another potential source of primordial B-modes - magnetic fields. In particular, the Faraday Rotation of CMB polarization provides a distinctive signature of cosmic magnetic fields through the characteristic frequency dependence and the mode-coupling correlations of the CMB variables. I discuss constraints on primordial magnetism that can be expected from future CMB experiments, taking into account the obstruction caused by the magnetic field of the Milky Way.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz-Granados, Beatriz; Battaner, Eduardo; Florido, Estrella
2016-10-01
WMAP CMB polarization maps have been used to detect a low signal of Faraday Rotation (FR). If this detection is not interpreted as simple noise, it could be produced: at the last scattering surface (LSS) (z=1100), being primordial, at Reionization (z=10), in the Milky Way. The second interpretation is favoured here. In this case magnetic fields at Reionization with peak values of the order of 10-8 G should produce this observational FR.
Cosmic string induced CMB maps
Landriau, M.; Shellard, E. P. S.
2011-02-15
We compute maps of CMB temperature fluctuations seeded by cosmic strings using high resolution simulations of cosmic strings in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We create full-sky, 18 deg. and 3 deg. CMB maps, including the relevant string contribution at each resolution from before recombination to today. We extract the angular power spectrum from these maps, demonstrating the importance of recombination effects. We briefly discuss the probability density function of the pixel temperatures, their skewness, and kurtosis.
Early Universe with CMB polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souradeep, Tarun
2011-12-01
The Universe is the grandest conceivable scale on which the human mind can strive to understand nature. The amazing aspect of cosmology, the branch of science that attempts to understand the origin and evolution of the Universe, is that it is largely comprehensible by applying the same basic laws of physics that we use for other branches of physics. The observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) is understood by applying the basic laws of radiative processes and transfer, masterfully covered in the classic text by S. Chandrasekhar, in the cosmological context. In addition to the now widely acclaimed temperature anisotropy, there is also linear polarization information imprinted on the observed Cosmic Microwave background. CMB polarization already has addressed, and promises to do a lot more to unravel the deepest fundamental queries about physics operating close to the origin of the Universe.
Nonlinear electrodynamics and CMB polarization
Cuesta, Herman J. Mosquera; Lambiase, G. E-mail: lambiase@sa.infn.it
2011-03-01
Recently WMAP and BOOMERanG experiments have set stringent constraints on the polarization angle of photons propagating in an expanding universe: Δα = (−2.4±1.9)°. The polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) is reviewed in the context of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED). We compute the polarization angle of photons propagating in a cosmological background with planar symmetry. For this purpose, we use the Pagels-Tomboulis (PT) Lagrangian density describing NLED, which has the form L ∼ (X/Λ{sup 4}){sup δ−1} X, where X = ¼F{sub αβ}F{sup αβ}, and δ the parameter featuring the non-Maxwellian character of the PT nonlinear description of the electromagnetic interaction. After looking at the polarization components in the plane orthogonal to the (x)-direction of propagation of the CMB photons, the polarization angle is defined in terms of the eccentricity of the universe, a geometrical property whose evolution on cosmic time (from the last scattering surface to the present) is constrained by the strength of magnetic fields over extragalactic distances.
CMB Polarization with BICEP2 and Keck-Array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pryke, Clement; BICEP2 and Keck-Array Collaborations
2013-01-01
BICEP2 is an evolution from the highly successful BICEP CMB polarization experiment. In turn Keck-Array is an array of BICEP2 like receivers to achieve an additional increase in sensitivity. All these experiments are located at the South Pole in Antarctica and target the CMB B-mode polarization signal which is predicted to exist in many simpler models of Inflation at angular scales of several degrees. The design and performance of BICEP2 and Keck-Array is described and some preliminary polarization maps are presented.
Amplifier arrays for CMB polarization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaier, Todd; Lawrence, Charles R.; Seiffert, Michael D.; Wells, Mary M.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Dawson, Douglas
2003-01-01
Cryogenic low noise amplifier technology has been successfully used in the study of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). MMIC (Monolithic Millimeter wave Integrated Circuit) technology makes the mass production of coherent detection receivers feasible.
Cosmological CPT violation and CMB polarization measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Jun-Qing
2012-01-01
In this paper we study the possibility of testing Charge-Parity-Time Reversal (CPT) symmetry with cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. We consider two kinds of Chern-Simons (CS) term, electromagnetic CS term and gravitational CS term, and study their effects on the CMB polarization power spectra in detail. By combining current CMB polarization measurements, the seven-year WMAP, BOOMERanG 2003 and BICEP observations, we obtain a tight constraint on the rotation angle Δα = -2.28±1.02 deg (1 σ), indicating a 2.2 σ detection of the CPT violation. Here, we particularly take the systematic errors of CMB measurements into account. After adding the QUaD polarization data, the constraint becomes -1.34 < Δα < 0.82 deg at 95% confidence level. When comparing with the effect of electromagnetic CS term, the gravitational CS term could only generate TB and EB power spectra with much smaller amplitude. Therefore, the induced parameter epsilon can not be constrained from the current polarization data. Furthermore, we study the capabilities of future CMB measurements, Planck and CMBPol, on the constraints of Δα and epsilon. We find that the constraint of Δα can be significantly improved by a factor of 15. Therefore, if this rotation angle effect can not be taken into account properly, the constraints of cosmological parameters will be biased obviously. For the gravitational CS term, the future Planck data still can not constrain epsilon very well, if the primordial tensor perturbations are small, r < 0.1. We need the more accurate CMBPol experiment to give better constraint on epsilon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Guo-Chin; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Naoshi
2016-07-01
Scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation in galaxy clusters induces polarization signals determined by the quadrupole anisotropy in the photon distribution at the location of clusters. This `remote quadrupole' derived from the measurements of the induced polarization in galaxy clusters provides an opportunity to reconstruct local CMB temperature anisotropies. In this Letter, we develop an algorithm of the reconstruction through the estimation of the underlying primordial gravitational potential, which is the origin of the CMB temperature and polarization fluctuations and CMB induced polarization in galaxy clusters. We found a nice reconstruction for the quadrupole and octopole components of the CMB temperature anisotropies with the assistance of the CMB induced polarization signals. The reconstruction can be an important consistency test on the puzzles of CMB anomalies, especially for the low-quadrupole and axis-of-evil problems reported in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and Planck data.
CMB Polarization Detector Operating Parameter Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randle, Kirsten; Chuss, David; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Ed
2015-04-01
Examining the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) provides the only known way to probe the physics of inflation in the early universe. Gravitational waves produced during inflation are posited to produce a telltale pattern of polarization on the CMB and if measured would provide both tangible evidence for inflation along with a measurement of inflation's energy scale. Leading the effort to detect and measure this phenomenon, Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing high-efficiency detectors. In order to optimize signal-to-noise ratios, sources like the atmosphere and the instrumentation must be considered. In this work we examine operating parameters of these detectors such as optical power loading and photon noise. SPS Summer Internship at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center.
Circular polarization of the CMB: Foregrounds and detection prospects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Soma; Lubin, Philip
2016-07-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is one of the finest probes of cosmology. Its all-sky temperature and linear polarization fluctuations have been measured precisely at a level of δ T /TCMB˜10-6 . In contrast, circular polarization (C P ) of the CMB has not been precisely explored. The current upper limit on the C P of the CMB is at a level of δ V /TCMB˜10-4 and is limited on large scales. Some of the cosmologically important sources which can induce a C P in the CMB include early Universe symmetry breaking, a primordial magnetic field, galaxy clusters, and Pop III stars (also known as the first stars). Among these sources, Pop III stars are expected to induce the strongest signal with levels strongly dependent on the frequency of observation and on the number, Np, of the Pop III stars per halo. Optimistically, a C P signal in the CMB resulting from the Pop III stars could be at a level of δ V /TCMB˜2 ×10-7 in scales of 1° at 10 GHz, which is much smaller than the currently existing upper limits on the C P measurements. Primary foregrounds in the cosmological C P detection will come from the galactic synchrotron emission, which is naturally (intrinsically) circularly polarized. We use data-driven models of the galactic magnetic field, thermal electron density, and relativistic electron density to simulate all-sky maps of the galactic C P . This work also points out that the galactic C P levels are important below 50 GHz and is an important factor for telescopes aiming to detect primordial B modes using C P as a systematic rejection channel. In this paper, we focus on a SNR evaluation for the detectability of the Pop III induced C P signal in the CMB. We find that a SNR higher than unity is achievable, for example, with a 10 m telescope and an observation time of 20 months at 10 GHz, if Np≥100 . We also find that, if frequency of observation and resolution of the beam is appropriately chosen, a SNR higher than unity is possible with Np≥10 and
Kasanda, Simon Muya; Moodley, Kavilan E-mail: moodleyk41@ukzn.ac.za
2014-12-01
We forecast how current (PLANCK) and future (PRISM) cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments constrain the adiabatic mode and its admixtures with primordial isocurvature modes. The forecasts are based on measurements of the reconstructed CMB lensing potential and lensing-induced CMB B-mode polarization anisotropies in combination with the CMB temperature and E-mode polarization anisotropies. We first study the characteristic features of the CMB temperature, polarization and lensing spectra for adiabatic and isocurvature modes. We then consider how information from the CMB lensing potential and B-mode polarization induced by lensing can improve constraints on an admixture of adiabatic and three correlated isocurvature modes. We find that the CMB lensing spectrum improves constraints on isocurvature modes by at most 10% for the PLANCK and PRISM experiments. The limited improvement is a result of the low amplitude of isocurvature lensing spectra and cancellations between these spectra that render them only slightly detectable. There is a larger gain from using the lensing-induced B-mode polarization spectrum measured by PRISM. In this case constraints on isocurvature mode amplitudes improve by as much as 40% relative to the CMB temperature and E-mode polarization constraints. The addition of both lensing and lensing-induced B-mode polarization information constrains isocurvature mode amplitudes at the few percent level or better. In the case of admixtures of the adiabatic mode with one or two correlated isocurvature modes we find that constraints at the percent level or better are possible. We investigate the dependence of our results to various assumptions in our analysis, such as the inclusion of dark energy parameters, the CMB temperature-lensing correlation, and the presence of primordial tensor modes, and find that these assumptions do not significantly change our main results.
Probing the statistical properties of CMB B-mode polarization through Minkowski functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Larissa; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Wen
2016-07-01
The detection of the magnetic type B-mode polarization is the main goal of future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. In the standard model, the B-mode map is a strong non-gaussian field due to the CMB lensing component. Besides the two-point correlation function, the other statistics are also very important to dig the information of the polarization map. In this paper, we employ the Minkowski functionals to study the morphological properties of the lensed B-mode maps. We find that the deviations from Gaussianity are very significant for both full and partial-sky surveys. As an application of the analysis, we investigate the morphological imprints of the foreground residuals in the B-mode map. We find that even for very tiny foreground residuals, the effects on the map can be detected by the Minkowski functional analysis. Therefore, it provides a complementary way to investigate the foreground contaminations in the CMB studies.
Cosmology from CMB polarization with POLARBEAR and the Simons Array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barron, Darcy; POLARBEAR Collaboration
2016-01-01
POLARBEAR is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The science goals of the POLARBEAR project are to do a deep search for CMB B-mode polarization created by inflationary gravitational waves, as well as characterize the CMB B-mode signal from gravitational lensing. POLARBEAR-1 started observations in 2012. The POLARBEAR team has published results from its first season of observations on a small fraction of the sky, including a measurement of a non-zero B-mode polarization angular power spectrum at sub-degree scales, where the dominant signal is gravitational lensing of the CMB. Improving these measurements requires precision characterization of the CMB polarization signal over large fractions of the sky, at multiple frequencies. To achieve these goals, POLARBEAR has begun expanding to include an additional two 3.5 meter telescopes with multi-chroic receivers, known as the Simons Array. With high sensitivity and large sky coverage, the Simons Array will create a detailed survey of B-mode polarization, and its spectral information will be used to extract the CMB signal from astrophysical foregrounds. The Simons Array data will place strong constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses, when combined with data from the next generation of baryon acoustic oscillation measurements. We present the status of this funded instrument and its expected capabilities.
Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-08-01
We present foreground-reduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales ℓ ≳ 40. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with ℓ< 20 are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with respect to algorithmic and modelling choices. The resulting polarization maps have rms instrumental noise ranging between 0.21 and 0.27μK averaged over 55' pixels, and between 4.5 and 6.1μK averaged over 3.4 parcm pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the 1σ level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description of the higher-order statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of cross-spectra and cross-correlations, or stacking analyses. However, the amplitude of primordial non-Gaussianity is consistent with zero within 2σ for all local, equilateral, and orthogonal configurations of the bispectrum
New constraints on anisotropic rotation of CMB polarization
Li, Mingzhe; Yu, Bo E-mail: yubo@pmo.ac.cn
2013-06-01
The coupling of a scalar field to electromagnetic field via the Chern-Simons term will rotate the polarization directions of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The rotation angle which relies on the distribution of the scalar field on the CMB sky is direction dependent. Such anisotropies will give rise to new distortions to the power spectra of CMB polarization and it can be used to probe the detailed physics of the scalar field. In this paper we use the updated observational data to constrain the anisotropic rotation angle in a model independent way. We find that the dominant effect of the anisotropic rotation on CMB comes from its variance and it is constrained tightly by the current data.
Novel calibration system with sparse wires for CMB polarization receivers
Tajima, O.; Nguyen, H.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A. /Chicago U., KICP
2011-07-01
B-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. To achieve better sensitivity to this faint signal, CMB polarization experiments aim to maximize the number of detector elements, resulting in a large focal plane receiver. Detector calibration of the polarization response becomes essential. It is extremely useful to be able to calibrate 'simultaneously' all detectors on the large focal plane. We developed a novel calibration system that rotates a large 'sparse' grid of metal wires, in front of and fully covering the field of view of the focal plane receiver. Polarized radiation is created via the reflection of ambient temperature from the wire surface. Since the detector has a finite beam size, the observed signal is smeared according to the beam property. The resulting smeared polarized radiation has a reasonable intensity (a few Kelvin or less) compared to the sky temperature ({approx}10 K observing condition). The system played a successful role for receiver calibration of QUIET, a CMB polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The successful performance revealed that this system is applicable to other experiments based on different technologies, e.g. TES bolometers.
The Polarization of the CMB with Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocha, Graca; Planck Collaboration
2016-06-01
In this talk I will give an overview of Planck data and Cosmological results focusing on the analysis of polarized data. I will present new insights into the polarization of foregrounds rendered by the Planck satelite and an account of current constraints on the optical depth due to reionization, τ, and the scalar to tensor ratio, r.
SPIDER: a new balloon-borne experiment to measure CMB polarization on large angular scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montroy, T. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Brevick, J.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Crites, A.; Doré, O.; Duband, L.; Golwala, S. R.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Lange, A. E.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P.; Mulder, J.; Netterfield, C. B.; Pascale, E.; Ruhl, J. E.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Turner, A.; Viero, M.
2006-06-01
We describe SPIDER, a novel balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) on large angular scales. The primary goal of SPIDER is to detect the faint signature of inflationary gravitational waves in the CMB polarization. The payload consists of six telescopes, each operating in a single frequency band and cooled to 4 K by a common LN/LHe cryostat. The primary optic for each telescope is a 25 cm diameter lens cooled to 4 K. Each telescope feeds an array of antenna coupled, polarization sensitive sub-Kelvin bolometers that covers a 20 degree diameter FOV with diffraction limited resolution. The six focal planes span 70 to 300 GHz in a manner optimized to separate polarized galactic emission from CMB polarization, and together contain over 2300 detectors. Polarization modulation is achieved by rotating a cryogenic half-wave plate in front of the primary optic of each telescope. The cryogenic system is designed for 30 days of operation. Observations will be conducted during the night portions of a mid-latitude, long duration balloon flight which will circumnavigate the globe from Australia. By spinning the payload at 1 rpm with the six telescopes fixed in elevation, SPIDER will map approximately half of the sky at each frequency on each night of the flight.
CMB lensing reconstruction in the presence of diffuse polarized foregrounds
Fantaye, Y.; Baccigalupi, C.; Leach, S.M.; Yadav, A.P.S. E-mail: bacci@sissa.it E-mail: ayadav@physics.ucsd.edu
2012-12-01
The measurement and characterization of the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is key goal of the current and next generation of CMB experiments. We perform a case study of a three-channel balloon-borne CMB experiment observing the sky at (l,b)=(250°,−38°) and attaining a sensitivity of 5.25 μK−arcmin with 8' angular resolution at 150 GHz, in order to assess whether the effect of polarized Galactic dust is expected to be a significant contaminant to the lensing signal reconstructed using the EB quadratic estimator. We find that for our assumed dust model, polarization fractions of about as low as a few percent may lead to a significant dust bias to the lensing convergence power spectrum. We investigated a parametric component separation method, proposed by Stompor et al. (2009), as well as a template cleaning method, for mitigating the effect of this dust bias. The template-based method recovers unbiased convergence power spectrum in all polarization fraction cases we considered, while for the component separation technique we find a dust contrast regime in which the accuracy of the profile likelihood spectral index estimate breaks down, and in which external information on the dust frequency scaling is needed. We propose a criterion for putting a requirement on the accuracy with which the dust spectral index must be estimated or constrained, and demonstrate that if this requirement is met, then the dust bias can be removed.
SPTpol: an instrument for CMB polarization.
McMahon, J. J.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Britton, J.; Datesman, A.; Novosad, V.; Wang, G.; Yefremenko, V.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Michigan; Univ. of Chicago; Nat. Inst. Standards & Tech.
2009-01-01
SPTpol will consist of an 850 element polarization sensitive bolometric camera deployed to the South Pole Telescope in late 2011. This camera is optimized for measurement of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background with arcminute resolution. These measurements will be used to constrain neutrino masses and to constrain the amplitude of gravitational waves from inflation. The camera includes two detector architectures that observe in two different frequency bands. At 150 GHz, SPTpol will use 650 feedhorn-coupled TES polarimeters fabricated at NIST. At 90 GHz, it will use 200 absorber-coupled polarimeters developed at Argonne National Lab. The NIST pixels will be coupled to the telescope using a monolithic array of corrugated feeds and the Argonne devices will be coupled with individually machined contoured feeds. The entire focal plane will be readout using a digital frequency-domain multiplexer system. We provide an overview of the project, describe the detectors and discuss the design of this system.
Testable polarization predictions for models of CMB isotropy anomalies
Dvorkin, Cora; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Hu, Wayne
2008-03-15
Anomalies in the large-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature sky measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe have been suggested as possible evidence for a violation of statistical isotropy on large scales. In any physical model for broken isotropy, there are testable consequences for the CMB polarization field. We develop simulation tools for predicting the polarization field in models that break statistical isotropy locally through a modulation field. We study two different models: dipolar modulation, invoked to explain the asymmetry in power between northern and southern ecliptic hemispheres, and quadrupolar modulation, posited to explain the alignments between the quadrupole and octopole. For the dipolar case, we show that predictions for the correlation between the first 10 multipoles of the temperature and polarization fields can typically be tested at better than the 98% CL. For the quadrupolar case, we show that the polarization quadrupole and octopole should be moderately aligned. Such an alignment is a generic prediction of explanations which involve the temperature field at recombination and thus discriminate against explanations involving foregrounds or local secondary anisotropy. Predicted correlations between temperature and polarization multipoles out to l=5 provide tests at the {approx}99% CL or stronger for quadrupolar models that make the temperature alignment more than a few percent likely. As predictions of anomaly models, polarization statistics move beyond the a posteriori inferences that currently dominate the field.
Preferred axis of CMB parity asymmetry in the masked maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Wen; Huang, Qing-Guo; Santos, Larissa
2016-06-01
Both WMAP and Planck data show a significant odd-multipole preference in the large scales of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. If this pattern originates from cosmological effects, then it can be considered a crucial clue for a violation in the cosmological principle. By defining various direction dependent statistics in the full-sky Planck 2015 maps (see, for instance, Naselsky et al. (2012); W. Zhao (2014)), we found that the CMB parity asymmetry has a preferred direction, which is independent of the choices of the statistics. In particular, this preferred axis is strongly aligned with those in the CMB quadrupole and octopole, as well as that in the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to their non-cosmological origin. In realistic observations, the foreground residuals are inevitable, and should be properly masked out in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of the results. In this paper, we extend our previous analyses to the masked Planck 2015 data. By defining a similar direction dependent statistic in the masked map, we find a preferred direction of the CMB parity asymmetry, in which the axis also coincides with that found in the full-sky analysis. Therefore, our conclusions on the CMB parity violation and its directional properties are confirmed.
Measurement of CMB Polarization with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grace, Emily; ACTPol Collaboration
2015-04-01
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization-sensitive receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope designed to make sensitive, high-resolution measurements of the polarization anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with the goal of investigating the properties of inflation, dark energy, dark matter, and neutrinos in the early Universe. The ACTPol receiver employs three kilo-pixel arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer detectors. The first and second of these arrays, which were deployed in 2013 and 2014, respectively, and observed at 146 GHz, are among the most sensitive millimeter-wave polarimeters currently fielded and demonstrate the significant polarization measurement capabilities of the ACTPol instrument. I will present an overview of the first two seasons of observations, discussing the optimization of the detector arrays, the on-sky instrument performance, the observation and data-reduction strategies, and the science results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koopman, Brian; ACTPol Collaboration
2015-04-01
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, located at an elevation of 5190 m on Cerro Toco in Chile. Achieving first light in 2013, ACTPol is entering its third observation season. Advanced ACTPol is a next generation upgrade for ACTPol, with additional frequencies, polarization modulation, and new detector arrays, that will begin in 2016. I will first present an overview of the two projects and then focus on describing the methods used for polarization angle calibration of the ACTPol detectors. These methods utilize polarization ray tracing in the optical design software CODEV together with detector positions determined from planet observations and represent a critical input for mapping the polarization of the CMB.
Designs for a large-aperture telescope to map the CMB 10× faster.
Niemack, Michael D
2016-03-01
Current large-aperture cosmic microwave background (CMB) telescopes have nearly maximized the number of detectors that can be illuminated while maintaining diffraction-limited image quality. The polarization-sensitive detector arrays being deployed in these telescopes in the next few years will have roughly 10⁴ detectors. Increasing the mapping speed of future instruments by at least an order of magnitude is important to enable precise probes of the inflationary paradigm in the first fraction of a second after the big bang and provide strong constraints on cosmological parameters. The CMB community has begun planning a next generation "Stage IV" CMB project that will be comprised of multiple telescopes with between 10⁵-10⁶ detectors to pursue these goals. This paper introduces the new crossed Dragone telescope and receiver optics designs that increase the usable diffraction-limited field-of-view, and therefore the mapping speed, by an order of magnitude compared to the upcoming generation of large-aperture instruments. Polarization systematics and engineering considerations are presented, including a preliminary receiver model to demonstrate that these designs will enable high efficiency illumination of >10⁵ detectors in a next generation CMB telescope. PMID:26974631
Designs for a large-aperture telescope to map the CMB 10× faster.
Niemack, Michael D
2016-03-01
Current large-aperture cosmic microwave background (CMB) telescopes have nearly maximized the number of detectors that can be illuminated while maintaining diffraction-limited image quality. The polarization-sensitive detector arrays being deployed in these telescopes in the next few years will have roughly 10⁴ detectors. Increasing the mapping speed of future instruments by at least an order of magnitude is important to enable precise probes of the inflationary paradigm in the first fraction of a second after the big bang and provide strong constraints on cosmological parameters. The CMB community has begun planning a next generation "Stage IV" CMB project that will be comprised of multiple telescopes with between 10⁵-10⁶ detectors to pursue these goals. This paper introduces the new crossed Dragone telescope and receiver optics designs that increase the usable diffraction-limited field-of-view, and therefore the mapping speed, by an order of magnitude compared to the upcoming generation of large-aperture instruments. Polarization systematics and engineering considerations are presented, including a preliminary receiver model to demonstrate that these designs will enable high efficiency illumination of >10⁵ detectors in a next generation CMB telescope.
B-mode CMB polarization from patchy screening during reionization
Dvorkin, Cora; Hu, Wayne; Smith, Kendrick M.
2009-05-15
B modes in CMB polarization from patchy reionization arise from two effects: generation of polarization from scattering of quadrupole moments by reionization bubbles and fluctuations in the screening of E modes from recombination. The scattering contribution has been studied previously, but the screening contribution has not yet been calculated. We show that on scales smaller than the acoustic scale (l > or approx. 300), the B-mode power from screening is larger than the B-mode power from scattering. The ratio approaches a constant {approx}2.5 below the damping scale (l > or approx. 2000). On degree scales relevant for gravitational waves (l < or approx. 100), screening B modes have a white noise tail and are subdominant to the scattering effect. These results are robust to uncertainties in the modeling of patchy reionization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonavera, L.; Barreiro, R. B.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Vielva, P.
2016-06-01
In this work we present a method to extract the signal induced by the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). It makes use of the Linear Covariance-Based filter introduced by Barreiro et al., and combines CMB data with any number of large-scale structure (LSS) surveys and lensing information. It also exploits CMB polarization to reduce cosmic variance. The performance of the method has been thoroughly tested with simulations taking into account the impact of non-ideal conditions such as incomplete sky coverage or the presence of noise. In particular, three galaxy surveys are simulated, whose redshift distributions peak at low (z ≃ 0.3), intermediate (z ≃ 0.6) and high redshift (z ≃ 0.9). The contribution of each of the considered data sets as well as the effect of a mask and noise in the reconstructed ISW map is studied in detail. When combining all the considered data sets (CMB temperature and polarization, the three galaxy surveys and the lensing map), the proposed filter successfully reconstructs a map of the weak ISW signal, finding a perfect correlation with the input signal for the ideal case and around 80 per cent, on average, in the presence of noise and incomplete sky coverage. We find that including CMB polarization improves the correlation between input and reconstruction although only at a small level. Nonetheless, given the weakness of the ISW signal, even modest improvements can be of importance. In particular, in realistic situations, in which less information is available from the LSS tracers, the effect of including polarization is larger. For instance, for the case in which the ISW signal is recovered from CMB plus only one survey, and taking into account the presence of noise and incomplete sky coverage, the improvement in the correlation coefficient can be as large as 10 per cent.
Evidence for horizon-scale power from CMB polarization
Mortonson, Michael J.; Hu, Wayne
2009-07-15
The CMB temperature power spectrum offers ambiguous evidence for the existence of horizon-scale power in the primordial power spectrum due to uncertainties in spatial curvature and the physics of cosmic acceleration as well as the observed low quadrupole. Current polarization data from WMAP provide evidence for horizon-scale power that is robust to these uncertainties. Polarization on the largest scales arises mainly from scattering at z < or approx. 6 when the Universe is fully ionized, making the evidence robust to ionization history variations at higher redshifts as well. A cutoff in the power spectrum is limited to C=k{sub C}/10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -1}<5.2 (95% C.L.) by polarization, only slightly weaker than joint temperature and polarization constraints in flat {lambda}CDM (C<4.2). Planck should improve the polarization limit to C<3.6 for any model of the acceleration epoch and ionization history as well as provide tests for foreground and systematic contamination.
N-body lensed CMB maps: lensing extraction and characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antolini, Claudia; Fantaye, Yabebal; Martinelli, Matteo; Carbone, Carmelita; Baccigalupi, Carlo
2014-02-01
We reconstruct shear maps and angular power spectra from simulated weakly lensed total intensity (TT) and polarised (EB) maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, obtained using Born approximated ray-tracing through the N-body simulated Cold Dark Matter (CDM) structures in the Millennium Simulations (MS). We compare the recovered signal with the ΛCDM prediction, on the whole interval of angular scales which is allowed by the finite box size, extending from the degree scale to the arcminute, by applying a quadratic estimator in the flat sky limit; we consider PRISM-like instrumental specification for future generation CMB satellites, corresponding to arcminute angular resolution of 3.2' and sensitivity of 2.43 μK-arcmin. The noise contribution in the simulations closely follows the estimator prediction, becoming dominated by limits in the angular resolution for the EB signal, at l simeq 1500. The recovered signal shows no visible departure from predictions of the weak lensing power within uncertainties, when considering TT and EB data singularly. In particular, the reconstruction precision reaches the level of a few percent in bins with Δl simeq 100 in the angular multiple interval 1000lesssimllesssim2000 for T, and about 10% for EB. Within the adopted specifications, polarisation data do represent a significant contribution to the lensing shear, which appear to faithfully trace the underlying N-body structure down to the smallest angular scales achievable with the present setup, validating at the same time the latter with respect to semi-analytical predictions from ΛCDM cosmology at the level of CMB lensing statistics. This work demonstrates the feasibility of CMB lensing studies based on large scale simulations of cosmological structure formation in the context of the current and future high resolution and sensitivity CMB experiment.
N-body lensed CMB maps: lensing extraction and characterization
Antolini, Claudia; Martinelli, Matteo; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Fantaye, Yabebal; Carbone, Carmelita E-mail: y.t.fantaye@astro.uio.no E-mail: carmelita.carbone@brera.inaf.it
2014-02-01
We reconstruct shear maps and angular power spectra from simulated weakly lensed total intensity (TT) and polarised (EB) maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, obtained using Born approximated ray-tracing through the N-body simulated Cold Dark Matter (CDM) structures in the Millennium Simulations (MS). We compare the recovered signal with the ΛCDM prediction, on the whole interval of angular scales which is allowed by the finite box size, extending from the degree scale to the arcminute, by applying a quadratic estimator in the flat sky limit; we consider PRISM-like instrumental specification for future generation CMB satellites, corresponding to arcminute angular resolution of 3.2' and sensitivity of 2.43 μK-arcmin. The noise contribution in the simulations closely follows the estimator prediction, becoming dominated by limits in the angular resolution for the EB signal, at ℓ ≅ 1500. The recovered signal shows no visible departure from predictions of the weak lensing power within uncertainties, when considering TT and EB data singularly. In particular, the reconstruction precision reaches the level of a few percent in bins with Δℓ ≅ 100 in the angular multiple interval 1000∼<ℓ∼<2000 for T, and about 10% for EB. Within the adopted specifications, polarisation data do represent a significant contribution to the lensing shear, which appear to faithfully trace the underlying N-body structure down to the smallest angular scales achievable with the present setup, validating at the same time the latter with respect to semi-analytical predictions from ΛCDM cosmology at the level of CMB lensing statistics. This work demonstrates the feasibility of CMB lensing studies based on large scale simulations of cosmological structure formation in the context of the current and future high resolution and sensitivity CMB experiment.
SILC: a new Planck internal linear combination CMB temperature map using directional wavelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, Keir K.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Leistedt, Boris; McEwen, Jason D.; Pontzen, Andrew
2016-08-01
We present new clean maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies (as measured by Planck) constructed with a novel internal linear combination (ILC) algorithm using directional, scale-discretized wavelets - scale-discretized, directional wavelet ILC or Scale-discretised, directional wavelet Internal Linear Combination (SILC). Directional wavelets, when convolved with signals on the sphere, can separate the anisotropic filamentary structures which are characteristic of both the CMB and foregrounds. Extending previous component separation methods, which use the frequency, spatial and harmonic signatures of foregrounds to separate them from the cosmological background signal, SILC can additionally use morphological information in the foregrounds and CMB to better localize the cleaning algorithm. We test the method on Planck data and simulations, demonstrating consistency with existing component separation algorithms, and discuss how to optimize the use of morphological information by varying the number of directional wavelets as a function of spatial scale. We find that combining the use of directional and axisymmetric wavelets depending on scale could yield higher quality CMB temperature maps. Our results set the stage for the application of SILC to polarization anisotropies through an extension to spin wavelets.
Constraints on cosmological birefringence energy dependence from CMB polarization data
Gubitosi, G.; Paci, F. E-mail: fpaci@sissa.it
2013-02-01
We study the possibility of constraining the energy dependence of cosmological birefringence by using CMB polarization data. We consider four possible behaviors, characteristic of different theoretical scenarios: energy-independent birefringence motivated by Chern-Simons interactions of the electromagnetic field, linear energy dependence motivated by a 'Weyl' interaction of the electromagnetic field, quadratic energy dependence, motivated by quantum gravity modifications of low-energy electrodynamics, and inverse quadratic dependence, motivated by Faraday rotation generated by primordial magnetic fields. We constrain the parameters associated to each kind of dependence and use our results to give constraints on the models mentioned. We forecast the sensitivity that Planck data will be able to achieve in this respect.
Exploring two-spin internal linear combinations for the recovery of the CMB polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Cobos, R.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Vielva, P.; Martínez-González, E.; Barreiro, R. B.
2016-06-01
We present a methodology to recover cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization in which the quantity P = Q + iU is linearly combined at different frequencies using complex coefficients. This is the most general linear combination of the Q and U Stokes parameters which preserves the physical coherence of the residual contribution on the CMB estimation. The approach is applied to the internal linear combination (ILC) and the internal template fitting (ITF) methodologies. The variance of P of the resulting map is minimized to compute the coefficients of the linear combination. One of the key aspects of this procedure is that it serves to account for a global frequency-dependent shift of the polarization phase. Although in the standard case, in which no global E-B transference depending on frequency is expected in the foreground components, minimizing <|P|2> is similar to minimizing
Planck 2014 and beyond: the CMB polarization at large angular scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangilli, Anna
2015-08-01
One of the main challenge left for the present and the future CMB experiments is the high precision measurement of the CMB polarization at large angular scales. The reionization bump in the CMB polarization EE and BB power spectra encodes unique informations about the reionization history of the Universe and the inflationary epoch. Such valuable information can be accessed only with an unprecedented accuracy and care on each step of the data analysis and its interpretation. The Planck 2014 release represents a first step towards the accurate characterization of the CMB polarization on the full sky. In this talk I will go through a brief introduction about the CMB polarization mainly focusing on the large angular scales. I will show how the EE and BB spectra at low-l can be used to improve the constraints on the cosmological parameters, in particular those related to the reionization history (τ) and the amount of tensor modes (r). As a Planck Scientist I will present, on behalf of the Planck collaboration, the status of the CMB analysis at large scales after the 2014 release. I will present different methods that can be used for the low-l analysis, focusing on a spectral based approach (Mangilli et al. in preparation). Finally I will present the theoretical implications of the results and the future prospects in view of the Planck release at the end of 2015 and future CMB experiments.
CMB B-mode polarization from Thomson scattering in the local universe
Hirata, Christopher M.; Loeb, Abraham; Afshordi, Niayesh
2005-03-15
The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is widely recognized as a potential source of information about primordial gravitational waves. The gravitational wave contribution can be separated from the dominant CMB polarization created by density perturbations at the times of recombination and reionization because it generates both E and B polarization modes, whereas the density perturbations create only E polarization. The limits of our ability to measure gravitational waves are thus determined by statistical and systematic errors from CMB experiments, foregrounds, and nonlinear evolution effects such as gravitational lensing of the CMB. Usually it is assumed that most foregrounds can be removed because of their frequency dependence, however Thomson scattering of the CMB quadrupole by electrons in the Galaxy or nearby structures shares the blackbody frequency dependence of the CMB. If the optical depth from these nearby electrons is anisotropic, the polarization generated can include B modes even if no tensor perturbations are present. We estimate this effect for the Galactic disk and nearby extragalactic structures, and find that it contributes to the B polarization at the level of {approx}(1-2)x10{sup -4} {mu}K per logarithmic interval in multipole l for l<30. This is well below the detectability level even for a future CMB polarization satellite and hence is negligible. Depending on its structure and extent, the Galactic corona may be a source of B-modes comparable to the residual large-scale lensing B-mode after the latter has been cleaned using lensing reconstruction techniques. For an extremely ambitious post-Planck CMB experiment, Thomson scattering in the Galactic corona is thus a potential contaminant of the gravitational wave signal; conversely, if the other foregrounds can be cleaned out, such an experiment might be able to constrain models of the corona.
CMB B-mode polarization from Thomson scattering in the local universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirata, Christopher M.; Loeb, Abraham; Afshordi, Niayesh
2005-03-01
The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is widely recognized as a potential source of information about primordial gravitational waves. The gravitational wave contribution can be separated from the dominant CMB polarization created by density perturbations at the times of recombination and reionization because it generates both E and B polarization modes, whereas the density perturbations create only E polarization. The limits of our ability to measure gravitational waves are thus determined by statistical and systematic errors from CMB experiments, foregrounds, and nonlinear evolution effects such as gravitational lensing of the CMB. Usually it is assumed that most foregrounds can be removed because of their frequency dependence, however Thomson scattering of the CMB quadrupole by electrons in the Galaxy or nearby structures shares the blackbody frequency dependence of the CMB. If the optical depth from these nearby electrons is anisotropic, the polarization generated can include B modes even if no tensor perturbations are present. We estimate this effect for the Galactic disk and nearby extragalactic structures, and find that it contributes to the B polarization at the level of ˜(1 2)×10-4 μK per logarithmic interval in multipole ℓ for ℓ<30. This is well below the detectability level even for a future CMB polarization satellite and hence is negligible. Depending on its structure and extent, the Galactic corona may be a source of B-modes comparable to the residual large-scale lensing B-mode after the latter has been cleaned using lensing reconstruction techniques. For an extremely ambitious post-Planck CMB experiment, Thomson scattering in the Galactic corona is thus a potential contaminant of the gravitational wave signal; conversely, if the other foregrounds can be cleaned out, such an experiment might be able to constrain models of the corona.
Cosmological Parameters from CMB Maps without Likelihood Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Racine, B.; Jewell, J. B.; Eriksen, H. K.; Wehus, I. K.
2016-03-01
We propose an efficient Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating cosmological parameters from cosmic microwave background (CMB) data without the use of likelihood approximations. It builds on a previously developed Gibbs sampling framework that allows for exploration of the joint CMB sky signal and power spectrum posterior, P({\\boldsymbol{s}},{C}{\\ell }| {\\boldsymbol{d}}), and addresses a long-standing problem of efficient parameter estimation simultaneously in regimes of high and low signal-to-noise ratio. To achieve this, our new algorithm introduces a joint Markov chain move in which both the signal map and power spectrum are synchronously modified, by rescaling the map according to the proposed power spectrum before evaluating the Metropolis-Hastings accept probability. Such a move was already introduced by Jewell et al., who used it to explore low signal-to-noise posteriors. However, they also found that the same algorithm is inefficient in the high signal-to-noise regime, since a brute-force rescaling operation does not account for phase information. This problem is mitigated in the new algorithm by subtracting the Wiener filter mean field from the proposed map prior to rescaling, leaving high signal-to-noise information invariant in the joint step, and effectively only rescaling the low signal-to-noise component. To explore the full posterior, the new joint move is then interleaved with a standard conditional Gibbs move for the sky map. We apply our new algorithm to simplified simulations for which we can evaluate the exact posterior to study both its accuracy and its performance, and find good agreement with the exact posterior; marginal means agree to ≲0.006σ and standard deviations to better than ˜3%. The Markov chain correlation length is of the same order of magnitude as those obtained by other standard samplers in the field.
Non Gaussian Minkowski functionals and extrema counts for CMB maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pogosyan, Dmitri; Codis, Sandrine; Pichon, Christophe
2016-10-01
In the conference presentation we have reviewed the theory of non-Gaussian geometrical measures for 3D Cosmic Web of the matter distribution in the Universe and 2D sky data, such as Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) maps that was developed in a series of our papers. The theory leverages symmetry of isotropic statistics such as Minkowski functionals and extrema counts to develop post Gaussian expansion of the statistics in orthogonal polynomials of invariant descriptors of the field, its first and second derivatives. The application of the approach to 2D fields defined on a spherical sky was suggested, but never rigorously developed. In this paper we present such development treating the effects of the curvature and finiteness of the spherical space $S_2$ exactly, without relying on flat-sky approximation. We present Minkowski functionals, including Euler characteristic and extrema counts to the first non-Gaussian correction, suitable for weakly non-Gaussian fields on a sphere, of which CMB is the prime example.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Jaffe, Andrew H.
2016-03-01
Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)~1.3×10-4, σ(nt)~0.03, σ( ns )~1.8×10
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: CMB polarization at 200 < ℓ < 9000
Naess, Sigurd; Allison, Rupert; Calabrese, Erminia; Hasselfield, Matthew; McMahon, Jeff; Coughlin, Kevin; Datta, Rahul; Niemack, Michael D.; De Bernardis, Francesco; Addison, Graeme E.; Amiri, Mandana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Battaglia, Nick; Beall, James A.; Britton, Joe; Cho, Hsiao-mei; Bond, J Richard; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; and others
2014-10-01
We report on measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and celestial polarization at 146 GHz made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) in its first three months of observing. Four regions of sky covering a total of 270 square degrees were mapped with an angular resolution of 1.3'. The map noise levels in the four regions are between 11 and 17 μK-arcmin. We present TT, TE, EE, TB, EB, and BB power spectra from three of these regions. The observed E-mode polarization power spectrum, displaying six acoustic peaks in the range 200 < ℓ < 3000, is an excellent fit to the prediction of the best-fit cosmological models from WMAP9+ACT and Planck data. The polarization power spectrum, which mainly reflects primordial plasma velocity perturbations, provides an independent determination of cosmological parameters consistent with those based on the temperature power spectrum, which results mostly from primordial density perturbations. We find that without masking any point sources in the EE data at ℓ < 9000, the Poisson tail of the EE power spectrum due to polarized point sources has an amplitude less than 2.4 μ {sup 2} at ℓ = 3000 at 95% confidence. Finally, we report that the Crab Nebula, an important polarization calibration source at microwave frequencies, has 8.7% polarization with an angle of 150.7{sup o} ± 0.6{sup o} when smoothed with a 5' Gaussian beam.
CMB Lensing Cross Correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleem, Lindsey
2014-03-01
A new generation of experiments designed to conduct high-resolution, low-noise observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)--including ACTpol, Planck, POLARBEAR and SPTpol--are producing exquisite measurements of the gravitational lensing of the CMB. Such measurements, covering large fractions of the sky, provide detailed maps of the projected mass distribution extending to the surface of the CMB's last scattering. Concurrently, a large number of deep, wide-area imaging and spectroscopic surveys (e.g., the Dark Energy Survey (DES),WISE all-sky survey, Subaru HyperSuprimeCam Survey, LSST, MS-DESI, BigBoss, etc.) are, or will soon be, providing maps of the distribution of galaxies in the Universe. Correlations of such tracer populations with lensing data allows new probes of where and how galaxies form in the dark matter skeleton of the Universe. Recent correlations of maps of galaxy and quasar densities with lensing convergence maps have produced significant measurements of galaxy bias. The near-term prospect for improvements in such measurements is notable as more precise lensing data from CMB polarization experiments will help to break cosmological and astrophysical parameter degeneracies. Work by the Planck, SPT, and POLARBEAR collaborations has also focused on the correlation of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) with CMB lensing convergence maps. This correlation is particularly strong as the redshifts of the CIB and CMB lensing kernel are well matched. Such correlations probe high-redshift structure, constraining models of star-formation and the characteristic mass scale for halos hosting CIB galaxies and have also been used to demonstrate the first detection of CMB B-mode polarization--an important milestone in CMB observations. Finally, combining galaxy number density, cosmic shear and CMB lensing maps has the potential to provide valuable systematic tests for upcoming cosmological results from large optical surveys such as LSST.
Searching for primordial non-Gaussianity in Planck CMB maps using a combined estimator
Novaes, C.P.; Wuensche, C.A.; Bernui, A.; Ferreira, I.S. E-mail: bernui@on.br E-mail: ca.wuensche@inpe.br
2014-01-01
The extensive search for deviations from Gaussianity in cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) data is very important due to the information about the very early moments of the universe encoded there. Recent analyses from Planck CMB data do not exclude the presence of non-Gaussianity of small amplitude, although they are consistent with the Gaussian hypothesis. The use of different techniques is essential to provide information about types and amplitudes of non-Gaussianities in the CMB data. In particular, we find interesting to construct an estimator based upon the combination of two powerful statistical tools that appears to be sensitive enough to detect tiny deviations from Gaussianity in CMB maps. This estimator combines the Minkowski functionals with a Neural Network, maximizing a tool widely used to study non-Gaussian signals with a reinforcement of another tool designed to identify patterns in a data set. We test our estimator by analyzing simulated CMB maps contaminated with different amounts of local primordial non-Gaussianity quantified by the dimensionless parameter f{sub NL}. We apply it to these sets of CMB maps and find ∼> 98% of chance of positive detection, even for small intensity local non-Gaussianity like f{sub NL} = 38±18, the current limit from Planck data for large angular scales. Additionally, we test the suitability to distinguish between primary and secondary non-Gaussianities: first we train the Neural Network with two sets, one of nearly Gaussian CMB maps (|f{sub NL}| ≤ 10) but contaminated with realistic inhomogeneous Planck noise (i.e., secondary non-Gaussianity) and the other of non-Gaussian CMB maps, that is, maps endowed with weak primordial non-Gaussianity (28 ≤ f{sub NL} ≤ 48); after that we test an ensemble composed of CMB maps either with one of these non-Gaussian contaminations, and find out that our method successfully classifies ∼ 95% of the tested maps as being CMB maps containing primordial or
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasini, Siavash; Pierpaoli, Elena
2016-07-01
We present a novel mathematical formalism that allows us to easily compute the expected kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (kSZ) signal in intensity and polarization due to an anisotropic primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB). We derive the expected intensity and polarization distortions in the direction of nonmoving galaxy clusters, and then we generalize our calculations for nonzero peculiar velocity. We show that, in the direction of moving clusters, low CMB multipoles impose intensity and polarization spectral distortions with different frequency dependences. The polarization signal primarily probes the quadrupole moment of the CMB, with a significant contribution from the primordial dipole and octupole moments. For a typical cluster velocity of 1000 km /s , corrections to the quadrupole-induced polarization of a nonmoving cluster are of the order of 2%-10% between 200-600 GHz, and depend on cluster's position on the sky, velocity magnitude, and direction of motion. We also find that the angular dependence of the signal varies with frequency of observation. The distinct frequency and angular dependences of the polarization induced by the primordial dipole and octupole can be exploited to measure them despite other physical effects and foregrounds. Contrary to polarization, intensity distortions are affected by all the CMB multipoles, so they cannot be readily used to probe the low multipoles at higher redshifts. However, correlations between intensity and polarization signals can be used to enhance the signal to noise ratio for the measurements of the primordial dipole, quadrupole, and octupole. The more general calculation of the aberration kernel presented in this work has applications reaching beyond the SZ cluster science addressed here. For example, it can be exploited to the deboost/deaberrate CMB multipoles as observed in our local frame.
Polarized cosmic microwave background map recovery with sparse component separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobin, J.; Sureau, F.; Starck, J.-L.
2015-11-01
The polarization modes of the cosmological microwave background are an invaluable source of information for cosmology and a unique window to probe the energy scale of inflation. Extracting this information from microwave surveys requires distinguishing between foreground emissions and the cosmological signal, which means solving a component separation problem. Component separation techniques have been widely studied for the recovery of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies, but very rarely for the polarization modes. In this case, most component separation techniques make use of second-order statistics to distinguish between the various components. More recent methods, which instead emphasize the sparsity of the components in the wavelet domain, have been shown to provide low-foreground, full-sky estimates of the CMB temperature anisotropies. Building on sparsity, we here introduce a new component separation technique dubbed the polarized generalized morphological component analysis (PolGMCA), which refines previous work to specifically work on the estimation of the polarized CMB maps: i) it benefits from a recently introduced sparsity-based mechanism to cope with partially correlated components; ii) it builds upon estimator aggregation techniques to further yield a better noise contamination/non-Gaussian foreground residual trade-off. The PolGMCA algorithm is evaluated on simulations of full-sky polarized microwave sky simulations using the Planck Sky Model (PSM). The simulations show that the proposed method achieves a precise recovery of the CMB map in polarization with low-noise and foreground contamination residuals. It provides improvements over standard methods, especially on the Galactic center, where estimating the CMB is challenging.
CMB anisotropy power spectrum using linear combinations of WMAP maps
Saha, Rajib; Prunet, Simon; Jain, Pankaj; Souradeep, Tarun
2008-07-15
In recent years the goal of estimating different cosmological parameters precisely has set new challenges in the effort to accurately measure the angular power spectrum of the CMB. This has required removal of foreground contamination as well as detector noise bias with reliability and precision. Recently, a novel, model-independent method for the estimation of the CMB angular power spectrum solely from multifrequency observations has been proposed and implemented on the first year WMAP data by Saha et al. 2006. All previous estimates of the power spectrum of the CMB are based upon foreground templates using data sets from different experiments. However, our methodology demonstrates that the CMB angular spectrum can be reliably estimated with precision from a self-contained analysis of the WMAP data. In this work we provide a detailed description of this method. We also study and identify the biases present in our power spectrum estimate. We apply our methodology to extract the power spectrum from the WMAP data.
Signature of cosmic string wakes in the CMB polarization
Danos, Rebecca J.; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Holder, Gil
2010-07-15
We calculate a signature of cosmic strings in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. We find that ionization in the wakes behind moving strings gives rise to extra polarization in a set of rectangular patches in the sky whose length distribution is scale-invariant. The length of an individual patch is set by the comoving Hubble radius at the time the string is perturbing the cosmic microwave background. The polarization signal is largest for string wakes produced at the earliest post-recombination time, and for an alignment in which the photons cross the wake close to the time the wake is created. The maximal amplitude of the polarization relative to the temperature quadrupole is set by the overdensity of free electrons inside a wake which depends on the ionization fraction f inside the wake. For a cosmic string wake coming from an idealized string segment, the signal can be as high as 0.06 {mu}K in degree scale polarization for a string at high redshift (near recombination) and a string tension {mu} given by G{mu}=10{sup -7}.
Birefringence, CMB polarization, and magnetized B-mode
Giovannini, Massimo; Kunze, Kerstin E.
2009-04-15
Even in the absence of a sizable tensor contribution, a B-mode polarization can be generated because of the competition between a pseudoscalar background and predecoupling magnetic fields. By investigating the dispersion relations of a magnetoactive plasma supplemented by a pseudoscalar interaction, the total B-mode polarization is shown to depend not only upon the plasma and Larmor frequencies but also on the pseudoscalar rotation rate. If the (angular) frequency channels of a given experiment are larger than the pseudoscalar rotation rate, the only possible source of (frequency-dependent) B-mode autocorrelations must be attributed to Faraday rotation. In the opposite case the pseudoscalar contribution dominates and the total rate becomes, in practice, frequency independent. The B-mode cross correlations can be used, under certain conditions, to break the degeneracy by disentangling the two birefringent contributions.
Measuring CMB polarization from ISS: the SPOrt experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
SPORT Collaboration
2004-09-01
The SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory) experiment aims to measure CMBP (cosmic microwave background polarization) on about 80% of the sky from space. Selected by ESA to fly on board the ISS in 2006, it is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). As shown also by the recent WMAP release, CMBP data, besides of removing various degeneracies among cosmological parameters, provided new and important information on the cosmic opacity τ and, therefore, on very early cosmic objects which reionized the world at z ˜ 15. Most such information is obtained from low-l spectral components, that SPOrt, with its HPBW resolution of 7∘ will explore with a high level of sensitivity. The 4 polarimeters of SPOrt work at 22, 32 and (2x) 90 GHz. At lower frequencies they will provide a (nearly) all-sky survey of Galactic synchrotron polarized emission, while data at the higher frequency will measure the CMBP signal. Correlating SPOrt with anisotropy data, by other experiments, shall therefore provide significant cosmological information. We performed a number of simulations of SPOrt performance, aimed to determine how far τ and/or other parameter(s) concerning reionization are constrained by the expected data. We also considered a possible interplay between reionization histories and Dark Energy nature. Besides of information on technological developments for systematics reduction, long term stability and observing time efficiency, we report here recent outputs on the expected SPOrt performance in constraining cosmological models.
CMB polarization systematics, cosmological birefringence, and the gravitational waves background
Pagano, Luca; Bernardis, Paolo de; Gubitosi, Giulia; Masi, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Piacentini, Francesco; De Troia, Grazia; Natoli, Paolo; Polenta, Gianluca
2009-08-15
Cosmic microwave background experiments must achieve very accurate calibration of their polarization reference frame to avoid biasing the cosmological parameters. In particular, a wrong or inaccurate calibration might mimic the presence of a gravitational wave background, or a signal from cosmological birefringence, a phenomenon characteristic of several nonstandard, symmetry breaking theories of electrodynamics that allow for in vacuo rotation of the polarization direction of the photon. Noteworthly, several authors have claimed that the BOOMERanG 2003 (B2K) published polarized power spectra of the cosmic microwave background may hint at cosmological birefringence. Such analyses, however, do not take into account the reported calibration uncertainties of the BOOMERanG focal plane. We develop a formalism to include this effect and apply it to the BOOMERanG dataset, finding a cosmological rotation angle {alpha}=-4.3 deg. {+-}4.1 deg. We also investigate the expected performances of future space borne experiment, finding that an overall miscalibration larger then 1 deg. for Planck and 0.2 deg. for the Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology, if not properly taken into account, will produce a bias on the constraints on the cosmological parameters and could misleadingly suggest the presence of a gravitational waves background.
CMB and random flights: temperature and polarization in position space
Reimberg, Paulo H.F.; Abramo, L. Raul E-mail: abramo@fma.if.usp.br
2013-06-01
The fluctuations in the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background are described by a hierarchy of Boltzmann equations. In its integral form, this Boltzmann hierarchy can be converted from the usual Fourier-space base into a position-space and causal description. We show that probability densities for random flights play a key role in this description. The integral system can be treated as a perturbative series in the number of steps of the random flights, and the properties of random flight probabilities impose constraints on the domains of dependence. We show that, as a result of these domains, a Fourier-Bessel decomposition can be employed in order to calculate the random flight probability densities. We also illustrate how the H-theorem applies to the cosmic microwave background: by using analytical formulae for the asymptotic limits of these probability densities, we show that, as the photon distribution approaches a state of equilibrium, both the temperature anisotropies and the net polarization must vanish.
5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.
2010-01-01
We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 145 mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bolometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.
5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Stiehl, gregory M.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.
2010-01-01
We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.
A constraint on Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics with CMB polarization data
Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it
2009-08-01
We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ ≅ −0.110±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5 × 10{sup −4} (PLANCK), 6.1 × 10{sup −3} (Spider), and 1.0 × 10{sup −5} (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1 × 10{sup −6}.
Detecting anomalies in CMB maps: a new method
Neelakanta, Jayanth T.
2015-10-01
Ever since WMAP announced its first results, different analyses have shown that there is weak evidence for several large-scale anomalies in the CMB data. While the evidence for each anomaly appears to be weak, the fact that there are multiple seemingly unrelated anomalies makes it difficult to account for them via a single statistical fluke. So, one is led to considering a combination of these anomalies. But, if we ''hand-pick'' the anomalies (test statistics) to consider, we are making an a posteriori choice. In this article, we propose two statistics that do not suffer from this problem. The statistics are linear and quadratic combinations of the a{sub ℓ m}'s with random co-efficients, and they test the null hypothesis that the a{sub ℓ m}'s are independent, normally-distributed, zero-mean random variables with an m-independent variance. The motivation for considering multiple modes is this: because most physical models that lead to large-scale anomalies result in coupling multiple ℓ and m modes, the ''coherence'' of this coupling should get enhanced if a combination of different modes is considered. In this sense, the statistics are thus much more generic than those that have been hitherto considered in literature. Using fiducial data, we demonstrate that the method works and discuss how it can be used with actual CMB data to make quite general statements about the incompatibility of the data with the null hypothesis.
Excess B-modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.
2016-07-01
One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from mm/submm observations is the pollution from the main Galactic components: synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust emission. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract CMB has been demonstrated on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation power spectra within a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a ``high pass filter'' in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron neural networks. This spectrum contains a bright feature with signal to noise ratios ≃ 4.5 within 200 ≤ l ≤ 250. The spectrum is significantly brighter than the BICEP2 2015 spectrum, with a spectral behaviour quite different from the ``canonical'' models (weak lensing plus B-modes spectra with different tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated.
A special kind of local structure in the CMB intensity maps: duel peak structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hao; Li, Ti-Pei
2009-03-01
We study the local structure of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature maps released by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team, and find a new kind of structure, which can be described as follows: a peak (or valley) of average temperature is often followed by a peak of temperature fluctuation that is 4° away. This structure is important for the following reasons: both the well known cold spot detected by Cruz et al. and the hot spot detected by Vielva et al. with the same technology (the third spot in their article) have such structure; more spots that are similar to them can be found on CMB maps and they also tend to be significant cold/hot spots; if we change the 4° characteristic into an artificial one, such as 3° or 5°, there will be less 'similar spots', and the temperature peaks or valleys will be less significant. The presented 'similar spots' have passed a strict consistency test which requires them to be significant on at least three different CMB temperature maps. We hope that this article could arouse some interest in the relationship of average temperature with temperature fluctuation in local areas; meanwhile, we are also trying to find an explanation for it which might be important to CMB observation and theory.
GroundBIRD Experiment: Detecting CMB Polarization Power in a Large Angular Scale from the Ground
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oguri, S.; Choi, J.; Hazumi, M.; Kawai, M.; Tajima, O.; Won, E.; Yoshida, M.
2014-09-01
GroundBIRD is a ground-based experiment designed to detect large angular scale odd-parity patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization (-modes). We employ a high-speed rotation scan (20 rpm) instead of the usual left-right azimuthal scan; it allows a significant expansion of the scan range to without any effect from the detector noise. We use microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) arrays with a small telescope; our target multipole () range is . We plan to start the test observation in Japan in 2014; these will then be moved to the Atacama highland in Chile for scientific observations.
Bunn, Emory F.
2011-04-15
Separation of the B component of a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization map from the much larger E component is an essential step in CMB polarimetry. For a map with incomplete sky coverage, this separation is necessarily hampered by the presence of ambiguous modes which could be either E or B modes. I present an efficient pixel-space algorithm for removing the ambiguous modes and separating the map into pure E and B components. The method, which works for arbitrary geometries, does not involve generating a complete basis of such modes and scales the cube of the number of pixels on the boundary of the map.
MuSE: a novel experiment for CMB polarization measurement using highly multimoded bolometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusaka, Akito; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Stevenson, Thomas R.
2012-09-01
One of the most exciting targets for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements is the faint signal from the primordial gravity waves predicted by inflationary models. Currently existing experiments and those under construction would constrain or detect such a signal at around r = 0.01, where r is the tensor to scalar ratio. In order to further improve the measurement, experiments for the next generation have to combine the following three: 1) excellent sensitivity, 2) multi-frequency measurement for the removal of galactic foregrounds, and 3) well-controlled systematics. We propose the Multimoded Survey Experiment (MuSE), which uses highly multimoded polarization-sensitive bolometers developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). MuSE, consisting of 69 pixels, will achieve a sensitivity equivalent to several thousand single-moded bolometers. Each pixel can be configured to be sensitive to a different frequency band, allowing very wide frequency coverage by a single focal plane. This enables us to clean galactic synchrotron and dust components with our data alone. MuSE achieves an effective array sensitivity to the CMB of 8 μK√s even after accounting for the sensitivity degradation from foreground removal and reaches a 2-σ error on r of 0.009 with two years of operation.
Comparing and combining the Saskatoon, QMAP, and COBE CMB maps
Xu, Yongzhong; Tegmark, Max; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica; Devlin, Mark J.; Herbig, Thomas; Miller, Amber D.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Page, Lyman
2001-05-15
We present a method for comparing and combining maps with different resolutions and beam shapes, and apply it to the Saskatoon, QMAP, and COBE-DMR data sets. Although the Saskatoon and QMAP maps detect signals at the 21{sigma} and 40{sigma} levels, respectively, their difference is consistent with pure noise, placing strong limits on possible systematic errors. In particular, we obtain quantitative upper limits on relative calibration and pointing errors. Splitting the combined data by frequency shows similar consistency between the Ka and Q bands, placing limits on foreground contamination. The visual agreement between the maps is equally striking. Our combined QMAP+Saskatoon map, nicknamed QMASK, is publicly available on the web together with its 6495x6495 noise covariance matrix. This thoroughly tested data set covers a large enough area (648 square degrees -- currently the largest degree-scale map available) to allow a statistical comparison with COBE-DMR, showing good agreement.
Analytic approach to the CMB polarization generated by relic gravitational waves
Zhao Wen; Zhang Yang
2006-10-15
By Polnarev's method we analytically calculate the polarization spectra of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) generated by cosmic relic gravitational waves (RGW). In this analytic approach the physics involved in this generating process is more transparent. Consequently, the effects due to various elements of physics can be isolated easily. In solving the equation for evolution of RGW in the expanding universe, both the sudden transition and the WKB approximation for the scale factor during the radiation-matter transition have been taken. To describe more precisely the decoupling process, we have introduced an analytic expression for the visibility function, consisting of two pieces of half-Gaussian curves. We also include the damping on polarizations due to the photon diffusion up to the second order of the tight coupling. Analytic polarization spectra C{sub l}{sup XX} have been obtained with the following several improvements over the previous results. 1. The approximate analytic result is quite close to the numerical one evaluated from the cmbfast code, especially, for the first three peaks of the spectrum that are observable. By using the analytic exact solution of RGW in the sudden transition approximation, we have demonstrated the dependence of C{sub l}{sup XX} on the dark energy and the baryons. 2. Our analytic half-Gaussian approximation of the visibility function fits better than the usual Gaussian model, and its time integration yields an analytic damping factor, which is parameter-dependent. This improves the spectra by {approx}30% around the second and third peaks. 3. The second order of tight coupling reduces the overall amplitude of C{sub l}{sup XX} by 58%, comparing with the tight-coupling limit. 4. The influences of inflation on RGW and on CMB polarization are explicitly demonstrated.
Non-Gaussian extrema counts for CMB maps
Pogosyan, Dmitri; Pichon, Christophe; Gay, Christophe
2011-10-15
In the context of the geometrical analysis of weakly non-Gaussian cosmic microwave background maps, the 2D differential extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold is derived from the full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian. Analytic expressions for these counts are given to second order in the non-Gaussian correction, while a Monte Carlo method to compute them to arbitrary order is presented. Matching count statistics to these estimators is illustrated on fiducial non-Gaussian Planck data.
Multichroic Antenna-Coupled Bolometers for CMB Polarization and Sub-mm Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Adrian
We propose to develop planar antenna-coupled superconducting bolometer arrays for observations at sub-millimeter to millimeter wavelengths. Our pixel architecture features a dual-polarization log-periodic antenna with a 4:1-bandwidth ratio, followed by a filter bank that divides the total bandwidth into several broad photometric bands. The advantages of this approach, compared with those using conventional single-color pixels, include a combination of greatly reduced focal-plane mass, higher array sensitivity, and a larger number of spectral bands. These advantages have the potential to greatly reduce the cost and/or increase the performance of NASA missions in the sub-millimeter to millimeter bands. For CMB polarization measurements, a wide frequency range of roughly 30 to 300 GHz is required to subtract galactic foregrounds. The multichroic architecture we propose enables a relatively low-cost 30-cm aperture space mission to have sufficient sensitivity to probe below the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.01. For a larger aperture mission, such as the EPIC-IM concept, the proposed technology could reduce the focal-plane mass by a factor of 2-3, with great savings in required cryocooler performance and therefore cost. We have demonstrated the lens-coupled antenna concept in the POLARBEAR ground-based CMB polarization experiment now operating in Chile. That experiment uses a single-band planar antenna and produces excellent beam properties and optical efficiency. In the laboratory, we have measured two octaves of total bandwidth in the log-periodic sinuous antenna. We have built filter banks of 2, 3, and 7 bands with 4, 6, and 14 bolometers per pixel for two linear polarizations. Building on these accomplishments, the deliverables for the proposed work include: *Two pixel types that together cover the range from 30 to 300 GHz. The low-frequency pixel will have bands centered at 35, 50, and 80 GHz and the high frequency pixel will have bands centered at 120, 180, and 270
Semi-blind Bayesian inference of CMB map and power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vansyngel, Flavien; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Cardoso, Jean-François; Benabed, Karim
2016-04-01
We present a new blind formulation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) inference problem. The approach relies on a phenomenological model of the multifrequency microwave sky without the need for physical models of the individual components. For all-sky and high resolution data, it unifies parts of the analysis that had previously been treated separately such as component separation and power spectrum inference. We describe an efficient sampling scheme that fully explores the component separation uncertainties on the inferred CMB products such as maps and/or power spectra. External information about individual components can be incorporated as a prior giving a flexible way to progressively and continuously introduce physical component separation from a maximally blind approach. We connect our Bayesian formalism to existing approaches such as Commander, spectral mismatch independent component analysis (SMICA), and internal linear combination (ILC), and discuss possible future extensions.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: CMB intensity map from WMAP and Planck PR2 data (Bobin+, 2016)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobin, J.; Sureau, F.; Starck, J.-L.
2016-05-01
This paper presents a novel estimation of the CMB map reconstructed from the Planck 2015 data (PR2) and the WMAP nine-year data (Bennett et al., 2013ApJS..208...20B), which updates the CMB map we published in (Bobin et al., 2014A&A...563A.105B). This new map is based on the sparse component separation method L-GMCA (Bobin et al., 2013A&A...550A..73B). Additionally, the map benefits from the latest advances in this field (Bobin et al., 2015, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 63, 1199), which allows us to accurately discriminate between correlated components. In this update to our previous work, we show that this new map presents significant improvements with respect to the available CMB map estimates. (3 data files).
The Parkes Galactic Meridian Survey: observations and CMB polarization foreground analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carretti, E.; Haverkorn, M.; McConnell, D.; Bernardi, G.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Cortiglioni, S.; Poppi, S.
2010-07-01
We present observations and cosmic microwave background (CMB) foreground analysis of the Parkes Galactic Meridian Survey, an investigation of the Galactic latitude behaviour of the polarized synchrotron emission at 2.3GHz with the Parkes Radio Telescope. The survey consists of a 5° wide strip along the Galactic meridian l = 254° extending from the Galactic plane to the South Galactic pole. We identify three zones distinguished by polarized emission properties: the disc, the halo and a transition region connecting them. The halo section lies at latitudes |b| > 40° and has weak and smooth polarized emission mostly at large scale with steep angular power spectra of median slope βmed ~ -2.6. The disc region covers the latitudes |b| < 20° and has a brighter, more complex emission dominated by the small scales with flatter spectra of median slope βmed = -1.8. The transition region has steep spectra as in the halo, but the emission increases towards the Galactic plane from halo to disc levels. The change of slope and emission structure at b ~ -20° is sudden, indicating a sharp disc-halo transition. The whole halo section is just one environment extended over 50° with very low emission which, once scaled to 70GHz, is equivalent to the CMB B-mode emission for a tensor-to-scalar perturbation power ratio rhalo = (3.3 +/- 0.4) × 10-3. Applying a conservative cleaning procedure, we estimate an r detection limit of δr ~ 2 × 10-3 at 70GHz (3σ confidence limit) and, assuming a dust polarization fraction of <12per cent, δr ~ 1 × 10-2 at 150GHz. The 150-GHz limit matches the goals of planned sub-orbital experiments, which can therefore be conducted at this high frequency. The 70-GHz limit is close to the goal of proposed next-generation space missions, which thus might not strictly require space-based platforms.
Lensing reconstruction from a patchwork of polarization maps
Namikawa, Toshiya; Nagata, Ryo E-mail: rnagata@post.kek.jp
2014-09-01
The lensing signals involved in CMB polarization maps have already been measured with ground-based experiments such as SPTpol and POLARBEAR, and would become important as a probe of cosmological and astrophysical issues in the near future. Sizes of polarization maps from ground-based experiments are, however, limited by contamination of long wavelength modes of observational noise. To further extract the lensing signals, we explore feasibility of measuring lensing signals from a collection of small sky maps each of which is observed separately by a ground-based large telescope, i.e., lensing reconstruction from a patchwork map of large sky coverage organized from small sky patches. We show that, although the B-mode power spectrum obtained from the patchwork map is biased due to baseline uncertainty, bias on the lensing potential would be negligible if the B-mode on scales larger than the blowup scale of 1/f noise is removed in the lensing reconstruction. As examples of cosmological applications, we also show 1) the cross-correlations between the reconstructed lensing potential and full-sky temperature/polarization maps from satellite missions such as PLANCK and LiteBIRD, and 2) the use of the reconstructed potential for delensing B-mode polarization of LiteBIRD observation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Hikage, Chiaki; Namba, Ryo; Namikawa, Toshiya; Hazumi, Masashi
2016-08-01
The B -mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies at large angular scales provides compelling evidence for the primordial gravitational waves (GWs). It is often stated that a discovery of the GWs establishes the quantum fluctuation of vacuum during the cosmic inflation. Since the GWs could also be generated by source fields, however, we need to check if a sizable signal exists due to such source fields before reaching a firm conclusion when the B mode is discovered. Source fields of particular types can generate non-Gaussianity (NG) in the GWs. Testing statistics of the B mode is a powerful way of detecting such NG. As a concrete example, we show a model in which gauge field sources chiral GWs via a pseudoscalar coupling and forecast the detection significance at the future CMB satellite LiteBIRD. Effects of residual foregrounds and lensing B mode are both taken into account. We find the B -mode bispectrum "BBB" is in particular sensitive to the source-field NG, which is detectable at LiteBIRD with a >3 σ significance. Therefore the search for the BBB will be indispensable toward unambiguously establishing quantum fluctuation of vacuum when the B mode is discovered. We also introduced the Minkowski functional to detect the NGs. While we find that the Minkowski functional is less efficient than the harmonic-space bispectrum estimator, it still serves as a useful cross-check. Finally, we also discuss the possibility of extracting clean information on parity violation of GWs and new types of parity-violating observables induced by lensing.
Noise power spectrum estimation and fast map making for CMB experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amblard, A.; Hamilton, J.-Ch.
2004-04-01
We present a method designed to estimate the noise power spectrum in the time domain for CMB experiments. The noise power spectrum is extracted from the time ordered data avoiding the contamination coming from sky signal and accounting the pixellisation of the signal and the projection of the noise when making intermediate sky projections. This method is simple to implement and relies on Monte-Carlo simulations, it runs on a simple desk computer. We also propose a trick for filtering data before making coadded maps in order to avoid ringing due to the presence of signal in the timelines. These algorithms were succesfully tested on Archeops data.
Second Season QUIET Observations: Measurements of the CMB Polarization Power Spectrum at 95 GHz
Araujo, D.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Dumoulin, R.N.; Kusaka, A.; Monsalve, R.; ss, S.K.N\\ae; Newburgh, L.B.; /Columbia U., CBA /Princeton U. /Caltech
2012-07-01
The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95GHz. The 43-GHz results have been published in QUIET Collaboration et al. (2011), and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95-GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hours of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 {mu}K{radical}s. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of {approx} 1000 square degrees with an effective angular resolution of 12'.8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high-signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C{ell} (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB and BB power spectra between {ell} = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with {Lambda}CDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1{sup +0.9}{sub -0.8} (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = {sup +0.9}{sub -0.8} (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.
Statistical isotropy violation in WMAP CMB maps resulting from non-circular beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Santanu; Mitra, Sanjit; Rotti, Aditya; Pant, Nidhi; Souradeep, Tarun
2016-06-01
Statistical isotropy (SI) of cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is a key observational test to validate the cosmological principle underlying the standard model of cosmology. While a detection of SI violation would have immense cosmological ramification, it is important to recognise their possible origin in systematic effects of observations. The WMAP seven year (WMAP-7) release claimed significant deviation from SI in the bipolar spherical harmonic (BipoSH) coefficients and . Here we present the first explicit reproduction of the measurements reported in WMAP-7, confirming that beam systematics alone can completely account for the measured SI violation. The possibility of such a systematic origin was alluded to in WMAP-7 paper itself and other authors but not as explicitly so as to account for it accurately. We simulate CMB maps using the actual WMAP non-circular beams and scanning strategy. Our estimated BipoSH spectra from these maps match the WMAP-7 results very well. It is also evident that only a very careful and adequately detailed modelling, as carried out here, can conclusively establish that the entire signal arises from non-circular beam effect. This is important since cosmic SI violation signals are expected to be subtle and dismissing a large SI violation signal as observational artefact based on simplistic plausibility arguments run the serious risk of "throwing the baby out with the bathwater".
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, N. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Marriage, T. A.; Wollack, E. J.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fixsen, D. J.; Harrington, K.; Moseley, S. H.; Rostem, K.; Switzer, E. R.; Watts, D. J.
2016-02-01
Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) are currently being implemented in experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales because of their capability for providing rapid, front-end polarization modulation and control over systematic errors. Despite the advantages provided by the VPM, it is important to identify and mitigate any time-varying effects that leak into the synchronously modulated component of the signal. In this paper, the effect of emission from a 300 K VPM on the system performance is considered and addressed. Though instrument design can greatly reduce the influence of modulated VPM emission, some residual modulated signal is expected. VPM emission is treated in the presence of rotational misalignments and temperature variation. Simulations of time-ordered data are used to evaluate the effect of these residual errors on the power spectrum. The analysis and modeling in this paper guides experimentalists on the critical aspects of observations using VPMs as front-end modulators. By implementing the characterizations and controls as described, front-end VPM modulation can be very powerful for mitigating 1/f noise in large angular scale polarimetric surveys. None of the systematic errors studied fundamentally limit the detection and characterization of B-modes on large scales for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r = 0.01. Indeed, r < 0.01 is achievable with commensurately improved characterizations and controls.
Maps of CMB lensing deflection from N-body simulations in Coupled Dark Energy Cosmologies
Carbone, Carmelita; Baldi, Marco; Baccigalupi, Carlo E-mail: marco.baldi5@unibo.it E-mail: bacci@sissa.it
2013-09-01
We produce lensing potential and deflection-angle maps in order to simulate the weak gravitational lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) via ray-tracing through the COupled Dark Energy Cosmological Simulations (CoDECS), the largest suite of N-body simulations to date for interacting Dark Energy cosmologies. The constructed maps faithfully reflect the N-body cosmic structures on a range of scales going from the arcminute to the degree scale, limited only by the resolution and extension of the simulations. We investigate the variation of the lensing pattern due to the underlying Dark Energy (DE) dynamics, characterised by different background and perturbation behaviours as a consequence of the interaction between the DE field and Cold Dark Matter (CDM). In particular, we study in detail the results from three cosmological models differing in the background and perturbations evolution at the epoch in which the lensing cross section is most effective, corresponding to a redshift of ∼ 1, with the purpose to isolate their imprints in the lensing observables, regardless of the compatibility of these models with present constraints. The scenarios investigated here include a reference ΛCDM cosmology, a standard coupled DE (cDE) scenario, and a ''bouncing'' cDE scenario. For the standard cDE scenario, we find that typical differences in the lensing potential result from two effects: the enhanced growth of linear CDM density fluctuations with respect to the ΛCDM case, and the modified nonlinear dynamics of collapsed structures induced by the DE-CDM interaction. As a consequence, CMB lensing highlights the DE impact in the cosmological expansion, even in the degenerate case where the amplitude of the linear matter density perturbations, parametrised through σ{sub 8}, is the same in both the standard cDE and ΛCDM cosmologies. For the ''bouncing'' scenario, we find that the two opposite behaviours of the lens density contrast and of the matter abundance lead to
Lensing-induced morphology changes in CMB temperature maps in modified gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munshi, D.; Hu, B.; Matsubara, T.; Coles, P.; Heavens, A.
2016-04-01
Lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) changes the morphology of pattern of temperature fluctuations, so topological descriptors such as Minkowski Functionals can probe the gravity model responsible for the lensing. We show how the recently introduced two-to-two and three-to-one kurt-spectra (and their associated correlation functions), which depend on the power spectrum of the lensing potential, can be used to probe modified gravity theories such as f(R) theories of gravity and quintessence models. We also investigate models based on effective field theory, which include the constant-Ω model, and low-energy Hořava theories. Estimates of the cumulative signal-to-noise for detection of lensing-induced morphology changes, reaches Script O(103) for the future planned CMB polarization mission COrE+. Assuming foreground removal is possible to lmax=3000, we show that many modified gravity theories can be rejected with a high level of significance, making this technique comparable in power to galaxy weak lensing or redshift surveys. These topological estimators are also useful in distinguishing lensing from other scattering secondaries at the level of the four-point function or trispectrum. Examples include the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect which shares, with lensing, a lack of spectral distortion. We also discuss the complication of foreground contamination from unsubtracted point sources.
Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Smoot, George F.; Zahn, Oliver
2009-07-15
We present new constraints on cosmic variations of Newton's gravitational constant by making use of the latest CMB data from WMAP, BOOMERANG, CBI and ACBAR experiments and independent constraints coming from big bang nucleosynthesis. We found that current CMB data provide constraints at the {approx}10% level, that can be improved to {approx}3% by including big bang nucleosynthesis data. We show that future data expected from the Planck satellite could constrain G at the {approx}1.5% level while an ultimate, cosmic variance limited, CMB experiment could reach a precision of about 0.4%, competitive with current laboratory measurements.
The topology and size of the universe from CMB temperature and polarization data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aslanyan, Grigor; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Yadav, Amit P. S.
2013-08-01
We analyze seven year and nine year WMAP temperature maps for signatures of three finite flat topologies Script M0 = Bbb T3, Script M1 = Bbb T2 × Bbb R1, and Script M2 = S1 × Bbb R2. We use Monte-Carlo simulations with the Feldman-Cousins method to obtain confidence intervals for the size of the topologies considered. We analyze the V, W, and Q frequency bands along with the ILC map and find no significant difference in the results. The 95.5% confidence level lower bound on the size of the topology is 1.5L0 for Script M0, 1.4L0 for Script M1, and 1.1L0 for Script M2, where L0 is the radius of the last scattering surface. Our results agree very well with the recently released results from the Planck temperature data. We show that the likelihood function is not Gaussian in the size, and therefore simulations are important for obtaining accurate bounds on the size. We then introduce the formalism for including polarization data in the analysis. The improvement that we find from WMAP polarization maps is small because of the high level of instrumental noise, but our forecast for Planck maps shows a much better improvement on the lower bound for L. For the Script M0 topology we expect an improvement on the lower bound of L from 1.7L0 to 1.9L0 at 95.5% confidence level. Using both polarization and temperature data is important because it tests the hypothesis that deviations in the TT spectrum at small l originate in the primordial perturbation spectrum.
GroundBIRD: an experiment for CMB polarization measurements at a large angular scale from the ground
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, Osamu; Choi, Jhoon; Hazumi, Masashi; Ishitsuka, Hikaru; Kawai, Masanori; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro
2012-09-01
Odd-parity patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization, B-modes, could provide important cosmological information. Detection of the primordial B-mode power at a large angular scale would be a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. In particular, detecting a reionization bump (at a multipole of <= 10) should be a clear evidence of it. GroundBIRD is designed to detect the B-mode signal at this large angular scale from the ground. We will use superconducting detector arrays with small telescope that will also be cooled down to 4K. Therefore, the basic design can be extended to a satellite experiment. GroundBIRD employs a high-speed (20 rpm) rotation scan instead of the usual left-right azimuthal scan; this allows us to maintain a high-speed scan without any deceleration, resulting in a significant expansion of the scan range to 60° without any effect of the detector 1/f noise. Our target is measuring the CMB polarization power in a multipole (l) range of 6 <= l <= 300. We plan to start commissioning the instruments in Japan in early 2014; they will then be moved to the Atacama Desert in Chile for scientific observations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
This gamma ray spectrometer map centered on the north pole of Mars is based on gamma-rays from the element hydrogen. In this region, hydrogen is mainly in the form of water ice. Regions of high ice content are shown in red and those low in ice content are shown in blue. The very ice-rich region at the north pole is due to a permanent polar cap of water ice on the surface. Elsewhere in this region, the ice is buried under several to a few tens of centimeters of dry soil. The sub-surface ice is not uniformly distributed in the north, but varies with both latitude and longitude. In the north, the soil is well over 50 percent ice, which is more than can be accommodated by just filling the pore space in pre-existing soil. This high ice content implies that the ice may have been slowly co-deposited with dust in the past when conditions were wetter. Deposition of ice by this process means it is more likely that the ice deposits are very thick and may even be deep enough to have liquid water at their base.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The gamma ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona, Tucson. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colo., is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Posada, C. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ahmed, Z.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J. E.; Bender, A. N.; Bleem, L. E.; Benson, B. A.; Byrum, K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Ciocys, S. T.; Cliche, J. F.; Crawford, T. M.; Cukierman, A.; Czaplewski, D.; Ding, J.; Divan, R.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dutcher, D.; Everett, W.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Hattori, K.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Jeong, O.; Keisler, R.; Kubik, D.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lendinez, S.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, C. S.; Montgomery, J.; Myers, M.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nguyen, H.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pan, Z.; Pearson, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Smecher, G.; Sayre, J. T.; Shirokoff, E.; Stan, L.; Stark, A. A.; Sobrin, J.; Story, K.; Suzuki, A.; Thompson, K. L.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.; Ziegler, K. E.
2015-09-01
This work presents the procedures used at Argonne National Laboratory to fabricate large arrays of multichroic transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers for cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. These detectors will be assembled into the focal plane for the SPT-3G camera, the third generation CMB camera to be installed in the South Pole Telescope. The complete SPT-3G camera will have approximately 2690 pixels, for a total of 16 140 TES bolometric detectors. Each pixel is comprised of a broad-band sinuous antenna coupled to a Nb microstrip line. In-line filters are used to define the different bands before the millimeter-wavelength signal is fed to the respective Ti/Au TES bolometers. There are six TES bolometer detectors per pixel, which allow for measurements of three band-passes (95, 150 and 220 GHz) and two polarizations. The steps involved in the monolithic fabrication of these detector arrays are presented here in detail. Patterns are defined using a combination of stepper and contact lithography. The misalignment between layers is kept below 200 nm. The overall fabrication involves a total of 16 processes, including reactive and magnetron sputtering, reactive ion etching, inductively coupled plasma etching and chemical etching.
The Kullback-Leibler divergence as an estimator of the statistical properties of CMB maps
Ben-David, Assaf; Jackson, Andrew D.; Liu, Hao E-mail: liuhao@nbi.dk
2015-06-01
The identification of unsubtracted foreground residuals in the cosmic microwave background maps on large scales is of crucial importance for the analysis of polarization signals. These residuals add a non-Gaussian contribution to the data. We propose the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence as an effective, non-parametric test on the one-point probability distribution function of the data. With motivation in information theory, the KL divergence takes into account the entire range of the distribution and is highly non-local. We demonstrate its use by analyzing the large scales of the Planck 2013 SMICA temperature fluctuation map and find it consistent with the expected distribution at a level of 6%. Comparing the results to those obtained using the more popular Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we find the two methods to be in general agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trangsrud, Amy R.
SPIDER is a balloon-borne millimeter-wave telescope designed to study the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). SPIDER will map 10% of the full sky with degree-scale beams to search for the distinctive inflationary gravitational wave signal on angular scales between 1 degree and 10 degrees, thereby probing the energy scale of inflation. In its first flight, SPIDER will field 2,400 antenna-coupled bolometers split between two bands centered at 93 GHz and 148 GHz. Slot antenna arrays, band defining microstrip filters and superconducting bolometers are all fabricated photolithographically on a shared silicon substrate. SPIDER's detectors are split amongst six monochromatic on-axis refractors in a shared helium-cooled cryostat. This thesis reviews the design of SPIDER and its antenna-coupled bolometers, and details the currently achieved performance of SPIDER's receivers.
Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Khatri, Rishi E-mail: khatri@mpa-garching.mpg.de
2013-03-01
y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background allow us to detect clusters and groups of galaxies, filaments of hot gas and the non-uniformities in the warm hot intergalactic medium. Several CMB experiments (on small areas of sky) and theoretical groups (for full sky) have recently published y-type distortion maps. We propose to search for two artificial hot spots in such y-type maps resulting from the incomplete subtraction of the effect of the motion induced dipole on the cosmic microwave background sky. This dipole introduces, at second order, additional temperature and y-distortion anisotropy on the sky of amplitude few μK which could potentially be measured by Planck HFI and Pixie experiments and can be used as a source of cross channel calibration by CMB experiments. This y-type distortion is present in every pixel and is not the result of averaging the whole sky. This distortion, calculated exactly from the known linear dipole, can be subtracted from the final y-type maps, if desired.
Bolometeric detector arrays for CMB polarimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuo, C. L.; Bock, J. J.; Day, P.; Goldin, A.; Golwala, S.; Holmes, W.; Irwin, K.; Kenyon, M.; Lange, A. E.; LeDuc, H. G.; Rossinot, P.; Sterb, J.; Vayonakis, A.; Wang, G.; Yun, M.; Zmuidzinas, J.
2005-01-01
We describe the development of antenna coupled bolometers for CMB polarization experiments. The necessary components of a bolometric CMB polarimeter - a beam forming element, a band defining filter, and detectors - are all fabricated on a silicon chip with photolithography.
Signature of patchy reionization in the polarization anisotropy of the CMB
Dore, Olivier; Iliev, Ilian T.; Pen, Ue-Li; Holder, Gil; Alvarez, Marcelo; Mellema, Garrelt; Shapiro, Paul R.
2007-08-15
The inhomogeneous ionization state of the Universe when the first sources of ionizing radiation appeared should lead to anisotropies in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. We use cosmological simulations of the process by which the first sources ionized the intergalactic medium to study the induced polarization anisotropies. We find that the polarization anisotropies have rms of order {approx}0.01 {mu}K, and local peak values of {approx}0.1 {mu}K, smaller than those due to gravitational lensing on small scales. The polarization direction is highly coherent over degree scales. This directional coherence is not expected from either primary anisotropy or gravitational lensing effects, making the largest signals due to inhomogeneous ionization relatively easy to isolate, should experiments achieve the necessary very low noise levels.
The Signature of Patchy Reionization in the Polarization Anisotropy of the CMB
Dore, Olivier; Holder, Gil; Alvarez, Marcelo; Iliev, Ilian T.; Mellema, Garrelt; Pen, Ue-Li; Shapiro, Paul R.; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.
2007-05-16
The inhomogeneous ionization state of the universe when the first sources of ionizing radiation appeared should lead to anisotropies in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. We use cosmological simulations of the process by which the first sources ionized the intergalactic medium to study the induced polarization anisotropies. We find that the polarization anisotropies have rms of order {approx} 0.01 {mu}K, and local peak values of {approx} 0.1 {mu}K, smaller than those due to gravitational lensing on small scales. The polarization direction is highly coherent over degree scales. This directional coherence is not expected from either primary anisotropy or gravitational lensing effects, making the largest signals due to inhomogeneous ionization relatively easy to isolate, should experiments achieve the necessary very low noise levels.
Advanced Antenna-Coupled Superconducting Detector Arrays for CMB Polarimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bock, James
2014-01-01
We are developing high-sensitivity millimeter-wave detector arrays for measuring the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This development is directed to advance the technology readiness of the Inflation Probe mission in NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program. The Inflation Probe is a fourth-generation CMB satellite that will measure the polarization of the CMB to astrophysical limits, characterizing the inflationary polarization signal, mapping large-scale structure based on polarization induced by gravitational lensing, and mapping Galactic magnetic fields through measurements of polarized dust emission. The inflationary polarization signal is produced by a background of gravitational waves from the epoch of inflation, an exponential expansion of space-time in the early universe, with an amplitude that depends on the physical mechanism producing inflation. The inflationary polarization signal may be distinguished by its unique 'B-mode' vector properties from polarization from the density variations that predominantly source CMB temperature anisotropy. Mission concepts for the Inflation Probe are being developed in the US, Europe and Japan. The arrays are based on planar antennas that provide integral beam collimation, polarization analysis, and spectral band definition in a compact lithographed format that eliminates discrete fore-optics such as lenses and feedhorns. The antennas are coupled to transition-edge superconducting bolometers, read out with multiplexed SQUID current amplifiers. The superconducting sensors and readouts developed in this program share common technologies with NASA X-ray and FIR detector applications. Our program targets developments required for space observations, and we discuss our technical progress over the past two years and plans for future development. We are incorporating arrays into active sub-orbital and ground-based experiments, which advance technology readiness while producing state of the art CMB
CMB polarization power spectra contributions from a network of cosmic strings
Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Urrestilla, Jon; Kunz, Martin
2007-08-15
We present the first calculation of the possible (local) cosmic string contribution to the cosmic microwave background polarization spectra from simulations of a string network (rather than a stochastic collection of unconnected string segments). We use field-theory simulations of the Abelian Higgs model to represent local U(1) strings, including their radiative decay and microphysics. Relative to previous estimates, our calculations show a shift in power to larger angular scales, making the chance of a future cosmic string detection from the B-mode polarization slightly greater. We explore a future ground-based polarization detector, taking the CLOVER project as our example. In the null hypothesis (that cosmic strings make a zero contribution) we find that CLOVER should limit the string tension {mu} to G{mu}<0.12x10{sup -6} (where G is the gravitational constant), above which it is likely that a detection would be possible.
Design and fabrication of Argonne/KICP detectors for CMB polarization.
Yefremenko, V.; Datesman, A.; Wang, G.; Pearson, J.; Novosad, V.; Divan, R.; Bleem, L. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T.; Everett, W.; McMahon, J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Ruhl, J.; Sayre, J.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Univ. of Chicago; Case Western Reserve Univ.
2009-01-01
We present the design, microfabrication and assembly of dual-polarization absorber-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer detectors for cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization studies. The device consists of two separate dies incorporating suspended silicon nitride membranes within silicon frames, carefully aligned perpendicularly and fixtured face-to-face. Polarization sensitivity around 95 GHz is provided by a single dipole-like absorber element; we briefly analyze this absorber-in-waveguide configuration in closed form using the EMF method. Proximity effect Mo/Au bilayers provide control of the TES critical temperature between 400 mK and 600 mK, with a normal resistance R{sub n} {approx} 1{Omega}. DC magnetron sputtering, wet etching, and liftoff were employed for TES fabrication. Optimization of the superconducting Mo thin film utilized independent RF bias applied to the substrate during deposition in a confocal geometry. This technique allows outstanding thin film uniformity and stress to be achieved simultaneously over a 4-inch wafer surface, leading to excellent superconducting properties. Device thermal conductance in the range from 25-250pW/K was achieved using suspended silicon nitride membranes 1 micron thick. The value of the thermal conductance depends very strongly upon the surface roughness, and therefore in turn upon the treatment of the silicon nitride material during fabrication.
A new model of the microwave polarized sky for CMB experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hervías-Caimapo, Carlos; Bonaldi, Anna; Brown, Michael L.
2016-10-01
We present a new model of the microwave sky in polarization that can be used to simulate data from cosmic microwave background polarization experiments. We exploit the most recent results from the Planck satellite to provide an accurate description of the diffuse polarized foreground synchrotron and thermal dust emission. Our model can include the two mentioned foregrounds, and also a constructed template of Anomalous Microwave Emission. Several options for the frequency dependence of the foregrounds can be easily selected, to reflect our uncertainties and to test the impact of different assumptions. Small angular scale features can be added to the foreground templates to simulate high-resolution observations. We present tests of the model outputs to show the excellent agreement with Planck and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We determine the range within which the foreground spectral indices can be varied to be consistent with the current data. We also show forecasts for a high-sensitivity, high-resolution full-sky experiment such as the Cosmic ORigin Explorer. Our model is released as a PYTHON script that is quick and easy to use, available at http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/chervias.
Xia, T. Y.; Zhang, Y.
2008-12-15
We present an analytical calculation of the spectra of CMB anisotropies and polarizations generated by relic gravitational waves (RGWs). As a substantial extension to the previous studies, three new ingredients are included in this work. First, the analytic C{sub l}{sup TT} and C{sub l}{sup TE} are given; especially the latter can be useful to extract signal of RGWs from the observed data in the zero-multipole method. Second, a fitting formula of the decaying factor on small scales is given, coming from the visibility function around the photon decoupling. Third, the impacts by the neutrino free-streaming (NFS) is examined, a process that occurred in the early universe and leaves observable imprints on CMB via RGWs. It is found that the analytic C{sub l}{sup TT} and C{sub l}{sup TE} have profiles agreeing with the numeric ones, except that C{sub l}{sup TT} in a range l{<=}10 and the first trough of C{sub l}{sup TE} around l{approx}75 have some deviations. With the new damping factor, the analytic C{sub l}{sup EE} and C{sub l}{sup BB} match with the numeric ones with the maximum errors only {approx}3% up to the first three peaks for l{<=}600, improving the previous studies substantially. The correspondence of the positions of peaks of C{sub l}{sup XX} and those of RGWs are also demonstrated explicitly. We also find that NFS reduces the amplitudes of C{sub l}{sup XX} by (20%{approx}35%) for l{approx_equal}(100{approx}600) and shifts slightly their peaks to smaller angles. Detailed analyses show that the zero multipoles l{sub 0}, where C{sub l}{sup TE} crosses 0, are shifted to larger values by NFS. This shifting effect is as important as those caused by different inflation models and different baryon fractions.
Xia, T. Y.; Zhang, Y.
2009-04-15
We present an approximate, analytical calculation of the reionized spectra C{sub l}{sup XX} of cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies and polarizations generated by relic gravitational waves (RGWs). Three simple models of reionization are explored, whose visibility functions are fitted by Gaussian types of functions as approximations. We have derived the analytical polarization {beta}{sub l} and temperature anisotropies {alpha}{sub l}, which both consist of two terms proportional to RGWs at the decoupling and at the reionization as well. The explicit dependence of {beta}{sub l} and {alpha}{sub l} upon the reionization time {eta}{sub r}, the duration {delta}{eta}{sub r}, and the optical depth {kappa}{sub r} is demonstrated. Moreover, {beta}{sub l} and {alpha}{sub l} contain {kappa}{sub r} in different coefficients, and the polarization spectra C{sub l}{sup EE} and C{sub l}{sup BB} are more sensitive probes of reionization than C{sub l}{sup TT}. These results facilitate examination of the reionization effects, in particular, the degeneracies of {kappa}{sub r} with the normalization amplitude and with the initial spectral index of RGWs. It is also found that reionization causes a {kappa}{sub r}-dependent shift {delta}l{approx}20 of the zero multipole l{sub 0} of C{sub l}{sup TE}, an effect that should be included in order to detect the traces of RGWs. Compared with numerical results, the analytical C{sub l}{sup XX} are approximate and have the limitation. For the primary peaks in the range l{approx_equal}(30,600), the error is {<=}3% in three different models. In the range l<20 for the reionization bumps, the error is {<=}15% for C{sub l}{sup EE} and C{sub l}{sup BB} in the two extended reionization models, and C{sub l}{sup TT} and C{sub l}{sup TE} have much larger departures for l<10. The bumps in the sudden reionization model are too low.
BICEP3: a 95GHz refracting telescope for degree-scale CMB polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Z.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bock, J. J.; Bowens-Rubin, R.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Connors, J.; Filippini, J. P.; Grayson, J. A.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Hristov, V. V.; Hui, H.; Irwin, K. D.; Kang, J.; Karkare, K. S.; Karpel, E.; Kovac, J. M.; Kuo, C. L.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pryke, C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Richter, S.; Thompson, K. L.; Turner, A. D.; Vieregg, A. G.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yoon, K. W.
2014-08-01
Bicep3 is a 550 mm-aperture refracting telescope for polarimetry of radiation in the cosmic microwave background at 95 GHz. It adopts the methodology of Bicep1, Bicep2 and the Keck Array experiments | it possesses sufficient resolution to search for signatures of the inflation-induced cosmic gravitational-wave background while utilizing a compact design for ease of construction and to facilitate the characterization and mitigation of systematics. However, Bicep3 represents a significant breakthrough in per-receiver sensitivity, with a focal plane area 5x larger than a Bicep2/Keck Array receiver and faster optics (f=1:6 vs. f=2:4). Large-aperture infrared-reflective metal-mesh filters and infrared-absorptive cold alumina filters and lenses were developed and implemented for its optics. The camera consists of 1280 dual-polarization pixels; each is a pair of orthogonal antenna arrays coupled to transition-edge sensor bolometers and read out by multiplexed SQUIDs. Upon deployment at the South Pole during the 2014-15 season, Bicep3 will have survey speed comparable to Keck Array 150 GHz (2013), and will signifcantly enhance spectral separation of primordial B-mode power from that of possible galactic dust contamination in the Bicep2 observation patch
Detection of endometrial lesions by degree of linear polarization maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jihoon; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Walsh, Joseph T.
2010-02-01
Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of chronic pelvic pain and infertility and is characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterine cavity. A novel laparoscopic polarization imaging system was designed to detect endometriosis by imaging endometrial lesions. Linearly polarized light with varying incident polarization angles illuminated endometrial lesions. Degree of linear polarization image maps of endometrial lesions were constructed by using remitted polarized light. The image maps were compared with regular laparoscopy image. The degree of linear polarization map contributed to the detection of endometriosis by revealing structures inside the lesion. The utilization of rotating incident polarization angle (IPA) for the linearly polarized light provides extended understanding of endometrial lesions. The developed polarization system with varying IPA and the collected image maps could provide improved characterization of endometrial lesions via higher visibility of the structure of the lesions and thereby improve diagnosis of endometriosis.
General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it
2014-05-01
We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = odd). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.
Simulation of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Fields for AMiBA Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Chan-Gyung; Park, Changbom
2002-06-01
We have made a topological study of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization maps by simulating the AMiBA experiment results. A ΛCDM CMB sky is adopted to make mock interferometric observations designed for the AMiBA experiment. CMB polarization fields are reconstructed from the AMiBA mock visibility data using the maximum entropy method. We have also considered effects of Galactic foregrounds on the CMB polarization fields. The genus statistic is calculated from the simulated Q and U polarization maps, where Q and U are Stokes parameters. Our study shows that the Galactic foreground emission, even at low Galactic latitude, is expected to have small effects on the CMB polarization field. Increasing survey area and integration time is essential to detect non-Gaussian signals of cosmological origin through genus measurement.
Delensing the CMB with the cosmic infrared background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherwin, Blake D.; Schmittfull, Marcel
2015-08-01
As confusion with lensing B modes begins to limit experiments that search for primordial B-mode polarization, robust methods for delensing the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization sky are becoming increasingly important. We investigate in detail the possibility of delensing the CMB with the cosmic infrared background (CIB), emission from dusty star-forming galaxies that is an excellent tracer of the CMB lensing signal, in order to improve constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r . We find that the maps of the CIB, such as current Planck satellite maps at 545 GHz, can be used to remove more than half of the lensing B-mode power. Calculating optimal combinations of different large-scale-structure tracers for delensing, we find that coadding CIB data and external arcminute-resolution CMB lensing reconstruction can lead to significant additional improvements in delensing performance. We investigate whether measurement uncertainty in the CIB power spectra will degrade the delensing performance if no model of the CIB spectra is assumed, and instead the CIB power spectra are marginalized over, when constraining r . We find that such uncertainty does not significantly affect B-mode surveys smaller than a few thousand degrees. Even for larger surveys it causes only a moderate reduction in CIB delensing performance, especially if the surveys have high (arcminute) resolution, which allows self calibration of the delensing procedure. Though further work on the impact of foreground residuals is required, our overall conclusions for delensing with current CIB data are optimistic: this delensing method can tighten constraints on r by a factor up to ≈2.2 , and by a factor up to ≈4 when combined with external lensing reconstruction for ≈3 μ K -arcmin noise, without requiring the modeling of CIB properties. CIB delensing is thus a promising method for the upcoming generation of CMB polarization surveys.
Assimilative Mapping of Interhemispheric Polar Ionospheric Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuo, T.; Richmond, A. D.; Knipp, D. J.; McGranaghan, R. M.
2015-12-01
The Earth's main magnetic field is asymmetric between hemispheres due to its non-dipolar component, leading to various hemispherical differences in the coupling among the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere. Manifestation of the asymmetric coupling through different electrodynamic parameters reported in past studies is considerably diverse. To fill the gap in our current understanding, obtained so far by analyzing individual parameters separately and comparing statistical behaviors of the parameters, we quantify the degree of instantaneous inter-hemispheric imbalance of electromagnetic energy deposition (Poynting flux), field-aligned currents, and convection electric fields though global and self-consistent analysis of electrodynamic variables at both polar regions, by means of data assimilation. Inter-hemispheric assimilative maps of different high-latitude electrodynamical parameters are obtained from simultaneous analysis of multiple types of space-based and ground-based observations made available though the AMPERE, SuperDARN, SuperMAG and DMSP programs with rigorous consideration of the uncertainty associated with each observation.
Amiba Observation of CMB Anisotropies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, Kin-Wang
2003-03-01
The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropies (AMiBA), a 13-element dual-channel 85-105 GHz interferometer array with full polarization capabilities, is being built to search for high redshift clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect as well as to probe the polarization properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We discuss several important issues in the observation of the CMB anisotropies such as observing strategy, l space resolution and mosaicing, optimal estimation of the power spectra, and ground pickup removal.
Recent Geologic Mapping Results for the Polar Regions of Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
tanaka, K. L.; Kolb, E. J.
2008-01-01
The polar regions of Mars include the densest data coverage for the planet because of the polar orbits of MGS, ODY, and MEX. Because the geology of the polar plateaus has been among the most dynamic on the planet in recent geologic time, the data enable the most detailed and complex geologic investigations of any regions on Mars, superseding previous, even recent, mapping efforts [e.g., 1-3]. Geologic mapping at regional and local scales is revealing that the stratigraphy and modificational histories of polar materials by various processes are highly complex at both poles. Here, we describe some of our recent results in polar geologic mapping and how they address the geologic processes involved and implications for polar climate history.
Geomorphologic Map of Titan's Polar Terrains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birch, S. P. D.; Hayes, A. G.; Malaska, M. J.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Schoenfeld, A.; Williams, D. A.
2016-06-01
Titan's lakes and seas contain vast amounts of information regarding the history and evolution of Saturn's largest moon. To understand this landscape, we created a geomorphologic map, and then used our map to develop an evolutionary model.
How accurately can suborbital experiments measure the CMB?
Oliveira-Costa, Angelica de; Tegmark, Max; Devlin, Mark J.; Page, Lyman; Miller, Amber D.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Xu Yongzhong
2005-02-15
Great efforts are currently being channeled into ground- and balloon-based CMB experiments, mainly to explore polarization and anisotropy on small angular scales. To optimize instrumental design and assess experimental prospects, it is important to understand in detail the atmosphere-related systematic errors that limit the science achievable with new instruments. As a step in this direction, we spatially compare the 648 square degree ground- and balloon-based QMASK map with the atmosphere-free WMAP map, finding beautiful agreement on all angular scales where both are sensitive. Although much work remains on quantifying atmospheric effects on CMB experiments, this is a reassuring quantitative assessment of the power of the state-of-the-art fast-Fourier-transform- and matrix-based mapmaking techniques that have been used for QMASK and virtually all subsequent experiments.
Sigurdson, Kris; Cooray, Asantha
2005-11-18
We propose a new method for removing gravitational lensing from maps of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization anisotropies. Using observations of anisotropies or structures in the cosmic 21 cm radiation, emitted or absorbed by neutral hydrogen atoms at redshifts 10 to 200, the CMB can be delensed. We find this method could allow CMB experiments to have increased sensitivity to a background of inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs) compared to methods relying on the CMB alone and may constrain models of inflation which were heretofore considered to have undetectable IGW amplitudes.
[Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silk, Joseph
1998-01-01
One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10-7, where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.
[Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silk, Joseph
1998-01-01
One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.
Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Aluri, P. K.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Liu, H.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pant, N.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.
2016-08-01
We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold Spot" is detected with several methods, including map kurtosis, peak statistics, and mean temperature profile. We thoroughly probe the large-scale dipolar power asymmetry, detecting it with several independent tests, and address the subject of a posteriori correction. Tests of directionality suggest the presence of angular clustering from large to small scales, but at a significance that is dependent on the details of the approach. We perform the first examination of polarization data, finding the morphology of stacked peaks to be consistent with the expectations of statistically isotropic simulations. Where they overlap, these results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and provide our most thorough view of the statistics of the CMB fluctuations to date.
Fergusson, J.R.; Liguori, M.; Shellard, E.P.S. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it
2012-12-01
We use a separable mode expansion estimator with WMAP7 data to estimate the bispectrum for all the primary families of non-Gaussian models, including non-scaling feature (periodic) models, the flat (trans-Planckian) model, DBI and ghost inflation, as well as previously constrained simple cases. We review the late-time mode expansion estimator methodology which can be applied to any non-separable primordial and CMB bispectrum model, and we demonstrate how the method can be used to reconstruct the CMB bispectrum from an observational map. We extend the previous validation of the general estimator using local map simulations. We apply the estimator to the coadded WMAP 7-year V and W channel maps, reconstructing the WMAP bispectrum using l < 500 multipoles and n = 50 orthonormal 3D eigenmodes; both the mode expansion parameters and the reconstructed 3D WMAP bispectrum are plotted. We constrain all popular nearly scale-invariant models, ensuring that the theoretical bispectrum is well-described by a convergent mode expansion. Constraints from the local model f{sub NL} = 20.31±27.64 and the equilateral model f{sub NL} = 10.19±127.38 (F{sub NL} = 1.90±23.79) are consistent with previously published results. (Here, we use a nonlinearity parameter F{sub NL} normalised to the local case, to allow more direct comparison between different models.) Notable new constraints from our method include those for the constant model F{sub NL} = 7.82±24.57, the flat model F{sub NL} = 7.31±26.22, and warm inflation F{sub NL} = 2.10±25.83. We investigate feature models, which break scale invariance, surveying a wide parameter range for both the scale and phase (scanning for feature models with an effective period l* > 150). We find no significant evidence of non-Gaussianity for all cases well-described by the given eigenmodes. In the overall non-Gaussian analysis, we find one anomalous mode n = 33 with a 3.39σ amplitude which could give rise to an oscillatory model signal with l*
Measuring velocites using the CMB & LSS
Stebbins, Albert; /Fermilab /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.
2006-07-01
Here is discussed various ways by which the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation can be use to measure the velocities of matter in the universe. We include some new statistical techniques for using the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect and integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect to determine velocities by correlating wide area CMB maps with overlapping large-scale structure (LSS) surveys.
What do we learn from the CMB observations?
Rubakov, V. A.; Vlasov, A. D.
2012-09-15
We give an account, at nonexpert and quantitative level, of physics behind the CMB temperature anisotropy and polarization and their peculiar features. We discuss, in particular, how cosmological parameters are determined from the CMB measurements and their combinations with other observations. We emphasize that CMB is the major source of information on the primordial density perturbations and, possibly, gravitational waves, and discuss the implication for our understanding of the extremely early Universe.
Geologic map of the north polar region of Mars
Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Fortezzo, Corey M.
2012-01-01
The north polar region of Mars occurs within the central and lowest part of the vast northern plains of Mars and is dominated by the roughly circular north polar plateau, Planum Boreum. The northern plains formed very early in Martian time and have collected volcanic flows and sedimentary materials shed from highland sources. Planum Boreum has resulted from the accumulation of water ice and dust particles. Extensive, uncratered dune fields adjacent to Planum Boreum attest to the active and recent transport and accumulation of sand. Our geologic map of Planum Boreum is the first to record its entire observable stratigraphic record using the various post-Viking image and topography datasets released before 2009. We also provide much more detail in the map than previously published, including some substantial revisions based on new data and observations. The available data have increased and improved immensely in quantity, resolution, coverage, positional accuracy, and spectral range, enabling us to resolve previously unrecognized geomorphic features, stratigraphic relations, and compositional information. We also employ more carefully prescribed and effective mapping methodologies and digital techniques, as well as formatting guidelines. The foremost aspect to our mapping approach is how geologic units are discriminated based primarily on their temporal relations with other units as expressed in unit contacts by unconformities or by gradational relations. Whereas timing constraints of such activity in the north polar region are now better defined stratigraphically, they remain poorly constrained chronologically. The end result is a new reconstruction of the sedimentary, erosional, and structural histories of the north polar region and how they may have been driven by climate conditions, available geologic materials, and eolian, periglacial, impact, magmatic, hydrologic, and tectonic activity.
Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration
Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es
2013-04-01
The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles a{sub lm}'s via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation.
A neural-network based estimator to search for primordial non-Gaussianity in Planck CMB maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novaes, C. P.; Bernui, A.; Ferreira, I. S.; Wuensche, C. A.
2015-09-01
We present an upgraded combined estimator, based on Minkowski Functionals and Neural Networks, with excellent performance in detecting primordial non-Gaussianity in simulated maps that also contain a weighted mixture of Galactic contaminations, besides real pixel's noise from Planck cosmic microwave background radiation data. We rigorously test the efficiency of our estimator considering several plausible scenarios for residual non-Gaussianities in the foreground-cleaned Planck maps, with the intuition to optimize the training procedure of the Neural Network to discriminate between contaminations with primordial and secondary non-Gaussian signatures. We look for constraints of primordial local non-Gaussianity at large angular scales in the foreground-cleaned Planck maps. For the SMICA map we found fNL = 33 ± 23, at 1σ confidence level, in excellent agreement with the WMAP-9yr and Planck results. In addition, for the other three Planck maps we obtain similar constraints with values in the interval fNL in [33, 41], concomitant with the fact that these maps manifest distinct features in reported analyses, like having different pixel's noise intensities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kesden, Michael; Cooray, Asantha; Kamionkowski, Marc
2002-07-01
Inflationary gravitational waves (GW) contribute to the curl component in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Cosmic shear--gravitational lensing of the CMB--converts a fraction of the dominant gradient polarization to the curl component. Higher-order correlations can be used to map the cosmic shear and subtract this contribution to the curl. Arcminute resolution will be required to pursue GW amplitudes smaller than those accessible by the Planck surveyor mission. The blurring by lensing of small-scale CMB power leads with this reconstruction technique to a minimum detectable GW amplitude corresponding to an inflation energy near 10(sup 15) GeV .
Bleem, L. E.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Van Engelen, A.; Holder, G. P.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Aird, K. A.; Armstrong, R.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Biesiadzinski, T.; Brodwin, M.; Busha, M. T.; Cho, H. M.; Desai, S.; Dore, O.; and others
2012-07-01
We compare cosmic microwave background lensing convergence maps derived from South Pole Telescope (SPT) data with galaxy survey data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, WISE, and a new large Spitzer/IRAC field designed to overlap with the SPT survey. Using optical and infrared catalogs covering between 17 and 68 deg{sup 2} of sky, we detect a correlation between the SPT convergence maps and each of the galaxy density maps at >4{sigma}, with zero correlation robustly ruled out in all cases. The amplitude and shape of the cross-power spectra are in good agreement with theoretical expectations and the measured galaxy bias is consistent with previous work. The detections reported here utilize a small fraction of the full 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT survey data and serve as both a proof of principle of the technique and an illustration of the potential of this emerging cosmological probe.
MAPPING THE DARK MATTER WITH POLARIZED RADIO SURVEYS
Brown, Michael L.; Battye, Richard A.
2011-07-01
In a recent paper, we proposed the use of integrated polarization measurements of background galaxies in radio weak gravitational lensing surveys and investigated the potential impact on the statistical measurement of cosmic shear. Here we extend this idea to reconstruct maps of the projected dark matter distribution or lensing convergence field. The addition of polarization can, in principle, greatly reduce shape noise due to the intrinsic dispersion in galaxy ellipticities. We show that maps reconstructed using this technique in the radio band can be competitive with those derived using standard lensing techniques which make use of many more galaxies. In addition, since the reconstruction noise is uncorrelated between these standard techniques and the polarization technique, their comparison can serve as a powerful check for systematics and their combination can reduce noise further. We examine the convergence reconstruction which could be achieved with two forthcoming facilities: (1) a deep survey, covering 1.75 deg{sup 2} using the e-MERLIN instrument currently being commissioned in the UK and (2) the high-resolution, deep wide-field surveys which will eventually be conducted with the Square Kilometre Array.
Samal, Pramoda Kumar; Jain, Pankaj; Saha, Rajib; Prunet, Simon; Souradeep, Tarun
2010-05-01
We estimate cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization and temperature power spectra using Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 5 year foreground contaminated maps. The power spectrum is estimated by using a model-independent method, which does not utilize directly the diffuse foreground templates nor the detector noise model. The method essentially consists of two steps: (1) removal of diffuse foregrounds contamination by making linear combination of individual maps in harmonic space and (2) cross-correlation of foreground cleaned maps to minimize detector noise bias. For the temperature power spectrum we also estimate and subtract residual unresolved point source contamination in the cross-power spectrum using the point source model provided by the WMAP science team. Our TT, TE, and EE power spectra are in good agreement with the published results of the WMAP science team. We perform detailed numerical simulations to test for bias in our procedure. We find that the bias is small in almost all cases. A negative bias at low l in TT power spectrum has been pointed out in an earlier publication. We find that the bias-corrected quadrupole power (l(l + 1)C{sub l} /2{pi}) is 532 {mu}K{sup 2}, approximately 2.5 times the estimate (213.4 {mu}K{sup 2}) made by the WMAP team.
Mapping of magnetic chrons: paleomagnetic polarity map of East Iceland, 0-13 Myr
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helgason, Johann
2016-04-01
Through data on palaeomagnetism, stratigraphy and radiometric age dating an immense database on magnetic chrons has been established for the lava succession in Iceland (e.g. Kristjánsson, 2008). Correlation of magnetic chrons with the geomagnetic time scale provides a reasonable age estimate for vast stratigraphic sequences. The basalt lava succession in Iceland has a thickness of tens of kilometers. The magnetostratigraphic data offer, through the help of paleomagnetism and radiometric dating, a detailed timing of events in the evolution of the Iceland mantle plume region. Yet a magnetic polarity map for Iceland has been lacking but during the last 50 years, comprehensive stratigraphic mapping has paved the way for a magnetic polarity map in various parts of Iceland. Here, such a map is presented for a segment of East Iceland, i.e. for lavas ranging in age from 0 to 13 M yr. The map is a compilation based on various studies into the cliff section and stratigraphic work performed by numerous research initiatives, both in relation to hydroelectric research as well as academic projects. References: Kristjánsson, L., 2008. Paleomagnetic research on Icelandic lava flows. Jökull, 58, 101-116. Helgason, J., Duncan, R.A., Franzson, H., Guðmundsson, Á., and M. Riishuus., 2015. Magnetic polarity map of Akrafjall and Skarðsheiði and new 40Ar-39Ar age dating from West Iceland., Presentation at the spring conference of the Icelandic Geological Society, held on March 13th 2015 at the University of Iceland.
Studying reionization with secondary CMB anisotropies .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verde, L.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Haiman, Z.; Jimenez, R.
It is an open question in Cosmology how the process of reionization happened and how the first galaxies and cosmological structures formed. Known probes of reionization are: Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization, observations of neutral hydrogen 21 cm hyperfine line, or direct observation of the first galaxies. Here we concentrate on possible signatures of the metal enrichment of the inter-galactic medium from the first stars, through their effects on the CMB. Detailed signal-to-noise calculations still need to be carried out to find out wether these effects are accessible to balloon-borne experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krauss, Lawrence M.
1995-01-01
The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * I. The Experimental Situation Two Years After COBE: Anisotropies, and the CMB Power Spectrum * COBE DMR Data, Signal and Noise: Color Plates * CMB Two Years After the COBE Discovery of Anisotropies * Comparison of Spectral Index Determinations * Two-Point Correlations in the COBE-DMR Two-Year Anisotropy Maps * A Preliminary Analysis of UCSB's South Pole 1993-94 Results * CMB Anisotropy Measurements During the Fourth Flight of MAX * Observations of the Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background by the Firs, SK93, and MSAM-I Experiments * The Python Microwave Background Anisotropy Experiment * II. Theoretical Implications and Cosmology: The Early Universe, Large Scale Structure and Dark Matter * Testing Inflationary Cosmology and Measuring Cosmological Parameters Using the Cosmic Microwave Background * Inflation Confronts the CMB: An Analysis Including the Effects of Foreground * Testing Inflation with MSAM, MAX Tenerife and COBE * CMBR Anisotropy Due to Gravitational Radiation in Inflationary Cosmologies * Black Holes From Blue Spectra * Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies and the Geometry of the Universe * Ω and Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies * CDM Cosmogony in an Open Universe * Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Anisotropy Induced by Cosmic Strings * Temperature Anisotropies in a Universe with Global Defects * The Nature Versus Nurture of Anisotropies * The Existence of Baryons at z = 1000 * Polarization-Temperature Correlations in the Microwave Background * III. Related Issues: BBN Limits on ΩB, and Comparing Theoretical Predictions and Observations * Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and ΩB: A Guide for CMB Interpreters * Quoting Experimental Information
The CMB as a Dark Energy probe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baccigalupi, Carlo
We give a brief review of the known effects of a dynamical vacuum cosmological component, the dark energy, on the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We distinguish between a "classic" class of observables, used so far to constrain the average of the dark energy abundance in the redshift interval in which it is relevant for acceleration, and a "modern" class, aiming at the measurement of its differential redshift behavior. We show that the gravitationally lensed CMB belongs to the second class, as it can give a measure of the dark energy abundance at the time of equality with matter, occurring at about redshift 0.5. Indeed, the dark energy abundance at that epoch influences directly the lensing strength, which is injected at about the same time, if the source is the CMB. We illustrate this effect focusing on the curl (BB) component of CMB polarization, which is dominated by lensing on arcminute angular scales. An increasing dark energy abundance at the time of equality with matter, parameterized by a rising first order redshift derivative of its equation of state today, makes the BB power drop- ping with respect to a pure ΛCDM cosmology, keeping the other cosmological parameters and primordial amplitude fixed. We briefly comment on the forthcoming probes which might measure the lensing power on CMB.
SPECTRAL MAPPING OF THE INTERMEDIATE POLAR DQ HERCULIS
Saito, R. K.; Baptista, R.; Horne, K.; Martell, P.
2010-06-15
We report an eclipse-mapping study of the intermediate polar DQ Her based on time-resolved optical spectroscopy ({Delta}{lambda} {approx} 3800-5000 A) covering four eclipses. The spectra were sliced into 295 narrow passbands in the continuum and in the lines, and the corresponding light curves were analyzed to solve for a set of monochromatic maps of the disk brightness distribution and for the flux of an additional uneclipsed component in each band. Eclipse maps of the He II {lambda}4686 line indicate that an azimuthally and vertically extended bright spot at disk rim is an important source of the reprocessing of X-rays from the magnetic poles. The disk spectrum is flat with no Balmer or Helium lines in the inner regions, and shows double-peaked emission lines in the intermediate and outer disk regions, while the slope of the continuum becomes progressively redder with increasing radius. The inferred disk temperatures are in the range T {approx_equal} 13500-5000 K and can be reasonably well described by a steady-state disk with mass accretion rate of M-dot =(2.7{+-}1.0)x10{sup -9} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. A comparison of the radial intensity distribution for the Balmer lines reveals a linear correlation between the slope of the distribution and the transition energy. The spectrum of the uneclipsed light is dominated by Balmer and He I lines in emission (probably from the extended nova shell) with narrow absorption cores (likely from a collimated and optically thick wind from the accretion disk). The observed narrow and redshifted Ca II {lambda}3934 absorption line in the total light spectra plus the inverse P-Cygni profiles of the Balmer and He II {lambda}4686 emission lines in spectra of the asymmetric component indicate radial inflow of gas in the innermost disk regions and are best explained in terms of magnetically controlled accretion inside the white dwarf magnetosphere. We infer projected radial inflow velocities of {approx}200-500 km s{sup -1}, significantly
Synthesizing radar maps of polar regions with a Doppler-only method.
Roulston, M S; Muhleman, D O
1997-06-10
A method for producing a radar-reflectivity map of the polar regions of the Moon or a planet from polar orbit with only the frequency shift of the reflected signals is described and simulated. A Radon transform of the reflectivity is obtained during multiple passes over the pole. Inversion of this Radon transform enables a map of radar reflectivity to be synthesized.
Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.
Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro
2015-04-01
We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.
PROPERTIES OF INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE FROM GRADIENTS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION MAPS
Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Gaensler, B. M.
2012-04-20
Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio signals provides a very sensitive probe of fluctuations in the interstellar magnetic field and ionized gas density resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We used a set of statistical tools to analyze images of the spatial gradient of linearly polarized radio emission (|{nabla}P|) for both observational data from a test image of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS) and isothermal three-dimensional simulations of MHD turbulence. Visually, in both observations and simulations, a complex network of filamentary structures is seen. Our analysis shows that the filaments in |{nabla}P| can be produced both by interacting shocks and random fluctuations characterizing the non-differentiable field of MHD turbulence. The latter dominates for subsonic turbulence, while the former is only present in supersonic turbulence. We show that supersonic and subsonic turbulence exhibit different distributions as well as different morphologies in the maps of |{nabla}P|. Particularly, filaments produced by shocks show a characteristic 'double jump' profile at the sites of shock fronts resulting from delta function-like increases in the density and/or magnetic field, while those produced by subsonic turbulence show a single jump profile. In order to quantitatively characterize these differences, we use the topology tool known as the genus curve as well as the probability distribution function moments of the image distribution. We find that higher values for the moments correspond to cases of |{nabla}P| with larger sonic Mach numbers. The genus analysis of the supersonic simulations of |{nabla}P| reveals a 'swiss cheese' topology, while the subsonic cases have characteristics of a 'clump' topology. Based on the analysis of the genus and the higher order moments, the SGPS test region data have a distribution and morphology that match subsonic- to transonic-type turbulence, which confirms what is now expected for the warm ionized
Properties of Interstellar Turbulence from Gradients of Linear Polarization Maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Gaensler, B. M.
2012-04-01
Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio signals provides a very sensitive probe of fluctuations in the interstellar magnetic field and ionized gas density resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We used a set of statistical tools to analyze images of the spatial gradient of linearly polarized radio emission (|∇P|) for both observational data from a test image of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS) and isothermal three-dimensional simulations of MHD turbulence. Visually, in both observations and simulations, a complex network of filamentary structures is seen. Our analysis shows that the filaments in |∇P| can be produced both by interacting shocks and random fluctuations characterizing the non-differentiable field of MHD turbulence. The latter dominates for subsonic turbulence, while the former is only present in supersonic turbulence. We show that supersonic and subsonic turbulence exhibit different distributions as well as different morphologies in the maps of |∇P|. Particularly, filaments produced by shocks show a characteristic "double jump" profile at the sites of shock fronts resulting from delta function-like increases in the density and/or magnetic field, while those produced by subsonic turbulence show a single jump profile. In order to quantitatively characterize these differences, we use the topology tool known as the genus curve as well as the probability distribution function moments of the image distribution. We find that higher values for the moments correspond to cases of |∇P| with larger sonic Mach numbers. The genus analysis of the supersonic simulations of |∇P| reveals a "swiss cheese" topology, while the subsonic cases have characteristics of a "clump" topology. Based on the analysis of the genus and the higher order moments, the SGPS test region data have a distribution and morphology that match subsonic- to transonic-type turbulence, which confirms what is now expected for the warm ionized medium.
Cao Liang; Fang Lizhi
2009-12-01
We develop an algorithm of separating the E and B modes of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization from the noisy and discretized maps of Stokes parameters Q and U in a finite area. A key step of the algorithm is to take a wavelet-Galerkin discretization of the differential relation between the E, B and Q, U fields. This discretization allows derivative operator to be represented by a matrix, which is exactly diagonal in scale space, and narrowly banded in spatial space. We show that the effect of boundary can be eliminated by dropping a few discrete wavelet transform modes, located on or nearby the boundary. This method reveals that the derivative operators will cause large errors in the E and B power spectra on small scales if the Q and U maps contain Gaussian noise. It also reveals that if the Q and U maps are random, these fields lead to the mixing of E and B modes. Consequently, the B mode will be contaminated if the powers of E modes are much larger than that of B modes. Nevertheless, numerical tests show that the power spectra of both E and B on scales larger than the finest scale by a factor of 4 and higher can reasonably be recovered, even when the power ratio of E to B modes is as large as about 10{sup 2}, and the signal-to-noise ratio is equal to 10 and higher. This is because the Galerkin discretization is free of false correlations and keeps the contamination under control. As wavelet variables contain information of both spatial and scale spaces, the developed method is also effective to recover the spatial structures of the E and B mode fields.
Cabella, Paolo; Silk, Joseph; Natoli, Paolo
2007-12-15
We perform a wavelet analysis of the temperature and polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) delivered by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment in search for a parity-violating signal. Such a signal could be seeded by new physics beyond the standard model, for which the Lorentz and CPT symmetries may not hold. Under these circumstances, the linear polarization direction of a CMB photon may get rotated during its cosmological journey, a phenomenon also called cosmological birefringence. Recently, Feng et al. have analyzed a subset of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and BOOMERanG 2003 angular power spectra of the CMB, deriving a constraint that mildly favors a nonzero rotation. By using wavelet transforms we set a tighter limit on the CMB photon rotation angle {delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}3.0 ({delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}6.0) at the one (two) {sigma} level, consistent with a null detection.
CMB Observations with the South Pole Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keisler, Ryan
2013-04-01
I will describe a program of cosmological research centered on using measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to address questions relevant to physics: What is the absolute mass scale of neutrinos? How many species of neutrino-like particles were present in the early Universe? How does gravity behave on cosmological scales? Did inflation occur, and, if so, at what energy scale? A new generation of CMB experiments is targeting these questions, and I will focus on recent results from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The SPT is a ground-based mm-wave observatory located at the geographic south pole in Antarctica, and in 2011 finished its initial, 2500 square-degree ``SPT-SZ'' survey. The data from this survey provided an unprecedented combination of resolution, area, and sensitivity, and has been used to make ground-breaking measurements of the CMB anisotropy and the gravitational lensing of the CMB. These measurements have, in conjunction with data from the WMAP satellite, led to strong constraints on the number of neutrino-like particle species present in the early universe and the shape of the power spectrum of primordial density fluctuations. The SPT-SZ data overlaps with the ongoing Dark Energy Survey (DES) footprint, and the joint dataset will provide new probes of large-scale structure, such as the relative velocities of massive galaxy clusters. In 2012, a new polarization-sensitive camera, SPTpol, was installed on the SPT, and I will summarize its performance and prospects for detecting the B-mode CMB polarization pattern. Finally, I will touch on what will be possible with a third-generation camera, SPT-3G. The leap in sensitivity provided by this camera will yield, for example, a constraint on the sum of the neutrino masses relevant for exploring the neutrino mass hierarchy.
General CMB and primordial trispectrum estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regan, D. M.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Fergusson, J. R.
2010-07-01
In this paper we present trispectrum estimation methods which can be applied to general nonseparable primordial and CMB trispectra. We review the relationship between the reduced CMB trispectrum and the reduced primordial trispectrum. We present a general optimal estimator for the connected part of the trispectrum, for which we derive a quadratic term to incorporate the effects of inhomogeneous noise and masking. We describe a general algorithm for creating simulated maps with given arbitrary (and independent) power spectra, bispectra, and trispectra. We propose a universal definition of the trispectrum parameter TNL, so that the integrated trispectrum on the observational domain can be consistently compared between theoretical models. We define a shape function for the primordial trispectrum, together with a shape correlator and a useful parametrization for visualizing the trispectrum; these methods might also be applied to the late-time trispectrum for large-scale structure. We derive separable analytic CMB solutions in the large-angle limit for constant and local models. We present separable mode decompositions which can be used to describe any primordial or CMB trispectra on their respective wave number or multipole domains. By extracting coefficients of these separable basis functions from an observational map, we are able to present an efficient estimator for any given theoretical model with a nonseparable trispectrum. The estimator has two manifestations, comparing the theoretical and observed coefficients at either primordial or late times, thus encompassing a wider range of models, such as secondary anisotropies, lensing, and cosmic strings. We show that these mode decomposition methods are numerically tractable with order l5 operations for the CMB estimator and approximately order l6 for the general primordial estimator (reducing to order l3 in both cases for a special class of models). We also demonstrate how the trispectrum can be reconstructed from
Rayleigh scattering: blue sky thinking for future CMB observations
Lewis, Antony
2013-08-01
Rayleigh scattering from neutral hydrogen during and shortly after recombination causes the CMB anisotropies to be significantly frequency dependent at high frequencies. This may be detectable with Planck, and would be a strong signal in any future space-based CMB missions. The later peak of the Rayleigh visibility compared to Thomson scattering gives an increased large-scale CMB polarization signal that is a greater than 4% effect for observed frequencies ν ∼> 500GHz. There is a similar magnitude suppression on small scales from additional damping. Due to strong correlation between the Rayleigh and primary signal, measurement of the Rayleigh component is limited by noise and foregrounds, not cosmic variance of the primary CMB, and should observable over a wide range of angular scales at frequencies 200GHz ∼< ν ∼< 800GHz. I give new numerical calculations of the temperature and polarization power spectra, and show that future CMB missions could measure the temperature Rayleigh cross-spectrum at high precision, detect the polarization from Rayleigh scattering, and also accurately determine the cross-spectra between the Rayleigh temperature signal and primary polarization. The Rayleigh scattering signal may provide a powerful consistency check on recombination physics. In principle it can be used to measure additional horizon-scale primordial perturbation modes at recombination, and distinguish a significant tensor mode B-polarization signal from gravitational lensing at the power spectrum level.
Multi-chroic Dual-Polarization Bolometric Focal Plane for Studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, A.; Arnold, K.; Edwards, J.; Engargiola, G.; Ghribi, A.; Holzapfel, W.; Lee, A.; Meng, X.; Myers, M.; O'Brient, R.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.
2012-06-01
We are developing multi-chroic antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) focal planes for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarimetry. In each pixel, a dual polarized sinuous antenna collects light over a two-octave frequency band. Each antenna couples to the telescope with a contacting silicon lens. The antenna couples the broadband RF signal to microstrip transmission lines, and then filter banks split the broadband signal into several frequency bands. A TES bolometer detects the power in each band and polarization. We will describe the design of this device and demonstrate its performance with optical data measured using prototype pixels. Our measurements show low ellipticity beams, low cross-polarization, and properly partitioned bands in banks of 2, 3, and 7 filters. Finally, we will describe how we will upgrade the Polarbear CMB experiment using the focal planes of these detectors to increase the experiment's mapping speed and its ability to discriminate between the CMB and polarized foregrounds.
Correlation between sphere distributions of gamma-ray bursts and CMB fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verkhodanov, O. V.; Sokolov, V. V.; Khabibullina, M. L.
2016-06-01
Distribution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from catalogs of the BATSE and BeppoSAX space observatories relative to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data by Planck space mission is studied. Three methods were applied for data analysis: (1) a histogram of CMB signal values in GRB directions, (2) mosaic correlation maps calculated for GRB locations and CMB distribution, (3) calculation of an average response in the area of "average GRB population" on the CMB map. A correlation between GRB locations and CMB fluctuations was detected which can be interpreted as systematic effects in the process of observations. Besides, in the averaged areas of CMB maps, a difference between the distributions of average fluctuations for short and long GRBs was detected which can be caused by different natures of these events.
Antolini, Claudia; Martinelli, Matteo; Fantaye, Yabebal; Baccigalupi, Carlo E-mail: mmartin@sissa.it E-mail: bacci@sissa.it
2013-02-01
We evaluate our capability to constrain the abundance of primordial tensor perturbations (primordial gravitational waves, PGWs) in cosmologies with generalized expansion histories in the epoch of cosmic acceleration. Forthcoming satellite and sub-orbital experiments probing polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) are expected to measure the B−mode power in CMB polarization, coming from PGWs on the degree scale, as well as gravitational lensing on arcminute scales; the latter is the main competitor for the measurement of PGWs, and is directly affected by the underlying expansion history, determined by the presence of a Dark Energy (DE) component. In particular, we consider early DE possible scenarios, in which the expansion history is substantially modified at the epoch in which the CMB lensing is most relevant. We show that the introduction of a parametrized DE may induce a variation as large as 30% in the ratio of the power of lensing and PGWs on the degree scale. We find that adopting the nominal specifications of upcoming satellite measurements, the constraining power on PGWs is weakened by the inclusion of the extra degrees of freedom, resulting in a reduction of about 10% of the upper limits on r in fiducial models with no GWs, as well as a comparable increase in the error bars in models with non-zero tensor power. Moreover, we find that the inclusion of sub-orbital CMB experiments, capable of mapping the B−mode power up to the angular scales which are affected by lensing, has the effect of restoring the forecasted performances with a fixed cosmological expansion history corresponding to a cosmological constant. Finally, we show how the combination of CMB data with Type Ia SuperNovae (SNe), Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and Hubble constant allows to constrain simultaneously the primordial tensor power and the DE quantities in the parametrization we consider, consisting of present abundance and first redshift derivative of the energy
Large-Angle Anomalies in the CMB
Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Starkman, Glenn D.
2010-01-01
We review the recently found large-scale anomalies in the maps of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. These include alignments of the largest modes of CMB anisotropy with each other and with geometry and direction of motion of the solar ssystem, and the unusually low power at these largest scales. We discuss these findings in relation to expectation from standard inflationary cosmology, their statistical significance, the tools to study them, and the various attempts to explain them.
Constraining fundamental physics with future CMB experiments
Galli, Silvia; Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca; Sherwin, Blake D.; Spergel, David N.
2010-12-15
The Planck experiment will soon provide a very accurate measurement of cosmic microwave background anisotropies. This will let cosmologists determine most of the cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. Future experiments will improve and complement the Planck data with better angular resolution and better polarization sensitivity. This unexplored region of the CMB power spectrum contains information on many parameters of interest, including neutrino mass, the number of relativistic particles at recombination, the primordial helium abundance, and the injection of additional ionizing photons by dark matter self-annihilation. We review the imprint of each parameter on the CMB and forecast the constraints achievable by future experiments by performing a Monte Carlo analysis on synthetic realizations of simulated data. We find that next generation satellite missions such as CMBPol could provide valuable constraints with a precision close to that expected in current and near future laboratory experiments. Finally, we discuss the implications of this intersection between cosmology and fundamental physics.
Ade, P A R; Akiba, Y; Anthony, A E; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Borys, C; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Flanigan, D; Gilbert, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Le Jeune, M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Linder, E; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Meng, X; Miller, N J; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Quealy, E; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K; Schanning, I; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B D; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Takakura, S; Tikhomirov, A; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O
2014-04-01
We reconstruct the gravitational lensing convergence signal from cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data taken by the Polarbear experiment and cross-correlate it with cosmic infrared background maps from the Herschel satellite. From the cross spectra, we obtain evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB polarization at a statistical significance of 4.0σ and indication of the presence of a lensing B-mode signal at a significance of 2.3σ. We demonstrate that our results are not biased by instrumental and astrophysical systematic errors by performing null tests, checks with simulated and real data, and analytical calculations. This measurement of polarization lensing, made via the robust cross-correlation channel, not only reinforces POLARBEAR auto-correlation measurements, but also represents one of the early steps towards establishing CMB polarization lensing as a powerful new probe of cosmology and astrophysics. PMID:24745402
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Anthony, A. E.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Borys, C.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Flanigan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Grainger, W.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Howard, J.; Hyland, P.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Linder, E.; Lungu, M.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Meng, X.; Miller, N. J.; Morii, H.; Moyerman, S.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Rotermund, K.; Schanning, I.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B. D.; Shimizu, A.; Shimmin, C.; Shimon, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Spieler, H.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Takakura, S.; Tikhomirov, A.; Tomaru, T.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.; Polarbear Collaboration
2014-04-01
We reconstruct the gravitational lensing convergence signal from cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data taken by the Polarbear experiment and cross-correlate it with cosmic infrared background maps from the Herschel satellite. From the cross spectra, we obtain evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB polarization at a statistical significance of 4.0σ and indication of the presence of a lensing B-mode signal at a significance of 2.3σ. We demonstrate that our results are not biased by instrumental and astrophysical systematic errors by performing null tests, checks with simulated and real data, and analytical calculations. This measurement of polarization lensing, made via the robust cross-correlation channel, not only reinforces POLARBEAR auto-correlation measurements, but also represents one of the early steps towards establishing CMB polarization lensing as a powerful new probe of cosmology and astrophysics.
Ade, P A R; Akiba, Y; Anthony, A E; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Borys, C; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Flanigan, D; Gilbert, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Le Jeune, M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Linder, E; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Meng, X; Miller, N J; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Quealy, E; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K; Schanning, I; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B D; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Takakura, S; Tikhomirov, A; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O
2014-04-01
We reconstruct the gravitational lensing convergence signal from cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data taken by the Polarbear experiment and cross-correlate it with cosmic infrared background maps from the Herschel satellite. From the cross spectra, we obtain evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB polarization at a statistical significance of 4.0σ and indication of the presence of a lensing B-mode signal at a significance of 2.3σ. We demonstrate that our results are not biased by instrumental and astrophysical systematic errors by performing null tests, checks with simulated and real data, and analytical calculations. This measurement of polarization lensing, made via the robust cross-correlation channel, not only reinforces POLARBEAR auto-correlation measurements, but also represents one of the early steps towards establishing CMB polarization lensing as a powerful new probe of cosmology and astrophysics.
Tracking algorithms using log-polar mapped image coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weiman, Carl F. R.; Juday, Richard D.
1990-01-01
The use of log-polar image sampling coordinates rather than conventional Cartesian coordinates offers a number of advantages for visual tracking and docking of space vehicles. Pixel count is reduced without decreasing the field of view, with commensurate reduction in peripheral resolution. Smaller memory requirements and reduced processing loads are the benefits in working environments where bulk and energy are at a premium. Rotational and zoom symmetries of log-polar coordinates accommodate range and orientation extremes without computational penalties. Separation of radial and rotational coordinates reduces the complexity of several target centering algorithms, described below.
Status of CMB Observations in 2015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucher, Martin
2016-07-01
The 2.725 K cosmic microwave background has played a key role in the development of modern cosmology by providing a solid observational foundation for constraining possible theories of what happened at very large redshifts and theoretical speculation reaching back almost to the would-be big bang initial singularity. After recounting some of the lesser known history of this area, I summarize the current observational situation and also discuss some exciting challenges that lie ahead: the search for B modes, the precision mapping of the CMB gravitational lensing potential, and the ultra-precise characterization of the CMB frequency spectrum, which would allow the exploitation of spectral distortions to probe new physics.
Microwave maps of the polar ice of the earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gloersen, P.; Wilheit, T. T.; Chang, T. C.; Nordberg, W.; Campbell, W. J.
1974-01-01
Synoptic views of the entire polar regions of earth have been obtained free of the usual persistent cloud cover using a scanning microwave radiometer operating at a wavelength of 1.55 cm on board the Nimbus-5 satellite. Three different views at each pole are presented utilizing data obtained at approximately one-month intervals from December 1972 to February 1973. Large discrepancies exist between the long-term ice cover depicted in various atlases and the actual extent of the canopies. The distribution of multiyear ice in the north polar region is markedly different from that predicted by existing ice dynamics models. Irregularities in the edge of the Antarctic sea ice pack occur that have neither been observed previously nor anticipated. The brightness temperatures of the Greenland and Antarctic glaciers show interesting contours probably related to the ice and snow morphologic structure.
TESTING CPT SYMMETRY WITH CURRENT AND FUTURE CMB MEASUREMENTS
Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Xinmin; Xia, Jun-Qing; Li, Hong; Li, Mingzhe
2015-02-01
In this paper, we use the current and future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to test the Charge-Parity-Time Reversal (CPT) symmetry. We consider a CPT-violating interaction in the photon sector L{sub cs}∼p{sub μ}A{sub ν} F-tilde {sup μν}, which gives rise to a rotation of the polarization vectors of the propagating CMB photons. By combining the 9 yr WMAP, BOOMERanG 2003, and BICEP1 observations, we obtain the current constraint on the isotropic rotation angle α-bar =−2.12±1.14 (1σ), indicating that the significance of the CPT violation is about 2σ. Here, we particularly take the systematic errors of CMB measurements into account. Then, we study the effects of the anisotropies of the rotation angle [Δα( n-hat )] on the CMB polarization power spectra in detail. Due to the small effects, the current CMB polarization data cannot constrain the related parameters very well. We obtain the 95% C.L. upper limit of the variance of the anisotropies of the rotation angle C {sup α}(0) < 0.035 from all of the CMB data sets. More interestingly, including the anisotropies of rotation angle could lower the best-fit value of r and relax the tension on the constraints of r between BICEP2 and Planck. Finally, we investigate the capabilities of future Planck polarization measurements on α-bar and Δα( n-hat ). Benefited from the high precision of Planck data, the constraints of the rotation angle can be significantly improved.
Phases of new physics in the CMB
Baumann, Daniel; Wallisch, Benjamin; Green, Daniel; Meyers, Joel E-mail: drgreen@cita.utoronto.ca E-mail: b.wallisch@damtp.cam.ac.uk
2016-01-01
Fluctuations in the cosmic neutrino background are known to produce a phase shift in the acoustic peaks of the cosmic microwave background. It is through the sensitivity to this effect that the recent CMB data has provided a robust detection of free-streaming neutrinos. In this paper, we revisit the phase shift of the CMB anisotropy spectrum as a probe of new physics. The phase shift is particularly interesting because its physical origin is strongly constrained by the analytic properties of the Green's function of the gravitational potential. For adiabatic fluctuations, a phase shift requires modes that propagate faster than the speed of fluctuations in the photon-baryon plasma. This possibility is realized by free-streaming relativistic particles, such as neutrinos or other forms of dark radiation. Alternatively, a phase shift can arise from isocurvature fluctuations. We present simple models to illustrate each of these effects. We then provide observational constraints from the Planck temperature and polarization data on additional forms of radiation. We also forecast the capabilities of future CMB Stage IV experiments. Whenever possible, we give analytic interpretations of our results.
External priors for the next generation of CMB experiments
Manzotti, Alessandro; Dodelson, Scott; Park, Youngsoo
2015-12-08
Planned cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments can dramatically improve what we know about neutrino physics, inflation, and dark energy. The low level of noise, together with improved angular resolution, will increase the signal to noise of the CMB polarized signal as well as the reconstructed lensing potential of high redshift large scale structure. Projected constraints on cosmological parameters are extremely tight, but these can be improved even further with information from external experiments. Here, we examine quantitatively the extent to which external priors can lead to improvement in projected constraints from a CMB-Stage IV (S4) experiment on neutrino and dark energy properties. We find that CMB S4 constraints on neutrino mass could be strongly enhanced by external constraints on the cold dark matter density $\\Omega_{c}h^{2}$ and the Hubble constant $H_{0}$. If polarization on the largest scales ($\\ell<50$) will not be measured, an external prior on the primordial amplitude $A_{s}$ or the optical depth $\\tau$ will also be important. A CMB constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom, $N_{\\rm eff}$, will benefit from an external prior on the spectral index $n_{s}$ and the baryon energy density $\\Omega_{b}h^{2}$. Finally, an external prior on $H_{0}$ will help constrain the dark energy equation of state ($w$).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paige, David A.; Keegan, Kenneth D.
1994-01-01
We present the first maps of the apparent thermal inertia and albedo of the south polar region of Mars. The observations used to create these maps were acquired by the infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) instruments on the two Viking Orbiters over a 30-day period in 1977 during the Martian late southern summer season. The maps cover the region from 60 deg S to the south pole at a spatial resolution of 1 deg of latitude, thus completing the initial thermal mapping of the entire planet. The analysis and interpretation of these maps is aided by the results of a one-dimensional radiative convective model, which is used to calculate diurnal variations in surface and atmospheric temperatures, and brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere for a range of assumptions concerning dust optical properties and dust optical depths. The maps show that apparent thermal inertias of bare ground regions decrease systematically from 60 deg S to the south pole. In unfrosted regions close to the south pole, apparent thermal inertias are among the lowest observed anywhere on the planet. On the south residual cap, apparent thermal inertias are very high due to the presence of CO2 frost. In most other regions of Mars, best fit apparent albedos based on thermal emission measurements are generally in good agreement with actual surface albedos based on broadband solar reflectance measurements. The one-dimensional atmospheric model calculations also predict anomalously cold brightness temperatures close to the pole during late summer, and after considering a number of alternatives, it is concluded that the net surface cooling due to atmospheric dust is the best explanation for this phenomenon. The region of lowest apparent thermal inertia close to the pole, which includes the south polar layered deposits, is interpreted to be mantled by a continuous layer of aeolian material that must be at least a few millimeters thick. The low thermal inertias mapped in the south polar region imply an
CMB as a Probe of New Physics and Old Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gluscevic, Vera
Cosmic birefringence (CB)---a rotation of photon-polarization plane in vacuum---is a generic signature of new scalar fields that could provide dark energy. Previously, WMAP observations excluded a uniform CB-rotation angle larger than a degree. In this thesis, we develop a minimum-variance--estimator formalism for reconstructing direction-dependent rotation from full-sky CMB maps, and forecast more than an order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity with incoming Planck data and future satellite missions. Next, we perform the first analysis of WMAP-7 data to look for rotation-angle anisotropies and report null detection of the rotation-angle power-spectrum multipoles below L=512, constraining quadrupole amplitude of a scale-invariant power to less than one degree. We further explore the use of a cross-correlation between CMB temperature and the rotation for detecting the CB signal, for different quintessence models. We find that it may improve sensitivity in case of marginal detection, and provide an empirical handle for distinguishing details of new physics indicated by CB. We then consider other parity-violating physics beyond standard models---in particular, a chiral inflationary-gravitational-wave background. We show that WMAP has no constraining power, while a cosmic-variance--limited experiment would be capable of detecting only a large parity violation. In case of a strong detection of EB/TB correlations, CB can be readily distinguished from chiral gravity waves. We next adopt our CB analysis to investigate patchy screening of the CMB, driven by inhomogeneities during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). We constrain a toy model of reionization with WMAP-7 data, and show that data from Planck should start approaching interesting portions of the EoR parameter space and can be used to exclude reionization tomographies with large ionized bubbles. In light of the upcoming data from low-frequency radio observations of the redshifted 21-cm line from the EoR, we
Antenna-coupled TES bolometer arrays for CMB polarimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, C. L.; Bock, J. J.; Bonetti, J. A.; Brevik, J.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Day, P. K.; Golwala, S.; Kenyon, M.; Lange, A. E.; LeDuc, H. G.; Nguyen, H.; Ogburn, R. W.; Orlando, A.; Transgrud, A.; Turner, A.; Wang, G.; Zmuidzinas, J.
2008-07-01
We describe the design and performance of polarization selective antenna-coupled TES arrays that will be used in several upcoming Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments: SPIDER, BICEP-2/SPUD. The fully lithographic polarimeter arrays utilize planar phased-antennas for collimation (F/4 beam) and microstrip filters for band definition (25% bandwidth). These devices demonstrate high optical efficiency, excellent beam shapes, and well-defined spectral bands. The dual-polarization antennas provide well-matched beams and low cross polarization response, both important for high-fidelity polarization measurements. These devices have so far been developed for the 100 GHz and 150 GHz bands, two premier millimeter-wave atmospheric windows for CMB observations. In the near future, the flexible microstrip-coupled architecture can provide photon noise-limited detection for the entire frequency range of the CMBPOL mission. This paper is a summary of the progress we have made since the 2006 SPIE meeting in Orlando, FL.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paige, David A.; Bachman, Jennifer E.; Keegan, Kenneth D.
1994-01-01
We present the first maps of the apparent thermal inertia and albedo of the north polar region of Mars. The observations used to create these maps were acquired by the infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) instruments on the two Viking orbiters over a 50-day period in 1978 during the Martian early northern summer season. The maps cover the region from 60 deg N to the north pole at a spatial resolution of 1/2 deg of latitude. The analysis and interpretation of these maps is aided by the results of a one-dimensional radiative convective model, which is used to calculate diurnal variations in surface and atmospheric temperatures, and brightness temperatures at the top of the atmospphere for a wide range of assumptions concerning aerosol optical properties and aerosol optical depths. The results of these calculations show that the effects of the Martian atmosphere on remote determinations of surface thermal inertia are more significant than have been indicated in previous studies. The maps of apparent thermal inertia and albedo show a great deal of spatial structure that is well correlated with surface features.
Low-Frequency Measurements of the CMB Spectrum
Kogut, A.; Bensadoun, M.; De Amici, Giovanni; Levin, S.; Limon,M.; Smoot, George F.; Sironi, G.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonelli, G.
1989-10-01
As part of an extended program to characterize the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at low frequencies, we have performed multiple measurements from a high-altitude site in California. On average, these measurements suggest a CMB temperature slightly lower than measurements at higher frequencies. Atmospheric conditions and the encroachment of civilization are now significant limitations from our present observing site. In November 1989, we will make new measurements from the South Pole Amundsen-Scott Station at frequencies 0.82, 1.5, 2.5, 3.8, 7.5, and 90 GHz. We discuss recent measurements and indicate improvements possible from a polar observing site.
Automated system to acquire fluorescence, polarization and anisotropy maps within liquid flows
Gonçalves, Cristiane C.; Pepe, Iuri; Lima, Angelo M. V.; Musse, Ana Paula S.
2002-01-01
Maps of polarization and anisotropy can be helpful for flow analysis systems (FIA, CFA, etc.) with reactions dependent on the intermolecular alignment as well as for dispersion control. Maps can be acquired manually, but when a scan over a sample area is required, the acquisition becomes tiresome and has low precision. The paper describes an automatic flexible system for high-precision sample positioning with closed loop self control, remote data acquisition and storage controlled by a BASIC program. The system was developed to acquire maps up to 850 mm2 of the sample (liquid flows, solids, interfaces, etc.), with up to 100 μm2 precision. To evaluate the equipment, performance is presented as the scan of a thin liquid film of monoethylene glycol (MEG) flowing on borosilicate. Tests were performed with and without surfactantes at submicellar concentrations: two concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and one of polyethylene oxide (PEO). For pure MEG, the intermolecular alignment initially increased, then decreased. When SDS was added, both polarization and anisotropy only increased progressively with the flow. This might be explained by the surfactant decrease of interfacial interaction. When PEO was added, both polarization and anisotropy decreased pronouncedly over the entire map, which might be due to macromolecular aggregates within the bulk generating misaligned molecular domains. The system presented as sample positioning repeatability of 0.1% and a high polarization reproducibility (error margin < 6 in 1000). PMID:18924741
Ir Spectral Mapping of the Martian South Polar Residual CAP Using Crism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Jacqueline; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter
2016-06-01
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to be important in theories of abiogenesis (Allamandola, 2011) . There is evidence that PAHs have been detected on two icy Saturnian satellites using the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft (Cruikshank et al., 2007). The hypothesised presence of PAHs in Mars south polar cap has not been systematically examined even though the Mars south polar cap may allow the preservation of organic molecules that are typically destroyed at the Martian surface by UV radiation (Dartnell et al. 2012). This hypothesis is supported by recent analyses of South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) structural evolution (Thomas et al., 2009) that suggest the possibility that seasonal and long term sublimation may excavate dust particles from within the polar ice. Periodic sublimation is believed to be responsible for the formation of so-called "Swiss Cheese Terrain", a unique surface feature found only in the Martian south polar residual cap consisting of flat floored, circular depressions (Byrne, 2009). We show the first examples of work towards the detection of PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain, using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), on board NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). CRISM is designed to search for mineralogical indications of past and present water, thus providing extensive coverage of the south polar cap. In this work, we discuss whether CRISM infrared spectra can be used to detect PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain and demonstrate a number of maps showing shifts in spectral profiles over the SPRC.
Using CMB data to constrain non-isotropic Planck-scale modifications to Electrodynamics
Gubitosi, Giulia; Migliaccio, Marina; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Natoli, Paolo; Polenta, Gianluca E-mail: Marina.Migliaccio@roma2.infn.it E-mail: giovanni.amelino-camelia@roma1.infn.it E-mail: paolo.natoli@roma2.infn.it
2011-11-01
We develop a method to constrain non-isotropic features of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization, of a type expected to arise in some models describing quantum gravity effects on light propagation. We describe the expected signatures of this kind of anomalous light propagation on CMB photons, showing that it will produce a non-isotropic birefringence effect, i.e. a rotation of the CMB polarization direction whose observed amount depends in a peculiar way on the observation direction. We also show that the sensitivity levels expected for CMB polarization studies by the Planck satellite are sufficient for testing these effects if, as assumed in the quantum-gravity literature, their magnitude is set by the minute Planck length.
CMB all-scale blackbody distortions induced by linearizing temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Notari, Alessio; Quartin, Miguel
2016-08-01
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, such as WMAP and Planck, measure intensity anisotropies and build maps using a linearized formula for relating them to the temperature blackbody fluctuations. However, this procedure also generates a signal in the maps in the form of y -type distortions which is degenerate with the thermal Sunyaev Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. These are small effects that arise at second order in the temperature fluctuations not from primordial physics but from such a limitation of the map-making procedure. They constitute a contaminant for measurements of our peculiar velocity, the tSZ and primordial y -distortions. They can nevertheless be well modeled and accounted for. We show that the distortions arise from a leakage of the CMB dipole into the y -channel which couples to all multipoles, mostly affecting the range ℓ≲400 . This should be visible in Planck's y -maps with an estimated signal-to-noise ratio of about 12. We note however that such frequency-dependent terms carry no new information on the nature of the CMB dipole. This implies that the real significance of Planck's Doppler coupling measurements is actually lower than reported by the collaboration. Finally, we quantify the level of contamination in tSZ and primordial y -type distortions and show that it is above the sensitivity of proposed next-generation CMB experiments.
PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazear, Justin; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Switzer, E.; Tucker, C. E.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.
2014-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment searching for large-angular scale B-mode polarization to constrain Inflation in the early universe. The Inflationary Big Bang theory predicts that the epoch of inflation will result in a background of gravitational waves. These gravitational waves imprinted their unique B-mode signature on the CMB polarization, two features of which are a peak at ell ~ 80 and a "bump" below ell ~ 10 in the B-mode angular power spectrum. The ell ~ 80 "recombination" peak is the first peak caused by gravitational waves imprinting tensor (B-mode) perturbations onto the CMB spectrum during recombination. Gravitational waves at larger scales have not yet entered the horizon and may not contribute, and at smaller scales have decayed away by other interactions, giving rise to a peak at horizon scale. The ell ~ 10 "reionization" bump is caused by a similar mechanism as the recombination peak, where gravitational waves imprint B-mode perturbations into the spectrum, now at larger horizon scales. PIPER will target the reionization bump while keeping enough angular resolution to measure the recombination peak, with sensitivity down to tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.007. A series of flights alternating between north and south will produce nearly full-sky temperature and polarization maps and measure the low-ell spectra. 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers each with 20 arcmin beamwidth, distributed into 4 rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 150 mK will provide small-scale resolution and sensitivity. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, each with a front-end variable-delay polarization modulator rapidly modulating either the Q or U Stokes parameters to provide polarization sensitivity and mitigate systematic errors. To achieve background-limited sensitivity, the entire instrument is enclosed in an open bucket dewar maintained at 1.5 K. PIPER
Local Maps of the Polarization and Depolarization in Organic Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors.
Cai, Ronggang; Jonas, Alain M
2016-02-24
We study the local ferroelectric polarization and depolarization of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) in p-type ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs). Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is used to obtain local maps of the polarization on model metal-semiconductor-ferroelectric stacks, and on FeFETs stripped from their top-gate electrode; transfer curves are measured on complete FeFETs. The influence of the semiconductor layer thickness and of the polarity and amplitude of the poling voltage are investigated. In accumulation, the stable "on" state consists of a uniform upward-polarized ferroelectric layer, with compensation holes accumulating at the ferroelectric/semiconducting interface. In depletion, the stable "off" state consists of a depolarized region in the center of the transistor channel, surrounded by partially downward-polarized regions over the source and drain electrodes and neighboring regions. The partial depolarization of these regions is due to the incomplete screening of polarization charges by the charges of the remote electrodes. Therefore, thinner semiconducting layers provide higher downward polarizations, which result in a more depleted transistor channel and a higher charge injection barrier between the electrodes and the semiconductor, leading to lower threshold voltages and higher on/off current values at zero gate bias. Clues for optimization of the devices are finally provided.
Insights into bird wing evolution and digit specification from polarizing region fate maps.
Towers, Matthew; Signolet, Jason; Sherman, Adrian; Sang, Helen; Tickle, Cheryll
2011-01-01
The proposal that birds descended from theropod dinosaurs with digits 2, 3 and 4 was recently given support by short-term fate maps, suggesting that the chick wing polarizing region-a group that Sonic hedgehog-expressing cells-gives rise to digit 4. Here we show using long-term fate maps that Green fluorescent protein-expressing chick wing polarizing region grafts contribute only to soft tissues along the posterior margin of digit 4, supporting fossil data that birds descended from theropods that had digits 1, 2 and 3. In contrast, digit IV of the chick leg with four digits (I-IV) arises from the polarizing region. To determine how digit identity is specified over time, we inhibited Sonic hedgehog signalling. Fate maps show that polarizing region and adjacent cells are specified in parallel through a series of anterior to posterior digit fates-a process of digit specification that we suggest is involved in patterning all vertebrate limbs with more than three digits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, Dominik J.; Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Starkman, Glenn D.
2016-09-01
Several unexpected features have been observed in the microwave sky at large angular scales, both by WMAP and by Planck. Among those features is a lack of both variance and correlation on the largest angular scales, alignment of the lowest multipole moments with one another and with the motion and geometry of the solar system, a hemispherical power asymmetry or dipolar power modulation, a preference for odd parity modes and an unexpectedly large cold spot in the Southern hemisphere. The individual p-values of the significance of these features are in the per mille to per cent level, when compared to the expectations of the best-fit inflationary ΛCDM model. Some pairs of those features are demonstrably uncorrelated, increasing their combined statistical significance and indicating a significant detection of CMB features at angular scales larger than a few degrees on top of the standard model. Despite numerous detailed investigations, we still lack a clear understanding of these large-scale features, which seem to imply a violation of statistical isotropy and scale invariance of inflationary perturbations. In this contribution we present a critical analysis of our current understanding and discuss several ideas of how to make further progress.
Optical polarization map of the Polaris Flare with RoboPol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panopoulou, G.; Tassis, K.; Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; King, O. G.; Paleologou, E.; Ramaprakash, A.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Das, H. K.; Feiler, R.; Hovatta, T.; Khodade, P.; Kiehlmann, S.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Liodakis, I.; Mahabal, A.; Modi, D.; Myserlis, I.; Papadakis, I.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Pearson, T. J.; Rajarshi, C.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Zensus, J. A.
2015-09-01
The stages before the formation of stars in molecular clouds are poorly understood. Insights can be gained by studying the properties of quiescent clouds, such as their magnetic field structure. The plane-of-the-sky orientation of the field can be traced by polarized starlight. We present the first extended, wide-field (˜10 deg2) map of the Polaris Flare cloud in dust-absorption induced optical polarization of background stars, using the Robotic Polarimeter (RoboPol) polarimeter at the Skinakas Observatory. This is the first application of the wide-field imaging capabilities of RoboPol. The data were taken in the R band and analysed with the automated reduction pipeline of the instrument. We present in detail optimizations in the reduction pipeline specific to wide-field observations. Our analysis resulted in reliable measurements of 641 stars with median fractional linear polarization 1.3 per cent. The projected magnetic field shows a large-scale ordered pattern. At high longitudes it appears to align with faint striations seen in the Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) map of dust emission (250 μm), while in the central 4-5 deg2 it shows an eddy-like feature. The overall polarization pattern we obtain is in good agreement with large-scale measurements by Planck of the dust emission polarization in the same area of the sky.
Katayama, Nobuhiko; Komatsu, Eiichiro
2011-08-20
We reconsider the pixel-based, 'template' polarized foreground removal method within the context of a next-generation, low-noise, low-resolution (0.{sup 0}5 FWHM) space-borne experiment measuring the cosmological B-mode polarization signal in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This method was first applied to polarized data by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team and further studied by Efstathiou et al. We need at least three frequency channels: one is used for extracting the CMB signal, whereas the other two are used to estimate the spatial distribution of the polarized dust and synchrotron emission. No extra data from non-CMB experiments or models are used. We extract the tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) from simulated sky maps outside the standard polarization mask (P06) of WMAP consisting of CMB, noise (2 {mu}K arcmin), and a foreground model, and find that, even for the simplest three-frequency configuration with 60, 100, and 240 GHz, the residual bias in r is as small as {Delta}r {approx} 0.002. This bias is dominated by the residual synchrotron emission due to spatial variations of the synchrotron spectral index. With an extended mask with f{sub sky} = 0.5, the bias is reduced further down to <0.001.
Mapping Vesta Mid-Latitude Quadrangle V-12EW: Mapping the Edge of the South Polar Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoogenboom, T.; Schenk, P.; Williams, D. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R.; Buczkowski, D.; McCord, T. B.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Gaskell, R. W.; Neukum, G.; Schmedemann, N.; Marchi, S.; Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; White, O. L.; DeSanctis, C.; Filacchione, G.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.
2011-12-01
NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced based on Framing Camera images (FC: spatial resolution: ~65 m/pixel) along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR: spatial resolution: ~180 m/pixel) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). This poster presentation concentrates on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle V-12EW. This quadrangle is dominated by the arcuate edge of the large 460+ km diameter south polar topographic feature first observed by HST (Thomas et al., 1997). Sparsely cratered, the portion of this feature covered in V-12EW is characterized by arcuate ridges and troughs forming a generalized arcuate pattern. Mapping of this terrain and the transition to areas to the north will be used to test whether this feature has an impact or other (e.g., internal) origin. We are also using FC stereo and VIR images to assess whether their are any compositional differences between this terrain and areas further to the north, and image data to evaluate the distribution and age of young impact craters within the map area. The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science, Instrument and Operations Teams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grandis, S.; Rapetti, D.; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Dietrich, J. P.
2016-08-01
Recent measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by the Planck Collaboration have produced arguably the most powerful observational evidence in support of the standard model of cosmology, i.e. the spatially flat ΛCDM paradigm. In this work, we perform model selection tests to examine whether the base CMB temperature and large scale polarization anisotropy data from Planck 2015 (P15) prefer any of eight commonly used one-parameter model extensions with respect to flat ΛCDM. We find a clear preference for models with free curvature, ΩK, or free amplitude of the CMB lensing potential, AL. We also further develop statistical tools to measure tension between datasets. We use a Gaussianization scheme to compute tensions directly from the posterior samples using an entropy-based method, the surprise, as well as a calibrated evidence ratio presented here for the first time. We then proceed to investigate the consistency between the base P15 CMB data and six other CMB and distance datasets. In flat ΛCDM we find a 4.8σ tension between the base P15 CMB data and a distance ladder measurement, whereas the former are consistent with the other datasets. In the curved ΛCDM model we find significant tensions in most of the cases, arising from the well-known low power of the low-ℓ multipoles of the CMB data. In the flat ΛCDM+AL model, however, all datasets are consistent with the base P15 CMB observations except for the CMB lensing measurement, which remains in significant tension. This tension is driven by the increased power of the CMB lensing potential derived from the base P15 CMB constraints in both models, pointing at either potentially unresolved systematic effects or the need for new physics beyond the standard flat ΛCDM model.
Crystallite orientation maps in starch granules from polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) data.
Galvis, Leonardo; Bertinetto, Carlo G; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Montesanti, Nicole; Vuorinen, Tapani
2016-12-10
In this work, polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) was used to determine orientation maps of crystallites present in Phajus grandifolius starch granules based on the anisotropic response of the glycosidic Raman band at 865cm(-1). The response of this band was preliminarily evaluated using model A-amylose crystals as standard. The A-amylose crystals oriented "in plane" showed a maximal intensity ratio of ∼3.0 for bands 865/1343cm(-1) when the polarization of the laser was along the chain axis of the crystal, i.e., parallel to the axis of the amylose double helices, and a minimal intensity ratio of ∼0.25 when perpendicular. The orientation maps of Phajus grandifolius starch granules showed two distinct regions: one isotropic and the other with a highly anisotropic response. The origin of the difference might be changes in both organization/concentration and orientation of the crystallites across the starch granules. PMID:27577898
Yakovlev, Dmitry D; Shvachkina, Marina E; Sherman, Maria M; Spivak, Andrey V; Pravdin, Alexander B; Yakovlev, Dmitry A
2016-07-01
Immersion optical clearing makes it possible to use transmission polarized-light microscopy for characterization of thick (200 to 2000 μm) layers of biological tissues. We discuss polarization properties of thick samples in the context of the problem of characterization of collagen fiber alignment in connective tissues such as sclera and dermis. Optical chirality caused by azimuthal variations of the macroscopic (effective) optic axis of the medium across the sample thickness should be considered in polarization mapping of thick samples of these tissues. We experimentally evaluate to what extent the optical chirality affects the measurement results in typical situations and show under what conditions it can be easily taken into account and does not hinder, but rather helps, in characterization of collagen fiber alignment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakovlev, Dmitry D.; Shvachkina, Marina E.; Sherman, Maria M.; Spivak, Andrey V.; Pravdin, Alexander B.; Yakovlev, Dmitry A.
2016-07-01
Immersion optical clearing makes it possible to use transmission polarized-light microscopy for characterization of thick (200 to 2000 μm) layers of biological tissues. We discuss polarization properties of thick samples in the context of the problem of characterization of collagen fiber alignment in connective tissues such as sclera and dermis. Optical chirality caused by azimuthal variations of the macroscopic (effective) optic axis of the medium across the sample thickness should be considered in polarization mapping of thick samples of these tissues. We experimentally evaluate to what extent the optical chirality affects the measurement results in typical situations and show under what conditions it can be easily taken into account and does not hinder, but rather helps, in characterization of collagen fiber alignment.
Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.
2015-11-01
We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.
CMB temperature bispectrum induced by cosmic strings
Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki
2009-10-15
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) bispectrum of the temperature anisotropies induced by a network of cosmic strings is derived for small angular scales, under the assumption that the principal cause of temperature fluctuations is the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We provide analytical expressions for all isosceles triangle configurations in Fourier space. Their overall amplitude is amplified as the inverse cube of the angle and diverges for flat triangles. The isosceles configurations generically lead to a negative bispectrum with a power-law decay l{sup -6} for large multipole l. However, collapsed triangles are found to be associated with a positive bispectrum whereas the squeezed triangles still exhibit negative values. We then compare our analytical estimates to a direct computation of the bispectrum from a set of 300 statistically independent temperature maps obtained from Nambu-Goto cosmic string simulations in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe. We find good agreement for the overall amplitude, the power-law behavior, and the angle dependency of the various triangle configurations. At l{approx}500 the cosmic string Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect contributes approximately the same equilateral CMB bispectrum amplitude as an inflationary model with |f{sub NL}{sup loc}|{approx_equal}10{sup 3}, if the strings contribute about 10% of the temperature power spectrum at l=10. Current bounds on f{sub NL} are not derived using cosmic string bispectrum templates, and so our f{sub NL} estimate cannot be used to derive bounds on strings. However it does suggest that string bispectrum templates should be included in the search of CMB non-Gaussianities.
CMB temperature bispectrum induced by cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki
2009-10-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) bispectrum of the temperature anisotropies induced by a network of cosmic strings is derived for small angular scales, under the assumption that the principal cause of temperature fluctuations is the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. We provide analytical expressions for all isosceles triangle configurations in Fourier space. Their overall amplitude is amplified as the inverse cube of the angle and diverges for flat triangles. The isosceles configurations generically lead to a negative bispectrum with a power-law decay ℓ-6 for large multipole ℓ. However, collapsed triangles are found to be associated with a positive bispectrum whereas the squeezed triangles still exhibit negative values. We then compare our analytical estimates to a direct computation of the bispectrum from a set of 300 statistically independent temperature maps obtained from Nambu-Goto cosmic string simulations in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. We find good agreement for the overall amplitude, the power-law behavior, and the angle dependency of the various triangle configurations. At ℓ˜500 the cosmic string Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect contributes approximately the same equilateral CMB bispectrum amplitude as an inflationary model with |fNLloc|≃103, if the strings contribute about 10% of the temperature power spectrum at ℓ=10. Current bounds on fNL are not derived using cosmic string bispectrum templates, and so our fNL estimate cannot be used to derive bounds on strings. However it does suggest that string bispectrum templates should be included in the search of CMB non-Gaussianities.
CMB constraints on dark matter models with large annihilation cross section
Galli, Silvia; Iocco, Fabio; Bertone, Gianfranco; Melchiorri, Alessandro
2009-07-15
The injection of secondary particles produced by dark matter (DM) annihilation around redshift {approx}1000 would inevitably affect the process of recombination, leaving an imprint on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and polarization. We show that the most recent CMB measurements provided by the WMAP satellite mission place interesting constraints on DM self-annihilation rates, especially for models that exhibit a large Sommerfeld enhancement of the annihilation cross section, as recently proposed to fit the PAMELA and ATIC results. Furthermore, we argue that upcoming CMB experiments such as Planck, will improve the constraints by at least 1 order of magnitude, thus providing a sensitive probe of the properties of DM particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qihang; Zhang, Xiuwen; Waugh, J. A.; Dessau, D. S.; Zunger, Alex
2016-09-01
Associated with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and inversion symmetry breaking, Rashba spin polarization opens an avenue for spintronic applications that was previously limited to ordinary magnets. However, spin-polarization effects in actual Rashba systems are far more complicated than what conventional single-orbital models would suggest. By studying via density functional theory and a multiorbital k .p model a three-dimensional bulk Rashba system (free of complications by surface effects), BiTeI, we find that the physical origin of the leading spin-polarization effects is SOC-induced hybridization between spin and multiple orbitals, especially those with nonzero orbital angular momenta. In this framework we establish a general understanding of the orbital mapping, common to the surface of topological insulators and the Rashba system. Consequently, the intrinsic mechanism of various spin-polarization effects—which pertain to all Rashba systems, even those with global inversion symmetry—is understood as a manifestation of the orbital textures. This finding suggests a route for designing high-spin-polarization materials by considering the atomic-orbital content.
A combined binary interaction and phenotypic map of C. elegans cell polarity proteins
Koorman, Thijs; Lemmens, Irma; Ramalho, João J.; Nieuwenhuize, Susan; van den Heuvel, Sander; Tavernier, Jan; Nance, Jeremy; Boxem, Mike
2015-01-01
The establishment of cell polarity is an essential process for the development of multicellular organisms and the functioning of cells and tissues. Here, we combine large-scale protein interaction mapping with systematic phenotypic profiling to study the network of physical interactions that underlies polarity establishment and maintenance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using a fragment-based yeast two-hybrid strategy, we identified 439 interactions between 296 proteins, as well as the protein regions that mediate these interactions. Phenotypic profiling of the network resulted in the identification of 100 physically interacting protein pairs for which RNAi-mediated depletion caused a defect in the same polarity-related process. We demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the network by showing that the physical interaction between the RhoGAP PAC-1 and PAR-6 is required for radial polarization of the C. elegans embryo. Our network represents a valuable resource of candidate interactions that can be used to further our insight into cell polarization. PMID:26780296
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nghiem, Son V.; Liu, W. Timothy; Xie, Xiao-Su
1999-01-01
We present the polarization reversal in backscatter over flooded land regions, and demonstrate for the first time the utility of spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer for large-scale flood mapping. Scatterometer data were collected over the globe by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) operated at 14 GHz on the Japanese ADEOS spacecraft from September 1996 to June 1997. During this time span, several severe floods occurred. Over most land surface, vertical polarization backscatter (Sigma(sub upsilon(upsilon)) is larger than horizontal polarization backscatter (sigma(sub hh)). Such polarization characteristics is reversed and sigma(sub upsilon(upsilon)) is smaller than sigma(sub hh) over flooded regions, except under a dense forest canopy. The total backscatter from the flooded landscape consists of direct backscatter and boundary-interaction backscatter. The direct term is contributed by direct backscattering from objects protruding above the water surface, and by backscattering from waves on the water surface. The boundary-interaction term is contributed by the forward scattering from the protruding objects and then reflected from the water surface, and also by the forward scattering from these objects after the water-surface reflection. Over flooded regions, the boundary-interaction term is dominant at large incidence angles and the strong water-surface reflection is much larger for horizontal polarization than the vertical one due to the Brewster effect in transverse-magnetic waves. These scattering mechanisms cause the polarization reversal over flooded regions. An example obtained with the Analytic Wave Theory is used to illustrate the scattering mechanisms leading to the polarization reversal. We then demonstrate the utility of spaceborne Ku-band scatterometer for large-scale flood mapping. We process NSCAT data to obtain the polarization ratio sigma(sub hh)/sigma(sub upsilon(upsilon)) with colocated data at incidence angles larger than 40 deg. The results over Asian
Probing cosmic strings with satellite CMB measurements
Jeong, E.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Smoot, G.F. E-mail: bacci@sissa.it
2010-09-01
We study the problem of searching for cosmic string signal patterns in the present high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This article discusses a technique capable of recognizing Kaiser-Stebbins effect signatures in total intensity anisotropy maps from isolated strings. We derive the statistical distributions of null detections from purely Gaussian fluctuations and instrumental performances of the operating satellites, and show that the biggest factor that produces confusion is represented by the acoustic oscillation features of the scale comparable to the size of horizon at recombination. Simulations show that the distribution of null detections converges to a χ{sup 2} distribution, with detectability threshold at 99% confidence level corresponding to a string induced step signal with an amplitude of about 100 μK which corresponds to a limit of roughly Gμ ∼ 1.5 × 10{sup −6}. We implement simulations for deriving the statistics of spurious detections caused by extra-Galactic and Galactic foregrounds. For diffuse Galactic foregrounds, which represents the dominant source of contamination, we construct sky masks outlining the available region of the sky where the Galactic confusion is sub-dominant, specializing our analysis to the case represented by the frequency coverage and nominal sensitivity and resolution of the Planck experiment. As for other CMB measurements, the maximum available area, corresponding to 7%, is reached where the foreground emission is expected to be minimum, in the 70–100 GHz interval.
Collagen fiber spatial orientation mapping using polarization-sensitive SHG microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Hu, Po-Sheng; Dong, Chen-Yuan
2012-12-01
Collagen, the main structural protein in vertebrates, possesses different structural organization that is responsible for specific functions of the tissues. Polarization dependence of the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal on spatial orientation of optically nonlinear materials, such as collagen, provides information on characteristic organization and architecture not available from intensity measurements alone. Here we describe a simple approach for determining both the azimuth and elevation angles of collagen fiber orientation in biological tissues. Azimuth angle of the fiber orientation is determined as an orthogonal angle to the laser polarization direction, when laser-induced total SHG signal is minimal, whereas the elevation angle is estimated from the ratio of the minimal SHG intensity to the intensity when laser polarization and fiber directions are parallel to each other. Using this approach pixel-resolved mapping of the spatial orientation of collagen fibers in tendon and cornea is demonstrated. The new approach may be used for analyzing of biological tissues in vivo. Spatial orientation mapping method provides additional information concerning fiber organization, and may be incorporated into nonlinear optical imaging systems.
What will we learn from the CMB?
Dodelson, S.
1997-10-01
Within the next decade, experiments measuring the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) will add greatly to our knowledge of the universe. There are dozens of experiments scheduled to take data over the next several years, capped by the satellite missions of NASA (MAP) and ESA (PLANCK). What will we learn from these experiments? I argue that the potential pay-off is immense: We are quite likely to determine cosmological parameters to unprecedented accuracy. This will provide key information about the theory of structure formation and even about the physics behind inflation. If the experiments succeed, can anything spoil this pay-off? I focus on three possible spoilers - foregrounds, reionization, and defect models - and argue that we have every reason to be optimistic.
Optimal cosmic microwave background map-making in the presence of cross-correlated noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Gasperis, G.; Buzzelli, A.; Cabella, P.; de Bernardis, P.; Vittorio, N.
2016-08-01
Aims: We present an extension of the ROMA map-making algorithm for the generation of optimal cosmic microwave background polarization maps. The new code allows for a possible cross-correlated noise component among the detectors of a CMB experiment. A promising application is the forthcoming LSPE balloon-borne experiment, which is devoted to the accurate observation of CMB polarization at large angular scales. Methods: We generalized the noise covariance matrix in time domain to account for all the off-diagonal terms due to the detector cross-talk. Hence, we performed preliminary forecasts of the LSPE-SWIPE instrument. Results: We found that considering the noise cross-correlation among the detectors results in a more realistic estimate of the angular power spectra. In particular, the extended ROMA algorithm has provided a considerable reduction of the spectra error bars. We expect that this improvement could be crucial in constraining the B-mode polarization at the largest scales.
Multi-Wavelength, Multi-Beam, and Polarization-Sensitive Laser Transmitter for Surface Mapping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, Anthony W.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Harding, David; Huss, Tim
2011-01-01
A multi-beam, multi-color, polarized laser transmitter has been developed for mapping applications. It uses commercial off-the-shelf components for a lowcost approach for a ruggedized laser suitable for field deployment. The laser transmitter design is capable of delivering dual wavelengths, multiple beams on each wavelength with equal (or variable) intensities per beam, and a welldefined state of polarization. This laser transmitter has been flown on several airborne campaigns for the Slope Imaging Multi-Polarization Photon Counting Lidar (SIMPL) instrument, and at the time of this reporting is at a technology readiness level of between 5 and 6. The laser is a 1,064-nm microchip high-repetition-rate laser emitting energy of about 8 microjoules per pulse. The beam was frequency-doubled to 532 nm using a KTP (KTiOPO4) nonlinear crystal [other nonlinear crystals such as LBO (LiB3O5) or periodically poled lithium niobiate can be used as well, depending on the conversion efficiency requirements], and the conversion efficiency was approximately 30 percent. The KTP was under temperature control using a thermoelectric cooler and a feedback monitoring thermistor. The dual-wavelength beams were then spectrally separated and each color went through its own optical path, which consisted of a beam-shaping lens, quarterwave plate (QWP), and a birefringent crystal (in this case, a calcite crystal, but others such as vanadate can be used). The QWP and calcite crystal set was used to convert the laser beams from a linearly polarized state to circularly polarized light, which when injected into a calcite crystal, will spatially separate the circularly polarized light into the two linear polarized components. The spatial separation of the two linearly polarized components is determined by the length of the crystal. A second set of QWP and calcite then further separated the two beams into four. Additional sets of QWP and calcite can be used to further split the beams into multiple
Cross-correlation analysis of CMB with foregrounds for residuals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aluri, Pavan K.; Rath, Pranati K.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we try to probe whether a clean cosmic microwave background (CMB) map obtained from the raw satellite data using a cleaning procedure is sufficiently clean. Specifically, we study if there are any foreground residuals still present in the cleaned data using a cross-correlation statistic. Residual contamination is expected to be present, primarily, in the Galactic plane due to the high emission from our own Galaxy. A foreground mask is applied conventionally to avoid biases in the estimated quantities of interest due to foreground leakage. Here, we map foreground residuals, if present, in the unmasked region i.e. outside a CMB analysis mask. Further locally extended foreground-contaminated regions, found eventually, are studied to understand them better. The few contaminated regions thus identified may be used to slightly extend the available masks to make them more stringent.
GeoMapApp as a platform for visualizing marine data from Polar Regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Goodwillie, A. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Weissel, R.; McLain, K.; Chinhong, C.; Arko, R. A.; Chan, S.; Morton, J. J.; Pomeroy, D.
2012-12-01
To maximize the investment in expensive fieldwork the resulting data should be re-used as much as possible. In addition, unnecessary duplication of data collection effort should be avoided. This becomes even more important if access to field areas is as difficult and expensive as it is in Polar Regions. Making existing data discoverable in an easy to use platform is key to improve re-use and avoid duplication. A common obstacle is that use of existing data is often limited to specialists who know of the data existence and also have the right tools to view and analyze these data. GeoMapApp is a free, interactive, map based tool that allows users to discover, visualize, and analyze a large number of data sets. In addition to a global view, it provides polar map projections for displaying data in Arctic and Antarctic areas. Data that have currently been added to the system include Arctic swath bathymetry data collected from the USCG icebreaker Healy. These data are collected almost continuously including from cruises where bathymetry is not the main objective and for which existence of the acquired data may not be well known. In contrast, existence of seismic data from the Antarctic continental margin is well known in the seismic community. They are archived at and can be accessed through the Antarctic Seismic Data Library System (SDLS). Incorporating these data into GeoMapApp makes an even broader community aware of these data and the custom interface, which includes capabilities to visualize and explore these data, allows users without specific software or knowledge of the underlying data format to access the data. In addition to investigating these datasets, GeoMapApp provides links to the actual data sources to allow specialists the opportunity to re-use the original data. Important identification of data sources and data references are achieved on different levels. For access to the actual Antarctic seismic data GeoMapApp links to the SDLS site, where users have
Can CMB Experiments Find Planet Nine?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-04-01
authors propose that CMB experiments with high enough resolution (~5m telescopes and larger) could have the ability to detect Planet Nine!Theres one major catch: how can we differentiate between Planet Nine and the ~4000 foreground asteroids that are brighter than 30 mJy at millimeter wavelengths?Cowan and collaborators argue that this can be done using a combination of asteroid databases and parallax measurements. The authors calculate that Planet Nine should move roughly a few arcseconds per day, mostly due to parallax. In comparison, asteroids will move ~10 arcminutes per day in a combination of proper motion and parallax an order of magnitude faster than Planet Nine.Resolution ConstraintsTo hunt down Planet Nine, we therefore need telescopes that can not only resolve a 30 mJy point source, but can also resolve an annual parallax motion of ~5 arcminutes per year.The authors demonstrate that several current and planned CMB experiments have the resolution and ability to detect Planet Nine, provided that they map large swatches of the sky and return to the same regions every few months. These experiments include CCAT, the South Pole Telescope, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, CMB-S4, and even possibly Planck.With the astronomical community coming together to brainstormwaysto trackdown this elusive possible planet, the use of CMB experiments is an intriguing option. And even if Planet Nine is discovered by other means, measuring its heat signaturewillteach usmore about the internal workings of giant planets.CitationNicolas B. Cowan et al 2016 ApJ 822 L2. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/822/1/L2
The quintessential CMB, past & future
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bond, J. Richard; Pogosyan, Dmitry; Prunet, Simon; Sigurdson, Kris; Maxiboom Collaboration
2001-02-01
The past, present and future of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy research is discussed, with emphasis on the Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. These data are combined with large scale structure (LSS) information derived from local cluster abundances and galaxy clustering and high redshift supernova (SN1) observations to explore the inflation-based cosmic structure formation paradigm. Here we primarily focus on a simplified inflation parameter set, {ωb,ωcdm,Ωtot,ΩQ,wQ,ns,τC,σ8}. After marginalizing over the other cosmic and experimental variables, we find the current CMB+LSS+SN1 data gives Ωtot=1.04+/-0.05, consistent with (non-baroque) inflation theory. Restricting to Ωtot=1, we find a nearly scale invariant spectrum, ns=1.03+/-0.07. The CDM density, ωcdm=0.17+/-0.02, is in the expected range, but the baryon density, ωb≡Ωbh2=0.030+/-0.004, is slightly larger than the current 0.019+/-0.002 Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimate. Substantial dark (unclustered) energy is inferred, ΩQ~0.68+/-0.05, and CMB+LSS ΩQ values are compatible with the independent SN1 estimates. The dark energy equation of state, parameterized by a quintessence-field pressure-to-density ratio wQ, is not well determined by CMB+LSS (wQ<-0.3 at 95% CL), but when combined with SN1 the resulting wQ<-0.7 limit is quite consistent with the wQ=-1 cosmological constant case. Though forecasts of statistical errors on parameters for current and future experiments are rosy, rooting out systematic errors will define the true progress. .
Ade, P A R; Akiba, Y; Anthony, A E; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Flanigan, D; Gilbert, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Le Jeune, M; Lee, A T; Linder, E; Leitch, E M; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Meng, X; Miller, N J; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Quealy, E; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Schanning, I; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Takakura, S; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O
2014-07-11
Gravitational lensing due to the large-scale distribution of matter in the cosmos distorts the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby induces new, small-scale B-mode polarization. This signal carries detailed information about the distribution of all the gravitating matter between the observer and CMB last scattering surface. We report the first direct evidence for polarization lensing based on purely CMB information, from using the four-point correlations of even- and odd-parity E- and B-mode polarization mapped over ∼30 square degrees of the sky measured by the POLARBEAR experiment. These data were analyzed using a blind analysis framework and checked for spurious systematic contamination using null tests and simulations. Evidence for the signal of polarization lensing and lensing B modes is found at 4.2σ (stat+sys) significance. The amplitude of matter fluctuations is measured with a precision of 27%, and is found to be consistent with the Lambda cold dark matter cosmological model. This measurement demonstrates a new technique, capable of mapping all gravitating matter in the Universe, sensitive to the sum of neutrino masses, and essential for cleaning the lensing B-mode signal in searches for primordial gravitational waves. PMID:25062161
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Anthony, A. E.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Flanigan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Grainger, W.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Howard, J.; Hyland, P.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Linder, E.; Leitch, E. M.; Lungu, M.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Meng, X.; Miller, N. J.; Morii, H.; Moyerman, S.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Schanning, I.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B.; Shimizu, A.; Shimmin, C.; Shimon, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Spieler, H.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Takakura, S.; Tomaru, T.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.; Polarbear Collaboration
2014-07-01
Gravitational lensing due to the large-scale distribution of matter in the cosmos distorts the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby induces new, small-scale B-mode polarization. This signal carries detailed information about the distribution of all the gravitating matter between the observer and CMB last scattering surface. We report the first direct evidence for polarization lensing based on purely CMB information, from using the four-point correlations of even- and odd-parity E- and B-mode polarization mapped over ˜30 square degrees of the sky measured by the POLARBEAR experiment. These data were analyzed using a blind analysis framework and checked for spurious systematic contamination using null tests and simulations. Evidence for the signal of polarization lensing and lensing B modes is found at 4.2σ (stat +sys) significance. The amplitude of matter fluctuations is measured with a precision of 27%, and is found to be consistent with the Lambda cold dark matter cosmological model. This measurement demonstrates a new technique, capable of mapping all gravitating matter in the Universe, sensitive to the sum of neutrino masses, and essential for cleaning the lensing B-mode signal in searches for primordial gravitational waves.
Ade, P A R; Akiba, Y; Anthony, A E; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Flanigan, D; Gilbert, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Le Jeune, M; Lee, A T; Linder, E; Leitch, E M; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Meng, X; Miller, N J; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Quealy, E; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Schanning, I; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Takakura, S; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O
2014-07-11
Gravitational lensing due to the large-scale distribution of matter in the cosmos distorts the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby induces new, small-scale B-mode polarization. This signal carries detailed information about the distribution of all the gravitating matter between the observer and CMB last scattering surface. We report the first direct evidence for polarization lensing based on purely CMB information, from using the four-point correlations of even- and odd-parity E- and B-mode polarization mapped over ∼30 square degrees of the sky measured by the POLARBEAR experiment. These data were analyzed using a blind analysis framework and checked for spurious systematic contamination using null tests and simulations. Evidence for the signal of polarization lensing and lensing B modes is found at 4.2σ (stat+sys) significance. The amplitude of matter fluctuations is measured with a precision of 27%, and is found to be consistent with the Lambda cold dark matter cosmological model. This measurement demonstrates a new technique, capable of mapping all gravitating matter in the Universe, sensitive to the sum of neutrino masses, and essential for cleaning the lensing B-mode signal in searches for primordial gravitational waves.
Probing gravity at large scales through CMB lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullen, Anthony R.; Alam, Shadab; Ho, Shirley
2015-06-01
We describe a methodology to probe gravity with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing convergence κ, specifically by measuring EG, the ratio of the Laplacian of the gravitational scalar potential difference to the velocity divergence. Using CMB lensing instead of galaxy-galaxy lensing avoids intrinsic alignments while also lacking a hard limit on the lens redshift and significant uncertainties in the source plane. We model EG for general relativity and modified gravity, finding that EG for f(R) gravity should be scale dependent due to the scale dependence of the growth rate f. Next, we construct an estimator for EG in terms of the galaxy-CMB lensing and galaxy clustering angular power spectra, along with the redshift-space distortion parameter β. We also forecast statistical errors for EG from the current Planck CMB lensing map and the spectroscopic galaxy and quasar samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 11, being 9 per cent with galaxies and 8 per cent when quasars are included. We also find that upcoming spectroscopic and photometric surveys, combined with the final Planck lensing map, can measure precisely the redshift- and scale dependence of EG out to redshifts z = 2 and higher, with photometric surveys having an advantage due to their high number densities. Advanced ACTPol's lensing map will increase the EG sensitivity even further. Finally, we find that Advanced ACTPol cross-correlated with spectroscopic (photometric) surveys can differentiate between general relativity and f(R) gravity at the level of 3σ (13σ). Performing a <1 per cent measurement of EG requires a 10 per cent precision in β from Euclid or Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, currently achievable with a spectroscopic survey but difficult with only a photometric survey.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Switzer, Eric R.; Watts, Duncan J.
2016-09-01
The B -mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background provides a unique window into tensor perturbations from inflationary gravitational waves. Survey effects complicate the estimation and description of the power spectrum on the largest angular scales. The pixel-space likelihood yields parameter distributions without the power spectrum as an intermediate step, but it does not have the large suite of tests available to power spectral methods. Searches for primordial B -modes must rigorously reject and rule out contamination. Many forms of contamination vary or are uncorrelated across epochs, frequencies, surveys, or other data treatment subsets. The cross power and the power spectrum of the difference of subset maps provide approaches to reject and isolate excess variance. We develop an analogous joint pixel-space likelihood. Contamination not modeled in the likelihood produces parameter-dependent bias and complicates the interpretation of the difference map. We describe a null test that consistently weights the difference map. Excess variance should either be explicitly modeled in the covariance or be removed through reprocessing the data.
Foreground-induced biases in CMB polarimeter self-calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abitbol, Maximilian H.; Hill, James; Johnson, Bradley
2016-06-01
Precise polarization measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) require accurate knowledge of the instrument orientation relative to the sky frame used to define the cosmological Stokes parameters. Suitable celestial calibration sources that could be used to measure the polarimeter orientation angle are limited, so current experiments commonly `self-calibrate.' The self-calibration method exploits the theoretical fact that the EB and TB cross-spectra of the CMB vanish in the standard cosmological model, so any detected EB and TB signals must be due to systematic errors. However, this assumption neglects the fact that polarized Galactic foregrounds in a given portion of the sky may have non-zero EB and TB cross-spectra. If these foreground signals remain in the observations, then they will bias the self-calibrated telescope polarization angle and produce a spurious B-mode signal. In this paper, we estimate the foreground-induced bias for various instrument configurations and then expand the self-calibration formalism to account for polarized foreground signals. Assuming the EB correlation signal for dust is in the range constrained by angular power spectrum measurements from Planck at 353 GHz (scaled down to 150 GHz), then the bias is negligible for high angular resolution experiments, which have access to CMB-dominated high 'ell' modes with which to self-calibrate. Low-resolution experiments observing particularly dusty sky patches can have a bias as large as 0.5°. A miscalibration of this magnitude generates a spurious BB signal corresponding to a tensor-to-scalar ratio of approximately r ~ 2 × 10-3, within the targeted range of planned experiments.
Foreground-induced biases in CMB polarimeter self-calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abitbol, Maximilian H.; Hill, J. Colin; Johnson, Bradley R.
2016-04-01
Precise polarization measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) require accurate knowledge of the instrument orientation relative to the sky frame used to define the cosmological Stokes parameters. Suitable celestial calibration sources that could be used to measure the polarimeter orientation angle are limited, so current experiments commonly `self-calibrate.' The self-calibration method exploits the theoretical fact that the EB and TB cross-spectra of the CMB vanish in the standard cosmological model, so any detected EB and TB signals must be due to systematic errors. However, this assumption neglects the fact that polarized Galactic foregrounds in a given portion of the sky may have non-zero EB and TB cross-spectra. If these foreground signals remain in the observations, then they will bias the self-calibrated telescope polarization angle and produce a spurious B-mode signal. In this paper, we estimate the foreground-induced bias for various instrument configurations and then expand the self-calibration formalism to account for polarized foreground signals. Assuming the EB correlation signal for dust is in the range constrained by angular power spectrum measurements from Planck at 353 GHz (scaled down to 150 GHz), then the bias is negligible for high angular resolution experiments, which have access to CMB-dominated high ℓ modes with which to self-calibrate. Low-resolution experiments observing particularly dusty sky patches can have a bias as large as 0.5°. A miscalibration of this magnitude generates a spurious BB signal corresponding to a tensor-to-scalar ratio of approximately r ˜ 2 × 10-3, within the targeted range of planned experiments.
The binned bispectrum estimator: template-based and non-parametric CMB non-Gaussianity searches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucher, Martin; Racine, Benjamin; van Tent, Bartjan
2016-05-01
We describe the details of the binned bispectrum estimator as used for the official 2013 and 2015 analyses of the temperature and polarization CMB maps from the ESA Planck satellite. The defining aspect of this estimator is the determination of a map bispectrum (3-point correlation function) that has been binned in harmonic space. For a parametric determination of the non-Gaussianity in the map (the so-called fNL parameters), one takes the inner product of this binned bispectrum with theoretically motivated templates. However, as a complementary approach one can also smooth the binned bispectrum using a variable smoothing scale in order to suppress noise and make coherent features stand out above the noise. This allows one to look in a model-independent way for any statistically significant bispectral signal. This approach is useful for characterizing the bispectral shape of the galactic foreground emission, for which a theoretical prediction of the bispectral anisotropy is lacking, and for detecting a serendipitous primordial signal, for which a theoretical template has not yet been put forth. Both the template-based and the non-parametric approaches are described in this paper.
Non-Gaussianity and CMB aberration and Doppler
Catena, Riccardo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Notari, Alessio E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it E-mail: arenzi@pd.infn.it
2013-09-01
The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces a deflection in the arrival direction of the observed photons (also known as CMB aberration) and a Doppler shift in the measured photon frequencies. As a consequence, aberration and Doppler effects induce non trivial correlations between the harmonic coefficients of the observed CMB temperature maps. In this paper we investigate whether these correlations generate a bias on non-Gaussianity estimators f{sub NL}. We perform this analysis simulating a large number of temperature maps with Planck-like resolution (lmax = 2000) as different realizations of the same cosmological fiducial model (WMAP7yr). We then add to these maps aberration and Doppler effects employing a modified version of the HEALPix code. We finally evaluate a generalization of the Komatsu, Spergel and Wandelt non-Gaussianity estimator for all the simulated maps, both when peculiar velocity effects have been considered and when these phenomena have been neglected. Using the value v/c = 1.23 × 10{sup −3} for our peculiar velocity, we found that the aberration/Doppler induced non-Gaussian signal is at most of about half of the cosmic variance σ for f{sub NL} both in a full-sky and in a cut-sky experimental configuration, for local, equilateral and orthogonal estimators. We conclude therefore that when estimating f{sub NL} it is safe to ignore aberration and Doppler effects if the primordial map is already Gaussian. More work is necessary however to assess whether a map which contains non-Gaussianity can be significantly distorted by a peculiar velocity.
Re-evaluation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haynes, R.
2009-12-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) has an almost perfect black-body spectrum, with polarization. These characteristics are inconsistent with the Standard Big Bang (SBB) model. An almost perfect spectrum can arise only from a surface of last scattering which is an almost perfect black-body. Thermodynamically, this is matter in thermal equilibrium, absorbing almost 100% of incident radiation and re-emitting it as black-body radiation. By definition, a perfect black-body is matter at zero kelvin, and cold matter better approaches this perfection. SBB theory describes the CMB as originating from a hydrogen-helium plasma, condensing at a temperature of about 3,000 K. Such a surface would exhibit a continuous radiation spectrum, not unlike that of the sun, which is shown to have a spectrum similar, but not identical to, a black-body spectrum. An imperfect spectrum, even stretched 1100 fold as in the SBB model, remains an imperfect spectrum. Also, a plasma would not support the orientation required to impart polarization to the CMB. A better explanation of the observational evidence is possible if one views the observable universe as part of, and originating from, a much larger structure. Here we propose a defined physical description for such a model. It is shown how a "cosmic fabric" of spin-oriented atomic hydrogen, at zero kelvin, surrounding a matter-depletion zone and the observable universe, would produce the CMB observations. The cosmic fabric would be a perfect black-body and subsequently re-emit an almost perfect black-body spectrum. The radiation would be almost perfectly isotropic, imposed by the spherical distribution of the surface of last scattering, and spin-oriented hydrogen would impart the observed polarization. This geometry also obviates the so-called "horizon problem" of the SBB, why the CMB radiation is essentially isotropic when coming from points of origin with no apparent causal contact. This problem was supposedly "solved" with the
A CMB GIBBS SAMPLER FOR LOCALIZED SECONDARY ANISOTROPIES
Bull, Philip; Eriksen, Hans Kristian; Fuskeland, Unni; Wehus, Ingunn K.; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Górski, Krzysztof M.; Jewell, Jeffrey B.
2015-07-20
In addition to primary fluctuations, cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps contain a wealth of additional information in the form of secondary anisotropies. However, secondary effects that can be identified with individual objects, such as the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (TSZ–KSZ) effects due to galaxy clusters, are difficult to unambiguously disentangle from foreground contamination and the primary CMB. We develop a Bayesian formalism to rigorously characterize anisotropies that are localized on the sky, taking the TSZ and KSZ effects as an example. Using a Gibbs sampling scheme, we are able to efficiently sample from the joint posterior distribution for a multi-component model of the sky with many thousands of correlated physical parameters. The posterior can then be exactly marginalized to estimate the properties of the secondary anisotropies, fully taking into account degeneracies with the other signals in the CMB map. We show that this method is computationally tractable using a simple implementation based on the existing Commander component separation code and discuss how other types of secondary anisotropy can be accommodated within our framework.
Planck 2015 results. XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-09-01
likelihood results against specific extensions to the baseline cosmology, which are particularly sensitive to data at high multipoles. For instance, the effective number of neutrino species remains compatible with the canonical value of 3.046. For this first detailed analysis of Planck polarization spectra, we concentrate at high multipoles on the E modes, leaving the analysis of the weaker B modes to future work. At low multipoles we use temperature maps at all Planck frequencies along with a subset of polarization data. These data take advantage of Planck's wide frequency coverage to improve the separation of CMB and foreground emission. Within the baseline ΛCDM cosmology this requires τ = 0.078 ± 0.019 for the reionization optical depth, which is significantly lower than estimates without the use of high-frequency data for explicit monitoring of dust emission. At high multipoles we detect residual systematic errors in E polarization, typically at the μK2 level; we therefore choose to retain temperature information alone for high multipoles as the recommended baseline, in particular for testing non-minimal models. Nevertheless, the high-multipole polarization spectra from Planck are already good enough to enable a separate high-precision determination of the parameters of the ΛCDM model, showing consistency with those established independently from temperature information alone.
PETROLEUM RESIDUA SOLUBILITY PARAMETER/POLARITY MAP: STABILITY STUDIES OF RESIDUA PYROLYSIS
John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.
1999-04-30
A new molecular weight/polarity map based on the Scatchard-Hildebrand solubility equation has been developed for petroleum residua. A series of extractions are performed with solvents of increasing solubility parameter, and the fractions are analyzed by vapor pressure osmometry for number average molecular weight and by analytical-scale size exclusion chromatography for molecular weight spread. Work was performed for a heavy oil material subjected to three increasing severities of thermal treatment prior to and through the onset of coke formation. The results are diagnostic of the layers of solvations by resin-type molecules around a central asphaltene core. Two additional stability diagnostic methods were also used. These were the Heithaus titration ''P-index'' and Gaestel ''G'' index, which have been applied to paving asphalts for decades. The Heithaus titration involves the titration of three toluene solutions of a residuum at three concentrations with a poor solvent, such as isooctane, to the point of asphaltene flocculation. In the present work, the significance of the data are developed in terms of the Hildebrand solubility parameter. The Heithaus results are combined with data from the new molecular weight/polarity map. The solubility parameters for the toluene-soluble asphaltene components are measured, and the solubility parameters of the maltenes can be calculated. As thermal treatment progresses, the solubility parameters of asphaltene materials increase and the molecular weights decrease. A new coking index is proposed based on Heithaus titration data. Preliminary results suggest that an alternative, simpler coking index may be developed by measuring the weight percent of cyclohexane solubles in heptane asphaltenes. Coking onset appears to coincide with the depletion of these resin-type asphaltene solubilizing components of residua. The objective of the present study was to develop a mapping tool that will enhance understanding of the changes that occur
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Chunhui; Flynn, Larry; Wu, Xiangqian; Buss, Rich
2014-01-01
This paper analyzes the in-flight performance of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Ozone Mapping & Profiling Suite (OMPS) nadir instruments and evaluates sensors' on-orbit calibrations after sensors' two-year operation. All uncertainty values quoted in this paper are 1-σ values unless stated otherwise. With the data collected from in-flight nominal calibration, our results have demonstrated that sensor performance complies with the system specifications in most cases. The largest term in the wavelength-dependent albedo calibration uncertainty for Nadir Mapper is the cross-track position difference effect of 2.5%. Final adjustments of stray light and wavelength variation are still being made to optimize OMPS sensor data records before reaching the validation mature level.
Kampmann, Martin; Atkinson, Claire E.; Mattheyses, Alexa L.; Simon, Sanford M.
2011-01-01
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) perforates the nuclear envelope to facilitate selective transport between nucleus and cytoplasm. The NPC is composed of multiple copies of ~30 different proteins, termed nucleoporins, whose arrangement within the NPC is a major unsolved puzzle in structural biology. Various alternative models for NPC architecture have been proposed but not tested experimentally in intact NPCs. We present a method using polarized fluorescence microscopy to investigate nucleoporin orientation in live yeast and mammalian cells. Our results support an arrangement of both yeast Nic96 and human Nup133–Nup107 with their long axes approximately parallel to the nuclear envelope plane. This method can complement X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy to generate a high-resolution map of the entire NPC, and could monitor nucleoporin rearrangements during nucleocytoplasmic transport and NPC assembly. This strategy can also be adapted for other macromolecular machines. PMID:21499242
Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gazoty, A.; Fiandaca, G.; Pedersen, J.; Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Pedersen, J. K.
2012-01-01
A DC resistivity (DC) and Time Domain Induced Polarization (TDIP) survey was undertaken at a decommissioned landfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark, for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminate important geological units that control the hydrology of the surrounding area. It is known that both waste deposits and clay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making possible to enhance the resolution of geological structures, when compared to DC surveys alone. Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill and another seven profiles in the surroundings, giving a dense coverage over the entire area. The whole dataset was inverted using a 1-D Laterally Constrained Inversion scheme, recently implemented for IP data, in order to use the entire decay curves for reconstructing the electrical parameters of the soil in terms of the Cole-Cole polarization model. Results show that it is possible to both resolve the geometry of the buried waste body and key geological structures. In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depth, which correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plume spreading out from the landfill, and to map a shallow sandy layer rich in clay that likely has a strong influence on the hydrology of the site. This interpretation of the geophysical findings was constrained by boreholes data, in terms of geology and gamma ray logging. The results of this study are important for the impact that the resolved geological units have in the hydrology of the area, making it possible to construct more realistic scenarios of the variation of the pollution plume as a function of the climate change.
Application of time domain induced polarization to the mapping of lithotypes in a landfill site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gazoty, A.; Fiandaca, G.; Pedersen, J.; Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Pedersen, J. K.
2012-06-01
A direct current (DC) resistivity and time domain induced polarization (TDIP) survey was undertaken at a decommissioned landfill site situated in Hørløkke, Denmark, for the purpose of mapping the waste deposits and to discriminate important geological units that control the hydrology of the surrounding area. It is known that both waste deposits and clay have clear signatures in TDIP data, making it possible to enhance the resolution of geological structures compared to DC surveys alone. Four DC/TDIP profiles were carried out crossing the landfill, and another seven profiles in the surroundings provide a sufficiently dense coverage of the entire area. The whole dataset was inverted using a 1-D laterally constrained inversion scheme, recently implemented for TDIP data, in order to use the entire decay curves for reconstructing the electrical parameters of the soil in terms of the Cole-Cole polarization model. Results show that it is possible to resolve both the geometry of the buried waste body and key geological structures. In particular, it was possible to find a silt/clay lens at depth that correlates with the flow direction of the pollution plume spreading out from the landfill and to map a shallow sandy layer rich in clay that likely has a strong influence on the hydrology of the site. This interpretation of the geophysical findings was constrained by borehole data, in terms of geology and gamma ray logging. The results of this study are important for the impact of the resolved geological units on the hydrology of the area, making it possible to construct more realistic scenarios of the variation of the pollution plume as a function of the climate change.
Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin; Amstrup, Steven C.
2013-01-01
The National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPR-A) in northeastern Alaska provides winter maternal denning habitat for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and also has high potential for recoverable hydrocarbons. Denning polar bears exposed to human activities may abandon their dens before their young are able to survive the severity of Arctic winter weather. To ensure that wintertime petroleum activities do not threaten polar bears, managers need to know the distribution of landscape features in which maternal dens are likely to occur. Here, we present a map of potential denning habitat within the NPR-A. We used a fine-grain digital elevation model derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) to generate a map of putative denning habitat. We then tested the map’s ability to identify polar bear denning habitat on the landscape. Our final map correctly identified 82% of denning habitat estimated to be within the NPR-A. Mapped denning habitat comprised 19.7 km2 (0.1% of the study area) and was widely dispersed. Though mapping denning habitat with IfSAR data was as effective as mapping with the photogrammetric methods used for other regions of the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain, the use of GIS to analyze IfSAR data allowed greater objectivity and flexibility with less manual labor. Analytical advantages and performance equivalent to that of manual cartographic methods suggest that the use of IfSAR data to identify polar bear maternal denning habitat is a better management tool in the NPR-A and wherever such data may be available.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paige, D. A.; Crisp, D.; Santee, M. L.; Richardson, M. I.
1993-01-01
A series of infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) south polar brightness temperature maps obtained by Viking Orbiter 2 during a 35-day period during the southern fall season in 1978 was examined. The maps show a number of phenomena that have been identified in previous studies, including day to day brightness temperature variations in individual low temperature regions and the tendency for IRTM 11-micron channel brightness temperatures to also decrease in regions where low 20-micron channel brightness temperatures are observed. The maps also show new phenomena, the most striking of which is a clear tendency for the low brightness temperature regions to occur at fixed geographic regions. During this season, the coldest low brightness temperatures appear to be concentrated in distinct regions, with spatial scales ranging from 50 to 300 km. There are approximately a dozen of these concentrations, with the largest centered near the location of the south residual polar cap. Other concentrations are located at Cavi Angusti and close to the craters Main, South, Lau, and Dana. Broader, less intense regions appear to be well correlated with the boundaries of the south polar layered deposits and the Mountains of Mitchell. No evidence for horizontal motion of any of these regions has been detected.
Mapping the inner regions of the polar disk galaxy NGC 4650A with MUSE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iodice, E.; Coccato, L.; Combes, F.; de Zeeuw, T.; Arnaboldi, M.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Bacon, R.; Kuntschner, H.; Spavone, M.
2015-11-01
The polar disk galaxy NGC 4650A was observed during the commissioning of the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the ESO Very Large Telescope to obtain the first 2D map of the velocity and velocity dispersion for both stars and gas. The new MUSE data allow the analysis of the structure and kinematics towards the central regions of NGC 4650A, where the two components co-exist. These regions were unexplored by the previous long-slit literature data available for this galaxy. The stellar velocity field shows that there are two main directions of rotation, one along the host galaxy major axis (PA = 67 deg) and the other along the polar disk (PA = 160 deg). The host galaxy has, on average, the typical pattern of a rotating disk, with receding velocities on the SW side and approaching velocities on the NE side, and a velocity dispersion that remains constant at all radii (σstar ~ 50-60 km s-1). The polar disk shows a large amount of differential rotation from the centre up to the outer regions, reaching V ~ 100-120 km s-1 at R ~ 75 arcsec ~ 16 kpc. Inside the host galaxy, a velocity gradient is measured along the photometric minor axis. Close to the centre, for R ≤ 2 arcsec the velocity profile of the gas suggests a decoupled component and the velocity dispersion increases up to ~110 km s-1, while at larger distances it remains almost constant (σgas ~ 30-40 km s-1). The extended view of NGC 4650A given by the MUSE data is a galaxy made of two perpendicular disks that remain distinct and drive the kinematics right into the very centre of this object. In order to match this observed structure for NGC 4650A, we constructed a multicomponent mass model made by the combined projection of two disks. By comparing the observations with the 2D kinematics derived from the model, we found that the modelled mass distribution in these two disks can, on average, account for the complex kinematics revealed by the MUSE data, also in the central regions of the galaxy where the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.; Hain, C. R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Schultz, L.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Cammalleri, C.; D'Urso, G.; Pimstein, A.; Gao, F.
2010-08-01
Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (soil moisture, advection, air temperature) are affecting plant stress. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil+canopy) land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5-10 km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI), spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions of 30 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe and, Africa and other continents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.; Hain, C. R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Schultz, L.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Cammalleri, C.; D'Urso, G.; Pimstein, A.; Gao, F.
2011-01-01
Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection) are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy) land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI) spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa and other
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Ferrière, K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Soler, J. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-02-01
The quest for a B-mode imprint from primordial gravity waves on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) requires the characterization of foreground polarization from Galactic dust. We present a statistical study of the filamentary structure of the 353 GHz Planck Stokes maps at high Galactic latitude, relevant to the study of dust emission as a polarized foreground to the CMB. We filter the intensity and polarization maps to isolate filaments in the range of angular scales where the power asymmetry between E-modes and B-modes is observed. Using the Smoothed Hessian Major Axis Filament Finder (SMAFF), we identify 259 filaments at high Galactic latitude, with lengths larger or equal to 2° (corresponding to 3.5 pc in length for a typical distance of 100 pc). Thesefilaments show a preferred orientation parallel to the magnetic field projected onto the plane of the sky, derived from their polarization angles. We present mean maps of the filaments in Stokes I, Q, U, E, and B, computed by stacking individual images rotated to align the orientations of the filaments. Combining the stacked images and the histogram of relative orientations, we estimate the mean polarization fraction of the filaments to be 11%. Furthermore, we show that the correlation between the filaments and the magnetic field orientations may account for the E and B asymmetry and the CℓTE/CℓEE ratio, reported in the power spectra analysis of the Planck353 GHz polarization maps. Future models of the dust foreground for CMB polarization studies will need to take into account the observed correlation between the dust polarization and the structure of interstellar matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cosmidis, J.; Heggy, E.; Clifford, S. M.
2007-12-01
Laboratory dielectric characterizations of Ice-dust mixtures are crucial for the quantitative analysis of radar sounding data as for the case of the MARSIS and SHARAD experiments. Understanding the range of the dielectric properties of the Martian northmen Polar layer deposits as well as their geographical an vertical distribution result in a better topographical mapping of the basement material below the northern polar cap and help constrain the ambiguities on the identification of layering and any potential subglaciar melting. In order to achieve this task, we constructed first order modeled maps of the surface dielectric properties oh the NPLD. We first used the recent Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) thermal inertia observations in order to derive a map of the dust mass fraction in the ice at the top of the permanent cap. Then we used parametric laboratory measurements of the dielectric properties of Martian polar ice analogs with various temperatures, radar frequencies and mass fractions and compositions of dust in order to obtain the parametric dielectric maps. Thermal inertia maps have been derived from recent TES observations of the surface temperatures of Mars taken over three Mars-years from orbit 1583 to 24346. Laboratory dielectric characterization of ice-dust mixtures has been performed using TES dust calibration samples provided by the ARES group at NASA JSC. Our Maps suggest that surface dielectric properties of the northern Polar cap ranges from 2.72 to 3.23 in the 2-20 MHz band for a dust inclusion typical of Martian basalt. Parametric maps of loss tangent, penetration depth for several dust types will be presented at the conference.
CMB constraints on cosmic strings and superstrings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charnock, Tom; Avgoustidis, Anastasios; Copeland, Edmund J.; Moss, Adam
2016-06-01
We present the first complete Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of cosmological models with evolving cosmic (super)string networks, using the unconnected segment model in the unequal-time correlator formalism. For ordinary cosmic string networks, we derive joint constraints on Λ cold dark matter (CDM) and string network parameters, namely the string tension G μ , the loop-chopping efficiency cr, and the string wiggliness α . For cosmic superstrings, we obtain joint constraints on the fundamental string tension G μF, the string coupling gs, the self-interaction coefficient cs, and the volume of compact extra dimensions w . This constitutes the most comprehensive CMB analysis of Λ CDM cosmology+strings to date. For ordinary cosmic string networks our updated constraint on the string tension, obtained using Planck2015 temperature and polarization data, is G μ <1.1 ×10-7 in relativistic units, while for cosmic superstrings our constraint on the fundamental string tension after marginalizing over gs, cs, and w is G μF<2.8 ×10-8.
Spin-SILC: CMB polarisation component separation with spin wavelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, Keir K.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Leistedt, Boris; McEwen, Jason D.; Pontzen, Andrew
2016-08-01
We present Spin-SILC, a new foreground component separation method that accurately extracts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarisation E and B modes from raw multifrequency Stokes Q and U measurements of the microwave sky. Spin-SILC is an internal linear combination method that uses spin wavelets to analyse the spin-2 polarisation signal P = Q + iU. The wavelets are additionally directional (non-axisymmetric). This allows different morphologies of signals to be separated and therefore the cleaning algorithm is localised using an additional domain of information. The advantage of spin wavelets over standard scalar wavelets is to simultaneously and self-consistently probe scales and directions in the polarisation signal P = Q + iU and in the underlying E and B modes, therefore providing the ability to perform component separation and E-B decomposition concurrently for the first time. We test Spin-SILC on full-mission Planck simulations and data and show the capacity to correctly recover the underlying cosmological E and B modes. We also demonstrate a strong consistency of our CMB maps with those derived from existing component separation methods. Spin-SILC can be combined with the pseudo- and pure E-B spin wavelet estimators presented in a companion paper to reliably extract the cosmological signal in the presence of complicated sky cuts and noise. Therefore, it will provide a computationally-efficient method to accurately extract the CMB E and B modes for future polarisation experiments.
A note on the birefringence angle estimation in CMB data analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruppuso, A.; Maggio, G.; Molinari, D.; Natoli, P.
2016-05-01
Parity violating physics beyond the standard model of particle physics induces a rotation of the linear polarization of photons. This effect, also known as cosmological birefringence (CB), can be tested with the observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies which are linearly polarized at the level of 5-10%. In particular CB produces non-null CMB cross correlations between temperature and B mode-polarization, and between E- and B-mode polarization. Here we study the properties of the so called D-estimators, often used to constrain such an effect. After deriving the framework of both frequentist and Bayesian analysis, we discuss the interplay between birefringence and weak-lensing, which, albeit parity conserving, modifies pre-existing TB and EB cross correlation.
Quantitative Mapping of Surface Texture on the Northern Polar Residual Cap of Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milkovich, S. M.; Byrne, S.; Russell, P. S.
2010-12-01
The northern polar residual cap (NPRC) of Mars is a water ice deposit with a rough surface made up of pits, knobs, and linear depressions on scales of tens of meters [1]. This roughness manifests as a series of bright and dark patches in visible images. Spectral data indicate that the surface of the NPRC is composed of large-grained (and therefore old) water ice. Due to the presence of this old ice, it is thought that the NPRC is in a current state of net loss of material [2]. The NPRC provides a link between the current martian climate and the historical climate recorded within the layers of the underlying north polar layered deposits. By characterizing and mapping the variations in surface texture of the NPRC, we seek to understand what factors (distance from the pole, GCM and mesoscale wind direction predictions, etc) are currently at work in resurfacing the deposit, and may have been at work in shaping the layers below. Maps of NPRC texture wavelength and orientation are being produced from HiRISE images. Two-dimensional Fourier analysis is performed upon a 256 meter x 256 meter region (corresponding to 512 x 512 pixels in 0.5 cm/pxl images, or 1024 x 1024 pixels in 0.25 cm/pxl images) within each image analyzed. The dominant wavelength of the resulting peak power spectrum corresponds to the average size of a pit-knob pair in the image, and so is a proxy for the scale of the surface roughness. The orientation of the surface roughness (i.e., the orientation of a chain of pits and mounds) is measured from a narrow range of wavelengths encompassing the dominant wavelength. We will report on how the dominant wavelengths and orientations of this surface texture vary with location and what that implies for the processes currently shaping this landscape. [1] P. C. Thomas et al, Nature 404, 161-164, 2000 [2]Y. Langevin et al, Science 307, 5715, 1581-1584, 2005.
Disformal transformations on the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burrage, Clare; Cespedes, Sebastian; Davis, Anne-Christine
2016-08-01
In this work we study the role of disformal transformation on cosmological backgrounds and its relation to the speed of sound for tensor modes. A speed different from one for tensor modes can arise in several contexts, such as Galileons theories or massive gravity, nevertheless the speed is very constrained to be one by observations of gravitational wave emission. It has been shown that in inflation a disformal transformation allows to set the speed for tensor modes to one without making changes to the curvature power spectrum. Here we show that this invariance does not hold when considering the CMB anisotropy power spectrum. It turns out that the after doing the transformation there is an imprint on the acoustic peaks and the diffusion damping. This has interesting consequences; here we explore quartic galileon theories which allow a modified speed for tensor modes. For these theories the transformation can be used to constraint the parameter space in different regimes.
Mapping the Antarctic Polar Front: weekly realizations from 2002 to 2014
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freeman, Natalie M.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.
2016-05-01
We map the weekly position of the Antarctic Polar Front (PF) in the Southern Ocean over a 12-year period (2002-2014) using satellite sea surface temperature (SST) estimated from cloud-penetrating microwave radiometers. Our study advances previous efforts to map the PF using hydrographic and satellite data and provides a unique realization of the PF at weekly resolution across all longitudes (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.855640). The mean path of the PF is asymmetric; its latitudinal position spans from 44 to 64° S along its circumpolar path. SST at the PF ranges from 0.6 to 6.9 °C, reflecting the large spread in latitudinal position. The average intensity of the front is 1.7 °C per 100 km, with intensity ranging from 1.4 to 2.3 °C per 100 km. Front intensity is significantly correlated with the depth of bottom topography, suggesting that the front intensifies over shallow bathymetry. Realizations of the PF are consistent with the corresponding surface expressions of the PF estimated using expendable bathythermograph data in the Drake Passage and Australian and African sectors. The climatological mean position of the PF is similar, though not identical, to previously published estimates. As the PF is a key indicator of physical circulation, surface nutrient concentration, and biogeography in the Southern Ocean, future studies of physical and biogeochemical oceanography in this region will benefit from the provided data set.
Search for primordial symmetry breakings in CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraishi, Maresuke
2016-06-01
There are possibilities to violate symmetries (e.g. parity and rotational invariance) in the primordial cosmological fluctuations. Such symmetry breakings can imprint very rich signatures in late-time phenomena, which may be possible to observe. Especially, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) will change its face drastically, corresponding to the symmetry-breaking types, since the harmonic-space representation is very sensitive to the statistical, spin and angular dependences of cosmological perturbations. Here, we discuss (1) general responses of CMB to the symmetry breakings, (2) some theoretical models creating interesting CMB signatures, and (3) aspects of the estimation from observational data.
Spectral energy distribution, radio maps and polarization of Cygnus X-1: a lepto-hadronic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vila, G. S.; Pepe, C.; Romero, G. E.
2016-08-01
The microquasar Cygnus X-1 is one of the most studied astrophysical sources. Several radiative models for the non-thermal broadband emission of Cygnus X-1 are available. For the jet emission in particular, only leptonic models have been considered despite the observational evidence of the presence of hadrons in the jets of other microquasars. In this work, we present an inhomogeneous, lepto-hadronic jet model for the non-thermal broadband emission of Cygnus X-1. We calculate the contribution to the spectrum of both relativistic electrons and protons, taking into account their interaction with the magnetic field, matter and photon fields internal and external to the jet. We obtain best-fit models for the spectrum that reproduce the observations from radio to gamma rays, including the MeV tail whose origin is still disputed. We also produce synthetic radio maps of the jet and compare them to actual interferometric observations of the source. Finally, we present preliminary results for the degree of polarization of the jet radiation in the MeV band.
Polarized radio filaments outside the Galactic plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vidal, Matias; Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Leahy, J. P.
2015-09-01
We used data from the WMAP satellite at 23, 33 and 41 GHz to study the diffuse polarized emission over the entire sky. The emission originates mostly from filamentary structures with well-ordered magnetic fields. Some of these structures have been known for decades in radio continuum maps. Their origin is not clear and there are many filaments that are visible for the first time. We have identified and studied 11 filaments. The polarization fraction of some of them can be as high as 40 per cent, which is a signature of a well-ordered magnetic field. The polarization spectral indices, averaged over 18 regions in the sky is β = -3.06 ± 0.02, consistent with synchrotron radiation. There are significant variations in β over the sky (Δβ ≈ 0.2). We explore the link between the large-scale filaments and the local interstellar medium, using the model of an expanding shell in the solar vicinity. We compared observed polarization angles with the predictions from the model and found good agreement. This strongly suggests that many large-scale filaments and loops are nearby structures. This is important in the context of the Galactic magnetic field as these structures are normally included in global models, neglecting the fact that they might be local. We also studied the level of contamination added by the diffuse filaments to the CMB (cosmic microwave background) polarization power spectra. We conclude that, even though these filaments present low radio brightness, a careful removal will be necessary for future all-sky CMB polarization analysis.
A CMB foreground study in WMAP data: Extragalactic point sources and zodiacal light emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xi
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It serves as a primary tool to understand the global properties, content and evolution of the universe. Since 2001, NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite has been napping the full sky anisotropy with unprecedented accuracy, precision and reliability. The CMB angular power spectrum calculated from the WMAP full sky maps not only enables accurate testing of cosmological models, but also places significant constraints on model parameters. The CMB signal in the WMAP sky maps is contaminated by microwave emission from the Milky Way and from extragalactic sources. Therefore, in order to use the maps reliably for cosmological studies, the foreground signals must be well understood and removed from the maps. This thesis focuses on the separation of two foreground contaminants from the WMAP maps: extragalactic point sources and zodiacal light emission. Extragalactic point sources constitute the most important foreground on small angular scales. Various methods have been applied to the WMAP single frequency maps to extract sources. However, due to the limited angular resolution of WMAP, it is possible to confuse positive CMB excursions with point sources or miss sources that are embedded in negative CMB fluctuations. We present a novel CMB-free source finding technique that utilizes the spectrum difference of point sources and CMB to form internal linear combinations of multifrequency maps to suppress the CMB and better reveal sources. When applied to the WMAP 41, 64 and 94 GHz maps, this technique has not only enabled detection of sources that are previously cataloged by independent methods, but also allowed disclosure of new sources. Without the noise contribution from the CMB, this method responds rapidly with the integration time. The number of detections varies as 0( t 0.72 in the two-band search and 0( t 0.70 in the three-band search from one year to five years
Parity violation in the CMB bispectrum by a rolling pseudoscalar
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Ricciardone, Angelo; Saga, Shohei E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it
2013-11-01
We investigate parity-violating signatures of temperature and polarization bispectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in an inflationary model where a rolling pseudoscalar produces large equilateral tensor non-Gaussianity. By a concrete computation based on full-sky formalism, it is shown that resultant CMB bispectra have nonzero signals in both parity-even (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = even) and parity-odd (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = odd) spaces, and are almost uncorrelated with usual scalar-mode equilateral bispectra. These characteristic signatures and polarization information help to detect such tensor non-Gaussianity. Use of both temperature and E-mode bispectra potentially improves of 400% the detectability with respect to an analysis with temperature bispectrum alone. Considering B-mode bispectrum, the signal-to-noise ratio may be able to increase by 3 orders of magnitude. We present the 1σ uncertainties of a parameter depending on a coupling constant and a rolling condition for the pseudoscalar expected in the Planck and the proposed PRISM experiments.
Development of 1000 arrays MKID camera for the CMB observation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karatsu, Kenichi; Naruse, Masato; Nitta, Tom; Sekine, Masakazu; Sekimoto, Yutaro; Noguchi, Takashi; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Kiuchi, Hitoshi
2012-09-01
A precise measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) provides us a wealth of information about early universe. LiteBIRD is a future satellite mission lead by High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and its scientific target is detection of the B-mode polarization of the CMB, which is a footprint of primordial gravitational waves generated during inflation era, but has not been successfully observed so far due to lack of sensitivity. Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) is one candidate of sensitive millimeterwave camera which will be able to detect the B-mode polarization. We have been developing MKID at National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) in cooperation with KEK and RIKEN for the focal plane detector of the LiteBIRD. The developed technologies are: fabrication process of MKIDs with epitaxially-formed aluminum (Al) on silicon (Si) wafer; optical system of the camera consisting of double-slot antenna with Si lens array; and readout circuit utilizing Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FFTS). With these technologies, we designed a prototype MKIDs camera for the LiteBIRD.
Constraining stochastic gravitational wave background from weak lensing of CMB B-modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaikh, Shabbir; Mukherjee, Suvodip; Rotti, Aditya; Souradeep, Tarun
2016-09-01
A stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) will affect the CMB anisotropies via weak lensing. Unlike weak lensing due to large scale structure which only deflects photon trajectories, a SGWB has an additional effect of rotating the polarization vector along the trajectory. We study the relative importance of these two effects, deflection & rotation, specifically in the context of E-mode to B-mode power transfer caused by weak lensing due to SGWB. Using weak lensing distortion of the CMB as a probe, we derive constraints on the spectral energy density (ΩGW) of the SGWB, sourced at different redshifts, without assuming any particular model for its origin. We present these bounds on ΩGW for different power-law models characterizing the SGWB, indicating the threshold above which observable imprints of SGWB must be present in CMB.
Ballardini, Mario
2015-10-01
We consider the impact of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields with non-vanishing helicity on CMB anisotropies in temperature and polarization. We compute the exact expressions for the scalar, vector and tensor part of the energy-momentum tensor including the helical contribution, by assuming a power-law dependence for the spectra and a comoving cutoff which mimics the damping due to viscosity. We also compute the parity-odd correlator between the helical and non-helical contribution which generate the TB and EB cross-correlation in the CMB pattern. We finally show the impact of including the helical term on the power spectra of CMB anisotropies up to multipoles with ℓ ∼ O(10{sup 3})
Analysing the Effect on CMB in a Parity and Charge Parity Violating Varying Alpha Theory
Maity, Debaprasad; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC
2012-09-14
In this paper we study in detail the effect of our recently proposed model of parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating varying alpha on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photon passing through the intra galaxy-cluster medium (ICM). The ICM is well known to be composed of magnetized plasma. According to our model, the polarization and intensity of the CMB would be affected when traversing through the ICM due to non-trivial scalar photon interactions. We have calculated the evolution of such polarization and intensity collectively, known as the stokes parameters of the CMB photon during its journey through the ICM and tested our results against the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) measurement on Coma galaxy cluster. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter, {beta}, and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. Using the derived constrained on the photon-to-scalar conversion probability, {bar P}{sub {gamma}{yields}{phi}}, for Coma cluster in ref.[34] we found a contour plot in the ({omega},{beta}) parameter plane. The {beta} = 0 line in this parameter space corresponds to well-studied Maxwell-dilaton type models which has lower bound on {omega} {approx}> 6.4 x 10{sup 9} GeV. In general, as the absolute value of {beta} increases, lower bound on {omega} also increases. Our model in general predicts the modification of the CMB polarization with a non-trivial dependence on the parity violating coupling parameter {beta}. However, it is unconstrained in this particular study. We show that this effect can in principle be detected in the future measurements on CMB polarization such that {beta} can also be constrained.
Microfabrication of Arrays of Superconducting Transition Edge Sensors for CMB Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Posada, Chrystian; Ding, Junjia; Bender, Amy; Khaire, Trupti; Lendinez, Sergi; Ciocys, Samuel; Wang, Gensheng; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Padin, Steve; Carlstrom, John; Chang, Clarence; Novosad, Valentine; Spt3G Collaboration
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) provides a unique window for exploring fundamental physics. Increasing the sensitivity of CMB experiments requires fabricating focal planes with orders of magnitude more detectors than current instruments. This work presents the procedures used at Argonne National Laboratory for the fabrication of large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic detectors for CMB measurements. The detectors are composed of a broad-band sinuous antenna coupled to a Nb microstrip transmission line. In-line filters define the spectral response, allowing for individual measurement of three band-passes (95 GHz, 150GHz and 220 GHz). A Ti /Au termination resistor is used to couple the mm-wave signal to Ti/Au transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers. There are six bolometers per pixel, for a total of 16,140 detectors in the CMB receiver being fabricated. The monolithic microfabrication of the detector arrays will be presented and discussed in detail. The SPT3G collaboration is developing the thrid-generation camera for CMB measurements with the South Pole Telescope. Additional information can be found in the following link: https://pole.uchicago.edu/spt/.
SWIR spectral mapping of the Martian South Polar Residual Cap using CRISM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Jacqueline; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter
2016-10-01
The Martian South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) exhibits unique CO2 ice sublimation features that cover the surface. These flat floored, circular depressions are highly dynamic, with scarp retreat rates of up to 8m per Martian Year. As the scarps sublimate in Martian Southern Hemisphere spring, they expose dust particles previously trapped within the ice during winter. This allows a window of opportunity to analyse the dust for fragile organic molecules that might otherwise be rapidly destroyed when subjected to ultraviolet radiation at the Martian surface. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one such type of organic compound that have not yet been reported as detected on Mars. PAHs are considered to be important in astrobiology as they potentially play a role in abiogenesis, and are a biomarker for extant life. PAHs are abundant on Earth, in deep space and in recent years have been identified on the Saturnian moons Iapetus and Phoebe.Utilising data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on board NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), SPRC features have been spectrally mapped, the effects of H2O and CO2 ice on infrared spectra eliminated, and regions with obvious dust particles analysed to establish their mineral composition, and signatures indicative of PAHs compared to Mars data.Spectral mapping has identified compositional differences between depression rims and the majority of the SPRC, allowing regions of spectral interest to be selected for in-depth analysis. CRISM spectra have been compared with known Martian mineralogy and PAH laboratory data, with results suggesting Magnesium Carbonate dust content in depression rims, and rims have been found to have higher water content than regions of featureless ice. CO2 ice has been found to be the most limiting factor in looking for PAH diagnostic signatures on the SPRC. Further work is being undertaken with more detailed results to be presented in the future.The research leading
CMB temperature lensing power reconstruction
Hanson, Duncan; Efstathiou, George; Challinor, Anthony; Bielewicz, Pawel
2011-02-15
We study the reconstruction of the lensing potential power spectrum from CMB temperature data, with an eye to the Planck experiment. We work with the optimal quadratic estimator of Okamoto and Hu, which we characterize thoroughly in an application to the reconstruction of the lensing power spectrum. We find that at multipoles L<250, our current understanding of this estimator is biased at the 15% level by beyond-gradient terms in the Taylor expansion of lensing effects. We present the full lensed trispectrum to fourth order in the lensing potential to explain this effect. We show that the low-L bias, as well as a previously known bias at high L, is relevant to the determination of cosmology and must be corrected for in order to avoid significant parameter errors. We also investigate the covariance of the reconstructed power, finding broad correlations of {approx_equal}0.1%. Finally, we discuss several small improvements which may be made to the optimal estimator to mitigate these problems.
MEASUREMENT OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRA FROM TWO YEARS OF BICEP DATA
Chiang, H. C.; Barkats, D.; Bock, J. J.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Kovac, J. M.; Lange, A. E.; Mason, P. V.; Matsumura, T.; Ade, P. A. R.; Battle, J. O.; Dowell, C. D.; Nguyen, H. T.; Bierman, E. M.; Keating, B. G.; Duband, L.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.
2010-03-10
Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP) is a bolometric polarimeter designed to measure the inflationary B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at degree angular scales. During three seasons of observing at the South Pole (2006 through 2008), BICEP mapped {approx}2% of the sky chosen to be uniquely clean of polarized foreground emission. Here, we present initial results derived from a subset of the data acquired during the first two years. We present maps of temperature, Stokes Q and U, E and B modes, and associated angular power spectra. We demonstrate that the polarization data are self-consistent by performing a series of jackknife tests. We study potential systematic errors in detail and show that they are sub-dominant to the statistical errors. We measure the E-mode angular power spectrum with high precision at 21 <= l <= 335, detecting for the first time the peak expected at l {approx} 140. The measured E-mode spectrum is consistent with expectations from a LAMBDACDM model, and the B-mode spectrum is consistent with zero. The tensor-to-scalar ratio derived from the B-mode spectrum is r = 0.02{sup +0.31}{sub -0.26}, or r < 0.72 at 95% confidence, the first meaningful constraint on the inflationary gravitational wave background to come directly from CMB B-mode polarization.
Multi-Chroic Dual-Polarization Bolometric Detectors for Studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, A.; Arnold, K.; Edwards, J.; Engargiola, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Keating, B.; Lee, A. T.; Meng, X. F.; Myers, M. J.; O'Brient, R.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P. L.; Rosen, D.; Siritanasak, P.
2014-09-01
We are developing multi-chroic antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer detectors for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarimetry. Multi-chroic detectors increase focal plane area efficiency, and thus the mapping speed per focal plane area, and provide greater discrimination against polarized galactic foregrounds with no increase in weight or cryogenic cost. In each pixel, a silicon lens-coupled dual-polarized sinuous antenna collects photons over a two-octave frequency band. The antenna couples the broadband millimeter wave signal into microstrip transmission lines, and on-chip filter banks split the broadband signal into multiple frequency bands. Separate TES bolometers detect the power in each frequency band and linear polarization state. We will describe the design and performance of these devices and present optical data taken. Our measurements of dual-polarization pixels in multiple frequency bands show beams with percent-level ellipticity, and percent-level cross-polarization leakage. We will also describe the development of large arrays of these multi-chroic pixels. Finally, we will describe kilo-pixel arrays of these detectors planned for the future CMB experiments that will achieve unprecedented mapping speed.
The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuss, David T.
2010-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a ba1loon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). PIPER will measure the CMB polarization at 4 frequencies (l per flight) using a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 by 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive.
The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Johnson, Bradley; Kogut, Alan; Lowe, Luke; McMahon, Jeff J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Switzer, Eric R.; Tucker, Carole E.; Weston, Amy; Wollack, Edward
2014-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.
Tomography of the Reionization Epoch with Multifrequency CMB Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul
2006-12-01
We study the constraints that future multifrequency cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments will be able to set on the metal enrichment history of the intergalactic medium at the epoch of reionization. We forecast the signal-to-noise ratio for the detection of the signal introduced into the CMB by resonant scattering off metals at the end of the cosmic dark ages. We take into account systematics associated with cross-channel calibration, errors in reconstruction of the point-spread function, and inaccurate foreground removal. We develop an algorithm to optimally extract the signal generated by metals during reionization and to accurately remove the contamination due to the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Although demanding levels of foreground characterization and control of systematics are required, they are very distinct from those encountered in H I 21 cm studies and CMB polarization, and this fact encourages the study of resonant scattering off metals as an alternative way of conducting tomography of the reionization epoch. A realistic experiment, looking at clean regions of the sky, can detect changes of 3%-12% (95% confidence level) in the O III abundance (with respect to its solar value) in the redshift range z=12-22 for reionization redshift zre>10. However, for zre<10 one can only set upper limits on N II abundance increments of ~60% solar in the redshift range z=5.5-9 (95% c.l.). These constraints assume that cross-channel calibration is accurate to 1 part in 104, which constitutes the most critical technical requirement of this method but is still achievable with current technology.
Quantifying the Effect of Component Covariances in CMB Extraction from Multi-frequency Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Nicholas G.
2008-01-01
Linear combination methods provide a global method for component separation of multi-frequency data. We present such a method that allows for consideration of possible covariances between the desired cosmic microwave background signal and various foreground signals that are also present. We also recover information on the foregrounds including the number of foregrounds, their spectra and templates. In all this, the covariances, which we would only expect to vanish 'in the mean' are included as parameters expressing the fundamental uncertainty due to this type of cosmic variance. When we make the reasonable assumption that the CMB is Gaussian, we can compute both a mean recovered CMB map and also an RMS error map, The mean map coincides with WMAP's Internal Linear Combination map.
DeVol, Ross T; Metzler, Rebecca A; Kabalah-Amitai, Lee; Pokroy, Boaz; Politi, Yael; Gal, Assaf; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro; Demichelis, Raffaella; Gale, Julian D; Ihli, Johannes; Meldrum, Fiona C; Blonsky, Adam Z; Killian, Christopher E; Salling, C B; Young, Anthony T; Marcus, Matthew A; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Jenkins, Catherine; Bechtel, Hans A; Gilbert, Pupa U P A
2014-07-17
X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy have been extensively used to characterize biominerals. Using either Ca or C spectra, unique information has been obtained regarding amorphous biominerals and nanocrystal orientations. Building on these results, we demonstrate that recording XANES spectra of calcium carbonate at the oxygen K-edge enables polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC) mapping with unprecedented contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, and magnification. O and Ca spectra are presented for six calcium carbonate minerals: aragonite, calcite, vaterite, monohydrocalcite, and both hydrated and anhydrous amorphous calcium carbonate. The crystalline minerals reveal excellent agreement of the extent and direction of polarization dependences in simulated and experimental XANES spectra due to X-ray linear dichroism. This effect is particularly strong for aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In natural biominerals, oxygen PIC-mapping generated high-magnification maps of unprecedented clarity from nacre and prismatic structures and their interface in Mytilus californianus shells. These maps revealed blocky aragonite crystals at the nacre-prismatic boundary and the narrowest calcite needle-prisms. In the tunic spicules of Herdmania momus, O PIC-mapping revealed the size and arrangement of some of the largest vaterite single crystals known. O spectroscopy therefore enables the simultaneous measurement of chemical and orientational information in CaCO3 biominerals and is thus a powerful means for analyzing these and other complex materials. As described here, PIC-mapping and spectroscopy at the O K-edge are methods for gathering valuable data that can be carried out using spectromicroscopy beamlines at most synchrotrons without the expense of additional equipment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aftabi, P.
2016-06-01
The mapping and monitoring of ''swiss cheese'' feature example of this paper achieved by pixel markers measurements pro-posed by author. This monoring suggest high amount of displacements in pits of Martian polar areas.
Impact of post-Born lensing on the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratten, Geraint; Lewis, Antony
2016-08-01
Lensing of the CMB is affected by post-Born lensing, producing corrections to the convergence power spectrum and introducing field rotation. We show numerically that the lensing convergence power spectrum is affected at the lesssim 0.2% level on accessible scales, and that this correction and the field rotation are negligible for observations with arcminute beam and noise levels gtrsim 1 μK arcmin. The field rotation generates ~ 2.5% of the total lensing B-mode polarization amplitude (0.2% in power on small scales), but has a blue spectrum on large scales, making it highly subdominant to the convergence B modes on scales where they are a source of confusion for the signal from primordial gravitational waves. Since the post-Born signal is non-linear, it also generates a bispectrum with the convergence. We show that the post-Born contributions to the bispectrum substantially change the shape predicted from large-scale structure non-linearities alone, and hence must be included to estimate the expected total signal and impact of bispectrum biases on CMB lensing reconstruction quadratic estimators and other observables. The field-rotation power spectrum only becomes potentially detectable for noise levels ll 1 μK arcmin, but its bispectrum with the convergence may be observable at ~ 3σ with Stage IV observations. Rotation-induced and convergence-induced B modes are slightly correlated by the bispectrum, and the bispectrum also produces additional contributions to the lensed BB power spectrum.
MODELING ATMOSPHERIC EMISSION FOR CMB GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS
Errard, J.; Borrill, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Chinone, Y.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Elleflot, T.; Baccigalupi, C.; Fabbian, G.; Boettger, D.; Chapman, S.; Cukierman, A.; Delabrouille, J.; Ducout, A.; Feeney, S.; Feng, C.; and others
2015-08-10
Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.
CMB μ distortion from primordial gravitational waves
Ota, Atsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Takahashi, Tomo; Tashiro, Hiroyuki E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp E-mail: gucci@phys.titech.ac.jp
2014-10-01
We propose a new mechanism of generating the μ distortion in cosmic microwave background (CMB) originated from primordial gravitational waves. Such μ distortion is generated by the damping of the temperature anisotropies through the Thomson scattering, even on scales larger than that of Silk damping. This mechanism is in sharp contrast with that from the primordial curvature (scalar) perturbations, in which the temperature anisotropies mainly decay by Silk damping effects. We estimate the size of the μ distortion from the new mechanism, which can be used to constrain the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves on smaller scales independently from the CMB anisotropies, giving more wide-range constraint on their spectral index by combining the amplitude from the CMB anisotropies.
Planck CMB anomalies: astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects and the curse of masking
Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.; Paykari, P.; Sureau, F.; Bobin, J. E-mail: jstarck@cea.fr E-mail: florent.sureau@cea.fr
2014-08-01
Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes will be made available for download here http://www.cosmostat.org/anomaliesCMB.html.
Primordial features and Planck polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A.
2016-09-01
With the Planck 2015 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization data, we search for possible features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS). We revisit the Wiggly Whipped Inflation (WWI) framework and demonstrate how generation of some particular primordial features can improve the fit to Planck data. WWI potential allows the scalar field to transit from a steeper potential to a nearly flat potential through a discontinuity either in potential or in its derivatives. WWI offers the inflaton potential parametrizations that generate a wide variety of features in the primordial power spectra incorporating most of the localized and non-local inflationary features that are obtained upon reconstruction from temperature and polarization angular power spectrum. At the same time, in a single framework it allows us to have a background parameter estimation with a nearly free-form primordial spectrum. Using Planck 2015 data, we constrain the primordial features in the context of Wiggly Whipped Inflation and present the features that are supported both by temperature and polarization. WWI model provides more than 13 improvement in χ2 fit to the data with respect to the best fit power law model considering combined temperature and polarization data from Planck and B-mode polarization data from BICEP and Planck dust map. We use 2-4 extra parameters in the WWI model compared to the featureless strict slow roll inflaton potential. We find that the differences between the temperature and polarization data in constraining background cosmological parameters such as baryon density, cold dark matter density are reduced to a good extent if we use primordial power spectra from WWI. We also discuss the extent of bispectra obtained from the best potentials in arbitrary triangular configurations using the BI-spectra and Non-Gaussianity Operator (BINGO).
Overview of Current and Planned CMB Ballooning Efforts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanany, Shaul
2016-03-01
Balloon-borne experiments have a unique role in probing the polarization of the CMB. They enable access to frequencies that can not be probed by ground-based instruments, they can straight-forwardly measure signals on large angular scales, and they serve as test-beds for technologies that are ultimately used on space missions. With these roles in mind, I will discuss the status of the three NASA-funded experiments EBEX, SPIDER and PIPER, and their complementarity with ground-based efforts. I will also discuss plans for next generation instruments, with which the detector count is expected to increase by another factor of 10 to about 10,000.
Large scale CMB anomalies from thawing cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ringeval, Christophe; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi; Bouchet, François R.
2016-02-01
Cosmic strings formed during inflation are expected to be either diluted over super-Hubble distances, i.e., invisible today, or to have crossed our past light cone very recently. We discuss the latter situation in which a few strings imprint their signature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies after recombination. Being almost frozen in the Hubble flow, these strings are quasi static and evade almost all of the previously derived constraints on their tension while being able to source large scale anisotropies in the CMB sky. Using a local variance estimator on thousand of numerically simulated Nambu-Goto all sky maps, we compute the expected signal and show that it can mimic a dipole modulation at large angular scales while being negligible at small angles. Interestingly, such a scenario generically produces one cold spot from the thawing of a cosmic string loop. Mixed with anisotropies of inflationary origin, we find that a few strings of tension GU = Script O(1) × 10-6 match the amplitude of the dipole modulation reported in the Planck satellite measurements and could be at the origin of other large scale anomalies.
Extreme data compression for the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zablocki, Alan; Dodelson, Scott
2016-04-01
We apply the Karhunen-Loéve methods to cosmic microwave background (CMB) data sets, and show that we can recover the input cosmology and obtain the marginalized likelihoods in Λ cold dark matter cosmologies in under a minute, much faster than Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. This is achieved by forming a linear combination of the power spectra at each multipole l , and solving a system of simultaneous equations such that the Fisher matrix is locally unchanged. Instead of carrying out a full likelihood evaluation over the whole parameter space, we need evaluate the likelihood only for the parameter of interest, with the data compression effectively marginalizing over all other parameters. The weighting vectors contain insight about the physical effects of the parameters on the CMB anisotropy power spectrum Cl . The shape and amplitude of these vectors give an intuitive feel for the physics of the CMB, the sensitivity of the observed spectrum to cosmological parameters, and the relative sensitivity of different experiments to cosmological parameters. We test this method on exact theory Cl as well as on a Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)-like CMB data set generated from a random realization of a fiducial cosmology, comparing the compression results to those from a full likelihood analysis using CosmoMC. After showing that the method works, we apply it to the temperature power spectrum from the WMAP seven-year data release, and discuss the successes and limitations of our method as applied to a real data set.
CMB (And Other) Challenges To BBN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steigman, G.; Kneller, J. P.; Zentner, A.
2002-02-01
Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a probe of the universal abundance of baryons when the universe was only a few minutes old. Recent observations of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) probe the baryon abundance when the universe was several hundred thousand years old. Observations of type Ia supernovae and clusters of galaxies in the very recent past, when the universe is several billion years old and older, provide a complementary measure of the baryon density in excellent agreement with the early universe values. The general agreement among the three measurements represents an impressive confirmation of the standard model of cosmology. However, there is a hint that the CMB observations may not be in perfect agreement with those from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). If this ``tension" between BBN and the CMB persists, the standard model of cosmology may need to be modified. Here, in a contribution dedicated to Silvia Torres-Peimbert and Manuel Peimbert, we describe how an asymmetry between neutrinos and antineutrinos (``neutrino degeneracy") has the potential for resolving this possible conflict between BBN and the CMB.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyons, L. R.; Lu, G.; de la Beaujardière, O.; Rich, F. J.
1996-12-01
Observations from January 27-28, 1992, when four polar-orbiting DMSP satellites were in operation, are used to construct synoptic maps of convective flows and particle regions within the polar ionosphere. We chose periods of relative steady interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and use data from multiple satellite passes during each period to obtain unprecedented two-dimensional coverage. For strongly negative IMF By, convection patterns are similar to those that have been previously obtained but also show significant. IMF Bz effects. For Bz>>|By|, we see strong sunward flow near the pole, but antisunward convection on open field lines at lower latitudes on the nightside. The particle observations reveal the two-dimensional structure of the cusp/mantle region and the existence of a strong polar arc within the circular convection cell that has a negative electric field divergence on open field lines. The particle observations also readily identify the magnetic separatrix when a satellite crosses the inner edge of the cusp or the boundary between the plasma sheet and polar rain. However, on the morningside and often on the afternoonside, we find a distinct and well-defined region of soft-electron and magnetosheath-like ion precipitation [(the ``soft- electron zone'' (SEZ)] lying between the plasma sheet and the region of polar rain. Separatrix identification is uncertain at local times where the SEZ is present; however, it appears that large portions of the SEZ are on open field lines. Dawn-dusk displacements of the open field line regions in the two polar caps are seen that are consistent with IMF By effects. Additionally, the dayside separatrix is observed to be further poleward for positive than for negative IMF Bz, whereas Bz is not observed to have a significant effect on the location of the nightside separatrix. Also, we consistently find larger cross polar-cap potential drops in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere. This suggests that there
EBEX: A Balloon-Borne Telescope for Measuring Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Daniel
2015-05-01
EBEX is a long-duration balloon-borne (LDB) telescope designed to probe polarization signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). It is designed to measure or place an upper limit on the inflationary B-mode signal, a signal predicted by inflationary theories to be imprinted on the CMB by gravitational waves, to detect the effects of gravitational lensing on the polarization of the CMB, and to characterize polarized Galactic foreground emission. The payload consists of a pointed gondola that houses the optics, polarimetry, detectors and detector readout systems, as well as the pointing sensors, control motors, telemetry sytems, and data acquisition and flight control computers. Polarimetry is achieved with a rotating half-wave plate and wire grid polarizer. The detectors are sensitive to frequency bands centered on 150, 250, and 410 GHz. EBEX was flown in 2009 from New Mexico as a full system test, and then flown again in December 2012 / January 2013 over Antarctica in a long-duration flight to collect scientific data. In the instrumentation part of this thesis we discuss the pointing sensors and attitude determination algorithms. We also describe the real-time map making software, "QuickLook", that was custom-designed for EBEX. We devote special attention to the design and construction of the primary pointing sensors, the star cameras, and their custom-designed flight software package, "STARS" (the Star Tracking Attitude Reconstruction Software). In the analysis part of this thesis we describe the current status of the post-flight analysis procedure. We discuss the data structures used in analysis and the pipeline stages related to attitude determination and map making. We also discuss a custom-designed software framework called "LEAP" (the LDB EBEX Analysis Pipeline) that supports most of the analysis pipeline stages.
Detection of thermal SZ-CMB lensing cross-correlation in Planck nominal mission data
Hill, J. Colin; Spergel, David N. E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu
2014-02-01
The nominal mission maps from the Planck satellite contain a wealth of information about secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), including those induced by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and gravitational lensing. As both the tSZ and CMB lensing signals trace the large-scale matter density field, the anisotropies sourced by these processes are expected to be correlated. We report the first detection of this cross-correlation signal, which we measure at 6.2σ significance using the Planck data. We take advantage of Planck's multifrequency coverage to construct a tSZ map using internal linear combination techniques, which we subsequently cross-correlate with the publicly-released Planck CMB lensing potential map. The cross-correlation is subject to contamination from the cosmic infrared background (CIB), which is known to correlate strongly with CMB lensing. We correct for this contamination via cross-correlating our tSZ map with the Planck 857 GHz map and confirm the robustness of our measurement using several null tests. We interpret the signal using halo model calculations, which indicate that the tSZ-CMB lensing cross-correlation is a unique probe of the physics of intracluster gas in high-redshift, low-mass groups and clusters. Our results are consistent with extrapolations of existing gas physics models to this previously unexplored regime and show clear evidence for contributions from both the one- and two-halo terms, but no statistically significant evidence for contributions from diffuse, unbound gas outside of collapsed halos. We also show that the amplitude of the signal depends rather sensitively on the amplitude of fluctuations (σ{sub 8}) and the matter density (Ω{sub m}), scaling as σ{sub 8}{sup 6.1}Ω{sub m}{sup 1.5} at ℓ = 1000. We constrain the degenerate combination σ{sub 8}(Ω{sub m}/0.282){sup 0.26} = 0.824±0.029, a result that is in less tension with primordial CMB constraints than some recent t
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandiera, R.; Petruk, O.
2016-06-01
The maps of intensity and polarization of the radio synchrotron emission from shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) contain a considerable amount of information, although of not easy interpretation. With the aim of deriving constraints on the 3D spatial distribution of the emissivity, as well as on the structure of both ordered and random magnetic fields (MFs), we present here a scheme to model maps of the emission and polarization in SNRs. We first generalize the classical treatment of the synchrotron emission to the case in which the MF is composed of an ordered MF plus an isotropic random component, with arbitrary relative strengths. For a power-law particle energy distribution, we derive analytic formulae that formally resemble those for the classical case. We also treat the shock compression of a fully random upstream field and we predict that the polarization fraction in this case should be higher than typically measured in SNRs. We implement the above treatment into a code, which simulates the observed polarized emission of an emitting shell, taking into account also the effect of the internal Faraday rotation. Finally, we show simulated maps for different orientations with respect to the observer, levels of the turbulent MF component, Faraday rotation levels, distributions of the emissivity (either barrel-shaped or limited to polar caps) and geometries for the ordered MF component (either tangential to the shell or radial). Their analysis allows us to outline properties useful for the interpretation of radio intensity and polarization maps.
A Bayesian Estimate of the CMB-Large-scale Structure Cross-correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moura-Santos, E.; Carvalho, F. C.; Penna-Lima, M.; Novaes, C. P.; Wuensche, C. A.
2016-08-01
Evidences for late-time acceleration of the universe are provided by multiple probes, such as Type Ia supernovae, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large-scale structure (LSS). In this work, we focus on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, i.e., secondary CMB fluctuations generated by evolving gravitational potentials due to the transition between, e.g., the matter and dark energy (DE) dominated phases. Therefore, assuming a flat universe, DE properties can be inferred from ISW detections. We present a Bayesian approach to compute the CMB-LSS cross-correlation signal. The method is based on the estimate of the likelihood for measuring a combined set consisting of a CMB temperature and galaxy contrast maps, provided that we have some information on the statistical properties of the fluctuations affecting these maps. The likelihood is estimated by a sampling algorithm, therefore avoiding the computationally demanding techniques of direct evaluation in either pixel or harmonic space. As local tracers of the matter distribution at large scales, we used the Two Micron All Sky Survey galaxy catalog and, for the CMB temperature fluctuations, the ninth-year data release of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP9). The results show a dominance of cosmic variance over the weak recovered signal, due mainly to the shallowness of the catalog used, with systematics associated with the sampling algorithm playing a secondary role as sources of uncertainty. When combined with other complementary probes, the method presented in this paper is expected to be a useful tool to late-time acceleration studies in cosmology.
Planck 2015 results. X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A. W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-09-01
Planck has mapped the microwave sky in temperature over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz and in polarization over seven frequency bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive an internally consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. Component separation dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) reconstruction is described in a companion paper. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided for each component, with an angular resolution varying between 7.´5 and 1deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4μK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are internal degeneracies among the spinning dust, free-free, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external low-frequency experiments will be essential to break these degeneracies. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zero-points. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100-353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperature-to-polarization
Applications of the Gaussian kinematic formula to CMB data analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fantaye, Yabebal; Marinucci, Domenico; Hansen, Frode; Maino, Davide
2015-03-01
The Gaussian kinematic formula (GKF) [R. J. Adler and J. E. Taylor, Random Fields and Geometry (Springer, New York, 2007).] is an extremely powerful tool allowing for explicit analytic predictions of expected values of Minkowski functionals under realistic experimental conditions for cosmological data collections. In this paper, we implement Minkowski functionals on multipoles and needlet components of CMB fields, thus allowing a better control of cosmic variance and extraction of information on both harmonic and real domains; we then exploit the GKF to provide their expected values on spherical maps, in the presence of arbitrary sky masks, and under non-Gaussian circumstances. All our results are validated by numerical experiments, which show a perfect agreement between theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulations.
Bettadapura, Radhakrishna; Rasheed, Muhibur; Vollrath, Antje; Bajaj, Chandrajit
2015-10-01
There continue to be increasing occurrences of both atomistic structure models in the PDB (possibly reconstructed from X-ray diffraction or NMR data), and 3D reconstructed cryo-electron microscopy (3D EM) maps (albeit at coarser resolution) of the same or homologous molecule or molecular assembly, deposited in the EMDB. To obtain the best possible structural model of the molecule at the best achievable resolution, and without any missing gaps, one typically aligns (match and fits) the atomistic structure model with the 3D EM map. We discuss a new algorithm and generalized framework, named PF(2) fit (Polar Fast Fourier Fitting) for the best possible structural alignment of atomistic structures with 3D EM. While PF(2) fit enables only a rigid, six dimensional (6D) alignment method, it augments prior work on 6D X-ray structure and 3D EM alignment in multiple ways: Scoring. PF(2) fit includes a new scoring scheme that, in addition to rewarding overlaps between the volumes occupied by the atomistic structure and 3D EM map, rewards overlaps between the volumes complementary to them. We quantitatively demonstrate how this new complementary scoring scheme improves upon existing approaches. PF(2) fit also includes two scoring functions, the non-uniform exterior penalty and the skeleton-secondary structure score, and implements the scattering potential score as an alternative to traditional Gaussian blurring. Search. PF(2) fit utilizes a fast polar Fourier search scheme, whose main advantage is the ability to search over uniformly and adaptively sampled subsets of the space of rigid-body motions. PF(2) fit also implements a new reranking search and scoring methodology that considerably improves alignment metrics in results obtained from the initial search.
Bettadapura, Radhakrishna; Rasheed, Muhibur; Vollrath, Antje; Bajaj, Chandrajit
2015-01-01
There continue to be increasing occurrences of both atomistic structure models in the PDB (possibly reconstructed from X-ray diffraction or NMR data), and 3D reconstructed cryo-electron microscopy (3D EM) maps (albeit at coarser resolution) of the same or homologous molecule or molecular assembly, deposited in the EMDB. To obtain the best possible structural model of the molecule at the best achievable resolution, and without any missing gaps, one typically aligns (match and fits) the atomistic structure model with the 3D EM map. We discuss a new algorithm and generalized framework, named PF2 fit (Polar Fast Fourier Fitting) for the best possible structural alignment of atomistic structures with 3D EM. While PF2 fit enables only a rigid, six dimensional (6D) alignment method, it augments prior work on 6D X-ray structure and 3D EM alignment in multiple ways: Scoring. PF2 fit includes a new scoring scheme that, in addition to rewarding overlaps between the volumes occupied by the atomistic structure and 3D EM map, rewards overlaps between the volumes complementary to them. We quantitatively demonstrate how this new complementary scoring scheme improves upon existing approaches. PF2 fit also includes two scoring functions, the non-uniform exterior penalty and the skeleton-secondary structure score, and implements the scattering potential score as an alternative to traditional Gaussian blurring. Search. PF2 fit utilizes a fast polar Fourier search scheme, whose main advantage is the ability to search over uniformly and adaptively sampled subsets of the space of rigid-body motions. PF2 fit also implements a new reranking search and scoring methodology that considerably improves alignment metrics in results obtained from the initial search. PMID:26469938
Bettadapura, Radhakrishna; Rasheed, Muhibur; Vollrath, Antje; Bajaj, Chandrajit
2015-10-01
There continue to be increasing occurrences of both atomistic structure models in the PDB (possibly reconstructed from X-ray diffraction or NMR data), and 3D reconstructed cryo-electron microscopy (3D EM) maps (albeit at coarser resolution) of the same or homologous molecule or molecular assembly, deposited in the EMDB. To obtain the best possible structural model of the molecule at the best achievable resolution, and without any missing gaps, one typically aligns (match and fits) the atomistic structure model with the 3D EM map. We discuss a new algorithm and generalized framework, named PF(2) fit (Polar Fast Fourier Fitting) for the best possible structural alignment of atomistic structures with 3D EM. While PF(2) fit enables only a rigid, six dimensional (6D) alignment method, it augments prior work on 6D X-ray structure and 3D EM alignment in multiple ways: Scoring. PF(2) fit includes a new scoring scheme that, in addition to rewarding overlaps between the volumes occupied by the atomistic structure and 3D EM map, rewards overlaps between the volumes complementary to them. We quantitatively demonstrate how this new complementary scoring scheme improves upon existing approaches. PF(2) fit also includes two scoring functions, the non-uniform exterior penalty and the skeleton-secondary structure score, and implements the scattering potential score as an alternative to traditional Gaussian blurring. Search. PF(2) fit utilizes a fast polar Fourier search scheme, whose main advantage is the ability to search over uniformly and adaptively sampled subsets of the space of rigid-body motions. PF(2) fit also implements a new reranking search and scoring methodology that considerably improves alignment metrics in results obtained from the initial search. PMID:26469938
Spatial variations in the spectral index of polarized synchrotron emission in the 9 yr WMAP sky maps
Fuskeland, U.; Eriksen, H. K.; Næss, S. K.; Wehus, I. K. E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.no E-mail: i.k.wehus@fys.uio.no
2014-08-01
We estimate the spectral index, β, of polarized synchrotron emission as observed in the 9 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe sky maps using two methods, linear regression ({sup T}-T plot{sup )} and maximum likelihood. We partition the sky into 24 disjoint sky regions and evaluate the spectral index for all polarization angles between 0° and 85° in steps of 5°. Averaging over polarization angles, we derive a mean spectral index of β{sup all-sky} = –2.99 ± 0.01 in the frequency range of 23-33 GHz. We find that the synchrotron spectral index steepens by 0.14 from low to high Galactic latitudes, in agreement with previous studies, with mean spectral indices of β{sup plane} = –2.98 ± 0.01 and β{sup high-lat} = –3.12 ± 0.04. In addition, we find a significant longitudinal variation along the Galactic plane with a steeper spectral index toward the Galactic center and anticenter than toward the Galactic spiral arms. This can be well modeled by an offset sinusoidal, β(l) = –2.85 + 0.17sin (2l – 90°). Finally, we study synchrotron emission in the BICEP2 field, in an attempt to understand whether the claimed detection of large-scale B-mode polarization could be explained in terms of synchrotron contamination. Adopting a spectral index of β = –3.12, typical for high Galactic latitudes, we find that the most likely bias corresponds to about 2% of the reported signal (r = 0.003). The flattest index allowed by the data in this region is β = –2.5, and under the assumption of a straight power-law frequency spectrum, we find that synchrotron emission can account for at most 20% of the reported BICEP2 signal.
Microwave maps of the polar ice of the earth. [from Nimbus-5 satellite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gloersen, P.; Wilheit, T. T.; Chang, T. C.; Nordberg, W.; Campbell, W. J.
1973-01-01
Synoptic views of the entire polar regions of earth were obtained free of the usual persistent cloud cover using a scanning microwave radiometer operating at a wavelength of 1.55 cm on board the Nimbus-5 satellite. Three different views at each pole are presented utilizing data obtained at approximately one-month intervals during the winter of 1972-1973. The major discoveries resulting from an analysis of these data are as follows: (1) Large discrepancies exist between the climatic norm ice cover depicted in various atlases and the actual extent of the canopies. (2) The distribution of multiyear ice in the north polar region is markedly different from that predicted by existing ice dynamics models. (3) Irregularities in the edge of the Antarctic sea ice pack occur that have neither been observed previously nor anticipated. (4) The brightness temperatures of the Greenland and Antarctica glaciers show interesting contours probably related to the ice and snow morphologic structure.
First measurement of the cross-correlation of CMB lensing and galaxy lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hand, Nick; Leauthaud, Alexie; Das, Sudeep; Sherwin, Blake D.; Addison, Graeme E.; Bond, J. Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Charbonnier, Aldée; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Erben, Thomas; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hincks, Adam D.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kosowsky, Arthur; Makler, Martin; Miller, Lance; Moodley, Kavilan; Moraes, Bruno; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman A.; Partridge, Bruce; Sehgal, Neelima; Shan, Huanyuan; Sievers, Jonathan L.; Spergel, David N.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Switzer, Eric R.; Taylor, James E.; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Welker, Charlotte; Wollack, Edward J.
2015-03-01
We measure the cross-correlation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing convergence maps derived from Atacama Cosmology Telescope data with galaxy lensing convergence maps as measured by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey. The CMB-galaxy lensing cross power spectrum is measured for the first time with a significance of 4.2 σ , which corresponds to a 12% constraint on the amplitude of density fluctuations at redshifts ˜0.9 . With upcoming improved lensing data, this novel type of measurement will become a powerful cosmological probe, providing a precise measurement of the mass distribution at intermediate redshifts and serving as a calibrator for systematic biases in weak lensing measurements.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.
1978-01-01
Geologic mapping in the United States increased by about one-quarter in the past year. Examinations of mapping trends were in the following categories: (1) Mapping at scales of 1:100, 000; (2) Metric-scale base maps; (3) International mapping, and (4) Planetary mapping. (MA)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Comiso, Josefino C.; Zwally, H. Jay
1989-01-01
A time series of daily brightness temperature gridded maps (October 25, 1978 through August 15, 1987) were generated from all ten channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer orbital data. This unique data set can be utilized in a wide range of applications including heat flux, ocean circulation, ice edge productivity, and climate studies. Two sets of data in polar stereographic format are created for the Arctic region: one with a grid size of about 30 km on a 293 by 293 array similar to that previously utilized for the Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer, while the other has a grid size of about 25 km on a 448 by 304 array identical to what is now being used for the DMSP Scanning Multichannel Microwave Imager. Data generated for the Antaractic region are mapped using the 293 by 293 grid only. The general technique for mapping, and a quality assessment of the data set are presented. Monthly and yearly averages are also generated from the daily data and sample geophysical ice images and products derived from the data are given. Contour plots of monthly ice concentrations derived from the data for October 1978 through August 1987 are presented to demonstrate spatial and temporal detail which this data set can offer, and to show potential research applications.
Ali Observatory in Tibet: a unique northern site for future CMB ground-based observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Meng
2015-08-01
Ground-based CMB observations have been performed at the South Pole and the Atacama desert in Chile. However, a significant fraction of the sky can not be observed from just these two sites. For a full sky coverage from the ground in the future, a northern site for CMB observation, in particular CMB polarization, is required. Besides the long-thought site in Greenland, the high altitude Tibet plateau provides another opportunity. I will describe the Ali Observatory in Tibet, located at N32°19', E80°01', as a potential site for ground-based CMB observations. The new site is located on almost 5100m mountain, near Gar town, where is an excellent site for both infrared and submillimeter observations. Study with the long-term database of ground weather stations and archival satellite data has been performed. The site has enough relative height on the plateau and is accessible by car. The Shiquanhe town is 40 mins away by driving, and a recently opened airport with 40 mins driving, the site also has road excess, electricity, and optical fiber with fast internet. Preliminary measurement of the Precipitable Water Vapor is ~one quarter less than 0.5mm per year and the long term monitoring is under development. In addition, surrounding higher sites are also available and could be further developed if necessary. Ali provides unique northern sky coverage and together with the South Pole and the Atacama desert, future CMB observations will be able to cover the full sky from ground.
The POLARBEAR Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barron, D.; Ade, P.; Anthony, A.; Arnold, K.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M.; Edwards, J.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Flanigan, D.; Fuller, G.; Ghribi, A.; Grainger, W.; Halverson, N.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W.; Howard, J.; Hyland, P.; Jaehnig, G.; Jaffe, A.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Lee, A. T.; Le Jeune, M.; Linder, E.; Lungu, M.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Meng, X.; Miller, N. J.; Morii, H.; Moyerman, S.; Myers, M.; Nishino, H.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Shimizu, A.; Shimmin, C.; Shimon, M.; Sholl, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Spieler, H.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Tomaru, T.; Tucker, C.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.
2014-09-01
The polarbear cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment has been observing since early 2012 from its 5,200 m site in the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile. polarbear's measurements will characterize the expected CMB polarization due to gravitational lensing by large scale structure, and search for the possible B-mode polarization signature of inflationary gravitational waves. polarbear's 250 mK focal plane detector array consists of 1,274 polarization-sensitive antenna-coupled bolometers, each with an associated lithographed band-defining filter and contacting dielectric lenslet, an architecture unique in current CMB experiments. The status of the polarbear instrument, its focal plane, and the analysis of its measurements are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodelson, Scott; Huterer, Dragan
2015-03-01
Maps of the Universe when it was 400,000 years old from observations of the cosmic microwave background and over the last ten billion years from galaxy surveys point to a compelling cosmological model. This model requires a very early epoch of accelerated expansion, inflation, during which the seeds of structure were planted via quantum mechanical fluctuations. These seeds began to grow via gravitational instability during the epoch in which dark matter dominated the energy density of the universe, transforming small perturbations laid down during inflation into nonlinear structures such as million light-year sized clusters, galaxies, stars, planets, and people. Over the past few billion years, we have entered a new phase, during which the expansion of the Universe is accelerating presumably driven by yet another substance, dark energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valkenburg, Wessel
2009-06-01
It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small holes can still mimic Dark Energy, albeit in special directions, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical holes considered in this paper.
Reconciling the local void with the CMB
Nadathur, Seshadri; Sarkar, Subir
2011-03-15
In the standard cosmological model, the dimming of distant Type Ia supernovae is explained by invoking the existence of repulsive ''dark energy'' which is causing the Hubble expansion to accelerate. However, this may be an artifact of interpreting the data in an (oversimplified) homogeneous model universe. In the simplest inhomogeneous model which fits the SNe Ia Hubble diagram without dark energy, we are located close to the center of a void modeled by a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. It has been claimed that such models cannot fit the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and other cosmological data. This is, however, based on the assumption of a scale-free spectrum for the primordial density perturbation. An alternative physically motivated form for the spectrum enables a good fit to both SNe Ia (Constitution/Union2) and CMB (WMAP 7-yr) data, and to the locally measured Hubble parameter. Constraints from baryon acoustic oscillations and primordial nucleosynthesis are also satisfied.
Mapping Of Lake Ice In Northern Europe Using Dual-Polarization RadarSAT-2 Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindberg, Heidi; Malnes, Erik
2013-12-01
In this paper, we investigate the potential of including cross-polarization data in an unsupervised classification method based on SAR data to determine ice extent over lakes in Northern Europe. By introducing cross-pol data we can increase the separability between open water and ice, and we can decrease misclassifications where open water with waves is classified as ice. Cross-pol data also helps with labelling of the classes. However, cross-pol data can decrease the separability between the classes if the ice on the lake is very thin.
KLARER,PAUL R.; BINDER,ALAN B.; LENARD,ROGER X.
2000-01-26
A preliminary set of requirements for a robotic rover mission to the lunar polar region are described and assessed. Tasks to be performed by the rover include core drill sample acquisition, mineral and volatile soil content assay, and significant wide area traversals. Assessment of the postulated requirements is performed using first order estimates of energy, power, and communications throughput issues. Two potential rover system configurations are considered, a smaller rover envisioned as part of a group of multiple rovers, and a larger single rover envisioned along more traditional planetary surface rover concept lines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ungurian, V. P.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Ushenko, V. O.
2012-01-01
This work is aimed at searching the interconnections between the statistic structure of blood plasma microscopic images and manifestations of optical anisotropy of liquid crystal protein network. The model of linear birefringence of albumin and globulin crystals underlies in the ground of this work. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization ellipticity of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in human organism. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.
Including birefringence into time evolution of CMB: current and future constraints
Gubitosi, G.; Pagano, L.; Martinelli, M. E-mail: martinelli@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de
2014-12-01
We introduce birefringence effects within the propagation history of CMB, considering the two cases of a constant effect and of an effect that increases linearly in time, as the rotation of polarization induced by birefringence accumulates during photon propagation. Both cases result into a mixing of E and B modes before lensing effects take place, thus leading to the fact that lensing is acting on spectra that are already mixed because of birefringence. Moreover, if the polarization rotation angle increases during propagation, birefringence affects more the large scales that the small scales. We put constraints on the two cases using data from WMAP 9yr and BICEP 2013 and compare these results with the constraints obtained when the usual procedure of rotating the final power spectra is adopted, finding that this dataset combination is unable to distinguish between effects, but it nevertheless hints for a non vanishing value of the polarization rotation angle. We also forecast the sensitivity that will be obtained using data from Planck and PolarBear, highlighting how this combination is capable to rule out a vanishing birefringence angle, but still unable to distinguish the different scenarios. Nevertheless, we find that the combination of Planck and PolarBear is sensitive enough to highlight the existence of degeneracies between birefringence rotation and gravitational lensing of CMB photons, possibly leading to false detection of non standard lensing effects if birefringence is neglected.
CMB statistical anisotropy from noncommutative gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Mota, David F.; Ricciardone, Angelo; Arroja, Frederico
2014-07-01
Primordial statistical anisotropy is a key indicator to investigate early Universe models and has been probed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In this paper, we examine tensor-mode CMB fluctuations generated from anisotropic gravitational waves, parametrised by Ph(k) = Ph(0)(k) [ 1 + ∑LM fL(k) gLM YLM (hat k)], where Ph(0)(k) is the usual scale-invariant power spectrum. Such anisotropic tensor fluctuations may arise from an inflationary model with noncommutativity of fields. It is verified that in this model, an isotropic component and a quadrupole asymmetry with f0(k) = f2(k) propto k-2 are created and hence highly red-tilted off-diagonal components arise in the CMB power spectra, namely l2 = l1 ± 2 in TT, TE, EE and BB, and l2 = l1 ± 1 in TB and EB. We find that B-mode polarisation is more sensitive to such signals than temperature and E-mode polarisation due to the smallness of large-scale cosmic variance and we can potentially measure g00 = 30 and g2M = 58 at 68% CL in a cosmic-variance-limited experiment. Such a level of signal may be measured in a PRISM like experiment, while the instrumental noise contaminates it in the Planck experiment. These results imply that it is impossible to measure the noncommutative parameter if it is small enough for the perturbative treatment to be valid. Our formalism and methodology for dealing with the CMB tensor statistical anisotropy are general and straightforwardly applicable to other early Universe models.
Extreme data compression for the CMB
Zablocki, Alan; Dodelson, Scott
2016-04-28
We apply the Karhunen-Loéve methods to cosmic microwave background (CMB) data sets, and show that we can recover the input cosmology and obtain the marginalized likelihoods in Λ cold dark matter cosmologies in under a minute, much faster than Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. This is achieved by forming a linear combination of the power spectra at each multipole l, and solving a system of simultaneous equations such that the Fisher matrix is locally unchanged. Instead of carrying out a full likelihood evaluation over the whole parameter space, we need evaluate the likelihood only for the parameter of interest, with themore » data compression effectively marginalizing over all other parameters. The weighting vectors contain insight about the physical effects of the parameters on the CMB anisotropy power spectrum Cl. The shape and amplitude of these vectors give an intuitive feel for the physics of the CMB, the sensitivity of the observed spectrum to cosmological parameters, and the relative sensitivity of different experiments to cosmological parameters. We test this method on exact theory Cl as well as on a Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)-like CMB data set generated from a random realization of a fiducial cosmology, comparing the compression results to those from a full likelihood analysis using CosmoMC. Furthermore, after showing that the method works, we apply it to the temperature power spectrum from the WMAP seven-year data release, and discuss the successes and limitations of our method as applied to a real data set.« less
Effects of local sample bending on atom positions and polarization mapping in HAADF-STEM images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhen; Guo, Hangwen; Chen, Lina; Plummer, E. W.; Zhang, Jiandi; Tao, Jing; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei
Characterization of the structural distortion/reconstruction in the transition-metal oxide heterostructures play an important role in understanding their novel properties. In recent years, high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has become a powerful technique to determine local atomic arrangements, particularly near interfaces and boundaries. However, sample bending, especially near the edge of a thin specimen, is often introduced during the TEM sample preparation process. Our recent studies reveal that small sample bending can affect significantly the measurement of atom positions in HAADF-STEM image as a result of channeling effect of the incident electron beam. Here we take SrTiO3 (STO) as an example to show how to remove sample bending induced artifact from its intrinsic structural distortions. A polar-related artifact in STO at different bending angles were reveled both in our experiments and imaging simulation. This artifact can be removed successfully by quantitative comparing experimental with simulated HAADF-STEM images under the same imaging condition. The bending angle and thickness of the sample can be determined using convergent beam electron diffraction. Our study provide a useful guidance for removing the sample bending-induced artifact in STEM images for the studies of local lattice structures, polarization and distortion of complex materials.
What is the distance to the CMB?
Clarkson, Chris; Umeh, Obinna; Maartens, Roy; Durrer, Ruth E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com E-mail: Ruth.Durrer@unige.ch
2014-11-01
The success of precision cosmology depends not only on accurate observations, but also on the theoretical model --- which must be understood to at least the same level of precision. Subtle relativistic effects can lead to biased measurements if they are neglected. One such effect gives a systematic shift in the distance-redshift relation away from its background value, due to the non-linear relativistic conservation of total photon flux. We also show directly how this shift follows from a fully relativistic analysis of the geodesic deviation equation. We derive the expectation value of the shift using second-order perturbations about a concordance background, and show that the distance to last scattering is increased by 1%. We argue that neglecting this shift could lead to a significant bias in the background cosmological parameters, because it alters the meaning of the background model. A naive adjustment of CMB parameter estimation if this shift is really a correction to the background would raise the H{sub 0} value inferred from the CMB by 5%, potentially removing the tension with local measurements of H{sub 0}. Other CMB parameters which depend on the distance would also be shifted by ∼ 1σ when combined with local H{sub 0} data. While our estimations rely on a simplistic analysis, they nevertheless illustrate that accurately defining the background model in terms of the expectation values of observables is critical when we aim to determine the model parameters at the sub-percent level.
The theoretical agenda in CMB research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bond, J. R.
The terrain that theorists cover in this CMB golden age is described. The author ponders early universe physics in quest of the fluctuation generator. He extolls the virtues of inflation and defects. He transports fields, matter and radiation into the linear (primary anisotropies) and nonlinear (secondary anisotropies) regimes. The author validates the linear codes to deliver accurate predictions for experimentalists to shoot at. He struggles at the computing edge to push the nonlinear simulations from only illustrative to fully predictive. He is now phenomenologists, optimizing statistical techniques for extrating truths and their errors from current and future experiments. He begins to clean foregrounds. He joins CMB experimental teams. He combines the CMB with large scale structure, galaxy and other cosmological observations in search of current concordance. The brave use all topical data. Others carefully craft their prior probabilities to downweight data sets. The author is always unbiased. He declares theories sick, dead, ugly. Sometimes he cures them, resurrect them, rarely beautify them. The goal is to understand how all cosmic structure we see arose and what the Universe is made of, and to use this to discover the laws of ultrahigh energy physics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McClanahan, Timothy P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Sagdeev, R.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.; Sanin, A. B.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Harshman, K.; Finch, M. J.; Nandikotkur, G.
2010-01-01
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) was developed to refine the lunar surface hydrogen (H) measurements generated by the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer. LPNS measurements indicated a approx.4,6% decrease in polar epithermal fluxes equivalent to (1.5+/-0,8)% H concentration and are direct geochemical evidence indicating water /high H at the poles. Given the similar operational and instrumental objectives of the LEND and LPNS systems, an important science analysis step for LEND is to test correlation with existing research including LPNS measurements. In this analysis, we compare corrected low altitude epithermal rate data from LPNS available via NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) with calibrated LEND epithermal maps using a cross-correlation technique
Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Gordon, Christopher; Silk, Joseph; Sugiyama, Naoshi
2010-04-15
We study how direct detection of the inflationary gravitational wave background constrains inflationary parameters and complements CMB polarization measurements. The error ellipsoids calculated using the Fisher information matrix approach with Planck and the direct detection experiment, Big Bang Observer (BBO), show different directions of parameter degeneracy, and the degeneracy is broken when they are combined. For a slow-roll parametrization, we show that BBO could significantly improve the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio compared with Planck alone. We also look at a quadratic and a natural inflation model. In both cases, if the temperature of reheating is also treated as a free parameter, then the addition of BBO can significantly improve the error bars. In the case of natural inflation, we find that the addition of BBO could even partially improve the error bars of a cosmic variance-limited CMB experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Arzoumanian, D.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Berné, O.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Ferrière, K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Soler, J. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-02-01
Planck observations at 353 GHz provide the first fully sampled maps of the polarized dust emission towards interstellar filaments and their backgrounds (i.e., the emission observed in the surroundings of the filaments). The data allow us to determine the intrinsic polarization properties of the filaments and therefore to provide insight into the structure of their magnetic field (B). We present the polarization maps of three nearby (several parsecs long) star-forming filaments of moderate column density (NH about 1022 cm-2): Musca, B211, and L1506. These three filaments are detected above the background in dust total and polarized emission. We use the spatial information to separate Stokes I, Q, and U of the filaments from those of their backgrounds, an essential step in measuring the intrinsic polarization fraction (p) and angle (ψ) of each emission component. We find that the polarization angles in the three filaments (ψfil) are coherent along their lengths and not the same as in their backgrounds (ψbg). The differences between ψfil and ψbg are 12° and 54° for Musca and L1506, respectively, and only 6° in the case of B211. These differences forMusca and L1506 are larger than the dispersions of ψ, both along the filaments and in their backgrounds. The observed changes of ψ are direct evidence of variations of the orientation of the plane of the sky (POS) projection of the magnetic field. As in previous studies, we find a decrease of several per cent in p with NH from the backgrounds to the crest of the filaments. We show that the bulk of the drop in p within the filaments cannot be explained by random fluctuations of the orientation of the magnetic field because they are too small (σψ< 10°). We recognize the degeneracy between the dust alignment efficiency (by, e.g., radiative torques) and the structure of the B-field in causing variations in p, but we argue that the decrease in p from the backgrounds to the filaments results in part from
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glenar, D. A.; Samuelson, R. E.; Pearl, J. C.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Blaney, D. L.
2002-09-01
We present an update of an on-going program of ground based, whole-disk Mars drift scan measurements using infrared grating spectrometers at KPNO (Cryogenic Spectrometer, CRSP) and the IRTF (SpeX), and spanning 1.9-4.0 microns wavelength. Data sets are reformatted into image cubes having two spatial and one spectral dimension, with moderately high spectral resolution (R = 700-2200) and corrected for telluric absorption. Ground based spectral imaging of Mars provides hemispherical and diurnal coverage, which is not achievable using sun-synchronous orbiting spacecraft, despite their other advantages. This makes such measurements well suited to studies of clouds and surface ice, both large scale and time-variable phenomena. Seasonal coverage includes the 1999 aphelion season at Ls=130, and 2001 northern fall, just prior to (Ls=182) and during (Ls=195) the early season dust storm. Band strength maps of CO2 ice spectral features near 2 microns show the spatial distribution of ice grains near the south polar cap. The presence of narrow but fully resolved "forbidden" spectral features of CO2 ice near 2.3 microns indicate larger grain sizes and can be used to separate the surface ice component from CO2 clouds. Water ice at the north polar cap is observed and mapped using the spectral shape of the strong 3 micron band, also grain size dependent. We discuss the process (and challenges) of data reduction, reformatting and the supporting modeling work now in progress. This work is supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program, RTOP 344-32-51-02.
Pietrobon, Davide; Amblard, Alexandre; Cooray, Asantha; Balbi, Amedeo; Cabella, Paolo; Marinucci, Domenico
2008-11-15
We apply spherical needlets to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5-year cosmic microwave background (CMB) data set, to search for imprints of nonisotropic features in the CMB sky. We use the needlets' localization properties to resolve peculiar features in the CMB sky and to study how these features contribute to the anisotropy power spectrum of the CMB. In addition to the now well-known 'cold spot' of the CMB map in the southern hemisphere, we also find two hot spots at greater than 99% confidence level, again in the southern hemisphere and closer to the Galactic plane. While the cold spot contributes to the anisotropy power spectrum in the multipoles between l=6 to l=33, the hot spots are found to be dominating the anisotropy power in the range between l=6 and l=18. Masking both the cold and the two hot spots results in a reduction by about 15% in the amplitude of the angular power spectrum of CMB around l=10. The resulting changes to the cosmological parameters when the power spectrum is estimated masking these features (in addition to the WMAP team's KQ85 mask) are within the 1{sigma} errors published with the WMAP mask only. We also study the asymmetry between the angular power spectra evaluated on the northern and southern hemispheres. When the features detected by needlets are masked, we find that the difference in the power, measured in terms of the anisotropy variance between l=4 and l=18, is reduced by a factor 2. We make available a mask related to needlet features for more detailed studies on asymmetries in the CMB anisotropy sky.
Rannou, P.; Le Mouelic, S.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R. H.
2012-03-20
A large cloud in the north polar region of Titan was first observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) in 2005 and then in 2006. This cloud, confined beyond the latitude 62 Degree-Sign N, is surrounded by a mixture of aerosol and mist probably lying in the low stratosphere and troposphere. Subsequent images of this region of Titan show a gradual vanishing of this cloud which was reported previously. In this paper, we characterize the physical properties of this cloud, haze, and mist as well as their time evolutions. We note several details on the images such as a secondary cloud above the main cloud and latitudes beyond 70 Degree-Sign N. We also show that the cloud disappearance leaves the polar region poorly loaded in aerosols, yielding an annular zone of aerosols between 50 Degree-Sign N and 65 Degree-Sign N. Our analysis suggests that this structure observed by VIMS in the near-IR is an annular structure observed by ISS on board Voyager one Titan year ago in 1980.
A human homologue of the Drosophila polarity gene frizzled has been identified and mapped to 17q21.1
Zhao, Z.; Lee, C.C.; Baldini, A.
1995-05-20
The frizzled (fz) locus in Drosophila is required for the transmission of polarity signals across the plasma membrane in epidermal cells, as well as to their neighboring cells in the developing wing. The identification of a tissue polarity gene from the fz locus in Drosophila melanogaster has been reported. The fz gene encodes a protein (Fz) with seven putative transmembrane domains, which was suggested to function as a G-protein-coupled receptor. Here the authors report the identification of a human homologue for the fz gene (FZD2). The FZD2 gene was isolated from a human ovarian cDNA library and mapped to 17q21.1 by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a corresponding cosmid. The full-length cDNA of human FZD2 encodes a protein (FZD-2) of 565 amino acids that shares 56% sequence identity with Drosophila Fz. The expression of the FZD2 gene seems to be developmentally regulated, with high levels of expression in fetal kidney and lung and in adult colon and ovary. The structure of FZD-2 suggests that it has a role in transmembrane signal transmission, although its precise physiological function and associated pathways are yet to be determined. 9 refs., 2 figs.
The SLT2 (MPK1) MAP kinase homolog is involved in polarized cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
1993-01-01
Bud emergence, spindle pole body duplication and DNA replication are all dependent on the activation of the CDC28 protein kinase at the Start point in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Bud emergence requires polarization of the cytoskeleton and secretory vesicles to a specific site on the cell surface. Cdc28p activated by G1-cyclins triggers polarization of actin to the site of bud emergence and favors apical bud growth (Lew, D. J., and S. I. Reed. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120:1305- 1320). We isolated slt2-1 as a mutation that enhances the division defect of cdc28 mutants with defects at Start. Slt2p(Mpk1p) is a member of the MAP kinase family (Lee, K. S., K. Irie, Y. Gotoh, Y. Watanabe, H. Araki, E. Nishida, K. Matsumoto, and D. E. Levin. 1993. Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:3067-3075). We show that slt2 mutants exhibit phenotypes similar to those shown by mutants of the yeast actin cytoskeleton, including delocalization of chitin deposition and of actin cortical spots and the accumulation of secretory pathway membranes and vesicles. Furthermore, slt2::HIS3 act1-1 and slt2::HIS3 myo2-66 double mutants are inviable. We suggest that Slt2p functions downstream or in parallel with Cdc28p in promoting bud formation and apical growth. PMID:8276900
Planck CMB Anomalies: Astrophysical and Cosmological Secondary Effects and the Curse of Masking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rassat, Anais
2016-07-01
Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes are available online.
Unavoidable CMB Spectral Features and Blackbody Photosphere of Our Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Khatri, Rishi
2015-01-01
Spectral features in the CMB energy spectrum contain a wealth of information about the physical processes in the early Universe, z ≲ 2 × 106. The CMB spectral distortions are complementary to all other probes of cosmology. In fact, most of the information contained in the CMB spectrum is inaccessible by any other means. This review outlines the main physics behind the spectral features in the CMB throughout the history of the Universe, concentrating on the distortions which are inevitable and must be present at a level observable by the next generation of proposed CMB experiments. The spectral distortions considered here include spectral features from cosmological recombination, resonant scattering of CMB by metals during reionization which allows us to measure their abundances, y-type distortions during and after reionization and μ-type and i-type (intermediate between μ and y) distortions created at redshifts z ≳ 1.5 × 104.
Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best estimate of the CMB angular power spectrum from Planck over three decades in multipole moment, ℓ, covering 2 ≤ ℓ ≤ 2500. The main source of uncertainty at ℓ ≲ 1500 is cosmic variance. Uncertainties in small-scale foreground modelling and instrumental noise dominate the error budget at higher ℓs. For ℓ < 50, our likelihood exploits all Planck frequency channels from 30 to 353 GHz, separating the cosmological CMB signal from diffuse Galactic foregrounds through a physically motivated Bayesian component separation technique. At ℓ ≥ 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on a fine-grained set of angular cross-spectra derived from multiple detector combinations between the 100, 143, and 217 GHz frequency channels, marginalising over power spectrum foreground templates. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on the final cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-ℓ cross-spectra with residuals below a few μK2 at ℓ ≲ 1000, in agreement with estimated calibration uncertainties. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived from all Planck frequencies, as well as with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. We further show that the best-fit ΛCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary PlanckEE and TE polarisation spectra. We find that the standard ΛCDM cosmology is well constrained by Planck from the measurements at ℓ ≲ 1500. One specific example is the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denize, J.; Corgne, S.; Todoroff, P.; LE Mezo, L.
2015-12-01
In Reunion, a tropical island of 2,512 km², 700 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, constrained by a rugged relief, agricultural sectors are competing in highly fragmented agricultural land constituted by heterogeneous farming systems from corporate to small-scale farming. Policymakers, planners and institutions are in dire need of reliable and updated land use references. Actually conventional land use mapping methods are inefficient under the tropic with frequent cloud cover and loosely synchronous vegetative cycles of the crops due to a constant temperature. This study aims to provide an appropriate method for the identification and mapping of tropical crops by remote sensing. For this purpose, we assess the potential of polarimetric SAR imagery associated with associated with machine learning algorithms. The method has been developed and tested on a study area of 25*25 km thanks to 6 RADARSAT-2 images in 2014 in full-polarization. A set of radar indicators (backscatter coefficient, bands ratios, indices, polarimetric decompositions (Freeman-Durden, Van zyl, Yamaguchi, Cloude and Pottier, Krogager), texture, etc.) was calculated from the coherency matrix. A random forest procedure allowed the selection of the most important variables on each images to reduce the dimension of the dataset and the processing time. Support Vector Machines (SVM), allowed the classification of these indicators based on a learning database created from field observations in 2013. The method shows an overall accuracy of 88% with a Kappa index of 0.82 for the identification of four major crops.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangilli, A.; Wandelt, B.; Elsner, F.; Liguori, M.
2013-07-01
We present the tools to optimally extract the lensing-integrated Sachs Wolfe (L-ISW) bispectrum signal from future cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We implemented two different methods to simulate the non-Gaussian CMB maps with the L-ISW signal: a non-perturbative method based on the FLINTS lensing code and the separable mode-expansion method. We implemented the Komatsu, Spergel, and Wandelt (KSW) optimal estimator analysis for the L-ISW bispectrum and tested it on the non-Gaussian simulations for realistic CMB experimental settings with an inhomogeneous sky coverage. We show that the estimator approaches the Cramer-Rao bound and that Wiener filtering the L-ISW simulations slightly improves the estimate of fNLL-ISW by ≤ 10%. For a realistic CMB experimental setting that accounts for anisotropic noise and masked sky, we show that the linear term of the estimator is highly correlated to the cubic term and it is necessary to recover the signal and the optimal error bars. We also show that the L-ISW bispectrum, if not correctly accounted for, yields an underestimation of the fNLlocal error bars of ≃ 4%. A joint analysis of the non-Gaussian shapes and/or L-ISW template subtraction is needed to recover unbiased results of the primordial non-Gaussian signal from ongoing and future CMB experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blewett, David T.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Scully, Jennifer E.; O'Brien, David P.; Gaskell, Robert; Roatsch, Thomas; Bowling, Timothy J.; Ermakov, Anton; Hiesinger, Harald; Williams, David A.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.
2014-12-01
As part of systematic global mapping of Vesta using data returned by the Dawn spacecraft, we have produced a geologic map of the north pole quadrangle, Av-1 Albana. Extensive seasonal shadows were present in the north polar region at the time of the Dawn observations, limiting the ability to map morphological features and employ color or spectral data for determination of composition. The major recognizable units present include ancient cratered highlands and younger crater-related units (undivided ejecta, and mass-wasting material on crater floors). The antipode of Vesta's large southern impact basins, Rheasilvia and Veneneia, lie within or near the Av-1 quadrangle. Therefore it is of particular interest to search for evidence of features of the kind that are found at basin antipodes on other planetary bodies. Albedo markings known as lunar swirls are correlated with basin antipodes and the presence of crustal magnetic anomalies on the Moon, but lighting conditions preclude recognition of such albedo features in images of the antipode of Vesta's Rheasilvia basin. “Hilly and lineated terrain,” found at the antipodes of large basins on the Moon and Mercury, is not present at the Rheasilvia or Veneneia antipodes. We have identified small-scale linear depressions that may be related to increased fracturing in the Rheasilvia and Veneneia antipodal areas, consistent with impact-induced stresses (Buczkowski, D. et al. [2012b]. Analysis of the large scale troughs on Vesta and correlation to a model of giant impact into a differentiated asteroid. Geol. Soc. of America Annual Meeting. Abstract 152-4; Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20123). The general high elevation of much of the north polar region could, in part, be a result of uplift caused by the Rheasilvia basin-forming impact, as predicted by numerical modeling (Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre
Nekolla, S G; Miethaner, C; Nguyen, N; Ziegler, S I; Schwaiger, M
1998-09-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of new software developed for the analysis of cardiac tomographic data. The algorithm delineates the long axis and defines the basal plane and subsequently generates polar maps to quantitatively and reproducibly assess the size and severity of perfusion defects. The developed technique requires an initial manual estimate of the left ventricular long axis and calculates the volumetric maximum myocardial activity distribution. This surface is used to map three-dimensional tracer accumulation onto a two-dimensional representation (polar map), which is the basis for further processing. The spatial information is used to compute geometrical and mechanical properties of a solid model of the left ventricle including the left heart chamber. A new estimate of the axis is determined from this model, and the previously outlined procedure is repeated together with an automated definition of the valve plane until differences between the polar maps can be neglected. This quantitative analysis software was validated in phantom studies with defects of known masses and in ten data sets from normals and patients with coronary artery disease of various severity. We investigated the reproducibility of the maps with the introduction of a similarity criterion where the ratio of two corresponding polar map elements lies within a 10% interval. The maps were also used to measure intra-and interobserver variability in respect of defect size and severity. In the phantom studies, it was possible to reliably assess mass information over a wide range of defects from 5 to 60 g (slope: 1.02, offset -0.68, r = 0.972). Patient studies revealed a statistically significant increase in the reproducibility of the automatic technique compared with the manual approach: 54%+/-19% (manual) compared with 88%+/-9% (automatic) for observer 1 and 61%+/-20% vs 82%+/-5% for observer 2, respectively. The intervariability analysis showed a significant
Characterization of Detectors and Instrument Systematics for the SPIDER CMB Polarimeter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tucker, Rebecca Suzanne
We know from the CMB and observations of large-scale structure that the universe is extremely flat, homogenous, and isotropic. The current favored mechanism for generating these characteristics is inflation, a theorized period of exponential expansion of the universe that occurred shortly after the Big Bang. Most theories of inflation generically predict a background of stochastic gravitational waves. These gravitational waves should leave their unique imprint on the polarization of the CMB via Thompson scattering. Scalar perturbations of the metric will cause a pattern of polarization with no curl (E-mode). Tensor perturbations (gravitational waves) will cause a unique pattern of polarization on the CMB that includes a curl component (B-mode). A measurement of the ratio of the tensor to scalar perturbations (r ) tells us the energy scale of inflation. Recent measurements by the BICEP2 team detect the B-mode spectrum with a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r=0.2 (+0.05, -0.07). An independent confirmation of this result is the next step towards understanding the inflationary universe. This thesis describes my work on a balloon-borne polarimeter called SPIDER, which is designed to illuminate the physics of the early universe through measurements of the cosmic microwave background polarization. SPIDER consists of six single-frequency, on-axis refracting telescopes contained in a shared-vacuum liquid-helium cryostat. Its large format arrays of millimeter-wave detectors and tight control of systematics will give it unprecedented sensitivity. This thesis describes how the SPIDER detectors are characterized and calibrated for flight, as well as how the systematics requirements for the SPIDER system are simulated and measured.
Polarization-correlation analysis of maps of optical anisotropy biological layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ushenko, Yu. A.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Prysyazhnyuk, V. S.; Marchuk, Y. F.; Pashkovskaya, N. V.; Motrich, A. V.; Novakovskaya, O. Y.
2014-08-01
A new information optical technique of diagnostics of the structure of polycrystalline films of bile is proposed. The model of Mueller-matrix description of mechanisms of optical anisotropy of such objects as optical activity, birefringence, as well as linear and circular dichroism is suggested. The ensemble of informationally topical azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix invariants is determined. Within the statistical analysis of such parameters distributions the objective criteria of differentiation of films of bile taken from healthy donors and diabetes of type 2 were determined. From the point of view of probative medicine the operational characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) of the information-optical method of Mueller-matrix mapping of polycrystalline films of bile were found and its efficiency in diagnostics of diabetes extent of type 2 was demonstrated. Considered prospects of applying this method in the diagnosis of cirrhosis.
Measurement of polarization with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer.
Leitch, E M; Kovac, J M; Pryke, C; Carlstrom, J E; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Dragovan, M; Reddall, B; Sandberg, E S
Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation can reveal with remarkable precision the conditions of the Universe when it was approximately 400,000 years old. The three most fundamental properties of the CMB are its frequency spectrum (which determines the temperature), and the fluctuations in both the temperature and polarization across a range of angular scales. The frequency spectrum has been well determined, and considerable progress has been made in measuring the power spectrum of the temperature fluctuations. But despite many efforts to measure the polarization, detection of this property of the CMB has hitherto been beyond the reach of even the most sensitive observations. Here we describe the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), an array of radio telescopes, which for the past two years has conducted polarization-sensitive observations of the CMB from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station.
Measurement of polarization with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer.
Leitch, E M; Kovac, J M; Pryke, C; Carlstrom, J E; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Dragovan, M; Reddall, B; Sandberg, E S
Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation can reveal with remarkable precision the conditions of the Universe when it was approximately 400,000 years old. The three most fundamental properties of the CMB are its frequency spectrum (which determines the temperature), and the fluctuations in both the temperature and polarization across a range of angular scales. The frequency spectrum has been well determined, and considerable progress has been made in measuring the power spectrum of the temperature fluctuations. But despite many efforts to measure the polarization, detection of this property of the CMB has hitherto been beyond the reach of even the most sensitive observations. Here we describe the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), an array of radio telescopes, which for the past two years has conducted polarization-sensitive observations of the CMB from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station. PMID:12490940
Making maps from Planck LFI 30 GHz data with asymmetric beams and cooler noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashdown, M. A. J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bartlett, J. G.; Borrill, J.; Cantalupo, C.; de Gasperis, G.; de Troia, G.; Górski, K. M.; Hivon, E.; Huffenberger, K.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C. R.; Natoli, P.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Reinecke, M.; Rocha, G.; Sandri, M.; Stompor, R.; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B.; Planck Ctp Working Group
2009-01-01
The Planck satellite will observe the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. Temperature and polarization frequency maps made from these observations are prime deliverables of the Planck mission. The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of four realistic instrument systematics in the 30 GHz frequency maps: non-axially-symmetric beams, sample integration, sorption cooler noise, and pointing errors. We simulated one-year long observations of four 30 GHz detectors. The simulated timestreams contained cosmic microwave background (CMB) signal, foreground components (both galactic and extra-galactic), instrument noise (correlated and white), and the four instrument systematic effects. We made maps from the timelines and examined the magnitudes of the systematics effects in the maps and their angular power spectra. We also compared the maps of different mapmaking codes to see how they performed. We used five mapmaking codes (two destripers and three optimal codes). None of our mapmaking codes makes any attempt to deconvolve the beam from its output map. Therefore all our maps had similar smoothing due to beams and sample integration. This is a complicated smoothing, because each map pixel has its own effective beam. Temperature to polarization cross-coupling due to beam mismatch causes a detectable bias in the TE spectrum of the CMB map. The effects of cooler noise and pointing errors did not appear to be major concerns for the 30 GHz channel. The only essential difference found so far between mapmaking codes that affects accuracy (in terms of residual root-mean-square) is baseline length. All optimal codes give essentially indistinguishable results. A destriper gives the same result as the optimal codes when the baseline is set short enough (Madam). For longer baselines destripers (Springtide and Madam) require less computing resources but deliver a noisier map.
Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz Data with Asymmetric Beams and Cooler Noise
The Planck CTP Working Group; Ashdown, M.A.J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bartlett, J.G.; Borrill, J.; Cantalupo, C.; de Gasperis, G.; Gorski, K.M.; Hivon, E.; Huffenberger, K.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Hurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C.R.; Natoli, P.; Poutanen, T.; Prezeau, G.; Reinecke, M.; Rocha, G.; Sandri, M.; Stompor, R..; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B.; de Troia, G.
2008-06-19
The Planck satellite will observe the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. Temperature and polarization frequency maps made from these observations are prime deliverables of the Planck mission. The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of four realistic instrument systematics in the 30 GHz frequency maps: non-axially-symmetric beams, sample integration, sorption cooler noise, and pointing errors. They simulated one year long observations of four 30 GHz detectors. The simulated timestreams contained CMB, foreground component (both galactic and extra-galactic), instrument nolise (correlated and white), and the four instrument systematic effects. They made maps from the timelines and examined the magnitudes of the systematics effects in the maps and their angular power spectra. They also compared the maps of different mapmaking codes to see how they performed. They used five mapmaking codes (two destripers and three optimal codes). None of their mapmaking codes makes an attempt to deconvolve the beam from its output map. Therefore all our maps had similar smoothing due to beams and sample integration. This is a complicated smoothing, because every map pixel has its own effective beam. Temperature to polarization cross-coupling due to beam mismatch causes a detectable bias in the TE spectrum of the CMB map. The effects of cooler noise and pointing errors did not appear to be major concerns for the 30 GHz channel. The only essential difference found so far between mapmaking codes that affects accuracy (in terms of residual RMS) is baseline length. All optimal codes give essentially indistiguishable results. A destriper gives the same result as the optimal codes when the baseline is set short enough (Madam). For longer baselines destripers (Springtide and Madam) require less computing resources but deliver a noisier map.
An improved sampling rule for mapping geopotential functions of a planet from a near polar orbit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigelt, Matthias; Sneeuw, Nico; Schrama, E. J. O.; Visser, Pieter N. A. M.
2013-02-01
One of the limiting factors in the determination of gravity field solutions is the spatial sampling. Especially during phases, when the satellite repeats its own track after a short time, the spatial resolution will be limited. The Nyquist rule-of-thumb for mapping geopotential functions of a planet, also referred to as the Colombo-Nyquist rule-of-thumb, provides a limit for the maximum achievable degree of a spherical harmonic development for repeat orbits. We show in this paper that this rule is too conservative, and solutions with better spatial resolutions are possible. A new rule is introduced which limits the maximum achievable order (not degree!) to be smaller than the number of revolutions if the difference between the number of revolutions and the number of nodal days is of odd parity and to be smaller than half the number of revolutions if the difference is of even parity. The dependence on the parity is reflected in the eigenvalue spectrum of the normal matrix and becomes especially important in the presence of noise. The rule is based on applying the Nyquist sampling theorem separately in North-South and East-West direction. This is only possible for satellites in highly inclined orbits like champ and grace. Tables for these two satellite missions are also provided which indicate the passed and (in case of grace) expected repeat cycles and possible degradations in the quality of the gravity field solutions.
CMB anisotropies from acausal scaling seeds
Scodeller, Sandro; Kunz, Martin; Durrer, Ruth
2009-04-15
We investigate models where structure formation is initiated by scaling seeds: We consider rapidly expanding relativistic shells of energy and show that they can fit current CMB and large scale structure data if they expand with superluminal velocities. These acausally expanding shells provide a viable alternative to inflation for cosmological structure formation with the same minimal number of parameters to characterize the initial fluctuations. Causally expanding shells alone cannot fit present data. Hybrid models where causal shells and inflation are mixed also provide good fits.
When can preheating affect the CMB?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsujikawa, Shinji; Bassett, Bruce A.
2002-05-01
We discuss the principles governing the selection of inflationary models for which preheating can affect the CMB. This is a (fairly small) subset of those models which have nonnegligible entropy/isocurvature perturbations on large scales during inflation. We study new models which belong to this class-two-field inflation with negative nonminimal coupling and hybrid/double/supernatural inflation models where the tachyonic growth of entropy perturbations can lead to the variation of the curvature perturbation, /R, on super-Hubble scales. Finally, we present evidence against recent claims for the variation of /R in the absence of substantial super-Hubble entropy perturbations.
CMB statistical anisotropy from noncommutative gravitational waves
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Ricciardone, Angelo; Mota, David F.; Arroja, Frederico E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no E-mail: arroja@pd.infn.it
2014-07-01
Primordial statistical anisotropy is a key indicator to investigate early Universe models and has been probed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In this paper, we examine tensor-mode CMB fluctuations generated from anisotropic gravitational waves, parametrised by P{sub h}(k) = P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) [ 1 + ∑{sub LM} f{sub L}(k) g{sub LM} Y{sub LM} ( k-circumflex )], where P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) is the usual scale-invariant power spectrum. Such anisotropic tensor fluctuations may arise from an inflationary model with noncommutativity of fields. It is verified that in this model, an isotropic component and a quadrupole asymmetry with f{sub 0}(k) = f{sub 2}(k) ∝ k{sup -2} are created and hence highly red-tilted off-diagonal components arise in the CMB power spectra, namely ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 2 in TT, TE, EE and BB, and ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 1 in TB and EB. We find that B-mode polarisation is more sensitive to such signals than temperature and E-mode polarisation due to the smallness of large-scale cosmic variance and we can potentially measure g{sub 00} = 30 and g{sub 2M} = 58 at 68% CL in a cosmic-variance-limited experiment. Such a level of signal may be measured in a PRISM like experiment, while the instrumental noise contaminates it in the Planck experiment. These results imply that it is impossible to measure the noncommutative parameter if it is small enough for the perturbative treatment to be valid. Our formalism and methodology for dealing with the CMB tensor statistical anisotropy are general and straightforwardly applicable to other early Universe models.
CryoSat-2 swath interferometric altimetry for mapping polar land ice terrain and elevation change
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gourmelen, N.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Foresta, L.; Shepherd, A.; Muir, A.; Hogg, A. E.; Roca, M.; Nagler, T.; Baker, S.; Drinkwater, M. R.
2015-12-01
Reference and repeat-observations of Glacier and Ice Sheet Margin (GISM) topography are critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The lack of such sustained observations was identified in the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) Cryosphere Theme Report as a major shortcoming. Conventional altimetry measurements over GISMs exist, but coverage has been sparse and characterized by coarse ground resolution. Additionally, and more importantly, they proved ineffective in the presence of steep slopes, a typical feature of GISM areas. Since the majority of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass loss is estimated to lie within 100 km from the coast, but only about 10% is surveyed, there is the need for more robust and dense observations of GISMs, in both time and space. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the Cryosphere. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry. The corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over GISMs and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA) is a standard product of the CryoSat mission. Here we present, through a wide range of examples in Polar settings, a new approach for more comprehensively exploiting the SARIn mode of CryoSat and produce ice elevation and elevation change with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat elevation products. In this so-called CryoSat Swath SARIn (CSSARIn) approach, the signal beyond the POCA is analysed, leading to between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude more elevation measurements than conventional approaches, and providing elevation where conventional POCA fails. We will
Hamann, Jan; Wong, Yvonne Y Y E-mail: ywong@mppmu.mpg.de
2008-03-15
We estimate the effect of the experimental uncertainty in the measurement of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the extraction of cosmological parameters from future CMB surveys. We find that even for an ideal experiment limited only by cosmic variance up to l=2500 for both the temperature and polarization measurements, the projected cosmological parameter errors are remarkably robust against the uncertainty of 1 mK in the firas CMB temperature monopole measurement. The maximum degradation in sensitivity is 20%, for the baryon density estimate, relative to the case in which the monopole is known infinitely well. While this degradation is acceptable, we note that reducing the uncertainty in the current temperature measurement by a factor of five will bring it down to {approx}1%. We also estimate the effect of the uncertainty in the dipole temperature measurement. Assuming the overall calibration of the data to be dominated by the dipole error of 0.2% from firas, the sensitivity degradation is insignificant and does not exceed 10% in any parameter direction.
Improving CMB non-Gaussianity estimators using tracers of local structure
Mead, James M. G.; King, Lindsay; Lewis, Antony
2011-01-15
Local non-Gaussianity causes correlations between large-scale perturbation modes and the small-scale power. The large-scale CMB signal has contributions from the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, which does not correlate with the small-scale power. If this ISW contribution can be removed, the sensitivity to local non-Gaussianity is improved. Gravitational lensing and galaxy counts can be used to trace the ISW contribution; in particular, we show that the CMB lensing potential is highly correlated with the ISW signal. We construct a nearly optimal estimator for the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} and investigate to what extent we can use this to decrease the variance on f{sub NL}. We show that the variance can be decreased by up to 20% at Planck sensitivity using galaxy counts. CMB lensing is a good bias-independent ISW tracer for future more sensitive observations, though the fractional decrease in variance is small if good polarization data are also available.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.
1979-01-01
The area of geological mapping in the United States in 1978 increased greatly over that reported in 1977; state geological maps were added for California, Idaho, Nevada, and Alaska last year. (Author/BB)
Testing distance duality with CMB anisotropies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Räsänen, Syksy; Väliviita, Jussi; Kosonen, Ville
2016-04-01
We constrain deviations of the form T propto (1+z)1+epsilon from the standard redshift-temperature relation, corresponding to modifying distance duality as DL = (1+z)2(1+epsilon) DA. We consider a consistent model, in which both the background and perturbation equations are changed. For this purpose, we introduce a species of dark radiation particles to which photon energy density is transferred, and assume epsilon >= 0. The Planck 2015 release high multipole temperature plus low multipole data give the limit epsilon < 4.5 × 10-3 at 95% C.L. The main obstacle to improving this CMB-only result is strong degeneracy between epsilon and the physical matter densities ωb and ωc. A constraint on deuterium abundance improves the limit to epsilon < 1.8 × 10-3. Adding the Planck high-multipole CMB polarisation and BAO data leads to a small improvement; with this maximal dataset we obtain epsilon < 1.3 × 10-3. This dataset constrains the present dark radiation energy density to at most 12% of the total photon plus dark radiation density. Finally, we discuss the degeneracy between dark radiation and the effective number of relativistic species Neff, and consider the impact of dark radiation perturbations and allowing epsilon < 0 on the results.
Testing distance duality with CMB anisotropies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Räsänen, Syksy; Väliviita, Jussi; Kosonen, Ville
2016-04-01
We constrain deviations of the form T propto (1+z)1+epsilon from the standard redshift-temperature relation, corresponding to modifying distance duality as DL = (1+z)2(1+epsilon) DA. We consider a consistent model, in which both the background and perturbation equations are changed. For this purpose, we introduce a species of dark radiation particles to which photon energy density is transferred, and assume epsilon >= 0. The Planck 2015 release high multipole temperature plus low multipole data give the limit epsilon < 4.5 × 10‑3 at 95% C.L. The main obstacle to improving this CMB-only result is strong degeneracy between epsilon and the physical matter densities ωb and ωc. A constraint on deuterium abundance improves the limit to epsilon < 1.8 × 10‑3. Adding the Planck high-multipole CMB polarisation and BAO data leads to a small improvement; with this maximal dataset we obtain epsilon < 1.3 × 10‑3. This dataset constrains the present dark radiation energy density to at most 12% of the total photon plus dark radiation density. Finally, we discuss the degeneracy between dark radiation and the effective number of relativistic species Neff, and consider the impact of dark radiation perturbations and allowing epsilon < 0 on the results.
Precision epoch of reionization studies with next-generation CMB experiments
Calabrese, Erminia; Louis, Thibaut; Hložek, Renée; Hil, J. Colin; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; De Bernardis, Francesco; Henderson, Shawn; Niemack, Michael D.; Devlin, Mark J.; Kosowsky, Arthur; McMahon, Jeff; Moodley, Kavilan; Newburgh, Laura; Page, Lyman A.; Partridge, Bruce; Sehgal, Neelima E-mail: rhlozek@astro.princeton.edu; and others
2014-08-01
Future arcminute resolution polarization data from ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations can be used to estimate the contribution to the temperature power spectrum from the primary anisotropies and to uncover the signature of reionization near ℓ=1500 in the small angular-scale temperature measurements. Our projections are based on combining expected small-scale E-mode polarization measurements from Advanced ACTPol in the range 300<ℓ<3000 with simulated temperature data from the full Planck mission in the low and intermediate ℓ region, 2<ℓ<2000. We show that the six basic cosmological parameters determined from this combination of data will predict the underlying primordial temperature spectrum at high multipoles to better than 1% accuracy. Assuming an efficient cleaning from multi-frequency channels of most foregrounds in the temperature data, we investigate the sensitivity to the only residual secondary component, the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) term. The CMB polarization is used to break degeneracies between primordial and secondary terms present in temperature and, in effect, to remove from the temperature data all but the residual kSZ term. We estimate a 15σ detection of the diffuse homogeneous kSZ signal from expected AdvACT temperature data at ℓ>1500, leading to a measurement of the amplitude of matter density fluctuations, σ{sub 8}, at 1% precision. Alternatively, by exploring the reionization signal encoded in the patchy kSZ measurements, we bound the time and duration of the reionization with σ(z{sub re})=1.1 and σ(Δz{sub re})=0.2. We find that these constraints degrade rapidly with large beam sizes, which highlights the importance of arcminute-scale resolution for future CMB surveys.
Hasegawa, M; Tajima, O; Chinone, Y; Hazumi, M; Ishidoshiro, K; Nagai, M
2011-05-01
We present a novel system to calibrate millimeter-wave polarimeters for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements. This technique is an extension of the conventional metal mirror rotation approach, however, it employs cryogenically-cooled blackbody absorbers. The primary advantage of this system is that it can generate a slightly polarized signal (∼100 mK) in the laboratory; this is at a similar level to that measured by ground-based CMB polarization experiments observing a ∼10 K sky. It is important to reproduce the observing condition in the laboratory for reliable characterization of polarimeters before deployment. In this paper, we present the design and principle of the system and demonstrate its use with a coherent-type polarimeter used for an actual CMB polarization experiment. This technique can also be applied to incoherent-type polarimeters and it is very promising for the next-generation CMB polarization experiments.
Measuring distance ratios with CMB-galaxy lensing cross-correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Sudeep; Spergel, David N.
2009-02-01
We propose a method for cosmographic measurements by combining gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with cosmic shear surveys. We cross-correlate the galaxy counts in the lens plane with two different source planes: the CMB at z˜1100 and galaxies at an intermediate redshift. The ratio of the galaxy count/CMB lensing cross-correlation to the galaxy count/galaxy lensing cross-correlation is shown to be a purely geometric quantity, depending only on the distribution function of the source galaxies. By combining Planck, the Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, the ratio can be measured to ˜4% accuracy, whereas a future polarization-based experiment like CMBPOL can make a more precise (˜1%) measurement. For cosmological models where the curvature and the equation of state parameter are allowed to vary, the direction of degeneracy defined by the measurement of this ratio is different from that traced out by baryon acoustic oscillation measurements. Combining this method with the stacked cluster mass reconstruction cosmography technique as proposed by Hu, Holz, and Vale (2007), the uncertainty in the ratio can be further reduced, improving the constraints on cosmological parameters. We also study the implications of the lensing-ratio measurement for early dark energy models, in the context of the parametrization proposed by Doran and Robbers (2006). For models which are degenerate with respect to the CMB, we find both baryon acoustic oscillation and lensing-ratio measurements to be insensitive to the early component of the dark energy density.
Measuring distance ratios with CMB-galaxy lensing cross-correlations
Das, Sudeep; Spergel, David N.
2009-02-15
We propose a method for cosmographic measurements by combining gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with cosmic shear surveys. We cross-correlate the galaxy counts in the lens plane with two different source planes: the CMB at z{approx}1100 and galaxies at an intermediate redshift. The ratio of the galaxy count/CMB lensing cross-correlation to the galaxy count/galaxy lensing cross-correlation is shown to be a purely geometric quantity, depending only on the distribution function of the source galaxies. By combining Planck, the Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, the ratio can be measured to {approx}4% accuracy, whereas a future polarization-based experiment like CMBPOL can make a more precise ({approx}1%) measurement. For cosmological models where the curvature and the equation of state parameter are allowed to vary, the direction of degeneracy defined by the measurement of this ratio is different from that traced out by baryon acoustic oscillation measurements. Combining this method with the stacked cluster mass reconstruction cosmography technique as proposed by Hu, Holz, and Vale (2007), the uncertainty in the ratio can be further reduced, improving the constraints on cosmological parameters. We also study the implications of the lensing-ratio measurement for early dark energy models, in the context of the parametrization proposed by Doran and Robbers (2006). For models which are degenerate with respect to the CMB, we find both baryon acoustic oscillation and lensing-ratio measurements to be insensitive to the early component of the dark energy density.
Contact-Free Mapping of Electronic Transport Phenomena of Polar Domains in SrMnO3 Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaab, J.; Krug, I. P.; Doǧanay, H.; Hackl, J.; Gottlob, D. M.; Khan, M. I.; Nemšák, S.; Maurel, L.; Langenberg, E.; Algarabel, P. A.; Pardo, J. A.; Schneider, C. M.; Meier, D.
2016-05-01
High-resolution mapping of electronic transport phenomena plays an increasingly important role for the characterization of ferroic domains and their functionality. At present, spatially resolved electronic transport data are commonly gained from local two-point measurements, collected in line-by-line scans with a conducting nanosized probe. Here, we introduce an innovative experimental approach based on low-energy electron microscopy. As a model case, we study polar domains of varying conductance in strained SrMnO3 . By a direct comparison with conductive atomic force and electrostatic force microscopy, we reveal that the applied low-energy electron-microscopy experiment can be considered as an inverse I (V ) measurement, providing access to the local electronic conductance with nanoscale resolution and short data-acquisition times in the order of 10 - 102 ms . Low-energy electrons thus hold yet unexplored application opportunities as a minimal-invasive probe for local electronic transport phenomena, opening a promising route towards spatially resolved, high-throughput sampling at the nanoscale.
A Blackbody Microwave Source for CMB Polarimeter Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindman, Alec
2014-03-01
I present an evolved design for a thermally isolated blackbody source operating at 90 GHz and 120 GHz, frequencies of interest to Cosmic Microwave Background measurements. The NASA GSFC Experimental Cosmology lab is developing transition edge sensor bolometers for the CLASS and PIPER missions to measure CMB polarization; the source described here is for use in an existing 150 mK test package to quantify the detectors' properties. The design is optimized to minimize heat loading into the ADR and cryocoolers by employing a Kevlar kinematic suspension and additional thermal breaks. The blackbody light is coupled to a detector by means of an electroformed waveguide, which is mated to the source by an ultraprecise ring-centered flange design; this precision is critical to maintain the vacuum gap between the heated source and the cold waveguide, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the allowable misalignment of the standard military-spec microwave flange design. The source will provide at least 50% better thermal isolation than the existing 40 GHz source, as well as a smaller thermal time constant to enable faster measurement cycles. Special thanks to Dr. David Chuss at GSFC, and the Society of Physics Students.
Cosmic microwave background polarization in non-commutative space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tizchang, S.; Batebi, S.; Haghighat, M.; Mohammadi, R.
2016-09-01
In the standard model of cosmology (SMC) the B-mode polarization of the CMB can be explained by the gravitational effects in the inflation epoch. However, this is not the only way to explain the B-mode polarization for the CMB. It can be shown that the Compton scattering in the presence of a background, besides generating a circularly polarized microwave, can lead to a B-mode polarization for the CMB. Here we consider the non-commutative (NC) space-time as a background to explore the CMB polarization at the last scattering surface. We obtain the B-mode spectrum of the CMB radiation by scalar perturbation of metric via a correction on the Compton scattering in NC-space-time in terms of the circular polarization power spectrum and the non-commutative energy scale. It can be shown that even for the NC scale as large as 20 TeV the NC-effects on the CMB polarization and the r parameter are significant. We show that the V-mode power spectrum can be obtained in terms of linearly polarized power spectrum in the range of micro- to nano-kelvin squared for the NC scale of about 1-20 TeV, respectively.
Mapping matter jointly with CMB lensing and Large Scale Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huffenberger, Kevin; Maldonado, Felipe; Rotti, Aditya
2015-04-01
In the near future, Stage III and Stage IV Cosmic Microwave Background experiments will measure to high precision the lensing distortions that trace matter fluctuations in the universe. On a similar timescale, WFIRST, EUCLID, DESI, LSST, and other surveys will provide galaxy redshift information, imaging, and cosmic shear data over large regions of the sky. Taking a holistic, Bayesian approach to combine datasets, we seek to understand keenly the statistical properties of joint estimates of the matter distribution and its correlations, including their non-Gaussian likelihoods.
Mapping matter jointly with CMB lensing and Large Scale Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huffenberger, Kevin; Rotti, Aditya; Maldonado, Felipe
2016-01-01
In the near future, Stage III and Stage IV Cosmic Microwave Background experiments will measure to high precision the lensing distortions that trace matter fluctuations in the universe. On a similar timescale DES, HSC, WFIRST, EUCLID, DESI, LSST, and other surveys will provide galaxy redshift information, imaging, and cosmic shear data over large regions of the sky. Taking a holistic, Bayesian approach to combine datasets, we seek to understand the statistical properties of joint estimates of the matter distribution and its correlations, including their non-Gaussian likelihoods.
Constraining gravity at the largest scales through CMB lensing and galaxy velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullen, Anthony R.; Alam, Shadab; He, Siyu; Ho, Shirley
2016-08-01
We demonstrate a new method to constrain gravity on the largest cosmological scales by combining measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing and the galaxy velocity field. EG is a statistic, constructed from a gravitational lensing tracer and a measure of velocities such as redshift-space distortions (RSD), that can discriminate between gravity models while being independent of clustering bias and σ8. While traditionally, the lensing field for EG has been probed through galaxy lensing, CMB lensing has been proposed as a more robust tracer of the lensing field for EG at higher redshifts while avoiding intrinsic alignments. We perform the largest-scale measurement of EG ever, up to 150 Mpc h-1, by cross-correlating the Planck CMB lensing map with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) CMASS galaxy sample and combining this with our measurement of the CMASS auto-power spectrum and the RSD parameter β. We report EG(z = 0.57) = 0.243 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.013 (sys), a measurement in tension with the general relativity (GR) prediction at a level of 2.6σ. Note that our EG measurement deviates from GR only at scales greater than 80 Mpc h-1, scales which have not been probed by previous EG tests. Upcoming surveys, which will provide an order-of-magnitude reduction in statistical errors, can significantly constrain alternative gravity models when combined with better control of systematics.
CMB non-gaussianity from vector fields
Peloso, Marco
2014-01-01
The Planck satellite has recently measured the CMB temperature anisotropies with unprecedented accuracy, and it has provided strong bounds on primordial non-gaussianity. Such bounds constrain models of inflation, and mechanisms that produce the primordial perturbations. We discuss the non-gaussian signatures from the interactions of the inflation φ with spin-1 fields. We study the two different cases in which the inflaton is (i) a pseudo-scalar field with a (φ)/(fa) F·F interaction with a vector field, and (ii) a scalar field with a f (φ)F² interaction. In the first case we obtain the strong limit f{sub a} ≥ 10¹⁶GeV on the decay constant. In the second case, specific choices of the function f (φ) can lead to a non-gaussianity with a characteristic shape not encountered in standard models of scalar field inflation, and which has also been constrained by Planck.
Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation
Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Kinney, William H.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. E-mail: gnedin@fnal.edu
2013-05-01
We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.
Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it
2015-01-01
Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.
CMB temperature trispectrum of cosmic strings
Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki
2010-03-15
We provide an analytical expression for the trispectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies induced by cosmic strings. Our result is derived for the small angular scales under the assumption that the temperature anisotropy is induced by the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. The trispectrum is predicted to decay with a noninteger power-law exponent l{sup -{rho}}with 6<{rho}<7, depending on the string microstructure, and thus on the string model. For Nambu-Goto strings, this exponent is related to the string mean square velocity and the loop distribution function. We then explore two classes of wave number configuration in Fourier space, the kite and trapezium quadrilaterals. The trispectrum can be of any sign and appears to be strongly enhanced for all squeezed quadrilaterals.
CMB temperature trispectrum of cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindmarsh, Mark; Ringeval, Christophe; Suyama, Teruaki
2010-03-01
We provide an analytical expression for the trispectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies induced by cosmic strings. Our result is derived for the small angular scales under the assumption that the temperature anisotropy is induced by the Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins effect. The trispectrum is predicted to decay with a noninteger power-law exponent ℓ-ρ with 6<ρ<7, depending on the string microstructure, and thus on the string model. For Nambu-Goto strings, this exponent is related to the string mean square velocity and the loop distribution function. We then explore two classes of wave number configuration in Fourier space, the kite and trapezium quadrilaterals. The trispectrum can be of any sign and appears to be strongly enhanced for all squeezed quadrilaterals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, C.; Joiner, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dunlap, L.
2014-12-01
Global retrievals of formaldehyde (HCHO) from satellite UV instruments such as the Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and MetOp/Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) have provided important constraints on the emissions of biogenic isoprene. Here we present the first results of HCHO retrievals from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). We apply an innovative principal component analysis (PCA) retrieval algorithm to extract a set of principal components (PCs) from OMPS-measured radiances between 325.0 and 356.5 nm over presumably clean oceanic regions. Since the background loading of HCHO due to methane oxidation is very small over these areas, the leading PCs (that explain the most variation in radiances) represent spectral features associated with various physical processes (e.g., ozone absorption, rotational Raman scattering) and measurement details (e.g., wavelength shift) other than those related to HCHO absorption. The vertical column density of HCHO is then derived by fitting the PCs and HCHO Jacobians calculated with a radiative transfer model to OMPS-measured radiance spectra. Our retrievals highlight the diverse nature of HCHO sources. Summertime maxima in HCHO detected over the eastern U.S. are likely due to biogenic emissions, while seasonal hot spots observed over West and Central Africa and Russia are mainly attributed to biomass burning emissions. Efforts have also been made to distinguish between anthropogenic and biogenic precursors of HCHO. Finally, the OMPS PCA HCHO retrievals are compared to OMI HCHO data produced with different Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithms, in an effort to understand and reconcile the differences between various satellite HCHO datasets.
SELF-CALIBRATION OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION EXPERIMENTS
Keating, Brian G.; Yadav, Amit P. S.; Shimon, Meir
2013-01-10
Precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, especially experiments seeking to detect the odd-parity 'B-modes', have far-reaching implications for cosmology. To detect the B-modes generated during inflation, the flux response and polarization angle of these experiments must be calibrated to exquisite precision. While suitable flux calibration sources abound, polarization angle calibrators are deficient in many respects. Man-made polarized sources are often not located in the antenna's far-field, have spectral properties that are radically different from the CMB's, are cumbersome to implement, and may be inherently unstable over the (long) duration these searches require to detect the faint signature of the inflationary epoch. Astrophysical sources suffer from time, frequency, and spatial variability, are not visible from all CMB observatories, and none are understood with sufficient accuracy to calibrate future CMB polarimeters seeking to probe inflationary energy scales of 10{sup 15} GeV. Both man-made and astrophysical sources require dedicated observations which detract from the amount of integration time usable for detection of the inflationary B-modes. CMB TB and EB modes, expected to identically vanish in the standard cosmological model, can be used to calibrate CMB polarimeters. By enforcing the observed EB and TB power spectra to be consistent with zero, CMB polarimeters can be calibrated to levels not possible with man-made or astrophysical sources. All of this can be accomplished for any polarimeter without any loss of observing time using a calibration source which is spectrally identical to the CMB B-modes.
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) First Year Observations: TE Polarization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kogut, A.; Spergel, D. N.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters at frequencies 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz. We detect correlations between the temperature and polarization maps significant at more than 10 standard deviations. The correlations are inconsistent with instrument noise and are significantly larger than the upper limits established for potential systematic errors. The correlations are present in all WAMP frequency bands with similar amplitude from 23 to 94 GHz, and are consistent with a superposition of a CMB signal with a weak foreground. The fitted CMB component is robust against different data combinations and fitting techniques. On small angular scales (theta less than 5 deg), the WMAP data show the temperature-polarization correlation expected from adiabatic perturbations in the temperature power spectrum. The data for l greater than 20 agree well with the signal predicted solely from the temperature power spectra, with no additional free parameters. We detect excess power on large angular scales (theta greater than 10 deg) compared to predictions based on the temperature power spectra alone. The excess power is well described by reionization at redshift 11 is less than z(sub r) is less than 30 at 95% confidence, depending on the ionization history. A model-independent fit to reionization optical depth yields results consistent with the best-fit ACDM model, with best fit value t = 0.17 +/- 0.04 at 68% confidence, including systematic and foreground uncertainties. This value is larger than expected given the detection of a Gunn-Peterson trough in the absorption spectra of distant quasars, and implies that the universe has a complex ionization history: WMAP has detected the signal from an early epoch of reionization.
WMAP 7 year constraints on CPT violation from large angle CMB anisotropies
Gruppuso, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Rosa, A. De; Finelli, F.; Paci, F. E-mail: paolo.natoli@gmail.com E-mail: derosa@iasfbo.inaf.it E-mail: fpaci@apc.univ-paris7.fr
2012-02-01
We constrain the rotation angle α of the linear polarization of CMB photons using the large angular scale (up to ∼ 4°) signal in WMAP 7 year data. At these scales, the CMB polarization pattern probes mostly the reionization era. A genuine rotation may be interpreted as cosmological birefringence, which is a well known tracer of new physics, through the breakdown of fundamental symmetries. Our analysis provides α = −1.6°±1.7° (3.4°) at 68% (95%) C.L. for the multipoles range Δl = 2−47 not including an instrumental systematic uncertainty that the WMAP team estimates at ±1.5°. This improves the bound obtained by WMAP team (Komatsu et al., 2010). Moreover we show, for the first time at low multipoles, the angular power spectrum α{sub l} in search of a possible scale dependence of the birefringence effect. Our findings are compatible with no detection at all angular scales probed here. We finally forecast the capabilities of Planck in tightening the present constraints.
Future of Colombo Airport (CMB) as an Airline Hub
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jayalath, J. T. D.; Bandara, J. M. S. J.
2001-01-01
Aviation throughout the world has seen profound changes within the last two decades. Today more and more airports are looking for hub operations. However, as the success of hub operation would depend on a number of parameters such as geographic location, route network, facilities available, passengers' acceptance etc., not all airports would be able to operate as successful hubs. This paper investigates the possibility for (he Bandaranayake international airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka (CMB) to emerge as a hub airport in the South Asian region. It is found that CMB is situated in a geographically advantageous position in the region with respect to the airline route network. Comparison of travel distances between CMB and prominent O-D pairs and evaluation of airline schedules at relevant established hub airports indicates that CMB could operate as a directional hub serving the South Asian market if the number of destinations with daily flights could be increased.
Large angular scale CMB anisotropy from an excited initial mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sojasi, A.; Mohsenzadeh, M.; Yusofi, E.
2016-07-01
According to inflationary cosmology, the CMB anisotropy gives an opportunity to test predictions of new physics hypotheses. The initial state of quantum fluctuations is one of the important options at high energy scale, as it can affect observables such as the CMB power spectrum. In this study a quasi-de Sitter inflationary background with approximate de Sitter mode function built over the Bunch-Davies mode is applied to investigate the scale-dependency of the CMB anisotropy. The recent Planck constraint on spectral index motivated us to examine the effect of a new excited mode function (instead of pure de Sitter mode) on the CMB anisotropy at large angular scales. In so doing, it is found that the angular scale-invariance in the CMB temperature fluctuations is broken and in the limit ℓ < 200 a tiny deviation appears. Also, it is shown that the power spectrum of CMB anisotropy is dependent on a free parameter with mass dimension H << M * < M p and on the slow-roll parameter ɛ. Supported by the Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran
SPIDER: a balloon-borne large-scale CMB polarimeter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crill, B. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Battistelli, E. S.; Benton, S.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Brevik, J.; Bryan, S.; Contaldi, C. R.; Doré, O.; Farhang, M.; Fissel, L.; Golwala, S. R.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Lange, A. E.; Lawrie, C.; MacTavish, C. J.; Martin, T. G.; Mason, P.; Montroy, T. E.; Netterfield, C. B.; Pascale, E.; Riley, D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Turner, A.; Viero, M.; Wiebe, D.
2008-07-01
Spider is a balloon-borne experiment that will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background over a large fraction of a sky at ~ 1° resolution. Six monochromatic refracting millimeter-wave telescopes with large arrays of antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting bolometers will provide system sensitivities of 4.2 and 3.1 μKcmb√s at 100 and 150 GHz, respectively. A rotating half-wave plate will modulate the polarization sensitivity of each telescope, controlling systematics. Bolometer arrays operating at 225 GHz and 275 GHz will allow removal of polarized galactic foregrounds. In a 2-6 day first flight from Alice Springs, Australia in 2010, Spider will map 50% of the sky to a depth necessary to improve our knowledge of the reionization optical depth by a large factor.
Influence of Planck foreground masks in the large angular scale quadrant CMB asymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, L.; Cabella, P.; Villela, T.; Zhao, W.
2015-12-01
Context. The measured cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular distribution shows high consistency with the ΛCDM model, which predicts cosmological isotropy as one of its fundamental characteristics. However, isotropy violations were reported in CMB temperature maps of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and confirmed by Planck satellite data. Aims: Our purpose is to investigate the influence of different sky cuts (masks) employed in the analysis of CMB angular distribution, in particular in the excess of power in the southeastern quadrant (SEQ) and the lack of power in the northeastern quadrant (NEQ), found in both WMAP and Planck data. Methods: We compared the two-point correlation function (TPCF) computed for each quadrant of the CMB foreground-cleaned temperature maps to 1000 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations generated assuming the ΛCDM best-fit power spectrum using four different masks, from the least to the most severe one: mask-rulerminimal, UT78, U73, and U66. In addition to the quadrants and for a better understanding of these anomalies, we computed the TPCF using the mask-rulerminimal for circular regions in the map where the excess and lack of power are present. We also compared, for completeness, the effect of Galactic cuts (+/-10, 20, 25, and 30 degrees above/below the Galactic plane) in the TPCF calculations as compared to the MC simulations. Results: We found consistent results for three masks, namely mask-rulerminimal, U73, and U66. The results indicate that the excess of power in the SEQ tends to vanish as the portion of the sky covered by the mask increases and the lack of power in the NEQ remains virtually unchanged. A different result arises for the newly released UT78 Planck mask. When this mask is applied, the NEQ is no longer anomalous. On the other hand, the excess of power in the SEQ becomes the most significant one among the masks. Nevertheless, the asymmetry between the SEQ and NEQ is independent of the mask and it disagrees
Symmetry of the CMB sky as a new test of its statistical isotropy. Non cosmological octupole?
Naselsky, P.; Hansen, M.; Kim, J. E-mail: kirstejn@nbi.dk
2011-09-01
In this article we propose a novel test for statistical anisotropy of the CMB ΔT( n-circumflex = (θ,φ)). The test is based on the fact, that the Galactic foregrounds have a remarkably strong symmetry with respect to their antipodal points with respect to the Galactic plane, while the cosmological signal should not be symmetric or asymmetric under these transitions. We have applied the test for the octupole component of the WMAP ILC 7 map, by looking at a{sub 3,1} and a{sub 3,3}, and their ratio to a{sub 3,2} both for real and imaginary values. We find abnormal symmetry of the octupole component at the level of 0.58%, compared to Monte Carlo simulations. By using the analysis of the phases of the octupole we found remarkably strong cross-correlations between the phases of the kinematic dipole and the ILC 7 octupole, in full agreement with previous results. We further test the multipole range 2 < l < 100, by investigating the ratio between the l+m = even and l+m = odd parts of power spectra. We compare the results to simulations of a Gaussian random sky, and find significant departure from the statistically isotropic and homogeneous case, for a very broad range of multipoles. We found that for the most prominent peaks of our estimator, the phases of the corresponding harmonics are coherent with phases of the octupole. We believe, our test would be very useful for detections of various types of residuals of the foreground and systematic effects at a very broad range of multipoles 2 ≤ l ≤ 1500−3000 for the forthcoming PLANCK CMB map, before any conclusions about primordial non-Gaussianity and statistical anisotropy of the CMB.
Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization and Inflation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuss, David T.
2011-01-01
Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) offer a means to explore the universe at a very early epoch. Specifically, if the universe went through a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation as current data suggest, gravitational waves from this period would polarize the CMB in a specific pattern. At GSFC, we are currently working towards two experiments that work in concert to measure this polarization pattern in search of evidence for inflation. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization at frequencies between 40 and 150 GHz from the Atacama Desert in Chile. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment that will make similar measurements at frequencies between 200 and 600 GHz.
Mao, Xianglong; Li, Hongtao; Han, Yanjun; Luo, Yi
2015-02-23
The freeform optical system plays a key role in illumination engineering, and several methods have been reported to manage the design of such system. In this paper, an approach to generate the polar-grids based flux transportation mapping for an arbitrarily-shaped target is proposed based on the conventional variable separation method. The source emitting grid is divided along the azimuth angle and the zenith angle respectively under the spherical coordinate system. Then, the target grid is achieved by solving the flux integral equations in polar coordinates using separation of variables method. When establishing the target grid along the polar radius, a strategy based on uniformly scaling down the external contour of the target is introduced. According to the mapping, a smooth freeform surface is then generated using the geometric construction method according to Snell's law. Finally, an iterative feedback process is adopted to compensate the deterioration of the target distribution caused by surface construction errors and the extension of a real source. Based on this method, a series of freeform lenses are designed for a 1 × 1 mm(2) LED source to generate uniform, Gaussian and multiple-rings illumination distributions within different target regions. High-performance optical systems with the light utilization efficiency η over 0.8 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the simulated illumination distribution less than 0.1 are obtained simultaneously for all the cases. PMID:25836468
Angular-planar CMB power spectrum
Pereira, Thiago S.; Abramo, L. Raul
2009-09-15
Gaussianity and statistical isotropy of the Universe are modern cosmology's minimal set of hypotheses. In this work we introduce a new statistical test to detect observational deviations from this minimal set. By defining the temperature correlation function over the whole celestial sphere, we are able to independently quantify both angular and planar dependence (modulations) of the CMB temperature power spectrum over different slices of this sphere. Given that planar dependence leads to further modulations of the usual angular power spectrum C{sub l}, this test can potentially reveal richer structures in the morphology of the primordial temperature field. We have also constructed an unbiased estimator for this angular-planar power spectrum which naturally generalizes the estimator for the usual C{sub l}'s. With the help of a chi-square analysis, we have used this estimator to search for observational deviations of statistical isotropy in WMAP's 5 year release data set (ILC5), where we found only slight anomalies on the angular scales l=7 and l=8. Since this angular-planar statistic is model-independent, it is ideal to employ in searches of statistical anisotropy (e.g., contaminations from the galactic plane) and to characterize non-Gaussianities.
CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy
2015-10-01
We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius rb=50 h-1 Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ DA/bar DA|lesssim 10-4. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.
CMB-lensing beyond the Born approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marozzi, Giovanni; Fanizza, Giuseppe; Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth
2016-09-01
We investigate the weak lensing corrections to the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies considering effects beyond the Born approximation. To this aim, we use the small deflection angle approximation, to connect the lensed and unlensed power spectra, via expressions for the deflection angles up to third order in the gravitational potential. While the small deflection angle approximation has the drawback to be reliable only for multipoles l lesssim 2500, it allows us to consistently take into account the non-Gaussian nature of cosmological perturbation theory beyond the linear level. The contribution to the lensed temperature power spectrum coming from the non-Gaussian nature of the deflection angle at higher order is a new effect which has not been taken into account in the literature so far. It turns out to be the leading contribution among the post-Born lensing corrections. On the other hand, the effect is smaller than corrections coming from non-linearities in the matter power spectrum, and its imprint on CMB lensing is too small to be seen in present experiments.
The CMB bispectrum in the squeezed limit
Creminelli, Paolo; Pitrou, Cyril; Vernizzi, Filippo E-mail: cyril.pitrou@gmail.com
2011-11-01
The CMB bispectrum generated by second-order effects at recombination can be calculated analytically when one of the three modes has a wavelength much longer than the other two and is outside the horizon at recombination. This was pointed out in [1] and here we correct their results. We derive a simple formula for the bispectrum, f{sub NL}{sup loc} = −(1/6+cos 2θ)⋅(1−1/2⋅dln (l{sub S}{sup 2}C{sub S})/dln l{sub S}), where C{sub S} is the short scale spectrum and θ the relative orientation between the long and the short modes. This formula is exact and takes into account all effects at recombination, including recombination-lensing, but neglects all late-time effects such as ISW-lensing. The induced bispectrum in the squeezed limit is small and will negligibly contaminate the Planck search for a local primordial signal: this will be biased only by f{sub NL}{sup loc} ≈ −0.4. The above analytic formula includes the primordial non-Gaussianity of any single-field model. It also represents a consistency check for second-order Boltzmann codes: we find substantial agreement with the current version of the CMBquick code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, Dominik J.; Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Starkman, Glenn D.
2016-09-01
Several unexpected features have been observed in the microwave sky at large angular scales, both by WMAP and by Planck. Among those features is a lack of both variance and correlation on the largest angular scales, alignment of the lowest multipole moments with one another and with the motion and geometry of the solar system, a hemispherical power asymmetry or dipolar power modulation, a preference for odd parity modes and an unexpectedly large cold spot in the Southern hemisphere. The individual p-values of the significance of these features are in the per mille to per cent level, when compared to the expectations of the best-fit inflationary ΛCDM model. Some pairs of those features are demonstrably uncorrelated, increasing their combined statistical significance and indicating a significant detection of CMB features at angular scales larger than a few degrees on top of the standard model. Despite numerous detailed investigations, we still lack a clear understanding of these large-scale features, which seem to imply a violation of statistical isotropy and scale invariance of inflationary perturbations. In this contribution we present a critical analysis of our current understanding and discuss several ideas of how to make further progress.
Bolejko, Krzysztof
2011-02-01
The standard analysis of the CMB data assumes that the distance to the last scattering surface can be calculated using the distance-redshift relation as in the Friedmann model. However, in the inhomogeneous universe, even if (δρ) = 0, the distance relation is not the same as in the unperturbed universe. This can be of serious consequences as a change of distance affects the mapping of CMB temperature fluctuations into the angular power spectrum C{sub l}. In addition, if the change of distance is relatively uniform no new temperature fluctuations are generated. It is therefore a different effect than the lensing or ISW effects which introduce additional CMB anisotropies. This paper shows that the accuracy of the CMB analysis can be impaired by the accuracy of calculation of the distance within the cosmological models. Since this effect has not been fully explored before, to test how the inhomogeneities affect the distance-redshift relation, several methods are examined: the Dyer-Roeder relation, lensing approximation, and non-linear Swiss-Cheese model. In all cases, the distance to the last scattering surface is different than when homogeneity is assumed. The difference can be as low as 1% and as high as 80%. An usual change of the distance is around 20–30%. Since the distance to the last scattering surface is set by the position of the CMB peaks, in order to have a good fit, the distance needs to be adjusted. After correcting the distance, the cosmological parameters change. Therefore, a not properly estimated distance to the last scattering surface can be a major source of systematics. This paper shows that if inhomogeneities are taken into account when calculating the distance then models with positive spatial curvature and with Ω{sub Λ} ∼ 0.8−0.9 are preferred.
Can we detect hot/cold spots in the CMB with Minkowski Functionals?
Lim, Eugene A.; Simon, Dennis E-mail: dsimon@astro.uni-wuerzburg.de
2012-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the utility of Minkowski Functionals as a probe of cold/hot disk-like structures in the CMB. In order to construct an accurate estimator, we resolve a long-standing issue with the use of Minkowski Functionals as probes of the CMB sky — namely that of systematic differences (''residuals'') when numerical and analytical MF are compared. We show that such residuals are in fact by-products of binning, whereas it was originally attributed to pixelation or masking effects. We then derive a map-independent estimator that encodes the effects of binning, applicable to beyond our present work. Using this residual-free estimator, we show that small disk-like effects (as claimed by Vielva et al. [1,2]) can be detected only when a large sample of such maps are averaged over. In other words, our estimator is noise-dominated for small disk sizes at WMAP resolution. To confirm our suspicion, we apply our estimator to the WMAP7 data to obtain a null result.
Can residuals of the solar system foreground explain low multipole anomalies of the CMB?
Hansen, M.; Kim, J.; Frejsel, A.M.; Ramazanov, S.; Naselsky, P.; Zhao, W.; Burigana, C. E-mail: jkim@nbi.dk E-mail: sabir_ra@nbi.dk E-mail: wzhao7@nbi.ku.dk
2012-10-01
The low multipole anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background has received much attention during the last few years. It is still not ascertained whether these anomalies are indeed primordial or the result of systematics or foregrounds. An example of a foreground, which could generate some non-Gaussian and statistically anisotropic features at low multipole range, is the very symmetric Kuiper Belt in the outer solar system. In this paper, expanding upon the methods presented in [1], we investigate the contributions from the Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) to the WMAP ILC 7 map, whereby we can minimize the contrast in power between even and odd multipoles in the CMB, discussed in [2,3]. We submit our KBO de-correlated CMB signal to several tests, to analyze its validity, and find that incorporation of the KBO emission can decrease the quadrupole-octupole alignment and parity asymmetry problems, provided that the KBO signals has a non-cosmological dipole modulation, associated with the statistical anisotropy of the ILC 7 map. Additionally, we show that the amplitude of the dipole modulation, within a 2σ interval, is in agreement with the corresponding amplitudes, discussed in [4].
Planck 2015 results. VIII. High Frequency Instrument data processing: Calibration and maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-08-01
This paper describes the processing applied to the cleaned, time-ordered information obtained from the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) with the aim of producing photometrically calibrated maps in temperature and (for the first time) in polarization. The data from the entire 2.5-year HFI mission include almost five full-sky surveys. HFI observes the sky over a broad range of frequencies, from 100 to 857 GHz. To obtain the best accuracy on the calibration over such a large range, two different photometric calibration schemes have been used. The 545 and 857 GHz data are calibrated using models of planetary atmospheric emission. The lower frequencies (from 100 to 353 GHz) are calibrated using the time-variable cosmological microwave background dipole, which we call the orbital dipole. This source of calibration only depends on the satellite velocity with respect to the solar system. Using a CMB temperature of TCMB = 2.7255 ± 0.0006 K, it permits an independent measurement of the amplitude of the CMB solar dipole (3364.3 ± 1.5 μK), which is approximatively 1σ higher than the WMAP measurement with a direction that is consistent between the two experiments. We describe the pipeline used to produce the maps ofintensity and linear polarization from the HFI timelines, and the scheme used to set the zero level of the maps a posteriori. We also summarize the noise characteristics of the HFI maps in the 2015 Planck data release and present some null tests to assess their quality. Finally, we discuss the major systematic effects and in particular the leakage induced by flux mismatch between the detectors that leads to spurious polarization signal.
MADmap: A Massively Parallel Maximum-Likelihood Cosmic Microwave Background Map-Maker
Cantalupo, Christopher; Borrill, Julian; Jaffe, Andrew; Kisner, Theodore; Stompor, Radoslaw
2009-06-09
MADmap is a software application used to produce maximum-likelihood images of the sky from time-ordered data which include correlated noise, such as those gathered by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. It works efficiently on platforms ranging from small workstations to the most massively parallel supercomputers. Map-making is a critical step in the analysis of all CMB data sets, and the maximum-likelihood approach is the most accurate and widely applicable algorithm; however, it is a computationally challenging task. This challenge will only increase with the next generation of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite CMB polarization experiments. The faintness of the B-mode signal that these experiments seek to measure requires them to gather enormous data sets. MADmap is already being run on up to O(1011) time samples, O(108) pixels and O(104) cores, with ongoing work to scale to the next generation of data sets and supercomputers. We describe MADmap's algorithm based around a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver, fast Fourier transforms and sparse matrix operations. We highlight MADmap's ability to address problems typically encountered in the analysis of realistic CMB data sets and describe its application to simulations of the Planck and EBEX experiments. The massively parallel and distributed implementation is detailed and scaling complexities are given for the resources required. MADmap is capable of analysing the largest data sets now being collected on computing resources currently available, and we argue that, given Moore's Law, MADmap will be capable of reducing the most massive projected data sets.
MADmap: A MASSIVELY PARALLEL MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND MAP-MAKER
Cantalupo, C. M.; Borrill, J. D.; Kisner, T. S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Stompor, R. E-mail: jdborrill@lbl.gov E-mail: a.jaffe@imperial.ac.uk
2010-03-01
MADmap is a software application used to produce maximum likelihood images of the sky from time-ordered data which include correlated noise, such as those gathered by cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. It works efficiently on platforms ranging from small workstations to the most massively parallel supercomputers. Map-making is a critical step in the analysis of all CMB data sets, and the maximum likelihood approach is the most accurate and widely applicable algorithm; however, it is a computationally challenging task. This challenge will only increase with the next generation of ground-based, balloon-borne, and satellite CMB polarization experiments. The faintness of the B-mode signal that these experiments seek to measure requires them to gather enormous data sets. MADmap is already being run on up to O(10{sup 11}) time samples, O(10{sup 8}) pixels, and O(10{sup 4}) cores, with ongoing work to scale to the next generation of data sets and supercomputers. We describe MADmap's algorithm based around a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver, fast Fourier transforms, and sparse matrix operations. We highlight MADmap's ability to address problems typically encountered in the analysis of realistic CMB data sets and describe its application to simulations of the Planck and EBEX experiments. The massively parallel and distributed implementation is detailed and scaling complexities are given for the resources required. MADmap is capable of analyzing the largest data sets now being collected on computing resources currently available, and we argue that, given Moore's Law, MADmap will be capable of reducing the most massive projected data sets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levrier, François
2015-08-01
The Planck satellite has mapped the polarized microwave sky (from 30 GHz to 353 GHz) with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution. This wealth of data sheds new light on the polarization of Galactic foregrounds, especially that of thermal emission from dust grains, which dominates the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at the high end of the Planck frequency range. On behalf of the Planck Collaboration, I will present a statistical analysis of this polarized emission from nearby molecular clouds, focusing first on the evolution of the maximum polarization fraction observed as a function of column density, and on the anti-correlation between the polarization fraction and the local dispersion of polarization angles. To interpret this data, I will present numerical simulations of anisotropic MHD turbulence and show the essential role played by the topology of the interstellar magnetic field, in particular its large-scale component. To extend the analysis beyond the polarization fraction and angle, I will present the one-point and two-point statistics of Stokes Q and U, showing in particular how changes in magnetic field direction lead to multimodality in the (Q,U) distributions. Finally, using the results of a numerical experiment with fractional Brownian motion (fBm) fields, I will exhibit the observables best suited to retrieve the spectral index of the turbulent component of the interstellar magnetic field.
Ramos, Elsa P. R. G.; Da Silva, Antonio J. C.; Liu, Guo-Chin
2012-09-20
We present light-cone-integrated simulations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization signal induced by a single scattering in the direction of clusters of galaxies and filaments. We characterize the statistical properties of the induced polarization signals from the presence of the CMB quadrupole component (pqiCMB) and as the result of the transverse motion of ionized gas clouds with respect to the CMB rest frame (p{beta}{sup 2}{sub t}SZ). From adiabatic N-body/hydrodynamic simulations, we generated 28 random sky patches integrated along the light cone, each with about 0.86 deg{sup 2} and angular resolution of 6''. Our simulation method involves a box-stacking scheme that allows to reconstruct the CMB quadrupole component and the gas physical properties along the line of sight. We find that the linear polarization degree in the logarithmic scale of both effects follows approximately a Gaussian distribution and the mean total signal is about 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -10} for the pqiCMB and p{beta}{sup 2}{sub t}SZ effects, respectively. The polarization angle is consistent with a flat distribution in both cases. From the mean distributions of the polarization degree with redshift, the highest peak is found at z {approx_equal} 1 for the induced CMB quadrupole and at z {approx_equal} 0.5 for the kinematic component. Our results suggest that most of the contribution for the total polarization signal arises from z {approx}< 4 for the pqiCMB and z {approx}< 3 for p{beta}{sup 2}{sub t}SZ. The spectral dependency of both integrated signals is strong, increasing with the frequency, especially in the case of the p{beta}{sup 2}{sub t}SZ signal, which increases by a factor of 100 from 30 GHz to 675 GHz. The maxima values found at the highest frequency are about 3 {mu}K and 13 {mu}K for the pqiCMB and p{beta}{sup 2}{sub t}SZ, respectively. The angular power spectra of these effects peak at large multipoles l > 10{sup 4}, being of the order of 10{sup -5} {mu}K{sup 2
Measurements of the CMB temperature at z=0.89
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muller, Sebastien; Curran, Steve; Beelen, Alexandre; Aalto, Susanne; Combes, Francoise; Guelin, Michel; Black, John Harry; Horellou, Cathy
2011-04-01
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is one of the strongest pillars of the Big Bang theory. Determining the CMB temperature at high redshift has considerable interest to probe the T_CMB-z law and test decaying dark energy models. Our recent ATCA 7 mm spectral line survey toward the z=0.89 molecular absorber located in front of the lensed quasar PKS1830-211 has allowed us to detect a collection of about 30 different molecular species and to derive rotation temperatures of some of them toward one image of the quasar. Averaging these rotation temperatures, we obtain a value of 5.2 pm 0.3 K, consistent with the value T_CMB=5.14 K from standard cosmology. We now propose to strengthen this result by determining the rotation temperatures of a set of molecules toward the second lensed image, projected on the other side of the absorbing galaxy bulge, in a completely independent line of sight. We will therefore obtain a new, independent and presumably more robust measurement of T_CMB at z=0.89. A total of 8 hours of observations is requested in order to conduct the multi-transition analysis in the 7 mm and 3 mm bands.
Parity violation in the CMB trispectrum from the scalar sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraishi, Maresuke
2016-10-01
Under the existence of chiral non-Gaussian sources during inflation, the trispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations can break parity. We examine signatures of the induced trispectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. It is confirmed via a harmonic-space analysis that, as a consequence of parity violation, such a CMB trispectrum has nonvanishing signal in the ℓ1+ℓ2+ℓ3+ℓ4=odd domain, which is prohibited in the concordance cosmology. When the curvature trispectrum is parametrized with Legendre polynomials, the CMB signal due to the Legendre dipolar term is enhanced at the squeezed configurations in ℓ space, yielding a high signal-to-noise ratio. A Fisher matrix computation results in a minimum detectable size of the dipolar coefficient in a cosmic-variance-limited-level temperature survey as d1odd=640 . In an inflationary model where the inflaton field couples to the gauge field via an f (ϕ )(F2+F F ˜) interaction, the curvature trispectrum contains such a parity-odd dipolar term. We find that, in this model, the CMB trispectrum yields a high signal-to-noise ratio compared with the CMB power spectrum or bispectrum. Therefore, the ℓ1+ℓ2+ℓ3+ℓ4=odd signal could be a promising observable of cosmological parity violation.
Primordial Magnetic Field Effects on the CMB and Large-Scale Structure
Yamazaki, Dai G.; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.
2010-01-01
Mmore » agnetic fields are everywhere in nature, and they play an important role in every astronomical environment which involves the formation of plasma and currents. It is natural therefore to suppose that magnetic fields could be present in the turbulent high-temperature environment of the big bang. Such a primordial magnetic field (PMF) would be expected to manifest itself in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies, and also in the formation of large-scale structure. In this paper, we summarize the theoretical framework which we have developed to calculate the PMF power spectrum to high precision. Using this formulation, we summarize calculations of the effects of a PMF which take accurate quantitative account of the time evolution of the cutoff scale. We review the constructed numerical program, which is without approximation, and an improvement over the approach used in a number of previous works for studying the effect of the PMF on the cosmological perturbations. We demonstrate how the PMF is an important cosmological physical process on small scales. We also summarize the current constraints on the PMF amplitude B λ and the power spectral index n B which have been deduced from the available CMB observational data by using our computational framework.« less
Lenses in the forest: cross--correlation of the Lyman-alpha flux with CMB lensing
Vallinotto, Alberto; Das, Sudeep; Spergel, David N.; Viel, Matteo; /Trieste Observ. /INFN, Trieste
2009-03-01
We present a theoretical estimate for a new observable: the cross-correlation between the Lyman-{alpha}-flux fluctuations in quasar (QSO) spectra and the convergence of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as measured along the same line-of-sight. As a first step toward the assessment of its detectability, we estimate the signal-to-noise ratio using linear theory. Although the signal-to-noise is small for a single line-of-sight and peaks at somewhat smaller redshifts than those probed by the Lyman-{alpha} forest, we estimate a total signal-to-noise of 9 for cross-correlating QSO spectra of SDSSIII with Planck and 20 for cross-correlating with a future polarization based CMB experiment. The detection of this effect would be a direct measure of the neutral hydrogen-matter cross-correlation and could provide important information on the growth of structures at large scales in a redshift range which is still poorly probed by observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westbrook, B.; Cukierman, A.; Lee, A.; Suzuki, A.; Raum, C.; Holzapfel, W.
2016-07-01
We present the development of the next generation of multi-chroic sinuous antenna-coupled transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers optimized for precision measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and cosmic foreground. These devices employ a polarization sensitive broadband self-complementary sinuous antenna to feed on-chip band defining filters before delivering the power to load resistors coupled to a TES on a released bolometer island. This technology was originally developed by UC Berkeley and will be deployed by POLARBEAR-2 and SPT-3G in the next year and half. In addition, it is a candidate detector for the LiteBIRD mission which will make all sky CMB and cosmic foreground polarization observations from a satellite platform in the early 2020's. This works focuses on expanding both the bandwidth and band count per pixel of this technology in order to meet the needs of future CMB missions. This work demonstrates that these devices are well suited for observations between 20 and 380 GHz. This proceeding describes the design, fabrication, and the characterization of three new pixel types: a low-frequency triplexing pixel (LFTP) with bands centered on 40, 60, and 90 GHz, a high-frequency triplexing pixel (HFTP) with bands centered on 220, 280, and 350 GHz, and a mid-frequency tetraplexing pixel with bands (MFTP) centered on 90, 150, 220, and 280 GHz. The average fractional bandwidth of these pixels designs was 36.7, 34.5, and 31.4 % respectively. In addition we found that the polarization modulation efficiency of each band was between 1 and 3 % which is consistent with the polarization efficiency of the wire grid used to take the measurement. Finally, we find that the beams have {˜ }1 % ellipticity for each pixel type. The thermal properties of the bolometers where tuned for characterization in our lab so we do not report on G and noise values as they would be unsuitable for modern CMB experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Righi, M.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Sunyaev, R. A.
2008-02-01
Context: Future observations of CMB anisotropies will be able to probe high multipole regions of the angular power spectrum, corresponding to a resolution of a few arcminutes. Dust emission from merging haloes is one of the foregrounds that will affect such very small scales. Aims: We estimate the contribution to CMB angular fluctuations from objects that are bright in the sub-millimeter band due to intense star formation bursts following merging episodes. Methods: We base our approach on the Lacey-Cole merger model and on the Kennicutt relation which connects the star formation rate in galaxies with their infrared luminosity. We set the free parameters of the model in order to not exceed the SCUBA source counts, the Madau plot of star formation rate in the universe and COBE/FIRAS data on the intensity of the sub-millimeter cosmic background radiation. Results: We show that the angular power spectrum arising from the distribution of such star-forming haloes will be one of the most significant foregrounds in the high frequency channels of future CMB experiments, such as PLANCK, ACT and SPT. The correlation term, due to the clustering of multiple haloes at redshift z ~ 2-6, is dominant in the broad range of angular scales 200 ⪉ l ⪉ 3000. Poisson fluctuations due to bright sub-millimeter sources are more important at higher l, but since they are generated from the bright sources, such contribution could be strongly reduced if bright sources are excised from the sky maps. The contribution of the correlation term to the angular power spectrum depends strongly on the redshift evolution of the escape fraction of UV photons and the resulting temperature of the dust. The measurement of this signal will therefore give important information about the sub-millimeter emission and the escape fraction of UV photons from galaxies, in the early stage of their evolution.
Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background: Are These Guys Serious?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kogut, Alan
2007-01-01
The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) could contain the oldest information in the universe, dating from an inflationary epoch just after the Big Bang. Detecting this signal presents an experimental challenge, as it is both faint and hidden behind complicated foregrounds. The rewards, however, are great, as a positive detection would not only establish inflation as a physical reality but also provide a model-independent measurement of the relevant energy scale. I will present the scientific motivation behind measurements of the CMB polarization and discuss how recent experimental progress could lead to a detection in the not-very-distant future.
Late time CMB anisotropies constrain mini-charged particles
Burrage, C.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.; Jaeckel, J. E-mail: joerg.jaeckel@durham.ac.uk E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de
2009-11-01
Observations of the temperature anisotropies induced as light from the CMB passes through large scale structures in the late universe are a sensitive probe of the interactions of photons in such environments. In extensions of the Standard Model which give rise to mini-charged particles, photons propagating through transverse magnetic fields can be lost to pair production of such particles. Such a decrement in the photon flux would occur as photons from the CMB traverse the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters. Therefore late time CMB anisotropies can be used to constrain the properties of mini-charged particles. We outline how this test is constructed, and present new constraints on mini-charged particles from observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Coma cluster.
Effect of intermediate Minkowskian evolution on CMB bispectrum
Mironov, S.A.; Rubakov, V.A.; Ramazanov, S.R. E-mail: Sabir.Ramazanov@ulb.ac.be
2014-04-01
We consider a non-inflationary early Universe scenario in which relevant scalar perturbations get frozen out at some point, but then are defrosted and follow a long nearly Minkowskian evolution before the hot era. This intermediate stage leaves specific imprint on the CMB 3-point function, largely independent of details of microscopic physics. In particular, the CMB bispectrum undergoes oscillations in the multipole l space with roughly constant amplitude. The latter is in contrast to the oscillatory bispectrum enhanced in the flattened triangle limit, as predicted by inflation with non-Bunch-Davies vacuum. Given this and other peculiar features of the bispectrum, stringent constraints imposed by the Planck data may not apply. The CMB 3-point function is suppressed by the inverse duration squared of the Minkowskian evolution, but can be of observable size for relatively short intermediate Minkowskian stage.
Loop quantum cosmology, non-Gaussianity, and CMB power asymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agullo, Ivan
2015-09-01
We argue that the anomalous power asymmetry observed in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) may have originated in a cosmic bounce preceding inflation. In loop quantum cosmology (LQC), the big bang singularity is generically replaced by a bounce due to quantum gravitational effects. We compute the spectrum of inflationary non-Gaussianity and show that strong correlation between observable scales and modes with longer (superhorizon) wavelength arise as a consequence of the evolution of perturbations across the LQC bounce. These correlations are strongly scale dependent and induce a dipole-dominated modulation on large angular scales in the CMB, in agreement with observations.
Nonisotropy in the CMB power spectrum in single field inflation
Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas
2009-07-15
Contaldi et al.[C. R. Contaldi, M. Peloso, L. Kofman, and A. Linde, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 07 (2003) 002] have suggested that an initial period of kinetic energy domination in single field inflation may explain the lack of CMB power at large angular scales. We note that in this situation it is natural that there also be a spatial gradient in the initial value of the inflaton field, and that this can provide a spatial asymmetry in the observed CMB power spectrum, manifest at low values of l. We investigate the nature of this asymmetry and comment on its relation to possible anomalies at low l.
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the CMB
Frommert, Mona; Durrer, Ruth; Michaud, Jérôme E-mail: Ruth.Durrer@unige.ch
2012-01-01
We investigate the statistics of the cosmic microwave background using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We show that, when we correctly de-correlate the data, the partition function of the Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter is compatible with the Kolmogorov distribution and, contrary to previous claims, the CMB data are compatible with Gaussian fluctuations with the correlation function given by standard ΛCDM. We then use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to derive upper bounds on residual point source power in the CMB, and indicate the promise of this statistics for further datasets, especially Planck, to search for deviations from Gaussianity and for detecting point sources and Galactic foregrounds.
Observing the CMB with the AMiBA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subrahmanyan, R.
I discuss the capabilities and limitations of the AMiBA for imaging CMB anisotropies. Michael Kesteven (ATNF-CSIRO) has proposed drift-scanning as an observing strategy for measuring and rejecting any instrumental response that the close-packed interferometers may have to the local environment. The advantages of mosaic imaging CMB anisotropies using a co-mounted interferometric array in a drift-scanning observing mode are discussed. A particular case of mosaic imaging a sky strip using a two-element AMiBA prototype interferometer is considered and the signal-to-noise ratio in the measurement of sky anisotropy using this observing strategy is analysed.
Reconciling CMB and structure growth measurements with dark energy interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pourtsidou, Alkistis; Tram, Thomas
2016-08-01
We study a coupled quintessence model with pure momentum exchange and present the effects of such an interaction on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and matter power spectrum. For a wide range of negative values of the coupling parameter β structure growth is suppressed and the model can reconcile the tension between cosmic microwave background observations and structure growth inferred from cluster counts. We find that this model is as good as Λ CDM for CMB and baryon acoustic oscillation data, while the addition of cluster data makes the model strongly preferred, improving the best-fit χ2 value by more than 16.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gobeljic, D.; Shvartsman, V. V.; Belianinov, A.; Okatan, B.; Jesse, S.; Kalinin, S. V.; Groh, C.; Rödel, J.; Lupascu, D. C.
2016-01-01
Relaxor/ferroelectric ceramic/ceramic composites have shown to be promising in generating large electromechanical strain at moderate electric fields. Nonetheless, the mechanisms of polarization and strain coupling between grains of different nature in the composites remain unclear. To rationalize the coupling mechanisms we performed advanced piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies of 0.92BNT-0.06BT-0.02KNN/0.93BNT-0.07BT (ergodic/non-ergodic relaxor) composites. PFM is able to distinguish grains of different phases by characteristic domain patterns. Polarization switching has been probed locally, on a sub-grain scale. k-Means clustering analysis applied to arrays of local hysteresis loops reveals variations of polarization switching characteristics between the ergodic and non-ergodic relaxor grains. We report a different set of switching parameters for grains in the composites as opposed to the pure phase samples. Our results confirm ceramic/ceramic composites to be a viable approach to tailor the piezoelectric properties and optimize the macroscopic electromechanical characteristics.Relaxor/ferroelectric ceramic/ceramic composites have shown to be promising in generating large electromechanical strain at moderate electric fields. Nonetheless, the mechanisms of polarization and strain coupling between grains of different nature in the composites remain unclear. To rationalize the coupling mechanisms we performed advanced piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies of 0.92BNT-0.06BT-0.02KNN/0.93BNT-0.07BT (ergodic/non-ergodic relaxor) composites. PFM is able to distinguish grains of different phases by characteristic domain patterns. Polarization switching has been probed locally, on a sub-grain scale. k-Means clustering analysis applied to arrays of local hysteresis loops reveals variations of polarization switching characteristics between the ergodic and non-ergodic relaxor grains. We report a different set of switching parameters for grains in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
2015-05-01
The field of Cosmology is currently undergoing a positive and constructive crisis. Controversies concerning inflation are not really new. But after the 2013-2014 Planck and BICEP2 announcements, and the more recent joint analysis by Planck, BICEP2 and the Keck Array (PBKA), the basic issues can involve more direct links between the Mathematical Physics aspects of cosmological patterns and the interpretation of experimental results. Open questions and new ideas on the foundations of Cosmology can emerge, while future experimental and observational programs look very promising. The BICEP2 result reporting an excess of B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation was initially presented as a signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. But polarized dust emission can be at the origin of such a signal, and the evidence claimed by BICEP2 is no longer secure after the PBKA analysis. Furthermore, even assuming that significant CMB B-mode polarization has indeed been generated by the early Universe, its theoretical and cosmological interpretation would be far from obvious. Inflationary gravitational waves are not the only possible source of primordial CMB B-modes. Alternative cosmologies such as pre-Big Bang patterns and the spinorial space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 can naturally produce this polarization. Furthermore, the SST automatically generates for each comoving observer a local privileged space direction (PSD) whose existence may have been confirmed by Planck data. If such a PSD exists, vector perturbations have most likely been strong in the early Universe and may have produced CMB B-modes. Pre-Big Bang cosmologies can also generate gravitational waves in the early Universe without inflation. After briefly describing detectors devoted to the study of the CMB polarization, we discuss the situation emerging from BICEP2 results, Planck results and the PBKA analysis. In particular, we further analyze
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinbach, G.; Pawlak, K.; Pomozi, I.; Tóth, E. A.; Molnár, A.; Matkó, J.; Garab, G.
2014-03-01
Elucidation of the molecular architecture of complex, highly organized molecular macro-assemblies is an important, basic task for biology. Differential polarization (DP) measurements, such as linear (LD) and circular dichroism (CD) or the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), which can be carried out in a dichrograph or spectrofluorimeter, respectively, carry unique, spatially averaged information about the molecular organization of the sample. For inhomogeneous samples—e.g. cells and tissues—measurements on macroscopic scale are not satisfactory, and in some cases not feasible, thus microscopic techniques must be applied. The microscopic DP-imaging technique, when based on confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM), allows the pixel by pixel mapping of anisotropy of a sample in 2D and 3D. The first DP-LSM configuration, which, in fluorescence mode, allowed confocal imaging of different DP quantities in real-time, without interfering with the ‘conventional’ imaging, was built on a Zeiss LSM410. It was demonstrated to be capable of determining non-confocally the linear birefringence (LB) or LD of a sample and, confocally, its FDLD (fluorescence detected LD), the degree of polarization (P) and the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), following polarized and non-polarized excitation, respectively (Steinbach et al 2009 Acta Histochem.111 316-25). This DP-LSM configuration, however, cannot simply be adopted to new generation microscopes with considerably more compact structures. As shown here, for an Olympus FV500, we designed an easy-to-install DP attachment to determine LB, LD, FDLD and r, in new-generation confocal microscopes, which, in principle, can be complemented with a P-imaging unit, but specifically to the brand and type of LSM.
Gobeljic, D.; Shvartsman, V. V.; Belianinov, A.; Okatan, B.; Jesse, S.; Kalinin, S. V.; Groh, C.; Rödel, J.; Lupascu, D. C.
2016-01-05
Relaxor/ferroelectric ceramic/ceramic composites have shown to be promising in generating large electromechanical strain at moderate electric fields. However, the mechanisms of polarization and strain coupling between grains of different nature in the composites remain unclear. To rationalize the coupling mechanisms we performed advanced piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies of 0.92BNT-0.06BT-0.02KNN/0.93BNT-0.07BT (ergodic/non-ergodic relaxor) composites. PFM is able to distinguish grains of different phases by characteristic domain patterns. Polarization switching has been probed locally, on a sub-grain scale. k-Means clustering analysis applied to arrays of local hysteresis loops reveals variations of polarization switching characteristics between the ergodic and non-ergodic relaxor grains. Here,more » we report a different set of switching parameters for grains in the composites as opposed to the pure phase samples. These results confirm ceramic/ceramic composites to be a viable approach to tailor the piezoelectric properties and optimize the macroscopic electromechanical characteristics.« less
The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolejko, Krzysztof
2009-08-01
This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to the analysis of observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations is in most cases studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast and the Weyl curvature within the cosmic structures are large, this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without such approximations as small amplitude of the density contrast. This allows to examine in more realistic manner the contribution of the light propagation effect to the measured CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities induce, via Rees-Sciama effect, temperature fluctuations of amplitude 10-7-10-5 on angular scale ϑ < 0.24° ( ℓ > 750). This is still much smaller than the measured temperature fluctuations on this angular scale. However, local and uncompensated inhomogeneities can induce temperature fluctuations of amplitude as large as 10-3, and thus can be responsible the low multipoles anomalies observed in the angular CMB power spectrum.
Joint Bayesian Component Separation and CMB Power Spectrum Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eriksen, H. K.; Jewell, J. B.; Dickinson, C.; Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M.; Lawrence, C. R.
2008-01-01
We describe and implement an exact, flexible, and computationally efficient algorithm for joint component separation and CMB power spectrum estimation, building on a Gibbs sampling framework. Two essential new features are (1) conditional sampling of foreground spectral parameters and (2) joint sampling of all amplitude-type degrees of freedom (e.g., CMB, foreground pixel amplitudes, and global template amplitudes) given spectral parameters. Given a parametric model of the foreground signals, we estimate efficiently and accurately the exact joint foreground- CMB posterior distribution and, therefore, all marginal distributions such as the CMB power spectrum or foreground spectral index posteriors. The main limitation of the current implementation is the requirement of identical beam responses at all frequencies, which restricts the analysis to the lowest resolution of a given experiment. We outline a future generalization to multiresolution observations. To verify the method, we analyze simple models and compare the results to analytical predictions. We then analyze a realistic simulation with properties similar to the 3 yr WMAP data, downgraded to a common resolution of 3 deg FWHM. The results from the actual 3 yr WMAP temperature analysis are presented in a companion Letter.
CHEMICAL MASS BALANCE MODEL: EPA-CMB8.2
The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) method has been a popular approach for receptor modeling of ambient air pollutants for over two decades. For the past few years the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) and Office of Air Quality Plannin...
CMB Lensing as a probe of beyond ΛCDM Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassani, F.; Baghram, S.; Firouzjahi, H.
2016-09-01
The observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) and the Large Structures indicate that the standard model of Cosmology known as ΛCDM works well. In this essay we propose that the CMB lensing is a prominent probe to study any deviation from this model. Deviations from cosmological constant and nearly Gaussian, adiabatic, nearly scale invariant and isotropic initial conditions can be studied by CMB lensing. We show how the angular power spectrum of CMB lensing potential is an observable which encapsulates the effect of initial conditions and Dark Energy. The amplitude and the scale dependence of a dipole modulation in initial conditions is studied with CMB lensing potential and convergence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burke, K.; Steinberger, B.; Torsvik, T. H.; Smethurst, M. A.
2008-12-01
We have found, by rotation of LIPs of the past 300 My to their eruption sites in a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, that those sites concentrate vertically above the margins at the CMB of the two Large Low Shear Wave Velocity Provinces(LLSVPs) of the deep mantle (Torsvik et al. 2006). This surprising discovery of narrow (< 200 wide) Plume Generation Zones stable for at least 300 My on the CMB at the LLSVP margins is consistent with the idea that the LLSVPs are compositionally (and probably also thermally) distinct dense bodies (each making up ca. 1 percent of mantle mass) rather than thermally buoyant "superplumes". The "centers of mass" of the two LLSVPs are antipodally disposed close to the equator, an intriguing possible further indication of long-term stability because the positively elevated part of the residual geoid, which matches the LLSVPs and therefore also appears also to have been stable for at least 300 My finds an analog in the aeroid of Mars of which the elevated regions are themselves antipodal on the equator. Because some volcanoes of Mars perhaps > 3.8 My in age are concentrated on the rims of the elevated aeroid it is worth considering the implications of the possible isolation of the LLSVPs from the rest of the mantle through most of Earth history. If the 2 percent of mantle mass that makes the LLSVPs has escaped being involved in making ocean floor it will be more Fe rich and denser than the average mantle. If it has also escaped being involved in making continent it will be richer in U,Th and K and hotter. It will have distinctive noble gas concentrations and could be the source (by diffusion) of the Earth's current 3He flux (Burke et al. 2008). If a velocity change attributable to a perovskite/post-perovskite transition can be mapped consistently both within and outside the LLSVPs it will help in testing the idea that the interiors of LLSVPs are hotter than the rest of the deep mantle.
CMB ISW-lensing bispectrum from cosmic strings
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Takahashi, Keitaro E-mail: sendouda@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp
2014-02-01
We study the effect of weak lensing by cosmic (super-)strings on the higher-order statistics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). A cosmic string segment is expected to cause weak lensing as well as an integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, the so-called Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins (GKS) effect, to the CMB temperature fluctuation, which are thus naturally cross-correlated. We point out that, in the presence of such a correlation, yet another kind of the post-recombination CMB temperature bispectra, the ISW-lensing bispectra, will arise in the form of products of the auto- and cross-power spectra. We first present an analytic method to calculate the autocorrelation of the temperature fluctuations induced by the strings, and the cross-correlation between the temperature fluctuation and the lensing potential both due to the string network. In our formulation, the evolution of the string network is assumed to be characterized by the simple analytic model, the velocity-dependent one scale model, and the intercommutation probability is properly incorporated in order to characterize the possible superstringy nature. Furthermore, the obtained power spectra are dominated by the Poisson-distributed string segments, whose correlations are assumed to satisfy the simple relations. We then estimate the signal-to-noise ratios of the string-induced ISW-lensing bispectra and discuss the detectability of such CMB signals from the cosmic string network. It is found that in the case of the smaller string tension, Gμ << 10{sup -7}, the ISW-lensing bispectrum induced by a cosmic string network can constrain the string-model parameters even more tightly than the purely GKS-induced bispectrum in the ongoing and future CMB observations on small scales.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panzer, Ben; Gomez-Garcia, Daniel; Leuschen, Carl; Paden, John; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Patel, Azsa; Markus, Thorsten; Holt, Benjamin; Gogineni, Prasad
2013-01-01
Sea ice is generally covered with snow, which can vary in thickness from a few centimeters to >1 m. Snow cover acts as a thermal insulator modulating the heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and it impacts sea-ice growth rates and overall thickness, a key indicator of climate change in polar regions. Snow depth is required to estimate sea-ice thickness using freeboard measurements made with satellite altimeters. The snow cover also acts as a mechanical load that depresses ice freeboard (snow and ice above sea level). Freeboard depression can result in flooding of the snow/ice interface and the formation of a thick slush layer, particularly in the Antarctic sea-ice cover. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an ultra-wideband, microwave radar capable of operation on long-endurance aircraft to characterize the thickness of snow over sea ice. The low-power, 100mW signal is swept from 2 to 8GHz allowing the air/snow and snow/ ice interfaces to be mapped with 5 c range resolution in snow; this is an improvement over the original system that worked from 2 to 6.5 GHz. From 2009 to 2012, CReSIS successfully operated the radar on the NASA P-3B and DC-8 aircraft to collect data on snow-covered sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic for NASA Operation IceBridge. The radar was found capable of snow depth retrievals ranging from 10cm to >1 m. We also demonstrated that this radar can be used to map near-surface internal layers in polar firn with fine range resolution. Here we describe the instrument design, characteristics and performance of the radar.
Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John
2016-07-01
Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.
Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John
2016-01-01
Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations. PMID:27452107
Wang, Y.; Zhang, K.; Wasala, N. B.; Yao, X.; Duan, D.; Yao, G.
2014-01-01
Myofiber organization in cardiac muscle plays an important role in achieving normal mechanical and electrical heart functions. An imaging tool that can reveal microstructural details of myofiber organization is valuable for both basic research and clinical applications. A high-resolution optical polarization tractography (OPT) was recently developed based on Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JMOCT). In this study, we validated the accuracy of using OPT for measuring depth-resolved fiber orientation in fresh heart samples by comparing directly with histology images. Systematic image processing algorithms were developed to register OPT with histology images. The pixel-wise differences between the two tractographic results were analyzed in details. The results indicate that OPT can accurately image depth-resolved fiber orientation in fresh heart tissues and reveal microstructural details at the histological level. PMID:25136507
Kawano, Takahito; Murata, Masaharu; Hyodo, Fuminori; Eto, Hinako; Kosem, Nuttavut; Nakata, Ryosuke; Hamano, Nobuhito; Piao, Jing Shu; Narahara, Sayoko; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Hashizume, Makoto
2016-01-01
Hepatic fibrosis is a chronic disorder caused by viral infection and/or metabolic, genetic and cholestatic disorders. A noninvasive procedure that enables the detection of liver fibrosis based on redox status would be useful for disease identification and monitoring, and the development of treatments. However, an appropriate technique has not been reported. This study describes a novel method for assessing the redox status of the liver using in vivo dynamic nuclear polarization-magnetic resonance imaging (DNP-MRI) with the nitroxyl radical carbamoyl-PROXYL as a molecular imaging probe, which was tested in dimethylnitrosamine-treated mice as a model of liver fibrosis. Based on the pharmacokinetics of carbamoyl-PROXYL in control livers, reduction rate mapping was performed in fibrotic livers. Reduction rate maps demonstrated a clear difference between the redox status of control and fibrotic livers according to the expression of antioxidants. These findings indicate that in vivo DNP-MRI with a nitroxyl radical probe enables noninvasive detection of changes in liver redox status. PMID:27587186
Kawano, Takahito; Murata, Masaharu; Hyodo, Fuminori; Eto, Hinako; Kosem, Nuttavut; Nakata, Ryosuke; Hamano, Nobuhito; Piao, Jing Shu; Narahara, Sayoko; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Hashizume, Makoto
2016-09-02
Hepatic fibrosis is a chronic disorder caused by viral infection and/or metabolic, genetic and cholestatic disorders. A noninvasive procedure that enables the detection of liver fibrosis based on redox status would be useful for disease identification and monitoring, and the development of treatments. However, an appropriate technique has not been reported. This study describes a novel method for assessing the redox status of the liver using in vivo dynamic nuclear polarization-magnetic resonance imaging (DNP-MRI) with the nitroxyl radical carbamoyl-PROXYL as a molecular imaging probe, which was tested in dimethylnitrosamine-treated mice as a model of liver fibrosis. Based on the pharmacokinetics of carbamoyl-PROXYL in control livers, reduction rate mapping was performed in fibrotic livers. Reduction rate maps demonstrated a clear difference between the redox status of control and fibrotic livers according to the expression of antioxidants. These findings indicate that in vivo DNP-MRI with a nitroxyl radical probe enables noninvasive detection of changes in liver redox status.
Kawano, Takahito; Murata, Masaharu; Hyodo, Fuminori; Eto, Hinako; Kosem, Nuttavut; Nakata, Ryosuke; Hamano, Nobuhito; Piao, Jing Shu; Narahara, Sayoko; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Hashizume, Makoto
2016-01-01
Hepatic fibrosis is a chronic disorder caused by viral infection and/or metabolic, genetic and cholestatic disorders. A noninvasive procedure that enables the detection of liver fibrosis based on redox status would be useful for disease identification and monitoring, and the development of treatments. However, an appropriate technique has not been reported. This study describes a novel method for assessing the redox status of the liver using in vivo dynamic nuclear polarization-magnetic resonance imaging (DNP-MRI) with the nitroxyl radical carbamoyl-PROXYL as a molecular imaging probe, which was tested in dimethylnitrosamine-treated mice as a model of liver fibrosis. Based on the pharmacokinetics of carbamoyl-PROXYL in control livers, reduction rate mapping was performed in fibrotic livers. Reduction rate maps demonstrated a clear difference between the redox status of control and fibrotic livers according to the expression of antioxidants. These findings indicate that in vivo DNP-MRI with a nitroxyl radical probe enables noninvasive detection of changes in liver redox status. PMID:27587186
Liu, Eric Yi; Morgan, Andrew P.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Wang, Wei; Churchill, Gary A.; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando
2014-01-01
Since the publication of the first comprehensive linkage map for the laboratory mouse, the architecture of recombination as a basic biological process has become amenable to investigation in mammalian model organisms. Here we take advantage of high-density genotyping and the unique pedigree structure of the incipient Collaborative Cross to investigate the roles of sex and genetic background in mammalian recombination. Our results confirm the observation that map length is longer when measured through female meiosis than through male meiosis, but we find that this difference is modified by genotype at loci on both the X chromosome and the autosomes. In addition, we report a striking concentration of crossovers in the distal ends of autosomes in male meiosis that is absent in female meiosis. The presence of this pattern in both single- and double-recombinant chromosomes, combined with the absence of a corresponding asymmetry in the distribution of double-strand breaks, indicates a regulated sequence of events specific to male meiosis that is anchored by chromosome ends. This pattern is consistent with the timing of chromosome pairing and evolutionary constraints on male recombination. Finally, we identify large regions of reduced crossover frequency that together encompass 5% of the genome. Many of these “cold regions” are enriched for segmental duplications, suggesting an inverse local correlation between recombination rate and mutation rate for large copy number variants. PMID:24578350
Preliminary DMR measurements of the CMB isotropy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Aymon, J.; Backus, C.; De Amici, G.; Galuk, K.; Jackson, P. D.; Keegstra, P.; Rokke, L.
1991-01-01
The COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) instrument has produced preliminary full-sky maps at frequencies 31.5, 53, and 90 GHz. The redundant channels and matched beams at three frequencies distinguish the DMR from previous large-scale surveys. Galactic emission is seen unambiguously at all three frequencies. The only large-scale anisotropy detected in the cosmic microwave background is the dipole anisotropy. There is no clear evidence for any other large-angular-scale feature in the maps. Without correcting for any systematic effects, we are able to place limits DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 3 x 10 exp -5 for the rms quadrupole amplitude, DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 4 x 10 exp -5 for monochromatic fluctuations, and DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 4 x 10 exp -5 for Gaussian fluctuations (all limits are 95 percent C.L. with TO = 2.735 K). The data limit DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 10 exp -4 for any feature larger than 7 deg. We briefly review the DMR and discuss some implications of these results in cosmology.
Vallinotto, Alberto
2011-01-01
The measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations through the 21-cm intensity mapping technique at redshift z {<=} 4 has the potential to tightly constrain the evolution of dark energy. Crucial to this experimental effort is the determination of the biasing relation connecting fluctuations in the density of neutral hydrogen (HI) with the ones of the underlying dark matter field. In this work I show how the HI bias relevant to these 21-cm intensity mapping experiments can successfully be measured by cross-correlating their signal with the lensing signal obtained from CMB observations. In particular I show that combining CMB lensing maps from Planck with 21-cm field measurements carried out with an instrument similar to the Cylindrical Radio Telescope, this cross-correlation signal can be detected with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of more than 5. Breaking down the signal arising from different redshift bins of thickness {Delta}z = 0.1, this signal leads to constraining the large scale neutral hydrogen bias and its evolution to 4{sigma} level.
Detection of B-mode polarization at degree angular scales by BICEP2.
Ade, P A R; Aikin, R W; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Brevik, J A; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Dowell, C D; Duband, L; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hildebrandt, S R; Hilton, G C; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Karkare, K S; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Mason, P; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pryke, C; Reintsema, C D; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Sudiwala, R V; Teply, G P; Tolan, J E; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Wong, C L; Yoon, K W
2014-06-20
We report results from the BICEP2 experiment, a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter specifically designed to search for the signal of inflationary gravitational waves in the B-mode power spectrum around ℓ∼80. The telescope comprised a 26 cm aperture all-cold refracting optical system equipped with a focal plane of 512 antenna coupled transition edge sensor 150 GHz bolometers each with temperature sensitivity of ≈300 μK(CMB)√s. BICEP2 observed from the South Pole for three seasons from 2010 to 2012. A low-foreground region of sky with an effective area of 380 square deg was observed to a depth of 87 nK deg in Stokes Q and U. In this paper we describe the observations, data reduction, maps, simulations, and results. We find an excess of B-mode power over the base lensed-ΛCDM expectation in the range 30 < ℓ < 150, inconsistent with the null hypothesis at a significance of >5σ. Through jackknife tests and simulations based on detailed calibration measurements we show that systematic contamination is much smaller than the observed excess. Cross correlating against WMAP 23 GHz maps we find that Galactic synchrotron makes a negligible contribution to the observed signal. We also examine a number of available models of polarized dust emission and find that at their default parameter values they predict power ∼(5-10)× smaller than the observed excess signal (with no significant cross-correlation with our maps). However, these models are not sufficiently constrained by external public data to exclude the possibility of dust emission bright enough to explain the entire excess signal. Cross correlating BICEP2 against 100 GHz maps from the BICEP1 experiment, the excess signal is confirmed with 3σ significance and its spectral index is found to be consistent with that of the CMB, disfavoring dust at 1.7σ. The observed B-mode power spectrum is well fit by a lensed-ΛCDM+tensor theoretical model with tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0
Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon,, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.
2013-01-01
We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six
New CMB constraints for Abelian Higgs cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lizarraga, Joanes; Urrestilla, Jon; Daverio, David; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin
2016-10-01
We present cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra from recent numerical simulations of cosmic strings in the Abelian Higgs model and compare them to CMB power spectra measured by Planck. We obtain revised constraints on the cosmic string tension parameter Gμ. For example, in the ΛCDM model with the addition of strings and no primordial tensor perturbations, we find Gμ < 2.0 × 10‑7 at 95% confidence, about 20% lower than the value obtained from previous simulations, which had 1/64 of the spatial volume. The increased computational volume also makes it possible to simulate fully the physical equations of motion, in which the string cores shrink in comoving coordinates. We find however that this, and the larger dynamic range, changes the amplitude of the power spectra by only about 10%. The main cause of the stronger constraints on Gμ is instead an improved treatment of the string evolution across the radiation-matter transition.
Inflation in the closed FLRW model and the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonga, Béatrice; Gupt, Brajesh; Yokomizo, Nelson
2016-10-01
Recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations put strong constraints on the spatial curvature via estimation of the parameter Ωk assuming an almost scale invariant primordial power spectrum. We study the evolution of the background geometry and gauge-invariant scalar perturbations in an inflationary closed FLRW model and calculate the primordial power spectrum. We find that the inflationary dynamics is modified due to the presence of spatial curvature, leading to corrections to the nearly scale invariant power spectrum at the end of inflation. When evolved to the surface of last scattering, the resulting temperature anisotropy spectrum (CTTl) shows deficit of power at low multipoles (l < 20). By comparing our results with the recent Planck data we discuss the role of spatial curvature in accounting for CMB anomalies and in the estimation of the parameter Ωk. Since the curvature effects are limited to low multipoles, the Planck estimation of cosmological parameters remains robust under inclusion of positive spatial curvature.
Reconstructing the primordial power spectrum from the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauthier, Christopher; Bucher, Martin
2012-10-01
We propose a straightforward and model independent methodology for characterizing the sensitivity of CMB and other experiments to wiggles, irregularities, and features in the primordial power spectrum. Assuming that the primordial cosmological perturbations are adiabatic, we present a function space generalization of the usual Fisher matrix formalism applied to a CMB experiment resembling Planck with and without ancillary data. This work is closely related to other work on recovering the inflationary potential and exploring specific models of non-minimal, or perhaps baroque, primordial power spectra. The approach adopted here, however, most directly expresses what the data is really telling us. We explore in detail the structure of the available information and quantify exactly what features can be reconstructed and at what statistical significance.
Superconducting Coplanar Switch and Phase Shifter for CMB Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordier, G.; Cammilleri, V. D.; Belier, B.; Bleurvacq, N.; Gadot, F.; Ghribi, A.; Piat, M.; Tartari, A.; Zanonni, M.
2016-08-01
The next generations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) instruments will be dedicated to the detection and characterization of CMB B-modes. To measure this tiny signal, instruments need to control and minimize systematics. Signal modulation is one way to achieve such a control. A new generation of focal planes will include the entire detection chain. In this context, we present a superconducting coplanar switch driven by DC current. It consists of a superconducting microbridge which commutes between its on (superconducting) and off (normal metal) states, depending on the amplitude of the injected current compared to the critical current. If the current injected inside the bridge is lower than the critical current, the phase of the signal passing through the bridge is tunable. A first prototype of this component working as a switch and as a phase shifter at 10 GHz has been made. The principle, the setup, and the first measurements made at 4 K will be shown.
The ISW imprints of voids and superclusters on the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hotchkiss, S.; Nadathur, S.; Gottlöber, S.; Iliev, I. T.; Knebe, A.; Watson, W. A.; Yepes, G.
2016-10-01
We examine the stacked integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) imprints on the CMB along the lines of sight of voids and superclusters in galaxy surveys, using the Jubilee ISW simulation and mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues. We show that the expected signal in the concordance \\Lam CDM model is much smaller than the primary anisotropies arising at the last scattering surface and therefore any currently claimed detections of such an imprint cannot be caused by the ISW effect in \\Lam CDM. We look for the existence of such a signal in the Planck CMB using a catalogue of voids and superclusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), but find a result completely consistent with \\Lam CDM - i.e., a null detection.
CMB dipole asymmetry from a fast roll phase
Mazumdar, Anupam; Wang, Lingfei
2013-10-01
The observed CMB (cosmic microwave background) dipole asymmetry cannot be explained by a single field model of inflation - it inevitably requires more than one field where one of the fields is responsible for amplifying the super-Hubble fluctuations beyond the pivot scale. Furthermore the current constraints on f{sub NL} and τ{sub NL} require that such an amplification cannot produce large non-Gaussianity. In this paper we propose a model to explain this dipole asymmetry from a spectator field, which is responsible for generating all the curvature perturbations, but has a temporary fast roll phase before the Hubble exit of the pivot scale. The current data prefers spectator scenario because it leaves no isocurvature perturbations. The spectator model will also satisfy the well-known constraints arising from quasars, and the quadrupole and octupole of the CMB.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMahon, Jeff
Sub-millimeter observations are crucial for answering questions about star and galaxy formation; understanding galactic dust foregrounds; and for removing these foregrounds to detect the faint signature of inflationary gravitational waves in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Achieving these goals requires improved, broad-band antireflection coated lenses and half-wave plates (HWPs). These optical elements will significantly boost the sensitivity and capability of future sub-millimeter and CMB missions. We propose to develop wide-bandwidth metamaterial antireflection coatings for silicon lenses and sapphire HWPs with 3:1 ratio bandwidth that are scalable across the sub-millimeter band from 300 GHz to 3 THz. This is an extension of our successful work on saw cut metamaterial AR coatings for silicon optics at millimeter wave lengths. These, and the proposed coatings consist of arrays of sub-wavelength scale features cut into optical surfaces that behave like simple dielectrics. We have demonstrated saw cut 3:1 bandwidth coatings on silicon lenses, but these coatings are limited to the millimeter wave band by the limitations of dicing saw machining. The crucial advance needed to extend these broad band coatings throughout the sub-millimeter band is the development of laser cut graded index metamaterial coatings. The proposed work includes developing the capability to fabricate these coatings, optimizing the design of these metamaterials, fabricating and testing prototype lenses and HWPs, and working with the PIPER collaboration to achieve a sub-orbital demonstration of this technology. The proposed work will develop potentially revolutionary new high performance coatings for the sub-millimeter bands, and cary this technology to TRL 7 paving the way for its use in space. We anticipate that there will be a wide range of applications for these coatings on future NASA balloons and satellites.
Conformal invariance, dark energy, and CMB non-gaussianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Mazur, Pawel O.; Mottola, Emil
2012-09-01
In addition to simple scale invariance, a universe dominated by dark energy naturally gives rise to correlation functions possessing full conformal invariance. This is due to the mathematical isomorphism between the conformal group of certain three dimensional slices of de Sitter space and the de Sitter isometry group SO(4,1). In the standard homogeneous, isotropic cosmological model in which primordial density perturbations are generated during a long vacuum energy dominated de Sitter phase, the embedding of flat spatial Bbb R3 sections in de Sitter space induces a conformal invariant perturbation spectrum and definite prediction for the shape of the non-Gaussian CMB bispectrum. In the case in which the density fluctuations are generated instead on the de Sitter horizon, conformal invariance of the Bbb S2 horizon embedding implies a different but also quite definite prediction for the angular correlations of CMB non-Gaussianity on the sky. Each of these forms for the bispectrum is intrinsic to the symmetries of de Sitter space, and in that sense, independent of specific model assumptions. Each is different from the predictions of single field slow roll inflation models, which rely on the breaking of de Sitter invariance. We propose a quantum origin for the CMB fluctuations in the scalar gravitational sector from the conformal anomaly that could give rise to these non-Gaussianities without a slow roll inflaton field, and argue that conformal invariance also leads to the expectation for the relation nS-1 = nT between the spectral indices of the scalar and tensor power spectrum. Confirmation of this prediction or detection of non-Gaussian correlations in the CMB of one of the bispectral shape functions predicted by conformal invariance can be used both to establish the physical origins of primordial density fluctuations, and distinguish between different dynamical models of cosmological vacuum dark energy.
High altitude measurements of fluctuations in the CMB
Davies, R.D. )
1990-01-15
The detection of fluctuations in the primordial CMB emission requires long integrations on limited areas of the sky; such extensive observations are best made from the ground on (high) dry sites. A current programme of measurements is described covering the frequency range 5 to 32 GHz using equipment at Teide Observatory, Tenerife, and in Antarctica. A bolometer system is under development for observations in the range 100 to 300 GHz to be made on Mauna Kea.
Testing inflation and curvaton scenarios with CMB distortions
Clesse, Sébastien; Garbrecht, Björn; Zhu, Yi E-mail: garbrecht@tum.de
2014-10-01
Prior to recombination, Silk damping causes the dissipation of energy from acoustic waves into the monopole of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), resulting in spectral distortions. These can be used to probe the primordial scalar power spectrum on smaller scales than it is possible with CMB anisotropies. An enhancement of power on these scales is nevertheless required for the resulting distortions to be detectable by future experiments like PIXIE. In this paper, we examine all 49 single-field inflation models listed by Martin et al. in the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris [1] and find that only one of these may lead to a detectable level of distortions in a tuned region of its parameter space, namely the original hybrid model. Three effective multi-field scenarios are also studied: with softly and suddenly turning trajectories, and with a mild waterfall trajectory. Softly turning trajectories do not induce distortions at any detectable level, whereas a sudden turn in the field space or a mild waterfall trajectory predicts a peak (plus damped oscillations in the sudden turn case) in the scalar power spectrum, which can lead to an observable amount of CMB distortions. Finally, another scenario leading to potentially detectable distortions involves a curvaton whose blue spectrum is subdominant on CMB angular scales and overtakes the inflaton spectrum on smaller scales. In this case however, we show that the bounds from ultra compact minihaloes are not satisfied. Expectations for an ultimate PRISM-class experiment characterized by an improvement in sensitivity by a factor of ten are discussed for some models.
Relic vector field and CMB large scale anomalies
Chen, Xingang; Wang, Yi E-mail: yw366@cam.ac.uk
2014-10-01
We study the most general effects of relic vector fields on the inflationary background and density perturbations. Such effects are observable if the number of inflationary e-folds is close to the minimum requirement to solve the horizon problem. We show that this can potentially explain two CMB large scale anomalies: the quadrupole-octopole alignment and the quadrupole power suppression. We discuss its effect on the parity anomaly. We also provide analytical template for more detailed data comparison.
Conformal invariance, dark energy, and CMB non-gaussianity
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Mazur, Pawel O.; Mottola, Emil E-mail: mazur@physics.sc.edu
2012-09-01
In addition to simple scale invariance, a universe dominated by dark energy naturally gives rise to correlation functions possessing full conformal invariance. This is due to the mathematical isomorphism between the conformal group of certain three dimensional slices of de Sitter space and the de Sitter isometry group SO(4,1). In the standard homogeneous, isotropic cosmological model in which primordial density perturbations are generated during a long vacuum energy dominated de Sitter phase, the embedding of flat spatial R{sup 3} sections in de Sitter space induces a conformal invariant perturbation spectrum and definite prediction for the shape of the non-Gaussian CMB bispectrum. In the case in which the density fluctuations are generated instead on the de Sitter horizon, conformal invariance of the S{sup 2} horizon embedding implies a different but also quite definite prediction for the angular correlations of CMB non-Gaussianity on the sky. Each of these forms for the bispectrum is intrinsic to the symmetries of de Sitter space, and in that sense, independent of specific model assumptions. Each is different from the predictions of single field slow roll inflation models, which rely on the breaking of de Sitter invariance. We propose a quantum origin for the CMB fluctuations in the scalar gravitational sector from the conformal anomaly that could give rise to these non-Gaussianities without a slow roll inflaton field, and argue that conformal invariance also leads to the expectation for the relation n{sub S}−1 = n{sub T} between the spectral indices of the scalar and tensor power spectrum. Confirmation of this prediction or detection of non-Gaussian correlations in the CMB of one of the bispectral shape functions predicted by conformal invariance can be used both to establish the physical origins of primordial density fluctuations, and distinguish between different dynamical models of cosmological vacuum dark energy.
Missing baryons, bulk flows, and the E-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Sunyaev, R. A.
2008-10-01
Most of the missing baryons are found in slightly overdense structures like filaments and superclusters, but to date most of them have remained hidden to observation. At the same time, the linear cosmological perturbation theory predicts the existence of extended bulk flows seeded by the gravitational attraction of linear potential wells, but again these also remain undetected. If the peculiar motion of galaxy groups and clusters indeed resembles that of the surrounding baryons, then the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) pattern of those massive halos should be closely correlated to the kSZ pattern of all surrounding electrons. Likewise, it should also be correlated to the CMB E-mode polarization field generated via Thomson scattering after reionization. We explore the cross-correlation of the kSZ generated in groups and clusters to the all sky E-mode polarization in the context of future CMB experiments like Planck, ACT, SPT or APEX. We find that this cross-correlation effectively probes redshifts below z=3-4 (where most of the baryons cannot be seen), and that it arises on very large scales (l<10). The significance with which this cross-correlation can be measured depends on the Poissonian uncertainty associated with the number of halos where the kSZ is measured and on the accuracy of the kSZ estimations themselves. Assuming that Planck can provide a cosmic variance limited E-mode polarization map at l<20 and S/N ˜ 1 kSZ estimates can be gathered for all clusters more massive than 1014 ~M⊙, then this cross-correlation should be measured at the 2-3σ level. Further, if an all-sky ACT or SPT type CMB experiment provides similar kSZ measurements for all halos above 1013 ~M⊙, then the cross-correlation total signal to noise (S/N) ratio should be at the level of 4-5. A detection of this cross-correlation would provide direct and definite evidence of bulk flows and missing baryons simultaneously.
CMB imprints of a pre-inflationary climbing phase
Dudas, E.; Kitazawa, N.; Patil, S.P.; Sagnotti, A. E-mail: patil@cpht.polytechnique.fr E-mail: sagnotti@sns.it
2012-05-01
We discuss the implications for cosmic microwave background (CMB) observables, of a class of pre-inflationary dynamics suggested by string models where SUSY is broken due to the presence of D-branes and orientifolds preserving incompatible portions of it. In these models the would-be inflaton is forced to emerge from the initial singularity climbing up a mild exponential potential, until it bounces against a steep exponential potential of ''brane SUSY breaking'' scenarios, and as a result the ensuing descent gives rise to an inflationary epoch that begins when the system is still well off its eventual attractor. If a pre-inflationary climbing phase of this type had occurred within 6-7 e-folds of the horizon exit for the largest observable wavelengths, displacement off the attractor and initial-state effects would conspire to suppress power in the primordial scalar spectrum, enhancing it in the tensor spectrum and typically superposing oscillations on both. We investigate these imprints on CMB observables over a range of parameters, examine their statistical significance, and provide a semi-analytic rationale for our results. It is tempting to ascribe at least part of the large-angle anomalies in the CMB to pre-inflationary dynamics of this type.
Lensing bias to CMB measurements of compensated isocurvature perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinrich, Chen He; Grin, Daniel; Hu, Wayne
2016-08-01
Compensated isocurvature perturbations (CIPs) are modes in which the baryon and dark matter density fluctuations cancel. They arise in the curvaton scenario as well as some models of baryogenesis. While they leave no observable effects on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at linear order, they do spatially modulate two-point CMB statistics and can be reconstructed in a manner similar to gravitational lensing. Due to the similarity between the effects of CMB lensing and CIPs, lensing contributes nearly Gaussian random noise to the CIP estimator that approximately doubles the reconstruction noise power. Additionally, the cross correlation between lensing and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect generates a correlation between the CIP estimator and the temperature field even in the absence of a correlated CIP signal. For cosmic-variance limited temperature measurements out to multipoles l ≤2500 , subtracting a fixed lensing bias degrades the detection threshold for CIPs by a factor of 1.3, whether or not they are correlated with the adiabatic mode.
Cosmological avatars of the landscape. II. CMB and LSS signatures
Holman, R.; Mersini-Houghton, L.; Takahashi, T.
2008-03-15
This is the second paper in the series that confronts predictions of a model of the landscape with cosmological observations. We show here how the modifications of the Friedmann equation due to the decohering effects of long wavelength modes on the wave function of the Universe defined on the landscape leave unique signatures on the CMB spectra and large scale structure (LSS). We show that the effect of the string corrections is to suppress {sigma}{sub 8} and the CMB temperature-temperature (TT) spectrum at large angles, thereby bringing WMAP and SDSS data for {sigma}{sub 8} into agreement. We find interesting features imprinted on the matter power spectrum P(k): power is suppressed at large scales indicating the possibility of primordial voids competing with the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Furthermore, power is enhanced at structure and substructure scales, k{approx_equal}10{sup -2-0}h Mpc{sup -1}. Our smoking gun for discriminating this proposal from others with similar CMB and LSS predictions comes from correlations between cosmic shear and temperature anisotropies, which here indicate a noninflationary channel of contribution to LSS, with unique ringing features of nonlocal entanglement displayed at structure and substructure scales.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seftor, C. J.; Jaross, G.; Kowitt, M.; Haken, M.; Li, J.; Flynn, L. E.
2014-01-01
The prelaunch specifications for nadir sensors of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) were designed to ensure that measurements from them could be used to retrieve total column ozone and nadir ozone profile information both for operational use and for use in long-term ozone data records. In this paper, we will show results from our extensive analysis of the performance of the nadir mapper (NM) and nadir profiler (NP) sensors during the first year and a half of OMPS nadir operations. In most cases, we determined that both sensors meet or exceed their prelaunch specifications. Normalized radiance (radiance divided by irradiance) measurements have been determined to be well within their 2% specification for both sensors. In the case of stray light, the NM sensor is within its 2% specification for all but the shortest wavelengths, while the NP sensor is within its 2% specification for all but the longest wavelengths. Artifacts that negatively impacted the sensor calibration due to diffuser features were reduced to less than 1% through changes made in the solar calibration sequence. Preliminary analysis of the disagreement between measurements made by the NM and NP sensors in the region where their wavelengths overlap indicates that it is due to shifts in the shared dichroic filter after launch and that it can be corrected. In general, our analysis indicates that both the NM and NP sensors are performing well, that they are stable, and that any deviations from nominal performance can be well characterized and corrected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seftor, C. J.; Jaross, G.; Kowitt, M.; Haken, M.; Li, J.; Flynn, L. E.
2014-04-01
The prelaunch specifications for nadir sensors of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) were designed to ensure that measurements from them could be used to retrieve total column ozone and nadir ozone profile information both for operational use and for use in long-term ozone data records. In this paper, we will show results from our extensive analysis of the performance of the nadir mapper (NM) and nadir profiler (NP) sensors during the first year and a half of OMPS nadir operations. In most cases, we determined that both sensors meet or exceed their prelaunch specifications. Normalized radiance (radiance divided by irradiance) measurements have been determined to be well within their 2% specification for both sensors. In the case of stray light, the NM sensor is within its 2% specification for all but the shortest wavelengths, while the NP sensor is within its 2% specification for all but the longest wavelengths. Artifacts that negatively impacted the sensor calibration due to diffuser features were reduced to less than 1% through changes made in the solar calibration sequence. Preliminary analysis of the disagreement between measurements made by the NM and NP sensors in the region where their wavelengths overlap indicates that it is due to shifts in the shared dichroic filter after launch and that it can be corrected. In general, our analysis indicates that both the NM and NP sensors are performing well, that they are stable, and that any deviations from nominal performance can be well characterized and corrected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asadi, Ehsan; Arzanpour, Siamak
2014-05-01
The growing demand for haptic technologies in recent years has motivated novel approaches in developing haptic interfaces and control algorithms. Semi-active haptic interfaces, in general, have the advantage of addressing safety concerns which adversely affect their active counterparts. This paper presents the development of a planar semi-active haptic interface using magnetorheological (MR) dampers. The ability of MR dampers to produce controllable resistance forces is the key reason for their utilization in the proposed haptic interface. The proposed planar semi-active haptic interface consists of linear and rotary MR dampers. Each of the MR dampers is modeled experimentally using the Bouc-Wen model. A haptic rendering algorithm called the digital resistance map (DRM) is also developed to control MR dampers. DRM is a high-fidelity haptic rendering algorithm, and proved to be effective to create comprehensive force feedback for operators. MATLAB/Simulink® is used for implementing several DRM scenarios for generating haptic enabled virtual environments. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed haptic interface and rendering algorithm.
A joint analysis of Planck and BICEP2 B modes including dust polarization uncertainty
Mortonson, Michael J.; Seljak, Uroš E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu
2014-10-01
We analyze BICEP2 and Planck data using a model that includes CMB lensing, gravity waves, and polarized dust. Recently published Planck dust polarization maps have highlighted the difficulty of estimating the amount of dust polarization in low intensity regions, suggesting that the polarization fractions have considerable uncertainties and may be significantly higher than previous predictions. In this paper, we start by assuming nothing about the dust polarization except for the power spectrum shape, which we take to be C{sub l}{sup BB,dust} ∝ l{sup -2.42}. The resulting joint BICEP2+Planck analysis favors solutions without gravity waves, and the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r<0.11, a slight improvement relative to the Planck analysis alone which gives r<0.13 (95% c.l.). The estimated amplitude of the dust polarization power spectrum agrees with expectations for this field based on both HI column density and Planck polarization measurements at 353 GHz in the BICEP2 field. Including the latter constraint on the dust spectrum amplitude in our analysis improves the limit further to r < 0.09, placing strong constraints on theories of inflation (e.g., models with r>0.14 are excluded with 99.5% confidence). We address the cross-correlation analysis of BICEP2 at 150 GHz with BICEP1 at 100 GHz as a test of foreground contamination. We find that the null hypothesis of dust and lensing with 0r= gives Δ χ{sup 2} < 2 relative to the hypothesis of no dust, so the frequency analysis does not strongly favor either model over the other. We also discuss how more accurate dust polarization maps may improve our constraints. If the dust polarization is measured perfectly, the limit can reach r < 0.05 (or the corresponding detection significance if the observed dust signal plus the expected lensing signal is below the BICEP2 observations), but this degrades quickly to almost no improvement if the dust calibration error is 20% or larger or if the dust maps
A joint analysis of Planck and BICEP2 B modes including dust polarization uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mortonson, Michael J.; Seljak, Uroš
2014-10-01
We analyze BICEP2 and Planck data using a model that includes CMB lensing, gravity waves, and polarized dust. Recently published Planck dust polarization maps have highlighted the difficulty of estimating the amount of dust polarization in low intensity regions, suggesting that the polarization fractions have considerable uncertainties and may be significantly higher than previous predictions. In this paper, we start by assuming nothing about the dust polarization except for the power spectrum shape, which we take to be ClBB,dust propto l-2.42. The resulting joint BICEP2+Planck analysis favors solutions without gravity waves, and the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r<0.11, a slight improvement relative to the Planck analysis alone which gives r<0.13 (95% c.l.). The estimated amplitude of the dust polarization power spectrum agrees with expectations for this field based on both HI column density and Planck polarization measurements at 353 GHz in the BICEP2 field. Including the latter constraint on the dust spectrum amplitude in our analysis improves the limit further to r < 0.09, placing strong constraints on theories of inflation (e.g., models with r>0.14 are excluded with 99.5% confidence). We address the cross-correlation analysis of BICEP2 at 150 GHz with BICEP1 at 100 GHz as a test of foreground contamination. We find that the null hypothesis of dust and lensing with 0r= gives Δ χ2 < 2 relative to the hypothesis of no dust, so the frequency analysis does not strongly favor either model over the other. We also discuss how more accurate dust polarization maps may improve our constraints. If the dust polarization is measured perfectly, the limit can reach r < 0.05 (or the corresponding detection significance if the observed dust signal plus the expected lensing signal is below the BICEP2 observations), but this degrades quickly to almost no improvement if the dust calibration error is 20% or larger or if the dust maps are not processed through the
Light WIMPs, equivalent neutrinos, BBN, and the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steigman, Gary; Nollett, Kenneth M.
Recent updates to the observational determinations of the primordial abundances of helium (4He) and deuterium are compared to the predictions of BBN to infer the universal ratio of baryons to photons, eta 10 equiv 1010(n_B/ngamma )0 (or, the present Universe baryon mass density parameter, {Ω_B h^{2} = eta 10/273.9) as well as to constrain the effective number of neutrinos ({N_eff) and the number of equivalent neutrinos ({ΔN_ν}). These BBN results are compared to those derived independently from the Planck CMB data. In the absence of a light WIMP ({m_χ} ⪆ 20 MeV), {N_eff = 3.05(1 + ensuremath {DeltaN_ nu }/3). In this case, there is excellent agreement between BBN and the CMB but, the joint fit reveals that {ΔN_ν} = 0.40±0.17, disfavoring standard big bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN) ({ΔN_ν} = 0) at ˜ 2.4 sigma , as well as a sterile neutrino ({ΔN_ν} = 1) at ˜ 3.5 sigma . In the presence of a light WIMP ({m_χ} ⪉ 20 MeV), the relation between {N_eff and {ΔN_&nu}; depends on the WIMP mass, leading to degeneracies among {N_eff, {ΔN_ν}, and {m_χ}. The complementary and independent BBN and CMB data can break some of these degeneracies. Depending on the nature of the light WIMP (Majorana or Dirac fermion, real or complex scalar) the joint BBN + CMB analyses set a lower bound to {m_χ} in the range 0.5 - 5 MeV (mchi /me ⪆ 1 - 10) and, they identify best fit values for {m_χ} in the range 5 - 10 MeV. The joint BBN + CMB analyses find a best fit value for the number of equivalent neutrinos, {ΔN_ν} ≈ 0.65, nearly independent of the nature of the WIMP. The best fit still disfavors the absence of dark radiation ({ΔN_ν} = 0 at ˜ 95% confidence), while allowing for the presence of a sterile neutrino ({ΔN_ν} = 1 at ⪉ 1 sigma ). For all cases considered here, the lithium problem persists. These results, presented at the Rencontres de l'Observatoire de Paris 2013 - ESO Workshop and summarized in these proceedings, are based on \\citet{kngs}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabass, Giovanni; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph
2016-07-01
We use the recent observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running αs=d ns/d log k and the running of the running βs=d αs/d log k of the spectral index ns of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find αs=0.011 ±0.010 and βs=0.027 ±0.013 at 68% C.L., suggesting the presence of a running of the running at the level of two standard deviations. We find no significant correlation between βs and foregrounds parameters, with the exception of the point sources amplitude at 143 GHz, A143PS , which shifts by a half-sigma when the running of the running is considered. We further study the cosmological implications of such a preference for αs,βs˜0.01 by including in the analysis the lensing amplitude AL, the curvature parameter Ωk, and the sum of neutrino masses ∑mν. We find that when the running of the running is considered Planck data are more compatible with the standard expectations of AL=1 and Ωk=0 but still hint at possible deviations. The indication for βs>0 survives at two standard deviations when external data sets such as baryon acoustic oscillation surverys and CFHTLenS are included in the analysis and persists at ˜1.7 standard deviations when CMB lensing is considered. We discuss the possibility of constraining βs with current and future measurements of CMB spectral distortions, showing that an experiment like PIXIE could provide strong constraints on αs and βs.
Angular power spectrum of the FastICA CMB component from BEAST data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donzelli, Simona
We present the angular power spectrum of the CMB component extracted with FASTICA from the data of the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST), operating in Q two input channels FASTICA returns two possible independent components. We found that one of them has an unphysical spectral behaviour, due to the poor S/N ratio, while the other is a reasonable CMB component. After a detailed calibration procedure based on Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations we extracted the angular power spectrum for the identified CMB component and found a very good agreement with the already published BEAST CMB angular power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotti, Aditya; Huffenberger, Kevin
2016-09-01
Isotropy-violation statistics can highlight polarized galactic foregrounds that contaminate primordial B-modes in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We propose a particular isotropy-violation test and apply it to polarized Planck 353 GHz data, constructing a map that indicates B-mode foreground dust power over the sky. We build our main isotropy test in harmonic space via the bipolar spherical harmonic basis, and our method helps us to identify the least-contaminated directions. By this measure, there are regions of low foreground in and around the BICEP field, near the South Galactic Pole, and in the Northern Galactic Hemisphere. There is also a possible foreground feature in the BICEP field. We compare our results to those based on the local power spectrum, which is computed on discs using a version of the method of Planck Int. XXX (2016). The discs method is closely related to our isotropy-violation diagnostic. We pay special care to the treatment of noise, including chance correlations with the foregrounds. Currently we use our isotropy tool to assess the cleanest portions of the sky, but in the future such methods will allow isotropy-based null tests for foreground contamination in maps purported to measure primordial B-modes, particularly in cases of limited frequency coverage.
Powis, Ivan; Daly, Steven; Tia, Maurice; de Miranda, Barbara Cunha; Garcia, Gustavo A; Nahon, Laurent
2014-01-14
A detailed study of the valence photoionization of small homochiral glycidol (C3O2H6) clusters is carried out with the help of circularly-polarized VUV synchrotron radiation by recording photoionization-based spectroscopic data detected by velocity map electron imaging with coincidence ion selection. We show that information on the stability of cationic as well as neutral chiral clusters can be obtained with enhanced sensitivity by examining the chiral fingerprint encapsulated in Photoelectron Circular Dichroism (PECD) spectra. In particular, by varying the clustering conditions we demonstrate that the PECD signal effectively carries the signature of the neutral precursor species, prior to any fragmentation of the ion, as may be inferred from the below-threshold monomer measurements (including ion imaging). Here the monomer's direct ionization channel is closed and the monomer ion hence must result exclusively as a fragment from dissociative ionization of the dimer (or higher) clusters. At higher photon energies, the mass-selection on the electron spectroscopy data, achieved through filtering the electron images in coincidence with selected ion masses, evidently succeeds in providing a degree of size-selection on the neutral clusters being ionized with, in particular, a clear differentiation of monomer and dimer PECD, showing the strong sensitivity of this chiroptical effect to the non-local long-range molecular potential.
A FOREGROUND-CLEANED COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND MAP FROM NON-GAUSSIANITY MEASUREMENT
Saha, Rajib
2011-10-01
In this Letter, we present a new method to estimate a foreground-cleaned cosmic microwave background (CMB) map at a resolution of 1{sup 0} by minimizing the non-Gaussian properties of the cleaned map which arise dominantly due to diffuse foreground emission components from the Milky Way. We employ simple kurtosis statistic as the measure of non-Gaussian properties and perform a linear combination of five frequency maps provided by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) in its seven-year data release in such a way that the cleaned map has a minimum kurtosis which leads to a non-Gaussianity-minimized, foreground-cleaned CMB map. We validate the method by performing Monte Carlo simulations. To minimize any residual foreground contamination from the cleaned map we flag out the region near the galactic plane based upon results from simulations. Outside the masked region our new estimate of the CMB map matches well with the WMAP's Internal Linear Combination (ILC) map. A simple pseudo-C{sub l} -based CMB TT power spectrum derived from the non-Gaussianity minimized map reproduces the earlier results of WMAP's power spectrum. An important advantage of the method is that it does not introduce any negative bias in angular power spectrum in the low multipole regime, unlike usual ILC method. Comparing our results with the previously published results we argue that CMB results are robust with respect to specific foreground removal algorithms employed.
Precision Measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization from the POLARBEAR experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinbach, Bryan
2013-04-01
We present status and results from the first season of observations of the POLARBEAR experiment. POLARBEAR is measuring the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies to constrain neutrino mass, inflation, dark energy, and cosmic birefringence. Since early 2012 POLARBEAR has been performing a deep search in 30 square degrees of sky to find odd parity B modes in the CMB polarization anisotropies induced by gravitational lensing. POLARBEAR observes with 1000 single mode 150GHz detectors with 3.5' FWHM beams from an off axis Gregorian Dragone 3m telescope in the Atacama Desert in Chile.
CMB quenching of high-redshift radio-loud AGNs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghisellini, G.; Haardt, F.; Ciardi, B.; Sbarrato, T.; Gallo, E.; Tavecchio, F.; Celotti, A.
2015-10-01
The very existence of more than a dozen of high-redshift (z ≳ 4) blazars indicates that a much larger population of misaligned powerful jetted active galactic nucleus (AGN) was already in place when the Universe was ≲1.5 Gyr old. Such parent population proved to be very elusive, and escaped direct detection in radio surveys so far. High-redshift blazars themselves seem to be failing in producing extended radio lobes, raising questions about the connection between such class and the vaster population of radio galaxies. We show that the interaction of the jet electrons with the intense cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation explains the lack of extended radio emission in high-redshift blazars and in their parent population, helping to explain the apparently missing misaligned counterparts of high-redshift blazars. On the other hand, the emission from the more compact and more magnetized hotspots are less affected by the enhanced CMB energy density. By modelling the spectral energy distribution of blazar lobes and hotspots, we find that most of them should be detectable by low-frequency deep radio observations, e.g. by LOw-Frequency ARray for radio astronomy and by relatively deep X-ray observations with good angular resolution, e.g. by the Chandra satellite. At high redshifts, the emission of a misaligned relativistic jet, being debeamed, is missed by current large sky area surveys. The isotropic flux produced in the hotspots can be below ˜1 mJy and the isotropic lobe radio emission is quenched by the CMB cooling. Consequently, even sources with very powerful jets can go undetected in current radio surveys, and misclassified as radio-quiet AGNs.
Hidden dark matter sector, dark radiation, and the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chacko, Zackaria; Cui, Yanou; Hong, Sungwoo; Okui, Takemichi
2015-09-01
We consider theories where dark matter is composed of a thermal relic of weak scale mass, whose couplings to the standard model (SM) are however too small to give rise to the observed abundance. Instead, the abundance is set by annihilation to light hidden sector states that carry no charges under the SM gauge interactions. In such a scenario the constraints from direct and indirect detection, and from collider searches for dark matter, can easily be satisfied. The masses of such light hidden states can be protected by symmetry if they are Nambu-Goldstone bosons, fermions, or gauge bosons. These states can then contribute to the cosmic energy density as dark radiation, leading to observable signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Furthermore, depending on whether or not the light hidden sector states self-interact, the fraction of the total energy density that free-streams is either decreased or increased, leading to characteristic effects on both the scalar and tensor components of the CMB anisotropy that allows these two cases to be distinguished. The magnitude of these signals depends on the number of light degrees of freedom in the hidden sector, and on the temperature at which it kinetically decouples from the SM. We consider a simple model that realizes this scenario, based on a framework in which the SM and hidden sector are initially in thermal equilibrium through the Higgs portal, and show that the resulting signals are compatible with recent Planck results, while large enough to be detected in upcoming experiments such as CMBPol and CMB Stage-IV. Invisible decays of the Higgs into hidden sector states at colliders can offer a complementary probe of this model.
Cosmological implications of the CMB large-scale structure
Melia, Fulvio
2015-01-01
The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and Planck may have uncovered several anomalies in the full cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky that could indicate possible new physics driving the growth of density fluctuations in the early universe. These include an unusually low power at the largest scales and an apparent alignment of the quadrupole and octopole moments. In a ΛCDM model where the CMB is described by a Gaussian Random Field, the quadrupole and octopole moments should be statistically independent. The emergence of these low probability features may simply be due to posterior selections from many such possible effects, whose occurrence would therefore not be as unlikely as one might naively infer. If this is not the case, however, and if these features are not due to effects such as foreground contamination, their combined statistical significance would be equal to the product of their individual significances. In the absence of such extraneous factors, and ignoring the biasing due to posterior selection, the missing large-angle correlations would have a probability as low as ∼0.1% and the low-l multipole alignment would be unlikely at the ∼4.9% level; under the least favorable conditions, their simultaneous observation in the context of the standard model could then be likely at only the ∼0.005% level. In this paper, we explore the possibility that these features are indeed anomalous, and show that the corresponding probability of CMB multipole alignment in the R{sub h}=ct universe would then be ∼7–10%, depending on the number of large-scale Sachs–Wolfe induced fluctuations. Since the low power at the largest spatial scales is reproduced in this cosmology without the need to invoke cosmic variance, the overall likelihood of observing both of these features in the CMB is ⩾7%, much more likely than in ΛCDM, if the anomalies are real. The key physical ingredient responsible for this difference is the existence in the former of a
Pure pseudo- Cℓ estimators for CMB B-modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Kendrick M.
2006-12-01
Fast heuristically weighted, or pseudo-Cℓ, estimators are a frequently used method for estimating power spectra in CMB surveys with large numbers of pixels. Recently, Challinor and Chon showed that the E-B mixing in these estimators can become a dominant contaminant at low noise levels, ultimately limiting the gravity wave signal which can be detected on a finite patch of sky. We define a modified version of the estimators which eliminates E-B mixing and is near-optimal at all noise levels.
Planck Visualization Project: Seeing and Hearing the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Der Veen, Jatila; Lubin, P. M.; 2; Alper, B.; 3; Smith, W.; 4; McGee, R.; 5; US Planck Collaboration
2011-01-01
The Planck Education and Public Outreach collaborators at the University of California, Santa Barbara and Purdue University have prepared a variety of materials to present the science goals of the Planck Mission to the public. Here we present our interactive simulation of the Cosmic Microwave Background, in which the user can change the ingredients of the universe and hear the different harmonics. We also present how we derive information about the early universe from the power spectrum of the CMB by using the physics of music for the public.
The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation and its Polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wollack, Edward
2016-03-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and its faint polarization have provided a unique means to constrain the physical state of the early Universe. Continued advances in instrumentation, observation, and analysis have revealed polarized radiation signatures associated with gravitational lensing and have heightened the prospects for using precision polarimetry to experimentally confront the inflationary paradigm. Characterization of this relic radiation field has the power to constrain or reveal the detailed properties of astroparticle species and long wave gravitational radiation. On going and planned CMB polarization efforts from the ground, balloon, and space borne platforms will be briefly surveyed. Recent community activities by the Inflation Probe Science Interest Group (IPSIG) will also be summarized. NASA PCOS mini-symposium (invited IPSIG talk).
Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) for Far-infrared through Millimeter Astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuss, David T.
2008-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) for Far-infrared through Millimeter Astronomy. The two science goals are to use polarized emission from the partially-aligned dust that provides a probe of the role of magnetic fields in star formation and to use the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation CMB to test theories of the very early universe and provide a probe of fundamental physics.
On the Duration of Mantle Control of the Magnetic Flux Pattern at the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffman, K. A.
2010-12-01
The observation of long-lived persistent features of the geomagnetic field suggests a strong influence by the lower-most mantle on the configuration of dynamo-generated flux emanating from the outer core. The question we explore here is whether available data can place some limit on the lifetime of this mantle control. We argue that data associated with times of a weakened axial dipole field (AD-field) offer the best opportunity for such an analysis. First we consider the present geomagnetic field, both its structure and secular variation, and then work backwards into the realm of paleomagnetic data: Secular variation of the modern-day, non-axial dipole field (NAD-field) reveals the existence of a region of significant size centered on Australasia---spanning some 80° of longitude from the southwest Indian Ocean through the southwest Pacific--for which there has been negligible directional change over the last century. This result indicates that this portion of the globe is strongly influenced by a stationary concentration of flux at the CMB known to reside beneath western Australia, a situation that further explains the clustering of NAD-field virtual poles over this locale. In addition, groupings of transitional VGPs near western Australia have been reported for a number of paleomagnetic reversals and events. These data primarily come from transitional field recordings on Tahiti that extend back to the Pliocene as well as from composite global analyses of Matuyama-Brunhes reversal data. Such behavior not only implicates mantle control since about 3 Ma over the pattern of magnetic flux at the CMB, but also suggests that the NAD-field has a dominating effect on the global field during attempts by the dynamo to reverse polarity. We have since analyzed transitional field behavior from recordings in lavas at several sites within the region dominated today by the flux feature beneath Australia, data spanning from the Eocene into the Brunhes chron. The sites include
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Remazeilles, M.; Dickinson, C.; Eriksen, H. K. K.; Wehus, I. K.
2016-05-01
The measurement of the large-scale B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a fundamental goal of future CMB experiments. However, because of unprecedented sensitivity, future CMB experiments will be much more sensitive to any imperfect modelling of the Galactic foreground polarization in the reconstruction of the primordial B-mode signal. We compare the sensitivity to B-modes of different concepts of CMB satellite missions (LiteBIRD, COrE, COrE+, PRISM, EPIC, PIXIE) in the presence of Galactic foregrounds. In particular, we quantify the impact on the tensor-to-scalar parameter of incorrect foreground modelling in the component separation process. Using Bayesian fitting and Gibbs sampling, we perform the separation of the CMB and Galactic foreground B-modes. The recovered CMB B-mode power spectrum is used to compute the likelihood distribution of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We focus the analysis to the very large angular scales that can be probed only by CMB space missions, i.e. the reionization bump, where primordial B-modes dominate over spurious B-modes induced by gravitational lensing. We find that fitting a single modified blackbody component for thermal dust where the `real' sky consists of two dust components strongly bias the estimation of the tensor-to-scalar ratio by more than 5σ for the most sensitive experiments. Neglecting in the parametric model the curvature of the synchrotron spectral index may bias the estimated tensor-to-scalar ratio by more than 1σ. For sensitive CMB experiments, omitting in the foreground modelling a 1 per cent polarized spinning dust component may induce a non-negligible bias in the estimated tensor-to-scalar ratio.
Lensing as a probe of early universe: from CMB to galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassani, Farbod; Baghram, Shant; Firouzjahi, Hassan
2016-05-01
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation lensing is a promising tool to study the physics of early universe. In this work we probe the imprints of deviations from isotropy and scale invariance of primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum on CMB lensing potential and convergence. Specifically, we consider a scale-dependent hemispherical asymmetry in primordial power spectrum. We show that the CMB lensing potential and convergence and also the cross-correlation of the CMB lensing and late time galaxy convergence can probe the amplitude and the scale dependence of the dipole modulation. As another example, we consider a primordial power spectrum with local feature. We show that the CMB lensing and the cross-correlation of the CMB lensing and galaxy lensing can probe the amplitude and the shape of the local feature. We show that the cross correlation of CMB lensing convergence and galaxy lensing is capable to probe the effects of local features in power spectrum on smaller scales than the CMB lensing. Finally we showed that the current data can constrain the amplitude and moment dependence of dipole asymmetry.
CMB lensing bispectrum from nonlinear growth of the large scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namikawa, Toshiya
2016-06-01
We discuss detectability of the nonlinear growth of the large-scale structure in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing. The lensing signals involved in the CMB fluctuations have been measured from multiple CMB experiments, such as Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), Planck, POLARBEAR, and South Pole Telescope (SPT). The reconstructed CMB lensing signals are useful to constrain cosmology via their angular power spectrum, while detectability and cosmological application of their bispectrum induced by the nonlinear evolution are not well studied. Extending the analytic estimate of the galaxy lensing bispectrum presented by Takada and Jain (2004) to the CMB case, we show that even near term CMB experiments such as Advanced ACT, Simons Array and SPT3G could detect the CMB lensing bispectrum induced by the nonlinear growth of the large-scale structure. In the case of the CMB Stage-IV, we find that the lensing bispectrum is detectable at ≳50 σ statistical significance. This precisely measured lensing bispectrum has rich cosmological information, and could be used to constrain cosmology, e.g., the sum of the neutrino masses and the dark-energy properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bindschadler, R.; Choi, H.; Wichlacz, A.; Bingham, R.; Bohlander, J.; Brunt, K.; Corr, H.; Drews, R.; Fricker, H.; Hall, M.; Hindmarsh, R.; Kohler, J.; Padman, L.; Rack, W.; Rotschkly, G.; Urbini, S.; Vornberger, P.; Young, N.
2011-01-01
Two ice-dynamic transitions of the Antarctic ice sheet - the boundary of grounded ice features and the freely-floating boundary - are mapped at 15-m resolution by participants of the International Polar Year project ASAID using customized software combining Landsat-7 imagery and ICESat/GLAS laser altimetry. The grounded ice boundary is 53 610 km long; 74% abuts to floating ice shelves or outlet glaciers, 19% is adjacent to open or sea-ice covered ocean, and 7% of the boundary ice terminates on land. The freely-floating boundary, called here the hydrostatic line, is the most landward position on ice shelves that expresses the full amplitude of oscillating ocean tides. It extends 27 521 km and is discontinuous. Positional (one-sigma) accuracies of the grounded ice boundary vary an order of magnitude ranging from +/- 52m for the land and open-ocean terminating segments to +/- 502m for the outlet glaciers. The hydrostatic line is less well positioned with errors over 2 km. Elevations along each line are selected from 6 candidate digital elevation models based on their agreement with ICESat elevation values and surface shape inferred from the Landsat imagery. Elevations along the hydrostatic line are converted to ice thicknesses by applying a firn-correction factor and a flotation criterion. BEDMAP-compiled data and other airborne data are compared to the ASAID elevations and ice thicknesses to arrive at quantitative (one-sigma) uncertainties of surface elevations of +/-3.6, +/-9.6, +/-11.4, +/-30 and +/-100m for five ASAID-assigned confidence levels. Over one-half of the surface elevations along the grounded ice boundary and over one-third of the hydrostatic line elevations are ranked in the highest two confidence categories. A comparison between ASAID-calculated ice shelf thicknesses and BEDMAP-compiled data indicate a thin-ice bias of 41.2+/-71.3m for the ASAID ice thicknesses. The relationship between the seaward offset of the hydrostatic line from the grounded ice
How well can future CMB missions constrain cosmic inflation?
Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent; Ringeval, Christophe E-mail: christophe.ringeval@uclouvain.be
2014-10-01
We study how the next generation of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) measurement missions (such as EPIC, LiteBIRD, PRISM and COrE) will be able to constrain the inflationary landscape in the hardest to disambiguate situation in which inflation is simply described by single-field slow-roll scenarios. Considering the proposed PRISM and LiteBIRD satellite designs, we simulate mock data corresponding to five different fiducial models having values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio ranging from 10{sup -1} down to 10{sup -7}. We then compute the Bayesian evidences and complexities of all Encyclopædia Inflationaris models in order to assess the constraining power of PRISM alone and LiteBIRD complemented with the Planck 2013 data. Within slow-roll inflation, both designs have comparable constraining power and can rule out about three quarters of the inflationary scenarios, compared to one third for Planck 2013 data alone. However, we also show that PRISM can constrain the scalar running and has the capability to detect a violation of slow roll at second order. Finally, our results suggest that describing an inflationary model by its potential shape only, without specifying a reheating temperature, will no longer be possible given the accuracy level reached by the future CMB missions.
Hidden in the background: a local approach to CMB anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bueno Sánchez, Juan C.
2016-09-01
We investigate a framework aiming to provide a common origin for the large-angle anomalies detected in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which are hypothesized as the result of the statistical inhomogeneity developed by different isocurvature fields of mass m~ H present during inflation. The inhomogeneity arises as the combined effect of (i) the initial conditions for isocurvature fields (obtained after a fast-roll stage finishing many e-foldings before cosmological scales exit the horizon), (ii) their inflationary fluctuations and (iii) their coupling to other degrees of freedom. Our case of interest is when these fields (interpreted as the precursors of large-angle anomalies) leave an observable imprint only in isolated patches of the Universe. When the latter intersect the last scattering surface, such imprints arise in the CMB. Nevertheless, due to their statistically inhomogeneous nature, these imprints are difficult to detect, for they become hidden in the background similarly to the Cold Spot. We then compute the probability that a single isocurvature field becomes inhomogeneous at the end of inflation and find that, if the appropriate conditions are given (which depend exclusively on the preexisting fast-roll stage), this probability is at the percent level. Finally, we discuss several mechanisms (including the curvaton and the inhomogeneous reheating) to investigate whether an initial statistically inhomogeneous isocurvature field fluctuation might give rise to some of the observed anomalies. In particular, we focus on the Cold Spot, the power deficit at low multipoles and the breaking of statistical isotropy.
Conformal invariance, dynamical dark energy and the CMB
Mottola, Emil
2010-01-01
Einstein's General Relativity receives quantum corrections relevant at cosmological distance scales. These effects arise from conformal scalar degrees of freedom in the extended Effective Field Theory (EFT) of gravity required by the trace anomaly of the quantum stress tensor in curved space. Scalar degrees of freedom in cosmology arise naturally from the effective action of the trace anomaly in the Standard Model, without the ad hoc introduction of an inflaton field. In the EFT including the trace anomaly terms, {Lambda}{sub eff} becomes dynamical and potentially dependent upon both space and time. The fluctuations of these anomaly scalars may also influence the spectrum and statistics of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Under the hypothesis that scale invariance should be promoted to full conformal invariance, an hypothesis supported by the embedding of the conformal group of three dimensional flat sections in de Sitter space, the form of the CMB bi-spectrum can be fixed, and the tri-spectrum constrained. The angular spectra predicted by conformal invariance differ from those suggested by simple models of inflation.
An estimator for statistical anisotropy from the CMB bispectrum
Bartolo, N.; Dimastrogiovanni, E.; Matarrese, S.; Liguori, M.; Riotto, A. E-mail: dimastro@pd.infn.it E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it
2012-01-01
Various data analyses of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) provide observational hints of statistical isotropy breaking. Some of these features can be studied within the framework of primordial vector fields in inflationary theories which generally display some level of statistical anisotropy both in the power spectrum and in higher-order correlation functions. Motivated by these observations and the recent theoretical developments in the study of primordial vector fields, we develop the formalism necessary to extract statistical anisotropy information from the three-point function of the CMB temperature anisotropy. We employ a simplified vector field model and parametrize the bispectrum of curvature fluctuations in such a way that all the information about statistical anisotropy is encoded in some parameters λ{sub LM} (which measure the anisotropic to the isotropic bispectrum amplitudes). For such a template bispectrum, we compute an optimal estimator for λ{sub LM} and the expected signal-to-noise ratio. We estimate that, for f{sub NL} ≅ 30, an experiment like Planck can be sensitive to a ratio of the anisotropic to the isotropic amplitudes of the bispectrum as small as 10%. Our results are complementary to the information coming from a power spectrum analysis and particularly relevant for those models where statistical anisotropy turns out to be suppressed in the power spectrum but not negligible in the bispectrum.
How well can future CMB missions constrain cosmic inflation?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Jérôme; Ringeval, Christophe; Vennin, Vincent
2014-10-01
We study how the next generation of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) measurement missions (such as EPIC, LiteBIRD, PRISM and COrE) will be able to constrain the inflationary landscape in the hardest to disambiguate situation in which inflation is simply described by single-field slow-roll scenarios. Considering the proposed PRISM and LiteBIRD satellite designs, we simulate mock data corresponding to five different fiducial models having values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio ranging from 10-1 down to 10-7. We then compute the Bayesian evidences and complexities of all Encyclopædia Inflationaris models in order to assess the constraining power of PRISM alone and LiteBIRD complemented with the Planck 2013 data. Within slow-roll inflation, both designs have comparable constraining power and can rule out about three quarters of the inflationary scenarios, compared to one third for Planck 2013 data alone. However, we also show that PRISM can constrain the scalar running and has the capability to detect a violation of slow roll at second order. Finally, our results suggest that describing an inflationary model by its potential shape only, without specifying a reheating temperature, will no longer be possible given the accuracy level reached by the future CMB missions.
Joint resonant CMB power spectrum and bispectrum estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meerburg, P. Daniel; Münchmeyer, Moritz; Wandelt, Benjamin
2016-02-01
We develop the tools necessary to assess the statistical significance of resonant features in the CMB correlation functions, combining power spectrum and bispectrum measurements. This significance is typically addressed by running a large number of simulations to derive the probability density function (PDF) of the feature-amplitude in the Gaussian case. Although these simulations are tractable for the power spectrum, for the bispectrum they require significant computational resources. We show that, by assuming that the PDF is given by a multivariate Gaussian where the covariance is determined by the Fisher matrix of the sine and cosine terms, we can efficiently produce spectra that are statistically close to those derived from full simulations. By drawing a large number of spectra from this PDF, both for the power spectrum and the bispectrum, we can quickly determine the statistical significance of candidate signatures in the CMB, considering both single frequency and multifrequency estimators. We show that for resonance models, cosmology and foreground parameters have little influence on the estimated amplitude, which allows us to simplify the analysis considerably. A more precise likelihood treatment can then be applied to candidate signatures only. We also discuss a modal expansion approach for the power spectrum, aimed at quickly scanning through large families of oscillating models.
CMB quadrupole suppression. II. The early fast roll stage
Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H. J. de; Sanchez, N. G.
2006-12-15
Within the effective field theory of inflation, an initialization of the classical dynamics of the inflaton with approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energy of the inflaton leads to a brief fast roll stage that precedes the slow roll regime. The fast roll stage leads to an attractive potential in the wave equations for the mode functions of curvature and tensor perturbations. The evolution of the inflationary perturbations is equivalent to the scattering by this potential and a useful dictionary between the scattering data and observables is established. Implementing methods from scattering theory we prove that this attractive potential leads to a suppression of the quadrupole moment for CMB and B-mode angular power spectra. The scale of the potential is determined by the Hubble parameter during slow roll. Within the effective field theory of inflation at the grand unification (GUT) energy scale we find that if inflation lasts a total number of e-folds N{sub tot}{approx}59, there is a 10%-20% suppression of the CMB quadrupole and about 2%-4% suppression of the tensor quadrupole. The suppression of higher multipoles is smaller, falling off as 1/l{sup 2}. The suppression is much smaller for N{sub tot}>59, therefore if the observable suppression originates in the fast roll stage, there is the upper bound N{sub tot}{approx}59.
Angular dependence of primordial trispectra and CMB spectral distortions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Bartolo, Nicola; Liguori, Michele
2016-10-01
Under the presence of anisotropic sources in the inflationary era, the trispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation has a very specific angular dependence between each wavevector that is distinguishable from the one encountered when only scalar fields are present, characterized by an angular dependence described by Legendre polynomials. We examine the imprints left by curvature trispectra on the TTμ bispectrum, generated by the correlation between temperature anisotropies (T) and chemical potential spectral distortions (μ) of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Due to the angular dependence of the primordial signal, the corresponding TTμ bispectrum strongly differs in shape from TTμ sourced by the usual gNL or τNL local trispectra, enabling us to obtain an unbiased estimation. From a Fisher matrix analysis, we find that, in a cosmic-variance-limited (CVL) survey of TTμ, a minimum detectable value of the quadrupolar Legendre coefficient is d2 ~ 0.01, which is 4 orders of magnitude better than the best value attainable from the TTTT CMB trispectrum. In the case of an anisotropic inflationary model with a f(phi)F2 interaction (coupling the inflaton field phi with a vector kinetic term F2), the size of the curvature trispectrum is related to that of quadrupolar power spectrum asymmetry, g*. In this case, a CVL measurement of TTμ makes it possible to measure g* down to 10‑3.
CMB Science: Opportunities for a Cryogenic Filter-Bank Spectrometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tartari, A.; Battistelli, E. S.; Piat, M.; Prêle, D.
2016-08-01
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral science is experiencing a renewed interest after the impressive result of COBE-FIRAS in the early Nineties. In 2011, the PIXIE proposal contributed to reopen the prospect of measuring deviations from a perfect 2.725 K planckian spectrum. Both COBE-FIRAS and PIXIE are differential Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSes) capable to operate in the null condition across ˜ 2 frequency decades (in the case of PIXIE, the frequency span is 30 GHz-6 THz). We discuss a complementary strategy to observe CMB spectral distortions at frequencies lower than 250 GHz, down to the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the spectrum. The throughput advantage that makes the FTS capable of achieving exquisite sensitivity via multimode operation becomes limited at lower frequencies. We demonstrate that an array of 100 cryogenic planar filter-bank spectrometers coupled to single mode antennas, on a purely statistical ground, can perform better than an FTS between tens of GHz and 200 GHz (a relevant frequency window for cosmology) in the hypothesis that (1) both instruments have the same frequency resolution and (2) both instruments are operated at the photon noise limit (with the FTS frequency band extending from ˜ tens of GHz up to 1 THz). We discuss possible limitations of these hypotheses, and the constraints that have to be fulfilled (mainly in terms of efficiency) in order to operate a cryogenic filter-bank spectrometer close to its ultimate sensitivity limit.
Alighieri, Sperello di Serego; Ni, Wei-Tou; Pan, Wei-Ping E-mail: weitou@gmail.com
2014-09-01
SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2 have recently measured the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization in various sky regions of several tens of square degrees and obtained BB power spectra in the multipole range 20-3000, detecting the components due to gravitational lensing and to inflationary gravitational waves. We analyze jointly the results of these three experiments and propose modifications to their analyses of the spectra to include in the model, in addition to the gravitational lensing and the inflationary gravitational wave components, and also the effects induced by the cosmic polarization rotation (CPR), if it exists within current upper limits. Although in principle our analysis would also lead to new constraints on CPR, in practice these can only be given on its fluctuations (δα{sup 2}), since constraints on its mean angle are inhibited by the derotation which is applied by current CMB polarization experiments, in order to cope with the insufficient calibration of the polarization angle. The combined data fits from all three experiments (with 29% CPR-SPTpol correlation, depending on the theoretical model) gives the constraint (δα{sup 2}){sup 1/2} < 27.3 mrad (1.°56), with r = 0.194 ± 0.033. These results show that the present data are consistent with no CPR detection and the constraint on CPR fluctuation is about 1.°5. This method of constraining the CPR is new, is complementary to previous tests, which use the radio and optical/UV polarization of radio galaxies and the CMB E-mode polarization, and adds a new constraint for the sky areas observed by SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oguri, S.; Choi, J.; Damayanthi, T.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Ishitsuka, H.; Karatsu, K.; Mima, S.; Minowa, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Otani, C.; Sekimoto, Y.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Yoshida, M.; Won, E.
2016-08-01
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) is an important source of information about the origin of our universe. In particular, odd-parity large angular scale patterns in the CMB polarization, the primordial B-modes, are strong evidence for an inflationary universe, related to the accelerating expansion of the metric. We are developing a unique telescope, GroundBIRD, to take CMB polarization measurements. The telescope combines novel techniques: high-speed rotation scanning, cold optics, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). We evaluated the response of MKIDs on the rotation stage. Method of shielding from the geo-magnetic field is established. We have also developed a receiver cryostat. We are able to maintain a sufficient cold status for observations on the optical configuration. We plan to start commissioning the system by observing CMB in Japan in 2015-2016. We will then deploy GroundBIRD in the Canary Islands for further scientific observations.
Foreground removal from Planck Sky Model temperature maps using a MLP neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Hebert, K.
2009-08-01
Unfortunately, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is contaminated by emission originating in the Milky Way (synchrotron, free-free and dust emission). Since the cosmological information is statistically in nature, it is essential to remove this foreground emission and leave the CMB with no systematic errors. To demonstrate the feasibility of a simple multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network for extracting the CMB temperature signal, we have analyzed a specific data set, namely the Planck Sky Model maps, developed for evaluation of different component separation methods before including them in the Planck data analysis pipeline. It is found that a MLP neural network can provide a CMB map of about 80 % of the sky to a very high degree uncorrelated with the foreground components. Also the derived power spectrum shows little evidence for systematic errors.
Estimation of inflation parameters for Perturbed Power Law model using recent CMB measurements
Mukherjee, Suvodip; Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun; Joy, Minu E-mail: santanud@iucaa.ernet.in E-mail: tarun@iucaa.ernet.in
2015-01-01
Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an important probe for understanding the inflationary era of the Universe. We consider the Perturbed Power Law (PPL) model of inflation which is a soft deviation from Power Law (PL) inflationary model. This model captures the effect of higher order derivative of Hubble parameter during inflation, which in turn leads to a non-zero effective mass m{sub eff} for the inflaton field. The higher order derivatives of Hubble parameter at leading order sources constant difference in the spectral index for scalar and tensor perturbation going beyond PL model of inflation. PPL model have two observable independent parameters, namely spectral index for tensor perturbation ν{sub t} and change in spectral index for scalar perturbation ν{sub st} to explain the observed features in the scalar and tensor power spectrum of perturbation. From the recent measurements of CMB power spectra by WMAP, Planck and BICEP-2 for temperature and polarization, we estimate the feasibility of PPL model with standard ΛCDM model. Although BICEP-2 claimed a detection of r=0.2, estimates of dust contamination provided by Planck have left open the possibility that only upper bound on r will be expected in a joint analysis. As a result we consider different upper bounds on the value of r and show that PPL model can explain a lower value of tensor to scalar ratio (r<0.1 or r<0.01) for a scalar spectral index of n{sub s}=0.96 by having a non-zero value of effective mass of the inflaton field m{sup 2}{sub eff}/H{sup 2}. The analysis with WP + Planck likelihood shows a non-zero detection of m{sup 2}{sub eff}/H{sup 2} with 5.7 σ and 8.1 σ respectively for r<0.1 and r<0.01. Whereas, with BICEP-2 likelihood m{sup 2}{sub eff}/H{sup 2} = −0.0237 ± 0.0135 which is consistent with zero.
Measuring the cosmic microwave background polarization with POLARBEAR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barron, Darcy; Polarbear Collaboration
2015-01-01
POLARBEAR is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. POLARBEAR-1 started observations in 2012, and in 2014, the POLARBEAR team published results from its first season of observations on a small fraction of the sky. These results include the first measurement of a non-zero B-mode polarization angular power spectrum, measured at sub-degree scales where the dominant signal is gravitational lensing of the CMB. We also published a measurement of the large-scale gravitational structure deflection power spectrum derived from CMB polarization alone, which demonstrates a powerful technique that can be used to measure nearly all of the gravitational structure in the universe. Improving these measurements requires precision characterization of the CMB polarization signal over large fractions of the sky, at multiple frequencies. To achieve these goals, POLARBEAR has begun expanding to include an additional two 3.5 meter telescopes with multi-chroic receivers, known as the Simons Array. Phased upgrades to receiver technology will improve sensitivity and capabilities, while continuing a deep survey of 80% of the sky. POLARBEAR-2 is the next receiver that will be installed in 2015 on a new telescope, with a larger area focal plane with dichroic pixels, with bands at 95 GHz and 150 GHz, and a total of 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers. The focal plane is cooled to 250 milliKelvin, and the bolometers will be read-out by SQUID amplifiers with 40x frequency domain multiplexing. The array is designed to have a noise equivalent temperature of 5.7 μK√s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hickox, Ryan
The WISE and Planck surveys have now produced groundbreaking data sets which, in concert, can be exploited to obtain revolutionary constraints on the evolution of structure in the Universe. One particularly powerful application of WISE has been to uncover millions of the previously "hidden" obscured quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes that are shrouded in gas and dust and so are not detectable using traditional ground-based optical and near-IR techniques. Recently, Planck has produced the most precise all-sky map to date of dark matter structures via the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We propose to combine these data sets to obtain a uniquely powerful measurement of the link between rapidly growing black holes and their host dark matter structures, by cross-correlating the density field of WISE-selected quasars with the CMB lensing convergence maps obtained from Planck. This proposal will build on our current ADAP program (NNX12AE38G), which studies the host dark matter halos of WISE-selected quasars via spatial clustering. NNX12AE38G involves a detailed characterization of the redshifts, luminosities, and spectral energy distributions of WISE-selected quasars and uses new techniques to measure how quasars cluster around themselves. NNX12AE38G has contributed to more than 10 journal articles and 5 conference proceedings. Building on our current work, an even more complete understanding of the link between black holes and their host dark matter structures is possible if we employ an independent method for measuring the clustering bias (and thus characteristic halo mass) of the quasar population. This has recently become possible using CMB lensing maps. In the past two years, our team has conducted an initial analysis covering 2500 square degrees using WISE-selected quasars and lensing maps from the South Pole Telescope (Geach, Hickox, Myers et al., 2013), and have implemented this technique with Planck over part of the SDSS region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazumi, M.; Borrill, J.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M. A.; Fuke, H.; Ghribi, A.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Inoue, Y.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishino, H.; Karatsu, K.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kimura, N.; Koga, K.; Komatsu, E.; Lee, A. T.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumura, T.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Morii, H.; Murayama, S.; Nagai, M.; Nagata, R.; Nakamura, S.; Natsume, K.; Nishino, H.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ohta, I.; Otani, C.; Richards, P. L.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Sekimoto, Y.; Shimizu, A.; Shinozaki, K.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, T.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takagi, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, K.
2012-09-01
LiteBIRD [Lite (Light) satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection] is a small satellite to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the full sky at large angular scales with unprecedented precision. Cosmological inflation, which is the leading hypothesis to resolve the problems in the Big Bang theory, predicts that primordial gravitational waves were created during the inflationary era. Measurements of polarization of the CMB radiation are known as the best probe to detect the primordial gravitational waves. The LiteBIRD working group is authorized by the Japanese Steering Committee for Space Science (SCSS) and is supported by JAXA. It has more than 50 members from Japan, USA and Canada. The scientific objective of LiteBIRD is to test all the representative inflation models that satisfy single-field slow-roll conditions and lie in the large-field regime. To this end, the requirement on the precision of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, at LiteBIRD is equal to or less than 0.001. Our baseline design adopts an array of multi-chroic superconducting polarimeters that are read out with high multiplexing factors in the frequency domain for a compact focal plane. The required sensitivity of 1.8μKarcmin is achieved with 2000 TES bolometers at 100mK. The cryogenic system is based on the Stirling/JT technology developed for SPICA, and the continuous ADR system shares the design with future X-ray satellites.
Minimal cutoff vacuum state constraints from CMB bispectrum statistics
Meerburg, P. Daniel; Schaar, Jan Pieter van der
2011-02-15
In this short note we translate the best available observational bounds on the CMB bispectrum amplitudes into constraints on a specific scale-invariant new physics hypersurface model of vacuum state modifications, as first proposed by Danielsson, in general models of single-field inflation. As compared to the power spectrum the bispectrum constraints are less ambiguous and provide an interesting upper bound on the cutoff scale in general models of single-field inflation with a small speed of sound. This upper bound is incompatible with the power spectrum constraint for most of the parameter domain, leaving very little room for minimal cutoff vacuum state modifications in general single-field models with a small speed of sound.
The effective gravitational decoupling between dark matter and the CMB
Voruz, Luc; Lesgourgues, Julien; Tram, Thomas E-mail: Julien.Lesgourgues@cern.ch
2014-03-01
e present a detailed and self-contained analytical derivation of the evolution of sub-horizon cosmological perturbations before decoupling, based on previous work by S. Weinberg. These solutions are valid in the minimal ΛCDM scenario, to first order in perturbation theory, in the tight-coupling limit and neglecting neutrino shear stress. We compare them to exact numerical solutions computed by a Boltzmann code, and we find the two to be in very good agreement. The analytic solutions show explicitly that CDM and the baryon-photon fluid effectively behave as separate self-gravitating fluids until the epoch of baryon drag. This in turn leads to the surprising conclusion that the CMB is much less sensitive to the clustering properties of minimally coupled Dark Matter models than what would be naively expected.
Optimal analysis of azimuthal features in the CMB
Osborne, Stephen; Senatore, Leonardo; Smith, Kendrick E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu
2013-10-01
We present algorithms for searching for azimuthally symmetric features in CMB data. Our algorithms are fully optimal for masked all-sky data with inhomogeneous noise, computationally fast, simple to implement, and make no approximations. We show how to implement the optimal analysis in both Bayesian and frequentist cases. In the Bayesian case, our algorithm for evaluating the posterior likelihood is so fast that we can do a brute-force search over parameter space, rather than using a Monte Carlo Markov chain. Our motivating example is searching for bubble collisions, a pre-inflationary signal which can be generated if multiple tunneling events occur in an eternally inflating spacetime, but our algorithms are general and should be useful in other contexts.
μ distortions or running: A guaranteed discovery from CMB spectrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabass, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico
2016-04-01
We discuss the implications of a PIXIE-like experiment, which would measure μ -type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a level of σμ=(1 /n )×10-8 , with n ≥1 representing an improved sensitivity (e.g. n =10 corresponds to PRISM). Using Planck data and considering the six-parameter Λ CDM model, we compute the posterior for μ8≡μ ×108 and find μ8=1.5 7-0.13+0.11 (68% C.L.). This becomes μ8=1.2 8-0.52+0.30 (68% C.L.) when the running αs of the spectral index is included. We point out that a sensitivity of about 3 ×PIXIE implies a guaranteed discovery: μ distortion is detected or αs≥0 is excluded (both at 95% C.L. or higher). This threshold sensitivity sets a clear benchmark for CMB spectrometry. For a combined analysis of PIXIE and current Planck data, we discuss the improvement on measurements of the tilt ns and the running αs and the dependence on the choice of the pivot. A fiducial running of αs=-0.01 (close to the Planck best fit) leads to a detection of negative running at 2 σ for 5 ×PIXIE . A fiducial running of αs=-0.02 , still compatible with Planck, requires 3 ×PIXIE to rule out αs=0 (at 95% C.L.). We propose a convenient and compact visualization of the improving constraints on the tilt, running and tensor-to-scalar ratio.
CMB quadrupole suppression. I. Initial conditions of inflationary perturbations
Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H. J. de; Sanchez, N. G.
2006-12-15
We investigate the issue of initial conditions of curvature and tensor perturbations at the beginning of slow roll inflation and their effect on the power spectra. Renormalizability and small backreaction constrain the high k behavior of the Bogoliubov coefficients that define these initial conditions. We introduce a transfer function D(k) which encodes the effect of generic initial conditions on the power spectra. The constraint from renormalizability and small backreaction entails that D(k)(less-or-similar sign){mu}{sup 2}/k{sup 2} for large k, implying that observable effects from initial conditions are more prominent in the low multipoles. This behavior affects the CMB quadrupole by the observed amount {approx}10%-20% when {mu} is of the order of the energy scale of inflation. The effects on high l-multipoles are suppressed by a factor {approx}1/l{sup 2} due to the falloff of D(k) for large wave vectors k. We show that the determination of generic initial conditions for the fluctuations is equivalent to the scattering problem by a potential V({eta}) localized just prior to the slow roll stage. Such potential leads to a transfer function D(k) which automatically obeys the renormalizability and small backreaction constraints. We find that an attractive potential V({eta}) yields a suppression of the lower CMB multipoles. Both for curvature and tensor modes, the quadrupole suppression depends only on the energy scale of V({eta}), and on the time interval where V({eta}) is nonzero. A suppression of the quadrupole for curvature perturbations consistent with the data is obtained when the scale of the potential is of the order of k{sub Q}{sup 2} where k{sub Q} is the wave vector whose physical wavelength is the Hubble radius today.
Phase-Controlled Polarization Modulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuss, D. T.; Wollack, E. J.; Novak, G.; Moseley, S. H.; Pisano, G.; Krejny, M.; U-Yen, K.
2012-01-01
We report technology development of millimeter/submillimeter polarization modulators that operate by introducing a a variable, controlled phase delay between two orthogonal polarization states. The variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) operates via the introduction of a variable phase delay between two linear orthogonal polarization states, resulting in a variable mapping of a single linear polarization into a combination of that Stokes parameter and circular (Stokes V) polarization. Characterization of a prototype VPM is presented at 350 and 3000 microns. We also describe a modulator in which a variable phase delay is introduced between right- and left- circular polarization states. In this architecture, linear polarization is fully modulated. Each of these devices consists of a polarization diplexer parallel to and in front of a movable mirror. Modulation involves sub-wavelength translations of the mirror that change the magnitude of the phase delay.
Imprint of inhomogeneous and anisotropic primordial power spectrum on CMB polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kothari, Rahul; Ghosh, Shamik; Rath, Pranati K.; Kashyap, Gopal; Jain, Pankaj
2016-08-01
We consider an inhomogeneous model and independently an anisotropic model of primordial power spectrum in order to describe the observed hemispherical anisotropy in cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This anisotropy can be parametrized in terms of the dipole modulation model of the temperature field. Both the models lead to correlations between spherical harmonic coefficients corresponding to multipoles, l and l ± 1. We obtain the model parameters by making a fit to TT correlations in CMBR data. Using these parameters we predict the signature of our models for correlations among different multipoles for the case of the TE and EE modes. These predictions can be used to test whether the observed hemispherical anisotropy can be correctly described in terms of a primordial power spectrum. Furthermore these may also allow us to distinguish between an inhomogeneous and an anisotropic model.
Kovac, J M; Leitch, E M; Pryke, C; Carlstrom, J E; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L
The past several years have seen the emergence of a standard cosmological model, in which small temperature differences in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on angular scales of the order of a degree are understood to arise from acoustic oscillations in the hot plasma of the early Universe, arising from primordial density fluctuations. Within the context of this model, recent measurements of the temperature fluctuations have led to profound conclusions about the origin, evolution and composition of the Universe. Using the measured temperature fluctuations, the theoretical framework predicts the level of polarization of the CMB with essentially no free parameters. Therefore, a measurement of the polarization is a critical test of the theory and thus of the validity of the cosmological parameters derived from the CMB measurements. Here we report the detection of polarization of the CMB with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI). The polarization is deteced with high confidence, and its level and spatial distribution are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the standard theory.
Self-Calibration of BICEP1 Three-Year Data and Constraints on Astrophysical Polarization Rotation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, J. P.; Miller, N. J.; Shimon, M.; Barkats, D.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Keating, B. G.; Kovac, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R.; Battle, J. O.; Bierman, E. M.; Bock, J. J.; Chiang, H. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Kernasovskiy, S. S.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.; Mason, P. V.
2014-01-01
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeters aspire to measure the faint B-mode signature predicted to arise from inflationary gravitational waves. They also have the potential to constrain cosmic birefringence, rotation of the polarization of the CMB arising from parity-violating physics, which would produce nonzero expectation values for the CMB's temperature to B-mode correlation (TB) and E-mode to B-mode correlation (EB) spectra. However, instrumental systematic effects can also cause these TB and EB correlations to be nonzero. In particular, an overall miscalibration of the polarization orientation of the detectors produces TB and EB spectra which are degenerate with isotropic cosmological birefringence, while also introducing a small but predictable bias on the BB spectrum. We find that BICEP1 three-year spectra, which use our standard calibration of detector polarization angles from a dielectric sheet, are consistent with a polarization rotation of alpha = -2.77deg +/- 0.86deg (statistical) +/- 1.3deg (systematic). We have revised the estimate of systematic error on the polarization rotation angle from the two-year analysis by comparing multiple calibration methods. We also account for the (negligible) impact of measured beam systematic effects. We investigate the polarization rotation for the BICEP1 100 GHz and 150 GHz bands separately to investigate theoretical models that produce frequency-dependent cosmic birefringence. We find no evidence in the data supporting either of these models or Faraday rotation of the CMB polarization by the Milky Way galaxy's magnetic field. If we assume that there is no cosmic birefringence, we can use the TB and EB spectra to calibrate detector polarization orientations, thus reducing bias of the cosmological B-mode spectrum from leaked E-modes due to possible polarization orientation miscalibration. After applying this "self-calibration" process, we find that the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio decreases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchini, F.; Lapi, A.; Calabrese, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Danese, L.; de Zotti, G.; Bourne, N.; Cooray, A.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Valiante, E.
2016-07-01
We present an improved and extended analysis of the cross-correlation between the map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential derived from the Planck mission data and the high-redshift galaxies detected by the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) in the photometric redshift range {z}{{ph}}≥slant 1.5. We compare the results based on the 2013 and 2015 Planck datasets, and investigate the impact of different selections of the H-ATLAS galaxy samples. Significant improvements over our previous analysis have been achieved thanks to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of the new CMB lensing map recently released by the Planck collaboration. The effective galaxy bias parameter, b, for the full galaxy sample, derived from a joint analysis of the cross-power spectrum and of the galaxy auto-power spectrum is found to be b={3.54}-0.14+0.15. Furthermore, a first tomographic analysis of the cross-correlation signal is implemented by splitting the galaxy sample into two redshift intervals: 1.5≤slant {z}{{ph}}\\lt 2.1 and {z}{{ph}}≥slant 2.1. A statistically significant signal was found for both bins, indicating a substantial increase with redshift of the bias parameter: b=2.89+/- 0.23 for the lower and b={4.75}-0.25+0.24 for the higher redshift bin. Consistent with our previous analysis, we find that the amplitude of the cross-correlation signal is a factor of {1.45}-0.13+0.14 higher than expected from the standard ΛCDM model for the assumed redshift distribution. The robustness of our results against possible systematic effects has been extensively discussed, although the tension is mitigated by passing from 4 to 3σ.
Using White Dish CMB Anisotropy Data to Probe Open and Flat-A CDM Cosmogonies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ratra, Bharat; Ganga, Ken; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tucker, G. S.; Griffin, G. S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Peterson, J. B.
1997-01-01
In this paper we present a similar analysis of the Tucker at al. (1993, hereafter T93) White Dish CMB anisotropy data collected at the South Pole. The white dish detector and telescope are described in Tucker et al. (1994).
Battaglia, N.; Natarajan, A.; Trac, H.; Cen, R.; Loeb, A.
2013-10-20
We present new predictions for cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature (on small angular scales) and polarization (on large angular scales) anisotropies induced during the epoch of reionization (EoR). Using a novel method calibrated from radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we model the EoR in large volumes (L ∼> 2 Gpc h {sup –1}). We find that the EoR contribution to the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich power spectrum (patchy kSZ) ranges between ∼0.6-2.8 μK{sup 2} at l = 3000 for the explored parameter space. For each model, the patchy kSZ power spectrum is calculated from three large 15° × 15° maps for better numerical convergence. Decreasing the size of these maps biases the overall patchy kSZ power to higher values. We find that the amplitude of the patchy kSZ power spectrum at l = 3000 follows simple scalings of D{sub l=3000}{sup kSZ}∝ z-bar and D{sub l=3000}{sup kSZ}∝Δ{sub z}{sup 0.51} for the mean redshift ( z-bar ) and duration (Δ{sub z}) of reionization. Using the constraints on z-bar from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe seven year results and the lower limit on Δ{sub z} from EDGES, we find a lower limit of ∼0.4 μK{sup 2} at l = 3000. Planck will infer the mean redshift from the Thomson optical depth imprinted in the low-l polarization power spectrum. Future measurements of the high-l CMB power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and South Pole Telescope should detect the patchy kSZ signal if the cross correlation between the thermal SZ effect and the cosmic infrared background is constrained. We show that the combination of temperature and polarization measurements constrains both z-bar and Δ{sub z}. The patchy kSZ maps, power spectra templates, and the polarization power spectra will be publicly available.
Large-scale anomalies of the CMB in the curvaton scenario
Liu, Hao; Frejsel, Anne Mette; Naselsky, Pavel E-mail: frejsel@nbi.dk
2013-07-01
We extend the curvaton scenario presented by Erickcek et al. [1,2], to explain how the even-odd multipole asymmetry of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) (also called parity asymmetry, [3,4]) and power anisotropies can be generated by the curvaton field, which acts as an extra component to the spectrum of adiabatic perturbations in the inflationary epoch. Our work provides a possible cosmic explanation to the CMB large-scale asymmetry problems besides systematics and unknown residuals.
Cao, F. J.; Vega, H. J. de; Sanchez, N. G.
2008-10-15
Quantum fast-roll initial conditions for the inflaton which are different from the classical fast-roll conditions and from the quantum slow-roll conditions can lead to inflation that lasts long enough. These quantum fast-roll initial conditions for the inflaton allow for kinetic energies of the same order of the potential energies and nonperturbative inflaton modes with nonzero wave numbers. Their evolution starts with a transitory epoch where the redshift due to the expansion succeeds to assemble the quantum excited modes of the inflaton in a homogeneous (zero mode) condensate, and the large value of the Hubble parameter succeeds to overdamp the fast roll of the redshifted inflaton modes. After this transitory stage the effective classical slow-roll epoch is reached. Most of the e-folds are produced during the slow-roll epoch, and we recover the classical slow-roll results for the scalar and tensor metric perturbations plus corrections. These corrections are important if scales which are horizon size today exited the horizon by the end of the transitory stage and, as a consequence, the lower cosmic microwave background (CMB) multipoles get suppressed or enhanced. Both for scalar and tensor metric perturbations, fast roll leads to a suppression of the amplitude of the perturbations (and of the low CMB multipoles), while the quantum precondensate epoch gives an enhancement of the amplitude of the perturbations (and of the low CMB multipoles). These two types of corrections can compete and combine in a scale dependent manner. They turn out to be smaller in new inflation than in chaotic inflation. These corrections arise as natural consequences of the quantum nonperturbative inflaton dynamics, and can allow a further improvement of the fitting of inflation plus the {lambda}CMB model to the observed CMB spectra. In addition, the corrections to the tensor metric perturbations will provide an independent test of this model. Thus, the effects of quantum inflaton fast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzmin, R. O.; Zabalueva, E. V.; Evdokimova, N. A.; Christensen, P. R.
2012-11-01
Analysis of seasonal data from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) shows a significant increase in thermal inertia during autumn, winter and spring in the middle and high latitudes of Mars. At each stage of the northern seasonal polar cap's recession in spring a distinct high thermal inertia (HTI) annulus arises around the cap's edge. Within this annulus, we estimated and mapped the springtime water ice content in the daily thermal skin depth layer using spring and summer values of the thermal inertia in TES surface footprints. The results show that the average water content in the surface soil within the HTI annulus varies from ˜5 vol % at the early stages of the seasonal polar cap retreating (Ls = 340°-360°) to ˜1 vol % at later stages (Ls = 60°-70°). Maximum values of water ice content within the HTI annulus occur at Ls = 0°-20° (2-6 vol %) and Ls = 20°-40° (4-10 vol %). We analyzed the temporal and spatial relationship between the HTI annuli and the water ice (WI) annuli at the edge of the northern seasonal polar cap. The water ice within the WI annuli was mapped using a water ice spectral index (the absorption band depth at the 1.5 μm wavelength) derived from the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité) imaging spectrometer aboard the Mars Express spacecraft. Recent OMEGA observations show that the WI annuli formation arises only around the retreating northern seasonal polar cap, never around the retreating southern seasonal cap. For this reason our study is confined only to the northern hemisphere. The observed relationship between the HTI and WI annuli in the northern hemisphere of Mars indicates a close physical interdependence between these two phenomena. Our results confirm that the seasonal permafrost exposed by the retreating northern polar cap (within the HTI annuli) is actively involved today in the condensation and sublimation processes in the modern water cycle on Mars. The water
Bias to CMB lensing measurements from the bispectrum of large-scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böhm, Vanessa; Schmittfull, Marcel; Sherwin, Blake D.
2016-08-01
The rapidly improving precision of measurements of gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) also requires a corresponding increase in the precision of theoretical modeling. A commonly made approximation is to model the CMB deflection angle or lensing potential as a Gaussian random field. In this paper, however, we analytically quantify the influence of the non-Gaussianity of large-scale structure (LSS) lenses, arising from nonlinear structure formation, on CMB lensing measurements. In particular, evaluating the impact of the nonzero bispectrum of large-scale structure on the relevant CMB four-point correlation functions, we find that there is a bias to estimates of the CMB lensing power spectrum. For temperature-based lensing reconstruction with CMB stage III and stage IV experiments, we find that this lensing power spectrum bias is negative and is of order 1% of the signal. This corresponds to a shift of multiple standard deviations for these upcoming experiments. We caution, however, that our numerical calculation only evaluates two of the largest bias terms and, thus, only provides an approximate estimate of the full bias. We conclude that further investigation into lensing biases from nonlinear structure formation is required and that these biases should be accounted for in future lensing analyses.
A LEKID-based CMB instrument design for large-scale observations in Greenland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araujo, D. C.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bond, J. R.; Bradford, K. J.; Chapman, D.; Che, G.; Day, P. K.; Didier, J.; Doyle, S.; Eriksen, H. K.; Flanigan, D.; Groppi, C. E.; Hillbrand, Seth N.; Johnson, B. R.; Jones, G.; Limon, Michele; Miller, A. D.; Mauskopf, P.; McCarrick, H.; Mroczkowski, T.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Smiley, B.; Sobrin, Joshua; Wehus, I. K.; Zmuidzinas, J.
2014-08-01
We present the results of a feasibility study, which examined deployment of a ground-based millimeter-wave polarimeter, tailored for observing the cosmic microwave background (CMB), to Isi Station in Greenland. The instrument for this study is based on lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) and an F/2.4 catoptric, crossed-Dragone telescope with a 500 mm aperture. The telescope is mounted inside the receiver and cooled to < 4 K by a closed-cycle 4He refrigerator to reduce background loading on the detectors. Linearly polarized signals from the sky are modulated with a metal-mesh half-wave plate that is rotated at the aperture stop of the telescope with a hollow-shaft motor based on a superconducting magnetic bearing. The modular detector array design includes at least 2300 LEKIDs, and it can be configured for spectral bands centered on 150 GHz or greater. Our study considered configurations for observing in spectral bands centered on 150, 210 and 267 GHz. The entire polarimeter is mounted on a commercial precision rotary air bearing, which allows fast azimuth scan speeds with negligible vibration and mechanical wear over time. A slip ring provides power to the instrument, enabling circular scans (360 degrees of continuous rotation). This mount, when combined with sky rotation and the latitude of the observation site, produces a hypotrochoid scan pattern, which yields excellent cross-linking and enables 34% of the sky to be observed using a range of constant elevation scans. This scan pattern and sky coverage combined with the beam size (15 arcmin at 150 GHz) makes the instrument sensitive to 5 < ` < 1000 in the angular power spectra.
Cosmic bandits: Exploration versus exploitation in CMB B-mode experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc
2016-02-01
A preferred method to detect the curl-component, or B-mode, signature of inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs) in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization, in the absence of foregrounds and lensing, is a prolonged integration over a single patch of sky of a few square degrees. In practice, however, foregrounds abound and the sensitivity to B modes can be improved considerably by finding the region of sky cleanest of foregrounds. The best strategy to detect B modes thus involves a tradeoff between exploration (to find lower-foreground patches) and exploitation (through prolonged integration). This problem is akin to the multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem in probability theory, wherein a gambler faces a series of slot machines with unknown winning odds and must develop a strategy to maximize his/her winnings with some finite number of pulls. While the optimal MAB strategy remains to be determined, a number of algorithms have been developed in an effort to maximize the winnings. Here, based on this resemblance, we tackle the search for IGW B modes with single frequency experiments in the presence of spatially varying foregrounds by developing adaptive survey strategies to optimize the sensitivity to IGW B modes. We demonstrate, using realistic foreground models and taking lensing-induced B modes into account, that adaptive experiments can substantially improve the upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio (by factors of 2 and 3 in single frequency experiments, and possibly even more). Similar techniques can be applied to other surveys, including 21-cm measurements of signatures of the epoch of reionization, searches for a stochastic primordial gravitational wave background, deep-field imaging by the James Webb Space Telescope or various radio interferometers, and transient follow-up searches.
Titan Polar Landscape Evolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Jeffrey M.
2016-01-01
With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.
CMB lensing tomography with the DES Science Verification galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giannantonio, T.; Fosalba, P.; Cawthon, R.; Omori, Y.; Crocce, M.; Elsner, F.; Leistedt, B.; Dodelson, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Gaztañaga, E.; Holder, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Percival, W. J.; Kirk, D.; Bauer, A. H.; Benson, B. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Carretero, J.; Crawford, T. M.; Crittenden, R.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; Krause, E.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ross, A. J.; Simard, G.; Soergel, B.; Stark, A.; Story, K. T.; Vieira, J. D.; Weller, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C. L.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.
2016-03-01
We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck , respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of the signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the Λ cold dark matter Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.
CMB lensing tomography with the DES Science Verification galaxies
Giannantonio, T.
2016-01-07
We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of themore » signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the LCDM Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.« less
The CMB and the measure of the multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salem, Michael P.
2012-06-01
In the context of eternal inflation, cosmological predictions depend on the choice of measure to regulate the diverging spacetime volume. The spectrum of inflationary perturbations is no exception, as we demonstrate by comparing the predictions of the fat geodesic and causal patch measures. To highlight the effect of the measure — as opposed to any effects related to a possible landscape of vacua — we take the cosmological model, including the model of inflation, to be fixed. We also condition on the average CMB temperature accompanying the measurement. Both measures predict a 1-point expectation value for the gauge-invariant Newtonian potential, which takes the form of a (scale-dependent) monopole, in addition to a related contribution to the 3-point correlation function, with the detailed form of these quantities differing between the measures. However, for both measures both effects are well within cosmic variance. Our results make clear the theoretical relevance of the measure, and at the same time validate the standard inflationary predictions in the context of eternal inflation.
Extragalactic foreground contamination in temperature-based CMB lens reconstruction
Osborne, Stephen J.; Hanson, Duncan; Doré, Olivier E-mail: dhanson@physics.mcgill.ca
2014-03-01
We discuss the effect of unresolved point source contamination on estimates of the CMB lensing potential, from components such as the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, radio point sources, and the Cosmic Infrared Background. We classify the possible trispectra associated with such source populations, and construct estimators for the amplitude and scale-dependence of several of the major trispectra. We show how to propagate analytical models for these source trispectra to biases for lensing. We also construct a ''source-hardened'' lensing estimator which experiences significantly smaller biases when exposed to unresolved point sources than the standard quadratic lensing estimator. We demonstrate these ideas in practice using the sky simulations of Sehgal et al., for cosmic-variance limited experiments designed to mimic ACT, SPT, and Planck. We find that for radio sources and SZ the bias is significantly reduced, but for CIB it is essentially unchanged. However, by using the high-frequency, all-sky CIB measurements from Planck and Herschel it may be possible to suppress this contribution.
Oscillations in the CMB from Axion Monodromy Inflation
Flauger, Raphael; McAllister, Liam; Pajer, Enrico; Westphal, Alexander; Xu, Gang; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.
2011-12-01
We study the CMB observables in axion monodromy inflation. These well-motivated scenarios for inflation in string theory have monomial potentials over super-Planckian field ranges, with superimposed sinusoidal modulations from instanton effects. Such periodic modulations of the potential can drive resonant enhancements of the correlation functions of cosmological perturbations, with characteristic modulations of the amplitude as a function of wavenumber. We give an analytical result for the scalar power spectrum in this class of models, and we determine the limits that present data places on the amplitude and frequency of modulations. Then, incorporating an improved understanding of the realization of axion monodromy inflation in string theory, we perform a careful study of microphysical constraints in this scenario. We find that detectable modulations of the scalar power spectrum are commonplace in well-controlled examples, while resonant contributions to the bispectrum are undetectable in some classes of examples and detectable in others. We conclude that resonant contributions to the spectrum and bispectrum are a characteristic signature of axion monodromy inflation that, in favorable cases, could be detected in near-future experiments.
Model-independent cosmological constraints from the CMB
Vonlanthen, Marc; Räsänen, Syksy; Durrer, Ruth E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi
2010-08-01
We analyse CMB data in a manner which is as independent as possible of the model of late-time cosmology. We encode the effects of late-time cosmology into a single parameter which determines the distance to the last scattering surface. We exclude low multipoles l < 40 from the analysis. We consider the WMAP5 and ACBAR data. We obtain the cosmological parameters 100ω{sub b} = 2.13±0.05, ω{sub c} = 0.124±0.007, n{sub s} = 0.93±0.02 and θ{sub A} = 0.593°±0.001° (68% C.L.). The last number is the angular scale subtended by the sound horizon at decoupling. There is a systematic shift in the parameters as more low l data are omitted, towards smaller values of ω{sub b} and n{sub s} and larger values of ω{sub c}. The scale θ{sub A} remains stable and very well determined.
Oscillations in the CMB from axion monodromy inflation
Flauger, Raphael; McAllister, Liam; Pajer, Enrico; Xu, Gang; Westphal, Alexander E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu E-mail: awestpha@stanford.edu
2010-06-01
We study the CMB observables in axion monodromy inflation. These well-motivated scenarios for inflation in string theory have monomial potentials over super-Planckian field ranges, with superimposed sinusoidal modulations from instanton effects. Such periodic modulations of the potential can drive resonant enhancements of the correlation functions of cosmological perturbations, with characteristic modulations of the amplitude as a function of wavenumber. We give an analytical result for the scalar power spectrum in this class of models, and we determine the limits that present data places on the amplitude and frequency of modulations. Then, incorporating an improved understanding of the realization of axion monodromy inflation in string theory, we perform a careful study of microphysical constraints in this scenario. We find that detectable modulations of the scalar power spectrum are commonplace in well-controlled examples, while resonant contributions to the bispectrum are undetectable in some classes of examples and detectable in others. We conclude that resonant contributions to the spectrum and bispectrum are a characteristic signature of axion monodromy inflation that, in favorable cases, could be detected in near-future experiments.
String theory clues for the low-ℓ CMB ?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitazawa, N.; Sagnotti, A.
2015-05-01
"Brane Supersymmetry Breaking" is a peculiar string-scale mechanism that can unpair Bose and Fermi excitations in orientifold models. It results from the simultaneous presence, in the vacuum, of collections of D-branes and orientifolds that are not mutually BPS, and is closely tied to the scale of string excitations. It also leaves behind, for a mixing of dilaton and internal breathing mode, an exponential potential that is just too steep for a scalar to emerge from the initial singularity while descending it. As a result, in this class of models the scalar can generically bounce off the exponential wall, and this dynamics brings along, in the power spectrum, an infrared depression typically followed by a pre-inflationary peak. We elaborate on a possible link between this type of bounce and the low-ℓ end of the CMB angular power spectrum. For the first 32 multipoles, one can reach a 50% reduction in χ2 with respect to the standard ΛCDM setting.
Optimal estimator for resonance bispectra in the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Münchmeyer, Moritz; Meerburg, P. Daniel; Wandelt, Benjamin D.
2015-02-01
We propose an (optimal) estimator for a CMB bispectrum containing logarithmically spaced oscillations. There is tremendous theoretical interest in such bispectra, and they are predicted by a plethora of models, including axion monodromy models of inflation and initial state modifications. The number of resolved logarithmical oscillations in the bispectrum is limited due to the discrete resolution of the multipole bispectrum. We derive a simple relation between the maximum number of resolved oscillations and the frequency. We investigate several ways to factorize the primordial bispectrum, and conclude that a one-dimensional expansion in the sum of the momenta ∑ki=kt is the most efficient and flexible approach. We compare the expansion to the exact result in multipole space and show for ωeff=100 that O (1 03) modes are sufficient for an accurate reconstruction. We compute the expected σfNL and find that within an effective field theory (EFT) the overall signal to noise scales as S /N ∝ω3 /2. Using only the temperature data we find S /N ˜O (1 - 1 02) for the frequency domain set by the EFT.
Do we care about the distance to the CMB? Clarifying the impact of second-order lensing
Bonvin, Camille; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Maartens, Roy; Umeh, Obinna E-mail: chris.clarkson@gmail.com E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com
2015-06-01
It has recently been shown that second-order corrections to the background distance-redshift relation can build up significantly at large redshifts, due to an aggregation of gravitational lensing events. This shifts the expectation value of the distance to the CMB by 1%. In this paper we show that this shift is already properly accounted for in standard CMB analyses. We clarify the role that the area distance to the CMB plays in the presence of second-order lensing corrections.
Smith, Tristan L.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Cooray, Asantha
2006-06-15
A detection of the primordial gravitational wave background is considered to be the 'smoking-gun' evidence for inflation. While superhorizon waves are probed with cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization, the relic background will be studied with laser interferometers. The long lever arm spanned by the two techniques improves constraints on the inflationary potential and validation of consistency relations expected under inflation. If gravitational waves with a tensor-to-scalar amplitude ratio greater than 0.01 are detected by the CMB, then a direct-detection experiment with a sensitivity consistent with current concept studies should be pursued vigorously. If no primordial tensors are detected by the CMB, a direct-detection experiment to understand the simplest form of inflation must have a sensitivity improved by two to 3 orders of magnitude over current plans.
The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuss, David T.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary; Irwin, Kent; Jackson, Michael L.; Jah, Muzariatu A.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine; Kogut, Alan J.; Lowe, Luke; McCullagh, Nuala; Miller, Timothy; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer
2010-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is it balloon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (C-N-113). Each flight will be configured for a single frequency, but in order to aid in the removal of the polarized foreground signal due to Galactic dust, the filters will be changed between flights. In this way, the CMB polarization at a total of four different frequencies (200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz) will be, measured on large angular scales. PIPER consists of a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 x 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the linear Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive. There are several advantages to this architecture. First, by modulating at the front of the optics, instrumental polarization is unmodulated and is therefore cleanly separated from source polarization. Second, by implementing this system with the appropriate symmetry, systematic effects can be further mitigated. In the PIPER design, many of the. systematics are manifest in the unmeasured linear Stokes parameter for each telescope and this can be separated from the desired signal. Finally, the modulation cycle never mixes the Q and U linear Stokes parameters, and thus residuals in the modulation do not twist the observed polarization vector. This is advantageous because measuring the angle of linear polarization is critical for separating the inflationary signal from other polarized components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Suvodip; Souradeep, Tarun
2016-06-01
Recent measurements of the temperature field of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide tantalizing evidence for violation of statistical isotropy (SI) that constitutes a fundamental tenet of contemporary cosmology. CMB space based missions, WMAP, and Planck have observed a 7% departure in the SI temperature field at large angular scales. However, due to higher cosmic variance at low multipoles, the significance of this measurement is not expected to improve from any future CMB temperature measurements. We demonstrate that weak lensing of the CMB due to scalar perturbations produces a corresponding SI violation in B modes of CMB polarization at smaller angular scales. The measurability of this phenomenon depends upon the scales (l range) over which power asymmetry is present. Power asymmetry, which is restricted only to l <64 in the temperature field, cannot lead to any significant observable effect from this new window. However, this effect can put an independent bound on the spatial range of scales of hemispherical asymmetry present in the scalar sector.
Mukherjee, Suvodip; Souradeep, Tarun
2016-06-01
Recent measurements of the temperature field of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide tantalizing evidence for violation of statistical isotropy (SI) that constitutes a fundamental tenet of contemporary cosmology. CMB space based missions, WMAP, and Planck have observed a 7% departure in the SI temperature field at large angular scales. However, due to higher cosmic variance at low multipoles, the significance of this measurement is not expected to improve from any future CMB temperature measurements. We demonstrate that weak lensing of the CMB due to scalar perturbations produces a corresponding SI violation in B modes of CMB polarization at smaller angular scales. The measurability of this phenomenon depends upon the scales (l range) over which power asymmetry is present. Power asymmetry, which is restricted only to l<64 in the temperature field, cannot lead to any significant observable effect from this new window. However, this effect can put an independent bound on the spatial range of scales of hemispherical asymmetry present in the scalar sector. PMID:27314711
Observing the structure of the landscape with the CMB experiments
Ashoorioon, Amjad
2010-04-01
Assuming that inflation happened through a series of tunneling in the string theory landscape, it is argued that one can determine the structure of vacua using precise measurements of the scalar spectral index and tensor perturbations at large scales. It is shown that for a vacuum structure where the energy gap between the minima is constant, i.e. ε{sub i} = im{sub f}{sup 4}, one obtains the scalar spectral index, n{sub s}, to be ≅ 0.9687, for the modes that exit the horizon 60 e-folds before the end of inflation. Alternatively, for a vacuum structure in which the energy gap increases linearly with the vacuum index, i.e. ε{sub i} = ½i{sup 2}m{sub f}{sup 4}, n{sub s} turns out to be ≅ 0.9614. Both these two models are motivated within the string theory landscape using flux-compactification and their predictions for scalar spectral index are compatible with WMAP results. For both these two models, the results for the scalar spectral index turn out to be independent of m{sub f}. Nonetheless, assuming that inflation started at Planckian energies and that there had been successful thermalization at each step, one can constrain m{sub f} < 2.6069 × 10{sup −5}m{sub P} and m{sub f} < 6.5396 × 10{sup −7}m{sub P} in these two models, respectively. Violation of the single-field consistency relation between the tensor and scalar spectra is another prediction of chain inflation models. This corresponds to having a smaller tensor/scalar ratio at large scales in comparison with the slow-roll counterparts. Similar to slow-roll inflation, it is argued that one can reconstruct the vacuum structure using the CMB experiments.
Modified gravity: the CMB, weak lensing and general parameterisations
Thomas, Shaun A.; Appleby, Stephen A.; Weller, Jochen E-mail: stephen.appleby@ph.tum.de
2011-03-01
We examine general physical parameterisations for viable gravitational models in the f(R) framework. This is related to the mass of an additional scalar field, called the scalaron, that is introduced by the theories. Using a simple parameterisation for the scalaron mass M(a) we show there is an exact correspondence between the model and popular parameterisations of the modified Poisson equation μ(a,k) and the ratio of the Newtonian potentials η(a,k). We argue that although f(R) models are well described by the general [μ(a,k),η(a,k)] parameterization, specific functional forms of μ,η in the literature do not accurately represent f(R) behaviour, specifically at low redshift. We subsequently construct an improved description for the scalaron mass (and therefore μ(a,k) and η(a,k)) which captures their essential features and has benefits derived from a more physical origin. We study the scalaron's observational signatures and show the modification to the background Friedmann equation and CMB power spectrum to be small. We also investigate its effects in the linear and non linear matter power spectrum-where the signatures are evident-thus giving particular importance to weak lensing as a probe of these models. Using this new form, we demonstrate how the next generation Euclid survey will constrain these theories and its complementarity to current solar system tests. In the most optimistic case Euclid, together with a Planck prior, can constrain a fiducial scalaron mass M{sub 0} = 9.4 × 10{sup −30}eV at the ∼ 20% level. However, the decay rate of the scalaron mass, with fiducial value ν = 1.5, can be constrained to ∼ 3% uncertainty.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurwitz, D. M.; Head, J. W.
2009-01-01
Geologic mapping of Snegurochka Planitia (V-1) reveals a complex stratigraphy of tectonic and volcanic features that can provide insight into the geologic history of Venus and Archean Earth [1,2], including 1) episodes of both localized crustal uplift and mantle downwelling, 2) shifts from local to regional volcanic activity, and 3) a shift back to local volcanic activity. We present our progress in mapping the spatial and stratigraphic relationships of material units and our initial interpretations of the tectonic and volcanic history of the region surrounding the north pole of Venus
Nagler, Peter C.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan
2015-11-15
The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both of these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing FTSs, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS—emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects—and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagler, Peter C.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan; Tucker, Gregory S.
2015-11-01
The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both of these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing FTSs, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS—emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects—and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.
Measuring the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization with SPT-POL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crites, Abigail; SPT-POL Collaboration
2013-01-01
A new polarization-sensitive camera, SPT-POL, designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), was deployed on the 10 meter South Pole Telescope in January 2012. The goal of the project is to exploit the high resolution of the telescope (1 arcminute beam) and the high sensitivity afforded by the 1536 detector camera to characterize the B-mode polarization induced by the gravitational lensing of the primordial E-mode CMB polarization, as well as to detect or set an upper limit on the level of the B-mode polarization from inflationary gravitational waves. The lensing B-modes will be used to constrain the sum of the neutrino masses by measuring large scale structure, while the inflationary B-modes are sensitive to the energy scale of inflation. I will discuss the development of the SPT-POL camera including the cryogenic design and the transition edge sensor (TES) detectors as well as the science goals and status of the ongoing of the SPT-POL program.
Pearson's random walk in the space of the CMB phases: Evidence for parity asymmetry
Hansen, M.; Frejsel, A. M.; Kim, J.; Naselsky, P.; Nesti, F.
2011-05-15
The temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are supposed to be distributed randomly in both magnitude and phase, following to the simplest model of inflation. In this paper, we look at the odd and even multipoles of the spherical harmonic decomposition of the CMB, and the different characteristics of these, giving rise to a parity asymmetry. We compare the even and odd multipoles in the CMB power spectrum, and also the even and odd mean angles. We find for the multipoles of the power spectrum that there is power excess in odd multipoles, compared to even ones, meaning that we have a parity asymmetry. Further, for the phases, we present a random walk for the mean angles, and find a significant separation for even/odd mean angles, especially so for galactic coordinates. This is further tested and confirmed with a directional parity test, comparing the parity asymmetry in galactic and ecliptic coordinates.
Full-sky lensing reconstruction of gradient and curl modes from CMB maps
Namikawa, Toshiya; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Taruya, Atsushi E-mail: yamauchi@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2012-01-01
We present a method of lensing reconstruction on the full sky, by extending the optimal quadratic estimator proposed by Okamoto and Hu (2003) to the case including the curl mode of deflection angle. The curl mode is induced by the vector and tensor metric perturbations, and the reconstruction of the curl mode would be a powerful tool to not only check systematics in the estimated gradient mode but also probe any vector and tensor sources. We find that the gradient and curl modes can be reconstructed separately, thanks to the distinctive feature in the parity symmetry between the gradient and curl modes. We compare our estimator with the flat-sky estimator proposed by Cooray et al (2005). Based on the new formalism, the expected signal-to-noise ratio of the curl mode produced by the primordial gravitational-waves and a specific model of cosmic strings are estimated, and prospects for future observations are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Head, James W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Kumar, P. Senthil
2008-01-01
The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by perspectives from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new insight into both. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures and Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by sub