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Sample records for cmos compatible magnetometers

  1. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Justin A.; Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A.; Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  2. A CMOS compatible, ferroelectric tunnel junction.

    PubMed

    Ambriz Vargas, Fabian; Kolhatkar, Gitanjali; Broyer, Maxime; Hadj Youssef, Azza; Nouar, Rafik; Sarkissian, Andranik; Thomas, Reji; Gomez-Yanez, Carlos; Gauthier, Marc A; Ruediger, Andreas

    2017-04-03

    In recent years, the experimental demonstration of Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions (FTJ) based on perovskite tunnel barriers has been reported. However, integrating these perovskite materials into conventional silicon memory technology remains challenging due to their lack of compatibility with the complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS). The present communication reports the fabrication of an FTJ based on a CMOS compatible tunnel barrier Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 (6 unit cells thick) on an equally CMOS compatible TiN electrode. Analysis of the FTJ by grazing angle incidence X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of the non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic phase (Pbc2_1, ferroelectric phase). The FTJ characterization is followed by the reconstruction of the electrostatic potential profile in the as-grown TiN/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2/Pt heterostructure. A direct tunneling current model across a trapezoidal barrier was used to correlate the electronic and electrical properties of our FTJ devices. The good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical model attests to the tunneling electroresistance effect (TER) in our FTJ device. A TER ratio of ~15 was calculated for the present FTJ device at low read voltage (+0.2 V). This study makes Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 a promising candidate for integration into conventional Si memory technology.

  3. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Alexander; Windbacher, Thomas; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    For many decades CMOS devices have been successfully scaled down to achieve higher speed and increased performance of integrated circuits at lower cost. Today’s charge-based CMOS electronics encounters two major challenges: power dissipation and variability. Spintronics is a rapidly evolving research and development field, which offers a potential solution to these issues by introducing novel ‘more than Moore’ devices. Spin-based magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is already recognized as one of the most promising candidates for future universal memory. Magnetic tunnel junctions, the main elements of MRAM cells, can also be used to build logic-in-memory circuits with non-volatile storage elements on top of CMOS logic circuits, as well as versatile compact on-chip oscillators with low power consumption. We give an overview of CMOS-compatible spintronics applications. First, we present a brief introduction to the physical background considering such effects as magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque (STT), spin Hall effect, and magnetoelectric effects. We continue with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art spintronic devices for memory applications (STT-MRAM, domain wall-motion MRAM, and spin-orbit torque MRAM), oscillators (spin torque oscillators and spin Hall nano-oscillators), logic (logic-in-memory, all-spin logic, and buffered magnetic logic gate grid), sensors, and random number generators. Devices with different types of resistivity switching are analyzed and compared, with their advantages highlighted and challenges revealed. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices are demonstrated beginning with predictive simulations, proceeding to their experimental confirmation and realization, and finalized by the current status of application in modern integrated systems and circuits. We conclude the review with an outlook, where we share our vision on the future applications of the prospective devices in the area.

  4. Photonic circuits integrated with CMOS compatible photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Dana; Craciunoiu, F.; Modreanu, M.; Caldararu, M.; Cernica, I.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents the integration of photodetectors and photonic circuits (waveguides and interferometers, coupling elements and chemo-optical transducing layer) on one silicon chip. Different materials: silicon, doped or undoped silica, SiO xN y, polymers, and different technologies: LPCVD, APCVD, sol-gel, spinning, micromachining have been used to realize the photonic and micromechanical components and the transducers. Also, MOS compatible processes have been used for optoelectronic circuits. The attention was focused on the matching of all the involved technologies, to allow the monolithic integration of all components, and also on the design and fabrication of special structures of photodetectors. Two types of high responsivity photodetectors, a photo-FET and a bipolar NPN phototransistor, with modified structures that allow the optical coupling to the waveguides have been designed and experimented. An original 3-D model was developed for the system: opto-FET-coupler-waveguide. A test circuit for sensor applications was experimented. All the components of the test circuits, photodetectors, waveguides, couplers, were obtained using CMOS-compatible processes. The aim of our research activity was to obtain microsensors with optical read-out.

  5. Improving CMOS-compatible Germanium photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Luo, Ying; Zheng, Xuezhe; Masini, Gianlorenzo; Mekis, Attila; Sahni, Subal; Thacker, Hiren; Yao, Jin; Shubin, Ivan; Raj, Kannan; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V

    2012-11-19

    We report design improvements for evanescently coupled Germanium photodetectors grown at low temperature. The resulting photodetectors with 10 μm Ge length manufactured in a commercial CMOS process achieve >0.8 A/W responsivity over the entire C-band, with a device capacitance of <7 fF based on measured data.

  6. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chunle; Bell, Bryn; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2016-09-01

    Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon) and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  7. IGBT scaling principle toward CMOS compatible wafer processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Omura, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    A scaling principle for trench gate IGBT is proposed. CMOS technology on large diameter wafer enables to produce various digital circuits with higher performance and lower cost. The transistor cell structure becomes laterally smaller and smaller and vertically shallower and shallower. In contrast, latest IGBTs have rather deeper trench structure to obtain lower on-state voltage drop and turn-off loss. In the aspect of the process uniformity and wafer warpage, manufacturing such structure in the CMOS factory is difficult. In this paper, we show the scaling principle toward shallower structure and better performance. The principle is theoretically explained by our previously proposed "Structure Oriented" analytical model. The principle represents a possibility of technology direction and roadmap for future IGBT for improving the device performance consistent with lower cost and high volume productivity with CMOS compatible large diameter wafer technologies.

  8. Aluminum nitride on titanium for CMOS compatible piezoelectric transducers

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Joseph C; Petzold, Bryan C; Ninan, Biju; Mullapudi, Ravi; Pruitt, Beth L

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are widely used for microscale sensors and actuators but can pose material compatibility challenges. This paper reports a post-CMOS compatible fabrication process for piezoelectric sensors and actuators on silicon using only standard CMOS metals. The piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited on titanium (Ti) by reactive sputtering are characterized and microcantilever actuators are demonstrated. The film texture of the polycrystalline Ti and AlN films is improved by removing the native oxide from the silicon substrate in situ and sequentially depositing the films under vacuum to provide a uniform growth surface. The piezoelectric properties for several AlN film thicknesses are measured using laser doppler vibrometry on unpatterned wafers and released cantilever beams. The film structure and properties are shown to vary with thickness, with values of d33f, d31 and d33 of up to 2.9, −1.9 and 6.5 pm V−1, respectively. These values are comparable with AlN deposited on a Pt metal electrode, but with the benefit of a fabrication process that uses only standard CMOS metals. PMID:20333316

  9. Development of CMOS-compatible membrane projection lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Samora, Sally; Wiwi, Mike; Wendt, Joel R.

    2013-09-01

    Recently we have demonstrated membrane projection lithography (MPL) as a fabrication approach capable of creating 3D structures with sub-micron metallic inclusions for use in metamaterial and plasmonic applications using polymer material systems. While polymers provide several advantages in processing, they are soft and subject to stress-induced buckling. Furthermore, in next generation active photonic structures, integration of photonic components with CMOS electronics is desirable. While the MPL process flow is conceptually simple, it requires matrix, membrane and backfill materials with orthogonal processing deposition/removal chemistries. By transitioning the MPL process flow into an entirely inorganic material set based around silicon and standard CMOS-compatible materials, several elements of silicon microelectronics can be integrated into photonic devices at the unit-cell scale. This paper will present detailed fabrication and characterization data of these materials, emphasizing the processing trade space as well as optical characterization of the resulting structures.

  10. Label-free immunodetection with CMOS-compatible semiconducting nanowires.

    PubMed

    Stern, Eric; Klemic, James F; Routenberg, David A; Wyrembak, Pauline N; Turner-Evans, Daniel B; Hamilton, Andrew D; LaVan, David A; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A

    2007-02-01

    Semiconducting nanowires have the potential to function as highly sensitive and selective sensors for the label-free detection of low concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Successful solution-phase nanowire sensing has been demonstrated for ions, small molecules, proteins, DNA and viruses; however, 'bottom-up' nanowires (or similarly configured carbon nanotubes) used for these demonstrations require hybrid fabrication schemes, which result in severe integration issues that have hindered widespread application. Alternative 'top-down' fabrication methods of nanowire-like devices produce disappointing performance because of process-induced material and device degradation. Here we report an approach that uses complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistor compatible technology and hence demonstrate the specific label-free detection of below 100 femtomolar concentrations of antibodies as well as real-time monitoring of the cellular immune response. This approach eliminates the need for hybrid methods and enables system-scale integration of these sensors with signal processing and information systems. Additionally, the ability to monitor antibody binding and sense the cellular immune response in real time with readily available technology should facilitate widespread diagnostic applications.

  11. MAGNETOMETER

    DOEpatents

    Leavitt, M.A.

    1958-11-18

    A magnetometer ls described, partlcularly to a device which accurately indicates the polarity and intensity of a magnetlc field. The main feature of the invention is a unique probe construction in combinatlon wlth a magnetic fleld detector system. The probe comprises two coils connected in series opposition for energization with an a-c voltage. The voltage lnduced in a third coll on the probe, a pick-up coil, is distorted by the presence of an external field to produce even harmonic voltages. A controlled d-c current is passed through the energized coils to counter the dlstortlon and reduce tbe even harmonic content to a null. When the null point is reached, the d-c current is a measure of the external magnetic field strength, and the phase of the pickup coil voltage indicates tbe field polarlty.

  12. Steps toward fabricating cryogenic CMOS compatible single electron devices for future qubits.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Childs, Kenton David; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Tracy, Lisa A.; Eng, Kevin; Stevens, Jeffrey; Nordberg, Eric; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Lilly, Michael Patrick

    2008-08-01

    We describe the development of a novel silicon quantum bit (qubit) device architecture that involves using materials that are compatible with a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 0.35 mum complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process intended to operate at 100 mK. We describe how the qubit structure can be integrated with CMOS electronics, which is believed to have advantages for critical functions like fast single electron electrometry for readout compared to current approaches using radio frequency techniques. Critical materials properties are reviewed and preliminary characterization of the SNL CMOS devices at 4.2 K is presented.

  13. CMOS-compatible plenoptic detector for LED lighting applications.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Alexander; Ghasemi, Javad; Nezhadbadeh, Shima; Nie, Xiangyu; Zarkesh-Ha, Payman; Brueck, S R J

    2015-09-07

    LED lighting systems with large color gamuts, with multiple LEDs spanning the visible spectrum, offer the potential of increased lighting efficiency, improved human health and productivity, and visible light communications addressing the explosive growth in wireless communications. The control of this "smart lighting system" requires a silicon-integrated-circuit-compatible, visible, plenoptic (angle and wavelength) detector. A detector element, based on an offset-grating-coupled dielectric waveguide structure and a silicon photodetector, is demonstrated with an angular resolution of less than 1° and a wavelength resolution of less than 5 nm.

  14. A CMOS-compatible, surface-micromachined pressure sensor for aqueous ultrasonic application

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.P.; Smith, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    A surface micromachined pressure sensor array is under development at the Integrated Micromechanics, Microsensors, and CMOS Technologies organization at Sandia National Laboratories. This array is designed to sense absolute pressures from ambient pressure to 650 psia with frequency responses from DC to 2 MHz. The sensor is based upon a sealed, deformable, circular LPCVD silicon nitride diaphragm. Absolute pressure is determined from diaphragm deflection, which is sensed with low-stress, micromechanical, LPCVD polysilicon piezoresistors. All materials and processes used for sensor fabrication are CMOS compatible, and are part of Sandia`s ongoing effort of CMOS integration with Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Test results of individual sensors are presented along with process issues involving the release etch and metal step coverage.

  15. On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, M.; Park, Y.; Razzari, L.; Little, B. E.; Chu, S. T.; Morandotti, R.; Moss, D. J.; Azaña, J.

    2010-01-01

    All-optical circuits for computing and information processing could overcome the speed limitations intrinsic to electronics. However, in photonics, very few fundamental 'building blocks' equivalent to those used in multi-functional electronic circuits exist. In this study, we report the first all-optical temporal integrator in a monolithic, integrated platform. Our device—a lightwave 'capacitor-like' element based on a passive micro-ring resonator—performs the time integral of the complex field of an arbitrary optical waveform with a time resolution of a few picoseconds, corresponding to a processing speed of ∼200 GHz, and a 'hold' time approaching a nanosecond. This device, compatible with electronic technology (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor), will be one of the building blocks of next-generation ultrafast data-processing technology, enabling optical memories and real-time differential equation computing units. PMID:20975692

  16. CMOS-compatible fabrication of metamaterial-based absorbers for the mid-IR spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Shahmarvandi, Ehsan; Ghaderi, Mohammadamir; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.

    2016-10-01

    A CMOS-compatible approach is presented for the fabrication of a wideband mid-IR metamaterial-based absorber on top of a Si3N4 membrane, which contains poly-Si thermopiles. The application is in IR microspectrometers that are intended for implementation in portable microsystem for use in absorption spectroscopy. Although Au is the conventional material of choice, we demonstrate by simulation that near-perfect absorption can be achieved over a wider band when using the more CMOS-compatible Al. The absorber design is based on Al disk resonators and an Al backplane, which are separated by a SiO2 layer. The fabrication process involves the deposition of Al and SiO2 layers on top of a Si3N4 membrane, lithography and a lift-off process for patterning of the top Al layer.

  17. Ultrafast all-optical temporal differentiators based on CMOS-compatible integrated-waveguide Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, K A; Duchesne, D; Strain, M J; Morandotti, R; Sorel, M; Azaña, J

    2011-09-26

    We report the first realization of integrated, all-optical first- and higher-order photonic differentiators operating at terahertz (THz) processing speeds. This is accomplished in a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) CMOS-compatible platform using a simple integrated geometry based on (π-)phase-shifted Bragg gratings. Moreover, we achieve on-chip generation of sub-picosecond Hermite-Gaussian pulse waveforms, which are noteworthy for applications in next-generation optical telecommunications.

  18. CMOS compatible IR sensors by cytochrome c protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chien-Jen; Su, Guo-Dung

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, due to the progression of the semiconductor industrial, the uncooled Infrared sensor - microbolometer has opened the opportunity for achieving low cost infrared imaging systems for both military and commercial applications. Therefore, various fabrication processes and different materials based microbolometer have been developed sequentially. The cytochrome c (protein) thin film has be reported high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), which is related to the performance of microbolometer directly. Hence the superior TCR value will increase the performance of microbolometer. In this paper, we introduced a novel fabrication process using aluminum which is compatible with the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacture Company (TSMC) D35 2P4M process as the main structure material, which benefits the device to integrate with readout integrated circuit (ROIC).The aluminum split structure is suspended by sacrificial layer utilizing the standard photolithography technology and chemical etching. The height and thickness of the structure are already considered. Besides, cytochrome c solutions were ink-jetted onto the aluminum structure by using the inkjet printer, applying precise control of the Infrared absorbing layer. In measurement, incident Infrared radiation can be detected and later the heat can be transmitted to adjacent pads to readout the signal. This approach applies an inexpensive and simple fabrication process and makes the device suitable for integration. In addition, the performance can be further improved with low noise readout circuits.

  19. Enhancement in open-circuit voltage of implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell by improving the anodic catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Ando, Takashi; Kobayashi, Atsuki; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell that generates an open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 880 mV. The developed fuel cell is solid-catalyst-based and manufactured from biocompatible materials; thus, it can be implanted to the human body. Additionally, since the cell can be manufactured using a semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication process, it can also be manufactured together with CMOS circuits on a single silicon wafer. In the literature, an implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell has been reported. However, its OCV is 192 mV, which is insufficient for CMOS circuit operation. In this work, we have enhanced the performance of the fuel cell by improving the electrocatalytic ability of the anode. The prototype with the newly proposed Pt/carbon nanotube (CNT) anode structure successfully achieved an OCV of 880 mV, which is the highest ever reported.

  20. CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Stevan S; Shang, Kuanping; Guan, Binbin; Cheung, Stanley T S; Liao, Ling; Basak, Juthika; Liu, Hai-Feng; Yoo, S J B

    2013-06-17

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of athermal nano-photonic silicon ring modulators. The athermalization method employs compensation of the silicon core thermo-optic contribution with that from the amorphous titanium dioxide (a-TiO(2)) overcladding with a negative thermo-optic coefficient. We developed a new CMOS-compatible fabrication process involving low temperature RF magnetron sputtering of high-density and low-loss a-TiO(2) that can withstand subsequent elevated-temperature CMOS processes. Silicon ring resonators with 275 nm wide rib waveguide clad with a-TiO(2) showed near complete athermalization and moderate optical losses. Small-signal testing of the micro-resonator modulators showed high extinction ratio and gigahertz bandwidth.

  1. A new laterally conductive bridge random access memory by fully CMOS logic compatible process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Min-Che; Chin, Yung-Wen; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chih, Yu-Der; Tsai, Kan-Hsueh; Tsai, Ming-Jinn; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel laterally conductive bridge random access memory (L-CBRAM) module using a fully CMOS logic compatible process. A contact buffer layer between the poly-Si and contact plug enables the lateral Ti-based atomic layer to provide on/off resistance ratio via bipolar operations. The proposed device reached more than 100 pulse cycles with an on/off ratio over 10 and very stable data retention under high temperature operations. These results make this Ti-based L-CBRAM cell a promising solution for advanced embedded multi-time programmable (MTP) memory applications.

  2. CMOS-compatible metal-stabilized nanostructured Si as anodes for lithium-ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gibaek; Schweizer, Stefan L.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.

    2014-11-01

    The properties of fully complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible metal-coated nanostructured silicon anodes for Li-ion microbatteries have been studied. The one-dimensional nanowires on black silicon (nb-Si) were prepared by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching and the metal (Au and Cu) coatings by successive magnetron sputtering technique. The Cu-coated nb-Si show the most promising electrochemical performance enhancements for the initial specific capacity as well as their cyclability compared to pristine nb-Si. The electrochemical and microstructural properties before and after cycling of the metal-coated nb-Si compared to their pristine counterparts are discussed in detail.

  3. CMOS-Compatible Room-Temperature Rectifier Toward Terahertz Radiation Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamava, Volha; De Amicis, Giovanni; Del Monte, Andrea; Perticaroli, Stefano; Rao, Rosario; Palma, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a new rectifying device, compatible with the technology of CMOS image sensors, suitable for implementing a direct-conversion detector operating at room temperature for operation at up to terahertz frequencies. The rectifying device can be obtained by introducing some simple modifications of the charge-storage well in conventional CMOS integrated circuits, making the proposed solution easy to integrate with the existing imaging systems. The rectifying device is combined with the different elements of the detector, composed of a 3D high-performance antenna and a charge-storage well. In particular, its position just below the edge of the 3D antenna takes maximum advantage of the high electric field concentrated by the antenna itself. In addition, the proposed structure ensures the integrity of the charge-storage well of the detector. In the structure, it is not necessary to use very scaled and costly technological nodes, since the CMOS transistor only provides the necessary integrated readout electronics. On-wafer measurements of RF characteristics of the designed junction are reported and discussed. The overall performances of the entire detector in terms of noise equivalent power (NEP) are evaluated by combining low-frequency measurements of the rectifier with numerical simulations of the 3D antenna and the semiconductor structure at 1 THz, allowing prediction of the achievable NEP.

  4. CMOS-compatible fabrication, micromachining, and bonding strategies for silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, John; Jones, Richard; Paniccia, Mario J.

    2011-02-01

    The adoption of optical technologies by high-volume consumer markets is severely limited by the cost and complexity of manufacturing complete optical transceiver systems. This is in large part because "boutique" semiconductor fabrication processes are required for III-V lasers, modulators, and photodetectors; furthermore, precision bonding and painstaking assembly are needed to integrate or assemble such dissimilar devices and materials together. On the other hand, 200mm and 300mm silicon process technology has been bringing ever-increasing computing power to the masses by relentless cost reduction for several decades. Intel's silicon photonics program aims to marry this CMOS infrastructure and recent developments in MEMS manufacturing with the burgeoning field of microphotonics to make low cost, high-speed optical links ubiquitous. In this paper, we will provide an overview of several aspects of silicon photonics technology development in a CMOS fabrication line. First, we will describe fabrication strategies from the MEMS industry for micromachining silicon to create passive optical devices such as mirrors, waveguides, and facets, as well as alignment features. Second, we will discuss some of the challenges of fabricating hybrid III-V lasers on silicon, including such aspects as hybrid integration of InP-based materials with silicon using various bonding methods, etching of InP films, and contact formation using CMOS-compatible metals.

  5. Room temperature lasing in GeSn alloys: A path to CMOS-compatible infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zairui; Zhao, Yun; Gallagher, James; Menéndez, José; Kouvetakis, John; Agha, Imad; Mathews, Jay

    The semiconductor industry has been pushing silicon photonics development for many years, resulting in the realization of many CMOS-compatible optoelectronic devices. However, one challenge that has not been overcome is the development of Si-based lasers. Recently, GeSn alloys grown on Si have shown much promise in the field of infrared optoelectronics. These alloy films are compatible with CMOS processing, have band gaps in the infrared, and the band structure of GeSn can be tuned via Sn concentration to induce direct band gap emission. In this work, we report on room temperature lasing in optically-pumped waveguides fabricated from GeSn films grown epitaxially on Si(100) substrates. The waveguides were defined using standard UV photolithography and dry-etched in a Cl plasma. The end facets were mirror polished, and Al was deposited on one facet to enhance cavity quality. The waveguides were optically-pumped using a 976nm wavelength solid-state laser, and the corresponding emission was measured. The dependence of the emission power on the pump power shows a clear transition between spontaneous and stimulated emission, thereby demonstrating room temperature lasing.

  6. CMOS-Compatible Fabrication for Photonic Crystal-Based Nanofluidic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wang; Chen, Youping; Ai, Wu; Zhang, Dailin; Song, Han; Xiong, Hui; Huang, Pengcheng

    2017-02-01

    Photonic crystal (PC)-based devices have been widely used since 1990s, while PC has just stepped into the research area of nanofluidic. In this paper, photonic crystal had been used as a complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) compatible part to create a nanofluidic structure. A nanofluidic structure prototype had been fabricated with CMOS-compatible techniques. The nanofluidic channels were sealed by direct bonding polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and the periodic gratings on photonic crystal structure. The PC was fabricated on a 4-in. Si wafer with Si3N4 as the guided mode layer and SiO2 film as substrate layer. The higher order mode resonance wavelength of PC-based nanofluidic structure had been selected, which can confine the enhanced electrical field located inside the nanochannel area. A design flow chart was used to guide the fabrication process. By optimizing the fabrication device parameters, the periodic grating of PC-based nanofluidic structure had a high-fidelity profile with fill factor at 0.5. The enhanced electric field was optimized and located within the channel area, and it can be used for PC-based nanofluidic applications with high performance.

  7. Ultra-sensitive detection of adipocytokines with CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pui, Tze-Sian; Agarwal, Ajay; Ye, Feng; Tou, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Yinxi; Chen, Peng

    2009-09-01

    Perfectly aligned arrays of single-crystalline silicon nanowires were fabricated using top-down CMOS-compatible techniques. We demonstrate that these nanowire devices are able to detect adipocytokines secreted by adipose cells with femtomolar sensitivity, high specificity, wide detection range, and ability for parallel monitoring. The nanowire sensors also provide a novel tool to reveal the poorly understood signaling mechanisms of these newly recognized signaling molecules, as well as their relevance in common diseases such as obesity and diabetes.Perfectly aligned arrays of single-crystalline silicon nanowires were fabricated using top-down CMOS-compatible techniques. We demonstrate that these nanowire devices are able to detect adipocytokines secreted by adipose cells with femtomolar sensitivity, high specificity, wide detection range, and ability for parallel monitoring. The nanowire sensors also provide a novel tool to reveal the poorly understood signaling mechanisms of these newly recognized signaling molecules, as well as their relevance in common diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Process diagram of nanowire fabrication; specificity of nanowire detection; induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. See DOI: 10.1039/b9nr00092e

  8. CMOS-Compatible Fabrication for Photonic Crystal-Based Nanofluidic Structure.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wang; Chen, Youping; Ai, Wu; Zhang, Dailin; Song, Han; Xiong, Hui; Huang, Pengcheng

    2017-12-01

    Photonic crystal (PC)-based devices have been widely used since 1990s, while PC has just stepped into the research area of nanofluidic. In this paper, photonic crystal had been used as a complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) compatible part to create a nanofluidic structure. A nanofluidic structure prototype had been fabricated with CMOS-compatible techniques. The nanofluidic channels were sealed by direct bonding polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and the periodic gratings on photonic crystal structure. The PC was fabricated on a 4-in. Si wafer with Si3N4 as the guided mode layer and SiO2 film as substrate layer. The higher order mode resonance wavelength of PC-based nanofluidic structure had been selected, which can confine the enhanced electrical field located inside the nanochannel area. A design flow chart was used to guide the fabrication process. By optimizing the fabrication device parameters, the periodic grating of PC-based nanofluidic structure had a high-fidelity profile with fill factor at 0.5. The enhanced electric field was optimized and located within the channel area, and it can be used for PC-based nanofluidic applications with high performance.

  9. Resistive switching phenomena of tungsten nitride thin films with excellent CMOS compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Seok Man; Kim, Hee-Dong; An, Ho-Myoung; Kim, Tae Geun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of WN{sub x} thin films. • Excellent CMOS compatibility WN{sub x} films as a resistive switching material. • Resistive switching mechanism revealed trap-controlled space charge limited conduction. • Good endurance and retention properties over 10{sup 5} cycles, and 10{sup 5} s, respectively - Abstract: We report the resistive switching (RS) characteristics of tungsten nitride (WN{sub x}) thin films with excellent complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility. A Ti/WN{sub x}/Pt memory cell clearly shows bipolar RS behaviors at a low voltage of approximately ±2.2 V. The dominant conduction mechanisms at low and high resistance states were verified by Ohmic behavior and trap-controlled space-charge-limited conduction, respectively. A conducting filament model by a redox reaction explains the RS behavior in WN{sub x} films. We also demonstrate the memory characteristics during pulse operation, including a high endurance over >10{sup 5} cycles and a long retention time of >10{sup 5} s.

  10. Optical modulation techniques for analog signal processing and CMOS compatible electro-optic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Douglas M.; Rasras, Mahmoud; Tu, Kun-Yii; Chen, Young-Kai; White, Alice E.; Patel, Sanjay S.; Carothers, Daniel; Pomerene, Andrew; Kamocsai, Robert; Beattie, James; Kopa, Anthony; Apsel, Alyssa; Beals, Mark; Mitchel, Jurgen; Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2008-02-01

    Integrating electronic and photonic functions onto a single silicon-based chip using techniques compatible with mass-production CMOS electronics will enable new design paradigms for existing system architectures and open new opportunities for electro-optic applications with the potential to dramatically change the management, cost, footprint, weight, and power consumption of today's communication systems. While broadband analog system applications represent a smaller volume market than that for digital data transmission, there are significant deployments of analog electro-optic systems for commercial and military applications. Broadband linear modulation is a critical building block in optical analog signal processing and also could have significant applications in digital communication systems. Recently, broadband electro-optic modulators on a silicon platform have been demonstrated based on the plasma dispersion effect. The use of the plasma dispersion effect within a CMOS compatible waveguide creates new challenges and opportunities for analog signal processing since the index and propagation loss change within the waveguide during modulation. We will review the current status of silicon-based electrooptic modulators and also linearization techniques for optical modulation.

  11. Post-CMOS compatible high-throughput fabrication of AlN-based piezoelectric microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Campos, A.; Iriarte, G. F.; Hernando-Garcia, J.; Calle, F.

    2015-02-01

    A post-complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible microfabrication process of piezoelectric cantilevers has been developed. The fabrication process is suitable for standard silicon technology and provides low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing. This work reports design, fabrication and characterization of piezoelectric cantilevers based on aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films synthesized at room temperature. The proposed microcantilever system is a sandwich structure composed of chromium (Cr) electrodes and a sputtered AlN film. The key issue for cantilever fabrication is the growth at room temperature of the AlN layer by reactive sputtering, making possible the innovative compatibility of piezoelectric MEMS devices with CMOS circuits already processed. AlN and Cr have been etched by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching using a BCl3-Cl2-Ar plasma chemistry. As part of the novelty of the post-CMOS micromachining process presented here, a silicon Si (1 0 0) wafer has been used as substrate as well as the sacrificial layer used to release the microcantilevers. In order to achieve this, the Si surface underneath the structure has been wet etched using an HNA (hydrofluoric acid + nitric acid + acetic acid) based solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization indicated the high crystalline quality of the AlN film. An atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used to determine the Cr electrode surface roughness. The morphology of the fabricated devices has been studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cantilevers have been piezoelectrically actuated and their out-of-plane vibration modes were detected by vibrometry.

  12. CMOS Compatible 3-Axis Magnetic Field Sensor using Hall Effect Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Joshua R.

    The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and test a CMOS compatible 3-axis Hall effect sensor capable of detecting the earth's magnetic field, with strength's of ˜50 muT. Preliminary testing of N-well Van Der Pauw structures using strong neodymium magnets showed proof of concept for hall voltage sensing, however, poor geometry of the structures led to a high offset voltage. A 1-axis Hall effect sensor was designed, fabricated and tested with a sensitivity of 1.12x10-3 mV/Gauss using the RIT metal gate PMOS process. Poor geometry and insufficient design produced an offset voltage of 0.1238 volts in the 1-axis design; prevented sensing of the earth's magnetic field. The new design features improved geometry for sensing application, improved sensitivity and use the RIT sub-CMOS process. The completed 2-axis device showed an average sensitivity to large magnetic fields of 0.0258 muV/Gauss at 10 mA supply current.

  13. Towards parallel, CMOS-compatible fabrication of carbon nanotube single electron transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Muhammad; Joung, Daeha; Khondaker, Saiful

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate an approach for the parallel fabrication of single electron transistor (SET) using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). The approach is based on the integration of individual SWNT via dielectrophoresis (DEP) and deposition of metal top contact. We fabricate SWNT devices with a channel length of 100 nm and study their electron transport properties. We observe a connection between the SET performance and room temperature resistance (RT) of the devices. Majority (90%) of the devices with 100 K Ω 1M Ω) , devices show multiple QD behaviors, while QD was not formed for low RT (<100 K Ω) devices. This easy, simple and CMOS-compatible fabrication process will provide a much desired insight towards the wide spread application and commercialization of SWNT SET devices.

  14. CMOS-compatible hybrid plasmonic modulator based on vanadium dioxide insulator-metal phase transition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Tae

    2014-07-01

    To extend the application of an emerging plasmonic material, vanadium dioxide (VO₂), in silicon photonics technology, we propose a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible hybrid plasmonic modulator using an VO₂ insulator-metal phase transition. The optical device is based on a directional coupler that consists of a Si waveguide and a Si-SiO₂-VO₂-SiO₂-Si hybrid plasmonic waveguide. By electrically triggering the phase of VO₂ with a driving voltage of 2 V, the propagation loss of the hybrid plasmonic waveguide is switched, and hence the output optical power is modulated. The on/off extinction ratio is larger than 3.0 dB on the entire C-band.

  15. CMOS-compatible metal-stabilized nanostructured Si as anodes for lithium-ion microbatteries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The properties of fully complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible metal-coated nanostructured silicon anodes for Li-ion microbatteries have been studied. The one-dimensional nanowires on black silicon (nb-Si) were prepared by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching and the metal (Au and Cu) coatings by successive magnetron sputtering technique. The Cu-coated nb-Si show the most promising electrochemical performance enhancements for the initial specific capacity as well as their cyclability compared to pristine nb-Si. The electrochemical and microstructural properties before and after cycling of the metal-coated nb-Si compared to their pristine counterparts are discussed in detail. PMID:25411568

  16. Nonlinear enhancement in photonic crystal slow light waveguides fabricated using CMOS-compatible process.

    PubMed

    Shinkawa, Mizuki; Ishikura, Norihiro; Hama, Yosuke; Suzuki, Keijiro; Baba, Toshihiko

    2011-10-24

    We have studied low-dispersion slow light and its nonlinear enhancement in photonic crystal waveguides. In this work, we fabricated the waveguides using Si CMOS-compatible process. It enables us to integrate spotsize converters, which greatly simplifies the optical coupling from fibers as well as demonstration of the nonlinear enhancement. Two-photon absorption, self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing were observed clearly for picosecond pulses in a 200-μm-long device. In comparison with Si wire waveguides, a 60-120 fold higher nonlinearity was evaluated for a group index of 51. Unique intensity response also occurred due to the specific transmission spectrum and enhanced nonlinearities. Such slow light may add various functionalities in Si photonics, while loss reduction is desired for ensuring the advantage of slow light.

  17. Voltage-tolerant circuit design for fully CMOS-compatible differential multiple-time programmable nonvolatile memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chia-You; Lin, Hongchin; Chiu, Hou-Jen

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a fully CMOS-compatible differential multiple-time programmable (DFMTP) nonvolatile memory (NVM) circuit, fabricated by the standard TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS process without violating the design and electrical rules, is proposed. Novel voltage-tolerant circuits were designed using the standard 3.3 and 1.8 V devices for the bit line (BL) and control gate (CG) drivers for ‑3 and 6 V program/erase operations, as well as the negative voltage isolation circuits for sense amplifiers. The DFMTP array with these voltage-tolerant control circuits was used and measured to confirm the correct program/erase/read operations.

  18. CMOS compatible horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides TE-pass polarizer on silicon-on-insulator platform.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhu, Shiyang; Zhang, Huijuan; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2013-05-20

    An ultra-compact broadband TE-pass polarizer was proposed and demonstrated on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform, using the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide (HNSW). Detailed design principle was presented, taking advantage of the distinct confinement region of the TE and TM modes in the HNSW. TM mode cut-off could be achieved when waveguide width was below 210 nm. Proof-of-concept devices were subsequently fabricated in a CMOS-compatible process. The optimized device had an active region length of 1 μm, three orders of magnitude smaller than similar device previously demonstrated on the SOI platform. More than 16 dB polarization extinction ratio was achieved across 80 nm wavelength range, with a relatively low insertion loss of 2.2dB. The compact device size and excellent broadband performance could provide a simple yet satisfactory solution to the polarization dependent performance drawback of the silicon photonics devices on the SOI platform.

  19. Tunable, Room Temperature CMOS-Compatible THz Emitters Based on Nonlinear Mixing in Microdisk Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Ahmadivand, Arash; Al-Amin, Chowdhury; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Shur, Michael; Pala, Nezih

    2016-03-01

    We propose and investigate in detail a novel tunable, compact, room temperature terahertz (THz) emitter using individual microdisk resonators for both optical and THz waves with the capability of radiating THz field in 0.5-10 THz range with tuning frequency resolution of 0.05 THz. Enhanced THz generation is achieved by employing a nonlinear optical disk resonator with a high value of second-order nonlinearity ( χ (2)) in order to facilitate the difference-frequency generation (DFG) via nonlinear mixing with the choice of two appropriate input infrared optical waves. Efficient coupling of infrared waves from bus to the nonlinear disk is ensured by satisfying critical coupling condition. Phase matching condition for efficient DFG process is also met by employing modal phase matching technique. Our simulations show that THz output power can be reached up to milliwatt (mW) level with high optical to THz conversion efficiency. The proposed source is Silicon on Insulator (SoI) technology compatible enabling the monolithic integration with Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronics including plasmonic THz detectors.

  20. CMOS-compatible metamaterial-based wideband mid-infrared absorber for microspectrometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Shahmarvandi, Ehsan; Ghaderi, Mohammadamir; Ayerden, N. Pelin; de Graaf, Ger; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.

    2016-04-01

    The design of a metamaterial-based absorber for use in a MEMS-based mid-IR microspectrometer is reported. The microspectrometer consists of a LVOF that is aligned with an array of thermopile detectors, which is fabricated on a SiN membrane and coated with the absorber. Special emphasis is put on the CMOS compatible fabrication, which results in an absorber design based on Al disc resonators and an Al background plane that are separated by an SiO2 layer. Wideband operation over the 3-4 μm spectral range is achieved by staggered tuning of four Al disk resonators in one 1.5 x 1.5 μm2 unit cell, using four different values of the radius of the Al disk between 0.50 μm and 0.63 μm and an SiO2 layer thickness of 150 nm. Simulations reveal an average absorption of about 95% with a +/-4% ripple at normal incidence, which reduces to about 80% absorption at a 20° incidence angle. The influence of material choice and dimensions on a single absorption peak was studied and the magnetic polariton was identified as the underlying mechanism of absorption.

  1. CMOS-compatible silicon nitride spectrometers for lab-on-a-chip spectral sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryckeboer, Eva; Nie, Xiaomin; Subramanian, Ananth Z.; Martens, Daan; Bienstman, Peter; Clemmen, Stephane; Severi, Simone; Jansen, Roelof; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel

    2016-05-01

    We report on miniaturized optical spectrometers integrated on a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform based on silicon nitride waveguides and fabricated in a CMOS-compatible approach. As compared to a silicon- on-insulator PIC-platform, the usage of silicon nitride allows for operation in the visible and near infrared. Furthermore, the moderately high refractive index contrast in silicon-nitride photonic wire waveguides provides a valuable compromise between compactness, optical loss and sensitivity to phase error. Three generic types of on-chip spectrometers are discussed: the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) spectrometer, the echelle grating or planar concave grating (PCG) spectrometer and the stationary Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) spectrometer. Both the design as well as experimental results are presented and discussed. For the FTS spectrometer a specific design is described in detail leading to an ultra-small (0.1 mm2) footprint device with a resolution of 1 nm and a spectral range of 100nm. Examples are given of the usage of these spectrometers in refractive index biosensing, absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  2. Growth and optical properties of CMOS-compatible silicon nanowires for photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichard, Alex Richard

    Silicon (Si) is the dominant semiconductor material in both the microelectronic and photovoltaic industries. Despite its poor optical properties, Si is simply too abundant and useful to be completely abandoned in either industry. Since the initial discovery of efficient room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from porous Si and the following discoveries of PL and time-resolved optical gain from Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) in SiO2, many groups have studied the feasibility of making Si-based, CMOS-compatible electroluminescent devices and electrically pumped lasers. These studies have shown that for Si-ne sizes below about 10 nm, PL can be attributed to radiative recombination of confined excitons and quantum efficiencies can reach 90%. PL peak energies are blue-shifted from the bulk Si band edge of 1.1 eV due to the quantum confinement effect and PL decay lifetimes are on mus timescales. However, many unanswered questions still exist about both the ease of carrier injection and various non-radiative and loss mechanisms that are present. A potential alternative material system to porous Si and Si-nc is Si nanowires (SiNWs). In this thesis, I examine the optical properties of SiNWs with diameters in the range of 3-30 nm fabricated by a number of compound metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication techniques including Chemical Vapor Deposition on metal nanoparticle coated substrates, catalytic wet etching of bulk Si and top-down electron-beam lithographic patterning. Using thermal oxidation and etching, we can increase the degree of confinement in the SiNWs. I demonstrate PL peaked in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges that is tunable by controlling the crystalline SiNW core diameter, which is measured with dark field and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. PL decay lifetimes of the SiNWs are on the order of 50 mus after proper surface passivation, which suggest that the PL is indeed from confined carriers in the SiNW cores

  3. Design and fabrication of a CMOS-compatible MHP gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying; Yu, Jun Wu, Hao; Tang, Zhenan

    2014-03-15

    A novel micro-hotplate (MHP) gas sensor is designed and fabricated with a standard CMOS technology followed by post-CMOS processes. The tungsten plugging between the first and the second metal layer in the CMOS processes is designed as zigzag resistor heaters embedded in the membrane. In the post-CMOS processes, the membrane is released by front-side bulk silicon etching, and excellent adiabatic performance of the sensor is obtained. Pt/Ti electrode films are prepared on the MHP before the coating of the SnO{sub 2} film, which are promising to present better contact stability compared with Al electrodes. Measurements show that at room temperature in atmosphere, the device has a low power consumption of ∼19 mW and a rapid thermal response of 8 ms for heating up to 300 °C. The tungsten heater exhibits good high temperature stability with a slight fluctuation (<0.3%) in the resistance at an operation temperature of 300 °C under constant heating mode for 336 h, and a satisfactory temperature coefficient of resistance of about 1.9‰/°C.

  4. Atomic layer deposited second-order nonlinear optical metamaterial for back-end integration with CMOS-compatible nanophotonic circuitry.

    PubMed

    Clemmen, Stéphane; Hermans, Artur; Solano, Eduardo; Dendooven, Jolien; Koskinen, Kalle; Kauranen, Martti; Brainis, Edouard; Detavernier, Christophe; Baets, Roel

    2015-11-15

    We report the fabrication of artificial unidimensional crystals exhibiting an effective bulk second-order nonlinearity. The crystals are created by cycling atomic layer deposition of three dielectric materials such that the resulting metamaterial is noncentrosymmetric in the direction of the deposition. Characterization of the structures by second-harmonic generation Maker-fringe measurements shows that the main component of their nonlinear susceptibility tensor is about 5 pm/V, which is comparable to well-established materials and more than an order of magnitude greater than reported for a similar crystal [Appl. Phys. Lett.107, 121903 (2015)APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.4931492]. Our demonstration opens new possibilities for second-order nonlinear effects on CMOS-compatible nanophotonic platforms.

  5. Local and CMOS-compatible synthesis of CuO nanowires on a suspended microheater on a silicon substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaili; Yang, Yang; Pun, E Y B; Shen, Ruiqi

    2010-06-11

    This paper presents the synthesis of CuO nanowires using a localized thermal heating method in ambient air. It employs local heat sources defined in micro-resistive heaters fabricated by a standard polysilicon-based surface micromachining process instead of a global furnace heating. Since the synthesis is performed globally at room temperature, the presented process is compatible with standard CMOS. The synthesized CuO nanowires are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that this approach provides a simple method to locally synthesize suspended CuO nanowires on polysilicon microbridges on silicon substrates, thus allowing for integration of CuO nanowires into silicon-based devices. It provides a significant step towards the process integration of CuO nanowires with MEMS to realize functional devices.

  6. Enhanced Telecom Emission from Single Group-IV Quantum Dots by Precise CMOS-Compatible Positioning in Photonic Crystal Cavities.

    PubMed

    Schatzl, Magdalena; Hackl, Florian; Glaser, Martin; Rauter, Patrick; Brehm, Moritz; Spindlberger, Lukas; Simbula, Angelica; Galli, Matteo; Fromherz, Thomas; Schäffler, Friedrich

    2017-03-15

    Efficient coupling to integrated high-quality-factor cavities is crucial for the employment of germanium quantum dot (QD) emitters in future monolithic silicon-based optoelectronic platforms. We report on strongly enhanced emission from single Ge QDs into L3 photonic crystal resonator (PCR) modes based on precise positioning of these dots at the maximum of the respective mode field energy density. Perfect site control of Ge QDs grown on prepatterned silicon-on-insulator substrates was exploited to fabricate in one processing run almost 300 PCRs containing single QDs in systematically varying positions within the cavities. Extensive photoluminescence studies on this cavity chip enable a direct evaluation of the position-dependent coupling efficiency between single dots and selected cavity modes. The experimental results demonstrate the great potential of the approach allowing CMOS-compatible parallel fabrication of arrays of spatially matched dot/cavity systems for group-IV-based data transfer or quantum optical systems in the telecom regime.

  7. CMOS compatible self-aligned S/D regions for implant-free InGaAs MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czornomaz, L.; El Kazzi, M.; Hopstaken, M.; Caimi, D.; Mächler, P.; Rossel, C.; Bjoerk, M.; Marchiori, C.; Siegwart, H.; Fompeyrine, J.

    2012-08-01

    CMOS compatible self-aligned access regions for indium gallium arsenide (In0.53Ga0.47As) implant-free n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) are investigated. In situ doped n+ source/drain regions are selectively grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and self-aligned Nickel-InGaAs alloyed metal contacts are obtained using a self-aligned silicide-like process, where different process conditions are studied. Soft pre-epitaxy cleaning is followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while the Ni-InGaAs/III-V interface is characterized by back-side SIMS profiling. Relevant contact and sheet resistances are measured and integration issues are highlighted. Gate-first implant-free self-aligned n-MOSFETs are produced to quantify the impact of Ni-InGaAs contacts on the device performance.

  8. A Wide Temperature, Radiation Tolerant, CMOS-compatible Precision Voltage Reference for Extreme Environment Instrumentation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, Mr. Benjamin; Blalock, Benjamin; Potts, J.; Kemerling, Mr. James; Isihara, Mr. Kyoshi; Leines, Capt. Matt; Britton Jr, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Many design techniques have been incorporated into modern CMOS design practices to improve radiation tolerance of integrated circuits. Annular-gate NMOS structures have been proven to be significantly more radiation tolerant than the standard straight-gate variety. Many circuits can be designed using the annular-gate NMOS and the inherently radiation tolerant PMOS. Band-gap reference circuits, however, typically require p-n junction diodes. These p-n junction diodes are the dominating factor in radiation degradation in band-gap reference circuits. This paper proposes a different approach to band-gap reference design to alleviate the radiation susceptibility presented by the p-n junction diodes.

  9. CMOS compatible fabrication process of MEMS resonator for timing reference and sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Duc H.; Nguyen, Phuong D.; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Skafidas, Stan; Evans, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Frequency reference and timing control devices are ubiquitous in electronic applications. There is at least one resonator required for each of this device. Currently electromechanical resonators such as crystal resonator, ceramic resonator are the ultimate choices. This tendency will probably keep going for many more years. However, current market demands for small size, low power consumption, cheap and reliable products, has divulged many limitations of this type of resonators. They cannot be integrated into standard CMOS (Complement metaloxide- semiconductor) IC (Integrated Circuit) due to material and fabrication process incompatibility. Currently, these devices are off-chip and they require external circuitries to interface with the ICs. This configuration significantly increases the overall size and cost of the entire electronic system. In addition, extra external connection, especially at high frequency, will potentially create negative impacts on the performance of the entire system due to signal degradation and parasitic effects. Furthermore, due to off-chip packaging nature, these devices are quite expensive, particularly for high frequency and high quality factor devices. To address these issues, researchers have been intensively studying on an alternative for type of resonator by utilizing the new emerging MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology. Recent progress in this field has demonstrated a MEMS resonator with resonant frequency of 2.97 GHz and quality factor (measured in vacuum) of 42900. Despite this great achievement, this prototype is still far from being fully integrated into CMOS system due to incompatibility in fabrication process and its high series motional impedance. On the other hand, fully integrated MEMS resonator had been demonstrated but at lower frequency and quality factor. We propose a design and fabrication process for a low cost, high frequency and a high quality MEMS resonator, which can be integrated into a standard

  10. Silicon nitride CMOS-compatible platform for integrated photonics applications at visible wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Romero-García, Sebastian; Merget, Florian; Zhong, Frank; Finkelstein, Hod; Witzens, Jeremy

    2013-06-17

    Silicon nitride is demonstrated as a high performance and cost-effective solution for dense integrated photonic circuits in the visible spectrum. Experimental results for nanophotonic waveguides fabricated in a standard CMOS pilot line with losses below 0.71dB/cm in an aqueous environment and 0.51dB/cm with silicon dioxide cladding are reported. Design and characterization of waveguide bends, grating couplers and multimode interference couplers (MMI) at a wavelength of 660 nm are presented. The index contrast of this technology enables high integration densities with insertion losses below 0.05 dB per 90° bend for radii as small as 35 µm. By a proper design of the buried oxide layer thickness, grating couplers with efficiencies above 38% for the TE polarization have been obtained.

  11. CMOS-compatible InP/InGaAs digital photoreceiver

    DOEpatents

    Lovejoy, M.L.; Rose, B.H.; Craft, D.C.; Enquist, P.M.; Slater, D.B. Jr.

    1997-11-04

    A digital photoreceiver is formed monolithically on an InP semiconductor substrate and comprises a p-i-n photodetector formed from a plurality of InP/InGaAs layers deposited by an epitaxial growth process and an adjacent heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifier formed from the same InP/InGaAs layers. The photoreceiver amplifier operates in a large-signal mode to convert a detected photocurrent signal into an amplified output capable of directly driving integrated circuits such as CMOS. In combination with an optical transmitter, the photoreceiver may be used to establish a short-range channel of digital optical communications between integrated circuits with applications to multi-chip modules (MCMs). The photoreceiver may also be used with fiber optic coupling for establishing longer-range digital communications (i.e. optical interconnects) between distributed computers or the like. Arrays of digital photoreceivers may be formed on a common substrate for establishing a plurality of channels of digital optical communication, with each photoreceiver being spaced by less than about 1 mm and consuming less than about 20 mW of power, and preferably less than about 10 mW. Such photoreceiver arrays are useful for transferring huge amounts of digital data between integrated circuits at bit rates of up to about 1,000 Mb/s or more. 4 figs.

  12. CMOS-compatible InP/InGaAs digital photoreceiver

    DOEpatents

    Lovejoy, Michael L.; Rose, Benny H.; Craft, David C.; Enquist, Paul M.; Slater, Jr., David B.

    1997-01-01

    A digital photoreceiver is formed monolithically on an InP semiconductor substrate and comprises a p-i-n photodetector formed from a plurality of InP/InGaAs layers deposited by an epitaxial growth process and an adjacent heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifier formed from the same InP/InGaAs layers. The photoreceiver amplifier operates in a large-signal mode to convert a detected photocurrent signal into an amplified output capable of directly driving integrated circuits such as CMOS. In combination with an optical transmitter, the photoreceiver may be used to establish a short-range channel of digital optical communications between integrated circuits with applications to multi-chip modules (MCMs). The photoreceiver may also be used with fiber optic coupling for establishing longer-range digital communications (i.e. optical interconnects) between distributed computers or the like. Arrays of digital photoreceivers may be formed on a common substrate for establishing a plurality of channels of digital optical communication, with each photoreceiver being spaced by less than about 1 mm and consuming less than about 20 mW of power, and preferably less than about 10 mW. Such photoreceiver arrays are useful for transferring huge amounts of digital data between integrated circuits at bit rates of up to about 1000 Mb/s or more.

  13. CMOS compatible high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated with photolithography on silicon photonic platform.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Yuta; Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Fushimi, Akihiro; Yoshiki, Wataru; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2015-06-18

    Progress on the fabrication of ultrahigh-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities (PhC-NCs) has revealed the prospect for new applications including silicon Raman lasers that require a strong confinement of light. Among various PhC-NCs, the highest Q has been recorded with silicon. On the other hand, microcavity is one of the basic building blocks in silicon photonics. However, the fusion between PhC-NCs and silicon photonics has yet to be exploited, since PhC-NCs are usually fabricated with electron-beam lithography and require an air-bridge structure. Here we show that a 2D-PhC-NC fabricated with deep-UV photolithography on a silica-clad silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure will exhibit a high-Q of 2.2 × 10(5) with a mode-volume of ~ 1.7(λ/n)(3). This is the highest Q demonstrated with photolithography. We also show that this device exhibits an efficient thermal diffusion and enables high-speed switching. The demonstration of the photolithographic fabrication of high-Q silica-clad PhC-NCs will open possibility for mass-manufacturing and boost the fusion between silicon photonics and CMOS devices.

  14. Step-gate polysilicon nanowires field effect transistor compatible with CMOS technology for label-free DNA biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wenga, G; Jacques, E; Salaün, A-C; Rogel, R; Pichon, L; Geneste, F

    2013-02-15

    Currently, detection of DNA hybridization using fluorescence-based detection technique requires expensive optical systems and complex bioinformatics tools. Hence, the development of new low cost devices that enable direct and highly sensitive detection stimulates a lot of research efforts. Particularly, devices based on silicon nanowires are emerging as ultrasensitive electrical sensors for the direct detection of biological species thanks to their high surface to volume ratio. In this study, we propose innovative devices using step-gate polycrystalline silicon nanowire FET (poly-Si NW FETs), achieved with simple and low cost fabrication process, and used as ultrasensitive electronic sensor for DNA hybridization. The poly-SiNWs are synthesized using the sidewall spacer formation technique. The detailed fabrication procedure for a step-gate NWFET sensor is described in this paper. No-complementary and complementary DNA sequences were clearly discriminated and detection limit to 1 fM range is observed. This first result using this nano-device is promising for the development of low cost and ultrasensitive polysilicon nanowires based DNA sensors compatible with the CMOS technology.

  15. Enhanced Telecom Emission from Single Group-IV Quantum Dots by Precise CMOS-Compatible Positioning in Photonic Crystal Cavities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Efficient coupling to integrated high-quality-factor cavities is crucial for the employment of germanium quantum dot (QD) emitters in future monolithic silicon-based optoelectronic platforms. We report on strongly enhanced emission from single Ge QDs into L3 photonic crystal resonator (PCR) modes based on precise positioning of these dots at the maximum of the respective mode field energy density. Perfect site control of Ge QDs grown on prepatterned silicon-on-insulator substrates was exploited to fabricate in one processing run almost 300 PCRs containing single QDs in systematically varying positions within the cavities. Extensive photoluminescence studies on this cavity chip enable a direct evaluation of the position-dependent coupling efficiency between single dots and selected cavity modes. The experimental results demonstrate the great potential of the approach allowing CMOS-compatible parallel fabrication of arrays of spatially matched dot/cavity systems for group-IV-based data transfer or quantum optical systems in the telecom regime. PMID:28345012

  16. A new generation of CMOS-compatible high frequency micro-inductors with ferromagnetic cores: Theory, fabrication and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seemann, K.; Leiste, H.; Bekker, V.

    2006-07-01

    A new generation of CMOS-compatible micro-inductor prototypes with magnetic cores were realized, characterised as well as theoretically modelled in a frequency range up to 4 GHz, a frequency range where, e.g., mobile communication and global positioning systems (GPS) are operated. The micro-inductor's electrical magnitudes like inductance ( L) and quality factor ( Q) were theoretically described by means of an equivalent circuit model taking the frequency behaviour of the magnetic film core, expressed by the Landau-Lifschitz and Maxwell equations, into account. Six inch targets were used to deposit metallic layers (Al 99Si 0.5Cu 0.5), diffusion barriers (Si 3N 4), insulating layers (SiO 2) and magnetic films (Fe 39Co 30Ta 8N 23) by DC or reactive r.-f.-magnetron sputtering. All film materials were patterned by NUV-lithography (Near Ultra Violet), plasma beam milling and reactive ion etching to form the micro-inductors on 4-inch silicon wafers. The inductor windings are arranged in a way that they possess a low resistance and generate a quasi closed flux at the end of the cores to minimise eddy current losses in the silicon substrate. In order to diminish demagnetising effects in an efficient working core the magnetic films were patterned into micro squares with lateral dimensions of 20 and 100 μm with 100 nm in thickness. More magnetic volume and a higher micro-inductor cross-section was achieved by producing 100 nm magnetic double layers separated by a 800 nm thick Si 3N 4 inter-layer. To guarantee a sufficiently high cut-off frequency of the magnetic films, they were annealed in a static magnetic field at a temperature of 400 °C for uniaxial anisotropy induction. This represents a temperature treatment where aluminium CMOS processes take place. As a result of patterning, the magnetic film material exhibited a remarkable increase of the cut-off frequency from 2 GHz in laterally extended films up to 3.2 GHz which could be also observed in the measured frequency

  17. Label-free and rapid electrical detection of hTSH with CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire transistor arrays.

    PubMed

    Lu, Na; Dai, Pengfei; Gao, Anran; Valiaho, Jari; Kallio, Pasi; Wang, Yuelin; Li, Tie

    2014-11-26

    Now a human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) assay has been considered as a screening tool for thyroid disease. However, some existing methods employed for in-hospital diagnosis still suffer from labor-intensive experimental steps, and expensive instrumentation. It is of great significance to meet the ever growing demand for development of label-free, disposable, and low-cost productive hTSH detection biosensors. Herein, we demonstrate a novel sensing strategy for highly sensitive and selective immunodetection of hTSH by using a CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire field effect transistor (SiNW-FET) device. The SiNW chips were manufactured by a top-down approach, allowing for the possibility of low-cost and large-scale production. By using the antibody-functionalized SiNW-FET nanosensors, we performed the label-free and rapid electrical detection of hTSH without any nanoparticle conjugation or signal amplifications. The proposed SiNW biosensor could detect hTSH binding down to a concentration of at least 0.02 mIU/L (0.11 pM), which is more sensitive than other sensing techniques. We also investigated the influence of Debye screening with varied ionic strength on hTSH detection sensitivity, and real-time measurements on various concentrations of the diluted buffer. The simple, label-free, low-cost, and miniaturized SiNW-FET chip has a potential perspective in point-of-care diagnosis of thyroid disease.

  18. Fabrication and Structural Characterization of Co-implanted Ultra Shallow Junctions for Integration in Piezoresistive Silicon Sensors Compatible with CMOS Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Mustafa, R.

    2013-12-01

    Fabrication and structural characterization of Indium and Carbon implanted n-type Silicon layers forming ultra-shallow junction for integration in piezoresistive sensors compatible with CMOS processing is studied in detail. The co-implantation technology together with medium range annealing temperature regimes seem to play an important role at atomistic level and provide a process control to engineer the strain and maintain the quality of surface/layer/active device region for further manufacturing process cycle. This is likely to impact the yield and reliability for the fabrication of these devices for diverse applications.

  19. Direct ultrasensitive electrical detection of prostate cancer biomarkers with CMOS-compatible n- and p-type silicon nanowire sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Anran; Lu, Na; Dai, Pengfei; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Yuelin; Li, Tie

    2014-10-01

    Sensitive and quantitative analysis of proteins is central to disease diagnosis, drug screening, and proteomic studies. Here, a label-free, real-time, simultaneous and ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) sensor was developed using CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW FET). Highly responsive n- and p-type SiNW arrays were fabricated and integrated on a single chip with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible anisotropic self-stop etching technique which eliminated the need for a hybrid method. The incorporated n- and p-type nanowires revealed complementary electrical response upon PSA binding, providing a unique means of internal control for sensing signal verification. The highly selective, simultaneous and multiplexed detection of PSA marker at attomolar concentrations, a level useful for clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer, was demonstrated. The detection ability was corroborated to be effective by comparing the detection results at different pH values. Furthermore, the real-time measurement was also carried out in a clinically relevant sample of blood serum, indicating the practicable development of rapid, robust, high-performance, and low-cost diagnostic systems.Sensitive and quantitative analysis of proteins is central to disease diagnosis, drug screening, and proteomic studies. Here, a label-free, real-time, simultaneous and ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) sensor was developed using CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW FET). Highly responsive n- and p-type SiNW arrays were fabricated and integrated on a single chip with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible anisotropic self-stop etching technique which eliminated the need for a hybrid method. The incorporated n- and p-type nanowires revealed complementary electrical response upon PSA binding, providing a unique means of internal control for sensing signal verification. The highly

  20. Ge quantum dot arrays grown by ultrahigh vacuum molecular-beam epitaxy on the Si(001) surface: nucleation, morphology, and CMOS compatibility.

    PubMed

    Yuryev, Vladimir A; Arapkina, Larisa V

    2011-09-05

    Issues of morphology, nucleation, and growth of Ge cluster arrays deposited by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy on the Si(001) surface are considered. Difference in nucleation of quantum dots during Ge deposition at low (≲600°C) and high (≳600°C) temperatures is studied by high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. The atomic models of growth of both species of Ge huts--pyramids and wedges-- are proposed. The growth cycle of Ge QD arrays at low temperatures is explored. A problem of lowering of the array formation temperature is discussed with the focus on CMOS compatibility of the entire process; a special attention is paid upon approaches to reduction of treatment temperature during the Si(001) surface pre-growth cleaning, which is at once a key and the highest-temperature phase of the Ge/Si(001) quantum dot dense array formation process. The temperature of the Si clean surface preparation, the final high-temperature step of which is, as a rule, carried out directly in the MBE chamber just before the structure deposition, determines the compatibility of formation process of Ge-QD-array based devices with the CMOS manufacturing cycle. Silicon surface hydrogenation at the final stage of its wet chemical etching during the preliminary cleaning is proposed as a possible way of efficient reduction of the Si wafer pre-growth annealing temperature.

  1. Ge quantum dot arrays grown by ultrahigh vacuum molecular-beam epitaxy on the Si(001) surface: nucleation, morphology, and CMOS compatibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Issues of morphology, nucleation, and growth of Ge cluster arrays deposited by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy on the Si(001) surface are considered. Difference in nucleation of quantum dots during Ge deposition at low (≲600°C) and high (≳600°C) temperatures is studied by high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. The atomic models of growth of both species of Ge huts--pyramids and wedges-- are proposed. The growth cycle of Ge QD arrays at low temperatures is explored. A problem of lowering of the array formation temperature is discussed with the focus on CMOS compatibility of the entire process; a special attention is paid upon approaches to reduction of treatment temperature during the Si(001) surface pre-growth cleaning, which is at once a key and the highest-temperature phase of the Ge/Si(001) quantum dot dense array formation process. The temperature of the Si clean surface preparation, the final high-temperature step of which is, as a rule, carried out directly in the MBE chamber just before the structure deposition, determines the compatibility of formation process of Ge-QD-array based devices with the CMOS manufacturing cycle. Silicon surface hydrogenation at the final stage of its wet chemical etching during the preliminary cleaning is proposed as a possible way of efficient reduction of the Si wafer pre-growth annealing temperature. PMID:21892938

  2. MAVEN Magnetometer

    NASA Video Gallery

    MAVEN’s dual magnetometers will allow scientists to study the interactionbetween the solar wind and the Martian atmosphere, giving us a betterunderstanding of how Mars has evolved from a warm, ...

  3. 1.2 kV GaN Schottky barrier diodes on free-standing GaN wafer using a CMOS-compatible contact material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinke; Liu, Qiang; Li, Chao; Wang, Jianfeng; Yu, Wenjie; Xu, Ke; Ao, Jin-Ping

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we report the formation of vertical GaN Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on a 2-in. free-standing (FS) GaN wafer, using CMOS-compatible contact material. By realizing an off-state breakdown voltage V BR of 1200 V and an on-state resistance R on of 7 mΩ·cm2, the FS-GaN SBDs fabricated in this work achieve a power device figure-of-merit V\\text{BR}2/R\\text{on} of 2.1 × 108 V2·Ω-1·cm-2 on a high quality GaN wafer. In addition, the fabricated FS-GaN SBDs show the highest I on/I off current ratio of ˜2.3 × 1010 among the GaN SBDs reported in the literature.

  4. A novel CMOS-compatible, monolithically integrated line-scan hyperspectral imager covering the VIS-NIR range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Pilar; Tack, Klaas; Geelen, Bert; Masschelein, Bart; Charle, Wouter; Vereecke, Bart; Lambrechts, Andy

    2016-05-01

    Imec has developed a process for the monolithic integration of optical filters on top of CMOS image sensors, leading to compact, cost-efficient and faster hyperspectral cameras. Different prototype sensors are available, most notably a 600- 1000 nm line-scan imager, and two mosaic sensors: a 4x4 VIS (470-620 nm range) and a 5x5 VNIR (600-1000 nm). In response to the users' demand for a single sensor able to cover both the VIS and NIR ranges, further developments have been made to enable more demanding applications. As a result, this paper presents the latest addition to imec's family of monolithically-integrated hyperspectral sensors: a line scan sensor covering the range 470-900 nm. This new prototype sensor can acquire hyperspectral image cubes of 2048 pixels over 192 bands (128 bands for the 600- 900 nm range, and 64 bands for the 470-620 nm range) at 340 cubes per second for normal machine vision illumination levels.

  5. CMOS-compatible synthesis of large-area, high-mobility graphene by chemical vapor deposition of acetylene on cobalt thin films.

    PubMed

    Ramón, Michael E; Gupta, Aparna; Corbet, Chris; Ferrer, Domingo A; Movva, Hema C P; Carpenter, Gary; Colombo, Luigi; Bourianoff, George; Doczy, Mark; Akinwande, Deji; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate the synthesis of large-area graphene on Co, a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible metal, using acetylene (C(2)H(2)) as a precursor in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-based method. Cobalt films were deposited on SiO(2)/Si, and the influence of Co film thickness on monolayer graphene growth was studied, based on the solubility of C in Co. The surface area coverage of monolayer graphene was observed to increase with decreasing Co film thickness. A thorough Raman spectroscopic analysis reveals that graphene films, grown on an optimized Co film thickness, are principally composed of monolayer graphene. Transport properties of monolayer graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of ∼1600 cm(2)/V s and ∼1000 cm(2)/V s, respectively, and a low trap density of ∼1.2 × 10(11) cm(-2).

  6. Atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter [Albuquerque, NM; Johnson, Cort N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

  7. Aristoteles magnetometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Edward J.; Marquedant, Roy J.; Langel, Robert; Acuna, Mario

    1991-12-01

    A magnetometer system capable of meeting the stringent requirements of the Aristoteles mission is described. The system will comprise a three axis or Vector Flux gas Magnetometer (VFM) and a highly accurate resonance magnetometer, the Scalar Helium Magnetometer (SHM). Basic operational features of these instruments are described and their performance is related to the scientific objectives of the mission appropriate to the geomagnetic field measurements. The major requirements imposed on the spacecraft are summarized. Photographs and diagrams of both instruments are presented along with graphs of the sensitivity of the SHM to magnetic field orientation.

  8. Tuned cavity magnetometer sensitivity.

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (magnetometer that utilizes a novel optical (interferometric) detection technique. Further miniaturization and low-power operation are key advantages of this magnetometer, when compared to systems using SQUIDs which require liquid Helium temperatures and associated overhead to achieve similar sensitivity levels.

  9. Magnetometer uses bismuth-selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollman, J. A.; Spain, I. L.; Beale, H.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of bismuth-selenide magnetometer are described. Advantages of bismuth-selenide magnetometer over standard magnetometers are stressed. Thermal stability of bismuth-selenide magnetometer is analyzed. Linearity of output versus magnetic field over wide range of temperatures is reported.

  10. Hall effect magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A.; Beale, H. A.; Spain, I. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A magnetometer which uses a single crystal of bismuth selenide is described. The rhombohedral crystal structure of the sensing element is analyzed. The method of construction of the magnetometer is discussed. It is stated that the sensing crystal has a positive or negative Hall coefficient and a carrier concentration of about 10 to the 18th power to 10 to the 20th power per cubic centimeter.

  11. Cavity optomechanical magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Forstner, S; Prams, S; Knittel, J; van Ooijen, E D; Swaim, J D; Harris, G I; Szorkovszky, A; Bowen, W P; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H

    2012-03-23

    A cavity optomechanical magnetometer is demonstrated. The magnetic-field-induced expansion of a magnetostrictive material is resonantly transduced onto the physical structure of a highly compliant optical microresonator and read out optically with ultrahigh sensitivity. A peak magnetic field sensitivity of 400  nT  Hz(-1/2) is achieved, with theoretical modeling predicting the possibility of sensitivities below 1  pT  Hz(-1/2). This chip-based magnetometer combines high sensitivity and large dynamic range with small size and room temperature operation.

  12. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  13. THOR Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Eastwood, Jonathan; Magnes, Werner; Valavanoglou, Aris; Carr, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Helen L.; Narita, Yasuhito; Delva, Magda; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Soucek, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The goal of the Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG) is to measure the DC to low frequency ambient magnetic field. The design of the magnetometer consists of two tri-axial sensors and the related magnetometer electronics; the electronics are hosted on printed circuit boards in the common electronics box of the fields and wave processor (FWP). A fully redundant two sensor system mounted on a common boom and the new miniaturized low noise design based on MMS and Solar Orbiter instruments enable accurate measurement throughout the region of interest for THOR science. The usage of the common electronics hosted by FWP guarantees to fulfill the required timing accuracy with other fields measurements. These improvements are important to obtain precise measurements of magnetic field, which is essential to estimate basic plasma parameters and correctly identify the spatial and temporal scales of the turbulence. Furthermore, THOR MAG provides high quality data with sufficient overlap with the Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM) in frequency space to obtain full coverage of the wave forms over all the frequencies necessary to obtain the full solar wind turbulence spectrum from MHD to kinetic range with sufficient accuracy.

  14. Simple Magnetometer for Autopilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    Simple, low-cost magnetometer is suitable for heading-reference applications in autopilots and other directional control systems. Sensing element utilizes commercially available transformer core; and supporting electronics consist of one transistor, two readily-available integrated-circuit chips, and associated resistors and capacitors.

  15. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Anderson, B. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Bromund, K. R.; Dearborn, D.; Fischer, D.; Le, G.; Leinweber, H. K.; Leneman, D.; Magnes, W.; Means, J. D.; Moldwin, M. B.; Nakamura, R.; Pierce, D.; Plaschke, F.; Rowe, K. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R.; Hagen, C.; Jernej, I.; Valavanoglou, A.; Richter, I.

    2016-03-01

    The success of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission depends on the accurate measurement of the magnetic field on all four spacecraft. To ensure this success, two independently designed and built fluxgate magnetometers were developed, avoiding single-point failures. The magnetometers were dubbed the digital fluxgate (DFG), which uses an ASIC implementation and was supplied by the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the analogue magnetometer (AFG) with a more traditional circuit board design supplied by the University of California, Los Angeles. A stringent magnetic cleanliness program was executed under the supervision of the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory. To achieve mission objectives, the calibration determined on the ground will be refined in space to ensure all eight magnetometers are precisely inter-calibrated. Near real-time data plays a key role in the transmission of high-resolution observations stored on board so rapid processing of the low-resolution data is required. This article describes these instruments, the magnetic cleanliness program, and the instrument pre-launch calibrations, the planned in-flight calibration program, and the information flow that provides the data on the rapid time scale needed for mission success.

  16. A CMOS floating point multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uya, M.; Kaneko, K.; Yasui, J.

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes a 32-bit CMOS floating point multiplier. The chip can perform 32-bit floating point multiplication (based on the proposed IEEE Standard format) and 24-bit fixed point multiplication (two's complement format) in less than 78.7 and 71.1 ns, respectively, and the typical power dissipation is 195 mW at 10 million operations per second. High-speed multiplication techniques - a modified Booth's allgorithm, a carry save adder scheme, a high-speed CMOS full adder, and a modified carry select adder - are used to achieve the above high performance. The chip is designed for compatibility with 16-bit microcomputer systems, and is fabricated in 2 micron n-well CMOS technology; it contains about 23000 transistors of 5.75 x 5.67 sq mm in size.

  17. CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators.

    PubMed

    Guha, Biswajeet; Kyotoku, Bernardo B C; Lipson, Michal

    2010-02-15

    We propose a new class of resonant silicon optical devices, consisting of a ring resonator coupled to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which is passively temperature compensated by tailoring the optical mode confinement in the waveguides. We demonstrate operation of the device over a wide temperature range of 80 degrees. The fundamental principle behind this work can be extended to other photonic devices based on resonators such as modulators, routers, switches and filters.

  18. Gradient magnetometer system balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Tsvetkov, Yury

    2005-08-01

    Earth's magnetic field study still remains one of the leading edges of experimental geophysics. Thus study is executed on the Earth surface, including ocean bottom, and on satellite heights using component, mostly flux-gate magnetometers. But balloon experiments with component magnetometers are very seldom, first of all because of great complexity of data interpretation. This niche still waits for new experimental ideology, which will allow to get the measurements results with high accuracy, especially in gradient mode. The great importance of precise balloon-borne component magnetic field gradient study is obvious. Its technical realization is based both on the available at the marked high-precision non-magnetic tiltmeters and on recent achievements of flux-gate magnetometry. The scientific goals of balloon-borne magnetic gradiometric experiment are discussed and its practical realization is proposed.

  19. The IRM fluxgate magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luehr, H.; Kloecker, N.; Oelschlaegel, W.; Haeusler, B.; Acuna, M.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the three-axis fluxgate magnetometer instrument on board the AMPTE IRM spacecraft. Important features of the instrument are its wide dynamic range (0.1-60,000 nT), a high resolution (16-bit analog to digital conversion) and the capability to operate automatically or via telecommand in two gain states. In addition, the wave activity is monitored in all three components up to 50 Hz. Inflight checkout proved the nominal functioning of the instrument in all modes.

  20. Optical atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  1. Superconductive imaging surface magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Overton, Jr., William C.; van Hulsteyn, David B.; Flynn, Edward R.

    1991-01-01

    An improved pick-up coil system for use with Superconducting Quantum Interference Device gradiometers and magnetometers involving the use of superconducting plates near conventional pick-up coil arrangements to provide imaging of nearby dipole sources and to deflect environmental magnetic noise away from the pick-up coils. This allows the practice of gradiometry and magnetometry in magnetically unshielded environments. One embodiment uses a hemispherically shaped superconducting plate with interior pick-up coils, allowing brain wave measurements to be made on human patients. another embodiment using flat superconducting plates could be used in non-destructive evaluation of materials.

  2. Iterative Magnetometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative method for three-axis magnetometer (TAM) calibration that makes use of three existing utilities recently incorporated into the attitude ground support system used at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The method combines attitude-independent and attitude-dependent calibration algorithms with a new spinning spacecraft Kalman filter to solve for biases, scale factors, nonorthogonal corrections to the alignment, and the orthogonal sensor alignment. The method is particularly well-suited to spin-stabilized spacecraft, but may also be useful for three-axis stabilized missions given sufficient data to provide observability.

  3. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-13

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.

  4. Optically transduced MEMS magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Langlois, Eric

    2014-03-18

    MEMS magnetometers with optically transduced resonator displacement are described herein. Improved sensitivity, crosstalk reduction, and extended dynamic range may be achieved with devices including a deflectable resonator suspended from the support, a first grating extending from the support and disposed over the resonator, a pair of drive electrodes to drive an alternating current through the resonator, and a second grating in the resonator overlapping the first grating to form a multi-layer grating having apertures that vary dimensionally in response to deflection occurring as the resonator mechanically resonates in a plane parallel to the first grating in the presence of a magnetic field as a function of the Lorentz force resulting from the alternating current. A plurality of such multi-layer gratings may be disposed across a length of the resonator to provide greater dynamic range and/or accommodate fabrication tolerances.

  5. Kinetic inductance magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Luomahaara, Juho; Vesterinen, Visa; Grönberg, Leif; Hassel, Juha

    2014-09-10

    Sensing ultra-low magnetic fields has various applications in the fields of science, medicine and industry. There is a growing need for a sensor that can be operated in ambient environments where magnetic shielding is limited or magnetic field manipulation is involved. To this end, here we demonstrate a new magnetometer with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The device is based on the current nonlinearity of superconducting material stemming from kinetic inductance. A further benefit of our approach is of extreme simplicity: the device is fabricated from a single layer of niobium nitride. Moreover, radio frequency multiplexing techniques can be applied, enabling the simultaneous readout of multiple sensors, for example, in biomagnetic measurements requiring data from large sensor arrays.

  6. Miniature Laser Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert; Brown, Andy

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a miniature laser magnetometer (MLM) that will measure the scalar magnitude and vector components of near-Earth magnetic fields. The MLM incorporates a number of technical innovations to achieve high-accuracy and high-resolution performance while significantly reducing the size of the laser-pumped helium magnetometer for use on small satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). and electronics sections that has the capability of measuring both the scalar magnetic field magnitude and the vector magnetic field components. Further more, the high-accuracy scalar measurements are used to calibrate and correct the vector component measurements in order to achieve superior vector accuracy and stability. The correction algorithm applied to the vector components for calibration and the same cell for vector and scalar measurements are major innovations. The separate sensor and electronics section of the MLM instrument allow the sensor to be installed on a boom or otherwise located away from electronics and other noisy magnetic components. The MLM s miniaturization will be accomplished through the use of advanced miniaturized components and packaging methods for the MLM sensor and electronics. The MLM conceptual design includes three key innovations. The first is a new non-magnetic laser package that will allow the placement of the laser pump source near the helium cell sensing elements. The second innovation is the design of compact, nested, triaxial Braunbek coils used in the vector measurements that reduce the coil size by a factor of two compared to existing Helmholtz coils with similar field-generation performance. The third innovation is a compact sensor design that reduces the sensor volume by a factor of eight compared to MLM s predecessor.

  7. Lunar surface magnetometer design review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Design and fabrication parameters of a lunar surface magnetometer are discussed. Drawings and requirements for mechanical design, electronic packaging design, thermal design, quality assurance and systems testing are included.

  8. Optical Magnetometer Incorporating Photonic Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; Florescu, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    According to a proposal, photonic crystals would be used to greatly increase the sensitivities of optical magnetometers that are already regarded as ultrasensitive. The proposal applies, more specifically, to a state-of-the-art type of quantum coherent magnetometer that exploits the electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) method for determining a small change in a magnetic field indirectly via measurement of the shift, induced by that change, in the hyperfine levels of resonant atoms exposed to the field.

  9. Magnetometer on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Sitting on the lunar surface, this magnetometer provided new data on the Moon's magnetic field. This was one of the instruments used during the Apollo 12 mission. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  10. Optical waveguide taps on silicon CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, Vincent E.; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2000-11-01

    As silicon CMOS circuit technology is scaled beyond the GHz range, both chipmakers and board makers face increasingly difficult challenges in implementing high speed metal interconnects. Metal traces are limited in density-speed performance due to the skin effect, electrical conductivity, and cross talk. Optical based interconnects have higher available bandwidth by virtue of the extremely high carrier frequencies of optical signals (> 100 THz). For this work, an effort has been made to determine an optimal optical tap receiver design for integration with commercial CMOS processes. Candidate waveguide tap technologies were considered in terms of optical loss, bandwidth, economy, and CMOS process compatibility. A new device, which is based on a variation of the multimode interference effect, has been found to be especially promising. BeamProp simulation results show nearly zero excess optical loss for the design, and up to 70% coupling into a 25 micrometer traveling wave CMOS photodetector device. Single-mode waveguides make the design readily compatible with wavelength multiplexing/demultiplexing elements. Polymer waveguide materials are targeted for fabrication due to planarization properties, low cost, broad index control, and poling abilities for modulation/tuning functions. Low cost, silicon CMOS based processing makes the new tap technology especially suitable for computer chip and board level interconnects, as well as metro fiber-to-the- home/desk telecommunications applications.

  11. Optical addressing technique for a CMOS RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, W. H.; Bergman, L. A.; Allen, R. A.; Johnston, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Progress on optically addressing a CMOS RAM for a feasibility demonstration of free space optical interconnection is reported in this paper. The optical RAM chip has been fabricated and functional testing is in progress. Initial results seem promising. New design and SPICE simulation of optical gate cell (OGC) circuits have been carried out to correct the slow fall time of the 'weak pull down' OGC, which has been characterized experimentally. Methods of reducing the response times of the photodiodes and the associated circuits are discussed. Even with the current photodiode, it appears that an OGC can be designed with a performance that is compatible with a CMOS circuit such as the RAM.

  12. A low energy electron magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Wood, G. M., Jr.; Rayborn, G. H.; White, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a highly sensitive magnetometer based on the deflection of low energy electron beams in magnetic fields is analyzed. Because of its extremely low mass and consequently high e/m ratio, a low energy electron is easily deflected in a magnetic field, thus providing a basis for very low field measurement. Calculations for a specific instrument design indicate that a low energy electron magnetometer (LEEM) can measure magnetic fields as low as 1000 nT. The anticipated performance of LEEM is compared with that of the existing high resolution magnetometers in selected applications. The fast response time of LEEM makes it especially attractive as a potential instrument for magnetic signature analysis in large engineering systems.

  13. Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

    2005-01-01

    A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

  14. CMOS-Memristor Hybrid Nanoelectronics for AES Encryption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    URL: https://www.cvimellesgriot.com/ Products /Ultraviolet-325-nm-Medium-Frame-Unpolarized-Heli um- Cadmium -Laser-Systems.aspx 2. URL: http...the existing industry -standard CMOS integrated circuit manufacturing base. Our in-house facility development focused on establishing a very high...leveraging the well-proven vast functionality of the existing industry -standard CMOS integrated circuit manufacturing base. Maintaining compatibility

  15. Ultralow-Loss CMOS Copper Plasmonic Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I; Kirtaev, Roman V; Volkov, Valentyn S

    2016-01-13

    Surface plasmon polaritons can give a unique opportunity to manipulate light at a scale well below the diffraction limit reducing the size of optical components down to that of nanoelectronic circuits. At the same time, plasmonics is mostly based on noble metals, which are not compatible with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which can outperform gold plasmonic waveguides simultaneously providing long (>40 μm) propagation length and deep subwavelength (∼λ(2)/50, where λ is the free-space wavelength) mode confinement in the telecommunication spectral range. These results create the backbone for the development of a CMOS plasmonic platform and its integration in future electronic chips.

  16. CMOS-compatible spot-size converter for optical fiber to sub-μm silicon waveguide coupling with low-loss low-wavelength dependence and high tolerance to misalignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Marie-Josée.; Latrasse, Christine; Larouche, Carl; Painchaud, Yves; Poulin, Michel; Pelletier, François; Guy, Martin

    2016-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges of silicon photonics is the efficient coupling of light between the sub-micron SiP waveguides and a standard optical fiber (SMF-28). We recently proposed a novel approach based on a spot-size converter (SSC) that fulfills this need. The SSC integrates a tapered silicon waveguide and a superimposed structure made of a plurality of rods of high index material, disposed in an array-like configuration and embedded in a cladding of lower index material. This superimposed structure defines a waveguide designed to provide an efficient adiabatic transfer, through evanescent coupling, to a 220 nm thick Si waveguide tapered down to a narrow tip on one side, while providing a large mode overlap to the optical fiber on the other side. An initial demonstration was made using a SSC fabricated with post-processing steps. Great coupling to a SMF-28 fiber with a loss of 0.6 dB was obtained for TEpolarized light at 1550 nm with minimum wavelength dependence. In this paper, SSCs designed for operation at 1310 and 1550 nm for TE/TM polarizations and entirely fabricated in a CMOS fab are presented.

  17. Observational magnetometer calibration with the Hubble Space Telescope's new magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broude, Sidney M.

    1995-05-01

    The two magnetometers recently replaced on the Hubble Space Telescope during the STS-61 Servicing Mission are now being used successfully for Coarse Attitude Determination during spacecraft vehicle safemode recovery operation. The magnetometer alignments relative to the spacecraft's vehicle's reference frame and the magnetic coupling of the sensors to the four magnetic torquer bars were determined. Coarse Attitude determination errors are now reduced to an average of 0.6 deg. Magnetometer Sensing System calibration and Coarse Attitude determination testing with the new calibration parameters is a geometrical problem. Telemetered earth magnetic field data was collected at twenty-six different vehicle attitudes. The spacecraft attitudes selected were distributed as widely apart as possible throughout the Geocentric Inertial Coordinate reference frame. It is also desirable to sample the Earth's magnetic field over as many different locations of the spacecraft's passage over the Earth as possible, within the limitation of the +/- 28.5 deg orbital inclination. A full range of magnetic moment outputs from the torquer bars needs to be sampled, +/- 3600 ampmeters squared, as well as data when the torquer bars have zero current. Graphic utilities were also developed to visually aid in optimizing the data collection process. Finally, a brief discussion of a method for collecting data for future calibrations is suggested.

  18. Observational magnetometer calibration with the Hubble Space Telescope's new magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broude, Sidney M.

    1995-01-01

    The two magnetometers recently replaced on the Hubble Space Telescope during the STS-61 Servicing Mission are now being used successfully for Coarse Attitude Determination during spacecraft vehicle safemode recovery operation. The magnetometer alignments relative to the spacecraft's vehicle's reference frame and the magnetic coupling of the sensors to the four magnetic torquer bars were determined. Coarse Attitude determination errors are now reduced to an average of 0.6 deg. Magnetometer Sensing System calibration and Coarse Attitude determination testing with the new calibration parameters is a geometrical problem. Telemetered earth magnetic field data was collected at twenty-six different vehicle attitudes. The spacecraft attitudes selected were distributed as widely apart as possible throughout the Geocentric Inertial Coordinate reference frame. It is also desirable to sample the Earth's magnetic field over as many different locations of the spacecraft's passage over the Earth as possible, within the limitation of the +/- 28.5 deg orbital inclination. A full range of magnetic moment outputs from the torquer bars needs to be sampled, +/- 3600 ampmeters squared, as well as data when the torquer bars have zero current. Graphic utilities were also developed to visually aid in optimizing the data collection process. Finally, a brief discussion of a method for collecting data for future calibrations is suggested.

  19. CDSM - A New Scalar Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollinger, Andreas; Lammegger, Roland; Magnes, Werner; Ellmeier, Michaela; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Windholz, Laurentius

    2010-05-01

    There are potential advantages of flying a magnetometer sensor suite combining a vector fluxgate with a scalar absolute sensor. Absolute sensors offer superior stability over temperature and time, lower intrinsic noise and offset-free measurements; the latter is very useful for fluxgate calibration on a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. A space-adapted design of a new type of scalar magnetometer, called Coupled Dark State Magnetometer (CDSM), is under development jointly by the Institute of Experimental Physics of the Graz University of Technology and the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. The CDSM is based on two-photon spectroscopy of free alkali atoms using a multi chromatic laser field. The measurement is made completely independent of the sensor temperature by a clever coupling of several coherent population trapping resonances. The CDSM promises a less resource-demanding instrument design (500g, 1W) compared to previously flown scalar magnetometers. A significant advantage is the fact that the extended measurement range of 7 decades is covered by only one sensor cell filled with Rubidium atoms (and a buffer gas), making the sensor core small and compact. Neither a radio frequency-based excitation at the sensor unit (150g) is needed for the operation, nor is it necessary to implement motor driven moving parts or a double cell unit in order to guarantee isotropic measurements like for other scalar sensors. A noise floor of 70pTrms/√Hz was measured in a first configuration. It is worth to mention that there is no 1/f noise below the implemented corner frequency of 3Hz. By changing from Rubidium D2 to D1 excitation line we are able to reduce the noise by a factor of 10 to 7pT. The technology readiness level of the CDSM is 3 at the moment and it shall reach level 5 (breadboard validation in relevant environment) by beginning of 2011.

  20. CAOS-CMOS camera.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; La Torre, Juan Pablo; Amin, M Junaid

    2016-06-13

    Proposed and experimentally demonstrated is the CAOS-CMOS camera design that combines the coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager platform with the CMOS multi-pixel optical sensor. The unique CAOS-CMOS camera engages the classic CMOS sensor light staring mode with the time-frequency-space agile pixel CAOS imager mode within one programmable optical unit to realize a high dynamic range imager for extreme light contrast conditions. The experimentally demonstrated CAOS-CMOS camera is built using a digital micromirror device, a silicon point-photo-detector with a variable gain amplifier, and a silicon CMOS sensor with a maximum rated 51.3 dB dynamic range. White light imaging of three different brightness simultaneously viewed targets, that is not possible by the CMOS sensor, is achieved by the CAOS-CMOS camera demonstrating an 82.06 dB dynamic range. Applications for the camera include industrial machine vision, welding, laser analysis, automotive, night vision, surveillance and multispectral military systems.

  1. Atomic magnetometer for human magnetoencephalograpy.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwindt, Peter; Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (<5 fTesla/{radical}Hz), fiber-optically coupled magnetometer to detect magnetic fields produced by the human brain. This is the first demonstration of a noncryogenic sensor that could replace cryogenic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and is an important advance in realizing cost-effective MEG. Within the sensor, a rubidium vapor is optically pumped with 795 laser light while field-induced optical rotations are measured with 780 nm laser light. Both beams share a single optical axis to maximize simplicity and compactness. In collaboration with neuroscientists at The Mind Research Network in Albuquerque, NM, the evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer and a commercial SQUID-based MEG system with signals comparing favorably. Multi-sensor operation has been demonstrated with two AMs placed on opposite sides of the head. Straightforward miniaturization would enable high-density sensor arrays for whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  2. HTS magnetometers for fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wakai, R T; Paulson, D N; Schwartz, B

    2004-11-30

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID sensors have adequate magnetic field sensitivity for adult magnetocardiography (MCG) measurements, but it remains to be seen how well they perform for fetal MCG (fMCG), where the heart signals are typically ten times smaller than the adult signals. In this study, we assess the performance of a prototype HTS SQUID system; namely, a three-SQUID gradiometer formed from three vertically-aligned HTS dc-SQUID magnetometers integrated into a fiberglass liquid nitrogen dewar of diameter 12.5 cm and height 30 cm. Axial gradiometers with short or long baseline, as well as a second order gradiometer, can be formed out of these magnetometers via electronic subtraction. The calibrated magnetometer sensitivities at 1 kHz are 109 fT/square root of Hz, 155 fT/square root of Hz and 51 fT/square root of Hz. Direct comparison is made between the HTS SQUID system and a LTS SQUID system by making recordings with both systems during the same session on adult and fetal subjects. Although the fMCG could be resolved with the HTS SQUID system in most near-term subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio was relatively low and the system could not be operated outside of a shielded room.

  3. Miniature atomic scalar magnetometer for space based on the rubidium isotope (87)Rb.

    PubMed

    Korth, Haje; Strohbehn, Kim; Tejada, Francisco; Andreou, Andreas G; Kitching, John; Knappe, Svenja; Lehtonen, S John; London, Shaughn M; Kafel, Matiwos

    2016-08-01

    A miniature atomic scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope (87)Rb was developed for operation in space. The instrument design implements both Mx and Mz mode operation and leverages a novel microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabricated vapor cell and a custom silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The vapor cell has a volume of only 1 mm(3) so that it can be efficiently heated to its operating temperature by a specially designed, low-magnetic-field-generating resistive heater implemented in multiple metal layers of the transparent sapphire substrate of the SOS-CMOS chips. The SOS-CMOS chip also hosts the Helmholtz coil and associated circuitry to stimulate the magnetically sensitive atomic resonance and temperature sensors. The prototype instrument has a total mass of fewer than 500 g and uses less than 1 W of power, while maintaining a sensitivity of 15 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, comparable to present state-of-the-art absolute magnetometers.

  4. Miniature atomic scalar magnetometer for space based on the rubidium isotope 87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, Haje; Strohbehn, Kim; Tejada, Francisco; Andreou, Andreas G.; Kitching, John; Knappe, Svenja; Lehtonen, S. John; London, Shaughn M.; Kafel, Matiwos

    2016-08-01

    A miniature atomic scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope 87Rb was developed for operation in space. The instrument design implements both Mx and Mz mode operation and leverages a novel microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabricated vapor cell and a custom silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The vapor cell has a volume of only 1 mm3 so that it can be efficiently heated to its operating temperature by a specially designed, low-magnetic-field-generating resistive heater implemented in multiple metal layers of the transparent sapphire substrate of the SOS-CMOS chips. The SOS-CMOS chip also hosts the Helmholtz coil and associated circuitry to stimulate the magnetically sensitive atomic resonance and temperature sensors. The prototype instrument has a total mass of fewer than 500 g and uses less than 1 W of power, while maintaining a sensitivity of 15 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, comparable to present state-of-the-art absolute magnetometers.

  5. High speed CMOS/SOS standard cell notebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC high speed CMOS/SOS standard cell family, designed to be compatible with the PR2D (Place, Route in 2-Dimensions) automatic layout program, is described. Standard cell data sheets show the logic diagram, the schematic, the truth table, and propagation delays for each logic cell.

  6. Construction of an alternating gradient magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Michael M.

    1988-01-01

    A magnetometer is described which was constructed to facilitate the study and characterization of the magnetic properties of high transition temperature superconductors. This instrument was used to measure the dc magnetic susceptibility of several superconducting compounds as a function of temperature. The construction of the magnetometer and the operating parameters are discussed in detail.

  7. A Complete Cubesat Magnetometer System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zesta, Eftyhia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide the center with a fully tested, flexible, low cost, miniaturized science magnetometer system applicable to small satellite programs, like Cubesats, and to rides of opportunity that do not lend themselves to the high integration costs a science magnetometer on a boom necessitates.

  8. Optical magnetometer array for fetal magnetocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyllie, Robert; Kauer, Matthew; Wakai, Ronald T.; Walker, Thad G.

    2012-06-01

    We describe an array of spin-exchange relaxation free optical magnetometers designed for detection of fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) signals. The individual magnetometers are configured with a small volume with intense optical pumping, surrounded by a large pump-free region. Spin-polarized atoms that diffuse out of the optical pumping region precess in the ambient magnetic field and are detected by a probe laser. Four such magnetometers, at the corners of a 7 cm square, are configured for gradiometry by feeding back the output of one magnetometer to a field coil to null uniform magnetic field noise at frequencies up to 200 Hz. Using this array, we present the first measurements of fMCG signals using an atomic magnetometer.

  9. Optical magnetometer array for fetal magnetocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Wyllie, Robert; Kauer, Matthew; Wakai, Ronald T.; Walker, Thad G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an array of spin-exchange-relaxation-free optical magnetometers designed for detection of fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). The individual magnetometers are configured with a small volume with intense optical pumping, surrounded by a large pump-free region. Spin-polarized atoms that diffuse out of the optical pumping region precess in the ambient magnetic field and are detected by a probe laser. Four such magnetometers, at the corners of a 7 cm square, are configured for gradiometry by feeding back the output of one magnetometer to a field coil to null uniform magnetic field noise at frequencies up to 200 Hz. We present the first measurements of fMCG signals using an atomic magnetometer. PMID:22739870

  10. High sensitivity optically pumped quantum magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Tiporlini, Valentina; Alameh, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Quantum magnetometers based on optical pumping can achieve sensitivity as high as what SQUID-based devices can attain. In this paper, we discuss the principle of operation and the optimal design of an optically pumped quantum magnetometer. The ultimate intrinsic sensitivity is calculated showing that optimal performance of the magnetometer is attained with an optical pump power of 20 μW and an operation temperature of 48°C. Results show that the ultimate intrinsic sensitivity of the quantum magnetometer that can be achieved is 327 fT/Hz(½) over a bandwidth of 26 Hz and that this sensitivity drops to 130 pT/Hz(½) in the presence of environmental noise. The quantum magnetometer is shown to be capable of detecting a sinusoidal magnetic field of amplitude as low as 15 pT oscillating at 25 Hz.

  11. Optical magnetometer array for fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Wyllie, Robert; Kauer, Matthew; Wakai, Ronald T; Walker, Thad G

    2012-06-15

    We describe an array of spin-exchange-relaxation-free optical magnetometers designed for detection of fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). The individual magnetometers are configured with a small volume with intense optical pumping, surrounded by a large pump-free region. Spin-polarized atoms that diffuse out of the optical pumping region precess in the ambient magnetic field and are detected by a probe laser. Four such magnetometers, at the corners of a 7 cm square, are configured for gradiometry by feeding back the output of one magnetometer to a field coil to null uniform magnetic field noise at frequencies up to 200 Hz. We present the first measurements of fMCG signals using an atomic magnetometer.

  12. Nuclear quantum-assisted magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häberle, Thomas; Oeckinghaus, Thomas; Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Pfender, Matthias; de Oliveira, Felipe Fávaro; Momenzadeh, Seyed Ali; Finkler, Amit; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic sensing and imaging instruments are important tools in biological and material sciences. There is an increasing demand for attaining higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, with implementations using a single qubit offering potential improvements in both directions. In this article we describe a scanning magnetometer based on the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond as the sensor. By means of a quantum-assisted readout scheme together with advances in photon collection efficiency, our device exhibits an enhancement in signal to noise ratio of close to an order of magnitude compared to the standard fluorescence readout of the nitrogen-vacancy center. This is demonstrated by comparing non-assisted and assisted methods in a T1 relaxation time measurement.

  13. Noiseless coding for the magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji

    1987-01-01

    Future unmanned space missions will continue to seek a full understanding of magnetic fields throughout the solar system. Severely constrained data rates during certain portions of these missions could limit the possible science return. This publication investigates the application of universal noiseless coding techniques to more efficiently represent magnetometer data without any loss in data integrity. Performance results indicated that compression factors of 2:1 to 6:1 can be expected. Feasibility for general deep space application was demonstrated by implementing a microprocessor breadboard coder/decoder using the Intel 8086 processor. The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission will incorporate these techniques in a buffer feedback, rate-controlled configuration. The characteristics of this system are discussed.

  14. Nuclear quantum-assisted magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Häberle, Thomas; Oeckinghaus, Thomas; Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Pfender, Matthias; de Oliveira, Felipe Fávaro; Momenzadeh, Seyed Ali; Finkler, Amit; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic sensing and imaging instruments are important tools in biological and material sciences. There is an increasing demand for attaining higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, with implementations using a single qubit offering potential improvements in both directions. In this article we describe a scanning magnetometer based on the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond as the sensor. By means of a quantum-assisted readout scheme together with advances in photon collection efficiency, our device exhibits an enhancement in signal to noise ratio of close to an order of magnitude compared to the standard fluorescence readout of the nitrogen-vacancy center. This is demonstrated by comparing non-assisted and assisted methods in a T1 relaxation time measurement.

  15. Optical fiber feedback SQUID magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, S.; Sampei, Y.; Takahashi, T. )

    1989-04-01

    This paper describes an optical fiber feedback superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer which was developed to improve electromagnetic interference characteristics. The SQUID consists of an RF SQUID probe, an RF amplifier, two multimode fibers, and a SQUID control unit. Phase-locked pulse width modulation (PWM) was used to construct a flux locked loop (FLL) circuit in the SQUID control unit. The operation of the optical fiber feedback SQUID is stable when a common mode voltage of ac 100 V/50 Hz is applied. It has an energy resolution of 1 x 10/sup -28/ J/Hz. This paper also describes the measurement of an auditory evoked field from the human brain in a magnetically shielded room using the fiber feedback SQUID with a gradiometer type pickup coil.

  16. A High Bandwidth Optically Pumped Atomic Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Martinez, Ricardo; Griffith, Clark W.; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John

    2009-10-01

    The measurement of magnetic fields has proved to be relevant in many realms of basic and applied science. Among the different techniques to measure magnetic fields, that of optically pumped atomic magnetometers has experienced considerable attention recently. This interest stems from the development of atomic magnetometers that achieve sensitivities in the sub-femto Tesla range, and the development of techniques that enable highly miniaturized, compact, with low-power consumption magnetometers. The sensitivity and bandwidth of atomic magnetometers is set by their spin coherence time, which in most magnetometers is limited by atomic collisions. Better sensitivities are achieved by suppressing the spin decoherence introduced by atomic collisions, but at a cost of lower bandwidth. For certain applications, a magnetometer with a high bandwidth is useful. Here we present a technique to achieve high bandwidth while preserving high sensitivity. We support the technique with table-top measurements showing that a bandwidth of 10 KHz and sensitivity of 10 pTrms/(Hz)^1/2 can be achieved in a compact device. We also highlight the current development of a miniature atomic magnetometer based on this technique.

  17. Josephson-CMOS Hybrid Memories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-25

    Liu, X . Meng, S. R. Whiteley, and T. Van Duzer, “Characterization of 4 K CMOS devices and circuits for hybrid Josephson- CMOS systems,” IEEE Trans. on...Josephson- CMOS hybrid memories Qingguo Liu Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley Technical Report No. UCB...to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Josephson- CMOS hybrid memories 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  18. Theodolite-borne vector Overhauser magnetometer: DIMOVER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, V.; Rasson, J.; Denisov, A.; Saveliev, D.; Kiselev, S.; Denisova, O.; Podmogov, Y.; Khomutov, S.

    2006-06-01

    This report covers results of the long-term research directed at developing an absolute vector proton magnetometer based on the switching of bias magnetic fields. The distinctive feature is the attempt of the installation of a miniature Overhauser sensor and optimized Garret solenoid directly on the telescope of the theodolite. Thus this design (Declination Inclination Modulus Overhauser magnetometer: DIMOVER) will complement the universally recognised DIflux absolute device by adding full vector measurement capability. Preliminary designs, which also can be interesting to the experts in vector proton magnetometers, are presented.

  19. Multi-sensor magnetoencephalography with atomic magnetometers

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cort N; Schwindt, P D D; Weisend, M

    2014-01-01

    The authors have detected magnetic fields from the human brain with two independent, simultaneously operating rubidium spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometers. Evoked responses from auditory stimulation were recorded from multiple subjects with two multi-channel magnetometers located on opposite sides of the head. Signal processing techniques enabled by multi-channel measurements were used to improve signal quality. This is the first demonstration of multi-sensor atomic magnetometer magnetoencephalography and provides a framework for developing a non-cryogenic, whole-head magnetoencephalography array for source localization. PMID:23939051

  20. Fetal MCG with Atomic Magnetometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deland, Zack; Bulatowicz, Michael D.; Sulai, Ibrahim A.; Wahl, Colin P.; Wakai, Ronald T.; Walker, Thad G.

    2016-05-01

    We present results on the development of 87Rb atomic magnetometers for the detection of a fetal magnetocardiogram (fMCG). Operating in the spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) regime, the magnetometers' sensitivities are reported at the 1 fT /√{ Hz } level. Environmental common-mode noise, including the field from the maternal heart, can be suppressed by operating the magnetometers in a gradiometric configuration. We report on schemes from implementing such gradiometers along with recent fMCG measurements. This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health.

  1. Black silicon enhanced photodetectors: a path to IR CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, M. U.; Carey, J. E.; Homayoon, H.; Alie, S.; Sickler, J.; Li, X.; Jiang, J.; Miller, D.; Palsule, C.; McKee, J.

    2010-04-01

    SiOnyx has developed a novel silicon processing technology for CMOS sensors that will extend spectral sensitivity into the near/shortwave infrared (NIR/SWIR) and enable a full performance digital night vision capability comparable to that of current image-intensifier based night vision goggles. The process is compatible with established CMOS manufacturing infrastructure and has the promise of much lower cost than competing approaches. The measured thin layer quantum efficiency is as much as 10x that of incumbent imaging sensors with spectral sensitivity from 400 to 1200 nm.

  2. IR CMOS: ultrafast laser-enhanced silicon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, M. U.; Carey, J. E.; Homayoon, H.; Sickler, J.; Li, X.; Jiang, J.; Miller, D.; Palsule, C.; McKee, J.

    2011-06-01

    SiOnyx has developed a novel silicon processing technology for CMOS sensors that will extend spectral sensitivity into the near/shortwave infrared (NIR/SWIR) and enable a full performance digital night vision capability comparable to that of current image-intensifier based night vision goggles. The process is compatible with established CMOS manufacturing infrastructure and has the promise of much lower cost than competing approaches. The measured thin layer quantum efficiency is as much as 10x that of incumbent imaging sensors with spectral sensitivity from 400 to 1200 nm.

  3. Sensitivity of double-resonance alignment magnetometers

    SciTech Connect

    Di Domenico, Gianni; Saudan, Herve; Bison, Georg; Knowles, Paul; Weis, Antoine

    2007-08-15

    We present an experimental study of the intrinsic magnetometric sensitivity of an optical or rf-frequency double-resonance magnetometer in which linearly polarized laser light is used in the optical pumping and detection processes. We show that a semiempirical model of the magnetometer can be used to describe the magnetic resonance spectra. Then, we present an efficient method to predict the optimum operating point of the magnetometer, i.e., the light power and rf Rabi frequency providing maximum magnetometric sensitivity. Finally, we apply the method to investigate the evolution of the optimum operating point with temperature. The method is very efficient to determine relaxation rates and thus allowed us to determine the three collisional disalignment cross sections for the components of the alignment tensor. Both first and second harmonic signals from the magnetometer are considered and compared.

  4. Single particle detection in CMOS compatible photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

    PubMed

    Quan, Qimin; Floyd, Daniel L; Burgess, Ian B; Deotare, Parag B; Frank, Ian W; Tang, Sindy K Y; Ilic, Rob; Loncar, Marko

    2013-12-30

    We report the label-free detection of single particles using photonic crystal nanobeam cavities fabricated in silicon-on-insulator platform, and embedded inside microfluidic channels fabricated in poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Our system operates in the telecommunication wavelength band, thus leveraging the widely available, robust and tunable telecom laser sources. Using this approach, we demonstrated the detection of polystyrene nanoparticles with dimensions down to 12.5nm in radius. Furthermore, binding events of a single streptavidin molecule have been observed.

  5. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554

  6. Advanced helium magnetometer for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this effort was demonstration of the concepts for an advanced helium magnetometer which meets the demands of future NASA earth orbiting, interplanetary, solar, and interstellar missions. The technical effort focused on optical pumping of helium with tunable solid state lasers. We were able to demonstrate the concept of a laser pumped helium magnetometer with improved accuracy, low power, and sensitivity of the order of 1 pT. A number of technical approaches were investigated for building a solid state laser tunable to the helium absorption line at 1083 nm. The laser selected was an Nd-doped LNA crystal pumped by a diode laser. Two laboratory versions of the lanthanum neodymium hexa-aluminate (LNA) laser were fabricated and used to conduct optical pumping experiments in helium and demonstrate laser pumped magnetometer concepts for both the low field vector mode and the scalar mode of operation. A digital resonance spectrometer was designed and built in order to evaluate the helium resonance signals and observe scalar magnetometer operation. The results indicate that the laser pumped sensor in the VHM mode is 45 times more sensitive than a lamp pumped sensor for identical system noise levels. A study was made of typical laser pumped resonance signals in the conventional magnetic resonance mode. The laser pumped sensor was operated as a scalar magnetometer, and it is concluded that magnetometers with 1 pT sensitivity can be achieved with the use of laser pumping and stable laser pump sources.

  7. Noise characteristics research of Overhauser magnetometer sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tala; Gu, Lingjia; Zhang, Shuang; Fu, Haoyang

    2015-09-01

    Overhauser magnetometer, a kind of weak-magnetic measurement system based on the Overhauser effect, has been widely used in satellite magnetic survey, aeromagnetic survey and other engineering and environmental applications. Overhauser magnetometer plays an important role in the application of magnetic field measurement for its advantages of low power consumption and high accuracy. Weak field magnetic resonance is usually limited by the signal to noise ratio (SNR). In order to improve the SNR of Overhauser magnetometer, noise characteristics of Overhauser magnetometer sensor are investigated in this paper. A background noise model of Overhauser magnetometer sensor is presented. The calculated results indicate that the noise power spectral density shows a band-limited white noise characteristic. The maximum value of the noise power spectral density observed at the resonant frequency. The measured results coincide with the calculated results. The correlation between the SNR and the matched resistance is investigated by using the noise model. The calculated results demonstrate that large matched resistance is beneficial to improve the SNR of the sensor. When matched resistance is larger than 100kΩ, the SNR tends to be a constant. On the premise of stability, the sensor will achieve the optimal SNR when the matched resistance is around 100kΩ. This investigation is beneficial to improve noise performance of Overhauser magnetometer sensor.

  8. Automatic magnetometer calibration with small space coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahdan, Ahmed

    The use of a standalone Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has proved to be insufficient when navigating indoors or in urban canyons due to multipath or obstruction. Recent technological advances in low cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) -- based sensors (like accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers) enabled the development of sensor-based navigation systems. Although MEMS sensors are low-cost, lightweight, small size, and have low-power consumption, they have complex error characteristics. Accurate computation of the heading angle (azimuth) is one of the most important aspects of any navigation system. It can be computed either by gyroscopes or magnetometers. Gyroscopes are inertial sensors that can provide the angular rate from which the heading can be calculated, however, their outputs drift with time. Moreover, the accumulated errors due to mathematical integration, performed to obtain the heading angle, lead to large heading errors. On the other hand, magnetometers do not suffer from drift and the calculation of heading does not suffer from error accumulation. They can provide an absolute heading from the magnetic north by sensing the earth's magnetic field. However, magnetometer readings are usually affected by magnetic fields, other than the earth magnetic field, and by other error sources; therefore magnetometer calibration is required to use magnetometer as a reliable source of heading in navigation applications. In this thesis, a framework for fast magnetometer calibration is proposed. This framework requires little space coverage with no user involvement in the calibration process, and does not need specific movements to be performed. The proposed techniques are capable of performing both 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) calibration for magnetometers. They are developed to consider different scenarios suitable for different applications, and can benefit from natural device movements. Some applications involve tethering the

  9. Silicon CMOS-based vertical multimode interference optical taps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, Vincent E.; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2001-12-01

    A compact, low loss, optical tap technology is critical for the incorporation of optical interconnects into mainstream CMOS processes. A recently introduced multimode interference effect based device has the potential for very high speed performance in a compact geometry and in a CMOS compatible process. For this work, 2-D and 3-D device simulations confirm a low excess optical loss on order of 0.1 dB, and a nominal 40% (2.2 dB) optical coupling into the CMOS circuitry over a wide range of guide to substrate distances. Simulated devices are on the order of 25micrometers in length and as narrow as 1 um. High temperature, hybrid polymer materials used for commercial CMOS inter-metal dielectric layers are targeted for tap fabrication and are incorporated into the models. Low cost, silicon CMOS based processing makes the new tap technology especially suitable for computer multi-chip module and board level interconnects, as well as for metro fiber to the home and desk telecommunications applications.

  10. Micromachined high-performance RF passives in CMOS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinxin; Ni, Zao; Gu, Lei; Wu, Zhengzheng; Yang, Chen

    2016-11-01

    This review systematically addresses the micromachining technologies used for the fabrication of high-performance radio-frequency (RF) passives that can be integrated into low-cost complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-grade (i.e. low-resistivity) silicon wafers. With the development of various kinds of post-CMOS-compatible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes, 3D structural inductors/transformers, variable capacitors, tunable resonators and band-pass/low-pass filters can be compatibly integrated into active integrated circuits to form monolithic RF system-on-chips. By using MEMS processes, including substrate modifying/suspending and LIGA-like metal electroplating, both the highly lossy substrate effect and the resistive loss can be largely eliminated and depressed, thereby meeting the high-performance requirements of telecommunication applications.

  11. Spaced-based search coil magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodarsky, George B.

    2016-12-01

    Search coil magnetometers are one of the primary tools used to study the magnetic component of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in space. Their relatively small size, mass, and power consumption, coupled with a good frequency range and sensitivity, make them ideal for spaceflight applications. The basic design of a search coil magnetometer consists of many thousands of turns of wire wound on a high permeability core. When a time-varying magnetic field passes through the coil, a time-varying voltage is induced due to Faraday's law of magnetic induction. The output of the coil is usually attached to a preamplifier, which amplifies the induced voltage and conditions the signal for transmission to the main electronics (usually a low-frequency radio receiver). Search coil magnetometers are usually used in conjunction with electric field antenna to measure electromagnetic plasma waves in the frequency range of a few hertz to a few tens of kilohertzs. Search coil magnetometers are used to determine the properties of waves, such as comparing the relative electric and magnetic field amplitudes of the waves, or to investigate wave propagation parameters, such as Poynting flux and wave normal vectors. On a spinning spacecraft, they are also sometimes used to determine the background magnetic field. This paper presents some of the basic design criteria of search coil magnetometers and discusses design characteristics of sensors flown on a number of spacecraft.

  12. Analytical balance-based Faraday magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riminucci, Alberto; Uhlarz, Marc; De Santis, Roberto; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a Faraday magnetometer based on an analytical balance in which we were able to apply magnetic fields up to 0.14 T. We calibrated it with a 1 mm Ni sphere previously characterized in a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The proposed magnetometer reached a theoretical sensitivity of 3 × 10-8 A m2. We demonstrated its operation on magnetic composite scaffolds made of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/iron-doped hydroxyapatite. To confirm the validity of the method, we measured the same scaffold properties in a SQUID magnetometer. The agreement between the two measurements was within 5% at 0.127 T and 12% at 24 mT. With the addition, for a small cost, of a permanent magnet and computer controlled linear translators, we were thus able to assemble a Faraday magnetometer based on an analytical balance, which is a virtually ubiquitous instrument. This will make simple but effective magnetometry easily accessible to most laboratories, in particular, to life sciences ones, which are increasingly interested in magnetic materials.

  13. The Magnetometer Instrument on MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Acuña, Mario H.; Lohr, David A.; Scheifele, John; Raval, Asseem; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A.

    2007-08-01

    The Magnetometer (MAG) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission is a low-noise, tri-axial, fluxgate instrument with its sensor mounted on a 3.6-m-long boom. The boom was deployed on March 8, 2005. The primary MAG science objectives are to determine the structure of Mercury’s intrinsic magnetic field and infer its origin. Mariner 10 observations indicate a planetary moment in the range 170 to 350 nT R {M/3} (where R M is Mercury’s mean radius). The uncertainties in the dipole moment are associated with the Mariner 10 trajectory and variability of the measured field. By orbiting Mercury, MESSENGER will significantly improve the determination of dipole and higher-order moments. The latter are essential to understanding the thermal history of the planet. MAG has a coarse range, ±51,300 nT full scale (1.6-nT resolution), for pre-flight testing, and a fine range, ±1,530 nT full scale (0.047-nT resolution), for Mercury operation. A magnetic cleanliness program was followed to minimize variable and static spacecraft-generated fields at the sensor. Observations during and after boom deployment indicate that the fixed residual field is less than a few nT at the location of the sensor, and initial observations indicate that the variable field is below 0.05 nT at least above about 3 Hz. Analog signals from the three axes are low-pass filtered (10-Hz cutoff) and sampled simultaneously by three 20-bit analog-to-digital converters every 50 ms. To accommodate variable telemetry rates, MAG provides 11 output rates from 0.01 s-1 to 20 s-1. Continuous measurement of fluctuations is provided with a digital 1-10 Hz bandpass filter. This fluctuation level is used to trigger high-time-resolution sampling in eight-minute segments to record events of interest when continuous high-rate sampling is not possible. The MAG instrument will provide accurate characterization of the intrinsic planetary field, magnetospheric structure, and

  14. Building strong partnerships with CMOs.

    PubMed

    Dye, Carson F

    2014-07-01

    CFOs and chief medical officers (CMOs) can build on common traits to form productive partnerships in guiding healthcare organizations through the changes affecting the industry. CFOs can strengthen bonds with CMOs by taking steps to engage physicians on their own turf--by visiting clinical locations and attending medical-executive committee meetings, for example. Steps CFOs can take to help CMOs become more acquainted with the financial operations of health systems include demonstrating the impact of clinical decisions on costs and inviting CMOs to attend finance-related meetings.

  15. Large-area low-temperature ultrananocrystaline diamond (UNCD) films and integration with CMOS devices for monolithically integrated diamond MEMD/NEMS-CMOS systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant, A.V.; Auciello, O.; Yuan, H.-C; Ma, Z.; Carpick, R. W.; Mancini, D. C.; Univ. of Wisconsin; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-05-01

    Because of exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties, diamond has a great potential to be used as a material for the development of high-performance MEMS and NEMS such as resonators and switches compatible with harsh environments, which involve mechanical motion and intermittent contact. Integration of such MEMS/NEMS devices with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microelectronics will provide a unique platform for CMOS-driven commercial MEMS/NEMS. The main hurdle to achieve diamond-CMOS integration is the relatively high substrate temperatures (600-800 C) required for depositing conventional diamond thin films, which are well above the CMOS operating thermal budget (400 C). Additionally, a materials integration strategy has to be developed to enable diamond-CMOS integration. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), a novel material developed in thin film form at Argonne, is currently the only microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) grown diamond film that can be grown at 400 C, and still retain exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties comparable to that of single crystal diamond. We have developed a process based on MPCVD to synthesize UNCD films on up to 200 mm in diameter CMOS wafers, which will open new avenues for the fabrication of monolithically integrated CMOS-driven MEMS/NEMS based on UNCD. UNCD films were grown successfully on individual Si-based CMOS chips and on 200 mm CMOS wafers at 400 C in a MPCVD system, using Ar-rich/CH4 gas mixture. The CMOS devices on the wafers were characterized before and after UNCD deposition. All devices were performing to specifications with very small degradation after UNCD deposition and processing. A threshold voltage degradation in the range of 0.08-0.44V and transconductance degradation in the range of 1.5-9% were observed.

  16. MAGDAS I and II Magnetometers in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choque, Ed.; Ishitsuka, J.; Yumoto, K.; Veliz, O.; Rosales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Car negie Institution of Washington founded in 1919 the Huancayo Observatory, in Peru (Lat. -12.060, Long - 75.210) and installed a classical magnetometer which has provided a long standing flow of data since March 1st, 1922. Today, there are 10 magnetometers in operation in Peru. On October 13th, 2006, Space Environment Research Center - SERC of Kyushu University installed a new Magnetic Dat a Acquisition System MAGDAS I (PI; Prof. K. Yumoto) at Ancon Observatory (Geographic Latitude: -11.790, Longitude: - 77.160 and Geomagnetic Latitude (2000): 3.100 and Longitude (2000): 354.660). On July 13th, 2011, SERC installed a MAGDAS II at Ica Solar Station (Geographic Latitude: - 140 04' Longitude: -750 44'). Details of the magnetometer that we are hosting will be explained in this presentation.

  17. Growth of carbon nanotubes on fully processed silicon-on-insulator CMOS substrates.

    PubMed

    Haque, M Samiul; Ali, S Zeeshan; Guha, P K; Oei, S P; Park, J; Maeng, S; Teo, K B K; Udrea, F; Milne, W I

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the growth of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) both aligned and non-aligned on fully processed CMOS substrates containing high temperature tungsten metallization. While the growth method has been demonstrated in fabricating CNT gas sensitive layers for high temperatures SOI CMOS sensors, it can be employed in a variety of applications which require the use of CNTs or other nanomaterials with CMOS electronics. In our experiments we have grown CNTs both on SOI CMOS substrates and SOI CMOS microhotplates (suspended on membranes formed by post-CMOS deep RIE etching). The fully processed SOI substrates contain CMOS devices and circuits and additionally, some wafers contained high current LDMOSFETs and bipolar structures such as Lateral Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors. All these devices were used as test structures to investigate the effect of additional post-CMOS processing such as CNT growth, membrane formation, high temperature annealing, etc. Electrical characterisation of the devices with CNTs were performed along with SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The CNTs were grown both at low and high temperatures, the former being compatible with Aluminium metallization while the latter being possible through the use of the high temperature CMOS metallization (Tungsten). In both cases we have found that there is no change in the electrical behaviour of the CMOS devices, circuits or the high current devices. A slight degradation of the thermal performance of the CMOS microhotplates was observed due to the extra heat dissipation path created by the CNT layers, but this is expected as CNTs exhibit a high thermal conductance. In addition we also observed that in the case of high temperature CNT growth a slight degradation in the manufacturing yield was observed. This is especially the case where large area membranes with a diameter in excess of 500 microns are used.

  18. Aircraft attitude measurement using a vector magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peitila, R.; Dunn, W. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of a vector magnetometer system was investigated by developing a technique to determine attitude given magnetic field components. Sample calculations are then made using the earth's magnetic field data acquired during actual flight conditions. Results of these calculations are compared graphically with measured attitude data acquired simultaneously with the magnetic data. The role and possible implementation of various reference angles are discussed along with other pertinent considerations. Finally, it is concluded that the earth's magnetic field as measured by modern vector magnetometers can play a significant role in attitude control systems.

  19. Diffusive suppression of AC-Stark shifts in atomic magnetometers

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, I. A.; Wyllie, R.; Kauer, M.; Smetana, G. S.; Wakai, R. T.; Walker, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    In atomic magnetometers, the vector AC-Stark shift associated with circularly polarized light generates spatially varying effective magnetic fields, which limit the magnetometer response and serve as sources of noise. We describe a scheme whereby optically pumping a small subvolume of the magnetometer cell and relying on diffusion to transport polarized atoms allows a magnetometer to be operated with minimal sensitivity to the AC-Stark field. © 2013 Optical Society of America PMID:23503278

  20. Method of performing MRI with an atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich; Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Espy, Michelle A; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Kraus, Jr., Robert Henry; Zotev, Vadim Sergeyevich

    2013-08-27

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing an in-situ magnetic resonance imaging of an object. The method includes the steps of providing an atomic magnetometer, coupling a magnetic field generated by magnetically resonating samples of the object through a flux transformer to the atomic magnetometer and measuring a magnetic resonance of the atomic magnetometer.

  1. Method of performing MRI with an atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich; Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Espy, Michelle A.; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Kraus, Jr., Robert Henry; Zotev, Vadim Sergeyevich

    2012-11-06

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing an in-situ magnetic resonance imaging of an object. The method includes the steps of providing an atomic magnetometer, coupling a magnetic field generated by magnetically resonating samples of the object through a flux transformer to the atomic magnetometer and measuring a magnetic resonance of the atomic magnetometer.

  2. Flux-gate magnetometer for Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hua; Zhu, G. W.; Yu, P.; Wang, J. D.; Yu, M. F.; Li, L.; Sun, Y. Q.; Chen, S. W.; Liao, H. Z.; Zhou, B.; Feng, Y. Y.

    2008-10-01

    A micro-satellite, Yinghuo-1, would be launched with Russian spacecraft, Phobos-Grunt in October, 2009 to investigate the space environment around Mars. YH-1 and Phobos-Grunt forms a two-point measurement configuration in the Martian space environment. YH-1 and Phobos-Grunt are equipped with similar magnetic field and plasma detecting payload on two spacecraft would give some coordinated exploration around Mars. YH-1 would orbit Mars with periapsis of 800 km above the Martian surface, and apoapsis about 80000km to the center of Mars. The orbit inclination is in the range of 0~7° to the Martian equator. A flux-gate type magnetometer, with two tri-axial sensors, is developed for YH-1 spacecraft. Two sensors are mounted on one-side of the deployable solar panel with a radial separation about 45cm to function as a gradiometer to minimize the affects of platform remanence. The dynamic range of the magnetometer is +/-256nT with a 16-bit ADC converter, and the noise level is better than 0.01nT/√Hz, to measure three-component magnetic field from DC to 10Hz. Flux-gate magnetometer would work together with the Plasma Package onboard of YH-1 to investigate the Martian bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetic pileup region (MPR). A detail description of the flux-gate magnetometer is presented in this paper, with test and calibration results.

  3. Anatomical MRI with an atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Savukov, I; Karaulanov, T

    2013-06-01

    Ultra-low field (ULF) MRI is a promising method for inexpensive medical imaging with various additional advantages over conventional instruments such as low weight, low power, portability, absence of artifacts from metals, and high contrast. Anatomical ULF MRI has been successfully implemented with SQUIDs, but SQUIDs have the drawback of a cryogen requirement. Atomic magnetometers have sensitivity comparable to SQUIDs and can be in principle used for ULF MRI to replace SQUIDs. Unfortunately some problems exist due to the sensitivity of atomic magnetometers to a magnetic field and gradients. At low frequency, noise is also substantial and a shielded room is needed for improving sensitivity. In this paper, we show that at 85 kHz, the atomic magnetometer can be used to obtain anatomical images. This is the first demonstration of any use of atomic magnetometers for anatomical MRI. The demonstrated resolution is 1.1 mm×1.4 mm in about 6 min of acquisition with SNR of 10. Some applications of the method are discussed. We discuss several measures to increase the sensitivity to reach a resolution 1 mm×1 mm.

  4. Wireless, Acoustically Linked, Undersea, Magnetometer Sensor Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    85 dB greater than the noise floor of the He3 magnetometer in the mHz band. The gradiometer data shown in Figure 1 is generated by a time series...Comparison of ground coupled and uncoupled gradiometer power spectral density for a wired array system. TABLE I MODEM INTERFERENCE DURATION (SECS) 28 Byte

  5. The DE magnetometer preprocessor users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salter, L. M.; Byrnes, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A users guide for the Dynamics Explorer magnetometer preprocessor computer program is provided. This program is written in Xerox Extended FORTRAN IV and is used to process telemetry data in order to provide data files for use in analysis programs. This preprocessor is designed to operate on the Sigma 9 and the IBM 4341.

  6. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a seriesed combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided.

  7. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, J.D.

    1998-06-02

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

  8. Quantum magnetometers as a base for atomic clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagitov, E. A.; Ermak, S. V.; Petrenko, M. V.; Semenov, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of the atomic clock based on two quantum magnetometer system development is demonstrated. One of the magnetometers is self-oscillation type, another is Mz- type magnetometer based on end-state UHF resonance. The laser pumping of 87Rb atoms placed into antirelaxation coated sell is provided. The magnetometers frequency difference fluctuations experimental results are represented and Allan deviation is determined. The role of the radio-optical resonance frequency light shift different components is denoted for the determination of the quantum magnetometers optimal operation mode. The effect of the light shift compensation is demonstrated.

  9. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  10. Magnetometer Searches for Ultra Low Mass Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romalis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    New spin interactions arise in a variety of extensions to the Standard Model. Well-known spin-dependent effects, such as permanent electric dipole moments and violations of Lorentz and CPT symmetries, have been searched for in many experiments. The existence of low-mass axion-like particles would also generate spin-dependent effects that can be searched for in similar experiments, but often with unique signatures. Since particles with spin also have a magnetic moment, such experiments are automatically sensitive to ordinary magnetic fields and one of the challenges is to eliminate such effects, using for example, two different spin species in a co-magnetometer arrangement. I will describe several past and on-going experiments using co-magnetometers based on nuclear spin-polarized noble gases. These experiments are used to search for both axion-like dark matter and for axion-mediated forces that are independent of dark matter.

  11. A Web Server for MACCS Magnetometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG5-3719 was provided to Augsburg College to support the development of a web server for the Magnetometer Array for Cusp and Cleft Studies (MACCS), a two-dimensional array of fluxgate magnetometers located at cusp latitudes in Arctic Canada. MACCS was developed as part of the National Science Foundation's GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) Program, which was designed in part to complement NASA's Global Geospace Science programs during the decade of the 1990s. This report describes the successful use of these grant funds to support a working web page that provides both daily plots and file access to any user accessing the worldwide web. The MACCS home page can be accessed at http://space.augsburg.edu/space/MaccsHome.html.

  12. All-optical vector atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Patton, B; Zhivun, E; Hovde, D C; Budker, D

    2014-07-04

    We demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer capable of measuring the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field using nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in cesium vapor. Vector capability is added by effective modulation of the field along orthogonal axes and subsequent demodulation of the magnetic-resonance frequency. This modulation is provided by the ac Stark shift induced by circularly polarized laser beams. The sensor exhibits a demonstrated rms noise floor of ∼65  fT/√[Hz] in measurement of the field magnitude and 0.5  mrad/√[Hz] in the field direction; elimination of technical noise would improve these sensitivities to 12  fT/√[Hz] and 10  μrad/√[Hz], respectively. Applications for this all-optical vector magnetometer would include magnetically sensitive fundamental physics experiments, such as the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  13. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  14. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Guedes , A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G...Edelstein, 2004; Burnette, 2008), we suggested a method for mitigating the problem of 1/f noise. We and others ( Guedes , 2008) have been utilizing...6. Guedes , A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - 3magnetoresistive/microelectromechanical devices for static field modulation and sensor 1/f noise

  15. A fully-integrated 12.5-Gb/s 850-nm CMOS optical receiver based on a spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung-Jae; Youn, Jin-Sung; Park, Kang-Yeob; Choi, Woo-Young

    2014-02-10

    We present a fully integrated 12.5-Gb/s optical receiver fabricated with standard 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. Our integrated optical receiver includes a newly proposed CMOS-compatible spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector, which provides larger photodetection bandwidth than previously reported CMOS-compatible photodetectors. The receiver also has high-speed CMOS circuits including transimpedance amplifier, DC-balanced buffer, equalizer, and limiting amplifier. With the fabricated optical receiver, detection of 12.5-Gb/s optical data is successfully achieved at 5.8 pJ/bit. Our receiver achieves the highest data rate ever reported for 850-nm integrated CMOS optical receivers.

  16. CMOS array design automation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, T.; Feller, A.

    1976-01-01

    The design considerations and the circuit development for a 4096-bit CMOS SOS ROM chip, the ATL078 are described. Organization of the ATL078 is 512 words by 8 bits. The ROM was designed to be programmable either at the metal mask level or by a directed laser beam after processing. The development of a 4K CMOS SOS ROM fills a void left by available ROM chip types, and makes the design of a totally major high speed system more realizable.

  17. A back-illuminated megapixel CMOS image sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jones, Todd; Wrigley, Chris; Hancock, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the test and characterization results for a back-illuminated megapixel CMOS imager. The imager pixel consists of a standard junction photodiode coupled to a three transistor-per-pixel switched source-follower readout [1]. The imager also consists of integrated timing and control and bias generation circuits, and provides analog output. The analog column-scan circuits were implemented in such a way that the imager could be configured to run in off-chip correlated double-sampling (CDS) mode. The imager was originally designed for normal front-illuminated operation, and was fabricated in a commercially available 0.5 pn triple-metal CMOS-imager compatible process. For backside illumination, the imager was thinned by etching away the substrate was etched away in a post-fabrication processing step.

  18. Ground magnetometer survey in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trible, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    A reconnaissance magnetometer survey was conducted with both total- and vertical-field magnetometers. The large, sharp, narrow total magnetic anomalies observed over a zone of relict fumaroles in Broken Mountain Valley showed spectacular agreement with the surficial geology. Such a correlation is a strong indication that accumulations of magnetic minerals have been preserved along these fissure vents at shallow depths. Since large magnetic anomalies were measured near fumarolic markings along all of the traverses, it is proposed that the retention of sublimates along fumarolic vents is common throughout the Valley. The generally concentric contours of the vertical magnetic anomaly at the head of the Valley suggest that the dome of Novarupta is merely the surficial expression of a very massive conical-shaped intrusive centered just northeast of the dome. The magnetometer survey indicates that the pyroclastics in the Valley may be over 150 meters thick. Such an estimate is compatible with the volume of eruptive material needed to compensate for the subsidence surrounding Novarupta as well as a sizable amount of other regional subsidence.

  19. The MAGSAT vector magnetometer: A precision fluxgate magnetometer for the measurement of the geomagnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Scearce, C. S.; Seek, J.; Scheifele, J.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the precision triaxial fluxgate magnetometer to be flown aboard the MAGSAT spacecraft is presented. The instrument covers the range of + or - 64,000 nT with a resolution of + or - 0.5 nT, an intrinsic accuracy of + or - 0.001% of full scale and an angular alignment stability of the order of 2 seconds of arc. It was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and represents the state-of-the-art in precision vector magnetometers developed for spaceflight use.

  20. The atomic magnetometer: A new era in biomagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Wakai, Ronald T.

    2014-11-07

    The high cost and impracticality of SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) magnetometers has limited the expansion of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG), especially in countries where the cost of liquid helium is high. A recent breakthrough, however, has the potential to radically change this situation. In 2003, a group at Princeton University demonstrated an atomic magnetometer, known as the SERF (spin-exchange free relaxation) magnetometer, with unprecedented sensitivity. Since then, several research groups have utilized SERF magnetometers to record MEG, MCG, and fetal MCG signals. Despite some modest drawbacks, it now seems almost certain that SERF magnetometers can replace SQUIDs for many applications. With a price tag that is likely to be far less than that of SQUIDs, SERF magnetometers can propel the next wave of growth in biomagnetism.

  1. The atomic magnetometer: A new era in biomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakai, Ronald T.

    2014-11-01

    The high cost and impracticality of SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) magnetometers has limited the expansion of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG), especially in countries where the cost of liquid helium is high. A recent breakthrough, however, has the potential to radically change this situation. In 2003, a group at Princeton University demonstrated an atomic magnetometer, known as the SERF (spin-exchange free relaxation) magnetometer, with unprecedented sensitivity. Since then, several research groups have utilized SERF magnetometers to record MEG, MCG, and fetal MCG signals. Despite some modest drawbacks, it now seems almost certain that SERF magnetometers can replace SQUIDs for many applications. With a price tag that is likely to be far less than that of SQUIDs, SERF magnetometers can propel the next wave of growth in biomagnetism.

  2. Optimization of buffer gas pressure for Rb atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang; Liu, Xiaohu; Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong

    2015-08-01

    The optimization of buffer gas pressure is very important to improve the performance of the rubidium (Rb) atomic magnetometer. In this paper we briefly introduce the basic principle and the experimental method of the rubidium magnetometer based on Faraday rotation effect, and describe the factors affecting the magnetometer sensitivity, then analyze and summarize the mechanism of the influence of spin-exchange, spin-destruction collisions, radiation trapping and the spin diffusion on spin relaxation of Rb atoms. Based on this, the relationship between the rubidium magnetometer sensitivity, the spin relaxation rate and the gas chamber conditions (buffer gas pressure, the bubble radius, measuring temperature) is established. Doing calculations by the simulation software, how the magnetometer sensitivity and the relaxation rate vary with the gas chamber conditions can be seen; finally, the optimal values of the buffer gas pressure under certain gas chamber conditions are obtained. The work is significant for the engineering development of rubidium magnetometer.

  3. International solar polar mission: The vector helium magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The functional requirements for the vector helium magnetometer (VHM) on the Solar Polar spacecraft are presented. The VHM is one of the two magnetometers on board that will measure the vector magnetic field along the Earth to Jupiter transfer trajectory, as well as in the vicinity of Jupiter and along the solar polar orbit following the Jupiter encounter. The interconnection between these two magnetometers and their shared data processing unit is illustrated.

  4. Laser magnetometer measurement of the natural remanent magnetization of rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Cotteverte, J.; Poirson, J.; Le Floch, A.; Bretenaker, F.; Chauvin, A.

    1997-06-01

    The ability of a laser magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of rocks is experimentally investigated. It is shown that the performance of such a magnetometer permits the rapid measurement of rock magnetizations of less than 1Am{sup {minus}1} in a laboratory without the need of any magnetic shielding or cryogenic facilities. Moreover, the laser magnetometer is experimentally shown to be able to measure the distribution of magnetization in spatially inhomogeneous samples. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. A Compact, High Performance Atomic Magnetometer for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vishal K.; Wakai, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    We present a highly sensitive room-temperature atomic magnetometer (AM), designed for use in biomedical applications. The magnetometer sensor head is only 2×2×5 cm3 and is constructed using readily available, low-cost optical components. The magnetic field resolution of the AM is <10 fT/√Hz, which is comparable to cryogenically cooled superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. We present side-by-side comparisons between our AM and a SQUID magnetometer, and show that equally high quality magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) recordings can be obtained using our AM. PMID:24200837

  6. Autonomous navigation system based on GPS and magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julie, Thienel K. (Inventor); Richard, Harman R. (Inventor); Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention is drawn to an autonomous navigation system using Global Positioning System (GPS) and magnetometers for low Earth orbit satellites. As a magnetometer is reliable and always provides information on spacecraft attitude, rate, and orbit, the magnetometer-GPS configuration solves GPS initialization problem, decreasing the convergence time for navigation estimate and improving the overall accuracy. Eventually the magnetometer-GPS configuration enables the system to avoid costly and inherently less reliable gyro for rate estimation. Being autonomous, this invention would provide for black-box spacecraft navigation, producing attitude, orbit, and rate estimates without any ground input with high accuracy and reliability.

  7. A compact, high performance atomic magnetometer for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vishal K; Wakai, Ronald T

    2013-11-21

    We present a highly sensitive room-temperature atomic magnetometer (AM), designed for use in biomedical applications. The magnetometer sensor head is only 2 × 2 × 5 cm3 and is constructed using readily available, low-cost optical components. The magnetic field resolution of the AM is <10 fT Hz–1/2, which is comparable to cryogenically cooled superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. We present side-by-side comparisons between our AM and a SQUID magnetometer, and show that equally high quality magnetoencephalography and magnetocardiography recordings can be obtained using our AM.

  8. Compatible Lie Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Zhong; Bai, Cheng-Ming

    2015-06-01

    A compatible Lie algebra is a pair of Lie algebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie brackets is a Lie bracket. We construct a bialgebra theory of compatible Lie algebras as an analogue of a Lie bialgebra. They can also be regarded as a “compatible version” of Lie bialgebras, that is, a pair of Lie bialgebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie bialgebras is still a Lie bialgebra. Many properties of compatible Lie bialgebras as the “compatible version” of the corresponding properties of Lie bialgebras are presented. In particular, there is a coboundary compatible Lie bialgebra theory with a construction from the classical Yang-Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras as a combination of two classical Yang-Baxter equations in Lie algebras. Furthermore, a notion of compatible pre-Lie algebra is introduced with an interpretation of its close relation with the classical Yang-Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras which leads to a construction of the solutions of the latter. As a byproduct, the compatible Lie bialgebras fit into the framework to construct non-constant solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation given by Golubchik and Sokolov. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11271202, 11221091, 11425104 and Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20120031110022

  9. Magnetic-field-compensation optical vector magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Papoyan, Aram; Shmavonyan, Svetlana; Khanbekyan, Alen; Khanbekyan, Karen; Marinelli, Carmela; Mariotti, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    A concept for an optical magnetometer used for the measurement of magnitude and direction of a magnetic field (B-field) in two orthogonal directions is developed based on double scanning of a B-field to compensate the measured field to zero value, which is monitored by a resonant magneto-optical process in an unshielded atomic vapor cell. Implementation of the technique using the nonlinear Hanle effect on the D2 line of rubidium demonstrates viability and efficiency of the proposed concept. The ways to enhance characteristics of the suggested technique and optimize its performance, as well as the possible extension to three-axis magnetometry, are discussed.

  10. NV Diamond Micro-Magnetometer Baseline Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-12

    documentation. 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this program was to identify applications for which the unique properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NY) diamond...program was to identify applications for which the unique properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) diamond magnetometer gives a significant advantage...imaging applications such as single neuron imaging were also explored. Table of contents: Statement of the problem………………………………………..………………… 1 Single NV

  11. Magnetometer Based on Optoelectronic Microwave Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute; Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey

    2005-01-01

    proposed instrument, intended mainly for use as a magnetometer, would include an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) stabilized by an atomic cell that could play the role of a magnetically tunable microwave filter. The microwave frequency would vary with the magnetic field in the cell, thereby providing an indication of the magnetic field. The proposed magnetometer would offer a combination of high accuracy and high sensitivity, characterized by flux densities of less than a picotesla. In comparison with prior magnetometers, the proposed magnetometer could, in principle, be constructed as a compact, lightweight instrument: It could fit into a package of about 10 by 10 by 10 cm and would have a mass <0.5 kg. As described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, an OEO is a hybrid of photonic and electronic components that generates highly spectrally pure microwave radiation, and optical radiation modulated by the microwave radiation, through direct conversion between laser light and microwave radiation in an optoelectronic feedback loop. As used here, "atomic cell" signifies a cell containing a vapor, the constituent atoms of which can be made to undergo transitions between quantum states, denoted hyperfine levels, when excited by light in a suitable wavelength range. The laser light must be in this range. The energy difference between the hyperfine levels defines the microwave frequency. In the proposed instrument (see figure), light from a laser would be introduced into an electro-optical modulator (EOM). Amplitude-modulated light from the exit port of the EOM would pass through a fiber-optic splitter having two output branches. The light in one branch would be sent through an atomic cell to a photodiode. The light in the other branch would constitute the microwave-modulated optical output. Part of the light leaving the atomic cell could also be used to stabilize the laser at a frequency in the vicinity of the desired hyperfine or other quantum transition. The

  12. A pressure scanning Fabry-Perot magnetometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, T. D.; Wyller, A. A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of an oscillating magnetic analyzer (KDP crystal plus Glan-Thompson prism) coupled to an echelle-interferometer spectrograph, and of single-slit magnetometer which by pressure variations can be made to scan the entire profiles of the circularly and linearly polarized Zeeman components. Freon gas is used as the scanner gas with wavelength displacements of 0.02 A per 0.1 in. Hg pressure change at the NaD lines. The available scan range is 15 A in the visual spectral region.

  13. On Software Compatibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ershov, Andrei P.

    The problem of compatibility of software hampers the development of computer application. One solution lies in standardization of languages, terms, peripherais, operating systems and computer characteristics. (AB)

  14. MonoColor CMOS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ynjiun P.

    2009-02-01

    A new breed of CMOS color sensor called MonoColor sensor is developed for a barcode reading application in AIDC industry. The RGBW color filter array (CFA) in a MonoColor sensor is arranged in a 8 x 8 pixels CFA with only 4 pixels of them are color (RGB) pixels and the rest of 60 pixels are transparent or monochrome. Since the majority of pixels are monochrome, MonoColor sensor maintains 98% barcode decode performance compared with a pure monochrome CMOS sensor. With the help of monochrome and color pixel fusion technique, the resulting color pictures have similar color quality in terms of Color Semantic Error (CSE) compared with a Bayer pattern (RGB) CMOS color camera. Since monochrome pixels are more sensitive than color pixels, a MonoColor sensor produces in general about 2X brighter color picture and higher luminance pixel resolution.

  15. Juno Magnetometer Observations in the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E.; Oliversen, R. J.; Espley, J. R.; MacDowall, R. J.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Odom, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Joergensen, J. L.; Joergensen, P. S.; Merayo, J. M.; Denver, T.; Bloxham, J.; Smith, E. J.; Murphy, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Juno spacecraft enjoyed a close encounter with Earth on October 9, 2013, en route to Jupiter Orbit Insertion (JOI) on July 5, 2016. The Earth Flyby (EFB) provided a unique opportunity for the Juno particles and fields instruments to sample mission relevant environments and exercise operations anticipated for orbital operations at Jupiter, particularly the period of intense activity around perijove. The magnetic field investigation onboard Juno is equipped with two magnetometer sensor suites, located at 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. Each contains a vector fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located non-magnetic star tracker camera heads which provide accurate attitude determination for the FGM sensors. This very capable magnetic observatory sampled the Earth's magnetic field at 64 vector samples/second throughout passage through the Earth's magnetosphere. We present observations of the Earth's magnetic field and magnetosphere obtained throughout the encounter and compare these observations with those of other Earth-orbiting assets, as available, and with particles and fields observations acquired by other Juno instruments operated during EFB.

  16. The Search Coil Magnetometer for THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, A.; Le Contel, O.; Coillot, C.; Bouabdellah, A.; de La Porte, B.; Alison, D.; Ruocco, S.; Vassal, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    THEMIS instruments incorporate a tri-axial Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM) designed to measure the magnetic components of waves associated with substorm breakup and expansion. The three search coil antennas cover the same frequency bandwidth, from 0.1 Hz to 4 kHz, in the ULF/ELF frequency range. They extend, with appropriate Noise Equivalent Magnetic Induction (NEMI) and sufficient overlap, the measurements of the fluxgate magnetometers. The NEMI of the searchcoil antennas and associated pre-amplifiers is smaller than 0.76 pT /sqrt{Hz} at 10 Hz. The analog signals produced by the searchcoils and associated preamplifiers are digitized and processed inside the Digital Field Box (DFB) and the Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU), together with data from the Electric Field Instrument (EFI). Searchcoil telemetry includes waveform transmission, FFT processed data, and data from a filter bank. The frequency range covered depends on the available telemetry. The searchcoils and their three axis structures have been precisely calibrated in a calibration facility, and the calibration of the transfer function is checked on board, usually once per orbit. The tri-axial searchcoils implemented on the five THEMIS spacecraft are working nominally.

  17. Verilog-A Device Models for Cryogenic Temperature Operation of Bulk Silicon CMOS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akturk, Akin; Potbhare, Siddharth; Goldsman, Neil; Holloway, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Verilog-A based cryogenic bulk CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) compact models are built for state-of-the-art silicon CMOS processes. These models accurately predict device operation at cryogenic temperatures down to 4 K. The models are compatible with commercial circuit simulators. The models extend the standard BSIM4 [Berkeley Short-channel IGFET (insulated-gate field-effect transistor ) Model] type compact models by re-parameterizing existing equations, as well as adding new equations that capture the physics of device operation at cryogenic temperatures. These models will allow circuit designers to create optimized, reliable, and robust circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  18. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-05-23

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  19. Analysing Harmonic Motions with an iPhone's Magnetometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone's (or iPad's) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone's magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone's screen using the "Sensor Kinetics"…

  20. Internet Access to ISEE-1 and 2 Magnetometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    It is reported that the entire ISEE-1 and -2 magnetometer data are placed on-line, using an 8 Gbyte disk drive. The data are stored at 4-s and 60-s resolution. Also, an interactive world wide web page, which allows to plot, on request, any interval for which magnetometer data are available, is developed.

  1. Reliability in CMOS IC processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreeve, R.; Ferrier, S.; Hall, D.; Wang, J.

    1990-01-01

    Critical CMOS IC processing reliability monitors are defined in this paper. These monitors are divided into three categories: process qualifications, ongoing production workcell monitors, and ongoing reliability monitors. The key measures in each of these categories are identified and prioritized based on their importance.

  2. Development of CMOS integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertino, F.; Feller, A.; Greenhouse, J.; Lombardi, T.; Merriam, A.; Noto, R.; Ozga, S.; Pryor, R.; Ramondetta, P.; Smith, A.

    1979-01-01

    Report documents life cycles of two custom CMOS integrated circuits: (1) 4-bit multiplexed register with shift left and shift right capabilities, and (2) dual 4-bit registers. Cycles described include conception as logic diagrams through design, fabrication, testing, and delivery.

  3. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  4. Free-Flying Magnetometer Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B.; Javadi, H.; Spencer, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Free-Flying Magnetometer (FFM) is an autonomous "sensorcraft" developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Enstrophy sounding rocket mission. This mission was a collaborative project between the University of New Hampshire, Cornell University and JPL. The science goal of the mission was the study of current filamentation phenomena in the northern auroral region through multipoint measurements of magnetic field. The technical objective of the mission was the proof of concept of the JPL FFM design and the demonstration of an in-situ multipoint measurement technique employing many free-flying spacecraft. Four FFMs were successfully deployed from a sounding rocket launched from Poker Flats, Alaska on February 11, 1999. These hockey-puck-sized (80 mm diameter, 38 mm. height, 250 gram mass) free flyers each carry a miniature 3-axis flux-gate magnetometer that output +/- 2 V signals corresponding to a +/- 60,000 nT measurement range for each axis. The FFM uses a synchronized four-channel Sigma(Delta) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) having a dynamic range of +/- 2.5V and converting at a rate of 279 samples/second/channel. Three channels are used to digitize the magnetometer signals to 17-bit (1.144 nT/bit) resolution. The fourth ADC channel is multiplexed for system monitoring of four temperature sensors and two battery voltages. The FFM also contains two sun sensors, a laser diode which emits a fan-shaped beam, a miniature S-band transmitter for direct communication to the ground station antennas, an ultra-stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) clock, an integrated data subsystem implemented in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a 4 Mbit Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) for data storage and Lithium Thionyl Chloride batteries for power. Communicating commands to the FFM prior to deployment is achieved with an infrared (IR) link. The FFM IR receiver responds to 9-bit pulse coded signals that are generated by an IR Light Emitting

  5. Fetal Magnetocardiography with an Atomic Magnetometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulai, Ibrahim; Deland, Zack; Wahl, Colin; Wakai, Ronald; Walker, Thad

    2014-05-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is a powerful technique for analyzing the heartbeat patterns of inutero fetuses. We present results from our array of four Spin-Exchange Relaxation-Free (SERF) rubidium-87 atomic magnetometers which has been used to detect and create these magnetocardiograms. We have demonstrated a magnetic noise sensitivity of < 10 fT /√{ Hz} , limited by the Johnson noise of the magnetically-shielded room. We discuss new design features and experimental practices that have increased our sensitivity and allowed us to successfully measure an fMCG at a gestational age of only 21 weeks. We hope to eventually apply these techniques to the detection and diagnosis of heartbeat arrhythmias, which, if detected early enough, can be treated inutero . This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health.

  6. Integration of solid-state nanopores in a 0.5 μm cmos foundry process

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, A; Yemenicioglu, S; Chen, C-H; Corigliano, E; Milaninia, K; Theogarajan, L

    2013-01-01

    High-bandwidth and low-noise nanopore sensor and detection electronics are crucial in achieving single-DNA base resolution. A potential way to accomplish this goal is to integrate solid-state nanopores within a CMOS platform, in close proximity to the biasing electrodes and custom-designed amplifier electronics. Here we report the integration of solid-state nanopore devices in a commercial complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) potentiostat chip implemented in On-Semiconductor’s 0.5 μm technology. Nanopore membranes incorporating electrodes are fabricated by post-CMOS micromachining utilizing the N+ polysilicon/SiO2/N+ polysilicon capacitor structure available in the aforementioned process. Nanopores are created in the CMOS process by drilling in a transmission electron microscope and shrinking by atomic layer deposition. We also describe a batch fabrication method to process a large of number of electrode-embedded nanopores with sub-10 nm diameter across CMOS-compatible wafers by electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition. The CMOS-compatibility of our fabrication process is verified by testing the electrical functionality of on-chip circuitry. We observe high current leakage with the CMOS nanopore devices due to the ionic diffusion through the SiO2 membrane. To prevent this leakage, we coat the membrane with Al2O3 which acts as an efficient diffusion barrier against alkali ions. The resulting nanopore devices also exhibit higher robustness and lower 1/f noise as compared to SiO2 and SiNx. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model for our low-capacitance CMOS nanopore devices, showing good agreement with the experimental value. In addition, experiments and theoretical models of translocation studies are presented using 48.5 kbp λ-DNA in order to prove the functionality of on-chip pores coated with Al2O3. PMID:23519330

  7. Integration of solid-state nanopores in a 0.5 μm CMOS foundry process.

    PubMed

    Uddin, A; Yemenicioglu, S; Chen, C-H; Corigliano, E; Milaninia, K; Theogarajan, L

    2013-04-19

    High-bandwidth and low-noise nanopore sensor and detection electronics are crucial in achieving single-DNA-base resolution. A potential way to accomplish this goal is to integrate solid-state nanopores within a CMOS platform, in close proximity to the biasing electrodes and custom-designed amplifier electronics. Here we report the integration of solid-state nanopore devices in a commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) potentiostat chip implemented in On-Semiconductor's 0.5 μm technology. Nanopore membranes incorporating electrodes are fabricated by post-CMOS micromachining utilizing the n+ polysilicon/SiO2/n+ polysilicon capacitor structure available in the aforementioned process. Nanopores are created in the CMOS process by drilling in a transmission electron microscope and shrinking by atomic layer deposition. We also describe a batch fabrication method to process a large of number of electrode-embedded nanopores with sub-10 nm diameter across CMOS-compatible wafers by electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition. The CMOS-compatibility of our fabrication process is verified by testing the electrical functionality of on-chip circuitry. We observe high current leakage with the CMOS nanopore devices due to the ionic diffusion through the SiO2 membrane. To prevent this leakage, we coat the membrane with Al2O3, which acts as an efficient diffusion barrier against alkali ions. The resulting nanopore devices also exhibit higher robustness and lower 1/f noise as compared to SiO2 and SiNx. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model for our low-capacitance CMOS nanopore devices, showing good agreement with the experimental value. In addition, experiments and theoretical models of translocation studies are presented using 48.5 kbp λ-DNA in order to prove the functionality of on-chip pores coated with Al2O3.

  8. High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dantsker, Eugene

    1997-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO3-YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room.

  9. Search Coil vs. Fluxgate Magnetometer Measurements at Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L.B., III

    2012-01-01

    We present magnetic field observations at interplanetary shocks comparing two different sample rates showing significantly different results. Fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar supercritical shock transitions at roughly 11 samples/s. Search coil magnetometer measurements at 1875 samples/s, however, show large amplitude (dB/B as large as 2) fluctuations that are not resolved by the fluxgate magnetometer. We show that these fluctuations, identified as whistler mode waves, would produce a significant perturbation to the shock transition region changing the interpretation from laminar to turbulent. Thus, previous observations of supercritical interplanetary shocks classified as laminar may have been under sampled.

  10. Analysing harmonic motions with an iPhone’s magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone’s (or iPad’s) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone’s magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone’s screen using the Sensor Kinetics application. Data from this application was analysed with Eureqa software to establish the equation of the harmonic motion. Analyses show that the use of an iPhone’s magnetometer to analyse harmonic motion is a practical and effective method for small oscillations and frequencies less than 15-20 Hz.

  11. High-Sensitivity Low-Noise Miniature Fluxgate Magnetometers Using a Flip Chip Conceptual Design

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff; Chiu, Po-Kai; Chiu, Shih-Liang; Jeng, Jen-Tzong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB) substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current “flip chip” concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. Principles and analysis of the fluxgate sensor are introduced first, and followed by FEA electromagnetic modeling and simulation for the proposed sensor. Comprehensive characteristic experiments of the miniature fluxgate device exhibit favorable results in terms of sensitivity (or “responsivity” for magnetometers) and field noise spectrum. The sensor is driven and characterized by employing the improved second-harmonic detection technique that enables linear V-B correlation and responsivity verification. In addition, the double magnitude of responsivity measured under very low frequency (1 Hz) magnetic fields is experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the maximum responsivity of 593 V/T occurs at 50 kHz of excitation frequency with the second harmonic wave of excitation; however, the minimum magnetic field noise is found to be 0.05 nT/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz under the same excitation. In comparison with other miniature planar fluxgates published to date, the fluxgate magnetic sensor with flip chip configuration offers advances in both device functionality and fabrication simplicity. More importantly, the novel design can be further extended to a silicon-based micro-fluxgate chip manufactured by emerging CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus enriching its potential range of applications in modern engineering and the consumer electronics market. PMID:25196107

  12. A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics. PMID:26102496

  13. A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff

    2015-06-19

    A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics.

  14. High-sensitivity low-noise miniature fluxgate magnetometers using a flip chip conceptual design.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff; Chiu, Po-Kai; Chiu, Shih-Liang; Jeng, Jen-Tzong

    2014-07-30

    This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB) substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current "flip chip" concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. Principles and analysis of the fluxgate sensor are introduced first, and followed by FEA electromagnetic modeling and simulation for the proposed sensor. Comprehensive characteristic experiments of the miniature fluxgate device exhibit favorable results in terms of sensitivity (or "responsivity" for magnetometers) and field noise spectrum. The sensor is driven and characterized by employing the improved second-harmonic detection technique that enables linear V-B correlation and responsivity verification. In addition, the double magnitude of responsivity measured under very low frequency (1 Hz) magnetic fields is experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the maximum responsivity of 593 V/T occurs at 50 kHz of excitation frequency with the second harmonic wave of excitation; however, the minimum magnetic field noise is found to be 0.05 nT/Hz(1/2) at 1 Hz under the same excitation. In comparison with other miniature planar fluxgates published to date, the fluxgate magnetic sensor with flip chip configuration offers advances in both device functionality and fabrication simplicity. More importantly, the novel design can be further extended to a silicon-based micro-fluxgate chip manufactured by emerging CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus enriching its potential range of applications in modern engineering and the consumer electronics market.

  15. Integration of nanostructured planar diffractive lenses dedicated to near infrared detection for CMOS image sensors.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Thomas; Massenot, Sébastien; Estribeau, Magali; Magnan, Pierre; Pardo, Fabrice; Pelouard, Jean-Luc

    2016-04-18

    This paper deals with the integration of metallic and dielectric nanostructured planar lenses into a pixel from a silicon based CMOS image sensor, for a monochromatic application at 1.064 μm. The first is a Plasmonic Lens, based on the phase delay through nanoslits, which has been found to be hardly compatible with current CMOS technology and exhibits a notable metallic absorption. The second is a dielectric Phase-Fresnel Lens integrated at the top of a pixel, it exhibits an Optical Efficiency (OE) improved by a few percent and an angle of view of 50°. The third one is a metallic diffractive lens integrated inside a pixel, which shows a better OE and an angle of view of 24°. The last two lenses exhibit a compatibility with a spectral band close to 1.064 μm.

  16. Digital-Centric RF CMOS Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, Akira

    Analog-centric RFCMOS technology has played an important role in motivating the change of technology from conventional discrete device technology or bipolar IC technology to CMOS technology. However it introduces many problems such as poor performance, susceptibility to PVT fluctuation, and cost increase with technology scaling. The most important advantage of CMOS technology compared with legacy RF technology is that CMOS can use more high performance digital circuits for very low cost. In fact, analog-centric RF-CMOS technology has failed the FM/AM tuner business and the digital-centric CMOS technology is becoming attractive for many users. It has many advantages; such as high performance, no external calibration points, high yield, and low cost. From the above facts, digital-centric CMOS technology which utilizes the advantages of digital technology must be the right path for future RF technology. Further investment in this technology is necessary for the advancement of RF technology.

  17. Research on evaluation method of CMOS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaoqiang; Han, Weiqiang; Cui, Lanfang

    2014-09-01

    In some professional image application fields, we need to test some key parameters of the CMOS camera and evaluate the performance of the device. Aiming at this requirement, this paper proposes a perfect test method to evaluate the CMOS camera. Considering that the CMOS camera has a big fixed pattern noise, the method proposes the `photon transfer curve method' based on pixels to measure the gain and the read noise of the camera. The advantage of this method is that it can effectively wipe out the error brought by the response nonlinearity. Then the reason of photoelectric response nonlinearity of CMOS camera is theoretically analyzed, and the calculation formula of CMOS camera response nonlinearity is deduced. Finally, we use the proposed test method to test the CMOS camera of 2560*2048 pixels. In addition, we analyze the validity and the feasibility of this method.

  18. CMOS output buffer wave shaper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, L.; Whitaker, S.; Merrell, R.

    1990-01-01

    As the switching speeds and densities of Digital CMOS integrated circuits continue to increase, output switching noise becomes more of a problem. A design technique which aids in the reduction of switching noise is reported. The output driver stage is analyzed through the use of an equivalent RLC circuit. The results of the analysis are used in the design of an output driver stage. A test circuit based on these techniques is being submitted to MOSIS for fabrication.

  19. Correcting GOES-R Magnetometer Data for Stray Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Delano R.; Freesland, Douglas C.; Tadikonda, Sivakumara K.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Todirita, Monica; Dahya, Melissa; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Time-varying spacecraft magnetic fields or stray fields are a problem for magnetometer systems. While constant fields can be removed with zero offset calibration, stray fields are difficult to distinguish from ambient field variations. Putting two magnetometers on a long boom and solving for both the ambient and stray fields can be a good idea, but this gradiometer solution is even more susceptible to noise than a single magnetometer. Unless the stray fields are larger than the magnetometer noise, simply averaging the two measurements is a more accurate approach. If averaging is used, it may be worthwhile to explicitly estimate and remove stray fields. Models and estimation algorithms are provided for solar array, arcjet and reaction wheel fields.

  20. Correcting GOES-R Magnetometer Data for Stray Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Delano; Freesland, Douglas; Tadikonda, Sivakumar; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Todirita, Monica; Dahya, Melissa; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Time-varying spacecraft magnetic fields, i.e. stray fields, are a problem for magnetometer systems. While constant fields can be removed by calibration, stray fields are difficult to distinguish from ambient field variations. Putting two magnetometers on a long boom and solving for both the ambient and stray fields can help, but this gradiometer solution is more sensitive to noise than a single magnetometer. As shown here for the R-series Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R), unless the stray fields are larger than the noise, simply averaging the two magnetometer readings gives a more accurate solution. If averaging is used, it may be worthwhile to estimate and remove stray fields explicitly. Models and estimation algorithms to do so are provided for solar array, arcjet and reaction wheel fields.

  1. A full optically operated magnetometer array: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ijsselsteijn, R; Kielpinski, M; Woetzel, S; Scholtes, T; Kessler, E; Stolz, R; Schultze, V; Meyer, H-G

    2012-11-01

    We show the operation of an optically pumped magnetometer array in a 50 μT magnetic field. The various components for a fully optical and non-magnetic detector unit were constructed and evaluated, from which a prototype unit was assembled with fiber coupled electronics. In this unit the magnetometers were operated using the intensity modulated method and heated with an off-resonant laser. Calculations on the temperature distribution were used to design the magnetometer array. Different magnetometers in such a detector unit were characterized and showed identical performance. Without applying noise reduction schemes, the obtained magnetic field resolution is a factor 2.5 above the shot noise level down to frequencies of about 7 Hz.

  2. Multi-channel atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography: a configuration study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiwoong; Begus, Samo; Xia, Hui; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Jazbinsek, Vojko; Trontelj, Zvonko; Romalis, Michael V

    2014-04-01

    Atomic magnetometers are emerging as an alternative to SQUID magnetometers for detection of biological magnetic fields. They have been used to measure both the magnetocardiography (MCG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. One of the virtues of the atomic magnetometers is their ability to operate as a multi-channel detector while using many common elements. Here we study two configurations of such a multi-channel atomic magnetometer optimized for MEG detection. We describe measurements of auditory evoked fields (AEF) from a human brain as well as localization of dipolar phantoms and auditory evoked fields. A clear N100m peak in AEF was observed with a signal-to-noise ratio of higher than 10 after averaging of 250 stimuli. Currently the intrinsic magnetic noise level is 4fTHz(-1/2) at 10Hz. We compare the performance of the two systems in regards to current source localization and discuss future development of atomic MEG systems.

  3. Correcting GOES-R Magnetometer Data for Stray Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Delano; Freesland, Douglas; Tadikonda, Sivakumara K.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Todirita, Monica; Dahya, Melissa; Chu, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Time-varying spacecraft magnetic fields, i.e. stray fields, are a problem for magnetometer systems. While constant fields can be removed by calibration, stray fields are difficult to distinguish from ambient field variations. Putting two magnetometers on a long boom and solving for both the ambient and stray fields can help, but this gradiometer solution is more sensitive to noise than a single magnetometer. As shown here for the R-series Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R), unless the stray fields are larger than the noise, simply averaging the two magnetometer readings gives a more accurate solution. If averaging is used, it may be worthwhile to estimate and remove stray fields explicitly. Models and estimation algorithms to do so are provided for solar array, arcjet and reaction wheel fields.

  4. Combined Electromagnetic and Magnetometer Data Acquisition and Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-27

    Mag1 Mag2 Mag3 Mag4 Mag5 Figure 33: 15 Hz noise on all five magnetometers, McKinley Test Range, acquired with system roughly 100 yards from a...ue , G am m a Mag1 Mag2 Mag3 Mag4 Mag5 Figure 34: 15 Hz noise on all five magnetometers, McKinley Test Range, acquired with system roughly 1000

  5. Optofluidic magnetometer developed in a microstructured optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Candiani, A; Konstantaki, M; Margulis, W; Pissadakis, S

    2012-11-01

    A directional, in-fiber optofluidic magnetometer based on a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) Bragg-grating infiltrated with a ferrofluidic defect is presented. Upon application of a magnetic field, the ferrofluidic defect moves along the length of the MOF Bragg grating, modifying its reflection spectrum. The magnetometer is capable of measuring magnetic fields from 317 to 2500 G. The operational principle of such in-fiber magnetic field probe allows the elaboration of directional measurements of the magnetic field flux.

  6. Detection of J-coupling using atomic magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, Micah P.; Crawford, Charles W.; Wemmer, David E.; Pines, Alexander; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John; Budker, Dmitry

    2015-09-22

    An embodiment of a method of detecting a J-coupling includes providing a polarized analyte adjacent to a vapor cell of an atomic magnetometer; and measuring one or more J-coupling parameters using the atomic magnetometer. According to an embodiment, measuring the one or more J-coupling parameters includes detecting a magnetic field created by the polarized analyte as the magnetic field evolves under a J-coupling interaction.

  7. Microfabricated Optically-Pumped Magnetometers for Biomagnetic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappe, Svenja; Alem, Orang; Sheng, Dong; Kitching, John

    2016-06-01

    We report on the progress in developing microfabricated optically-pumped magnetometer arrays for imaging applications. We have improved our sensitivities by several orders of magnitude in the last ten years. Now, our zero-field magnetometers reach noise values below 15 fT/Hz1/2. Recently, we have also developed gradiometers to reject ambient magnetic field noise. We have built several imaging arrays and validated them for biomedical measurements of brain and heart activity.

  8. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Atomic Magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Jin

    2015-08-19

    The PowerPoint presentation focused on research goals, specific information about the atomic magnetometer, response and resolution factors of the SERF magnetometer, FC+AM systems, tests of field transfer and resolution on FC, gradient cancellation, testing of AM performance, ideas for a multi-channel AM, including preliminary sensitivity testing, and a description of a 6 channel DAQ system. A few ideas for future work ended the presentation.

  9. CMOS/BICMOS Self-assembling and Electrothermal Microactuators for Tunable Capacitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    voltage of around 12 V maximum, which is compatible with IC technology and silicon substrates. Various micro-mover designs in four different CMOS...deflection is 1.57 kHz [18]. For the beam-bent actuators, designed by Gianchandani et al. [19] current is passed through the V -shaped beam anchored at two...power is consumed for switching operation, but only 10 V is needed for the electrostatic latch mechanism with close to zero continuous power. The

  10. Ultrasensitive Magnetometer using a Single Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, I.; Cai, J.-M.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.; Wunderlich, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    Precision sensing, and in particular high precision magnetometry, is a central goal of research into quantum technologies. For magnetometers, often trade-offs exist between sensitivity, spatial resolution, and frequency range. The precision, and thus the sensitivity of magnetometry, scales as 1 /√{T2 } with the phase coherence time T2 of the sensing system playing the role of a key determinant. Adapting a dynamical decoupling scheme that allows for extending T2 by orders of magnitude and merging it with a magnetic sensing protocol, we achieve a measurement sensitivity even for high frequency fields close to the standard quantum limit. Using a single atomic ion as a sensor, we experimentally attain a sensitivity of 4.6 pT /√{Hz } for an alternating-current magnetic field near 14 MHz. Based on the principle demonstrated here, this unprecedented sensitivity combined with spatial resolution in the nanometer range and tunability from direct current to the gigahertz range could be used for magnetic imaging in as of yet inaccessible parameter regimes.

  11. Monitoring space weather with the GOES magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Howard; Matheson, Lorne; Grubb, Richard; Newman, Ann; Bouwer, David

    1996-10-01

    Magnetic field measurements have been made form geosynchronous orbit for more than 20 years. These measurements are important for monitoring 'space weather' and for providing a unique data base that can be used for improving our knowledge of the Earth's magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial interactions. This paper will focus on the variety of products and services provided by these measurements--those currently available, and those under consideration for the future. The magnetic field assist forecasters in qualitatively assessing the level of geomagnetic disturbance, to interpret changes in energetic particle measurements, to provide data to the National Geophysical Data Center, to support in real-time scientific activities such as rocket launches, and to conduct research for a better understanding of the space environment. One important use of magnetometer data in the Space Environment Center is to alert customers when shocks occur in the solar wind. These shocks have the potential for energizing particles to multi-MeV levels, causing Single Event Upsets in spacecraft electronics, and at lower energy ranges causing deep-dielectric charging that produces spacecraft anomalies. Data from the new GOES-8 and GOES-9 spacecraft will be discussed along with prospects for future products and services.

  12. The Search-Coil Magnetometer for MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Contel, O.; Leroy, P.; Roux, A.; Coillot, C.; Alison, D.; Bouabdellah, A.; Mirioni, L.; Meslier, L.; Galic, A.; Vassal, M. C.; Torbert, R. B.; Needell, J.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Ergun, R. E.; Westfall, J.; Summers, D.; Wallace, J.; Magnes, W.; Valavanoglou, A.; Olsson, G.; Chutter, M.; Macri, J.; Myers, S.; Turco, S.; Nolin, J.; Bodet, D.; Rowe, K.; Tanguy, M.; de la Porte, B.

    2016-03-01

    The tri-axial search-coil magnetometer (SCM) belongs to the FIELDS instrumentation suite on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission (Torbert et al. in Space Sci. Rev. (2014), this issue). It provides the three magnetic components of the waves from 1 Hz to 6 kHz in particular in the key regions of the Earth's magnetosphere namely the subsolar region and the magnetotail. Magnetospheric plasmas being collisionless, such a measurement is crucial as the electromagnetic waves are thought to provide a way to ensure the conversion from magnetic to thermal and kinetic energies allowing local or global reconfigurations of the Earth's magnetic field. The analog waveforms provided by the SCM are digitized and processed inside the digital signal processor (DSP), within the Central Electronics Box (CEB), together with the electric field data provided by the spin-plane double probe (SDP) and the axial double probe (ADP). On-board calibration signal provided by DSP allows the verification of the SCM transfer function once per orbit. Magnetic waveforms and on-board spectra computed by DSP are available at different time resolution depending on the selected mode. The SCM design is described in details as well as the different steps of the ground and in-flight calibrations.

  13. Magnetoencephalography with Optically Pumped Atomic Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwindt, Peter; Colombo, Anthony; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Carter, Tony; Berry, Christopher; Young, Amber; McKay, Jim; Weisend, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We are working to develop a 36-channel array of optically pumped atomic magnetometers (AMs) to perform magnetoencephalography (MEG) with the goal of localizing magnetic sources within the human brain. The 36-channel array will consist of nine 4-channel sensor modules where the channels within each sensor will be spaced by 18 mm and each sensor will cover a 40 mm by 40 mm area of the head. In a previous 4-channel AM prototype, we demonstrated the measurement of evoked responses in both the auditory and somatosensory cortexes. This prototype had a 5 fT/Hz1/2 sensitivity. In the current version of the AM under development we are maintaining the previous sensitivity while implementing several improvements, including increasing the bandwidth from 20 Hz to more than 100 Hz, reducing the separation of the active volume of the AM from exterior of the sensor from 25 mm to 10 mm or less, and reducing the active sensor volume by a factor >10 to ~15 mm3. We will present results on the performance of our most recent AM prototype and progress toward developing a complete MEG system including a person-sized magnetic shield to provide a low-noise magnetic environment for MEG measurements.

  14. Ultrasensitive Magnetometer using a Single Atom.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, I; Cai, J-M; Retzker, A; Plenio, M B; Wunderlich, Ch

    2016-06-17

    Precision sensing, and in particular high precision magnetometry, is a central goal of research into quantum technologies. For magnetometers, often trade-offs exist between sensitivity, spatial resolution, and frequency range. The precision, and thus the sensitivity of magnetometry, scales as 1/sqrt[T_{2}] with the phase coherence time T_{2} of the sensing system playing the role of a key determinant. Adapting a dynamical decoupling scheme that allows for extending T_{2} by orders of magnitude and merging it with a magnetic sensing protocol, we achieve a measurement sensitivity even for high frequency fields close to the standard quantum limit. Using a single atomic ion as a sensor, we experimentally attain a sensitivity of 4.6  pT/sqrt[Hz] for an alternating-current magnetic field near 14 MHz. Based on the principle demonstrated here, this unprecedented sensitivity combined with spatial resolution in the nanometer range and tunability from direct current to the gigahertz range could be used for magnetic imaging in as of yet inaccessible parameter regimes.

  15. Calibrating the Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lewis; Casini, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag) is a dual-channel, dual-beam, slit-scanning, full Stokes spectro-polarimeter designed by the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) for the study of the magnetism of solar prominences and filaments. It was deployed in August 2009 at the 40 cm coronagraph of the Evans Solar Facility (ESF) of the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP). In its standard mode of operation it acquires spectro-polarimetric maps of solar targets simultaneously in the two chromospheric lines of He I at 587.6 nm and 1083.0 nm. Since August 2011 ProMag has operated in “patrol mode” with a dedicated observer. We aim to routinely measure the vector magnetic field in prominences. The electro-optic modulator and polarization analyzer are integrated into a single mechanical unit located at the coude feed of the telescope. This location was necessary for proper co-alignment of the dual beams, but complicates the precise polarimeter calibration necessary to achieve the sensitivity required for prominence measurements (< 10^-3). At this sensitivity, small variations in optical alignment can become significant. We present a calibration method for ProMag, using a polarizer and retarder at coronagraph prime focus. Calibrations are recorded before and after observations. We discuss the success of this method and its limitations.

  16. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometers Burst Mode Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coisson, P.; Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Crespo Grau, R.; Brocco, L.; Lalanne, X.; Sirol, O.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.

    2014-12-01

    Each of the three Swarm satellites embarks an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) to provide absolute scalar measurements of the magnetic field with high accuracy and stability. Nominal data acquisition of these ASMs is 1 Hz. But they can also run in a so-called "burst mode" and provide data at 250 Hz. During the commissioning phase of the mission, seven burst mode acquisition campaigns have been run simultaneously for all satellites, obtaining a total of ten days of burs-mode data. These campaigns allowed the identification of issues related to the operations of the piezo-electric motor and the heaters connected to the ASM, that do not impact the nominal 1 Hz scalar data. We analyze the burst mode data to identify high frequency geomagnetic signals, focusing the analysis in two regions: the low latitudes, where we seek signatures of ionospheric irregularities, and the high latitudes, to identify high frequency signals related to polar region currents. Since these campaigns have been conducted during the initial months of the mission, the three satellites where still close to each other, allowing to analyze the spatial coherency of the signals. Wavelet analysis have revealed 31 Hz signals appearing in the night-side in the equatorial region.

  17. Plasmonic fiber-optic vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaochuan; Guo, Tuan; Zhang, Xuejun; Xu, Jian; Xie, Wenping; Nie, Ming; Wu, Qiang; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    A compact fiber-optic vector magnetometer based on directional scattering between polarized plasmon waves and ferro-magnetic nanoparticles is demonstrated. The sensor configuration reported in this work uses a short section of tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) coated with a nanometer scale gold film and packaged with a magnetic fluid (Fe3O4) inside a capillary. The transmission spectrum of the sensor provides a fine comb of narrowband resonances that overlap with a broader absorption of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The wavelength of the SPR attenuation in transmission shows high sensitivity to slight perturbations by magnetic fields, due to the strong directional scattering between the SPR attenuated cladding modes and the magnetic fluid near the fiber surface. Both the orientation (2 nm/deg) and the intensity (1.8 nm/mT) of magnetic fields can be determined unambiguously from the TFBG spectrum. Temperature cross sensitivity can be referenced out by monitoring the wavelength of the core mode resonance simultaneously.

  18. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications

    PubMed Central

    El-Desouki, Munir; Deen, M. Jamal; Fang, Qiyin; Liu, Louis; Tse, Frances; Armstrong, David

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD) imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4∼5 μm) due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps). PMID:22389609

  19. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications.

    PubMed

    El-Desouki, Munir; Deen, M Jamal; Fang, Qiyin; Liu, Louis; Tse, Frances; Armstrong, David

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD) imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4∼5 μm) due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps).

  20. An improved Overhauser magnetometer for Earth's magnetic field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shifang; Chen, Shudong; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Cao, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    Overhauser magnetometer is a kind of high-precision devices for magnetostatic field measurement. It is widely used in geological survey, earth field variations, UXO detection etc. However, the original Overhauser magnetometer JOM-2 shows great shortcomings of low signal to noise ratio (SNR) and high power consumption, which directly affect the performance of the device. In order to increase the sensitivity and reduce power consumption, we present an improved Overhauser magnetometer. Firstly, compared with the original power board which suffers from heavy noise for improper EMC design, an improved power broad with 20mV peak to peak noise is presented in this paper. Then, the junction field effect transistor (JFET) is used as pre-amplifier in our new design, to overcome the higher current noise produced by the original instrumentation amplifier. By adjusting the parameters carefully low noise factor down to 0.5 dB can be obtained. Finally, the new architecture of ARM + CPLD is adopted to replace the original one with DSP+CPLD. So lower power consumption and greater flash memory can be realized. With these measures, an improved Overhauser magnetometer with higher sensitivity and lower power consumption is design here. The experimental results indicate that the sensitivity of the improved Overhauser magnetometer is 0.071nT, which confirms that the new magnetometer is sensitive to earth field measurement.

  1. Overhauser magnetometer sensor design for magnetic field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zan; Chen, Shudong; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Cao, Qiong

    2016-10-01

    The Overhauser magnetometer, with its unique set of advantages, such as low power consumption, high precision and fast recording ability has been widely used in geophysical mineral and oil exploration, archeology, environmental survey, ordnance and weapons detection (UXO) and other earth science applications. Compared with the traditional proton magnetometer, which suffers from high power consumption and low precision, the Overhauser magnetometer excite the free radical solution in a cavity with RF signal to enhance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Thus, RF resonator plays a crucial role in reducing power consumption and improving the accuracy of Overhauser magnetometer. There are a wide variety of resonators, but only two of them are chosen for Overhauser magnetometer: birdcage coil and coaxial resonator. In order to get the best RF cavity for Overhauser magnetometer sensor, both resonators are investigated here. Firstly, parameters of two RF resonators are calculated theoretically and simulated with Ansoft HFSS. The results indicate that birdcage coil is characterized by linear polarization while coaxial resonator is characterized by circular polarization. Besides, all RF fields are limited inside of the coaxial resonator while distributed both inside and outside of the birdcage coil. Then, the two resonators are practically manufactured based on the theoretical design. And the S-parameter and Smith chart of these resonators are measured with Agilent 8712ES RF network analyzer. The measured results indicate that the coaxial resonator has a much higher Q value(875) than the birdcage coil(70). All these results reveal a better performance for coaxial resonator. Finally, field experimental shows 0.074nT sensitivity for Overhauser magnetometer with coaxial resonator.

  2. Design and Fabrication of High-Efficiency CMOS/CCD Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2007-01-01

    An architecture for back-illuminated complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device (CCD) ultraviolet/visible/near infrared- light image sensors, and a method of fabrication to implement the architecture, are undergoing development. The architecture and method are expected to enable realization of the full potential of back-illuminated CMOS/CCD imagers to perform with high efficiency, high sensitivity, excellent angular response, and in-pixel signal processing. The architecture and method are compatible with next-generation CMOS dielectric-forming and metallization techniques, and the process flow of the method is compatible with process flows typical of the manufacture of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. The architecture and method overcome all obstacles that have hitherto prevented high-yield, low-cost fabrication of back-illuminated CMOS/CCD imagers by use of standard VLSI fabrication tools and techniques. It is not possible to discuss the obstacles in detail within the space available for this article. Briefly, the obstacles are posed by the problems of generating light-absorbing layers having desired uniform and accurate thicknesses, passivation of surfaces, forming structures for efficient collection of charge carriers, and wafer-scale thinning (in contradistinction to diescale thinning). A basic element of the present architecture and method - the element that, more than any other, makes it possible to overcome the obstacles - is the use of an alternative starting material: Instead of starting with a conventional bulk-CMOS wafer that consists of a p-doped epitaxial silicon layer grown on a heavily-p-doped silicon substrate, one starts with a special silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer that consists of a thermal oxide buried between a lightly p- or n-doped, thick silicon layer and a device silicon layer of appropriate thickness and doping. The thick silicon layer is used as a handle: that is, as a mechanical support for the

  3. CMOS foveal image sensor chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Cesar (Inventor); Scott, Peter (Inventor); Sridhar, Ramalingam (Inventor); Xia, Shu (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A foveal image sensor integrated circuit comprising a plurality of CMOS active pixel sensors arranged both within and about a central fovea region of the chip. The pixels in the central fovea region have a smaller size than the pixels arranged in peripheral rings about the central region. A new photocharge normalization scheme and associated circuitry normalizes the output signals from the different size pixels in the array. The pixels are assembled into a multi-resolution rectilinear foveal image sensor chip using a novel access scheme to reduce the number of analog RAM cells needed. Localized spatial resolution declines monotonically with offset from the imager's optical axis, analogous to biological foveal vision.

  4. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    DOEpatents

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  5. SOI CMOS Imager with Suppression of Cross-Talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Zheng, Xingyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sun, Chao

    2009-01-01

    A monolithic silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) image-detecting integrated circuit of the active-pixel-sensor type, now undergoing development, is designed to operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and to offer a combination of high quantum efficiency and low diffusion and capacitive cross-talk among pixels. The imager is designed to be especially suitable for astronomical and astrophysical applications. The imager design could also readily be adapted to general scientific, biological, medical, and spectroscopic applications. One of the conditions needed to ensure both high quantum efficiency and low diffusion cross-talk is a relatively high reverse bias potential (between about 20 and about 50 V) on the photodiode in each pixel. Heretofore, a major obstacle to realization of this condition in a monolithic integrated circuit has been posed by the fact that the required high reverse bias on the photodiode is incompatible with metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in the CMOS pixel readout circuitry. In the imager now being developed, the SOI structure is utilized to overcome this obstacle: The handle wafer is retained and the photodiode is formed in the handle wafer. The MOSFETs are formed on the SOI layer, which is separated from the handle wafer by a buried oxide layer. The electrical isolation provided by the buried oxide layer makes it possible to bias the MOSFETs at CMOS-compatible potentials (between 0 and 3 V), while biasing the photodiode at the required higher potential, and enables independent optimization of the sensory and readout portions of the imager.

  6. IR CMOS: near infrared enhanced digital imaging (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Carey, James E.; Joy, Thomas; Vineis, Chris J.; Palsule, Chintamani

    2015-08-01

    SiOnyx has demonstrated imaging at light levels below 1 mLux (moonless starlight) at video frame rates with a 720P CMOS image sensor in a compact, low latency camera. Low light imaging is enabled by the combination of enhanced quantum efficiency in the near infrared together with state of the art low noise image sensor design. The quantum efficiency enhancements are achieved by applying Black Silicon, SiOnyx's proprietary ultrafast laser semiconductor processing technology. In the near infrared, silicon's native indirect bandgap results in low absorption coefficients and long absorption lengths. The Black Silicon nanostructured layer fundamentally disrupts this paradigm by enhancing the absorption of light within a thin pixel layer making 5 microns of silicon equivalent to over 300 microns of standard silicon. This results in a demonstrate 10 fold improvements in near infrared sensitivity over incumbent imaging technology while maintaining complete compatibility with standard CMOS image sensor process flows. Applications include surveillance, nightvision, and 1064nm laser see spot. Imaging performance metrics will be discussed. Demonstrated performance characteristics: Pixel size : 5.6 and 10 um Array size: 720P/1.3Mpix Frame rate: 60 Hz Read noise: 2 ele/pixel Spectral sensitivity: 400 to 1200 nm (with 10x QE at 1064nm) Daytime imaging: color (Bayer pattern) Nighttime imaging: moonless starlight conditions 1064nm laser imaging: daytime imaging out to 2Km

  7. A 50Mbit/Sec. CMOS Video Linestore System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeung, Yeun C.

    1988-10-01

    This paper reports the architecture, design and test results of a CMOS single chip programmable video linestore system which has 16-bit data words with 1024 bit depth. The delay is fully programmable from 9 to 1033 samples by a 10 bit binary control word. The large 16 bit data word width makes the chip useful for a wide variety of digital video signal processing applications such as DPCM coding, High-Definition TV, and Video scramblers/descramblers etc. For those applications, the conventional large fixed-length shift register or static RAM scheme is not very popular because of its lack of versatility, high power consumption, and required support circuitry. The very high throughput of 50Mbit/sec is made possible by a highly parallel, pipelined dynamic memory architecture implemented in a 2-um N-well CMOS technology. The basic cell of the programmable video linestore chip is an four transistor dynamic RAM element. This cell comprises the majority of the chip's real estate, consumes no static power, and gives good noise immunity to the simply designed sense amplifier. The chip design was done using Bellcore's version of the MULGA virtual grid symbolic layout system. The chip contains approximately 90,000 transistors in an area of 6.5 x 7.5 square mm and the I/Os are TTL compatible. The chip is packaged in a 68-pin leadless ceramic chip carrier package.

  8. W-CMOS blanking device for projection multibeam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurisch, Michael; Irmscher, Mathias; Letzkus, Florian; Eder-Kapl, Stefan; Klein, Christof; Loeschner, Hans; Piller, Walter; Platzgummer, Elmar

    2010-05-01

    As the designs of future mask nodes become more and more complex the corresponding pattern writing times will rise significantly when using single beam writing tools. Projection multi-beam lithography [1] is one promising technology to enhance the throughput compared to state of the art VSB pattern generators. One key component of the projection multi-beam tool is an Aperture Plate System (APS) to form and switch thousands of individual beamlets. In our present setup a highly parallel beam is divided into 43,008 individual beamlets by a Siaperture- plate. These micrometer sized beams pass through larger openings in a blanking-plate and are individually switched on and off by applying a voltage to blanking-electrodes which are placed around the blanking-plate openings. A charged particle 200x reduction optics demagnifies the beamlet array to the substrate. The switched off beams are filtered out in the projection optics so that only the beams which are unaffected by the blanking-plate are projected to the substrate with 200x reduction. The blanking-plate is basically a CMOS device for handling the writing data. In our work the blanking-electrodes are fabricated using CMOS compatible add on processes like SiO2-etching or metal deposition and structuring. A new approach is the implementation of buried tungsten electrodes for beam blanking.

  9. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  10. Human MCG measurements with a high-sensitivity potassium atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kamada, K; Ito, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2012-06-01

    Measuring biomagnetic fields, such as magnetocardiograms (MCGs), is important for investigating biological functions. To address to this need, we developed an optically pumped atomic magnetometer. In this study, human MCGs were acquired using a potassium atomic magnetometer without any modulating systems. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is comparable to that of high-T(c) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and is sufficient for acquiring human MCGs. The activity of a human heart estimated from the MCG maps agrees well with that measured with SQUID magnetometers. Thus, our magnetometer produces reliable results, which demonstrate the potential of our atomic magnetometer for biomagnetic measurements.

  11. A CMOS silicon spin qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurand, R.; Jehl, X.; Kotekar-Patil, D.; Corna, A.; Bohuslavskyi, H.; Laviéville, R.; Hutin, L.; Barraud, S.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; de Franceschi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Silicon, the main constituent of microprocessor chips, is emerging as a promising material for the realization of future quantum processors. Leveraging its well-established complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology would be a clear asset to the development of scalable quantum computing architectures and to their co-integration with classical control hardware. Here we report a silicon quantum bit (qubit) device made with an industry-standard fabrication process. The device consists of a two-gate, p-type transistor with an undoped channel. At low temperature, the first gate defines a quantum dot encoding a hole spin qubit, the second one a quantum dot used for the qubit read-out. All electrical, two-axis control of the spin qubit is achieved by applying a phase-tunable microwave modulation to the first gate. The demonstrated qubit functionality in a basic transistor-like device constitutes a promising step towards the elaboration of scalable spin qubit geometries in a readily exploitable CMOS platform.

  12. A CMOS silicon spin qubit

    PubMed Central

    Maurand, R.; Jehl, X.; Kotekar-Patil, D.; Corna, A.; Bohuslavskyi, H.; Laviéville, R.; Hutin, L.; Barraud, S.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; De Franceschi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon, the main constituent of microprocessor chips, is emerging as a promising material for the realization of future quantum processors. Leveraging its well-established complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology would be a clear asset to the development of scalable quantum computing architectures and to their co-integration with classical control hardware. Here we report a silicon quantum bit (qubit) device made with an industry-standard fabrication process. The device consists of a two-gate, p-type transistor with an undoped channel. At low temperature, the first gate defines a quantum dot encoding a hole spin qubit, the second one a quantum dot used for the qubit read-out. All electrical, two-axis control of the spin qubit is achieved by applying a phase-tunable microwave modulation to the first gate. The demonstrated qubit functionality in a basic transistor-like device constitutes a promising step towards the elaboration of scalable spin qubit geometries in a readily exploitable CMOS platform. PMID:27882926

  13. A CMOS silicon spin qubit.

    PubMed

    Maurand, R; Jehl, X; Kotekar-Patil, D; Corna, A; Bohuslavskyi, H; Laviéville, R; Hutin, L; Barraud, S; Vinet, M; Sanquer, M; De Franceschi, S

    2016-11-24

    Silicon, the main constituent of microprocessor chips, is emerging as a promising material for the realization of future quantum processors. Leveraging its well-established complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology would be a clear asset to the development of scalable quantum computing architectures and to their co-integration with classical control hardware. Here we report a silicon quantum bit (qubit) device made with an industry-standard fabrication process. The device consists of a two-gate, p-type transistor with an undoped channel. At low temperature, the first gate defines a quantum dot encoding a hole spin qubit, the second one a quantum dot used for the qubit read-out. All electrical, two-axis control of the spin qubit is achieved by applying a phase-tunable microwave modulation to the first gate. The demonstrated qubit functionality in a basic transistor-like device constitutes a promising step towards the elaboration of scalable spin qubit geometries in a readily exploitable CMOS platform.

  14. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Accelerated life tests were performed on CMOS microcircuits to predict their long term reliability. The consistency of the CMOS microcircuit activation energy between the range of 125 C to 200 C and the range 200 C to 250 C was determined. Results indicate CMOS complexity and the amount of moisture detected inside the devices after testing influences time to failure of tested CMOS devices.

  15. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10-8 Am2 was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  16. A multichannel portable SERF atomic magnetometer for biomagnetic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyllie, Robert; Kauer, Matthew; Smetana, Gregory; Wakai, Ronald; Walker, Thad

    2011-05-01

    We present a portable four-channel atomic magnetometer array operating in the spin exchange relaxation-free regime. Each channel was operated with a baseline sensitivity of 5-10 fT /√{ Hz } , at or near the expected Johnson noise limit of the mu-metal shielding. The magnetometer array has several design features intended to maximize its suitability for fetal magnetocardiography, such as a compact modular design, fiber coupled lasers, and magnetometer channel spacing adjustable from 5-10 cm. We present adult magnetocardiogram using this array in a magnetically shielded room. We also show the acquisition and analysis of phantom fetal signals with a peak QRS amplitude of ~1pt, using an advanced nonlinear denoising algorithm. Funding from the NIH.

  17. Assessing and ensuring GOES-R magnetometer accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Delano; Todirita, Monica; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Dahya, Melissa; Chu, Donald

    2016-05-01

    The GOES-R magnetometer subsystem accuracy requirement is 1.7 nanoteslas (nT). During quiet times (100 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 3 sigma error per axis. During storms (300 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 2 sigma error per axis. Error comes both from outside the magnetometers, e.g. spacecraft fields and misalignments, as well as inside, e.g. zero offset and scale factor errors. Because zero offset and scale factor drift over time, it will be necessary to perform annual calibration maneuvers. To predict performance before launch, we have used Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analysis. With the proposed calibration regimen, both suggest that the magnetometer subsystem will meet its accuracy requirements.

  18. Spin-Damping in an RF atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alem, Orang; Romalis, Michael V.; Sauer, Karen L.

    2009-05-01

    Optically pumped atomic magnetometers have demonstrated an improved sensitivity over standard tuned coils for frequencies less than 50 MHz, making these radio-frequency (RF) magnetometers attractive for low-field NMR (for example, Budker and Romalis, Nature Physics 3, April 2007). Such magnetometers are often plagued by transient effects resulting in decreased sensitivity. The decay time of these transients, or ringing, can last for milliseconds, which is particularly detrimental for rapidly decaying NMR signals. We have found that actively damping the ringing of the atomic spins can significantly reduce such dead time. This spin-damping of the atomic transients is achieved through a negative feedback mechanism in which part of the optical signal during ringing is used to apply an RF field forcing the realignment of the atomic spins with the static magnetic field. We have successfully implemented spin-damping in 100 μs and recovered our femto-Tesla signal previously obscured by the ringing.

  19. Rotating sample magnetometer for cryogenic temperatures and high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Eisterer, M; Hengstberger, F; Voutsinas, C S; Hörhager, N; Sorta, S; Hecher, J; Weber, H W

    2011-06-01

    We report on the design and implementation of a rotating sample magnetometer (RSM) operating in the variable temperature insert (VTI) of a cryostat equipped with a high-field magnet. The limited space and the cryogenic temperatures impose the most critical design parameters: the small bore size of the magnet requires a very compact pick-up coil system and the low temperatures demand a very careful design of the bearings. Despite these difficulties the RSM achieves excellent resolution at high magnetic field sweep rates, exceeding that of a typical vibrating sample magnetometer by about a factor of ten. In addition the gas-flow cryostat and the high-field superconducting magnet provide a temperature and magnetic field range unprecedented for this type of magnetometer.

  20. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Araujo, J F D F; Bruno, A C; Louro, S R W

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10(-8) Am(2) was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  1. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dahai; Wu, Lingqi; Yan, Meizhi; Cui, Mingyang; You, Zheng; Hu, Muzhi

    2009-01-01

    A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor's vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment.

  2. Assessing and Ensuring GOES-R Magnetometer Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Delano R.; Todirita, Monica; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R magnetometer subsystem accuracy requirement is 1.7 nanoteslas (nT). During quiet times (100 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 3 sigma. During storms (300 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 2 sigma. Error comes both from outside the magnetometers, e.g. spacecraft fields and misalignments, as well as inside, e.g. zero offset and scale factor errors. Because zero offset and scale factor drift over time, it will be necessary to perform annual calibration maneuvers. To predict performance before launch, we have used Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analysis. Both behave as expected, and their accuracy predictions agree within 30%. With the proposed calibration regimen, both suggest that the GOES-R magnetometer subsystem will meet its accuracy requirements.

  3. NQR detection of explosive simulants using RF atomic magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a highly selective spectroscopic method that can be used to detect and identify a number of chemicals of interest to the defense, national security, and law enforcement community. In the past, there have been several documented attempts to utilize NQR to detect nitrogen bearing explosives using induction sensors to detect the NQR RF signatures. We present here our work on the NQR detection of explosive simulants using optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers. RF atomic magnetometers can provide an order of magnitude (or more) improvement in sensitivity versus induction sensors and can enable mitigation of RF interference, which has classically has been a problem for conventional NQR using induction sensors. We present the theory of operation of optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers along with the result of laboratory work on the detection of explosive simulant material. An outline of ongoing work will also be presented along with a path for a fieldable detection system.

  4. Participation in the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium for the Cluster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Prof. M. G. Kivelson (UCLA) and Dr. R. C. Elphic (LANL) are Co-investigators on the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium (CMC) that provided the fluxgate magnetometers and associated mission support for the Cluster Mission. The CMC designated UCLA as the site with primary responsibility for the inter-calibration of data from the four spacecraft and the production of fully corrected data critical to achieving the mission objectives. UCLA was also charged with distributing magnetometer data to the U.S. Co-investigators. UCLA also supported the Technical Management Team, which was responsible for the detailed design of the instrument and its interface. In this final progress report we detail the progress made by the UCLA team in achieving the mission objectives.

  5. Man-Portable Simultaneous Magnetometer and Electromagnetic System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    RTK GPS receiver on backpack (on top of EM61 electronics box), and boom and 3rd wheel hosting magnetometer 4’ in front of EM61 coil. GPS antenna and...Interleaving (MPI) box that acquires magnetometer data between EM61 pulses • An RTK GPS • Custom software running on the Allegro that acquires...EM61 Sampling Rate COTS 75 Hz pulse repetition rate (10 Hz serial output) GPS Trimble RTK with 1PPS output. 10Hz GGK output. GPS antenna halfway

  6. A low-power, high-sensitivity micromachined optical magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhaskar, R.; Knappe, S.; Kitching, J.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate an optical magnetometer based on a microfabricated 87Rb vapor cell in a micromachined silicon sensor head. The alkali atom density in the vapor cell is increased by heating the cell with light brought to the sensor through an optical fiber, and absorbed by colored filters attached to the cell windows. A second fiber-optically coupled beam optically pumps and interrogates the atoms. The magnetometer operates on 140 mW of heating power and achieves a sensitivity below 20 fT/√Hz throughout most of the frequency band from 15 Hz to 100 Hz. Such a sensor can measure magnetic fields from the human heart and brain.

  7. Magnetoencephalography with a two-color pump probe atomic magnetometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-07-01

    The authors have detected magnetic fields from the human brain with a compact, fiber-coupled rubidium spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer. Optical pumping is performed on the D1 transition and Faraday rotation is measured on the D2 transition. The beams share an optical axis, with dichroic optics preparing beam polarizations appropriately. A sensitivity of <5 fT/{radical}Hz is achieved. Evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer. Recordings were validated by comparison with those taken by a commercial magnetoencephalography system. The design is amenable to arraying sensors around the head, providing a framework for noncryogenic, whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  8. Three-axis atomic magnetometer based on spin precession modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. C.; Dong, H. F. Hu, X. Y.; Chen, L.; Gao, Y.

    2015-11-02

    We demonstrate a three-axis atomic magnetometer with one intensity-modulated pump beam and one orthogonal probe beam. The main field component is measured using the resonance of the pumping light, while the transverse field components are measured simultaneously using the optical rotation of the probe beam modulated by the spin precession. It is an all-optical magnetometer without using any modulation field or radio frequency field. Magnetic field sensitivity of 0.8 pT/Hz{sup 1∕2} is achieved under a bias field of 2 μT.

  9. Electromagnetic induction imaging with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deans, Cameron; Marmugi, Luca; Hussain, Sarah; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-03-01

    We report on a compact, tunable, and scalable to large arrays imaging device, based on a radio-frequency optically pumped atomic magnetometer operating in magnetic induction tomography modality. Imaging of conductive objects is performed at room temperature, in an unshielded environment and without background subtraction. Conductivity maps of target objects exhibit not only excellent performance in terms of shape reconstruction but also demonstrate detection of sub-millimetric cracks and penetration of conductive barriers. The results presented here demonstrate the potential of a future generation of imaging instruments, which combine magnetic induction tomography and the unmatched performance of atomic magnetometers.

  10. Lunar physical properties from analysis of magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the lunar interior are discussed with emphasis on (1) bulk, crustal, and local anomalous conductivity; (2) bulk magnetic permeability measurements, iron abundance estimates, and core size limits; (3) lunar ionosphere and atmosphere; and (4) crustal magnetic remanence: scale size measurements and constraints on remanence origin. Appendices treat the phase relationship between the energetic particle flux modulation and current disc penetrations in the Jovian magnetosphere (Pioneer 10 inbound) theories for the origin of lunar magnetism; electrical conductivity anomalies associated with circular lunar maria; electromagnetic properties of the Moon; Mare Serenitatis conductivity anomaly detected by Apollo 16 and Lunokhod 2 magnetometers; and lunar properties from magnetometer data: effects of data errors.

  11. A high-sensitivity push-pull magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Breschi, E.; Grujić, Z. D.; Knowles, P.; Weis, A.

    2014-01-13

    We describe our approach to atomic magnetometry based on the push-pull optical pumping technique. Cesium vapor is pumped and probed by a resonant laser beam whose circular polarization is modulated synchronously with the spin evolution dynamics induced by a static magnetic field. The magnetometer is operated in a phase-locked loop, and it has an intrinsic sensitivity below 20fT/√(Hz), using a room temperature paraffin-coated cell. We use the magnetometer to monitor magnetic field fluctuations with a sensitivity of 300fT/√(Hz)

  12. Spectrometry with consumer-quality CMOS cameras.

    PubMed

    Scheeline, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Many modern spectrometric instruments use diode arrays, charge-coupled arrays, or CMOS cameras for detection and measurement. As portable or point-of-use instruments are desirable, one would expect that instruments using the cameras in cellular telephones and tablet computers would be the basis of numerous instruments. However, no mass market for such devices has yet developed. The difficulties in using megapixel CMOS cameras for scientific measurements are discussed, and promising avenues for instrument development reviewed. Inexpensive alternatives to use of the built-in camera are also mentioned, as the long-term question is whether it is better to overcome the constraints of CMOS cameras or to bypass them.

  13. Carbon nanotube integration with a CMOS process.

    PubMed

    Perez, Maximiliano S; Lerner, Betiana; Resasco, Daniel E; Pareja Obregon, Pablo D; Julian, Pedro M; Mandolesi, Pablo S; Buffa, Fabian A; Boselli, Alfredo; Lamagna, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the integration of a sensor based on carbon nanotubes using CMOS technology. A chip sensor (CS) was designed and manufactured using a 0.30 μm CMOS process, leaving a free window on the passivation layer that allowed the deposition of SWCNTs over the electrodes. We successfully investigated with the CS the effect of humidity and temperature on the electrical transport properties of SWCNTs. The possibility of a large scale integration of SWCNTs with CMOS process opens a new route in the design of more efficient, low cost sensors with high reproducibility in their manufacture.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Integration with a CMOS Process

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Maximiliano S.; Lerner, Betiana; Resasco, Daniel E.; Pareja Obregon, Pablo D.; Julian, Pedro M.; Mandolesi, Pablo S.; Buffa, Fabian A.; Boselli, Alfredo; Lamagna, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the integration of a sensor based on carbon nanotubes using CMOS technology. A chip sensor (CS) was designed and manufactured using a 0.30 μm CMOS process, leaving a free window on the passivation layer that allowed the deposition of SWCNTs over the electrodes. We successfully investigated with the CS the effect of humidity and temperature on the electrical transport properties of SWCNTs. The possibility of a large scale integration of SWCNTs with CMOS process opens a new route in the design of more efficient, low cost sensors with high reproducibility in their manufacture. PMID:22319330

  15. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-08-06

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces.

  16. Elastomer Compatible With Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jon W.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial rubber resists ignition on impact and seals at low temperatures. Filled fluoroelastomer called "Katiflex" developed for use in seals of vessels holding cold liquid and gaseous oxygen. New material more compatible with liquid oxygen than polytetrafluoroethylene. Provides dynamic seal at -196 degrees C with only 4 times seal stress required at room temperature. In contrast, conventional rubber seals burn or explode on impact in high-pressure oxygen, and turn hard or even brittle at liquid-oxygen temperatures, do not seal reliably, also see (MFS-28124).

  17. From compatible factorization to near-compatible factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiabat, Raja'i.; Ibrahim, Haslinda

    2014-12-01

    A compatible factorization of order ν, is an ν× ν-1/2 array in which the entries in row i form a near-one-factor with focus i, and the triples associated with the rows contain no repetitions. In this paper, we aim to amend this compatible factorization so that we can display ν(ν-1)/2 - 2ν/3 triples with the minimum repeated triples. Throughout this paper we propose a new type of factorization called near-compatible factorization. First, we present the compatible factorization towards developing a near-compatible factorization. Second, we discuss briefly the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of near-compatible factorization. Then, we exemplify the construction for case ν = 9 as a groundwork in developing near-compatible factorization.

  18. Characteristics and performance of an intensity-modulated optically pumped magnetometer in comparison to the classical M(x) magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Schultze, Volkmar; Ijsselsteijn, Rob; Scholtes, Theo; Woetzel, Stefan; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2012-06-18

    We compare the performance of two methods for the synchronization of the atomic spins in optically pumped magnetometers: intensity modulation of the pump light and the classical M(x) method using B(1) field modulation. Both techniques use the same set-up and measure the resulting features of the light after passing a micro-fabricated Cs cell. The intensity-modulated pumping shows several advantages: better noise-limited magnetic field sensitivity, misalignment between pumping and spin synchronization is excluded, and magnetometer arrays without any cross-talk can be easily set up.

  19. CMOS analog switches for adaptive filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Adaptive active low-pass filters incorporate CMOS (Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) analog switches (such as 4066 switch) that reduce variation in switch resistance when filter is switched to any selected transfer function.

  20. Magnetic induction measurements using an all-optical {sup 87}Rb atomic magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wickenbrock, Arne; Tricot, François; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2013-12-09

    In this work we propose, and experimentally demonstrate, the use of a self-oscillating all-optical atomic magnetometer for magnetic induction measurements. Given the potential for miniaturization of atomic magnetometers, and their extreme sensitivity, the present work shows that atomic magnetometers may play a key role in the development of instrumentation for magnetic induction tomography.

  1. Induction magnetometer using a high-Tc superconductor coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, Ichiro

    2010-05-01

    An induction magnetometer consisting of a search coil and an inverting operational amplifier is simple in structure and in signal transferring mechanism from the magnetic field input to the voltage output. Because this magnetometer is based on Faraday's law of induction, it has a lower cutoff frequency r/(2πL), where r is the resistance of the coil and L is its inductance. An attempt has been made to lower the cutoff frequency of the induction magnetometer by using a high-Tc superconductor coil. With a pancake coil (inner diameter ≈18 cm and outer diameter ≈23 cm, 92 turns, 3.23 mH) made of a Bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) superconductor tape of 5 mm in width and 0.23 mm in thickness, the cutoff frequency achieved was 1.7 Hz which is much lower than that obtained with a bulky copper search coil which is typically in the range of 10-20 Hz. In the experiment, an inverting amplifier was made with a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor operational amplifier and was immersed in liquid nitrogen together with a BSCCO high-Tc superconducting coil. Discussion is made on the resolution of the induction magnetometer using a high-Tc superconductor search coil.

  2. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  3. A new algorithm for attitude-independent magnetometer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1994-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed for inflight magnetometer bias determination without knowledge of the attitude. This algorithm combines the fast convergence of a heuristic algorithm currently in use with the correct treatment of the statistics and without discarding data. The algorithm performance is examined using simulated data and compared with previous algorithms.

  4. Real-Time Attitude Independent Three Axis Magnetometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Lai, Kok-Lam; Harman, Richard R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper new real-time approaches for three-axis magnetometer sensor calibration are derived. These approaches rely on a conversion of the magnetometer-body and geomagnetic-reference vectors into an attitude independent observation by using scalar checking. The goal of the full calibration problem involves the determination of the magnetometer bias vector, scale factors and non-orthogonality corrections. Although the actual solution to this full calibration problem involves the minimization of a quartic loss function, the problem can be converted into a quadratic loss function by a centering approximation. This leads to a simple batch linear least squares solution. In this paper we develop alternative real-time algorithms based on both the extended Kalman filter and Unscented filter. With these real-time algorithms, a full magnetometer calibration can now be performed on-orbit during typical spacecraft mission-mode operations. Simulation results indicate that both algorithms provide accurate integer resolution in real time, but the Unscented filter is more robust to large initial condition errors than the extended Kalman filter. The algorithms are also tested using actual data from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE).

  5. Design and analysis of miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai

    2017-02-01

    The detection technology of weak magnetic field is widely used in Earth resource survey and geomagnetic navigation. Useful magnetic field information can be obtained by processing and analyzing the measurement data from magnetic sensors. A miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer is proposed in this paper. This miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer with ring-core structure has a dynamic range of the Earth’s field ±65,000 nT, resolution of several nT. It has three independent parts placed in three perpendicular planes for measuring three orthogonal magnetic field components, respectively. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to generate stimulation signal, analog-to-digital (A/D) convertor control signal, and feedback digital-to-analog (D/A) control signal. Design and analysis details are given to improve the dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and linearity. Our prototype was measured and compared with a commercial standard Magson fluxgate magnetometer as a reference. The results show that our miniature fluxgate magnetometer can follow the Magson’s change trend well. When used as a magnetic compass, our prototype only has ± 0.3∘ deviation compared with standard magnetic compass.

  6. Magnetometer Based on the Opto-Electronic Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B.; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically propose and discuss properties of two schemes of an all-optical self-oscillating magnetometer based on an opto-electronic oscillator stabilized with an atomic vapor cell. Proof of the principle DC magnetic field measurements characterized with 2 x 10(exp -7) G sensitivity and 1 - 1000 mG dynamic range in one of the schemes are demonstrated.

  7. Position-Finding Instrument Built Around a Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    A coarse-positioning instrument is built around a three-axis magnetometer. The magnetometer is of a type that is made of inexpensive hardware and is suitable for use aboard spacecraft orbiting no more than 1,000 km above the surface of the Earth. A data processor programmed with suitable software and equipped with a central processing unit, random-access memory, programmable read-only memory, and interface circuitry for communication with external equipment are added to the basic magnetometer to convert it into a coarse-positioning instrument. Although the instrument was conceived for use aboard spacecraft, it could be useful for navigation on Earth under some circumstances. A major feature of the proposed instrument is an ability to generate a coarse estimate of its position in real time (that is, without start-up delay). Algorithms needed to solve the position equations have been developed. These include algorithms to work around gaps in measurement data that arise from a singularity near the minimum in the magnetic field of the Earth. Some work has been done to develop a prototype of this instrument incorporating a standard three-axis flux-gate magnetometer and a Pentium P-5 (or equivalent) processor with a clock frequency of 120 MHz. Alternatively, the processor could be of the 486 class. A computer model of the instrument has been completed and tested.

  8. Superconducting gradiometer-magnetometer array for magnetotelluric logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vozoff, K.

    1982-09-14

    A subsurface electromagnetic sensing device for use in boreholes and mine shafts which includes a sonde for lowering underground which is supercooled and contains squid gradiometers for measuring vector current density, and magnetometers for measuring vector magnetic fields. When these measured values are combined, information is obtained to construct a conductivity model of the underlying and surrounding subsurface region.

  9. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  10. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  11. Beacon Position and Attitude Navigation Aided by a Magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    i · B . (12) When the scale and shift influences of the analog circuitry are considered, the actual measurement of the magnetometer is M = s...1350–1351. 22. Carta , D. G.; Lackowski, D. H. Estimation of Orthogonal Transformations in Strapdown Inertial Systems. IEEE Transactions on

  12. Experience of 1-second magnetometer LEMI-025 use in the INTERMAGNET observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marusenkov, Andriy

    2014-05-01

    More than ten years ago INTERMAGNET community decided to commence producing filtered one-second data in addition to traditional one-minute data, hourly, daily, monthly, and annual means. This decision was inspired by the increasing demand of space physics scientists, investigating wave processes in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere of the Earth's. The first requirements for a geomagnetic data acquisition system capable to acquire 1-second data were compiled during the INTERMAGNET survey, conducted by Jeffrey Love in 2005, investigating the needs of the scientific community using geomagnetic time series data. The main consensus of the survey is as follows: geomagnetic data acquired at 1 Hz sampling should have 0.01 nT resolution at least, be filtered by a digital filter and be centred onto the UTC second within 0.01 s. Besides, the one-second magnetometer has to have much lower noise than that of 1-minute one, because the natural geomagnetic signals rapidly decay at the higher frequencies. And finally, the one-second instrument has to provide a sufficient level of immunity to manmade (industrial) noise, especially as produced by power lines. In order to meet these partly conflicting requirements to the frequency response, a new magnetometer functional diagram, which combines analogue and digital filters, was proposed in the Lviv Centre of Institute for Space Research. Basing on this approach the first model LEMI-025 was designed, built, successfully tested and installed in Dourbes geomagnetic observatory (Belgium) since 2008. Later, after considerable modifications, these first commercially available instruments compatible with one-second INTERMAGNET standard were installed in a number of geomagnetic observatories over the Globe. The experience of LEMI-025 operation during the past few years let us evaluate the baseline stability of the new one-second magnetometer (< 5 nT per year), as well as its other important parameters - the noise level (< 10 pT/rtHz @ 0

  13. MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Najar, Adel; Nambiar, Siddharth; Grosse, Philippe; Augendre, Emmanuel; Leroux, Charles; de Salvo, Barbara; de Lamaestre, Roch Espiau

    2012-06-18

    We study the electro optical properties of a Metal-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon (MNOS) stack for a use in CMOS compatible plasmonic active devices. We show that the insertion of an ultrathin stoichiometric Si(3)N(4) layer in a MOS stack lead to an increase in the electrical reliability of a copper gate MNOS capacitance from 50 to 95% thanks to a diffusion barrier effect, while preserving the low optical losses brought by the use of copper as the plasmon supporting metal. An experimental investigation is undertaken at a wafer scale using some CMOS standard processes of the LETI foundry. Optical transmission measurments conducted in a MNOS channel waveguide configuration coupled to standard silicon photonics circuitry confirms the very low optical losses (0.39 dB.μm(-1)), in good agreement with predictions using ellipsometric optical constants of Cu.

  14. Spoked-ring microcavities: enabling seamless integration of nanophotonics in unmodified advanced CMOS microelectronics chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Mark T.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Ram, Rajeev J.; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Popovic, Milos A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the spoked-ring microcavity, a nanophotonic building block enabling energy-efficient, active photonics in unmodified, advanced CMOS microelectronics processes. The cavity is realized in the IBM 45nm SOI CMOS process - the same process used to make many commercially available microprocessors including the IBM Power7 and Sony Playstation 3 processors. In advanced SOI CMOS processes, no partial etch steps and no vertical junctions are available, which limits the types of optical cavities that can be used for active nanophotonics. To enable efficient active devices with no process modifications, we designed a novel spoked-ring microcavity which is fully compatible with the constraints of the process. As a modulator, the device leverages the sub-100nm lithography resolution of the process to create radially extending p-n junctions, providing high optical fill factor depletion-mode modulation and thereby eliminating the need for a vertical junction. The device is made entirely in the transistor active layer, low-loss crystalline silicon, which eliminates the need for a partial etch commonly used to create ridge cavities. In this work, we present the full optical and electrical design of the cavity including rigorous mode solver and FDTD simulations to design the Qlimiting electrical contacts and the coupling/excitation. We address the layout of active photonics within the mask set of a standard advanced CMOS process and show that high-performance photonic devices can be seamlessly monolithically integrated alongside electronics on the same chip. The present designs enable monolithically integrated optoelectronic transceivers on a single advanced CMOS chip, without requiring any process changes, enabling the penetration of photonics into the microprocessor.

  15. Compatibility: drugs and parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Talita Muniz Maloni; Ferraresi, Andressa de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Standardization and systematization of data to provide quick access to compatibility of leading injectable drugs used in hospitals for parenteral nutrition. Methods We selected 55 injectable drugs analyzed individually with two types of parenteral nutrition: 2-in-1 and 3-in-1. The following variables were considered: active ingredient, compatibility of drugs with the parenteral nutrition with or without lipids, and maximum drug concentration after dilution for the drugs compatible with parenteral nutrition. Drugs were classified as compatible, incompatible and untested. Results After analysis, relevant information to the product’s compatibility with parental nutrition was summarized in a table. Conclusion Systematization of compatibility data provided quick and easy access, and enabled standardizing pharmacists work. PMID:27074235

  16. Fundamental study on identification of CMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Kenji; Saitoh, Naoki

    2003-08-01

    In this study, we discussed individual camera identification of CMOS cameras, because CMOS (complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor) imaging detectors have begun to make their move into the CCD (charge-coupled-device) fields for recent years. It can be identified whether or not the given images have been taken with the given CMOS camera by detecting the imager's intrinsic unique fixed pattern noise (FPN) just like the individual CCD camera identification method proposed by the authors. Both dark and bright pictures taken with the CMOS cameras can be identified by the method, because not only dark current in the photo detectors but also MOS-FET amplifiers incorporated in each pixel may produce pixel-to-pixel nonuniformity in sensitivity. Each pixel in CMOS detectors has the amplifier, which degrades image quality of bright images due to the nonuniformity of the amplifier gain. Two CMOS cameras were evaluated in our experiments. They were WebCamGoPlus (Creative), and EOS D30 (Canon). WebCamGoPlus is a low-priced web camera, whereas EOS D30 is for professional use. Image of a white plate were recorded with the cameras under the plate's luminance condition of 0cd/m2 and 150cd/m2. The recorded images were multiply integrated to reduce the random noise component. From the images of both cameras, characteristic dots patterns were observed. Some bright dots were observed in the dark images, whereas some dark dots were in the bright images. The results show that the camera identification method is also effective for CMOS cameras.

  17. Electro-magnetic compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, H.

    1980-05-01

    The historical background to the growth in problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in UK Military aircraft is reviewed and the present approach for minimizing these problems during development is discussed. The importance of using representative aircraft for final EMC assessments is stressed, and the methods of approach in planning and executing such tests are also outlined. The present equipment qualification procedures are based on assumptions regarding the electromagnetic fields present within the airframe, and the nature of the coupling mechanisms. These cannot be measured with any certainty in representative aircraft. Thus EMC assessments rely on practical tests. Avionics systems critical to flight safety, and systems vital to mission effectiveness require test methods that provide a measure of the safety and performance margins available to account for variations that occur in production and service use. Some proven methods are available, notably for detonator circuits, but in most other areas further work is required. Encouraging process has been made in the use of current probes for the measurement of interfering signals on critical signal lines, in conjunction with complementary test house procedures, as a means for obtaining the safety margins required in flight and engine control systems. Performance margins for mission systems using digital techniques are difficult to determine, and there is a need for improved test techniques. The present EMC qualification tests for equipment in the laboratory do not guarantee freedom from interference when installed, and the results are limited in value for correlating with aircraft tests.

  18. Performance characteristics of a three-axis superconducting rock magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienert, B. R.

    1977-01-01

    A series of measurements are carried out with the purpose of quantitatively determining the characteristics of a commercial 6.8 cm access superconducting rock magnetometer located in the magnetic properties laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The measurements show that although a considerable improvement in measurement speed and signal to noise ratios can be obtained using such an instrument, a number of precautions are necessary to obtain accuracies comparable with more conventional magnetometers. These include careful calibration of the sensor outputs, optimum positioning of the sample within the detection region and quantitatively establishing the degree of cross-coupling between the detector coils. In order to examine the uniformity of response for each detector, the responses are mapped as a function of position, using a small dipole.

  19. Data Acquisition System for Russian Arctic Magnetometer Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzhura, A.; Troshichev, O. A.; Takahashi, K.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring of magnetic activity in the auroral zone is very essential for space weather problem. The big part of northern auroral zone lies in the Russian sector of Arctica. The Russian auroral zone stations are located far from the proper infrastructure and communications, and getting the data from the stations is complicated and nontrivial task. To resolve this problem a new acquisition system for magnetometers was implemented and developed in last few years, with the magnetic data transmission in real time that is important for many forecasting purpose. The system, based on microprocessor modules, is very reliable in hush climatic conditions. The information from the magnetic sensors transmits to AARI data center by satellite communication system and is presented at AARI web pages. This equipment upgrading of Russian polar magnetometer network is supported by the international RapidMag program.

  20. Hansteen's magnetometer and the origin of the magnetic crusade.

    PubMed

    Enebakk, Vidar

    2014-12-01

    In the early nineteenth century, Norwegian mathematician and astronomer Christopher Hansteen (1784-1873) contributed significantly to international collaboration in the study of terrestrial magnetism. In particular, Hansteen was influential in the origin and orientation of the magnetic lobby in Britain, a campaign which resulted in a global network of fixed geomagnetic observatories. In retrospect, however, his contribution was diminished, because his four-pole theory in Untersuchungen der Magnetismus der Erde (1819) was ultimately refuted by Carl Friedrich Gauss in Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus (1839). Yet Hansteen's main contribution was practical rather than theoretical. His major impact was related to the circulation of his instruments and techniques. From the mid-1820s, 'Hansteen's magnetometer' was distributed all over the British Isles and throughout the international scientific community devoted to studying terrestrial magnetism. Thus in the decades before the magnetic crusade, Hansteen had established an international system of observation, standardization and representation based on measurements with his small and portable magnetometers.

  1. On-chip magnetometer for characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun Woo; Reddy, Venu; Torati, Sri Ramulu; Hu, Xing Hao; Sandhu, Adarsh; Kim, Cheol Gi

    2015-02-07

    An on-chip magnetometer was fabricated by integrating a planar Hall magnetoresistive (PHR) sensor with microfluidic channels. The measured in-plane field sensitivities of an integrated PHR sensor with NiFe/Cu/IrMn trilayer structure were extremely high at 8.5 μV Oe(-1). The PHR signals were monitored during the oscillation of 35 pL droplets of magnetic nanoparticles, and reversed profiles for the positive and negative z-fields were measured, where magnitudes increased with the applied z-field strength. The measured PHR signals for 35 pL droplets of magnetic nanoparticles versus applied z-fields showed excellent agreement with magnetization curves measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) of 3 μL volume, where a PHR voltage of 1 μV change is equivalent to 0.309 emu cc(-1) of the volume magnetization with a magnetic moment resolution of ~10(-10) emu.

  2. Laser pumped (4)He magnetometer with light shift suppression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zaisheng; Wang, He; Peng, Xiang; Wu, Teng; Guo, Hong

    2016-11-01

    We report a laser-pumped (4)He atomic magnetometer with light shift suppression through the atomic sensor itself. A linearly polarized light is used to optically align the (4)He metastable atoms and we monitor the magneto-optical double resonance (MODR) signals produced by the left- and right-circularly orthogonal components. It is shown that light shift leads to the atomic alignment to orientation conversion effect, and thus, the difference between the two MODR signals. One of these two MODR signals is locked at the Larmor frequency and is used to measure the ambient magnetic field, while the differential signal is, simultaneously, fed back to suppress the light shift. The scheme could be of the advantage to the design of compact magnetometers by reducing the systematic errors due to light shift.

  3. Space magnetometer based on an anisotropic magnetoresistive hybrid sensor.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Whiteside, B J; Beek, T J; Fox, P; Horbury, T S; Oddy, T M; Archer, M O; Eastwood, J P; Sanz-Hernández, D; Sample, J G; Cupido, E; O'Brien, H; Carr, C M

    2014-12-01

    We report on the design and development of a low resource, dual sensor vector magnetometer for space science applications on very small spacecraft. It is based on a hybrid device combining an orthogonal triad of commercial anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensors with a totem pole H-Bridge drive on a ceramic substrate. The drive enables AMR operation in the more sensitive flipped mode and this is achieved without the need for current spike transmission down a sensor harness. The magnetometer has sensitivity of better than 3 nT in a 0-10 Hz band and a total mass of 104 g. Three instruments have been launched as part of the TRIO-CINEMA space weather mission, inter-calibration against the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model makes it possible to extract physical signals such as field-aligned current deflections of 20-60 nT within an approximately 45,000 nT ambient field.

  4. Remote detection of rotating machinery with a portable atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Marmugi, Luca; Gori, Lorenzo; Hussain, Sarah; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2017-01-20

    We demonstrate remote detection of rotating machinery, using an atomic magnetometer at room temperature and in an unshielded environment. The system relies on the coupling of the AC magnetic signature of the target with the spin-polarized, precessing atomic vapor of a radio-frequency optical atomic magnetometer. The AC magnetic signatures of rotating equipment or electric motors appear as sidebands in the power spectrum of the atomic sensor, which can be tuned to avoid noisy bands that would otherwise hamper detection. A portable apparatus is implemented and experimentally tested. Proof-of-concept investigations are performed with test targets mimicking possible applications, and the operational conditions for optimum detection are determined. Our instrument provides comparable or better performance than a commercial fluxgate and allows detection of rotating machinery behind a wall. These results demonstrate the potential for ultrasensitive devices for remote industrial and usage monitoring, security, and surveillance.

  5. Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an inverse-cubed distance law associated with any simple dipole model. Contributions from higher-order multipoles are significant, with the quadrupole and octupole being 24 and 21 percent of the dipole moment, respectively. Implications of the results for the study of trapped particles, planetary radio emission, and planetary interiors are discussed. Major conclusions are that the deviation of the main planetary magnetic field from a simple dipole leads to distortion of the L shells of the charged particles and to warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Amalthea and Io are predicted.

  6. Construction of an AMR magnetometer for car detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fúra, V.; Petrucha, V.; Platil, A.

    2016-03-01

    A new construction of magnetometer with commercially available AMR (anisotropic magnetoresistive) sensors intended for vehicle detection experiments is presented. Initial experiments with simple AMR gradiometer indicated viability of the approach in a real- world setup. For further experiments and acquisition of representative data, a new design of precise multi-channel magnetometer was developed. The design supports two models of commercial AMR sensors: the proven and reliable, but obsolete Honeywell HMC1021-series sensors and newly available Sensitec AFF755B sensors. In the comparison the two types are similar in most achieved parameters, except offset stability in flipped operation regime. Unfortunately, the new AFF755B sensors seem to have perhaps inferior coupling of the flipping (set/reset) coil to the ferromagnetic core that causes insufficient saturation of the AMR material. The issue is being solved by Sensitec, current deliverables of the AFF755B have “product sample” status (September 2015).

  7. Space magnetometer based on an anisotropic magnetoresistive hybrid sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.; Whiteside, B. J.; Beek, T. J.; Fox, P.; Horbury, T. S.; Oddy, T. M.; Archer, M. O.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sanz-Hernández, D.; Sample, J. G.; Cupido, E.; O'Brien, H.; Carr, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the design and development of a low resource, dual sensor vector magnetometer for space science applications on very small spacecraft. It is based on a hybrid device combining an orthogonal triad of commercial anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensors with a totem pole H-Bridge drive on a ceramic substrate. The drive enables AMR operation in the more sensitive flipped mode and this is achieved without the need for current spike transmission down a sensor harness. The magnetometer has sensitivity of better than 3 nT in a 0-10 Hz band and a total mass of 104 g. Three instruments have been launched as part of the TRIO-CINEMA space weather mission, inter-calibration against the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model makes it possible to extract physical signals such as field-aligned current deflections of 20-60 nT within an approximately 45 000 nT ambient field.

  8. Assessing and Ensuring GOES-R Magnetometer Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Carter, Delano R.; Todirita, Monica; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R magnetometer accuracy requirement is 1.7 nanoteslas (nT). During quiet times (100 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 3 sigma. During storms (300 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 2 sigma. To achieve this, the sensor itself has better than 1 nT accuracy. Because zero offset and scale factor drift over time, it is also necessary to perform annual calibration maneuvers. To predict performance, we used covariance analysis and attempted to corroborate it with simulations. Although not perfect, the two generally agree and show the expected behaviors. With the annual calibration regimen, these predictions suggest that the magnetometers will meet their accuracy requirements.

  9. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-15

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer’s sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10{sup −8} Am{sup 2} was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  10. Specimen size and improved precision with the Molspin spinner magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, G. J.; Almqvist, B. S.; Lucas, K.

    2006-01-01

    Manual reorientation of traditional 10.5 cm 3 paleomagnetic cores between successive spins in Molspin-type magnetometers produces some operator error that may be significantly reduced if smaller core (5.1 cm 3) is used instead. The smaller core may be locked into a cubical holder that ensures its precise angular alignment between successive spins of the magnetometer. This significantly improves precision of the mean vector direction for replicate measurements, or for a suite of specimens, provided that the magnetic mineralogy of the rock is sufficiently homogenous to be meaningfully characterized in the smaller (5.1 cm 3) core. The smaller core is more quickly measured and less expensive to drill.

  11. Using Redundancy To Reduce Errors in Magnetometer Readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail

    2004-01-01

    A method of reducing errors in noisy magnetic-field measurements involves exploitation of redundancy in the readings of multiple magnetometers in a cluster. By "redundancy"is meant that the readings are not entirely independent of each other because the relationships among the magnetic-field components that one seeks to measure are governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism as expressed by Maxwell's equations. Assuming that the magnetometers are located outside a magnetic material, that the magnetic field is steady or quasi-steady, and that there are no electric currents flowing in or near the magnetometers, the applicable Maxwell 's equations are delta x B = 0 and delta(raised dot) B = 0, where B is the magnetic-flux-density vector. By suitable algebraic manipulation, these equations can be shown to impose three independent constraints on the values of the components of B at the various magnetometer positions. In general, the problem of reducing the errors in noisy measurements is one of finding a set of corrected values that minimize an error function. In the present method, the error function is formulated as (1) the sum of squares of the differences between the corrected and noisy measurement values plus (2) a sum of three terms, each comprising the product of a Lagrange multiplier and one of the three constraints. The partial derivatives of the error function with respect to the corrected magnetic-field component values and the Lagrange multipliers are set equal to zero, leading to a set of equations that can be put into matrix.vector form. The matrix can be inverted to solve for a vector that comprises the corrected magnetic-field component values and the Lagrange multipliers.

  12. Theory of double resonance magnetometers based on atomic alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, Antoine; Bison, Georg; Pazgalev, Anatoly S.

    2006-09-15

    We present a theoretical study of the spectra produced by optical-radio-frequency double resonance devices, in which resonant linearly polarized light is used in the optical pumping and detection processes. We extend previous work by presenting algebraic results which are valid for atomic states with arbitrary angular momenta, arbitrary rf intensities, and arbitrary geometries. The only restriction made is the assumption of low light intensity. The results are discussed in view of their use in optical magnetometers.

  13. A computer control system for the alternating gradient magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Michael M.

    1989-12-01

    An alternating gradient magnetometer was interfaced to a computer for the automation of data taking. Using a fast Fourier transform analysis system data can be acquired and processed in real time. Data are stored on disk and can be recalled for plotting and further analysis. With the addition of a simple liquid nitrogen cryostat, magnetization measurements can be performed in the range from 300 to 77 K. Results are reported on three different types of piezoelectric transducers.

  14. Search for plant biomagnetism with a sensitive atomic magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Measurements with a sensitive atomic magnetometer were performed on the Titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum) inflorescence , known for its fast biochemical...unbranched inflorescence in the world. The inflorescence’s single flowers (500 female and 500 male), located at the base of the spadix and enrobed...24“ Inflorescence Terminology,” http://waynesword.palomar.edu/terminf1.htm. 25R. Seymour, J. Exp. Bot. 52, 1465 (2001). 26R. Seymour, Thermochim

  15. A computer control system for the alternating gradient magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Michael M.

    1989-01-01

    An alternating gradient magnetometer was interfaced to a computer for the automation of data taking. Using a fast Fourier transform analysis system data can be acquired and processed in real time. Data are stored on disk and can be recalled for plotting and further analysis. With the addition of a simple liquid nitrogen cryostat, magnetization measurements can be performed in the range from 300 to 77 K. Results are reported on three different types of piezoelectric transducers.

  16. Search for plant biomagnetism with a sensitive atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, Eric; Acosta, Victor; Baddour, Nicolas; Higbie, James; Lester, Brian; Licht, Paul; Patton, Brian; Prouty, Mark; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-04-01

    We report what we believe is the first experimental limit placed on plant biomagnetism. Measurements with a sensitive atomic magnetometer were performed on the Titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum) inflorescence, known for its fast biochemical processes while blooming. We find that the magnetic field from these processes, projected along the Earth's magnetic field, and measured at the surface of the plant, is ≲ 0.6 μG.

  17. An Automated Home Made Low Cost Vibrating Sample Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Nath, T. K.

    2011-07-01

    The design and operation of a homemade low cost vibrating sample magnetometer is described here. The sensitivity of this instrument is better than 10-2 emu and found to be very efficient for the measurement of magnetization of most of the ferromagnetic and other magnetic materials as a function of temperature down to 77 K and magnetic field upto 800 Oe. Both M(H) and M(T) data acquisition are fully automated employing computer and Labview software.

  18. Silicon MCM substrates for integration of III-V photonic devices and CMOS IC`s

    SciTech Connect

    Seigal, P.; Carson, R.; Flores, R.; Rose, B.

    1993-07-01

    The progress made in advanced packaging development at Sandia National Laboratories for integration of III-V photonic devices and CMOS IC`s on Silicon MCM substrates for planar aid stacked applications will be reported. Studies to characterize precision alignment techniques using solder attach materials compatible with both silicon IC`s and III-V devices will be discussed. Examples of the use of back-side alignment and IR through-wafer inspection will be shown along with the extra processing steps that are used. Under bump metallurgy considerations are also addressed.

  19. Swarm Optimization-Based Magnetometer Calibration for Personal Handheld Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdelrahman; Siddharth, Siddharth; Syed, Zainab; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2012-01-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a processor that generates position and orientation solutions by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the user heading based on Earth's magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are usually corrupted by several errors, including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometers. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can help in the development of Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with inertial sensors and GPS/Wi-Fi for indoor navigation and Location Based Services (LBS) applications.

  20. A YBCO RF-SQUID magnetometer and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luwei, Zhou; Jingwu, Qiu; Xienfeng, Zhang; Zhiming, Tank; Yongjia, Qian

    1990-01-01

    An applicable RF-superconducting quantum interference detector (SQUID) magnetometer was made using a bulk sintered yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO). The temperature range of the magnetometer is 77 to 300 K and the field range 0 to 0.1T. At 77 K, the equivalent flux noise of the SQUID is 5 x 10 to minus 4 power theta sub o/square root of Hz at the frequency range of 20 to 200 Hz. The experiments show that the SQUID noise at low-frequency end is mainly from 1/f noise. A coil test shows that the magnetic moment sensitivity delta m is 10 to the minus 6th power emu. The RF-SQUID is shielded in a YBCO cylinder with a shielding ability B sub in/B sub ex of about 10 to the minus 6th power when external dc magnetic field is about a few Oe. The magnetometer is successfully used in characterizing superconducting thin films.

  1. Results of the Magnetometer Navigation (MAGNAV)lnflight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Lambertson, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The Magnetometer Navigation (MAGNAV) algorithm is currently running as a flight experiment as part of the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) Post-Science Engineering Testbed. Initialization of MAGNAV occurred on September 4, 2003. MAGNAV is designed to autonomously estimate the spacecraft orbit, attitude, and rate using magnetometer and sun sensor data. Since the Earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed magnetic field and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometer throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors are used to estimate both trajectory and attitude. In addition, the time rate of change of the magnetic field vector is used to estimate the spacecraft rotation rate. The estimation of the attitude and trajectory is augmented with the rate estimation into an Extended Kalman filter blended with a pseudo-linear Kalman filter. Sun sensor data is also used to improve the accuracy and observability of the attitude and rate estimates. This test serves to validate MAGNAV as a single low cost navigation system which utilizes reliable, flight qualified sensors. MAGNAV is intended as a backup algorithm, an initialization algorithm, or possibly a prime navigation algorithm for a mission with coarse requirements. Results from the first six months of operation are presented.

  2. Results of the Magnetometer Navigation (MAGNAV) Inflight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Harman, Rick; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    2004-01-01

    The Magnetometer Navigation (MAGNAV) algorithm is currently running as a flight experiment as part of the Wide Field Infrarad Explorer Post-Science Engineer- ing Testbed. Initialization of MAGNAV occured on September 4, 2004. MAGNAV is designed to autonomously estimate the spacecraft orbit, attitude, and rate using magnetometer and sun sensor data. Since the earth s magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed magnetic field and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometer throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors are used to estimate both trajec- tory and attitude. In addition, the time rate of change of the magnetic field vector is used to estimate the spacecraft rotation rate. The estimation of the attitude and tra- jectory is augmented with the rate estimation into an Extended Kalman filter blended with a pseudc-linear Kalman filter. Sun sensor data is also used to improve the accu- racy and observability of the attitude and rate estimates. This test serves to validate MAGNAV as a single low cost navigation system which utilizes reliable, flight qualified sensors. MAGNAV is intended as a backup algorithm, an initialization algorithm, or possibly a prime navigation algorithm for a mission with coarse constraints.

  3. GPS/Magnetometer Based Satellite Navigation and Attitude Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack; Harman, Rick; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In recent years algorithms were developed for orbit, attitude and angular-rate determination of Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites. Those algorithms rely on measurements of magnetometers, which are standard, relatively inexpensive, sensors that are normally installed on every LEO satellite. Although magnetometers alone are sufficient for obtaining the desired information, the convergence of the algorithms to the correct values of the satellite orbital parameters, position, attitude and angular velocity is very slow. The addition of sun sensors reduces the convergence time considerably. However, for many LEO satellites the sun data is not available during portions of the orbit when the spacecraft (SC) is in the earth shadow. It is here where the GPS space vehicles (SV) can provide valuable support. This is clearly demonstrated in the present paper. Although GPS measurements alone can be used to obtain SC position, velocity, attitude and angular-rate, the use of magnetometers improve the results due to the synergistic effect of sensor fusion. Moreover, it is possible to obtain these results with less than three SVs. In this paper we introduce an estimation algorithm, which is a combination of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and a Pseudo Linear Kalman Filter (PSELIKA).

  4. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and DigitalFluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, LosAngeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since thesuccessful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the groundcalibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluatetwelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers usingalgorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF,UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tonesand harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA.IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolutegains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS andgive examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  5. Polarization enhanced Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance with an atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Michael W.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Espy, Michelle A.; Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) has been demonstrated for the detection of 14-N in explosive compounds. Application of a material specific radio-frequency (RF) pulse excites a response typically detected with a wire- wound antenna. NQR is non-contact and material specific, however fields produced by NQR are typically very weak, making demonstration of practical utility challenging. For certain materials, the NQR signal can be increased by transferring polarization from hydrogen nuclei to nitrogen nuclei using external magnetic fields. This polarization enhancement (PE) can enhance the NQR signal by an order of magnitude or more. Atomic magnetometers (AM) have been shown to improve detection sensitivity beyond a conventional antenna by a similar amount. AM sensors are immune to piezo-electric effects that hamper conventional NQR, and can be combined to form a gradiometer for effective RF noise cancellation. In principle, combining polarization enhancement with atomic magnetometer detection should yield improvement in signal-to-noise ratio that is the product of the two methods, 100-fold or more over conventional NQR. However both methods are even more exotic than traditional NQR, and have never been combined due to challenges in operating a large magnetic field and ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensor in proximity. Here we present NQR with and without PE with an atomic magnetometer, demonstrating signal enhancement greater than 20-fold for ammonium nitrate. We also demonstrate PE for PETN using a traditional coil for detection with an enhancement factor of 10. Experimental methods and future applications are discussed.

  6. Compatibility Conditions of Structural Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    The theory of elasticity has camouflaged a deficiency in the compatibility formulation since 1860. In structures the ad hoc compatibility conditions through virtual "cuts" and closing "gaps" are not parallel to the strain formulation in elasticity. This deficiency in the compatibility conditions has prevented the development of a direct stress determination method in structures and in elasticity. We have addressed this deficiency and attempted to unify the theory of compatibility. This work has led to the development of the integrated force method for structures and the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation for elasticity. The improved accuracy observed in the solution of numerical examples by the integrated force method can be attributed to the compliance of the compatibility conditions. Using the compatibility conditions allows mapping of variables and facile movement among different structural analysis formulations. This paper reviews and illustrates the requirement of compatibility in structures and in elasticity. It also describes the generation of the conditions and quantifies the benefits of their use. The traditional analysis methods and available solutions (which have been obtained bypassing the missed conditions) should be verified for compliance of the compatibility conditions.

  7. CMOS detectors at Rome "Tor Vergata" University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrilli, F.; Cantarano, S.; Egidi, A.; Giordano, S.

    The new class of CMOS panoramic detectors represents an innovative tool for the experimental astronomy of the forthcoming years. While current charge-coupled device (CCD) technology can produce nearly ideal detectors for astronomical use, the scientific quality CMOS detectors made today have characteristics similar to those of CCD devices but a simpler electronics and a reduced cost. Moreover, the high frame rate capability and the amplification of each pixel - active pixel - in a CMOS detector, allows the implementation of a specific data management. So, it is possible to design cameras with very high dynamic range suitable for the imaging of solar active regions. In fact, in such regions, the onset of a flare can produce problems of saturation in a CCD-based camera. In this work we present the preliminary result obtained with the Tor Vergata C-Cam APS camera used at the University Solar Station.

  8. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces. PMID:27509529

  9. Experiments with synchronized sCMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Iain A.; Jermak, Helen; Copperwheat, Chris M.; Smith, Robert J.; Poshyachinda, Saran; Soonthorntham, Boonrucksar

    2016-07-01

    Scientific-CMOS (sCMOS) cameras can combine low noise with high readout speeds and do not suffer the charge multiplication noise that effectively reduces the quantum efficiency of electron multiplying CCDs by a factor 2. As such they have strong potential in fast photometry and polarimetry instrumentation. In this paper we describe the results of laboratory experiments using a pair of commercial off the shelf sCMOS cameras based around a 4 transistor per pixel architecture. In particular using a both stable and a pulsed light sources we evaluate the timing precision that may be obtained when the cameras readouts are synchronized either in software or electronically. We find that software synchronization can introduce an error of 200-msec. With electronic synchronization any error is below the limit ( 50-msec) of our simple measurement technique.

  10. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J.; Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M. Chiaverini, J.

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  11. Resistor Extends Life Of Battery In Clocked CMOS Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, George H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of fixed resistor between battery and clocked complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) circuit reduces current drawn from battery. Basic idea to minimize current drawn from battery by operating CMOS circuit at lowest possible current consistent with use of simple, fixed off-the-shelf components. Prolongs lives of batteries in such low-power CMOS circuits as watches and calculators.

  12. High-temperature Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the possibility of using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for high temperature electronics are presented. A CMOS test chip was specifically developed as the test bed. This test chip incorporates CMOS transistors that have no gate protection diodes; these diodes are the major cause of leakage in commercial devices.

  13. Low power, CMOS digital autocorrelator spectrometer for spaceborne applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Kumar; Wilson, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A 128-channel digital autocorrelator spectrometer using four 32 channel low power CMOS correlator chips was built and tested. The CMOS correlator chip uses a 2-bit multiplication algorithm and a full-custom CMOS VLSI design to achieve low DC power consumption. The digital autocorrelator spectrometer has a 20 MHz band width, and the total DC power requirement is 6 Watts.

  14. MEMS compatible illumination and imaging micro-optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer, A.; Dannberg, P.; Duparré, J.; Höfer, B.; Schreiber, P.; Scholles, M.

    2007-01-01

    The development of new MOEMS demands for cooperation between researchers in micromechanics, optoelectronics and microoptics at a very early state. Additionally, microoptical technologies being compatible with structured silicon have to be developed. The microoptical technologies used for two silicon based microsystems are described in the paper. First, a very small scanning laser projector with a volume of less than 2 cm 3, which operates with a directly modulated lasers collimated with a microlens, is shown. The laser radiation illuminates a 2D-MEMS scanning mirror. The optical design is optimized for high resolution (VGA). Thermomechanical stability is realized by design and using a structured ceramics motherboard. Secondly, an ultrathin CMOS-camera having an insect inspired imaging system has been realized. It is the first experimental realization of an artificial compound eye. Micro-optical design principles and technology is used. The overall thickness of the imaging system is only 320 μm, the diagonal field of view is 21°, and the f-number is 2.6. The monolithic device consists of an UV-replicated microlens array upon a thin silica substrate with a pinhole array in a metal layer on the back side. The pitch of the pinholes differs from that of the lens array to provide individual viewing angle for each channel. The imaging chip is directly glued to a CMOS sensor with adapted pitch. The whole camera is less than 1mm thick. New packaging methods for these systems are under development.

  15. Demonstration of a 10 GHz CMOS-Compatible Integrated Photonic Analog-to-Digital Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-30

    recommendations and conclu sions arc those of the authors and are not necessari ly endorsed by the United States Gove rnment. Optica l pulses In ==:> Off chip...avai lable at 1575 nm and on-chip optica l losses. The second- and th ird- hannollic distonion s (H2 and H3, respectively) lim ited thc raw SFDR

  16. Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bob Y; Wang, Yumin; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2014-09-01

    A color-selective, band-engineered photodetector is demonstrated. The device uses two Schottky junctions to accumulate charge in an energy well, which results in photocurrent gain and a plasmonic aluminum grating for photocurrent enhancement and red-green-blue color selectivity. This work provides a more intelligent way to design imaging sensors by integrating amplifiers and color filters directly into pixels.

  17. CMOS-compatible ruggedized high-temperature Lamb wave pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropelnicki, P.; Muckensturm, K.-M.; Mu, X. J.; Randles, A. B.; Cai, H.; Ang, W. C.; Tsai, J. M.; Vogt, H.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel ruggedized high-temperature pressure sensor operating in lateral field exited (LFE) Lamb wave mode. The comb-like structure electrodes on top of aluminum nitride (AlN) were used to generate the wave. A membrane was fabricated on SOI wafer with a 10 µm thick device layer. The sensor chip was mounted on a pressure test package and pressure was applied to the backside of the membrane, with a range of 20-100 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. By using the modified Butterworth-van Dyke model, coupling coefficients and quality factor were extracted. Temperature-dependent Young's modulus of composite structure was determined using resonance frequency and sensor interdigital transducer (IDT) wavelength which is mainly dominated by an AlN layer. Absolute sensor phase noise was measured at resonance to estimate the sensor pressure and temperature sensitivity. This paper demonstrates an AlN-based pressure sensor which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications.

  18. CMOS-Compatible SOI MESFETS for Radiation-Hardened DC-to-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Trevor; Lepkowski, William; Wilk, Seth

    2013-01-01

    A radiation-tolerant transistor switch has been developed that can operate between 196 and +150 C for DC-to-DC power conversion applications. A prototype buck regulator component was demonstrated to be performing well after a total ionizing dose of 300 krad(Si). The prototype buck converters showed good efficiencies at ultra-high switching speeds in the range of 1 to 10 MHz. Such high switching frequency will enable smaller, lighter buck converters to be developed as part of the next project. Switching regulators are widely used in commercial applications including portable consumer electronics.

  19. High Electron Mobility Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates Using CMOS Compatible Processing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl; Alterovitz, Samuel; Croke, Edward; Ponchak, George

    2004-01-01

    System-on-a-chip (SOC) processes are under intense development for high-speed, high frequency transceiver circuitry. As frequencies, data rates, and circuit complexity increases, the need for substrates that enable high-speed analog operation, low-power digital circuitry, and excellent isolation between devices becomes increasingly critical. SiGe/Si modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFETs) with high carrier mobilities are currently under development to meet the active RF device needs. However, as the substrate normally used is Si, the low-to-modest substrate resistivity causes large losses in the passive elements required for a complete high frequency circuit. These losses are projected to become increasingly troublesome as device frequencies progress to the Ku-band (12 - 18 GHz) and beyond. Sapphire is an excellent substrate for high frequency SOC designs because it supports excellent both active and passive RF device performance, as well as low-power digital operations. We are developing high electron mobility SiGe/Si transistor structures on r-plane sapphire, using either in-situ grown n-MODFET structures or ion-implanted high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures. Advantages of the MODFET structures include high electron mobilities at all temperatures (relative to ion-implanted HEMT structures), with mobility continuously improving to cryogenic temperatures. We have measured electron mobilities over 1,200 and 13,000 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature and 0.25 K, respectively in MODFET structures. The electron carrier densities were 1.6 and 1.33 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm at room and liquid helium temperature, respectively, denoting excellent carrier confinement. Using this technique, we have observed electron mobilities as high as 900 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature at a carrier density of 1.3 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm. The temperature dependence of mobility for both the MODFET and HEMT structures provides insights into the mechanisms that allow for enhanced electron mobility as well as the processes that limit mobility, and will be presented.

  20. ULF wave interaction with the ionosphere: radar and magnetometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Fedorov, Evgeniy; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Belakhovsky, Vladimir; Teramoto, Mariko

    Combined usage of SuperDARN/EISCAT radars and magnetometers, supported by an adequate theory of ULF wave interaction with the multi-layer system magnetosphere - ionosphere - atmosphere - ground, is an effective way to reveal a physical mechanism of ULF disturbances. Many notions derived only from satellite or ground observations may be challenged by additional information from radars (e.g., association of ULF phenomena with magnetospheric domains, ULF wave spatial structure, etc.). To identify the physical nature of global Pc5 pulsations at the recovery phase of strong magnetic storms and to determine relative contributions of different MHD modes into their structure, the method of apparent impedance can be applied. These Pc5 pulsations are considered using the IMAGE magnetometer data and EISCAT radar data from Tromso-Kiruna-Sodankyla system. An approximate analytical relationship derived from the theory of ULF wave transmission through the thin ionosphere has been compared with the measured ratio between the simultaneous ionospheric electric and ground magnetic fields. The impedances of Alfven and compressional modes are to be essentially distinct. From these observations we conclude that the global Pc5 pulsations above the ionosphere are predominantly composed from Alfven waves with a small contribution of fast compressional mode. Combined SuperDARN Hokkaido radar and magnetometer observations of mid-latitude Pi2 pulsations showed that the concept of a pure cavity mode is not sufficient to explain these observations, and that the contribution of an Alfvén waves must be taken in account. ULF waves are not just sounding signals, but an active factor of the near-Earth environment. The comparison of magnetometer data with the ionospheric parameters shows a significant modulation of the electron density, ionospheric height-integrated conductance, and ion temperature by Pc5 pulsations, even in the absence of quasi-periodic electron precipitation. The mechanisms

  1. End-of-fabrication CMOS process monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Allen, R. A.; Blaes, B. R.; Hannaman, D. J.; Lieneweg, U.; Lin, Y.-S.; Sayah, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    A set of test 'modules' for verifying the quality of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process at the end of the wafer fabrication is documented. By electrical testing of specific structures, over thirty parameters are collected characterizing interconnects, dielectrics, contacts, transistors, and inverters. Each test module contains a specification of its purpose, the layout of the test structure, the test procedures, the data reduction algorithms, and exemplary results obtained from 3-, 2-, or 1.6-micrometer CMOS/bulk processes. The document is intended to establish standard process qualification procedures for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's).

  2. CMOS sensor for face tracking and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginhac, Dominique; Prasetyo, Eri; Paindavoine, Michel

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the main principles of a vision sensor dedicated to the detecting and tracking faces in video sequences. For this purpose, a current mode CMOS active sensor has been designed using an array of pixels that are amplified by using current mirrors of column amplifier. This circuit is simulated using Mentor Graphics software with parameters of a 0.6 μm CMOS process. The circuit design is added with a sequential control unit which purpose is to realise capture of subwindows at any location and any size in the whole image.

  3. Compatible quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C

    2014-09-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call 'compatible quantum theory (CQT)', consists of a 'microscopic' part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a 'macroscopic' part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths ('c-truths'), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The completion of the theory

  4. Compatibility of segmented thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J.; Ursell, T.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that power generation efficiency improves when materials with appropriate properties are combined either in a cascaded or segmented fashion across a temperature gradient. Past methods for determining materials used in segmentation weremainly concerned with materials that have the highest figure of merit in the temperature range. However, the example of SiGe segmented with Bi2Te3 and/or various skutterudites shows a marked decline in device efficiency even though SiGe has the highest figure of merit in the temperature range. The origin of the incompatibility of SiGe with other thermoelectric materials leads to a general definition of compatibility and intrinsic efficiency. The compatibility factor derived as = (Jl+zr - 1) a is a function of only intrinsic material properties and temperature, which is represented by a ratio of current to conduction heat. For maximum efficiency the compatibility factor should not change with temperature both within a single material, and in the segmented leg as a whole. This leads to a measure of compatibility not only between segments, but also within a segment. General temperature trends show that materials are more self compatible at higher temperatures, and segmentation is more difficult across a larger -T. The compatibility factor can be used as a quantitative guide for deciding whether a material is better suited for segmentation orcascading. Analysis of compatibility factors and intrinsic efficiency for optimal segmentation are discussed, with intent to predict optimal material properties, temperature interfaces, and/or currentheat ratios.

  5. Analog CMOS Nonlinear Cells and Their Applications in VLSI Signal and Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachab, Nabil Ibrahim

    1990-01-01

    The development of reconfigurable analog CMOS building blocks and their applications in analog VLSI is discussed and introduced in much the same way a logic gate is used in digital VLSI. They simultaneously achieve four -quadrant multiplication and division. These applications include multiplication, signal squaring, division, signal inversion, amplitude modulation. New all MOS implementations of the Hopfield like neural networks are developed by using the new cells. In addition new and novel techniques for sensor linearization and for MOSFET-C programmable-Q and omega_{n} filters are introduced. The new designs are simple, versatile, programmable and make effective use of analog CAD tools. Moreover, they are easily extendable to other technologies such as GaAs and BiCMOS. The objective of these designs is to achieve reduction in Silicon area and power consumption and reduce the interconnections between cells. It is also sought to provide a robust design that is CAD-compatible and make effective use of the standard cell library approach. This will offer more versatility and flexibility for analog signal processing systems and neural networks. Some of these new cells and a 3-neuron neural system are fabricated in a 2mum CMOS process. Experimental results of these circuits verify the validity of this new design approach.

  6. Improving manufacturability of an rf graded channel CMOS process for wireless applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamey, Daniel J.; Mackie, Troy; Liang, Han-Bin; Ma, Jun; Robert, Georges; Jasper, Craig; Ngo, David; Papworth, Ken; Cheng, Sunny; Wilcock, Christy; Gurrola, Rosemary; Spears, Edward; Yeung, Bruce

    1998-09-01

    Motorola's Graded Channel CMOS (GCMOS) provides a low cost and highly integrated solution for mixed-mode and RF applications. The GCMOS transistor has demonstrated performance advantages over standard CMOS processes with the same physical gate length. The graded channel, fabricated using lateral diffusion, provides a deep submicron Leff even with a gate length of 0.6 micrometer. The technology is constructed using a process that is fully compatible with standard CMOS manufacturing. However, in order to assure adequate threshold control, the lateral diffusions must be well-behaved. This means that both the channel implant and the source/drain implant must be truly self-aligned, requiring good control of the implants as well as the gate electrode profile. For aggressively designed GCMOS devices, small deviations of the implant beam from normal incidence can lead to unacceptable shifts in threshold. The sources of such error, and current industry standard machine tolerances for each, are discussed. Strategies for ensuring adequate control include a regimen of in-line process monitors, approximate error cancellation of the channel and source/drain implants, and the use of quadrature implants. By using these strategies a manufacturable process has been achieved.

  7. Integrated Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Temperature Sensor for CMOS Photonics.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sandro; Pangallo, Giovanni; Della Corte, Francesco Giuseppe

    2016-01-06

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shows interesting optoelectronic and technological properties that make it suitable for the fabrication of passive and active micro-photonic devices, compatible moreover with standard microelectronic devices on a microchip. A temperature sensor based on a hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diode integrated in an optical waveguide for silicon photonics applications is presented here. The linear dependence of the voltage drop across the forward-biased diode on temperature, in a range from 30 °C up to 170 °C, has been used for thermal sensing. A high sensitivity of 11.9 mV/°C in the bias current range of 34-40 nA has been measured. The proposed device is particularly suitable for the continuous temperature monitoring of CMOS-compatible photonic integrated circuits, where the behavior of the on-chip active and passive devices are strongly dependent on their operating temperature.

  8. Design and realization of CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Xiao, Zexin

    2008-02-01

    A project was presented that instrumental design of an economical CMOS microscope image sensor. A high performance, low price, black-white camera chip OV5116P was used as the core of the sensor circuit; Designing and realizing peripheral control circuit of sensor; Through the control on dial switch to realize different functions of the sensor chip in the system. For example: auto brightness level descending function on or off; gamma correction function on or off; auto and manual backlight compensation mode conversion and so on. The optical interface of sensor is designed for commercialization and standardization. The images of sample were respectively gathered with CCD and CMOS. Result of the experiment indicates that both performances were identical in several aspects as follows: image definition, contrast control, heating degree and the function can be adjusted according to the demand of user etc. The imperfection was that the CMOS with smaller field and higher noise than CCD; nevertheless, the maximal advantage of choosing the CMOS chip is its low cost. And its imaging quality conformed to requirement of the economical microscope image sensor.

  9. SEU hardening of CMOS memory circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Canaris, J.; Liu, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to harden CMOS memory circuits against Single Event Upset (SEU) in the space environment. A RAM cell and Flip Flop design are presented to demonstrate the method. The Flip Flop was used in the control circuitry for a Reed Solomon encoder designed for the Space Station.

  10. Low energy CMOS for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Alkalaj, Leon

    1992-01-01

    The current focus of NASA's space flight programs reflects a new thrust towards smaller, less costly, and more frequent space missions, when compared to missions such as Galileo, Magellan, or Cassini. Recently, the concept of a microspacecraft was proposed. In this concept, a small, compact spacecraft that weighs tens of kilograms performs focused scientific objectives such as imaging. Similarly, a Mars Lander micro-rover project is under study that will allow miniature robots weighing less than seven kilograms to explore the Martian surface. To bring the microspacecraft and microrover ideas to fruition, one will have to leverage compact 3D multi-chip module-based multiprocessors (MCM) technologies. Low energy CMOS will become increasingly important because of the thermodynamic considerations in cooling compact 3D MCM implementations and also from considerations of the power budget for space applications. In this paper, we show how the operating voltage is related to the threshold voltage of the CMOS transistors for accomplishing a task in VLSI with minimal energy. We also derive expressions for the noise margins at the optimal operating point. We then look at a low voltage CMOS (LVCMOS) technology developed at Stanford University which improves the power consumption over conventional CMOS by a couple of orders of magnitude and consider the suitability of the technology for space applications by characterizing its SEU immunity.

  11. A Hybrid CMOS-Memristor Neuromorphic Synapse.

    PubMed

    Azghadi, Mostafa Rahimi; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Abbott, Derek; Leong, Philip H W

    2017-04-01

    Although data processing technology continues to advance at an astonishing rate, computers with brain-like processing capabilities still elude us. It is envisioned that such computers may be achieved by the fusion of neuroscience and nano-electronics to realize a brain-inspired platform. This paper proposes a high-performance nano-scale Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)-memristive circuit, which mimics a number of essential learning properties of biological synapses. The proposed synaptic circuit that is composed of memristors and CMOS transistors, alters its memristance in response to timing differences among its pre- and post-synaptic action potentials, giving rise to a family of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP). The presented design advances preceding memristive synapse designs with regards to the ability to replicate essential behaviours characterised in a number of electrophysiological experiments performed in the animal brain, which involve higher order spike interactions. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid device CMOS area is estimated as [Formula: see text] in a [Formula: see text] process-this represents a factor of ten reduction in area with respect to prior CMOS art. The new design is integrated with silicon neurons in a crossbar array structure amenable to large-scale neuromorphic architectures and may pave the way for future neuromorphic systems with spike timing-dependent learning features. These systems are emerging for deployment in various applications ranging from basic neuroscience research, to pattern recognition, to Brain-Machine-Interfaces.

  12. CMOS preamplifiers for detectors large and small

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1997-12-31

    We describe four CMOS preamplifiers developed for multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) and silicon drift detectors (SDD) covering a capacitance range from 150 pF to 0.15 pF. Circuit techniques to optimize noise performance, particularly in the low-capacitance regime, are discussed.

  13. Radiation Tolerance of 65nm CMOS Transistors

    DOE PAGES

    Krohn, M.; Bentele, B.; Christian, D. C.; ...

    2015-12-11

    We report on the effects of ionizing radiation on 65 nm CMOS transistors held at approximately -20°C during irradiation. The pattern of damage observed after a total dose of 1 Grad is similar to damage reported in room temperature exposures, but we observe less damage than was observed at room temperature.

  14. COMPATIBILITY OF BENTONITE AND DNAPLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compatibility of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (MC), and creosote with commercially available sodium bentonite pellets was evaluated using stainless steel, double-ring, falling-head permeameters. The Hydraulic conductiv...

  15. Low-Power SOI CMOS Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene (Technical Monitor); Cheruiyot, K.; Cothern, J.; Huang, D.; Singh, S.; Zencir, E.; Dogan, N.

    2003-01-01

    The work aims at developing a low-power Silicon on Insulator Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (SOI CMOS) Transceiver for deep-space communications. RF Receiver must accomplish the following tasks: (a) Select the desired radio channel and reject other radio signals, (b) Amplify the desired radio signal and translate them back to baseband, and (c) Detect and decode the information with Low BER. In order to minimize cost and achieve high level of integration, receiver architecture should use least number of external filters and passive components. It should also consume least amount of power to minimize battery cost, size, and weight. One of the most stringent requirements for deep-space communication is the low-power operation. Our study identified that two candidate architectures listed in the following meet these requirements: (1) Low-IF receiver, (2) Sub-sampling receiver. The low-IF receiver uses minimum number of external components. Compared to Zero-IF (Direct conversion) architecture, it has less severe offset and flicker noise problems. The Sub-sampling receiver amplifies the RF signal and samples it using track-and-hold Subsampling mixer. These architectures provide low-power solution for the short- range communications missions on Mars. Accomplishments to date include: (1) System-level design and simulation of a Double-Differential PSK receiver, (2) Implementation of Honeywell SOI CMOS process design kit (PDK) in Cadence design tools, (3) Design of test circuits to investigate relationships between layout techniques, geometry, and low-frequency noise in SOI CMOS, (4) Model development and verification of on-chip spiral inductors in SOI CMOS process, (5) Design/implementation of low-power low-noise amplifier (LNA) and mixer for low-IF receiver, and (6) Design/implementation of high-gain LNA for sub-sampling receiver. Our initial results show that substantial improvement in power consumption is achieved using SOI CMOS as compared to standard CMOS

  16. The analysis and system design for MCG measurement based on optically pumped cesium magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhang; Chong, Kang; Wang, Qingtao; Lei, Cheng; Zheng, Caiping

    2010-11-01

    At present, laser optical pumping magnetometer of sensitivity is continuous improved and can measure the range from Earth magnetic field to the bio-magnetic field. In the bio-magnetic field, magnetocardiography (MCG) is paid also more and more attention. In this paper, we will discuss cesium optically pumped magnetometer theoretical analysis, system design, the magnetic field gradient measuring principle. On this basis, we build optically pumped magnetometer in a gradient structure for the cardiac magnetic measurements and filter through the wavelet transform. Based on optical pumping magnetometer measuring MCG will be applied in life science, clinical medicine and other fields.

  17. Opportunity Science Using the Juno Magnetometer Investigation Star Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joergensen, J. L.; Connerney, J. E.; Bang, A. M.; Denver, T.; Oliversen, R. J.; Benn, M.; Lawton, P.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetometer experiment onboard Juno is equipped with four non-magnetic star tracker camera heads, two of which reside on each of the magnetometer sensor optical benches. These are located 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. The star tracker, collectively referred to as the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), provides high accuracy attitude information for the magnetometer sensors throughout science operations. The star tracker camera heads are pointed +/- 13 deg off the spin vector, in the anti-sun direction, imaging a 13 x 20 deg field of view every ¼ second as Juno rotates at 1 or 2 rpm. The ASC is a fully autonomous star tracker, producing a time series of attitude quaternions for each camera head, utilizing a suite of internal support functions. These include imaging capabilities, autonomous object tracking, automatic dark-sky monitoring, and related capabilities; these internal functions may be accessed via telecommand. During Juno's cruise phase, this capability can be tapped to provide unique science and engineering data available along the Juno trajectory. We present a few examples of the JUNO ASC opportunity science here. As the Juno spacecraft approached the Earth-Moon system for the close encounter with the Earth on October 9, 2013, one of the ASC camera heads obtained imagery of the Earth-Moon system while the other three remained in full science (attitude determination) operation. This enabled the first movie of the Earth and Moon obtained by a spacecraft flying past the Earth in gravity assist. We also use the many artificial satellites in orbit about the Earth as calibration targets for the autonomous asteroid detection system inherent to the ASC autonomous star tracker. We shall also profile the zodiacal dust disk, using the interstellar image data, and present the outlook for small asteroid body detection and distribution being performed during Juno's passage from Earth flyby to Jovian orbit

  18. High-Tc SQUID Magnetometers for Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diiorio, Mark; Yang, Kai-Yueh; Yoshizumi, Shozo; Haupt, Steven; Haran, Don; Koch, Roger; Lathrop, Dan; Trammel, Hoke

    1998-03-01

    We have developed high-Tc SQUID magnetometers for use in a variety of industrial applications. Relatively inexpensive direct-coupled magnetometers have been developed for low-frequency applications including fetal-magnetocardiography. A manufacturable process has been developed to reproducibly fabricate high-resistance (up to 6 Ω) SNS step-edge junctions with YBa_2Cu_3O_7-x as the superconductor and Ag-Au alloy as the normal metal. Magnetic field sensitivities at 77K of 22 ft/Hz^1/2 at 1 KHz and 32 ft/Hz^1/2 at 1 Hz have been achieved in a well-shielded laboratory environment. Current effort is focused on operation in an unshielded environment using flux dams(Milliken et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 1857 (1997)) in conjunction with narrow superconducting pickup coils placed in parallel. An integrated magnetometer process has also been optimized for use in high-frequency applications. The integrated megnetometer utilizes two layers of YBa_2Cu_3O_7-x and one layer of deposited SrTiO_3, all on the same 24 mm x 5 mm substrate. The applications under development include the detection of the explosive material in non-metallic land mines using nuclear quadrupole resonance as well as the non-destructive evaluation of non-metallic composites using nuclear magnetic resonance. For operation in the MHz regime, these applications demand a high quality insulator layer and a robust SQUID that can withstand high current transients.

  19. Russian auroral and polar ionospheric disturbance magnetometers (RapidMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Meng, C. I.; Barnes, R. J.; Zetzer, J.; Troshichev, O.; Janzhura, A.; Kunitake, M.; Watari, S.; Iyemori, T.; Nosé, M.; Keiling, A.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2007-12-01

    Since their introduction by Davis and Sugiura in 1966, the auroral electrojet indices AE, AU, and AL have been widely used to study ionospheric and magnetospheric phenomena associated with substorms as well as input to magnetospheric and ionospheric models. While rapid delivery of the indices is highly desirable in the context of both ongoing scientific observations and space weather applications, production of near-real-time AE indices remains a difficult task. A major challenge is acquisition of near-real-time magnetometer data from Russian auroral zone stations, some of which are at remote locations with harsh natural environment and without well- established infrastructure for data transmission. The stations cover approximately 6 time zones, and missing data from the stations means a serious degradation of the AE indices. The Russian auroral and polar ionospheric disturbance Magnetometer (RapidMag) project is an international collaboration to enable rapid and stable acquisition of ground magnetometer data from Russian stations in the auroral zone for production of near- real-time AE indices as well as for distribution of data from individual stations to the science community. The six RapidMag stations are Amderma (65.1N, 138.1E, degrees, geomagnetic), Dikson Island (68.5N, 156.2E), Norilsk (64.6N, 161.9E), Cape Chelyuskin (71.8N, 175.6E), Tixie (65.9°N, 196.9°E), and Pebek (65.3°N, 228.8E). The RapidMag project is entering a new phase with recent funding from NSF and NASA. We present the current status of the project and our plan for the next 5 years.

  20. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda

    2016-09-01

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  1. High resolution polar Kerr magnetometer for nanomagnetism and nanospintronics.

    PubMed

    Cormier, M; Ferré, J; Mougin, A; Cromières, J-P; Klein, V

    2008-03-01

    A new high resolution polar magneto-optical (MO) Kerr magnetometer, devoted to the study of nanometer sized elements with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, is described. The unique performances of this setup in terms of sensitivity (1.2x10(-15) emu), stability (lateral drift +/-35 nm over 3 h), and resolution (laser spot full width at half maximum down to 470 nm) are demonstrated, and illustrated by Kerr hysteresis loop measurements on a unique ultrathin magnetic nanodot, and over small segments of ultranarrow magnetic tracks. Large scanning MO Kerr microscopy images were also obtained with the same performances.

  2. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Swarupananda

    2016-09-01

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  3. Magnetometer-Only Attitude and Rate Estimates for Spinning Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challa, M.; Natanson, G.; Ottenstein, N.

    2000-01-01

    A deterministic algorithm and a Kalman filter for gyroless spacecraft are used independently to estimate the three-axis attitude and rates of rapidly spinning spacecraft using only magnetometer data. In-flight data from the Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) during its tumble, and the Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST) during its nominal mission mode are used to show that the algorithms can successfully estimate the above in spite of the high rates. Results using simulated data are used to illustrate the importance of accurate and frequent data.

  4. Four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Anthony P; Carter, Tony R; Borna, Amir; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Johnson, Cort N; Dagel, Amber L; Schwindt, Peter D D

    2016-07-11

    We have developed a four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) that incorporates a passive diffractive optical element (DOE). The DOE allows us to achieve a long, 18-mm gradiometer baseline in a compact footprint on the head. Using gradiometry, the sensitivities of the channels are < 5 fT/Hz1/2, and the 3-dB bandwidths are approximately 90 Hz, which are both sufficient to perform MEG. Additionally, the channels are highly uniform, which offers the possibility of employing standard MEG post-processing techniques. This module will serve as a building block of an array for magnetic source localization.

  5. Electron lithography STAR design guidelines. Part 3: The mosaic transistor array applied to custom microprocessors. Part 4: Stores logic arrays, SLAs implemented with clocked CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trotter, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    The Mosaic Transistor Array is an extension of the STAR system developed by NASA which has dedicated field cells designed to be specifically used in semicustom microprocessor applications. The Sandia radiation hard bulk CMOS process is utilized in order to satisfy the requirements of space flights. A design philosophy is developed which utilizes the strengths and recognizes the weaknesses of the Sandia process. A style of circuitry is developed which incorporates the low power and high drive capability of CMOS. In addition the density achieved is better than that for classic CMOS, although not as good as for NMOS. The basic logic functions for a data path are designed with compatible interface to the STAR grid system. In this manner either random logic or PLA type structures can be utilized for the control logic.

  6. Graphene/Si CMOS Hybrid Hall Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Le; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Chengying; Jiang, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaomeng; Chen, Bingyan; Li, Zishen; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-07-01

    Graphene/silicon CMOS hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) should provide powerful functions which combines the ultra-high carrier mobility of graphene and the sophisticated functions of silicon CMOS ICs. But it is difficult to integrate these two kinds of heterogeneous devices on a single chip. In this work a low temperature process is developed for integrating graphene devices onto silicon CMOS ICs for the first time, and a high performance graphene/CMOS hybrid Hall IC is demonstrated. Signal amplifying/process ICs are manufactured via commercial 0.18 um silicon CMOS technology, and graphene Hall elements (GHEs) are fabricated on top of the passivation layer of the CMOS chip via a low-temperature micro-fabrication process. The sensitivity of the GHE on CMOS chip is further improved by integrating the GHE with the CMOS amplifier on the Si chip. This work not only paves the way to fabricate graphene/Si CMOS Hall ICs with much higher performance than that of conventional Hall ICs, but also provides a general method for scalable integration of graphene devices with silicon CMOS ICs via a low-temperature process.

  7. Graphene/Si CMOS hybrid hall integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Huang, Le; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Chengying; Jiang, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaomeng; Chen, Bingyan; Li, Zishen; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-07-07

    Graphene/silicon CMOS hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) should provide powerful functions which combines the ultra-high carrier mobility of graphene and the sophisticated functions of silicon CMOS ICs. But it is difficult to integrate these two kinds of heterogeneous devices on a single chip. In this work a low temperature process is developed for integrating graphene devices onto silicon CMOS ICs for the first time, and a high performance graphene/CMOS hybrid Hall IC is demonstrated. Signal amplifying/process ICs are manufactured via commercial 0.18 um silicon CMOS technology, and graphene Hall elements (GHEs) are fabricated on top of the passivation layer of the CMOS chip via a low-temperature micro-fabrication process. The sensitivity of the GHE on CMOS chip is further improved by integrating the GHE with the CMOS amplifier on the Si chip. This work not only paves the way to fabricate graphene/Si CMOS Hall ICs with much higher performance than that of conventional Hall ICs, but also provides a general method for scalable integration of graphene devices with silicon CMOS ICs via a low-temperature process.

  8. Multi-flux-transformer MRI detection with an atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Savukov, Igor; Karaulanov, Todor

    2014-10-18

    Recently, anatomical ultra-low field (ULF) MRI has been demonstrated with an atomic magnetometer (AM). A flux-transformer (FT) has been used for decoupling MRI fields and gradients to avoid their negative effects on AM performance. The field of view (FOV) was limited because of the need to compromise between the size of the FT input coil and MRI sensitivity per voxel. Multi-channel acquisition is a well-known solution to increase FOV without significantly reducing sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate twofold FOV increase with the use of three FT input coils. We also show that it is possible to use a single atomic magnetometer and single acquisition channel to acquire three independent MRI signals by applying a frequency-encoding gradient along the direction of the detection array span. The approach can be generalized to more channels and can be critical for imaging applications of non-cryogenic ULF MRI where FOV needs to be large, including head, hand, spine, and whole-body imaging.

  9. Amplitude modulated Lorentz force MEMS magnetometer with picotesla sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Varun; Ramezany, Alireza; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Pourkamali, Siavash

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates ultra-high sensitivities for a Lorentz force resonant MEMS magnetometer enabled by internal-thermal piezoresistive vibration amplification. A detailed model of the magneto-thermo-electro-mechanical internal amplification is described and is in good agreement with the experimental results. Internal amplification factors up to ~1620 times have been demonstrated by artificially boosting the effective quality factor of the resonator from 680 to 1.14  ×  106 by tuning the bias current. The increase in the resonator bias current in addition to the improvement in the quality factor of the device led to a sensitivity enhancement by ~2400 times. For a bias current of 7.245 mA, where the effective quality factor of the device and consequently the sensitivity is maximum (2.107 mV nT-1), the noise floor is measured to be as low as 2.8 pT (√Hz)-1. This is by far the most sensitive Lorentz force MEMS magnetometer demonstrated to date.

  10. Lunar electrical conductivity, permeability and temperature from Apollo magnetometer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. The measured lunar remanent fields range from 3 gammas minimum at the Apollo 15 site to 327 gammas maximum at the Apollo 16 site. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the remanent fields at the Apollo 12 and 16 sites interact with, and are compressed by, the solar wind. Remanent fields at Apollo 12 and Apollo 16 are increased 16 gammas and 32 gammas, respectively, by a solar plasma bulk pressure increase of 1.5 X 10 to the -7th power dynes/sq cm. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile for the moon. From nightside magnetometer data in the solar wind it was found that deeper than 170 km into the moon the conductivity rises from .0003 mhos/m to .10 mhos/m at 100 km depth. Recent analysis of data obtained in the geomagnetic tail, in regions free of complicating plasma effects, yields results consistent with nightside values.

  11. Effect of mobility devices on orientation sensors that contain magnetometers.

    PubMed

    Kendell, Cynthia; Lemaire, Edward D

    2009-01-01

    Orientation sensors containing magnetometers use the earth's magnetic field as a reference. Ferromagnetic objects may distort this magnetic field, leading to inaccurate orientation output. We explored the viability of these orientation sensors for motion analysis in an assistive mobility device rehabilitative setting. We attached two MTx orientation sensors (XSens; Enschade, the Netherlands), connected to the XBus Master data collection unit (XSens), to a plastic frame such that the relative angle between sensors was constant. We then moved a series of mobility devices in proximity to the plastic frame: two knee-ankle-foot orthoses (aluminum, stainless steel), one ankle-foot orthosis, two transtibial prostheses (exoskeletal, endoskeletal), two walkers (standard, Challenger Low Wide [Evolution Technologies; Port Coquitlam, Canada]), and two wheelchairs (Tango [OrthoFab; Quebec City, Canada], GTi [Quickie; Phoenix, Arizona]). For each mobility device, we calculated the average difference in relative angle between the baseline and peak angles for each of five trials. Errors ranged from less than 0.10 to 35.29 degrees, depending on the mobility device and frame positioning near the device. This demonstrated the large errors that can occur when magnetometer-based orientation sensors with mobility devices are used. While strategic orientation sensor placement on some mobility devices can minimize these errors to an acceptable level, testing protocols should be implemented to verify orientation sensor accuracy for these applications.

  12. High-resolution fully vectorial scanning Kerr magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Flajšman, Lukáš; Urbánek, Michal; Křižáková, Viola; Vaňatka, Marek; Turčan, Igor; Šikola, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    We report on the development of a high-resolution scanning magnetometer, which fully exploits the vectorial nature of the magneto-optical Kerr effect. The three-dimensional nature of magnetization is at the basis of many micromagnetic phenomena and from these data, we can fully characterize magnetization processes of nanostructures in static and dynamic regimes. Our scanning Kerr magnetometer uses a high numerical aperture microscope objective where the incident light beam can be deterministically deviated from the objective symmetry axis, therefore, both in-plane (via the longitudinal Kerr effect) and out-of-plane (via the polar Kerr effect) components of the magnetization vector may be detected. These components are then separated by exploiting the symmetries of the polar and longitudinal Kerr effects. From four consecutive measurements, we are able to directly obtain the three orthogonal components of the magnetization vector with a resolution of 600 nm. Performance of the apparatus is demonstrated by a measurement of 3D magnetization vector maps showing out-of-plane domains and in-plane domain walls in an yttrium-iron-garnet film and on a study of magnetization reversal in a 4-μm-wide magnetic disk.

  13. DC SQUID RF magnetometer with 200 MHz bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talanov, Vladimir; Lettsome, Nesco; Orozco, Antonio; Cawthorne, Alfred; Borzenets, Valery

    2012-02-01

    Because of periodic flux-to-voltage transfer function, Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers operate in a closed-loop regime [1], which linearizes the response, and increases the dynamic range and sensitivity. However, a transmission line delay between the SQUID and electronics fundamentally limits the closed-loop bandwidth at 20 MHz [1], although the intrinsic bandwidth of SQUIDs is in gigahertz range. We designed a DC SQUID based RF magnetometer capable of wideband sensing coherent magnetic fields up to 200 MHz. To overcome the closed-loop bandwidth limitation, we utilized a low-frequency flux-modulated closed-loop to simultaneously lock the quasi-static magnetic flux and provide AC bias for the RF flux. The SQUID RF voltage is processed by RF electronics based on a double lock-in technique. This yields a signal proportional to the amplitude and phase of the RF magnetic flux, with more than four decades of a linear response. For YBaCuO SQUID on bi-crystal SrTiO substrate at 77 K we achieved a flux noise density of 4 μφ0/Hz at 190 MHz, which is similar to that measured at kHz frequencies with conventional flux-locked loop. [1] D. Drung, et al., Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19, S235 (2006).

  14. Multi-flux-transformer MRI detection with an atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savukov, Igor; Karaulanov, Todor

    2014-12-01

    Recently, anatomical ultra-low field (ULF) MRI has been demonstrated with an atomic magnetometer (AM). A flux-transformer (FT) has been used for decoupling MRI fields and gradients to avoid their negative effects on AM performance. The field of view (FOV) was limited because of the need to compromise between the size of the FT input coil and MRI sensitivity per voxel. Multi-channel acquisition is a well-known solution to increase FOV without significantly reducing sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate twofold FOV increase with the use of three FT input coils. We also show that it is possible to use a single atomic magnetometer and single acquisition channel to acquire three independent MRI signals by applying a frequency-encoding gradient along the direction of the detection array span. The approach can be generalized to more channels and can be critical for imaging applications of non-cryogenic ULF MRI where FOV needs to be large, including head, hand, spine, and whole-body imaging.

  15. SOI-CMOS-MEMS electrothermal micromirror arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgunn, Peter J.

    A fabrication technology called SOI-CMOS-MEMS is developed to realize arrays of electrothermally actuated micromirror arrays with fill factors up to 90% and mechanical scan ranges up to +/-45°. SOI-CMOS-MEMS features bonding of a CMOS-MEMS folded electrothermal actuator chip with a SOI mirror chip. Actuators and micromirrors are separately released using Bosch-type and isotropic Si etch processes. A 1-D, 3 x 3 SOI-CMOS-MEMS mirror array is characterized at a 1 mm scale that meets fill factor and scan range targets with a power sensitivity of 1.9 deg·m W-1 and -0.9 deg·m W-1 on inner and outer actuator legs, respectively. Issues preventing fabrication of SOI-CMOS-MEMS micromirror arrays designed for 1-D and 3-D motion at scales from 500 microm to 50 microm are discussed. Electrothermomechanical analytic models of power response of a generic folded actuator topology are developed that provide insight into the trends in actuator behavior for actuator design elements such as beam geometry and heater type, among others. Adverse power and scan range scaling and favorable speed scaling are demonstrated. Mechanical constraints on device geometry are derived. Detailed material, process, test structure and device characterization is presented that demonstrates the consistency of measured device behavior with analytic models. A unified model for aspect ratio dependent etch modulation is developed that achieves depth prediction accuracy of better than 10% up to 160 microm depth over a range of feature shapes and dimensions. The technique is applied extensively in the SOI-CMOS-MEMS process to produce deep multi-level structures in Si with a single etch mask and to control uniformity and feature profiles. TiW attack during release etch is shown to be the driving factor in mirror coplanarity loss. The effect is due to thermally accelerated etching caused by heating of released structures by the exothermic reaction of Si and F. The effect is quantified using in situ infrared

  16. Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

    2010-04-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of

  17. Ring-core fluxgate magnetometers for use as observatory variometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narod, B. B.; Bennest, J. R.

    Ring-core magnetometers, based on the published design for the MAGSAT fluxgate magnetometer, are or will soon be in use in observatories in the U.S.A. and in Canada. Their low noise level and good stability with both temperature and time make them well suited for this purpose. We describe the critical performance features and design aspects for these instruments. Noise in all ring-core magnetometers has approximately a 1/frequency response in power spectral density. The principal source of the noise is from the ring-cores themselves. In the best instruments, which use a d.c. bias supply to enhance dynamic range, noise from the voltage reference used in the bias supply can approach significant levels at large offset values (˜ 60 000 nT). In these instruments noise in the 0.001-100 Hz band is typically less than 0.1 nT amplitude, and reduces accordingly with reduced bandwidth. Good thermal stability for the sensor is achieved by matching thermal expansion coefficients of all the sensor materials, and by compensating thermal expansion of the sensor with an increase in feedback current. Changes in the sensor-winding resistances provide the cues for the compensation circuitry. In settings where long cables separate the sensor from its electronics, platinum resistance elements included with the sensor winding can ensure that variations in cable resistance will not significantly affect the temperature compensation. Thermal stability of 0.1 nT deg -1 are typically achievable for the sensor. Thermal stability for the electronic components depends primarily on the stability of the d.c. bias supply. These can be designed for a stability of 3 ppm deg -1, which translates to 0.2 nT deg -1 for a field of 60 000 nT. Long-term drift results primarily from the aging of the sensor winding and the d.c. bias supply components Engineering data for the best available components suggest that drift of less than 50 ppm yr -1 is possible. This translates to 3 nT yr -1 in a 60 000 nT field

  18. A low-phase-noise ring oscillator with coarse and fine tuning in a standard CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haijun, Gao; Lingling, Sun; Xiaofei, Kuang; Liheng, Lou

    2012-07-01

    A low-phase-noise wideband ring oscillator with coarse and fine tuning techniques implemented in a standard 65 nm CMOS process is presented. Direct frequency modulation in the ring oscillator is analyzed and a switched capacitor array is introduced to produce the lower VCO gain required to suppress this effect. A two-dimensional high-density stacked MOM-capacitor was adopted as the switched capacitor to make the proposed ring VCO compatible with standard CMOS processes. The designed ring VCO exhibits an output frequency from 480 to 1100 MHz, resulting in a tuning range of 78%, and the measured phase noise is -120 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz at 495 MHz output. The VCO core consumes 3.84 mW under a 1.2 V supply voltage and the corresponding FOM is -169 dBc/Hz.

  19. Charge pump-based MOSFET-only 1.5-bit pipelined ADC stage in digital CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anil; Agarwal, Alpana

    2016-10-01

    A simple low-power and low-area metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor-only fully differential 1.5-bit pipelined analog-to-digital converter stage is proposed and designed in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company 0.18 μm-technology using BSIM3v3 parameters with supply voltage of 1.8 V in inexpensive digital complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It is based on charge pump technique to achieve the desired voltage gain of 2, independent of capacitor mismatch and avoiding the need of power hungry operational amplifier-based architecture to reduce the power, Si area and cost. Various capacitances are implemented by metal-oxide semiconductor capacitors, offering compatibility with cheaper digital CMOS process in order to reduce the much required manufacturing cost.

  20. Electromagnetic imaging with atomic magnetometers: a novel approach to security and surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Sarah; Marmugi, Luca; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-05-01

    We describe our research programme on the use of atomic magnetometers to detect conductive objects via electromagnetic induction. The extreme sensitivity of atomic magnetometers at low frequencies, up to seven orders of magnitude higher than a coil-based system, permits deep penetration through different media and barriers, and in various operative environments. This eliminates the limitations usually associated with electromagnetic detection.

  1. Calibration and Thermal Analysis of a Conformal SERF Magnetometer Array for MEG Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Elizabeth V.

    In magnetoencephalography (MEG), a measurement of the magnetic field produced by the brain, it is critical for the distance between the magnetometers and the brain to be small and unchanging. Limitations of SQUIDs, the magnetometers used in most MEG systems, make this requirement difficult to meet. SERF magnetometers have been proposed as an alternative technology for use in more portable and flexible MEG systems. This research considers two of the challenges associated with an array of SERF magnetometers attached to a conformal cap. First, for meaningful measurements in MEG, it is important for the locations and orientations of magnetometers to be known. This information can be estimated using the magnetometers' measurements of a known magnetic field produced by a configuration of magnetic dipoles, but the estimation algorithm is extremely sensitive to the dipole configuration. This thesis introduces a graphical tool to assess the quality of a configuration of magnetic dipoles. Second, the core of SERF magnetometers has a high operating temperature. This work finds a thermal insulation layout that allows for a small overall magnetometer package size while maintaining proper operation temperature and preventing thermal injury to a patient.

  2. Spatial compatibility and affordance compatibility in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kume, Yu; Sato, Fumiyasu; Hiraoka, Yuya; Suzuki, Shingo; Niyama, Yoshitsugu

    2016-12-01

    A deterioration in information-processing performance is commonly recognized in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Although the enhancement of cognitive skills in patients with schizophrenia is important, the types of external stimuli that influence performance have not received much attention. The aim of present study was to clarify the effects of spatial and affordance compatibility in patients with schizophrenia, compared with those in healthy people. The subjects (25 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls) participated in two experiment examining the effects of the spatial location of stimuli and the action-relevance of objects. The results showed that the effect of spatial compatibility was similar in both the patients and the controls, whereas the influence of action-relevant objects was not highlighted in either patients with chronic schizophrenia or healthy controls. These findings provide important evidence of a normal spatial compatibility effect in patients with chronic schizophrenia. However, further research examining the affordance compatibility effect is needed, taking into consideration the symptomatology and the severity of the social functioning level in patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Chemical compatibility of cartridge materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Bryan; Wilcox, R. C.; Zee, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the chemical compatibility of titanium-zirconium-molybdenum (TZM) with GaAs and CdZnTe, and Inconel with HgCdTe and HgZnTe. At the present time, no other studies regarding the compatibility of these crystal components and their respective cartridge materials have been performed. This study was to identify any possible problems between these materials to insure proper containment of possibly hazardous fumes during crystal growth experiments. In this study, the reaction zone between the materials was studied and the amount of degradation to the system was measured. Detailed results are presented.

  4. Radiation effects on scientific CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanfu, Zhao; Liyan, Liu; Xiaohui, Liu; Xiaofeng, Jin; Xiang, Li

    2015-11-01

    A systemic solution for radiation hardened design is presented. Besides, a series of experiments have been carried out on the samples, and then the photoelectric response characteristic and spectral characteristic before and after the experiments have been comprehensively analyzed. The performance of the CMOS image sensor with the radiation hardened design technique realized total-dose resilience up to 300 krad(Si) and resilience to single-event latch up for LET up to 110 MeV·cm2/mg.

  5. CMOS-array design-automation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, A.; Lombardt, T.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty four page report discusses design of 4,096-bit complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) read-only memory (ROM). CMOSROM is either mask or laser programable. Report is divided into six sections; section one describes background of ROM chips; section two presents design goals for chip; section three discusses chip implementation and chip statistics; conclusions and recommendations are given in sections four thru six.

  6. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, J. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.; LaBel, K. A.; Schwank, J. R.; Dodds, N. A.; Castaneda, C. M.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Phan, A. M.; Seidleck, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  7. CMOS Camera Array With Onboard Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    A compact CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) camera system has been developed with high resolution (1.3 Megapixels), a USB (universal serial bus) 2.0 interface, and an onboard memory. Exposure times, and other operating parameters, are sent from a control PC via the USB port. Data from the camera can be received via the USB port and the interface allows for simple control and data capture through a laptop computer.

  8. SiCOH-based resistive random access memory for backend of line compatible nonvolatile memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liang; Dai, Ya-Wei; Yu, Lin-Jie; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the resistive switching characteristics of a SiCOH low-k-material-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) in this study. This SiCOH-based RRAM is fully compatible with backend CMOS technology, which is extremely important for its applicability. The device demonstrated here had higher performance characteristics than a conventional SiO2-based RRAM, such as a higher ON/OFF ratio (around 102), and a higher cycling endurance in an ambient environment. Taken together, these characteristics make the device a promising candidate for next-generation nonvolatile applications.

  9. A New Differential Logic-Compatible Multiple-Time Programmable Memory Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-Hung; Yang, Hsiao-Lan; Lin, Wun-Jie; Lin, Chrong Jung; King, Ya-Chin

    2010-04-01

    This work presents a novel differential n-channel logic-compatible multiple-time programmable (MTP) memory cell. This cell features double sensing window by a differential pair of floating gates, and therefore increases the retention lifetime of the nonvolatile memory effectively. Also, a self-selective programming (SSP) method is innovated in writing one pair differential data by a single cell without increasing any design or process complexity in peripheral circuit. The differential cell is a promising MTP solution to challenge thin floating gate oxide below 70 Å for 90 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) node and beyond.

  10. CMOS-controlled rapidly tunable photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ray

    With rapidly increasing data bandwidth demands, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical access networks seem unavoidable in the near future. To operate WDM optical networks in an efficient scheme, wavelength reconfigurability and scalability of the network are crucial. Unfortunately, most of the existing wavelength tunable technologies are neither rapidly tunable nor spectrally programmable. This dissertation presents a tunable photodetector that is designed for dynamic-wavelength allocation WDM network environments. The wavelength tuning mechanism is completely different from existing technologies. The spectrum of this detector is programmable through low-voltage digital patterns. Since the wavelength selection is achieved by electronic means, the device wavelength reconfiguration time is as fast as the electronic switching time. In this dissertation work, we have demonstrated a tunable detector that is hybridly integrated with its customized CMOS driver and receiver with nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time. In addition to its nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time, the spectrum of this detector is digitally programmable, which means that it can adapt to system changes without re-fabrication. We have theoretically developed and experimentally demonstrated two device operating algorithms based on the same orthogonal device-optics basis. Both the rapid wavelength tuning time and the scalability make this novel device very viable for new reconfigurable WDM networks. By taking advantage of CMOS circuit design, this detector concept can be further extended for simultaneous multiple wavelength detection. We have developed one possible chip architecture and have designed a CMOS tunable optical demux for simultaneous controllable two-wavelength detection.

  11. Correct CMOS IC defect models for quality testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soden, Jerry M.; Hawkins, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    Leading edge, high reliability, and low escape CMOS IC test practices have now virtually removed the stuck-at fault model and replaced it with more defect-orientated models. Quiescent power supply current testing (I(sub DDQ)) combined with strategic use of high speed test patterns is the recommended approach to zero defect and high reliability testing goals. This paper reviews the reasons for the change in CMOS IC test practices and outlines an improved CMOS IC test methodology.

  12. Behavior of faulty double BJT BiCMOS logic gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Sankaran M.; Malaiya, Yashwant K.; Jayasumana, Anura P.

    1992-01-01

    Logic Behavior of a Double BJT BiCMOS device under transistor level shorts and opens is examined. In addition to delay faults, faults that cause the gate to exhibit sequential behavior were observed. Several faults can be detected only by monitoring the current. The faulty behavior of Bipolar (TTL) and CMOS logic families is compared with BiCMOS, to bring out the testability differences.

  13. Small-area and compact CMOS emulator circuit for CMOS/nanoscale memristor co-design.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sanghak; Choi, Jun-Myung; Cho, Seongik; Min, Kyeong-Sik

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a CMOS emulator circuit that can reproduce nanoscale memristive behavior is proposed. The proposed emulator circuit can mimic the pinched hysteresis loops of nanoscale memristor memory's current-voltage relationship without using any resistor array, complicated circuit blocks, etc. that may occupy very large layout area. Instead of using a resistor array, other complicated circuit blocks, etc., the proposed emulator circuit can describe the nanoscale memristor's current-voltage relationship using a simple voltage-controlled resistor, where its resistance can be programmed by the stored voltage at the state variable capacitor. Comparing the layout area between the previous emulator circuit and the proposed one, the layout area of the proposed emulator circuit is estimated to be 32 times smaller than the previous emulator circuit. The proposed CMOS emulator circuit of nanoscale memristor memory will be very useful in developing hybrid circuits of CMOS/nanoscale memristor memory.

  14. Swarm Absolute Scalar Magnetometers first in-orbit results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratter, Isabelle; Léger, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, François; Jager, Thomas; Hulot, Gauthier; Brocco, Laura; Vigneron, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The ESA Swarm mission will provide the best ever survey of the Earth's magnetic field and its temporal evolution. This will be achieved by a constellation of three identical satellites, launched together on the 22nd of November 2013. In order to observe the magnetic field thoroughly, each satellite carries two magnetometers: a Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM) coupled with a star tracker camera, to measure the direction of the magnetic field in space, and an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM), to measure its intensity. The ASM is the French contribution to the Swarm mission. This new generation instrument was designed by CEA-Leti and developed in close partnership with CNES, with scientific support from IPGP. Its operating principle is based on the atomic spectroscopy of the helium 4 metastable state. It makes use of the Zeeman's effect to transduce the magnetic field into a frequency, the signal being amplified by optical pumping. The primary role of the ASM is to provide absolute measurements of the magnetic field's strength at 1 Hz, for the in-flight calibration of the VFM. As the Swarm magnetic reference, the ASM scalar performance is crucial for the mission's success. Thanks to its innovative design, the ASM offers the best precision, resolution and absolute accuracy ever attained in space, with similar performance all along the orbit. In addition, thanks to an original architecture, the ASM implements on an experimental basis a capacity for providing simultaneously vector measurements at 1 Hz. This new feature makes it the first instrument capable of delivering both scalar and vector measurements simultaneously at the same point. Swarm offers a unique opportunity to validate the ASM vector data in orbit by comparison with the VFM's. Furthermore, the ASM can provide scalar data at a much higher sampling rate, when run in "burst" mode at 250 Hz, with a 100 Hz measurement bandwidth. An analysis of the spectral content of the magnetic field above 1 Hz becomes thus

  15. Tether Magnetometer system for study of Mercury Magnetophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombatti, G.; Angrilli, F.; Bianchini, G.; Crepaldi, A.

    2001-11-01

    BepiColombo mission will explore Mercury and its environment; the scientific payload will be onboard two orbiters and a lander: a planetary orbiter for spectrometric analyses, a magnetospheric orbiter for the observation of the magnetic field and its interactions with the solar wind and a lander for the in-situ study of surface and subsurface properties. The environment in which the mission will operate is extremely hard due to the position and the proximity to the sun (i.e. tidal forces); payloads will be subject to high temperatures variations and harsh day-night excursions; severe radiation bombardment will damage instruments if not enough shielded. Mariner 10 observations began to outline the particular characteristics of Mercury's weak magnetic field and active magnetosphere, absence of ionosphere and atmosphere. Nevertheless the non-exhaustive data-sets has leaded to ambiguities which can be resolved only by the acquisition of new remote measurements. Objective/goal of the proposed Tethered Magnetometer System (TEMS) are measurements in low orbit (in particular MPOs orbit) of the intrinsic weak magnetic field and hydromagnetic and thermoelectric phenomena not measurable by MMO instruments. For the development of the instrument no increase in the weight and in the thermal shielding of the MPO are required. Such a system will be host on CPM (chimic propulsion module) and will have a minimal impact configuration thanks to the low mass and the low volume of the deployable subsatellite housing the magnetometer. The CPM, after the release of the Lander module, has finished his operating life and won't be used any more. Moreover, once deployed the apoapsis of the tether system will be less than 400 km, with no possibility to harm the orbiter. After all mission operations with CPM are finished a reel system deploys a 500m tether with subsatellite at the end housing the magnetometer far away from magnetic noise of the CPM; power will be used directly from the one of

  16. Interferometric comparison of the performance of a CMOS and sCMOS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Moreno, J. M.; De la Torre I., Manuel H.; Hernández-Montes, M. S.; Pérez-López, Carlos; Mendoza S., Fernando

    2015-08-01

    We present an analysis of the imaging performance of two state-of-the-art sensors widely used in the nondestructive- testing area (NDT). The analysis is based on the quantification of the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio from an optical phase image. The calculation of the SNR is based on the relation of the median (average) and standard deviation measurements over specific areas of interest in the phase images of both sensors. This retrieved phase is coming from the vibrational behavior of a large object by means of an out-of-plane holographic interferometer. The SNR is used as a figure-of-merit to evaluate and compare the performance of the CMOS and scientific CMOS (sCMOS) camera as part of the experimental set-up. One of the cameras has a high speed CMOS sensor while the other has a high resolution sCMOS sensor. The object under study is a metallically framed table with a Formica cover with an observable area of 1.1 m2. The vibration induced to the sample is performed by a linear step motor with an attached tip in the motion stage. Each camera is used once at the time to record the deformation keeping the same experimental conditions for each case. These measurements may complement the conventional procedures or technical information commonly used to evaluate a camerás performance such as: quantum efficiency, spatial resolution and others. Results present post processed images from both cameras, but showing a smoother and easy to unwrap optical phase coming from those recorded with the sCMOS camera.

  17. Fundamental performance differences of CMOS and CCD imagers: part V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesick, James R.; Elliott, Tom; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Pinter, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    Previous papers delivered over the last decade have documented developmental progress made on large pixel scientific CMOS imagers that match or surpass CCD performance. New data and discussions presented in this paper include: 1) a new buried channel CCD fabricated on a CMOS process line, 2) new data products generated by high performance custom scientific CMOS 4T/5T/6T PPD pixel imagers, 3) ultimate CTE and speed limits for large pixel CMOS imagers, 4) fabrication and test results of a flight 4k x 4k CMOS imager for NRL's SoloHi Solar Orbiter Mission, 5) a progress report on ultra large stitched Mk x Nk CMOS imager, 6) data generated by on-chip sub-electron CDS signal chain circuitry used in our imagers, 7) CMOS and CMOSCCD proton and electron radiation damage data for dose levels up to 10 Mrd, 8) discussions and data for a new class of PMOS pixel CMOS imagers and 9) future CMOS development work planned.

  18. Development of a Depleted Monolithic CMOS Sensor in a 150 nm CMOS Technology for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Barbero, M.; Degerli, Y.; Godiot, S.; Guilloux, F.; Hemperek, T.; Hirono, T.; Krüger, H.; Liu, J.; Orsini, F.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.; Wermes, N.

    2017-01-01

    The recent R&D focus on CMOS sensors with charge collection in a depleted zone has opened new perspectives for CMOS sensors as fast and radiation hard pixel devices. These sensors, labelled as depleted CMOS sensors (DMAPS), have already shown promising performance as feasible candidates for the ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) upgrade, possibly replacing the current passive sensors. A further step to exploit the potential of DMAPS is to investigate the suitability of equipping the outer layers of the ATLAS ITk upgrade with fully monolithic CMOS sensors. This paper presents the development of a depleted monolithic CMOS pixel sensor designed in the LFoundry 150 nm CMOS technology, with the focus on design details and simulation results.

  19. Rubber composition compatible with hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repar, J.

    1973-01-01

    Formulation improves compatibility of butyl rubbers with hydrazine while reducing permeation to low levels necessary for prolonged storage in space. This is accomplished by replacing carbon-black filler with inert materials such as hydrated silica or clay. Pressure increases suggest that hydrazine is decomposed only slightly by new type of rubber.

  20. Verbal response-effect compatibility.

    PubMed

    Koch, Iring; Kunde, Wilfried

    2002-12-01

    Ideomotor theory states that motor responses are activated by an anticipation of their sensory effects. We assumed that anticipated effects would produce response-effect (R-E) compatibility when there is dimensional overlap of effects and responses. In a four-choice task, visual digit stimuli called for verbal responses (color names). Each response produced a written response-effect on the screen. In different groups, the response-effect was a colored color word (e.g., blue in blue), a white color word, or a colored nonword (Xs in blue). In different blocks, the predictable effects were either incompatible (e.g., response "blue" --> effect: green) or compatible with the response. We found faster responses with compatible than with incompatible R-E mappings. The compatibility effect was strongest with colored words, intermediate with white words, and smallest with colored nonwords. We conclude that effect anticipation influences response selection on both a perceptual level (related to the word's color) and a conceptual level (related to the word's meaning).

  1. Low energy electron magnetometer using a monoenergetic electron beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Wood, G. M.; Rayborn, G. H.; White, F. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A low energy electron beam magnetometer utilizes near-monoenergetic electrons thereby reducing errors due to electron energy spread and electron nonuniform angular distribution. In a first embodiment, atoms in an atomic beam of an inert gas are excited to a Rydberg state and then electrons of near zero energy are detached from the Rydberg atoms. The near zero energy electrons are then accelerated by an electric field V(acc) to form the electron beam. In a second embodiment, a filament emits electrons into an electrostatic analyzer which selects electrons at a predetermined energy level within a very narrow range. These selected electrons make up the electron beam that is subjected to the magnetic field being measured.

  2. Magnetoencephalography with a chip-scale atomic magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Sander, T. H.; Preusser, J.; Mhaskar, R.; Kitching, J.; Trahms, L.; Knappe, S.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the measurement of somatosensory-evoked and spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals with a chip-scale atomic magnetometer (CSAM) based on optical spectroscopy of alkali atoms. The uncooled, fiber-coupled CSAM has a sensitive volume of 0.77 mm3 inside a sensor head of volume 1 cm3 and enabled convenient handling, similar to an electroencephalography (EEG) electrode. When positioned over O1 of a healthy human subject, α-oscillations were observed in the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the scalp surface. Furthermore, by stimulation at the right wrist of the subject, somatosensory-evoked fields were measured with the sensors placed over C3. Higher noise levels of the CSAM were partly compensated by higher signal amplitudes due to the shorter distance between CSAM and scalp. PMID:22567591

  3. Plasmasphere Refilling After Geomagnetic Storms Observed by EMMA Magnetometer Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Corpo, A.; Vellante, M.; Heilig, B.; Lichtenberger, J.; Reda, J.; Pietropaolo, E.; Chi, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a study of plasmasphere dynamics during a few geomagnetic storms through examination of radial profiles of the equatorial plasma mass density. The plasma mass density is derived from field line resonance (FLR) frequencies observations across EMMA, a meridional network of 25 magnetometer stations extending from Central Italy to North Finland (1.5 < L < 6.5). The study focuses on plasmaspheric refilling following depletion due to geomagnetic activity. From the time variation of the equatorial plasma mass density we derived daytime refilling rates and the corresponding upward plasma fluxes from the ionosphere for different L-values. Daily averaged refilling rates occurring during the recovery phase have been also investigated.

  4. Measurement of Lung Function Using the Magnetometer System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    8217 NORMALIZED AMPLITUDES’ 280 PRINT 300 PRINT ’SPIROMETER MAGi MAG2 MAG3 MAG4’ 310 G1:G(0,1) 320 FOR J=1 TO N2 341 PRINT G(O,J)/G1,G(1,J)/G(1,1),G(2,J...ANGLES’ 420 PRINT 440 PRINT ’SPIROMETER MAG1 MAG2 MAG3 MAG41 450 P1=PI/2 455 N5=P1-P(0,1) 460 FOR J=1 TO N2 481 PRINT P(O,J)+N5,P(1 ,J)+N5,P(2,J)+N5,P...MAGNETOMETER DATA ** ZOO PRINT #S,- ZZ0 PRINT #5,’ NORMALIZED AMPLITUDES’ 240 PRINT #5," 260 PRINT #5,’SPIROMETER MAGI MAGZ MAG3 MAG4’ Z70 G1-G(0,I

  5. Benchtop time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Barman, Anjan; Kimura, T; Otani, Y; Fukuma, Y; Akahane, K; Meguro, S

    2008-12-01

    We present here the construction and application of a compact benchtop time-resolved Kerr magnetometer to measure the magnetization precession in magnetic thin films and lithographically patterned elements. As opposed to very expensive femtosecond lasers this system is built upon a picosecond pulsed injection diode laser and electronic pulse and delay generators. The precession is triggered by the electronic pulses of controlled duration and shape, which is launched onto the sample by a microstrip line. We used polarized optical pulses synchronous to the electronic pulses to measure the magneto-optical Kerr rotation. The system is integrated in a conventional upright microscope configuration with separate illumination, imaging, and magneto-optical probe paths. The system offers high stability, relative ease of alignment, sample changing, and a long range of time delay. We demonstrate the measurements of time-resolved dynamics of a Permalloy microwire and microdot using this system, which showed dynamics at two different time scales.

  6. Magnetometer-augmented IMU simulator: in-depth elaboration.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas; Lauffenburger, Jean-Philippe; Changey, Sébastien; Basset, Michel

    2015-03-04

    The location of objects is a growing research topic due, for instance, to the expansion of civil drones or intelligent vehicles. This expansion was made possible through the development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inexpensive and miniaturized inertial sensors. In this context, this article describes the development of a new simulator which generates sensor measurements, giving a specific input trajectory. This will allow the comparison of pose estimation algorithms. To develop this simulator, the measurement equations of every type of sensor have to be analytically determined. To achieve this objective, classical kinematic equations are used for the more common sensors, i.e., accelerometers and rate gyroscopes. As nowadays, the MEMS inertial measurement units (IMUs) are generally magnetometer-augmented, an absolute world magnetic model is implemented. After the determination of the perfect measurement (through the error-free sensor models), realistic error models are developed to simulate real IMU behavior. Finally, the developed simulator is subjected to different validation tests.

  7. Construction and Operation of a Differential Hall Element Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Matthew W.; Javernick, Philip D.; Quintero, Pedro A.; Calm, Yitzi M.; Meisel, Mark W.

    2012-02-01

    A Differential Hall Element Magnetometer (DHEM) was constructed to measure the magnetic saturation and coercive fields of small samples consisting of magnetic nanoparticles that may have biomedical applications. The device consists of two matched Hall elements that can be moved through the room temperature bore of a 9 Tesla superconducting magnet. The Hall elements are wired in opposition such that a null response, to within a small offset, is measured in the absence of a sample that may be located on top of one unit. A LabVIEW program controls the current through the Hall elements and measures the net Hall voltage while simultaneously moving the probe through the magnetic field by regulating a linear stepper motor. Ultimately, the system will be tested to obtain a figure of merit using successively smaller samples. Details of the apparatus will be provided along with preliminary data.

  8. Towards a Radiation Hardened Fluxgate Magnetometer for Space Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, David M.

    Space-based measurements of the Earth's magnetic field are required to understand the plasma processes of the solar-terrestrial connection which energize the Van Allen radiation belts and cause space weather. This thesis describes a fluxgate magnetometer payload developed for the proposed Canadian Space Agencys Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) mission. The instrument can resolve 8 pT on a 65,000 nT field at 900 samples per second with a magnetic noise of less than 10 pT per square-root Hertz at 1 Hertz. The design can be manufactured from radiation tolerant (100 krad) space grade parts. A novel combination of analog temperature compensation and digital feedback simplifies and miniaturises the instrument while improving the measurement bandwidth and resolution. The prototype instrument was successfully validated at the Natural Resources Canada Geomagnetics Laboratory, and is being considered for future ground, satellite and sounding rocket applications.

  9. Magnetoencephalography using a Multilayer hightc DC SQUID Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faley, M. I.; Poppe, U.; Borkowski, R. E. Dunin; Schiek, M.; Boers, F.; Chocholacs, H.; Dammers, J.; Eich, E.; Shah, N. J.; Ermakov, A. B.; Slobodchikov, V. Yu.; Maslennikov, Yu. V.; Koshelets, V. P.

    We describe tests of the use of a multilayer highTc DC SQUID magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compare our measurements with results obtained using a lowTc SQUID sensor. The integration of bias reversal readout electronics for highTc DC SQUID magnetometry into a commercial MEG data acquisition system is demonstrated. Results of measurements performed on a salinefilled head phantom are shown and the detection of an auditory evoked magnetic response of the human cortex elicited by a stimulus is illustrated. Future modifications of highTc DC SQUID sensors for applications in MEG, in order to reach a resolution of 1 fT/√Hz at 77.5 K over a wide frequency band, are outlined.

  10. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Schönau, T; Zakosarenko, V; Schmelz, M; Stolz, R; Anders, S; Linzen, S; Meyer, M; Meyer, H-G

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth's magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz(1/2). The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  11. Highly stable atomic vector magnetometer based on free spin precession.

    PubMed

    Afach, S; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Chowdhuri, Z; Grujić, Z D; Hayen, L; Hélaine, V; Kasprzak, M; Kirch, K; Knowles, P; Koch, H-C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemière, Y; Mtchedlishvili, A; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Piegsa, F M; Prashanth, P N; Quéméner, G; Rawlik, M; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Rozpedzik, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severjins, N; Weis, A; Wursten, E; Wyszynski, G; Zejma, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-08-24

    We present a magnetometer based on optically pumped Cs atoms that measures the magnitude and direction of a 1 μT magnetic field. Multiple circularly polarized laser beams were used to probe the free spin precession of the Cs atoms. The design was optimized for long-time stability and achieves a scalar resolution better than 300 fT for integration times ranging from 80 ms to 1000 s. The best scalar resolution of less than 80 fT was reached with integration times of 1.6 to 6 s. We were able to measure the magnetic field direction with a resolution better than 10 μrad for integration times from 10 s up to 2000 s.

  12. Simultaneously improving the sensitivity and absolute accuracy of CPT magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shang-Qing; Yang, Guo-Qing; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Zheng-Xiang

    2014-03-24

    A new method to improve the sensitivity and absolute accuracy simultaneously for coherent population trapping (CPT) magnetometer based on the differential detection method is presented. Two modulated optical beams with orthogonal circular polarizations are applied, in one of which two magnetic resonances are excited simultaneously by modulating a 3.4GHz microwave with Larmor frequency. When a microwave frequency shift is introduced, the difference in the power transmitted through the cell in each beam shows a low noise resonance. The sensitivity of 2pT/Hz @ 10Hz is achieved. Meanwhile, the absolute accuracy of ± 0.5nT within the magnetic field ranging from 20000nT to 100000nT is realized.

  13. A Digital Filter Representation of the ASQ-81 Magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    81 magnetometer filter transfer functions. The input to the fixed high pass filter is called SIG (T), where I is the current data sample. The output...forth, and the symbol * denotes multiplication. For the fixed high pass filter: YO(I)=BFHPO* SIG (I) + BFHPl* SIG (I-1) + BFHP2* SIG (I-2) + AFHP1*YO(I-l...LU z - 0 -0 (4 ’ 0 1 0 LUL * U. . (li) . u ii w 0U c C33 -0 u- V ’ 0 co ij (3 %P 0-4 ( .1 - jue MOOC C (0JU) *d tn0C-QCI,- tn f-i -i."" a1 0 c

  14. Fiber-optic three axis magnetometer prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Thomas D.; Mccomb, David G.; Kingston, Bradley R.; Dube, C. Michael; Poehls, Kenneth A.; Wanser, Keith

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this research program was to develop a high sensitivity, fiber optic, interferometric, three-axis magnetometer for interplanetary spacecraft applications. Dynamics Technology, Inc. (DTI) has successfully integrated a low noise, high bandwidth interferometer with high sensitivity metallic glass transducers. Also, DTI has developed sophisticated signal processing electronics and complete data acquisition, filtering, and display software. The sensor was packaged in a compact, low power and weight unit which facilitates deployment. The magnetic field sensor had subgamma sensitivity and a dynamic range of 10(exp 5) gamma in a 10 Hz bandwidth. Furthermore, the vector instrument exhibited the lowest noise level when only one axis was in operation. A system noise level of 1 gamma rms was observed in a 1 Hz bandwidth. However, with the other two channels operating, the noise level increased by about one order of magnitude. Higher system noise was attributed to cross-channel interference among the dither fields.

  15. Ultrasensitive 3He magnetometer for measurements of high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel, Anna; Blümler, Peter; Heil, Werner; Hehn, Manfred; Karpuk, Sergej; Maul, Andreas; Otten, Ernst; Schreiber, Laura M.; Terekhov, Maxim

    2014-11-01

    We describe a 3He magnetometer capable to measure high magnetic fields ( B> 0.1 T) with a relative accuracy of better than 10-12. Our approach is based on the measurement of the free induction decay of gaseous, nuclear spin polarized 3He following a resonant radio frequency pulse excitation. The measurement sensitivity can be attributed to the long coherent spin precession time T2 ∗ being of order minutes which is achieved for spherical sample cells in the regime of "motional narrowing" where the disturbing influence of field inhomogeneities is strongly suppressed. The 3He gas is spin polarized in situ using a new, non-standard variant of the metastability exchange optical pumping. We show that miniaturization helps to increase T2 ∗ further and that the measurement sensitivity is not significantly affected by temporal field fluctuations of order 10-4.

  16. Magnetometer-Augmented IMU Simulator: In-Depth Elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Thomas; Lauffenburger, Jean-Philippe; Changey, Sébastien; Basset, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The location of objects is a growing research topic due, for instance, to the expansion of civil drones or intelligent vehicles. This expansion was made possible through the development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inexpensive and miniaturized inertial sensors. In this context, this article describes the development of a new simulator which generates sensor measurements, giving a specific input trajectory. This will allow the comparison of pose estimation algorithms. To develop this simulator, the measurement equations of every type of sensor have to be analytically determined. To achieve this objective, classical kinematic equations are used for the more common sensors, i.e., accelerometers and rate gyroscopes. As nowadays, the MEMS inertial measurement units (IMUs) are generally magnetometer-augmented, an absolute world magnetic model is implemented. After the determination of the perfect measurement (through the error-free sensor models), realistic error models are developed to simulate real IMU behavior. Finally, the developed simulator is subjected to different validation tests. PMID:25746095

  17. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M.

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  18. Magsat vector magnetometer calibration using Magsat geomagnetic field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, E. R.; Jennings, T.; Morrissey, M.; Langel, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    From the time of its launch on Oct. 30, 1979 into a nearly polar, Sun synchronous orbit, until it reentered the Earth's atmosphere on June 11, 1980, Magsat measured and transmitted more than three complete sets of global magnetic field data. The data obtained from the mission will be used primarily to compute a currently accurate model of the Earth's main magnetic field, to update and refine world and regional magnetic charts, and to develop a global scalar and vector crustal magnetic anomaly map. The in-flight calibration procecure used for 39 vector magnetometer system parameters is described as well as results obtained from some data sets and the numerical studies designed to evaluate the results.

  19. The Search-coil Magnetometer for the THOR mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahraoui, Fouad; Pinçon, Jean-louis; Jannet, Guillaume; Mansour, Malik; Henri, Pierre; Chalumeau, Gilles; Hachemi, Tedjani; Jeandet, Alexis; Briand, Nicolas; Le Contel, Olivier; Rezeau, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space fully dedicated to plasma turbulence. The search-coil magnetometer (SCM) of THOR is a triaxial dual-band antenna dedicated to measuring the magnetic field fluctuations in the frequency range [1Hz,4kHz] and [1,200]kHz. THOR/SCM has a long heritage from earlier space missions such as Cluster, Themis, MMS, BepiColombo, Taranis, Solar orbiter and Solar Probe. In comparison to those missions, the SCM of THOR has a higher sensitivity level, which makes it capable of measuring very low amplitude magnetic fluctuations, in particular in the solar wind. Those measurements are crucial to address the problem of turbulence and energy dissipation at electron scales, a central goal of the THOR mission.

  20. Magnetic Gradiometer and Vector Magnetometer Survey of the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, R.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the fundamental tectonic problems of the Eastern Mediterranean remain unresolved due to the extremely thick sedimentary cover (~15 km) and the lack of accurate magnetic anomaly data. We conducted a magnetic survey of the Herodotus and Levant Basins (Eastern Mediterranean) to study the nature and age of the underlying igneous crust. The towed magnetometer array consisted of two Overhauser sensors recording the total magnetic field in a longitudinal gradiometer mode, and a marine vector magnetometer. Accurate navigation together with the gradiometer data allows the separation of the magnetic signature of the lithosphere from the contributions of the external magnetic field and the geomagnetic field. Total field data in the Herodotus Basin reveal a sequence of long-wavelength NE-SW lineated anomalies (~80 nT) suggesting a deep (~20 km) 2D magnetic source layer. Analysis of the vector data shows a steady azimuth of lineations that is generally consistent with the total field anomalies. The sequence of anomalies is rather short and does not allow a unique identification. However, the continuous northward motion of the African Plate during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic result in predictable anomaly skewness patterns for the different time periods. Forward magnetic modeling best fit the observed anomalies when using Early Permian remanence directions. Altogether, these observations and analysis suggest that a Neo-Tethyan Permian oceanic crust underlies the Herodotus Basin. Two short-wavelengths and strong (~400 nT) anomalies are found in the Levant Basin, proposing rather shallow (~7 km) magnetic sources there. These anomalies spatially coincide with Mesozoic uplifted continental structures (Eratosthenes and Jonah Highs).

  1. Effects of magnetometer calibration and maneuvers on accuracies of magnetometer-only attitude-and-rate determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challa, M.; Natanson, G.

    1998-01-01

    Two different algorithms - a deterministic magnetic-field-only algorithm and a Kalman filter for gyroless spacecraft - are used to estimate the attitude and rates of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) using only measurements from a three-axis magnetometer. The performance of these algorithms is examined using in-flight data from various scenarios. In particular, significant enhancements in accuracies are observed when' the telemetered magnetometer data are accurately calibrated using a recently developed calibration algorithm. Interesting features observed in these studies of the inertial-pointing RXTE include a remarkable sensitivity of the filter to the numerical values of the noise parameters and relatively long convergence time spans. By analogy, the accuracy of the deterministic scheme is noticeably lower as a result of reduced rates of change of the body-fixed geomagnetic field. Preliminary results show the filter-per-axis attitude accuracies ranging between 0.1 and 0.5 deg and rate accuracies between 0.001 deg/sec and 0.005 deg./sec, whereas the deterministic method needs a more sophisticated techniques for smoothing time derivatives of the measured geomagnetic field to clearly distinguish both attitude and rate solutions from the numerical noise. Also included is a new theoretical development in the deterministic algorithm: the transformation of a transcendental equation in the original theory into an 8th-order polynomial equation. It is shown that this 8th-order polynomial reduces to quadratic equations in the two limiting cases-infinitely high wheel momentum, and constant rates-discussed in previous publications.

  2. Compatibility in multiparameter quantum metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragy, Sammy; Jarzyna, Marcin; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous estimation of multiple parameters in quantum metrological models is complicated by factors relating to the (i) existence of a single probe state allowing for optimal sensitivity for all parameters of interest, (ii) existence of a single measurement optimally extracting information from the probe state on all the parameters, and (iii) statistical independence of the estimated parameters. We consider the situation when these concerns present no obstacle, and for every estimated parameter the variance obtained in the multiparameter scheme is equal to that of an optimal scheme for that parameter alone, assuming all other parameters are perfectly known. We call such models compatible. In establishing a rigorous theoretical framework for investigating compatibility, we clarify some ambiguities and inconsistencies present in the literature and discuss several examples to highlight interesting features of unitary and nonunitary parameter estimation, as well as deriving new bounds for physical problems of interest, such as the simultaneous estimation of phase and local dephasing.

  3. Magnetocardiography with a modular spin-exchange relaxation-free atomic magnetometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyllie, R.; Kauer, M.; Smetana, G. S.; Wakai, R. T.; Walker, T. G.

    2012-05-01

    We present a portable four-channel atomic magnetometer array operating in the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime. The magnetometer array has several design features intended to maximize its suitability for biomagnetic measurement, specifically foetal magnetocardiography, such as a compact modular design and fibre-coupled lasers. The modular design allows the independent positioning and orientation of each magnetometer. Using this array in a magnetically shielded room, we acquire adult magnetocadiograms. These measurements were taken with a 6-11 fT Hz-1/2 single-channel baseline sensitivity that is consistent with the independently measured noise level of the magnetically shielded room.

  4. An optically modulated zero-field atomic magnetometer with suppressed spin-exchange broadening

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Martínez, R.; Knappe, S.; Kitching, J.

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate an optically pumped {sup 87}Rb magnetometer in a microfabricated vapor cell based on a zero-field dispersive resonance generated by optical modulation of the {sup 87}Rb ground state energy levels. The magnetometer is operated in the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime where high magnetic field sensitivities can be achieved. This device can be useful in applications requiring array-based magnetometers where radio frequency magnetic fields can induce cross-talk among adjacent sensors or affect the source of the magnetic field being measured.

  5. Magnetocardiography with a modular spin-exchange relaxation-free atomic magnetometer array.

    PubMed

    Wyllie, R; Kauer, M; Smetana, G S; Wakai, R T; Walker, T G

    2012-05-07

    We present a portable four-channel atomic magnetometer array operating in the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime. The magnetometer array has several design features intended to maximize its suitability for biomagnetic measurement, specifically foetal magnetocardiography, such as a compact modular design and fibre-coupled lasers. The modular design allows the independent positioning and orientation of each magnetometer. Using this array in a magnetically shielded room, we acquire adult magnetocadiograms. These measurements were taken with a 6-11 fT Hz(-1/2) single-channel baseline sensitivity that is consistent with the independently measured noise level of the magnetically shielded room.

  6. An optically modulated zero-field atomic magnetometer with suppressed spin-exchange broadening.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Martínez, R; Knappe, S; Kitching, J

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate an optically pumped (87)Rb magnetometer in a microfabricated vapor cell based on a zero-field dispersive resonance generated by optical modulation of the (87)Rb ground state energy levels. The magnetometer is operated in the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime where high magnetic field sensitivities can be achieved. This device can be useful in applications requiring array-based magnetometers where radio frequency magnetic fields can induce cross-talk among adjacent sensors or affect the source of the magnetic field being measured.

  7. Optimization of the first order gradiometer for small sample magnetization measurements using pulse integrating magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Trojanowski, S.; Ciszek, M.

    2009-10-15

    In the paper we present an analytical calculation method for determination of the sensitivity of a pulse field magnetometer working with a first order gradiometer. Our considerations here are especially focused on a case of magnetic moment measurements of very small samples. Derived in the work analytical equations allow for a quick estimation of the magnetometer's sensitivity and give also the way to its calibration using the sample simulation coil method. On the base of the given in the paper calculations we designed and constructed a simple homemade magnetometer and performed its sensitivity calibration.

  8. Optimization of the first order gradiometer for small sample magnetization measurements using pulse integrating magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Trojanowski, S; Ciszek, M

    2009-10-01

    In the paper we present an analytical calculation method for determination of the sensitivity of a pulse field magnetometer working with a first order gradiometer. Our considerations here are especially focused on a case of magnetic moment measurements of very small samples. Derived in the work analytical equations allow for a quick estimation of the magnetometer's sensitivity and give also the way to its calibration using the sample simulation coil method. On the base of the given in the paper calculations we designed and constructed a simple homemade magnetometer and performed its sensitivity calibration.

  9. High-temperature compatible 3D-integration processes for a vacuum-sealed CNT-based NEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, R.; Lee, S. W.; Akiyama, T.; Briand, D.; Roman, C.; Hierold, C.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2013-03-01

    A System-in-Package (SiP) concept for the 3D-integration of a Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) resonator with its CMOS driving electronics is presented. The key element of this advanced SiP is the monolithic 3D-integration of the MEMS with the CMOS electronics using Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) on an SOI wafer. This SiP includes: A glass cap vacuum-sealed to the main wafer using an eutectic bonding process: a low leak rate of 2.7 10-9 mbar•l/s was obtained; Platinum-TSVs, compatible with the SWCNT growth and release process; The TSVs were developed in a "via first" process and characterized at high-temperature — up to 850 °C. An ohmic contact between the Pt-metallization and the SOI silicon device layer was obtained; The driving CMOS electronic device is assembled to the MEMS using an Au stud bump technology. Keywords: System-in-Package (SiP), vacuum packaging, eutectic bonding, "via-first" TSVs, high-temperature platinum interconnects, ohmic contacts, Au-stud bumps assembly, CMOS electronics.

  10. High responsivity CMOS imager pixel implemented in SOI technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, X.; Wrigley, C.; Yang, G.; Pain, B.

    2000-01-01

    Availability of mature sub-micron CMOS technology and the advent of the new low noise active pixel sensor (APS) concept have enabled the development of low power, miniature, single-chip, CMOS digital imagers in the decade of the 1990's.

  11. Lab-on-CMOS integration of microfluidics and electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Mason, Andrew J

    2013-10-07

    This paper introduces a CMOS-microfluidics integration scheme for electrochemical microsystems. A CMOS chip was embedded into a micro-machined silicon carrier. By leveling the CMOS chip and carrier surface to within 100 nm, an expanded obstacle-free surface suitable for photolithography was achieved. Thin film metal planar interconnects were microfabricated to bridge CMOS pads to the perimeter of the carrier, leaving a flat and smooth surface for integrating microfluidic structures. A model device containing SU-8 microfluidic mixers and detection channels crossing over microelectrodes on a CMOS integrated circuit was constructed using the chip-carrier assembly scheme. Functional integrity of microfluidic structures and on-CMOS electrodes was verified by a simultaneous sample dilution and electrochemical detection experiment within multi-channel microfluidics. This lab-on-CMOS integration process is capable of high packing density, is suitable for wafer-level batch production, and opens new opportunities to combine the performance benefits of on-CMOS sensors with lab-on-chip platforms.

  12. Chemical compatibility of cartridge materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Roy C.; Zee, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    This twelve month progress report deals with the chemical compatibility of semiconductor crystals grown in zero gravity. Specifically, it studies the chemical compatibility between TZM, a molybdenum alloy containing titanium and zirconium, and WC 103, a titanium alloy containing Niobium and Hafnium, and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) and Cadmium Zinc Tellurite (CdZnTe). Due to the health hazards involved, three approaches were used to study the chemical compatibility between the semiconductor and cartridge materials: reaction retort, thermogravimetric analysis, and bulk cylindrical cartridge containers. A scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer was used to examine all samples after testing. The first conclusion drawn is that reaction rates with TZM were not nearly as great as they were with WC 103. Second, the total reaction between GaAs and WC 103 was almost twice that with TZM. Therefore, even though WC 103 is easier to fabricate, at least half of the cartridge thickness will be degraded if contact is made with one of the semiconductor materials leading to a loss of strength properties.

  13. Integrating silicon photonic interconnects with CMOS: Fabrication to architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Nicholas Ramsey

    While it was for many years the goal of microelectronics to speed up our daily tasks, the focus of today's technological developments is heavily centered on electronic media. Anyone can share their thoughts as text, sound, images or full videos, they can even make phone calls and download full movies on their computers, tablets and phones. The impact of this upsurge in bandwidth is directly on the infrastructure that carries this data. Long distance telecom lines were long ago replaced by optical fibers; now shorter and shorter distance connections have moved to optical transmission to keep up with the bandwidth requirements. Yet microprocessors that make up the switching nodes as well as the endpoints are not only stagnant in terms of processing speed, but also unlikely to continue Moore's transistor-doubling trend for much longer. Silicon photonics stands to make a technical leap in microprocessor technology by allowing monolithic communication speeds between arbitrarily spaced processing elements. The improvement in on-chip communication could reduce power and enable new improvements in this field. This work explores a few aspects involved in making such a leap practical in real life. The first part of the thesis develops process techniques and materials to make silicon photonics truly compatible with CMOS electronics, for two different stack layouts, including a glimpse into multilayerd photonics. Following this is an evaluation of the limitations of integrated devices and a post-fabrication/stabilizing solution using thermal index shifting. In the last parts we explore higher level device design and architecture on the SOI platform.

  14. CMOS-integrated geometrically tunable optical filters.

    PubMed

    Lerose, Damiana; Hei, Evie Kho Siaw; Ching, Bong Ching; Sterger, Martin; Yaw, Liau Chu; Schulze, Frank Michael; Schmidt, Frank; Schmidt, Andrei; Bach, Konrad

    2013-03-10

    We present a method for producing monolithically integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) optical filters with different and customer-specific responses. The filters are constituted by a Fabry-Perot resonator formed by two Bragg mirrors separated by a patterned cavity. The filter response can be tuned by changing the geometric parameters of the patterning, and consequently the cavity effective refractive index. In this way, many different filters can be produced at once on a single chip, allowing multichanneling. The filter has been designed, produced, and characterized. The results for a chip with 24 filters are presented.

  15. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  16. Vertical Isolation for Photodiodes in CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement in complementary metal oxide/semi conduct - or (CMOS) image detectors, two additional implants in each pixel would effect vertical isolation between the metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and the photodiode of the pixel. This improvement is expected to enable separate optimization of the designs of the photodiode and the MOSFETs so as to optimize their performances independently of each other. The purpose to be served by enabling this separate optimization is to eliminate or vastly reduce diffusion cross-talk, thereby increasing sensitivity, effective spatial resolution, and color fidelity while reducing noise.

  17. Diurnal measurements with prototype CMOS Omega receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Diurnal signals from eight omega channels have been monitored at 10.2 KHz for selected station pairs. All eight Omega stations have been received at least 50 percent of the time over a 24 hour period during the month of October 1976. The data presented confirm the expected performance of the CMOS omega sensor processor in being able to digsignals out of a noisy environment. Of particular interest are possibilities for use of antipodal reception phenomena and a need for some ways of correcting for multi-modal propagation effects.

  18. Design of high speed camera based on CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sei-Hun; An, Jun-Sick; Oh, Tae-Seok; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2007-12-01

    The capacity of a high speed camera in taking high speed images has been evaluated using CMOS image sensors. There are 2 types of image sensors, namely, CCD and CMOS sensors. CMOS sensor consumes less power than CCD sensor and can take images more rapidly. High speed camera with built-in CMOS sensor is widely used in vehicle crash tests and airbag controls, golf training aids, and in bullet direction measurement in the military. The High Speed Camera System made in this study has the following components: CMOS image sensor that can take about 500 frames per second at a resolution of 1280*1024; FPGA and DDR2 memory that control the image sensor and save images; Camera Link Module that transmits saved data to PC; and RS-422 communication function that enables control of the camera from a PC.

  19. Radiation-Hard SpaceWire/Gigabit Ethernet-Compatible Transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzman, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    A radiation-hard transponder was developed utilizing submicron/nanotechnology from IBM. The device consumes low power and has a low fabrication cost. This device utilizes a Plug-and-Play concept, and can be integrated into intra-satellite networks, supporting SpaceWire and Gigabit Ethernet I/O. A space-qualified, 100-pin package also was developed, allowing space-qualified (class K) transponders to be delivered within a six-month time frame. The novel, optical, radiation-tolerant transponder was implemented as a standalone board, containing the transponder ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and optical module, with an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) friendly parallel interface. It features improved radiation tolerance; high-data-rate, low-power consumption; and advanced functionality. The transponder utilizes a patented current mode logic library of radiation-hardened-by-architecture cells. The transponder was developed, fabricated, and radhard tested up to 1 MRad. It was fabricated using 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) 9 SF process from IBM, and incorporates full BIT circuitry, allowing a loop back test. The low-speed parallel LVCMOS (lowvoltage complementary metal oxide semiconductor) bus is compatible with Actel FPGA. The output LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface operates up to 1.5 Gb/s. Built-in CDR (clock-data recovery) circuitry provides robust synchronization and incorporates two alarm signals such as synch loss and signal loss. The ultra-linear peak detector scheme allows on-line control of the amplitude of the input signal. Power consumption is less than 300 mW. The developed transponder with a 1.25 Gb/s serial data rate incorporates a 10-to-1 serializer with an internal clock multiplication unit and a 10-1 deserializer with internal clock and data recovery block, which can operate with 8B10B encoded signals. Three loop-back test modes are provided to facilitate the built-in-test functionality. The

  20. A CMOS high speed imaging system design based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hong; Wang, Huawei; Cao, Jianzhong; Qiao, Mingrui

    2015-10-01

    CMOS sensors have more advantages than traditional CCD sensors. The imaging system based on CMOS has become a hot spot in research and development. In order to achieve the real-time data acquisition and high-speed transmission, we design a high-speed CMOS imaging system on account of FPGA. The core control chip of this system is XC6SL75T and we take advantages of CameraLink interface and AM41V4 CMOS image sensors to transmit and acquire image data. AM41V4 is a 4 Megapixel High speed 500 frames per second CMOS image sensor with global shutter and 4/3" optical format. The sensor uses column parallel A/D converters to digitize the images. The CameraLink interface adopts DS90CR287 and it can convert 28 bits of LVCMOS/LVTTL data into four LVDS data stream. The reflected light of objects is photographed by the CMOS detectors. CMOS sensors convert the light to electronic signals and then send them to FPGA. FPGA processes data it received and transmits them to upper computer which has acquisition cards through CameraLink interface configured as full models. Then PC will store, visualize and process images later. The structure and principle of the system are both explained in this paper and this paper introduces the hardware and software design of the system. FPGA introduces the driven clock of CMOS. The data in CMOS is converted to LVDS signals and then transmitted to the data acquisition cards. After simulation, the paper presents a row transfer timing sequence of CMOS. The system realized real-time image acquisition and external controls.

  1. Theoretical performance analysis for CMOS based high resolution detectors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-03-06

    High resolution imaging capabilities are essential for accurately guiding successful endovascular interventional procedures. Present x-ray imaging detectors are not always adequate due to their inherent limitations. The newly-developed high-resolution micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) detector has demonstrated excellent clinical image quality; however, further improvement in performance and physical design may be possible using CMOS sensors. We have thus calculated the theoretical performance of two proposed CMOS detectors which may be used as a successor to the MAF. The proposed detectors have a 300 μm thick HL-type CsI phosphor, a 50 μm-pixel CMOS sensor with and without a variable gain light image intensifier (LII), and are designated MAF-CMOS-LII and MAF-CMOS, respectively. For the performance evaluation, linear cascade modeling was used. The detector imaging chains were divided into individual stages characterized by one of the basic processes (quantum gain, binomial selection, stochastic and deterministic blurring, additive noise). Ranges of readout noise and exposure were used to calculate the detectors' MTF and DQE. The MAF-CMOS showed slightly better MTF than the MAF-CMOS-LII, but the MAF-CMOS-LII showed far better DQE, especially for lower exposures. The proposed detectors can have improved MTF and DQE compared with the present high resolution MAF detector. The performance of the MAF-CMOS is excellent for the angiography exposure range; however it is limited at fluoroscopic levels due to additive instrumentation noise. The MAF-CMOS-LII, having the advantage of the variable LII gain, can overcome the noise limitation and hence may perform exceptionally for the full range of required exposures; however, it is more complex and hence more expensive.

  2. Mass-producible and efficient optical antennas with CMOS-fabricated nanometer-scale gap.

    PubMed

    Seok, Tae Joon; Jamshidi, Arash; Eggleston, Michael; Wu, Ming C

    2013-07-15

    Optical antennas have been widely used for sensitive photodetection, efficient light emission, high resolution imaging, and biochemical sensing because of their ability to capture and focus light energy beyond the diffraction limit. However, widespread application of optical antennas has been limited due to lack of appropriate methods for uniform and large area fabrication of antennas as well as difficulty in achieving an efficient design with small mode volume (gap spacing < 10nm). Here, we present a novel optical antenna design, arch-dipole antenna, with optimal radiation efficiency and small mode volume, 5 nm gap spacing, fabricated by CMOS-compatible deep-UV spacer lithography. We demonstrate strong surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) signal with an enhancement factor exceeding 108 from the arch-dipole antenna array, which is two orders of magnitude stronger than that from the standard dipole antenna array fabricated by e-beam lithography. Since the antenna gap spacing, the critical dimension of the antenna, can be defined by deep-UV lithography, efficient optical antenna arrays with nanometer-scale gap can be mass-produced using current CMOS technology.

  3. CMOS-MEMS Test-Key for Extracting Wafer-Level Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Wan-Chun; Hu, Yuh-Chung; Chang, Pei-Zen

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the technologies of mechanical characterization of CMOS-MEMS devices, and presents a robust algorithm for extracting mechanical properties, such as Young’s modulus, and mean stress, through the external electrical circuit behavior of the micro test-key. An approximate analytical solution for the pull-in voltage of bridge-type test-key subjected to electrostatic load and initial stress is derived based on Euler’s beam model and the minimum energy method. Then one can use the aforesaid closed form solution of the pull-in voltage to extract the Young’s modulus and mean stress of the test structures. The test cases include the test-key fabricated by a TSMC 0.18 μm standard CMOS process, and the experimental results refer to Osterberg’s work on the pull-in voltage of single crystal silicone microbridges. The extracted material properties calculated by the present algorithm are valid. Besides, this paper also analyzes the robustness of this algorithm regarding the dimension effects of test-keys. This mechanical properties extracting method is expected to be applicable to the wafer-level testing in micro-device manufacture and compatible with the wafer-level testing in IC industry since the test process is non-destructive. PMID:23235449

  4. 46 CFR 151.03-17 - Compatible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-17 Compatible. Compatible means that a cargo will... prime considerations are the chemical, physical, or thermal properties of the reaction including...

  5. Bulk CMOS VLSI Technology Studies. Part 1. Scalable CMOS Design Rules. Part 2. CMOS Approaches to PLA (Programmable Logic Array) Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    microns %H*SIC dimensions. Part 2: Various Programmable Logic Array (PLA) implementations with clocked CMOS technology are explored inthis project...Previous research at MSU has dealt with clocked CMOS circuit styles with some application to gate array and microprocessor applications. Work under this...in this report deals with structured logic schemes based on Programmable Logic Arrays (PLAs). Three different PLA design methods are reported with a

  6. Solid-State Multimission Magnetometer (SSM(3)): Application to Groundwater Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes work to develop solid-state magnetometers using magnetoresistive thin films, low-frequency electric-field measurements, and methods for electromagnetic detection of water and ice in the subsurface of Mars.

  7. Effect of coupling line design on the performance of direct coupled high-Tc SQUID magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In Seon; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Park, Yong Ki

    2004-03-01

    YBCO dc SQUID magnetometers based on bicrystal Josephson junctions on 10 mm × 10 mm STO substrates have been fabricated. We have designed 16-parallel-loop pickup coil SQUID magnetometers with 50 μ m line width for use under a magnetically disturbed environment. The magnetometers exhibit stable flux locked loop operation under magnetically very noisy laboratory environment. We modified the coupling scheme between pickup coil and SQUID washer to replace the conventional narrow and long interconnection lines to reduce the residual inductance of the coupling lines. With the coupling line modification the effective area increased more than 12%. Finally, we could obtain optimized direct coupled YBCO SQUID magnetometer design having field sensitivity B_Φ of 4.5 nT/Φ 0 and magnetic field noise BN of 30 fT/Hz^1/2 measured at 100 Hz.

  8. Ultra-sensitive high-density Rb-87 radio-frequency magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Savukov, I.; Boshier, M. G.; Karaulanov, T.

    2014-01-13

    Radio-frequency (RF) atomic magnetometers (AMs) can be used in many applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear quadrupole resonance. High-density AMs provide both superior sensitivity and large bandwidth. Previously, high-density potassium AMs were demonstrated, but these magnetometers have various disadvantages, such as high-temperature of operation and bulky design. We demonstrate a rubidium-87 RF AM with 5 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} sensitivity (3 fT Hz{sup 1/2} probe noise), which is comparable to that of the best potassium magnetometers. Our magnetometer also features a simple fiber-optic design, providing maximum flexibility for magnetic-field measurements.

  9. A rubidium Mx-magnetometer for measurements on solid state spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Daniel; Siegel, Steven; Grisanti, Emily; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-02-01

    The detection of environmental magnetic fields is well established by optically pumped atomic magnetometers. Another focus of magnetometry can be the research on magnetic or spin-active solid-state samples. Here we introduce a simple and compact design of a rubidium-based Mx magnetometer, which allows for hosting solid-state samples. The optical, mechanical, and electrical design is reported, as well as simple measurements which introduce the ground-state spin-relaxation time, the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement, and subsequently the overall sensitivity of the magnetometer. The magnetometer is optimized for the most sensitive operation with respect to laser power and magnetic field excitation at the Larmor frequency.

  10. A rubidium Mx-magnetometer for measurements on solid state spins.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Daniel; Siegel, Steven; Grisanti, Emily; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-02-01

    The detection of environmental magnetic fields is well established by optically pumped atomic magnetometers. Another focus of magnetometry can be the research on magnetic or spin-active solid-state samples. Here we introduce a simple and compact design of a rubidium-based Mx magnetometer, which allows for hosting solid-state samples. The optical, mechanical, and electrical design is reported, as well as simple measurements which introduce the ground-state spin-relaxation time, the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement, and subsequently the overall sensitivity of the magnetometer. The magnetometer is optimized for the most sensitive operation with respect to laser power and magnetic field excitation at the Larmor frequency.

  11. Novel handheld magnetometer probe based on magnetic tunnelling junction sensors for intraoperative sentinel lymph node identification.

    PubMed

    Cousins, A; Balalis, G L; Thompson, S K; Forero Morales, D; Mohtar, A; Wedding, A B; Thierry, B

    2015-06-03

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0 mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5 μg of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required.

  12. Design and analysis of control system for VCSEL of atomic interference magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-nan; Sun, Xiao-jie; Kou, Jun; Yang, Feng; Li, Jie; Ren, Zhang; Wei, Zong-kang

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic field detection is an important means of deep space environment exploration. Benefit from simple structure and low power consumption, atomic interference magnetometer become one of the most potential detector payloads. Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) is usually used as a light source in atomic interference magnetometer and its frequency stability directly affects the stability and sensitivity of magnetometer. In this paper, closed-loop control strategy of VCSEL was designed and analysis, the controller parameters were selected and the feedback error algorithm was optimized as well. According to the results of experiments that were performed on the hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform, the designed closed-loop control system is reasonable and it is able to effectively improve the laser frequency stability during the actual work of the magnetometer.

  13. Novel Handheld Magnetometer Probe Based on Magnetic Tunnelling Junction Sensors for Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Identification

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, A.; Balalis, G. L.; Thompson, S. K.; Forero Morales, D.; Mohtar, A.; Wedding, A. B.; Thierry, B.

    2015-01-01

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0 mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5 μg of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required. PMID:26038833

  14. Improving Sensitivity and Bandwidth of an Atomic Magnetometer using Quantum Non-Demolition Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Vishal; Vasilakis, Georgios; Romalis, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The fundamental sensitivity of an atomic magnetometer is limited by spin projection noise. In the case of uniform spin relaxation, it is well understood that it is not possible to improve the sensitivity using spin squeezing induced by quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement for measurement time scales longer than spin relaxation time [1, 2]. It is however possible to increase the bandwidth of the magnetometer using QND measurement. Here we experimentally demonstrate, in excellent agreement with the theory, an improvement in the bandwidth of our scalar alkali vapor atomic magnetometer using continuous QND measurement. We also investigate the possibility of improving sensitivity of our magnetometer in the special case in which the spin relaxation is time dependent. The case of time dependent spin relaxation naturally arises in high polarization regime in an alkali-alkali spin-exchange relaxation dominated atomic sample. [1] S. F. Huelga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3865 -- 3868, 1997. [2] M. Auzinsh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173002, 2004.

  15. Modulated CMOS camera for fluorescence lifetime microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongtao; Holst, Gerhard; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate method to measure the fluorescence lifetime of entire images. However, the complexity and high costs involved in construction of such a system limit the extensive use of this technique. PCO AG recently released the first luminescence lifetime imaging camera based on a high frequency modulated CMOS image sensor, QMFLIM2. Here we tested and provide operational procedures to calibrate the camera and to improve the accuracy using corrections necessary for image analysis. With its flexible input/output options, we are able to use a modulated laser diode or a 20 MHz pulsed white supercontinuum laser as the light source. The output of the camera consists of a stack of modulated images that can be analyzed by the SimFCS software using the phasor approach. The nonuniform system response across the image sensor must be calibrated at the pixel level. This pixel calibration is crucial and needed for every camera settings, e.g. modulation frequency and exposure time. A significant dependency of the modulation signal on the intensity was also observed and hence an additional calibration is needed for each pixel depending on the pixel intensity level. These corrections are important not only for the fundamental frequency, but also for the higher harmonics when using the pulsed supercontinuum laser. With these post data acquisition corrections, the PCO CMOS-FLIM camera can be used for various biomedical applications requiring a large frame and high speed acquisition.

  16. The 1.2 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A set of test structures was designed using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) test chip assembler and was used to evaluate the first CMOS-bulk foundry runs with feature sizes of 1.2 microns. In addition to the problems associated with the physical scaling of the structures, this geometry provided an additional set of problems, since the design files had to be generated in such a way as to be capable of being processed through p-well, n-well, and twin-well processing lines. This requirement meant that the files containing the geometric design rules as well as the structure design files had to produce process-insensitive designs, a requirement that does not apply to the more mature 3.0-micron CMOS feature size technology. Because of the photolithographic steps required with this feature size, the maximum allowable chip size was 10 x 10 mm, and this chip was divided into 24 project areas, with each area being 1.6 x 1.6 mm in size. The JPL-designed structures occupied 13 out of the 21 allowable project sizes and provided the only test information obtained from these three preliminary runs. The structures were used to successfully evaluate three different manufacturing runs through two separate foundries.

  17. Fault detection in CMOS manufacturing using MBPCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachman-Shalem, Sivan; Haimovitch, Nir; Shauly, Eitan N.; Lewin, Daniel R.

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes the application of model-based principal component analysis (MBPCA) to the identification and isolation of faults in CMOS manufacture. Some of the CMOS fabrication processing steps are well understood, with first principles mathematical models available which can describe the physical and chemical phenomena that takes place. The fabrication of the device using a known industrial process is therefore first modeled 'ideally', using ATHENA and MATLAB. Detailed furnace models are used to investigate the effect of errors in furnace control on the device fabrication and the subsequent effect on the device electrical properties. This models the distribution of device properties resulting from processing a stack of wafers in a furnace, and allows faults and production errors to be simulated for analysis. The analysis is performed using MBPCA. which has been shown to improve fault-detection resolution for batch processes. The diagnosis method is demonstrated on an industrial NMOS transistor fabrication process with faults introduced in places where they might realistically occur.

  18. Challenges of nickel silicidation in CMOS technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Breil, Nicolas; Lavoie, Christian; Ozcan, Ahmet; Baumann, Frieder; Klymko, Nancy; Nummy, Karen; Sun, Bing; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Yu, Jian; Zhu, Frank; Narasimha, Shreesh; Chudzik, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In our paper, we review some of the key challenges associated with the Ni silicidation process in the most recent CMOS technologies. The introduction of new materials (e.g.SiGe), and of non-planar architectures bring some important changes that require fundamental investigation from a material engineering perspective. Following a discussion of the device architecture and silicide evolution through the last CMOS generations, we focus our study on a very peculiar defect, termed NiSi-Fangs. We describe a mechanism for the defect formation, and present a detailed material analysis that supports this mechanism. We highlight some of the possible metal enrichment processes of the nickel monosilicide such as oxidation or various RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) plasma process, leading to a metal source available for defect formation. Furthermore, we investigate the NiSi formation and re-formation silicidation differences between Si and SiGe materials, and between (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) orientations. Finally, we show that the thermal budgets post silicidation can lead to the formation of NiSi-Fangs if the structure and the processes are not optimized. Beyond the understanding of the defect and the discussion on the engineering solutions used to prevent its formation, the interest of this investigation also lies in the fundamental learning within the Ni–Pt–Si–Ge system and some additional perspective on Ni-based contacts to advanced microelectronic devices.

  19. Transmission of wireless neural signals through a 0.18 µm CMOS low-power amplifier.

    PubMed

    Gazziro, M; Braga, C F R; Moreira, D A; Carvalho, A C P L F; Rodrigues, J F; Navarro, J S; Ardila, J C M; Mioni, D P; Pessatti, M; Fabbro, P; Freewin, C; Saddow, S E

    2015-01-01

    In the field of Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) researchers still are not able to produce clinically viable solutions that meet the requirements of long-term operation without the use of wires or batteries. Another problem is neural compatibility with the electrode probes. One of the possible ways of approaching these problems is the use of semiconductor biocompatible materials (silicon carbide) combined with an integrated circuit designed to operate with low power consumption. This paper describes a low-power neural signal amplifier chip, named Cortex, fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process technology with all electronics integrated in an area of 0.40 mm(2). The chip has 4 channels, total power consumption of only 144 μW, and is impedance matched to silicon carbide biocompatible electrodes.

  20. GSFC magnetic field experiment Explorer 43. [describing magnetometer, data processor, and telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seek, J. B.; Scheifele, J. L.; Ness, N. F.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic field experiment flown on Explorer 43 is described. The detecting instrument is a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer which is mounted on a boom with a flipping mechanism for reorienting the sensor in flight. An on-board data processor takes successive magnetometer samples and transmits differences to the telemetry system. By examining these differences in conjunction with an untruncated sample transmitted periodically, the original data may be uniquely reconstructed on the ground.

  1. Lunar core detection using data from a single orbiting magnetometer - A feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.; Hartdegen, K.

    1997-03-01

    An investigation is conducted of the detectability of a lunar core in the presence of a realistic magnetic field and plasma disturbances in the geomagnetic tail, at distances comparable to the lunar orbit radius of 60 Earth radii. The magnetometer and plasma data employed are from ISEE-3, for the period from October 1982 to April 1983. A single orbiting magnetometer is projected to render the core detectable if it is larger than 400 km in radius.

  2. Magnetic induction tomography using an all-optical ⁸⁷Rb atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Wickenbrock, Arne; Jurgilas, Sarunas; Dow, Albert; Marmugi, Luca; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate magnetic induction tomography (MIT) with an all-optical atomic magnetometer. Our instrument creates a conductivity map of conductive objects. Both the shape and size of the imaged samples compare very well with the actual shape and size. Given the potential of all-optical atomic magnetometers for miniaturization and extreme sensitivity, the proof-of-principle presented in this Letter opens up promising avenues in the development of instrumentation for MIT.

  3. Estimation of Depth, Orientation, Length and Diameter of Long, Horizontal Ferrous Rods Using a Fluxgate Magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    applications where a horizontal ferrous rod, rope, pipe or cable lies underneath a smooth planar surface at a constant depth. In such cases one often...Brown sensor as the preferred magnetometer and by constructing preliminary magnetometer sensors and circuits. Richard Pinnell , formerly with TDG...smooth planar surface at a constant depth. In such cases one often would like to determine the position and orientation in the plane, the depth of

  4. Elastomers Compatible With High-Pressure Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jon W.

    1987-01-01

    Compatibility increased by fluorination. Report describes experiments aimed at improving compatibility of some fluorinated elastomers with high-pressure oxygen. Such elastomers needed for seals, gaskets, and positive-expulsion devices used with high-pressure oxygen. Oxygen - compatibility tests carried out on five elastomers chosen on the basis of literature survey.

  5. Compatible poliomyelitis cases in India during 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Kathryn A.; Hlady, W. Gary; Banerjee, Kaushik; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Francis, Paul; Durrani, Sunita; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Sutter, Roland W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of compatible poliomyelitis cases and to assess the programmatic implications of clusters of such cases in India. METHODS: We described the characteristics of compatible poliomyelitis cases, identified clusters of compatible cases (two or more in the same district or neighbouring districts within two months), and examined their relationship to wild poliovirus cases. FINDINGS: There were 362 compatible cases in 2000. The incidence of compatible cases was higher in districts with laboratory-confirmed poliomyelitis cases than in districts without laboratory-confirmed cases. Of 580 districts, 96 reported one compatible case and 72 reported two or more compatible cases. Among these 168 districts with at least one compatible case, 123 had internal or cross- border clusters of compatible cases. In 27 districts with clusters of compatible cases, no wild poliovirus was isolated either in the same district or in neighbouring districts. Three of these 27 districts presented laboratory-confirmed poliomyelitis cases during 2001. CONCLUSION: Most clusters of compatible cases occurred in districts identified as areas with continuing wild poliovirus transmission and where mopping-up vaccination campaigns were carried out. As certification nears, areas with compatible poliomyelitis cases should be investigated and deficiencies in surveillance should be corrected in order to ensure that certification is justified. PMID:12640469

  6. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Optically Pumped Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized device can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). In addition, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience.

  7. Ultra-sensitive magnetic microscopy with an optically pumped magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich

    2016-04-22

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized device can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). Additionally, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience.

  8. Atomic magnetometer-based ultra-sensitive magnetic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor

    2016-03-01

    An atomic magnetometer (AM) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells is currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic-field sensor. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high resolution, high sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this need we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free AM with a flux guide (FG) to produce an ultra-sensitive FG-AM magnetic microscope. The FG serves to transmit the target magnetic flux to the AM thus enhancing both the sensitivity and resolution for tiny magnetic objects. In this talk, we will describe a prototype FG-AM device and present experimental and numerical tests of its sensitivity and resolution. We also demonstrate that an optimized FG-AM achieves high resolution and high sensitivity sufficient to detect a magnetic field of a single neuron in a few seconds, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience. We anticipate that this unique device can be applied to the detection of a single neuron, the detection of magnetic nano-particles, which in turn are very important for detection of target molecules in national security and medical diagnostics, and non-destructive testing.

  9. Ultra-sensitive magnetic microscopy with an optically pumped magnetometer

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich

    2016-04-22

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized devicemore » can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). Additionally, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience.« less

  10. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Optically Pumped Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor

    2016-04-22

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized device can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). In addition, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience.

  11. The Galileo Earth encounter - Magnetometer and allied measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Kennel, C. F.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.; Southwood, D. J.; Walker, R. J.; Khurana, K. K.; Coleman, P. J.; Hammond, C. M.; Angelopoulos, V.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the Galileo magnetometer observations from the crossing of the tail magnetopause at an antisolar distance of close to 100 R(E) through exit into the solar wind on the dayside is presented. These measurements are linked with correlative data from ground stations and from IMP 8 which was ideally located to serve as a monitor of the solar wind upstream of the bow shock. A time line of the important geomagnetic events of the day that provides a framework for the full multiinstrument analysis of the flyby data is presented. The observations are used to investigate apsects of the relationship between magnetotail dynamics and the separate intensifications of a multiple onset substorm inferred from ground-based data. It is proposed that the signatures associated with individual substorm intensifications are localized in the dawn-to-dusk extent even at remote locations in the magnetotail, just as they are in the ionosphere, and that the tail disturbances associated with successive substorm intensifications step across the tail towards the dusk flank.

  12. Integration of micro-fabricated atomic magnetometers on military systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gregory; Mhaskar, Rahul; Prouty, Mark; Miller, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    A new generation of ultra-high sensitivity magnetic sensors based on innovative micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are being developed and incorporated into military systems. Specifically, we are currently working to fully integrate the latest generation of MicroFabricated Atomic Magnetometers (MFAMs) developed by Geometrics on defense mobility systems such as unmanned systems, military vehicles and handheld units. Recent reductions in size, weight, and power of these sensors has enabled new deployment opportunities for improved sensitivity to targets of interest, but has also introduced new challenges associated with noise mitigation, mission configuration planning, and data processing. Our work is focused on overcoming the practical aspects of integrating these sensors with various military platforms. Implications associated with utilizing these combined sensor systems in working environments are addressed in order to optimize signal-to-noise ratios, detection probabilities, and false alarm mitigation. Specifically, we present collaborative work that bridges the gap between commercial specialists and operation platform integration organizations including magnetic signature characterization and mitigation as well as the development of simulation tools that consider a wide array of sensor, environmental, platform, and mission-level parameters. We discuss unique deployment concepts for explosive hazard target geolocation, and data processing. Applications include configurations for undersea and underground threat detection - particularly those associated with stationary or mobile explosives and compact metallic targets such as munitions, subsea threats, and other hazardous objects. We show the potential of current and future features of miniaturized magnetic sensors including very high magnetic field sensitivities, bandwidth selectivity, and array processing.

  13. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Optically Pumped Magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells are currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic field sensors. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high-resolution, high-sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this demand we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) OPM and flux guides (FGs) to realize an ultra-sensitive FG-OPM magnetic microscope. The FGs serve to transmit the target magnetic flux to the OPM thus improving both the resolution and sensitivity to small magnetic objects. We investigated the performance of the FG-OPM device using experimental and numerical methods, and demonstrated that an optimized device can achieve a unique combination of high resolution (80 μm) and high sensitivity (8.1 pT/). In addition, we also performed numerical calculations of the magnetic field distribution in the FGs to estimate the magnetic noise originating from the domain fluctuations in the material of the FGs. We anticipate many applications of the FG-OPM device such as the detection of micro-biological magnetic fields; the detection of magnetic nano-particles; and non-destructive testing. From our theoretical estimate, an FG-OPM could detect the magnetic field of a single neuron, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience. PMID:27103463

  14. Low-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides at the nanoscale (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Y.; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Kirtaev, Roman V.; Volkov, Valentyn S.

    2016-05-01

    Implementation of optical components in microprocessors can increase their performance by orders of magnitude. However, the size of optical elements is fundamentally limited by diffraction, while miniaturization is one of the essential concepts in the development of high-speed and energy-efficient electronic chips. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are widely considered to be promising candidates for the next generation of chip-scale technology thanks to the ability to break down the fundamental diffraction limit and manipulate optical signals at the truly nometer scale. In the past years, a variety of deep-subwavelength plasmonic structures have been proposed and investigated, including dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides, V-groove waveguides, hybrid plasmonic waveguides and metal nanowires. At the same time, for practical application, such waveguide structures must be integrated on a silicon chip and be fabricated using CMOS fabrication process. However, to date, acceptable characteristics have been demonstrated only with noble metals (gold and silver), which are not compatible with industry-standard manufacturing technologies. On the other hand, alternative materials introduce enormous propagation losses due absorption in the metal. This prevents plasmonic components from implementation in on-chip nanophotonic circuits. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time that copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a CMOS compatible process can outperform gold waveguides showing the same level of mode confinement and lower propagation losses. At telecommunication wavelengths, the fabricated ultralow-loss deep-subwavelength hybrid plasmonic waveguides ensure a relatively long propagation length of more than 50 um along with strong mode confinement with the mode size down to lambda^2/70, which is confirmed by direct scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) measurements. These results create the backbone for design and development of high

  15. Usefulness of MEG magnetometer for spike detection in patients with mesial temporal epileptic focus.

    PubMed

    Enatsu, R; Mikuni, N; Usui, K; Matsubayashi, J; Taki, J; Begum, T; Matsumoto, R; Ikeda, A; Nagamine, T; Fukuyama, H; Hashimoto, N

    2008-07-15

    The present study investigated the sensitivity of magnetoencephalography (MEG) for spikes depending on sensor type in patients with mesial temporal epileptic focus. We recorded MEG in 6 patients with mesial temporal epileptic focus using two sensor types (magnetometer and gradiometer) simultaneously. The number of spikes detected and the corresponding equivalent current dipole (ECD) parameters (distance from the coordinated head center (radius), and dipole moment) were evaluated with respect to sensor type. Among 426 MEG 'consensus spikes' determined by 3 reviewers, 378 spikes satisfied the predetermined criteria for source localization. Comparing ECD parameters, spikes detected by magnetometer alone displayed a smaller radius and larger dipole moment than those detected by gradiometer alone. Spikes estimated in the mesial temporal area were more frequently detected by magnetometer alone (38.5%) than by gradiometer alone (11.5%), whereas spikes in the lateral temporal area were detected less by magnetometer alone (3.7%) than by gradiometer alone (53.9%). The present results suggest that a magnetometer is advantageous for spike detection in patients with mesial temporal epileptic focus. This also implies the higher sensitivity of magnetometer for deep sources.

  16. Digital data-acquisition system for use with a proton-precession base-station magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    McPherron, R.L.

    1982-08-26

    At UCLA the base station magnetometer is a Scintrex MB -2 which uses a two inch wide chart record scaled to 100 nT. The magnetometer is also equipped with a digital readout. This is available in BCD format on a 37 pin connector at the back of the instrument. This reading may be recorded digitally if an appropriate data acquisition and storage system is available. The recent development of inexpensive microcomputers and audio cassette recorders provided motivation for our exploration group to develop a digital data acquisition system for the existing base station magnetometer. A block diagram of the data acquisition system is presented. The microcomputer utilizes a R6502 as the central processor. Data are entered into the computer via a 12 key keypad and are displayed on a 6 digit liquid crystal display. Data from the Scintrex base magnetometer is passed to the microcomputer via a 37 line connector. One line of this connector is used to signal the status of the internally controlled sampling circuit in the base station magnetometer. Digital data are stored temporarily in RAM memory until an output buffer is filled. When this occurs power is applied to the audio cassette tape transport mechanism and after a short delay a block of data is written onto tape. The tape interface implements the Kansas City standard which is nearly universally used for microcomputer recording on audio cassette recorders. The entire system is powered by the same 12V dc battery used by the base station magnetometer. (WHK)

  17. Low frequency magnetic field suppression in an atomic spin co-magnetometer with a large electron magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Chen, Yao; Zou, Sheng; Liu, Xuejing; Hu, Zhaohui; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Ding, Ming

    2016-03-01

    In a K-Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer, the Rb electron magnetic field which is experienced by the nuclear spin is about 100 times larger than that of the K in a K-3He co-magnetometer. The large electron magnetic field which is neglected in the K-3He co-magnetometer coupled Bloch equations model is considered here in the K-Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer to study the low frequency magnetic field suppression effect. Theoretical analysis and experimental results shows that in the K-Rb-21Ne spin co-magnetometer, not only the nuclear spin but also the large electron spin magnetic field compensate the external magnetic field noise. By comparison, only the 3He nuclear spins mainly compensate the external magnetic field noise in a K-3He co-magnetometer. With this study, in addition to just increasing the magnetic field of the nuclear spins, we can suppress the magnetic field noise by increasing the density of the electron spin. We also studied how the magnetic field suppression effect relates to the scale factor of the K-Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer and we compared the scale factor with that of the K-3He co-magnetometer. Lastly, we show the sensitivity of our co-magnetometer. The magnetic field noise, the air density fluctuation noise and pumping power optimization are studied to improve the sensitivity of the co-magnetometer.

  18. Monolithic CMUT on CMOS Integration for Intravascular Ultrasound Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zahorian, Jaime; Hochman, Michael; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Gurun, Gokce; Karaman, Mustafa; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important promises of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is integration with electronics. This approach is required to minimize the parasitic capacitances in the receive mode, especially in catheter based volumetric imaging arrays where the elements need to be small. Furthermore, optimization of the available silicon area and minimized number of connections occurs when the CMUTs are fabricated directly above the associated electronics. Here, we describe successful fabrication and performance evaluation of CMUT arrays for intravascular imaging on custom designed CMOS receiver electronics from a commercial IC foundry. The CMUT on CMOS process starts with surface isolation and mechanical planarization of the CMOS electronics to reduce topography. The rest of the CMUT fabrication is achieved by modifying a low temperature micromachining process through the addition of a single mask and developing a dry etching step to produce sloped sidewalls for simple and reliable CMUT to CMOS interconnection. This CMUT to CMOS interconnect method reduced the parasitic capacitance by a factor of 200 when compared with a standard wire bonding method. Characterization experiments indicate that the CMUT on CMOS elements are uniform in frequency response and are similar to CMUTs simultaneously fabricated on standard silicon wafers without electronics integration. Experiments on a 1.6 mm diameter dual-ring CMUT array with a 15 MHz center frequency show that both the CMUTs and the integrated CMOS electronics are fully functional. The SNR measurements indicate that the performance is adequate for imaging CTOs located 1 cm away from the CMUT array. PMID:23443701

  19. All-CMOS night vision viewer with integrated microdisplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goosen, Marius E.; Venter, Petrus J.; du Plessis, Monuko; Faure, Nicolaas M.; Janse van Rensburg, Christo; Rademeyer, Pieter

    2014-02-01

    The unrivalled integration potential of CMOS has made it the dominant technology for digital integrated circuits. With the advent of visible light emission from silicon through hot carrier electroluminescence, several applications arose, all of which rely upon the advantages of mature CMOS technologies for a competitive edge in a very active and attractive market. In this paper we present a low-cost night vision viewer which employs only standard CMOS technologies. A commercial CMOS imager is utilized for near infrared image capturing with a 128x96 pixel all-CMOS microdisplay implemented to convey the image to the user. The display is implemented in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, with no process alterations or post processing. The display features a 25 μm pixel pitch and a 3.2 mm x 2.4 mm active area, which through magnification presents the virtual image to the user equivalent of a 19-inch display viewed from a distance of 3 meters. This work represents the first application of a CMOS microdisplay in a low-cost consumer product.

  20. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  1. Ink-Jet Printed CMOS Electronics from Oxide Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Garlapati, Suresh Kumar; Baby, Tessy Theres; Dehm, Simone; Hammad, Mohammed; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Kruk, Robert; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2015-08-05

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology with high transconductance and signal gain is mandatory for practicable digital/analog logic electronics. However, high performance all-oxide CMOS logics are scarcely reported in the literature; specifically, not at all for solution-processed/printed transistors. As a major step toward solution-processed all-oxide electronics, here it is shown that using a highly efficient electrolyte-gating approach one can obtain printed and low-voltage operated oxide CMOS logics with high signal gain (≈21 at a supply voltage of only 1.5 V) and low static power dissipation.

  2. Lower-Dark-Current, Higher-Blue-Response CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Hancock, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Several improved designs for complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image detectors have been developed, primarily to reduce dark currents (leakage currents) and secondarily to increase responses to blue light and increase signal-handling capacities, relative to those of prior CMOS imagers. The main conclusion that can be drawn from a study of the causes of dark currents in prior CMOS imagers is that dark currents could be reduced by relocating p/n junctions away from Si/SiO2 interfaces. In addition to reflecting this conclusion, the improved designs include several other features to counteract dark-current mechanisms and enhance performance.

  3. A monolithically integrated torsional CMOS-MEMS relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riverola, M.; Sobreviela, G.; Torres, F.; Uranga, A.; Barniol, N.

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental demonstrations of a torsional microelectromechanical (MEM) relay fabricated using the CMOS-MEMS approach (or intra-CMOS) which exploits the full foundry inherent characteristics enabling drastic reduction of the fabrication costs and batch production. In particular, the relay is monolithically integrated in the back end of line of a commercial standard CMOS technology (AMS 0.35 μm) and released by means of a simple one-step mask-less wet etching. The fabricated torsional relay exhibits an extremely steep switching behaviour symmetrical about both contact sides with an on-state contact resistance in the k Ω -range throughout the on-off cycling test.

  4. Vector AC Stark shift in 133Cs atomic magnetometers with antirelaraxion coated cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhivun, Elena

    The main focus of this dissertation is investigation of vector AC Stark shifts (light shifts) in evacuated 133Cs paraffin-coated cells. Although light shifts in alkali atoms have been investigated since 1960s, the effect of laser-induced vector light shifts (VLS) in paraffin-coated cells is little explored in literature. The works considering light shift effects primarily focus on transitions relevant for atomic clocks, or magnetometers using buffer gas cells, or magnetometers using broad-spectrum alkali metal lamps. This work, on the other hand, focuses on light shifts in a setup shared by finite-field optical magnetometers that use paraffin-coated sensor cells, as well as on their impact on sensitivity and accuracy of these devices. Along with describing the light shifts, this work presents several techniques that take advantage of the VLS to improve atomic magnetometers as a tool. The proposed techniques eliminate the need for oscillating radio-frequency magnetic fields and replace them with well contained laser beams. This can benefit applications where non-magnetic sensors are needed and stray fields are highly undesirable, such as the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron. This dissertation includes two such projects, the all-optical vector magnetometer and the rf magnetometer driven by a fictitious magnetic field. In the first project a finite-field optical magnetometer, which is normally a scalar sensor, is augmented with two power-modulated orthogonal laser beams that provide the directional sensitivity. The sensor exhibits a demonstrated rms noise floor of 50 fT/√Hz in measurement of the field magnitude and 0.5 mrad/√Hz in the field direction. Elimination of technical noise would improve these sensitivities to 12 fT/√Hz and 5 murad/√Hz, respectively. In the second project, the atomic precession in a scalar 133Cs magnetometer is driven by an effective oscillating magnetic field provided by the AC Stark shift of an intensity

  5. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  6. 77 FR 59702 - Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... greater transatlantic regulatory compatibility generally. Concrete ideas on how greater compatibility.... We also invite you to share your concrete ideas on how greater compatibility could be achieved in...

  7. Radiation tolerant 1 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevel, P.; Rodde, K.

    1991-03-01

    Starting from a standard one micron Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) for high density, low power memory applications, the degree of radiation tolerance of the baseline process is evaluated. Implemented process modifications to improve latchup sensitivity under heavy ion irradiation as well as total dose effects without changing layout rules are described. By changing doping profiles in Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductors (MNOS) and P-channel MOS (PMOS) device regions, it is possible to guarantee data sheet specification of a 64 K low power static RAM for total gamma dose up to 35 krad (Si) (and even higher values for the gate array family) without latch up for Linear Energy Transfer LET up to 115 MeV/(mg/cm squared).

  8. Latchup in CMOS devices from heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, K.; Nichols, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microcircuits are inherently latchup prone. The four-layer n-p-n-p structures formed from the parasitic pnp and npn transistors make up a silicon controlled rectifier. If properly biased, this rectifier may be triggered 'ON' by electrical transients, ionizing radiation, or a single heavy ion. This latchup phenomenon might lead to a loss of functionality or device burnout. Results are presented from tests on 19 different device types from six manufacturers which investigate their latchup sensitivity with argon and krypton beams. The parasitic npnp paths are identified in general, and a qualitative rationale is given for latchup susceptibility, along with a latchup cross section for each type of device. Also presented is the correlation between bit-flip sensitivity and latchup susceptibility.

  9. CMOS imager for pointing and tracking applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Heynssens, Julie B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Systems and techniques to realize pointing and tracking applications with CMOS imaging devices. In general, in one implementation, the technique includes: sampling multiple rows and multiple columns of an active pixel sensor array into a memory array (e.g., an on-chip memory array), and reading out the multiple rows and multiple columns sampled in the memory array to provide image data with reduced motion artifact. Various operation modes may be provided, including TDS, CDS, CQS, a tracking mode to read out multiple windows, and/or a mode employing a sample-first-read-later readout scheme. The tracking mode can take advantage of a diagonal switch array. The diagonal switch array, the active pixel sensor array and the memory array can be integrated onto a single imager chip with a controller. This imager device can be part of a larger imaging system for both space-based applications and terrestrial applications.

  10. CMOS digital pixel sensors: technology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2014-04-01

    CMOS active pixel sensor technology, which is widely used these days for digital imaging, is based on analog pixels. Transition to digital pixel sensors can boost signal-to-noise ratios and enhance image quality, but can increase pixel area to dimensions that are impractical for the high-volume market of consumer electronic devices. There are two main approaches to digital pixel design. The first uses digitization methods that largely rely on photodetector properties and so are unique to imaging. The second is based on adaptation of a classical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for in-pixel data conversion. Imaging systems for medical, industrial, and security applications are emerging lower-volume markets that can benefit from these in-pixel ADCs. With these applications, larger pixels are typically acceptable, and imaging may be done in invisible spectral bands.

  11. On the control of magnetic perturbing field onboard landers: the Magnetometer Protection program for the ESA ExoMars/Humboldt MSMO magnetometer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menvielle, M.; Primdahl, F.; Brauer, P.; Falkenberg, T. V.; Jensen, P. A.; Merayo, J. M.; Vennerstrom, S.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic field observations at a planetary surface have a wide potential of scientific applications, ranging from processes in the dynamic interaction between the planet environment and the solar wind, to determining the structure and thermal evolution of the interior of the planet as well as characterizing its sub-surface. Magnetic fields are generated by electric currents in the planetary space environment, induced currents in the planetary interior and possibly remanent magnetism. In consequence, hardly any other single physical quantity can be used in such a variety of studies related to planetary research. The major difficulty in implementing a magnetometer experiment onboard a lander is to achieve at acceptable costs a good Magnetometer Protection, namely to control the perturbing magnetic field generated by the lander during operations at the planetary surface, so as to achieve the least magnetic contamination of the magnetometer data by lander generated magnetic perturbations, and thus the best possible magnetic signal to magnetic noise ratio, thus ensuring the best possible magnetometer experiment science return. The purpose of this talk is to show that simple and non-expensive solutions enable one to limit the intensity of lander generated perturbing magnetic fields to levels that are compliant with the science based measurement requirements. The presented solutions are based upon ‘best effort' to being critically concerned with magnetic noise reduction, with emphasis on good and simple engineering techniques enabling minimization of and control over the magnetic perturbations at the magnetometer sensor during the surface operations phase. The presentation deals with the case history of the ongoing preparation of the MSMO magnetometer experiment, which is part the Humboldt scientific payload in the frame of the ESA ExoMars mission. Experience from previous missions constitutes the background for the MSMO Magnetometer Protection strategy. DC and AC

  12. Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. McKay; Matthew O. Anderson

    2011-08-01

    Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly

  13. MESSENGER Magnetometer Observations of the Plasma Distribution in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.; Raines, J. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Johnson, C. L.; Purucker, M. E.; Winslow, R. M.; Zurbuchen, T.; Solomon, S. C.; McNutt, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Since insertion of the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft into orbit around Mercury on 18 March 2011, the Magnetometer (MAG) has routinely observed localized reductions of the magnetic field magnitude below the level predicted by a planetary dipole model corrected for magnetospheric magnetic fields. These magnetic depressions are observed on almost every orbit, and the latitude at which they are observed is local-time dependent. The depression signatures are indicators for the presence of enhanced plasma populations, which inflate the magnetic field locally to maintain pressure balance, thus lowering the magnetic flux density. Mapping the magnetic depressions in local time and latitude, the MAG observations provide comprehensive insight into the plasma distribution near the planet, which is complementary to that provided by MESSENGER's Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS). The spatial distribution shows that magnetic depressions are concentrated in two distinct regions. First, there is a population in the nightside equatorial region extending from dusk to dawn, which is offset northward from the planetary geographic equator by about 10°, commensurate with the offset of the planetary dipole. The extent of this population is indicative of the plasma sheet located in the equatorial magnetotail. A second concentration of magnetic depressions is found at high latitudes, predominantly on the dayside, and is associated with the magnetospheric cusp. The magnitude of the pressures associated with the depressions ranges from 0.1 to 3 nPa in the equatorial region, shows a systematic gradient from dusk to dawn, and reaches 10 nPa at high latitudes. We discuss the MAG observations and interpret the dusk-to-dawn gradient in the derived pressure distribution with a simple paradigm of particle drifts within Mercury's magnetosphere.

  14. Attitude-Independent Magnetometer Calibration for Spin-Stabilized Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natanson, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes a three-step estimator to calibrate a Three-Axis Magnetometer (TAM) using TAM and slit Sun or star sensor measurements. In the first step, the Calibration Utility forms a loss function from the residuals of the magnitude of the geomagnetic field. This loss function is minimized with respect to biases, scale factors, and nonorthogonality corrections. The second step minimizes residuals of the projection of the geomagnetic field onto the spin axis under the assumption that spacecraft nutation has been suppressed by a nutation damper. Minimization is done with respect to various directions of the body spin axis in the TAM frame. The direction of the spin axis in the inertial coordinate system required for the residual computation is assumed to be unchanged with time. It is either determined independently using other sensors or included in the estimation parameters. In both cases all estimation parameters can be found using simple analytical formulas derived in the paper. The last step is to minimize a third loss function formed by residuals of the dot product between the geomagnetic field and Sun or star vector with respect to the misalignment angle about the body spin axis. The method is illustrated by calibrating TAM for the Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST) using in-flight TAM and Sun sensor data. The estimated parameters include magnetic biases, scale factors, and misalignment angles of the spin axis in the TAM frame. Estimation of the misalignment angle about the spin axis was inconclusive since (at least for the selected time interval) the Sun vector was about 15 degrees from the direction of the spin axis; as a result residuals of the dot product between the geomagnetic field and Sun vectors were to a large extent minimized as a by-product of the second step.

  15. Novel calibration algorithm for a three-axis strapdown magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan Xia; Li, Xi Sheng; Zhang, Xiao Juan; Feng, Yi Bo

    2014-05-14

    A complete error calibration model with 12 independent parameters is established by analyzing the three-axis magnetometer error mechanism. The said model conforms to an ellipsoid restriction, the parameters of the ellipsoid equation are estimated, and the ellipsoid coefficient matrix is derived. However, the calibration matrix cannot be determined completely, as there are fewer ellipsoid parameters than calibration model parameters. Mathematically, the calibration matrix derived from the ellipsoid coefficient matrix by a different matrix decomposition method is not unique, and there exists an unknown rotation matrix R between them. This paper puts forward a constant intersection angle method (angles between the geomagnetic field and gravitational field are fixed) to estimate R. The Tikhonov method is adopted to solve the problem that rounding errors or other errors may seriously affect the calculation results of R when the condition number of the matrix is very large. The geomagnetic field vector and heading error are further corrected by R. The constant intersection angle method is convenient and practical, as it is free from any additional calibration procedure or coordinate transformation. In addition, the simulation experiment indicates that the heading error declines from ±1° calibrated by classical ellipsoid fitting to ±0.2° calibrated by a constant intersection angle method, and the signal-to-noise ratio is 50 dB. The actual experiment exhibits that the heading error is further corrected from ±0.8° calibrated by the classical ellipsoid fitting to ±0.3° calibrated by a constant intersection angle method.

  16. Real-time threat detection using magnetometer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prouty, Mark D.; Tchernychev, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present a discussion of using an array of atomic magnetometers to locate the presence of ferrous materials, such as concealed weapons, in real time. Ferrous materials create magnetic field anomalies. In order to determine the location of such objects, readings from many positions must be analyzed. This field inversion is typically done in post processing, once readings over a survey area or region of interest have been gathered. With the recent development of small and low power sensors, the dozen or so sensors required to provide information for magnetic field inversion may be deployed. We have built such an array and present here the results of using a realtime inversion algorithm. The inversion algorithm accurately determines target properties at a rate of 10 times per second as objects move past the array. Accuracies are as good as those obtained with target inversion methods used in analyzing data for unexploded ordnance detection. While those methods are typically applied in post processing, we show here those methods work even better when applied in real-time. We further present some analyses of the predicted performance of arrays in various geometries to address issues in security, such as crowd or perimeter monitoring. Target inversion methods may be accurately simulated, allowing for the development and testing of algorithms in an efficient manner. Additional processing may be done using the time history of the inversion results to remove false alarms and enhance detection. The key step is to start with an inversion method, utilizing the mathematical properties of magnetic fields and the known geometry of the measurements.

  17. Mercury's magnetopause and bow shock from MESSENGER Magnetometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, Reka M.; Anderson, Brian J.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Slavin, James A.; Korth, Haje; Purucker, Michael E.; Baker, Daniel N.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2013-05-01

    We have established the average shape and location of Mercury's magnetopause and bow shock from orbital observations by the MESSENGER Magnetometer. We fit empirical models to midpoints of boundary crossings and probability density maps of the magnetopause and bow shock positions. The magnetopause was fit by a surface for which the position R from the planetary dipole varies as [1 + cos(θ)]-α, where θ is the angle between R and the dipole-Sun line, the subsolar standoff distance Rss is 1.45 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius), and the flaring parameter α = 0.5. The average magnetopause shape and location were determined under a mean solar wind ram pressure PRam of 14.3 nPa. The best fit bow shock shape established under an average Alfvén Mach number (MA) of 6.6 is described by a hyperboloid having Rss = 1.96 RM and an eccentricity of 1.02. These boundaries move as PRam and MA vary, but their shapes remain unchanged. The magnetopause Rss varies from 1.55 to 1.35 RM for PRam in the range of 8.8-21.6 nPa. The bow shock Rss varies from 2.29 to 1.89 RM for MA in the range of 4.12-11.8. The boundaries are well approximated by figures of revolution. Additional quantifiable effects of the interplanetary magnetic field are masked by the large dynamic variability of these boundaries. The magnetotail surface is nearly cylindrical, with a radius of ~2.7 RM at a distance of 3 RM downstream of Mercury. By comparison, Earth's magnetotail flaring continues until a downstream distance of ~10 Rss.

  18. A Multipurpose CMOS Platform for Nanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Alberto; Sanginario, Alessandro; Marasso, Simone L.; Miccoli, Beatrice; Bejtka, Katarzyna; Benetto, Simone; Demarchi, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a customizable sensing system based on functionalized nanowires (NWs) assembled onto complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The Micro-for-Nano (M4N) chip integrates on top of the electronics an array of aluminum microelectrodes covered with gold by means of a customized electroless plating process. The NW assembly process is driven by an array of on-chip dielectrophoresis (DEP) generators, enabling a custom layout of different nanosensors on the same microelectrode array. The electrical properties of each assembled NW are singularly sensed through an in situ CMOS read-out circuit (ROC) that guarantees a low noise and reliable measurement. The M4N chip is directly connected to an external microcontroller for configuration and data processing. The processed data are then redirected to a workstation for real-time data visualization and storage during sensing experiments. As proof of concept, ZnO nanowires have been integrated onto the M4N chip to validate the approach that enables different kind of sensing experiments. The device has been then irradiated by an external UV source with adjustable power to measure the ZnO sensitivity to UV-light exposure. A maximum variation of about 80% of the ZnO-NW resistance has been detected by the M4N system when the assembled 5 μm × 500 nm single ZnO-NW is exposed to an estimated incident radiant UV-light flux in the range of 1 nW–229 nW. The performed experiments prove the efficiency of the platform conceived for exploiting any kind of material that can change its capacitance and/or resistance due to an external stimulus. PMID:27916911

  19. A Multipurpose CMOS Platform for Nanosensing.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Alberto; Sanginario, Alessandro; Marasso, Simone L; Miccoli, Beatrice; Bejtka, Katarzyna; Benetto, Simone; Demarchi, Danilo

    2016-11-30

    This paper presents a customizable sensing system based on functionalized nanowires (NWs) assembled onto complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The Micro-for-Nano (M4N) chip integrates on top of the electronics an array of aluminum microelectrodes covered with gold by means of a customized electroless plating process. The NW assembly process is driven by an array of on-chip dielectrophoresis (DEP) generators, enabling a custom layout of different nanosensors on the same microelectrode array. The electrical properties of each assembled NW are singularly sensed through an in situ CMOS read-out circuit (ROC) that guarantees a low noise and reliable measurement. The M4N chip is directly connected to an external microcontroller for configuration and data processing. The processed data are then redirected to a workstation for real-time data visualization and storage during sensing experiments. As proof of concept, ZnO nanowires have been integrated onto the M4N chip to validate the approach that enables different kind of sensing experiments. The device has been then irradiated by an external UV source with adjustable power to measure the ZnO sensitivity to UV-light exposure. A maximum variation of about 80% of the ZnO-NW resistance has been detected by the M4N system when the assembled 5 μ m × 500 nm single ZnO-NW is exposed to an estimated incident radiant UV-light flux in the range of 1 nW-229 nW. The performed experiments prove the efficiency of the platform conceived for exploiting any kind of material that can change its capacitance and/or resistance due to an external stimulus.

  20. Compatibility of bentonite and DNAPLs

    SciTech Connect

    McCaulou, D.R.; Huling, S.G.

    1999-10-01

    The compatibility of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (MC), and creosote with commercially available sodium bentonite pellets was evaluated using stainless steel, double ring, falling head permeameters. The hydraulic conductivity (K) of the bentonite clay was measured under three experimental conditions: (1) water soluble constituents of the DNAPLs were used to hydrate and permeate the bentonite; (2) bentonite pellets were submersed in DNAPL prior to hydration and permeation with water; and (3) DNAPLs were pooled on water-hydrated bentonite. Further, the effect of hydraulic head on water-hydrated bentonite permeated with TCE and the effects of TCE exposure time to mixtures of bentonite grout and sand were measured.

  1. X-ray tomography using a CMOS area detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, A.; Cesareo, R.

    2007-05-01

    A flat panel based on CMOS technology represents a valid alternative to other kinds of flat panels and to ccd detectors for X-ray imaging. Although the spatial resolution of the ccd sensors is better than that of a CMOS sensor, the last has a larger sensitive-area and it can work at room temperature reaching a dynamic performance comparable to that of a cooled ccd sensor. Other kinds of flat panels, such as TFT screen are much more expensive and they have lower spatial resolution and higher noise than the CMOS detector. In this paper, an application of the CMOS sensor to X-ray tomography is described. Preliminary results are reported and discussed.

  2. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology and Reliability Characterization Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Guertin, Steven M.; Pain, Bedabrata; Kayaii, Sammy

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the technology, design features and reliability characterization methodology of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. Both overall chip reliability and pixel reliability are projected for the imagers.

  3. Tests of commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhvala, S. M.; Reshetnyk, V. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    We present some results of testing commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications. Colour CMOS sensors allow to perform photometry in three filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR colour system realized in colour CMOS sensors is close to the astronomical Johnson BVR system. The basic camera characteristics: read noise (e^{-}/pix), thermal noise (e^{-}/pix/sec) and electronic gain (e^{-}/ADU) for the commercial digital camera Canon 5D MarkIII are presented. We give the same characteristics for the scientific high performance cooled CCD camera system ALTA E47. Comparing results for tests of Canon 5D MarkIII and CCD ALTA E47 show that present-day commercial colour CMOS cameras can seriously compete with the scientific CCD cameras in deep astronomical imaging.

  4. CMOS Electrochemical Instrumentation for Biosensor Microsystems: A Review.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Xiaowen; Li, Lin; Mu, Xiaoyi; Genov, Roman; Mason, Andrew J

    2016-12-31

    Modern biosensors play a critical role in healthcare and have a quickly growing commercial market. Compared to traditional optical-based sensing, electrochemical biosensors are attractive due to superior performance in response time, cost, complexity and potential for miniaturization. To address the shortcomings of traditional benchtop electrochemical instruments, in recent years, many complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) instrumentation circuits have been reported for electrochemical biosensors. This paper provides a review and analysis of CMOS electrochemical instrumentation circuits. First, important concepts in electrochemical sensing are presented from an instrumentation point of view. Then, electrochemical instrumentation circuits are organized into functional classes, and reported CMOS circuits are reviewed and analyzed to illuminate design options and performance tradeoffs. Finally, recent trends and challenges toward on-CMOS sensor integration that could enable highly miniaturized electrochemical biosensor microsystems are discussed. The information in the paper can guide next generation electrochemical sensor design.

  5. CMOS Electrochemical Instrumentation for Biosensor Microsystems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Xiaowen; Li, Lin; Mu, Xiaoyi; Genov, Roman; Mason, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Modern biosensors play a critical role in healthcare and have a quickly growing commercial market. Compared to traditional optical-based sensing, electrochemical biosensors are attractive due to superior performance in response time, cost, complexity and potential for miniaturization. To address the shortcomings of traditional benchtop electrochemical instruments, in recent years, many complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) instrumentation circuits have been reported for electrochemical biosensors. This paper provides a review and analysis of CMOS electrochemical instrumentation circuits. First, important concepts in electrochemical sensing are presented from an instrumentation point of view. Then, electrochemical instrumentation circuits are organized into functional classes, and reported CMOS circuits are reviewed and analyzed to illuminate design options and performance tradeoffs. Finally, recent trends and challenges toward on-CMOS sensor integration that could enable highly miniaturized electrochemical biosensor microsystems are discussed. The information in the paper can guide next generation electrochemical sensor design. PMID:28042860

  6. CMOS serial link for fully duplexed data communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyeongho; Kim, Sungjoon; Ahn, Gijung; Jeong, Deog-Kyoon

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a CMOS serial link allowing fully duplexed 500 Mbaud serial data communication. The CMOS serial link is a robust and low-cost solution to high data rate requirements. A central charge pump PLL for generating multiphase clocks for oversampling is shared by several serial link channels. Fully duplexed serial data communication is realized in the bidirectional bridge by separating incoming data from the mixed signal on the cable end. The digital PLL accomplishes process-independent data recovery by using a low-ratio oversampling, a majority voting, and a parallel data recovery scheme. Mostly, digital approach could extend its bandwidth further with scaled CMOS technology. A single channel serial link and a charge pump PLL are integrated in a test chip using 1.2 micron CMOS process technology. The test chip confirms upto 500 Mbaud unidirectional mode operation and 320 Mbaud fully duplexed mode operation with pseudo random data patterns.

  7. CMOS front end electronics for the ATLAS muon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Huth, J.; Oliver, J.; Hazen, E.; Shank, J.

    1997-12-31

    An all-CMOS design for an integrated ASD (Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator) chip for readout of the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tubes (MDTs) is presented. Eight channels of charge-sensitive preamp, two-stage pole/zero shaper, Wilkinson ADC and discriminator with programmable hysteresis are integrated on a single IC. Key elements have been prototyped in 1.2 and 0.5 micron CMOS operating at 5V and 3.3V respectively.

  8. CMOS monolithic pixel sensors research and development at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contarato, D.; Bussat, J.-M.; Denes, P.; Greiner, L.; Kim, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Wieman, H.; Battaglia, M.; Hooberman, B.; Tompkins, L.

    2007-12-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in the design and characterization of CMOS pixel sensors at LBNL. Results of lab tests, beam tests and radiation hardness tests carried out at LBNL on a test structure with pixels of various sizes are reported. The first results of the characterization of back-thinned CMOS pixel sensors are also reported, and future plans and activities are discussed.

  9. Delta Doping High Purity CCDs and CMOS for LSST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Elliott, S. Tom; Bebek, Chris; Holland, Steve; Kolbe, Bill

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing delta doping high purity CCD's and CMOS for LSST is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of JPL s versatile back-surface process for CCDs and CMOS; 2) Application to SNAP and ORION missions; 3) Delta doping as a back-surface electrode for fully depleted LBNL CCDs; 4) Delta doping high purity CCDs for SNAP and ORION; 5) JPL CMP thinning process development; and 6) Antireflection coating process development.

  10. The development of a multichannel atomic magnetometer array for fetal magnetocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Robert, IV

    Biomagnetic signals can provide important information about electrical processes in the human body. Because of the small signal sizes, magnetic detection is generally used where other detection methods are incomplete or insufficiently sensitive. One important example is fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG), where the detection of magnetic signals is currently the only available technique for certain clinical applications, such as the detection of cardiac arrhythmia. Until now, magnetometers based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), which can operate at sensitivities down to 1 fT Hz-1/2 have been the only option. The low Tc superconductors and associated cryogenics required for the most sensitive devices has led to interest in alternative technologies. In the last decade, atomic magnetometers operating in the spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) regime have demonstrated a higher sensitivity than SQUIDs while operating near room temperature. Though large SERF magnetometer arrays have not yet been built, smaller arrays should be sufficient for applications such as fMCG. In this thesis, we present the design and characterization of a portable four-channel SERF atomic magnetometer array with a 5-10 fT Hz-1/2 single channel baseline sensitivity. The magnetometer array has several design features intended to maximize its suitability for biomagnetic measurement, specifically fMCG, such as a compact modular design and large, flexible channel spacing from 5-15 cm. The modular design allows for easily adding units to the array and the independent positioning and orientation of each magnetometer, in principle allowing for non-planar array geometries. Using this array in a magnetically shielded room, we acquire adult magnetocadiograms and, for the first time with a SERF magnetometer, fMCG. We also investigate the use of different operational modes of the magnetometer to extend its functionality, specifically modulation methods for additional directional

  11. A LEO Satellite Navigation Algorithm Based on GPS and Magnetometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Rick

    2000-01-01

    The Global Position System (GPS) has become a standard method for low cost onboard satellite orbit determination. The use of GPS as an attitude and rate sensor has also been developed in the recent past. Additionally, focus has been given to attitude and orbit estimation using the magnetometer, a low cost, reliable sensor. Combining measurements from both GPS and a magnetometer can provide a robust navigation system which takes advantage of the estimation qualities of both measurements. Ultimately a low cost, accurate navigation system can result, potentially eliminating the need for more costly sensors, including gyroscopes. This work presents the development and preliminary testing of a unified navigation algorithm which produces estimates of attitude, angular rate, position, and velocity for a low earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The system relies on GPS phase, range, and range rate data as well as magnetometer data. The algorithm used is an extended Kalman filter (EKF) developed to provide LEO attitude, orbit, and rate estimates using magnetometer and sun sensor data. Incorporating sun sensor data into the EKF improved the attitude and rate estimates. For many LEO spacecraft the sun data is available during only a portion of the orbit. However, GPS data is available continuously throughout the orbit. GPS can produce accurate orbit estimates and combining GPS and magnetometer data improves the attitude and rate estimates. The magnetometer based EKF can converge from large initial errors in position, velocity, and 3 attitude . Combining the magnetometer and GPS data into a single EKF will provide a more robust and accurate system. The EKF is based on an existing EKF. The GPS measurement models for phase, range, and range rate are incorporated into the existing structure of the filter. The original EKF produced the orbit estimates in terms of Keplerian elements. Due to the nature of the GPS measurements and ease of computation, the orbit estimates are converted to

  12. Advancement of CMOS Doping Technology in an External Development Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Amitabh; Chambers, James J.; Shaw, Judy B.

    2011-01-01

    The consumer appetite for a rich multimedia experience drives technology development for mobile hand-held devices and the infrastructure to support them. Enhancements in functionality, speed, and user experience are derived from advancements in CMOS technology. The technical challenges in developing each successive CMOS technology node to support these enhancements have become increasingly difficult. These trends have motivated the CMOS business towards a collaborative approach based on strategic partnerships. This paper describes our model and experience of CMOS development, based on multi-dimensional industrial and academic partnerships. We provide to our process equipment, materials, and simulation partners, as well as to our silicon foundry partners, the detailed requirements for future integrated circuit products. This is done very early in the development cycle to ensure that these requirements can be met. In order to determine these fundamental requirements, we rely on a strategy that requires strong interaction between process and device simulation, physical and chemical analytical methods, and research at academic institutions. This learning is shared with each project partner to address integration and manufacturing issues encountered during CMOS technology development from its inception through product ramp. We utilize TI's core strengths in physical analysis, unit processes and integration, yield ramp, reliability, and product engineering to support this technological development. Finally, this paper presents examples of the advancement of CMOS doping technology for the 28 nm node and beyond through this development model.

  13. Surface enhanced biodetection on a CMOS biosensor chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, Federico; Sandeau, Laure; Contié, Sylvain; Vicaire, Florence; Owens, Roisin; Rigneault, Hervé

    2012-03-01

    We present a rigorous electromagnetic theory of the electromagnetic power emitted by a dipole located in the vicinity of a multilayer stack. We applied this formalism to a luminescent molecule attached to a CMOS photodiode surface and report light collection efficiency larger than 80% toward the CMOS silicon substrate. We applied this result to the development of a low-cost, simple, portable device based on CMOS photodiodes technology for the detection and quantification of biological targets through light detection, presenting high sensitivity, multiplex ability, and fast data processing. The key feature of our approach is to perform the analytical test directly on the CMOS sensor surface, improving dramatically the optical detection of the molecule emitted light into the high refractive index semiconductor CMOS material. Based on adequate surface chemistry modifications, probe spotting and micro-fluidics, we performed proof-of-concept bio-assays directed against typical immuno-markers (TNF-α and IFN-γ). We compared the developed CMOS chip with a commercial micro-plate reader and found similar intrinsic sensitivities in the pg/ml range.

  14. An Accurate Heading Solution using MEMS-based Gyroscope and Magnetometer Integrated System (Preliminary Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Diasty, M.

    2014-11-01

    An accurate heading solution is required for many applications and it can be achieved by high grade (high cost) gyroscopes (gyros) which may not be suitable for such applications. Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems-based (MEMS) is an emerging technology, which has the potential of providing heading solution using a low cost MEMS-based gyro. However, MEMS-gyro-based heading solution drifts significantly over time. The heading solution can also be estimated using MEMS-based magnetometer by measuring the horizontal components of the Earth magnetic field. The MEMS-magnetometer-based heading solution does not drift over time, but are contaminated by high level of noise and may be disturbed by the presence of magnetic field sources such as metal objects. This paper proposed an accurate heading estimation procedure based on the integration of MEMS-based gyro and magnetometer measurements that correct gyro and magnetometer measurements where gyro angular rates of changes are estimated using magnetometer measurements and then integrated with the measured gyro angular rates of changes with a robust filter to estimate the heading. The proposed integration solution is implemented using two data sets; one was conducted in static mode without magnetic disturbances and the second was conducted in kinematic mode with magnetic disturbances. The results showed that the proposed integrated heading solution provides accurate, smoothed and undisturbed solution when compared with magnetometerbased and gyro-based heading solutions.

  15. Vectorized magnetometer for space applications using electrical readout of atomic scale defects in silicon carbide

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Corey J.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Anders, Mark A.; Lenahan, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetometers are essential for scientific investigation of planetary bodies and are therefore ubiquitous on missions in space. Fluxgate and optically pumped atomic gas based magnetometers are typically flown because of their proven performance, reliability, and ability to adhere to the strict requirements associated with space missions. However, their complexity, size, and cost prevent their applicability in smaller missions involving cubesats. Conventional solid-state based magnetometers pose a viable solution, though many are prone to radiation damage and plagued with temperature instabilities. In this work, we report on the development of a new self-calibrating, solid-state based magnetometer which measures magnetic field induced changes in current within a SiC pn junction caused by the interaction of external magnetic fields with the atomic scale defects intrinsic to the semiconductor. Unlike heritage designs, the magnetometer does not require inductive sensing elements, high frequency radio, and/or optical circuitry and can be made significantly more compact and lightweight, thus enabling missions leveraging swarms of cubesats capable of science returns not possible with a single large-scale satellite. Additionally, the robustness of the SiC semiconductor allows for operation in extreme conditions such as the hot Venusian surface and the high radiation environment of the Jovian system. PMID:27892524

  16. Vectorized magnetometer for space applications using electrical readout of atomic scale defects in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, Corey J.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Anders, Mark A.; Lenahan, Patrick M.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetometers are essential for scientific investigation of planetary bodies and are therefore ubiquitous on missions in space. Fluxgate and optically pumped atomic gas based magnetometers are typically flown because of their proven performance, reliability, and ability to adhere to the strict requirements associated with space missions. However, their complexity, size, and cost prevent their applicability in smaller missions involving cubesats. Conventional solid-state based magnetometers pose a viable solution, though many are prone to radiation damage and plagued with temperature instabilities. In this work, we report on the development of a new self-calibrating, solid-state based magnetometer which measures magnetic field induced changes in current within a SiC pn junction caused by the interaction of external magnetic fields with the atomic scale defects intrinsic to the semiconductor. Unlike heritage designs, the magnetometer does not require inductive sensing elements, high frequency radio, and/or optical circuitry and can be made significantly more compact and lightweight, thus enabling missions leveraging swarms of cubesats capable of science returns not possible with a single large-scale satellite. Additionally, the robustness of the SiC semiconductor allows for operation in extreme conditions such as the hot Venusian surface and the high radiation environment of the Jovian system.

  17. Vectorized magnetometer for space applications using electrical readout of atomic scale defects in silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Corey J; Blacksberg, Jordana; Anders, Mark A; Lenahan, Patrick M

    2016-11-28

    Magnetometers are essential for scientific investigation of planetary bodies and are therefore ubiquitous on missions in space. Fluxgate and optically pumped atomic gas based magnetometers are typically flown because of their proven performance, reliability, and ability to adhere to the strict requirements associated with space missions. However, their complexity, size, and cost prevent their applicability in smaller missions involving cubesats. Conventional solid-state based magnetometers pose a viable solution, though many are prone to radiation damage and plagued with temperature instabilities. In this work, we report on the development of a new self-calibrating, solid-state based magnetometer which measures magnetic field induced changes in current within a SiC pn junction caused by the interaction of external magnetic fields with the atomic scale defects intrinsic to the semiconductor. Unlike heritage designs, the magnetometer does not require inductive sensing elements, high frequency radio, and/or optical circuitry and can be made significantly more compact and lightweight, thus enabling missions leveraging swarms of cubesats capable of science returns not possible with a single large-scale satellite. Additionally, the robustness of the SiC semiconductor allows for operation in extreme conditions such as the hot Venusian surface and the high radiation environment of the Jovian system.

  18. In situ triaxial magnetic field compensation for the spin-exchange-relaxation-free atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiancheng; Qin, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) atomic magnetometer is an ultra-high sensitivity magnetometer, but it must be operated in a magnetic field with strength less than about 10 nT. Magnetic field compensation is an effective way to shield the magnetic field, and this paper demonstrates an in situ triaxial magnetic field compensation system for operating the SERF atomic magnetometer. The proposed hardware is based on optical pumping, which uses some part of the SERF atomic magnetometer itself, and the compensation method is implemented by analyzing the dynamics of the atomic spin. The experimental setup for this compensation system is described, and with this configuration, a residual magnetic field of strength less than 2 nT (±0.38 nT in the x axis, ±0.43 nT in the y axis, and ±1.62 nT in the z axis) has been achieved after compensation. The SERF atomic magnetometer was then used to verify that the residual triaxial magnetic fields were coincident with what were achieved by the compensation system.

  19. Design of a photoelastic modulator in the spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ye; Hu, Zhaohui; Duan, Lihong

    2016-10-01

    The spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer as an ultra-precision magnetometer has been researched during recent times. The sensitivity of the signal measurement limits the accuracy of the magnetometer. The optical modulation method is used to detect the tiny optical rotation angle of the linear polarized (LP) light, and the modulator is improving from Faraday magneto-optic modulator to photoelastic modulator (PEM). However, the current commercial PEMs have several defects in the adoption of the magnetometer. First, considerable heat will reduce the PEM's modulation precision; In addition, the big appearance will hamper the assembly of the magnetometer; Moreover, the products are unreliable in the small amplitude modulation. In order to overcome these drawbacks, a sort of PEM is designed by theoretical calculation and finite element simulation in the paper. The target PEM with 50kHz intrinsic frequency and 795nm transmission is composed of one hexahedron piezoelectric transducer (PZT) glued with one optical glass each other. About the PZT, the alpha quartz is determined by considering the vibration and temperature properties of the material, then a proper cut angel and size is calculated to satisfy the design target. Subsequently, the fused silica is used for its well optical property. In the final, a simulation is conducted to verify the feasibility and validity of the design.

  20. Improvement of the Spatial Amplitude Isotropy of a ^4He Magnetometer Using a Modulated Pumping Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chéron, B.; Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Moreau, O.; Noël, E.

    1997-08-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers are scalar magnetometers. Contrary to vectoriel magnetometers, they measure the total magnetic field whatever the direction of the sensor. However, for some orientations of the magnetometer with respect to the magnetic field direction, the resonant signal vanishes and the measurement is impossible. In this paper we present a simple solution to reduce the amplitude spatial anisotropy and apply it to a ^4He magnetometer developed in our Laboratory. Les magnétomètres à pompage optique sont des magnétomètres scalaires. Contrairement aux magnétomètres vectoriels, ils mesurent le module du champ magnétique quelle que soit l'orientation du capteur dans l'espace. Cependant, pour certaines orientations du magnétomètre par rapport à la direction du champ à mesurer, l'amplitude du signal de résonance s'annule et la mesure devient impossible. Dans cet article, nous présentons une solution simple pour réduire l'anisotropie spatiale d'amplitude et nous l'appliquons à un magnétomètre à hélium-4 développé dans notre Laboratoire.