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Sample records for cmos compatible magnetometers

  1. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Justin A.; Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A.; Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  2. A CMOS compatible, ferroelectric tunnel junction.

    PubMed

    Ambriz Vargas, Fabian; Kolhatkar, Gitanjali; Broyer, Maxime; Hadj Youssef, Azza; Nouar, Rafik; Sarkissian, Andranik; Thomas, Reji; Gomez-Yanez, Carlos; Gauthier, Marc A; Ruediger, Andreas

    2017-04-03

    In recent years, the experimental demonstration of Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions (FTJ) based on perovskite tunnel barriers has been reported. However, integrating these perovskite materials into conventional silicon memory technology remains challenging due to their lack of compatibility with the complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS). The present communication reports the fabrication of an FTJ based on a CMOS compatible tunnel barrier Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 (6 unit cells thick) on an equally CMOS compatible TiN electrode. Analysis of the FTJ by grazing angle incidence X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of the non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic phase (Pbc2_1, ferroelectric phase). The FTJ characterization is followed by the reconstruction of the electrostatic potential profile in the as-grown TiN/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2/Pt heterostructure. A direct tunneling current model across a trapezoidal barrier was used to correlate the electronic and electrical properties of our FTJ devices. The good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical model attests to the tunneling electroresistance effect (TER) in our FTJ device. A TER ratio of ~15 was calculated for the present FTJ device at low read voltage (+0.2 V). This study makes Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 a promising candidate for integration into conventional Si memory technology.

  3. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Alexander; Windbacher, Thomas; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    For many decades CMOS devices have been successfully scaled down to achieve higher speed and increased performance of integrated circuits at lower cost. Today’s charge-based CMOS electronics encounters two major challenges: power dissipation and variability. Spintronics is a rapidly evolving research and development field, which offers a potential solution to these issues by introducing novel ‘more than Moore’ devices. Spin-based magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is already recognized as one of the most promising candidates for future universal memory. Magnetic tunnel junctions, the main elements of MRAM cells, can also be used to build logic-in-memory circuits with non-volatile storage elements on top of CMOS logic circuits, as well as versatile compact on-chip oscillators with low power consumption. We give an overview of CMOS-compatible spintronics applications. First, we present a brief introduction to the physical background considering such effects as magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque (STT), spin Hall effect, and magnetoelectric effects. We continue with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art spintronic devices for memory applications (STT-MRAM, domain wall-motion MRAM, and spin-orbit torque MRAM), oscillators (spin torque oscillators and spin Hall nano-oscillators), logic (logic-in-memory, all-spin logic, and buffered magnetic logic gate grid), sensors, and random number generators. Devices with different types of resistivity switching are analyzed and compared, with their advantages highlighted and challenges revealed. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices are demonstrated beginning with predictive simulations, proceeding to their experimental confirmation and realization, and finalized by the current status of application in modern integrated systems and circuits. We conclude the review with an outlook, where we share our vision on the future applications of the prospective devices in the area.

  4. Photonic circuits integrated with CMOS compatible photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Dana; Craciunoiu, F.; Modreanu, M.; Caldararu, M.; Cernica, I.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents the integration of photodetectors and photonic circuits (waveguides and interferometers, coupling elements and chemo-optical transducing layer) on one silicon chip. Different materials: silicon, doped or undoped silica, SiO xN y, polymers, and different technologies: LPCVD, APCVD, sol-gel, spinning, micromachining have been used to realize the photonic and micromechanical components and the transducers. Also, MOS compatible processes have been used for optoelectronic circuits. The attention was focused on the matching of all the involved technologies, to allow the monolithic integration of all components, and also on the design and fabrication of special structures of photodetectors. Two types of high responsivity photodetectors, a photo-FET and a bipolar NPN phototransistor, with modified structures that allow the optical coupling to the waveguides have been designed and experimented. An original 3-D model was developed for the system: opto-FET-coupler-waveguide. A test circuit for sensor applications was experimented. All the components of the test circuits, photodetectors, waveguides, couplers, were obtained using CMOS-compatible processes. The aim of our research activity was to obtain microsensors with optical read-out.

  5. Improving CMOS-compatible Germanium photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Luo, Ying; Zheng, Xuezhe; Masini, Gianlorenzo; Mekis, Attila; Sahni, Subal; Thacker, Hiren; Yao, Jin; Shubin, Ivan; Raj, Kannan; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V

    2012-11-19

    We report design improvements for evanescently coupled Germanium photodetectors grown at low temperature. The resulting photodetectors with 10 μm Ge length manufactured in a commercial CMOS process achieve >0.8 A/W responsivity over the entire C-band, with a device capacitance of <7 fF based on measured data.

  6. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chunle; Bell, Bryn; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2016-09-01

    Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon) and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  7. IGBT scaling principle toward CMOS compatible wafer processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Omura, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    A scaling principle for trench gate IGBT is proposed. CMOS technology on large diameter wafer enables to produce various digital circuits with higher performance and lower cost. The transistor cell structure becomes laterally smaller and smaller and vertically shallower and shallower. In contrast, latest IGBTs have rather deeper trench structure to obtain lower on-state voltage drop and turn-off loss. In the aspect of the process uniformity and wafer warpage, manufacturing such structure in the CMOS factory is difficult. In this paper, we show the scaling principle toward shallower structure and better performance. The principle is theoretically explained by our previously proposed "Structure Oriented" analytical model. The principle represents a possibility of technology direction and roadmap for future IGBT for improving the device performance consistent with lower cost and high volume productivity with CMOS compatible large diameter wafer technologies.

  8. Aluminum nitride on titanium for CMOS compatible piezoelectric transducers

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Joseph C; Petzold, Bryan C; Ninan, Biju; Mullapudi, Ravi; Pruitt, Beth L

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are widely used for microscale sensors and actuators but can pose material compatibility challenges. This paper reports a post-CMOS compatible fabrication process for piezoelectric sensors and actuators on silicon using only standard CMOS metals. The piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited on titanium (Ti) by reactive sputtering are characterized and microcantilever actuators are demonstrated. The film texture of the polycrystalline Ti and AlN films is improved by removing the native oxide from the silicon substrate in situ and sequentially depositing the films under vacuum to provide a uniform growth surface. The piezoelectric properties for several AlN film thicknesses are measured using laser doppler vibrometry on unpatterned wafers and released cantilever beams. The film structure and properties are shown to vary with thickness, with values of d33f, d31 and d33 of up to 2.9, −1.9 and 6.5 pm V−1, respectively. These values are comparable with AlN deposited on a Pt metal electrode, but with the benefit of a fabrication process that uses only standard CMOS metals. PMID:20333316

  9. Development of CMOS-compatible membrane projection lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Samora, Sally; Wiwi, Mike; Wendt, Joel R.

    2013-09-01

    Recently we have demonstrated membrane projection lithography (MPL) as a fabrication approach capable of creating 3D structures with sub-micron metallic inclusions for use in metamaterial and plasmonic applications using polymer material systems. While polymers provide several advantages in processing, they are soft and subject to stress-induced buckling. Furthermore, in next generation active photonic structures, integration of photonic components with CMOS electronics is desirable. While the MPL process flow is conceptually simple, it requires matrix, membrane and backfill materials with orthogonal processing deposition/removal chemistries. By transitioning the MPL process flow into an entirely inorganic material set based around silicon and standard CMOS-compatible materials, several elements of silicon microelectronics can be integrated into photonic devices at the unit-cell scale. This paper will present detailed fabrication and characterization data of these materials, emphasizing the processing trade space as well as optical characterization of the resulting structures.

  10. CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Humer, Markus; Furchi, Marco M.; Bachmann, Dominic; Guider, Romain; Fromherz, Thomas; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Optical interconnects are becoming attractive alternatives to electrical wiring in intra- and interchip communication links. Particularly, the integration with silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has received considerable interest because of the ability of cost-effective integration of electronics and optics on a single chip. Although silicon enables the realization of optical waveguides and passive components, the integration of another, optically absorbing, material is required for photodetection. Traditionally, germanium or compound semiconductors are used for this purpose; however, their integration with silicon technology faces major challenges. Recently, graphene emerged as a viable alternative for optoelectronic applications, including photodetection. Here, we demonstrate an ultra-wideband CMOS-compatible photodetector based on graphene. We achieved a multigigahertz operation over all fibre-optic telecommunication bands beyond the wavelength range of strained germanium photodetectors, the responsivity of which is limited by their bandgap. Our work complements the recent demonstration of a CMOS-integrated graphene electro-optical modulator, and paves the way for carbon-based optical interconnects.

  11. Label-free immunodetection with CMOS-compatible semiconducting nanowires.

    PubMed

    Stern, Eric; Klemic, James F; Routenberg, David A; Wyrembak, Pauline N; Turner-Evans, Daniel B; Hamilton, Andrew D; LaVan, David A; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A

    2007-02-01

    Semiconducting nanowires have the potential to function as highly sensitive and selective sensors for the label-free detection of low concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Successful solution-phase nanowire sensing has been demonstrated for ions, small molecules, proteins, DNA and viruses; however, 'bottom-up' nanowires (or similarly configured carbon nanotubes) used for these demonstrations require hybrid fabrication schemes, which result in severe integration issues that have hindered widespread application. Alternative 'top-down' fabrication methods of nanowire-like devices produce disappointing performance because of process-induced material and device degradation. Here we report an approach that uses complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistor compatible technology and hence demonstrate the specific label-free detection of below 100 femtomolar concentrations of antibodies as well as real-time monitoring of the cellular immune response. This approach eliminates the need for hybrid methods and enables system-scale integration of these sensors with signal processing and information systems. Additionally, the ability to monitor antibody binding and sense the cellular immune response in real time with readily available technology should facilitate widespread diagnostic applications.

  12. Ultrahigh vacuum compatible superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer system for studies of magnetic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Spagna, S. |; Sager, R.E.; Maple, M.B.

    1995-12-01

    In this article, we describe an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) compatible superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system for investigations of surface, interface, and thin film magnetism. This system provides a new capability for a commercial SQUID magnetometer to characterize freshly deposited thin film samples transported from a separate molecular-beam epitaxy deposition facility without breaking vacuum. Magnetic measurements can be performed over a wide range of temperatures down to 4.2 K in applied magnetic fields as high as 1 T, and under a variable vacuum environment in which pressures as low as 10{sup {minus}10} Torr can be achieved. The combination of the extremely high sensitivity of the SQUID for magnetic measurements with UHV analysis techniques offers the unique capability for films to be prepared, processed, and characterized repeatedly without substantial contamination. The capabilities of the UHV-SQUID magnetometer system are demonstrated by {ital in} {ital situ} measurements of the magnetic properties of Co/CoO bilayered thin films grown on Si(100) single-crystal substrates by electron-beam evaporation. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. MAGNETOMETER

    DOEpatents

    Leavitt, M.A.

    1958-11-18

    A magnetometer ls described, partlcularly to a device which accurately indicates the polarity and intensity of a magnetlc field. The main feature of the invention is a unique probe construction in combinatlon wlth a magnetic fleld detector system. The probe comprises two coils connected in series opposition for energization with an a-c voltage. The voltage lnduced in a third coll on the probe, a pick-up coil, is distorted by the presence of an external field to produce even harmonic voltages. A controlled d-c current is passed through the energized coils to counter the dlstortlon and reduce tbe even harmonic content to a null. When the null point is reached, the d-c current is a measure of the external magnetic field strength, and the phase of the pickup coil voltage indicates tbe field polarlty.

  14. Steps toward fabricating cryogenic CMOS compatible single electron devices for future qubits.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Childs, Kenton David; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Tracy, Lisa A.; Eng, Kevin; Stevens, Jeffrey; Nordberg, Eric; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Lilly, Michael Patrick

    2008-08-01

    We describe the development of a novel silicon quantum bit (qubit) device architecture that involves using materials that are compatible with a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 0.35 mum complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process intended to operate at 100 mK. We describe how the qubit structure can be integrated with CMOS electronics, which is believed to have advantages for critical functions like fast single electron electrometry for readout compared to current approaches using radio frequency techniques. Critical materials properties are reviewed and preliminary characterization of the SNL CMOS devices at 4.2 K is presented.

  15. CMOS-compatible plenoptic detector for LED lighting applications.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Alexander; Ghasemi, Javad; Nezhadbadeh, Shima; Nie, Xiangyu; Zarkesh-Ha, Payman; Brueck, S R J

    2015-09-07

    LED lighting systems with large color gamuts, with multiple LEDs spanning the visible spectrum, offer the potential of increased lighting efficiency, improved human health and productivity, and visible light communications addressing the explosive growth in wireless communications. The control of this "smart lighting system" requires a silicon-integrated-circuit-compatible, visible, plenoptic (angle and wavelength) detector. A detector element, based on an offset-grating-coupled dielectric waveguide structure and a silicon photodetector, is demonstrated with an angular resolution of less than 1° and a wavelength resolution of less than 5 nm.

  16. A CMOS-compatible, surface-micromachined pressure sensor for aqueous ultrasonic application

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.P.; Smith, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    A surface micromachined pressure sensor array is under development at the Integrated Micromechanics, Microsensors, and CMOS Technologies organization at Sandia National Laboratories. This array is designed to sense absolute pressures from ambient pressure to 650 psia with frequency responses from DC to 2 MHz. The sensor is based upon a sealed, deformable, circular LPCVD silicon nitride diaphragm. Absolute pressure is determined from diaphragm deflection, which is sensed with low-stress, micromechanical, LPCVD polysilicon piezoresistors. All materials and processes used for sensor fabrication are CMOS compatible, and are part of Sandia`s ongoing effort of CMOS integration with Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Test results of individual sensors are presented along with process issues involving the release etch and metal step coverage.

  17. On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, M.; Park, Y.; Razzari, L.; Little, B. E.; Chu, S. T.; Morandotti, R.; Moss, D. J.; Azaña, J.

    2010-01-01

    All-optical circuits for computing and information processing could overcome the speed limitations intrinsic to electronics. However, in photonics, very few fundamental 'building blocks' equivalent to those used in multi-functional electronic circuits exist. In this study, we report the first all-optical temporal integrator in a monolithic, integrated platform. Our device—a lightwave 'capacitor-like' element based on a passive micro-ring resonator—performs the time integral of the complex field of an arbitrary optical waveform with a time resolution of a few picoseconds, corresponding to a processing speed of ∼200 GHz, and a 'hold' time approaching a nanosecond. This device, compatible with electronic technology (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor), will be one of the building blocks of next-generation ultrafast data-processing technology, enabling optical memories and real-time differential equation computing units. PMID:20975692

  18. CMOS-compatible fabrication of metamaterial-based absorbers for the mid-IR spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Shahmarvandi, Ehsan; Ghaderi, Mohammadamir; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.

    2016-10-01

    A CMOS-compatible approach is presented for the fabrication of a wideband mid-IR metamaterial-based absorber on top of a Si3N4 membrane, which contains poly-Si thermopiles. The application is in IR microspectrometers that are intended for implementation in portable microsystem for use in absorption spectroscopy. Although Au is the conventional material of choice, we demonstrate by simulation that near-perfect absorption can be achieved over a wider band when using the more CMOS-compatible Al. The absorber design is based on Al disk resonators and an Al backplane, which are separated by a SiO2 layer. The fabrication process involves the deposition of Al and SiO2 layers on top of a Si3N4 membrane, lithography and a lift-off process for patterning of the top Al layer.

  19. Ultrafast all-optical temporal differentiators based on CMOS-compatible integrated-waveguide Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, K A; Duchesne, D; Strain, M J; Morandotti, R; Sorel, M; Azaña, J

    2011-09-26

    We report the first realization of integrated, all-optical first- and higher-order photonic differentiators operating at terahertz (THz) processing speeds. This is accomplished in a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) CMOS-compatible platform using a simple integrated geometry based on (π-)phase-shifted Bragg gratings. Moreover, we achieve on-chip generation of sub-picosecond Hermite-Gaussian pulse waveforms, which are noteworthy for applications in next-generation optical telecommunications.

  20. CMOS compatible IR sensors by cytochrome c protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chien-Jen; Su, Guo-Dung

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, due to the progression of the semiconductor industrial, the uncooled Infrared sensor - microbolometer has opened the opportunity for achieving low cost infrared imaging systems for both military and commercial applications. Therefore, various fabrication processes and different materials based microbolometer have been developed sequentially. The cytochrome c (protein) thin film has be reported high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), which is related to the performance of microbolometer directly. Hence the superior TCR value will increase the performance of microbolometer. In this paper, we introduced a novel fabrication process using aluminum which is compatible with the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacture Company (TSMC) D35 2P4M process as the main structure material, which benefits the device to integrate with readout integrated circuit (ROIC).The aluminum split structure is suspended by sacrificial layer utilizing the standard photolithography technology and chemical etching. The height and thickness of the structure are already considered. Besides, cytochrome c solutions were ink-jetted onto the aluminum structure by using the inkjet printer, applying precise control of the Infrared absorbing layer. In measurement, incident Infrared radiation can be detected and later the heat can be transmitted to adjacent pads to readout the signal. This approach applies an inexpensive and simple fabrication process and makes the device suitable for integration. In addition, the performance can be further improved with low noise readout circuits.

  1. Enhancement in open-circuit voltage of implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell by improving the anodic catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Ando, Takashi; Kobayashi, Atsuki; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell that generates an open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 880 mV. The developed fuel cell is solid-catalyst-based and manufactured from biocompatible materials; thus, it can be implanted to the human body. Additionally, since the cell can be manufactured using a semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication process, it can also be manufactured together with CMOS circuits on a single silicon wafer. In the literature, an implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell has been reported. However, its OCV is 192 mV, which is insufficient for CMOS circuit operation. In this work, we have enhanced the performance of the fuel cell by improving the electrocatalytic ability of the anode. The prototype with the newly proposed Pt/carbon nanotube (CNT) anode structure successfully achieved an OCV of 880 mV, which is the highest ever reported.

  2. CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Stevan S; Shang, Kuanping; Guan, Binbin; Cheung, Stanley T S; Liao, Ling; Basak, Juthika; Liu, Hai-Feng; Yoo, S J B

    2013-06-17

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of athermal nano-photonic silicon ring modulators. The athermalization method employs compensation of the silicon core thermo-optic contribution with that from the amorphous titanium dioxide (a-TiO(2)) overcladding with a negative thermo-optic coefficient. We developed a new CMOS-compatible fabrication process involving low temperature RF magnetron sputtering of high-density and low-loss a-TiO(2) that can withstand subsequent elevated-temperature CMOS processes. Silicon ring resonators with 275 nm wide rib waveguide clad with a-TiO(2) showed near complete athermalization and moderate optical losses. Small-signal testing of the micro-resonator modulators showed high extinction ratio and gigahertz bandwidth.

  3. Electroabsorption modulators for CMOS compatible optical interconnects in III-V and group IV materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Jonathan Edgar

    device is compatible with both the voltage swing of modern CMOS circuits, and long-distance telecommunications technologies including low-loss optical fiber and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.

  4. A new laterally conductive bridge random access memory by fully CMOS logic compatible process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Min-Che; Chin, Yung-Wen; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chih, Yu-Der; Tsai, Kan-Hsueh; Tsai, Ming-Jinn; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel laterally conductive bridge random access memory (L-CBRAM) module using a fully CMOS logic compatible process. A contact buffer layer between the poly-Si and contact plug enables the lateral Ti-based atomic layer to provide on/off resistance ratio via bipolar operations. The proposed device reached more than 100 pulse cycles with an on/off ratio over 10 and very stable data retention under high temperature operations. These results make this Ti-based L-CBRAM cell a promising solution for advanced embedded multi-time programmable (MTP) memory applications.

  5. CMOS-compatible metal-stabilized nanostructured Si as anodes for lithium-ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gibaek; Schweizer, Stefan L.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.

    2014-11-01

    The properties of fully complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible metal-coated nanostructured silicon anodes for Li-ion microbatteries have been studied. The one-dimensional nanowires on black silicon (nb-Si) were prepared by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching and the metal (Au and Cu) coatings by successive magnetron sputtering technique. The Cu-coated nb-Si show the most promising electrochemical performance enhancements for the initial specific capacity as well as their cyclability compared to pristine nb-Si. The electrochemical and microstructural properties before and after cycling of the metal-coated nb-Si compared to their pristine counterparts are discussed in detail.

  6. CMOS-compatible fabrication, micromachining, and bonding strategies for silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, John; Jones, Richard; Paniccia, Mario J.

    2011-02-01

    The adoption of optical technologies by high-volume consumer markets is severely limited by the cost and complexity of manufacturing complete optical transceiver systems. This is in large part because "boutique" semiconductor fabrication processes are required for III-V lasers, modulators, and photodetectors; furthermore, precision bonding and painstaking assembly are needed to integrate or assemble such dissimilar devices and materials together. On the other hand, 200mm and 300mm silicon process technology has been bringing ever-increasing computing power to the masses by relentless cost reduction for several decades. Intel's silicon photonics program aims to marry this CMOS infrastructure and recent developments in MEMS manufacturing with the burgeoning field of microphotonics to make low cost, high-speed optical links ubiquitous. In this paper, we will provide an overview of several aspects of silicon photonics technology development in a CMOS fabrication line. First, we will describe fabrication strategies from the MEMS industry for micromachining silicon to create passive optical devices such as mirrors, waveguides, and facets, as well as alignment features. Second, we will discuss some of the challenges of fabricating hybrid III-V lasers on silicon, including such aspects as hybrid integration of InP-based materials with silicon using various bonding methods, etching of InP films, and contact formation using CMOS-compatible metals.

  7. CMOS-Compatible Room-Temperature Rectifier Toward Terahertz Radiation Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamava, Volha; De Amicis, Giovanni; Del Monte, Andrea; Perticaroli, Stefano; Rao, Rosario; Palma, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a new rectifying device, compatible with the technology of CMOS image sensors, suitable for implementing a direct-conversion detector operating at room temperature for operation at up to terahertz frequencies. The rectifying device can be obtained by introducing some simple modifications of the charge-storage well in conventional CMOS integrated circuits, making the proposed solution easy to integrate with the existing imaging systems. The rectifying device is combined with the different elements of the detector, composed of a 3D high-performance antenna and a charge-storage well. In particular, its position just below the edge of the 3D antenna takes maximum advantage of the high electric field concentrated by the antenna itself. In addition, the proposed structure ensures the integrity of the charge-storage well of the detector. In the structure, it is not necessary to use very scaled and costly technological nodes, since the CMOS transistor only provides the necessary integrated readout electronics. On-wafer measurements of RF characteristics of the designed junction are reported and discussed. The overall performances of the entire detector in terms of noise equivalent power (NEP) are evaluated by combining low-frequency measurements of the rectifier with numerical simulations of the 3D antenna and the semiconductor structure at 1 THz, allowing prediction of the achievable NEP.

  8. CMOS compatible fabrication of micro, nano convex silicon lens arrays by conformal chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Haijie; Choi, Duk-Yong; Gai, Xin; Luther-Davies, Barry; Zhang, Baoping

    2017-02-20

    We present a novel CMOS-compatible fabrication technique for convex micro-nano lens arrays (MNLAs) with high packing density on the wafer scale. By means of conformal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) following patterning of silicon pillars via electron beam lithography (EBL) and plasma etching, large areas of a close packed silicon lens array with the diameter from a few micrometers down to a few hundred nanometers was fabricated. The resulting structure shows excellent surface roughness and high uniformity. The optical focusing properties of the lenses at infrared wavelengths were verified by experimental measurements and numerical simulation. This approach provides a feasible solution for fabricating silicon MNLAs compatible for next generation large scale, miniaturized optical imaging detectors and related optical devices.

  9. Low-resistive, CMOS-compatible ohmic contact schemes to moderately doped n-InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Herwig; Sousa, Marilyne; Czornomaz, Lukas

    2017-06-01

    III-V laser integration on Si is seen as a promising path to overcoming the current interconnect bottleneck in computing. Therefore, III-V lasers need to be integrated with a CMOS-compatible process flow. Furthermore, parasitic elements of the lasers must be minimized while preventing trade-offs to the lasing action (i.e. doping level in the 1018 cm-3). One such parasitic element is the n-type ohmic contact on moderately doped n-InP. A detailed study of CMOS-compatible contacts on n-InP including structural analysis has not yet been performed. To fill this gap, we will comprehensively report on various metal contacts on n-InP that reach a record-low median specific contact resistivity of 6  ×  10-8 Ω · cm2 and on contacts that show very shallow alloying behavior while still offering a specific contact resistivity in the very low 10-7 Ω ~\\centerdot cm2 range.

  10. Room temperature lasing in GeSn alloys: A path to CMOS-compatible infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zairui; Zhao, Yun; Gallagher, James; Menéndez, José; Kouvetakis, John; Agha, Imad; Mathews, Jay

    The semiconductor industry has been pushing silicon photonics development for many years, resulting in the realization of many CMOS-compatible optoelectronic devices. However, one challenge that has not been overcome is the development of Si-based lasers. Recently, GeSn alloys grown on Si have shown much promise in the field of infrared optoelectronics. These alloy films are compatible with CMOS processing, have band gaps in the infrared, and the band structure of GeSn can be tuned via Sn concentration to induce direct band gap emission. In this work, we report on room temperature lasing in optically-pumped waveguides fabricated from GeSn films grown epitaxially on Si(100) substrates. The waveguides were defined using standard UV photolithography and dry-etched in a Cl plasma. The end facets were mirror polished, and Al was deposited on one facet to enhance cavity quality. The waveguides were optically-pumped using a 976nm wavelength solid-state laser, and the corresponding emission was measured. The dependence of the emission power on the pump power shows a clear transition between spontaneous and stimulated emission, thereby demonstrating room temperature lasing.

  11. Study of rounded concave and sharp edge convex corners undercutting in CMOS compatible anisotropic etchants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Prem; Sato, Kazuo; Gosalvez, Miguel A.; Shikida, Mitsuhiro

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we have studied the undercutting at rounded concave and sharp convex corners in (1 0 0)-silicon wafers using a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution with and without surfactant. In order to minimize the undercutting at both corner types while keeping reasonable etch rates, smooth etched-surfaces and CMOS compatibility, the non-ionic surfactant NC-200 that contains 100% polyoxyethylene-alkyl-phenyl-ether is considered. The effect of concentration and etching temperature is studied using 10, 20 and 25 wt% TMAH solutions at 60, 70 and 80 °C. When NC-200 at 0.1% of the total volume of the etchant is used, the undercutting ratio at both rounded concave and sharp convex corners is beneficially reduced as the etchant concentration is increased while, simultaneously, the etch rate increases. This is the opposite trend to the etch characteristics of pure TMAH. In addition, the rough etched surface morphology at low concentration is also improved by using NC-200.

  12. CMOS-Compatible Fabrication for Photonic Crystal-Based Nanofluidic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wang; Chen, Youping; Ai, Wu; Zhang, Dailin; Song, Han; Xiong, Hui; Huang, Pengcheng

    2017-02-01

    Photonic crystal (PC)-based devices have been widely used since 1990s, while PC has just stepped into the research area of nanofluidic. In this paper, photonic crystal had been used as a complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) compatible part to create a nanofluidic structure. A nanofluidic structure prototype had been fabricated with CMOS-compatible techniques. The nanofluidic channels were sealed by direct bonding polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and the periodic gratings on photonic crystal structure. The PC was fabricated on a 4-in. Si wafer with Si3N4 as the guided mode layer and SiO2 film as substrate layer. The higher order mode resonance wavelength of PC-based nanofluidic structure had been selected, which can confine the enhanced electrical field located inside the nanochannel area. A design flow chart was used to guide the fabrication process. By optimizing the fabrication device parameters, the periodic grating of PC-based nanofluidic structure had a high-fidelity profile with fill factor at 0.5. The enhanced electric field was optimized and located within the channel area, and it can be used for PC-based nanofluidic applications with high performance.

  13. Ultra-sensitive detection of adipocytokines with CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pui, Tze-Sian; Agarwal, Ajay; Ye, Feng; Tou, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Yinxi; Chen, Peng

    2009-09-01

    Perfectly aligned arrays of single-crystalline silicon nanowires were fabricated using top-down CMOS-compatible techniques. We demonstrate that these nanowire devices are able to detect adipocytokines secreted by adipose cells with femtomolar sensitivity, high specificity, wide detection range, and ability for parallel monitoring. The nanowire sensors also provide a novel tool to reveal the poorly understood signaling mechanisms of these newly recognized signaling molecules, as well as their relevance in common diseases such as obesity and diabetes.Perfectly aligned arrays of single-crystalline silicon nanowires were fabricated using top-down CMOS-compatible techniques. We demonstrate that these nanowire devices are able to detect adipocytokines secreted by adipose cells with femtomolar sensitivity, high specificity, wide detection range, and ability for parallel monitoring. The nanowire sensors also provide a novel tool to reveal the poorly understood signaling mechanisms of these newly recognized signaling molecules, as well as their relevance in common diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Process diagram of nanowire fabrication; specificity of nanowire detection; induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. See DOI: 10.1039/b9nr00092e

  14. CMOS-Compatible Fabrication for Photonic Crystal-Based Nanofluidic Structure.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wang; Chen, Youping; Ai, Wu; Zhang, Dailin; Song, Han; Xiong, Hui; Huang, Pengcheng

    2017-12-01

    Photonic crystal (PC)-based devices have been widely used since 1990s, while PC has just stepped into the research area of nanofluidic. In this paper, photonic crystal had been used as a complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) compatible part to create a nanofluidic structure. A nanofluidic structure prototype had been fabricated with CMOS-compatible techniques. The nanofluidic channels were sealed by direct bonding polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and the periodic gratings on photonic crystal structure. The PC was fabricated on a 4-in. Si wafer with Si3N4 as the guided mode layer and SiO2 film as substrate layer. The higher order mode resonance wavelength of PC-based nanofluidic structure had been selected, which can confine the enhanced electrical field located inside the nanochannel area. A design flow chart was used to guide the fabrication process. By optimizing the fabrication device parameters, the periodic grating of PC-based nanofluidic structure had a high-fidelity profile with fill factor at 0.5. The enhanced electric field was optimized and located within the channel area, and it can be used for PC-based nanofluidic applications with high performance.

  15. Resistive switching phenomena of tungsten nitride thin films with excellent CMOS compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Seok Man; Kim, Hee-Dong; An, Ho-Myoung; Kim, Tae Geun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of WN{sub x} thin films. • Excellent CMOS compatibility WN{sub x} films as a resistive switching material. • Resistive switching mechanism revealed trap-controlled space charge limited conduction. • Good endurance and retention properties over 10{sup 5} cycles, and 10{sup 5} s, respectively - Abstract: We report the resistive switching (RS) characteristics of tungsten nitride (WN{sub x}) thin films with excellent complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility. A Ti/WN{sub x}/Pt memory cell clearly shows bipolar RS behaviors at a low voltage of approximately ±2.2 V. The dominant conduction mechanisms at low and high resistance states were verified by Ohmic behavior and trap-controlled space-charge-limited conduction, respectively. A conducting filament model by a redox reaction explains the RS behavior in WN{sub x} films. We also demonstrate the memory characteristics during pulse operation, including a high endurance over >10{sup 5} cycles and a long retention time of >10{sup 5} s.

  16. Optical modulation techniques for analog signal processing and CMOS compatible electro-optic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Douglas M.; Rasras, Mahmoud; Tu, Kun-Yii; Chen, Young-Kai; White, Alice E.; Patel, Sanjay S.; Carothers, Daniel; Pomerene, Andrew; Kamocsai, Robert; Beattie, James; Kopa, Anthony; Apsel, Alyssa; Beals, Mark; Mitchel, Jurgen; Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2008-02-01

    Integrating electronic and photonic functions onto a single silicon-based chip using techniques compatible with mass-production CMOS electronics will enable new design paradigms for existing system architectures and open new opportunities for electro-optic applications with the potential to dramatically change the management, cost, footprint, weight, and power consumption of today's communication systems. While broadband analog system applications represent a smaller volume market than that for digital data transmission, there are significant deployments of analog electro-optic systems for commercial and military applications. Broadband linear modulation is a critical building block in optical analog signal processing and also could have significant applications in digital communication systems. Recently, broadband electro-optic modulators on a silicon platform have been demonstrated based on the plasma dispersion effect. The use of the plasma dispersion effect within a CMOS compatible waveguide creates new challenges and opportunities for analog signal processing since the index and propagation loss change within the waveguide during modulation. We will review the current status of silicon-based electrooptic modulators and also linearization techniques for optical modulation.

  17. Post-CMOS compatible high-throughput fabrication of AlN-based piezoelectric microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Campos, A.; Iriarte, G. F.; Hernando-Garcia, J.; Calle, F.

    2015-02-01

    A post-complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible microfabrication process of piezoelectric cantilevers has been developed. The fabrication process is suitable for standard silicon technology and provides low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing. This work reports design, fabrication and characterization of piezoelectric cantilevers based on aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films synthesized at room temperature. The proposed microcantilever system is a sandwich structure composed of chromium (Cr) electrodes and a sputtered AlN film. The key issue for cantilever fabrication is the growth at room temperature of the AlN layer by reactive sputtering, making possible the innovative compatibility of piezoelectric MEMS devices with CMOS circuits already processed. AlN and Cr have been etched by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching using a BCl3-Cl2-Ar plasma chemistry. As part of the novelty of the post-CMOS micromachining process presented here, a silicon Si (1 0 0) wafer has been used as substrate as well as the sacrificial layer used to release the microcantilevers. In order to achieve this, the Si surface underneath the structure has been wet etched using an HNA (hydrofluoric acid + nitric acid + acetic acid) based solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization indicated the high crystalline quality of the AlN film. An atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used to determine the Cr electrode surface roughness. The morphology of the fabricated devices has been studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cantilevers have been piezoelectrically actuated and their out-of-plane vibration modes were detected by vibrometry.

  18. Pulsed laser deposition of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films maintaining a post-CMOS compatible thermal budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, A.; Pantel, D.; Hanemann, T.

    2017-09-01

    Integration of lead zirconate titanate (Pb[Zrx,Ti1-x]O3 - PZT) thin films on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor substrates (CMOS) is difficult due to the usually high crystallization temperature of the piezoelectric perovskite PZT phase, which harms the CMOS circuits. In this work, a wafer-scale pulsed laser deposition tool was used to grow 1 μm thick PZT thin films on 150 mm diameter silicon wafers. Three different routes towards a post-CMOS compatible deposition process were investigated, maintaining a post-CMOS compatible thermal budget limit of 445 °C for 1 h (or 420 °C for 6 h). By crystallizing the perovskite LaNiO3 seed layer at 445 °C, the PZT deposition temperature can be lowered to below 400 °C, yielding a transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f of -9.3 C/m2. With the same procedure, applying a slightly higher PZT deposition temperature of 420 °C, an e31,f of -10.3 C/m2 can be reached. The low leakage current density of below 3 × 10-6 A/cm2 at 200 kV/cm allows for application of the post-CMOS compatible PZT thin films in low power micro-electro-mechanical-systems actuators.

  19. CMOS Compatible 3-Axis Magnetic Field Sensor using Hall Effect Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, Joshua R.

    The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and test a CMOS compatible 3-axis Hall effect sensor capable of detecting the earth's magnetic field, with strength's of ˜50 muT. Preliminary testing of N-well Van Der Pauw structures using strong neodymium magnets showed proof of concept for hall voltage sensing, however, poor geometry of the structures led to a high offset voltage. A 1-axis Hall effect sensor was designed, fabricated and tested with a sensitivity of 1.12x10-3 mV/Gauss using the RIT metal gate PMOS process. Poor geometry and insufficient design produced an offset voltage of 0.1238 volts in the 1-axis design; prevented sensing of the earth's magnetic field. The new design features improved geometry for sensing application, improved sensitivity and use the RIT sub-CMOS process. The completed 2-axis device showed an average sensitivity to large magnetic fields of 0.0258 muV/Gauss at 10 mA supply current.

  20. Metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal waveguides compatible with standard CMOS technology.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-Suk

    2011-04-25

    Metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal (MISIM) waveguides are proposed and investigated theoretically. They are hybrid plasmonic waveguides, and light is highly confined to the insulator between the metal and silicon. As compared to previous ones, they are advantageous since they may be realized in a simple way by using current standard CMOS technology and their insulator is easily replaceable without affecting the metal and silicon. First, their structure and fabrication process are explained, both of which are compatible with standard CMOS technology. Then, the characteristics of the single MISIM waveguide whose insulator has its original or an adjusted refractive index are analyzed. The analysis demonstrates that its characteristics are comparable to those of previous hybrid plasmonic waveguides and that they are very effectively tuned by changing the refractive index of the insulator. Finally, the characteristics of the two coupled MISIM waveguides are analyzed. Through the analysis, it is obtained how close or far apart they are for efficient power transfer or low crosstalk. MISIM-waveguide-based devices may play an important role in connecting Si-based photonic and electronic circuits.

  1. CMOS-compatible metal-stabilized nanostructured Si as anodes for lithium-ion microbatteries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The properties of fully complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible metal-coated nanostructured silicon anodes for Li-ion microbatteries have been studied. The one-dimensional nanowires on black silicon (nb-Si) were prepared by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching and the metal (Au and Cu) coatings by successive magnetron sputtering technique. The Cu-coated nb-Si show the most promising electrochemical performance enhancements for the initial specific capacity as well as their cyclability compared to pristine nb-Si. The electrochemical and microstructural properties before and after cycling of the metal-coated nb-Si compared to their pristine counterparts are discussed in detail. PMID:25411568

  2. Towards parallel, CMOS-compatible fabrication of carbon nanotube single electron transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Muhammad; Joung, Daeha; Khondaker, Saiful

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate an approach for the parallel fabrication of single electron transistor (SET) using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). The approach is based on the integration of individual SWNT via dielectrophoresis (DEP) and deposition of metal top contact. We fabricate SWNT devices with a channel length of 100 nm and study their electron transport properties. We observe a connection between the SET performance and room temperature resistance (RT) of the devices. Majority (90%) of the devices with 100 K Ω 1M Ω) , devices show multiple QD behaviors, while QD was not formed for low RT (<100 K Ω) devices. This easy, simple and CMOS-compatible fabrication process will provide a much desired insight towards the wide spread application and commercialization of SWNT SET devices.

  3. CMOS-compatible hybrid plasmonic modulator based on vanadium dioxide insulator-metal phase transition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Tae

    2014-07-01

    To extend the application of an emerging plasmonic material, vanadium dioxide (VO₂), in silicon photonics technology, we propose a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible hybrid plasmonic modulator using an VO₂ insulator-metal phase transition. The optical device is based on a directional coupler that consists of a Si waveguide and a Si-SiO₂-VO₂-SiO₂-Si hybrid plasmonic waveguide. By electrically triggering the phase of VO₂ with a driving voltage of 2 V, the propagation loss of the hybrid plasmonic waveguide is switched, and hence the output optical power is modulated. The on/off extinction ratio is larger than 3.0 dB on the entire C-band.

  4. Nonlinear enhancement in photonic crystal slow light waveguides fabricated using CMOS-compatible process.

    PubMed

    Shinkawa, Mizuki; Ishikura, Norihiro; Hama, Yosuke; Suzuki, Keijiro; Baba, Toshihiko

    2011-10-24

    We have studied low-dispersion slow light and its nonlinear enhancement in photonic crystal waveguides. In this work, we fabricated the waveguides using Si CMOS-compatible process. It enables us to integrate spotsize converters, which greatly simplifies the optical coupling from fibers as well as demonstration of the nonlinear enhancement. Two-photon absorption, self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing were observed clearly for picosecond pulses in a 200-μm-long device. In comparison with Si wire waveguides, a 60-120 fold higher nonlinearity was evaluated for a group index of 51. Unique intensity response also occurred due to the specific transmission spectrum and enhanced nonlinearities. Such slow light may add various functionalities in Si photonics, while loss reduction is desired for ensuring the advantage of slow light.

  5. Low back-reflection CMOS-compatible grating coupler for perfectly vertical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabos, G.; Pleros, N.; Tsiokos, D.

    2015-02-01

    In view of high volume manufacturing of silicon based photonic-integrated-circuits (Si-PICs), CMOS compatible low-cost fabrication processes as well as simplified packaging methods are imperatively needed. Silicon-onInsulator (SOI) based grating couplers (GCs) have attracted attention as the key components for providing optical interfaces to Si-PICs due their fabrication simplicity compared to the edge coupling alternatives. GCs based on perfectly vertical coupling scheme become essential by introducing substantial savings in the packaging cost as no angular configurations are required but at the expense of high coupling efficiency values due to the second order diffraction. In this context, research efforts concentrated on designing GCs with minimized back reflection into the waveguide yet employing more than one etching steps or rather complex fabrication processes. Herein, we propose a fully etched CMOS compatible non-uniform one-dimensional (1D) GC for perfectly vertical coupling with low back reflected optical power by means of numerical simulations. A particle-swarm-optimization (PSO) algorithm was deployed in conjunction with a commercially available 2D finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method to maximize the coupling efficiency to a SMF fiber for TM polarization. The design parameters were restricted to the period length and the filling factor while the minimum feature size was 80 nm. A peak coupling loss of 4.4 dB at 1553 nm was achieved with a 1-dB bandwidth of 47 nm and a back reflection of -20 dB. The coupling tolerance to fabrication errors was also investigated.

  6. Voltage-tolerant circuit design for fully CMOS-compatible differential multiple-time programmable nonvolatile memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chia-You; Lin, Hongchin; Chiu, Hou-Jen

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a fully CMOS-compatible differential multiple-time programmable (DFMTP) nonvolatile memory (NVM) circuit, fabricated by the standard TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS process without violating the design and electrical rules, is proposed. Novel voltage-tolerant circuits were designed using the standard 3.3 and 1.8 V devices for the bit line (BL) and control gate (CG) drivers for ‑3 and 6 V program/erase operations, as well as the negative voltage isolation circuits for sense amplifiers. The DFMTP array with these voltage-tolerant control circuits was used and measured to confirm the correct program/erase/read operations.

  7. High aspect ratio sharp nanotip for nanocantilever integration at CMOS compatible temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Michael, A.; Kwok, CY

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel low temperature nanofabrication approach that enables the formation of ultra-sharp high aspect ratio (HAR) and high density nanotip structures and their integration onto nanoscale cantilever beams. The nanotip structure consists of a nanoscale thermally evaporated Cr Spindt tip on top of an amorphous silicon rod. An apex radius of the tip, as small as 2.5 nm, has been achieved, and is significantly smaller than any other Spindt tips reported so far. 100 nm wide tips with aspect ratio of more than 50 and tip density of more than 5 × 109 tips cm-2 have been fabricated. The HAR tips have been integrated onto an array of 460 nm wide cantilever beams with high precision and yield. In comparison with other approaches, this approach allows the integration of HAR sharp nanotips with nano-mechanical structures in a parallel and CMOS compatible fashion for the first time to our knowledge. Potential applications include on-chip high-speed atomic force microscopy and field emission devices.

  8. Completely CMOS compatible SiN-waveguide-based fiber coupling structure for Si wire waveguides.

    PubMed

    Maegami, Yuriko; Okano, Makoto; Cong, Guangwei; Ohno, Morifumi; Yamada, Koji

    2016-07-25

    For Si wire waveguides, we designed a highly efficient fiber coupling structure consisting of a Si inverted taper waveguide and a CMOS-compatible thin SiN waveguide with an SiO2 spacer inserted between them. By using a small SiN waveguide with a 310 nm-square core, the optical field can be expanded to correspond to a fiber with a 4.0-μm mode field diameter. A coupled waveguide system with the SiN waveguide and Si taper waveguide can provide low-loss and low-polarization-dependent mode conversion. Both losses in fiber-SiN waveguide coupling and SiN-Si waveguide mode conversion are no more than 1 dB in a wide wavelength bandwidth from 1.36 μm to 1.65 μm. Through a detailed analysis of the effective refractive indices in the coupled waveguide system, we can understand mode conversion accurately and also derive guidelines for reducing the polarization dependence and for shortening device length.

  9. CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Jacob S.; Gondarenko, Alexander; Foster, Mark A.; Turner-Foster, Amy C.; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Lipson, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Silicon photonics enables the fabrication of on-chip, ultrahigh-bandwidth optical networks that are critical for the future of microelectronics. Several optical components necessary for implementing a wavelength division multiplexing network have been demonstrated in silicon. However, a fully integrated multiple-wavelength source capable of driving such a network has not yet been realized. Optical amplification, a necessary component for lasing, has been achieved on-chip through stimulated Raman scattering, parametric mixing and by silicon nanocrystals or nanopatterned silicon. Losses in most of these structures have prevented oscillation. Raman oscillators have been demonstrated, but with a narrow gain bandwidth that is insufficient for wavelength division multiplexing. Here, we demonstrate the first monolithically integrated CMOS-compatible source by creating an optical parametric oscillator formed by a silicon nitride ring resonator on silicon. The device can generate more than 100 new wavelengths with operating powers below 50 mW. This source can form the backbone of a high-bandwidth optical network on a microelectronic chip.

  10. Fabrication of SU-8 multilayer microstructures based on successive CMOS compatible adhesive bonding and releasing steps.

    PubMed

    Agirregabiria, M; Blanco, F J; Berganzo, J; Arroyo, M T; Fullaondo, A; Mayora, K; Ruano-López, J M

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a novel fabrication process based on successive wafer-level bonding and releasing steps for stacking several patterned layers of the negative photoresist EPON SU-8. This work uses a polyimide film to enhance previous low temperature bonding technology. The film acts as a temporary substrate where the SU-8 is photopatterned. The poor adhesion between the polyimide film and SU-8 allows the film to be released after the bonding process, even though the film is still strong enough to carry out photolithography. Using this technique, successive adhesive bonding steps can be carried out to obtain complex 3-D multilayer structures. Interconnected channels with smooth vertical sidewalls and freestanding structures are fabricated. Unlike previous works, all the layers are photopatterned before the bonding process yielding sealed cavities and complex three-dimensional structures without using a sacrificial layer. Adding new SU-8 layers reduces the bonding quality because each additional layer decreases the thickness uniformity and increases the polymer crosslinking level. The effect of these parameters is quantified in this paper. This process guarantees compatibility with CMOS electronics and MEMS. Furthermore, the releasing step leaves the input and the output of the microchannels in contact with the outside world, avoiding the usual slow drilling process of a cover. Hence, in addition to the straightforward integration of electrodes on a chip, this fabrication method facilitates the packaging of these microfluidic devices.

  11. CMOS-compatible metamaterial-based wideband mid-infrared absorber for microspectrometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Shahmarvandi, Ehsan; Ghaderi, Mohammadamir; Ayerden, N. Pelin; de Graaf, Ger; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.

    2016-04-01

    The design of a metamaterial-based absorber for use in a MEMS-based mid-IR microspectrometer is reported. The microspectrometer consists of a LVOF that is aligned with an array of thermopile detectors, which is fabricated on a SiN membrane and coated with the absorber. Special emphasis is put on the CMOS compatible fabrication, which results in an absorber design based on Al disc resonators and an Al background plane that are separated by an SiO2 layer. Wideband operation over the 3-4 μm spectral range is achieved by staggered tuning of four Al disk resonators in one 1.5 x 1.5 μm2 unit cell, using four different values of the radius of the Al disk between 0.50 μm and 0.63 μm and an SiO2 layer thickness of 150 nm. Simulations reveal an average absorption of about 95% with a +/-4% ripple at normal incidence, which reduces to about 80% absorption at a 20° incidence angle. The influence of material choice and dimensions on a single absorption peak was studied and the magnetic polariton was identified as the underlying mechanism of absorption.

  12. Tunable, Room Temperature CMOS-Compatible THz Emitters Based on Nonlinear Mixing in Microdisk Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Ahmadivand, Arash; Al-Amin, Chowdhury; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Shur, Michael; Pala, Nezih

    2016-03-01

    We propose and investigate in detail a novel tunable, compact, room temperature terahertz (THz) emitter using individual microdisk resonators for both optical and THz waves with the capability of radiating THz field in 0.5-10 THz range with tuning frequency resolution of 0.05 THz. Enhanced THz generation is achieved by employing a nonlinear optical disk resonator with a high value of second-order nonlinearity ( χ (2)) in order to facilitate the difference-frequency generation (DFG) via nonlinear mixing with the choice of two appropriate input infrared optical waves. Efficient coupling of infrared waves from bus to the nonlinear disk is ensured by satisfying critical coupling condition. Phase matching condition for efficient DFG process is also met by employing modal phase matching technique. Our simulations show that THz output power can be reached up to milliwatt (mW) level with high optical to THz conversion efficiency. The proposed source is Silicon on Insulator (SoI) technology compatible enabling the monolithic integration with Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronics including plasmonic THz detectors.

  13. CMOS-compatible silicon nitride spectrometers for lab-on-a-chip spectral sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryckeboer, Eva; Nie, Xiaomin; Subramanian, Ananth Z.; Martens, Daan; Bienstman, Peter; Clemmen, Stephane; Severi, Simone; Jansen, Roelof; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel

    2016-05-01

    We report on miniaturized optical spectrometers integrated on a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform based on silicon nitride waveguides and fabricated in a CMOS-compatible approach. As compared to a silicon- on-insulator PIC-platform, the usage of silicon nitride allows for operation in the visible and near infrared. Furthermore, the moderately high refractive index contrast in silicon-nitride photonic wire waveguides provides a valuable compromise between compactness, optical loss and sensitivity to phase error. Three generic types of on-chip spectrometers are discussed: the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) spectrometer, the echelle grating or planar concave grating (PCG) spectrometer and the stationary Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) spectrometer. Both the design as well as experimental results are presented and discussed. For the FTS spectrometer a specific design is described in detail leading to an ultra-small (0.1 mm2) footprint device with a resolution of 1 nm and a spectral range of 100nm. Examples are given of the usage of these spectrometers in refractive index biosensing, absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  14. CMOS compatible horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides TE-pass polarizer on silicon-on-insulator platform.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhu, Shiyang; Zhang, Huijuan; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2013-05-20

    An ultra-compact broadband TE-pass polarizer was proposed and demonstrated on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform, using the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide (HNSW). Detailed design principle was presented, taking advantage of the distinct confinement region of the TE and TM modes in the HNSW. TM mode cut-off could be achieved when waveguide width was below 210 nm. Proof-of-concept devices were subsequently fabricated in a CMOS-compatible process. The optimized device had an active region length of 1 μm, three orders of magnitude smaller than similar device previously demonstrated on the SOI platform. More than 16 dB polarization extinction ratio was achieved across 80 nm wavelength range, with a relatively low insertion loss of 2.2dB. The compact device size and excellent broadband performance could provide a simple yet satisfactory solution to the polarization dependent performance drawback of the silicon photonics devices on the SOI platform.

  15. High aspect ratio sharp nanotip for nanocantilever integration at CMOS compatible temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Michael, A; Kwok, C Y

    2017-08-11

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel low temperature nanofabrication approach that enables the formation of ultra-sharp high aspect ratio (HAR) and high density nanotip structures and their integration onto nanoscale cantilever beams. The nanotip structure consists of a nanoscale thermally evaporated Cr Spindt tip on top of an amorphous silicon rod. An apex radius of the tip, as small as 2.5 nm, has been achieved, and is significantly smaller than any other Spindt tips reported so far. 100 nm wide tips with aspect ratio of more than 50 and tip density of more than 5 × 10(9) tips cm(-2) have been fabricated. The HAR tips have been integrated onto an array of 460 nm wide cantilever beams with high precision and yield. In comparison with other approaches, this approach allows the integration of HAR sharp nanotips with nano-mechanical structures in a parallel and CMOS compatible fashion for the first time to our knowledge. Potential applications include on-chip high-speed atomic force microscopy and field emission devices.

  16. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in CMOS-compatible ultra-silicon-rich nitride photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, E.; Ooi, K. J. A.; Chen, G. F. R.; Ng, D. K. T.; Png, C. E.; Tan, D. T. H.

    2017-09-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) on an ultra-silicon-rich nitride (USRN) platform, with the goal of augmenting the optical nonlinearities. The design goals are to achieve an optimized group index curve on the PhCW band edge with a non-membrane PhCW with symmetric SiO2 undercladding and overcladding, so as to maintain back-end CMOS compatibility and better structural robustness. Linear optical characterization, as well as nonlinear optical characterization of PhCWs on ultra-silicon-rich nitride is performed at the telecommunication wavelengths. USRN's negligible two-photon absorption and free carrier losses at the telecommunication wavelengths ensure that there is no scaling of two-photon related losses with the group index, thus maintaining a high nonlinear efficiency. Self-phase modulation experiments are performed using a 96.6 μm PhCW. A 1.5π phase shift is achieved with an input peak power of 2.5 W implying an effective nonlinear parameter of 1.97 × 104 (W m)-1. This nonlinear parameter represents a 49× enhancement in the nonlinear parameter from the slow light effect, in good agreement with expected scaling from the measured group index.

  17. Robust integration schemes for junction-based modulators in a 200mm CMOS compatible silicon photonic platform (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szelag, Bertrand; Abraham, Alexis; Brision, Stéphane; Gindre, Paul; Blampey, Benjamin; Myko, André; Olivier, Segolene; Kopp, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    Silicon photonic is becoming a reality for next generation communication system addressing the increasing needs of HPC (High Performance Computing) systems and datacenters. CMOS compatible photonic platforms are developed in many foundries integrating passive and active devices. The use of existing and qualified microelectronics process guarantees cost efficient and mature photonic technologies. Meanwhile, photonic devices have their own fabrication constraints, not similar to those of cmos devices, which can affect their performances. In this paper, we are addressing the integration of PN junction Mach Zehnder modulator in a 200mm CMOS compatible photonic platform. Implantation based device characteristics are impacted by many process variations among which screening layer thickness, dopant diffusion, implantation mask overlay. CMOS devices are generally quite robust with respect to these processes thanks to dedicated design rules. For photonic devices, the situation is different since, most of the time, doped areas must be carefully located within waveguides and CMOS solutions like self-alignment to the gate cannot be applied. In this work, we present different robust integration solutions for junction-based modulators. A simulation setup has been built in order to optimize of the process conditions. It consist in a Mathlab interface coupling process and device electro-optic simulators in order to run many iterations. Illustrations of modulator characteristic variations with process parameters are done using this simulation setup. Parameters under study are, for instance, X and Y direction lithography shifts, screening oxide and slab thicknesses. A robust process and design approach leading to a pn junction Mach Zehnder modulator insensitive to lithography misalignment is then proposed. Simulation results are compared with experimental datas. Indeed, various modulators have been fabricated with different process conditions and integration schemes. Extensive

  18. Growth and optical properties of CMOS-compatible silicon nanowires for photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichard, Alex Richard

    Silicon (Si) is the dominant semiconductor material in both the microelectronic and photovoltaic industries. Despite its poor optical properties, Si is simply too abundant and useful to be completely abandoned in either industry. Since the initial discovery of efficient room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from porous Si and the following discoveries of PL and time-resolved optical gain from Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) in SiO2, many groups have studied the feasibility of making Si-based, CMOS-compatible electroluminescent devices and electrically pumped lasers. These studies have shown that for Si-ne sizes below about 10 nm, PL can be attributed to radiative recombination of confined excitons and quantum efficiencies can reach 90%. PL peak energies are blue-shifted from the bulk Si band edge of 1.1 eV due to the quantum confinement effect and PL decay lifetimes are on mus timescales. However, many unanswered questions still exist about both the ease of carrier injection and various non-radiative and loss mechanisms that are present. A potential alternative material system to porous Si and Si-nc is Si nanowires (SiNWs). In this thesis, I examine the optical properties of SiNWs with diameters in the range of 3-30 nm fabricated by a number of compound metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication techniques including Chemical Vapor Deposition on metal nanoparticle coated substrates, catalytic wet etching of bulk Si and top-down electron-beam lithographic patterning. Using thermal oxidation and etching, we can increase the degree of confinement in the SiNWs. I demonstrate PL peaked in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges that is tunable by controlling the crystalline SiNW core diameter, which is measured with dark field and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. PL decay lifetimes of the SiNWs are on the order of 50 mus after proper surface passivation, which suggest that the PL is indeed from confined carriers in the SiNW cores

  19. Design and fabrication of a CMOS-compatible MHP gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying; Yu, Jun Wu, Hao; Tang, Zhenan

    2014-03-15

    A novel micro-hotplate (MHP) gas sensor is designed and fabricated with a standard CMOS technology followed by post-CMOS processes. The tungsten plugging between the first and the second metal layer in the CMOS processes is designed as zigzag resistor heaters embedded in the membrane. In the post-CMOS processes, the membrane is released by front-side bulk silicon etching, and excellent adiabatic performance of the sensor is obtained. Pt/Ti electrode films are prepared on the MHP before the coating of the SnO{sub 2} film, which are promising to present better contact stability compared with Al electrodes. Measurements show that at room temperature in atmosphere, the device has a low power consumption of ∼19 mW and a rapid thermal response of 8 ms for heating up to 300 °C. The tungsten heater exhibits good high temperature stability with a slight fluctuation (<0.3%) in the resistance at an operation temperature of 300 °C under constant heating mode for 336 h, and a satisfactory temperature coefficient of resistance of about 1.9‰/°C.

  20. A CMOS-Compatible, Low-Noise ISFET Based on High Efficiency Ion-Modulated Lateral-Bipolar Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sheng-Ren; Chen, Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Ion-sensitive, field-effect transistors (ISFET) have been useful biosensors in many applications. However, the signal-to-noise ratio of the ISFET is limited by its intrinsic, low-frequency noise. This paper presents an ISFET capable of utilizing lateral-bipolar conduction to reduce low-frequency noise. With a particular layout design, the conduction efficiency is further enhanced. Moreover, the ISFET is compatible with the standard CMOS technology. All materials above the gate-oxide are removed by simple, die-level post-CMOS process, allowing ions to modulate the lateral-bipolar current directly. By varying the gate-to-bulk voltage, the operation mode of the ISFET is controlled effectively, so is the noise performance measured and compared. Finally, the biasing conditions preferable for different low-noise applications are identified. Under the identified biasing condition, the signal-to-noise ratio of the ISFET as a pH sensor is proved to be improved by more than five times. PMID:22408508

  1. Local and CMOS-compatible synthesis of CuO nanowires on a suspended microheater on a silicon substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaili; Yang, Yang; Pun, E Y B; Shen, Ruiqi

    2010-06-11

    This paper presents the synthesis of CuO nanowires using a localized thermal heating method in ambient air. It employs local heat sources defined in micro-resistive heaters fabricated by a standard polysilicon-based surface micromachining process instead of a global furnace heating. Since the synthesis is performed globally at room temperature, the presented process is compatible with standard CMOS. The synthesized CuO nanowires are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that this approach provides a simple method to locally synthesize suspended CuO nanowires on polysilicon microbridges on silicon substrates, thus allowing for integration of CuO nanowires into silicon-based devices. It provides a significant step towards the process integration of CuO nanowires with MEMS to realize functional devices.

  2. CMOS compatible self-aligned S/D regions for implant-free InGaAs MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czornomaz, L.; El Kazzi, M.; Hopstaken, M.; Caimi, D.; Mächler, P.; Rossel, C.; Bjoerk, M.; Marchiori, C.; Siegwart, H.; Fompeyrine, J.

    2012-08-01

    CMOS compatible self-aligned access regions for indium gallium arsenide (In0.53Ga0.47As) implant-free n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) are investigated. In situ doped n+ source/drain regions are selectively grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and self-aligned Nickel-InGaAs alloyed metal contacts are obtained using a self-aligned silicide-like process, where different process conditions are studied. Soft pre-epitaxy cleaning is followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while the Ni-InGaAs/III-V interface is characterized by back-side SIMS profiling. Relevant contact and sheet resistances are measured and integration issues are highlighted. Gate-first implant-free self-aligned n-MOSFETs are produced to quantify the impact of Ni-InGaAs contacts on the device performance.

  3. Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianfeng; Chen, Hongtao; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Ji, Ruiqiang; Tian, Yonghui; Zhu, Weiwei; Lu, Yangyang; Zhou, Ping; Min, Rui

    2012-01-30

    We demonstrate a carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator, which is compatible with CMOS fabrication process and works well at a low driving voltage. This is achieved by the optimization of the coplanar waveguide electrode to reduce the electrical signal transmission loss. At the same time, the velocity and impedance matching are both considered. The 12.5 Gbit/s data transmission experiment of the fabricated device with a 2-mm-long phase shifter is performed. The driving voltages with the swing amplitudes of 1 V and 2 V and the reverse bias voltages of 0.5 V and 0.8 V are applied to the device, respectively. The corresponding extinction ratios are 7.67 and 12.79 dB.

  4. Enhanced Telecom Emission from Single Group-IV Quantum Dots by Precise CMOS-Compatible Positioning in Photonic Crystal Cavities.

    PubMed

    Schatzl, Magdalena; Hackl, Florian; Glaser, Martin; Rauter, Patrick; Brehm, Moritz; Spindlberger, Lukas; Simbula, Angelica; Galli, Matteo; Fromherz, Thomas; Schäffler, Friedrich

    2017-03-15

    Efficient coupling to integrated high-quality-factor cavities is crucial for the employment of germanium quantum dot (QD) emitters in future monolithic silicon-based optoelectronic platforms. We report on strongly enhanced emission from single Ge QDs into L3 photonic crystal resonator (PCR) modes based on precise positioning of these dots at the maximum of the respective mode field energy density. Perfect site control of Ge QDs grown on prepatterned silicon-on-insulator substrates was exploited to fabricate in one processing run almost 300 PCRs containing single QDs in systematically varying positions within the cavities. Extensive photoluminescence studies on this cavity chip enable a direct evaluation of the position-dependent coupling efficiency between single dots and selected cavity modes. The experimental results demonstrate the great potential of the approach allowing CMOS-compatible parallel fabrication of arrays of spatially matched dot/cavity systems for group-IV-based data transfer or quantum optical systems in the telecom regime.

  5. Atomic layer deposited second-order nonlinear optical metamaterial for back-end integration with CMOS-compatible nanophotonic circuitry.

    PubMed

    Clemmen, Stéphane; Hermans, Artur; Solano, Eduardo; Dendooven, Jolien; Koskinen, Kalle; Kauranen, Martti; Brainis, Edouard; Detavernier, Christophe; Baets, Roel

    2015-11-15

    We report the fabrication of artificial unidimensional crystals exhibiting an effective bulk second-order nonlinearity. The crystals are created by cycling atomic layer deposition of three dielectric materials such that the resulting metamaterial is noncentrosymmetric in the direction of the deposition. Characterization of the structures by second-harmonic generation Maker-fringe measurements shows that the main component of their nonlinear susceptibility tensor is about 5 pm/V, which is comparable to well-established materials and more than an order of magnitude greater than reported for a similar crystal [Appl. Phys. Lett.107, 121903 (2015)APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.4931492]. Our demonstration opens new possibilities for second-order nonlinear effects on CMOS-compatible nanophotonic platforms.

  6. A single-poly EEPROM cell structure compatible to standard CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang; Sun, Cherng-Yuan

    2007-06-01

    A novel cell structure is proposed for low cost, low capacity EEPROMs. The cell is composed of an NMOSFET and a MOS capacitor with a shared poly-silicon layer that functions as the floating gate of the cell. This nonvolatile cell can be fabricated by a standard CMOS process technology without any extra steps. Detailed analyses are carried out for the dependence of the performance on the capacitance ratios CC/ CD between the NMOSFET CD and the MOS capacitor CC. The efficiencies of program/erase operations, the ability of data retention and the cyclic endurance are also discussed.

  7. A Wide Temperature, Radiation Tolerant, CMOS-compatible Precision Voltage Reference for Extreme Environment Instrumentation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, Mr. Benjamin; Blalock, Benjamin; Potts, J.; Kemerling, Mr. James; Isihara, Mr. Kyoshi; Leines, Capt. Matt; Britton Jr, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Many design techniques have been incorporated into modern CMOS design practices to improve radiation tolerance of integrated circuits. Annular-gate NMOS structures have been proven to be significantly more radiation tolerant than the standard straight-gate variety. Many circuits can be designed using the annular-gate NMOS and the inherently radiation tolerant PMOS. Band-gap reference circuits, however, typically require p-n junction diodes. These p-n junction diodes are the dominating factor in radiation degradation in band-gap reference circuits. This paper proposes a different approach to band-gap reference design to alleviate the radiation susceptibility presented by the p-n junction diodes.

  8. CMOS compatible fabrication process of MEMS resonator for timing reference and sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Duc H.; Nguyen, Phuong D.; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Skafidas, Stan; Evans, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Frequency reference and timing control devices are ubiquitous in electronic applications. There is at least one resonator required for each of this device. Currently electromechanical resonators such as crystal resonator, ceramic resonator are the ultimate choices. This tendency will probably keep going for many more years. However, current market demands for small size, low power consumption, cheap and reliable products, has divulged many limitations of this type of resonators. They cannot be integrated into standard CMOS (Complement metaloxide- semiconductor) IC (Integrated Circuit) due to material and fabrication process incompatibility. Currently, these devices are off-chip and they require external circuitries to interface with the ICs. This configuration significantly increases the overall size and cost of the entire electronic system. In addition, extra external connection, especially at high frequency, will potentially create negative impacts on the performance of the entire system due to signal degradation and parasitic effects. Furthermore, due to off-chip packaging nature, these devices are quite expensive, particularly for high frequency and high quality factor devices. To address these issues, researchers have been intensively studying on an alternative for type of resonator by utilizing the new emerging MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology. Recent progress in this field has demonstrated a MEMS resonator with resonant frequency of 2.97 GHz and quality factor (measured in vacuum) of 42900. Despite this great achievement, this prototype is still far from being fully integrated into CMOS system due to incompatibility in fabrication process and its high series motional impedance. On the other hand, fully integrated MEMS resonator had been demonstrated but at lower frequency and quality factor. We propose a design and fabrication process for a low cost, high frequency and a high quality MEMS resonator, which can be integrated into a standard

  9. Silicon nitride CMOS-compatible platform for integrated photonics applications at visible wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Romero-García, Sebastian; Merget, Florian; Zhong, Frank; Finkelstein, Hod; Witzens, Jeremy

    2013-06-17

    Silicon nitride is demonstrated as a high performance and cost-effective solution for dense integrated photonic circuits in the visible spectrum. Experimental results for nanophotonic waveguides fabricated in a standard CMOS pilot line with losses below 0.71dB/cm in an aqueous environment and 0.51dB/cm with silicon dioxide cladding are reported. Design and characterization of waveguide bends, grating couplers and multimode interference couplers (MMI) at a wavelength of 660 nm are presented. The index contrast of this technology enables high integration densities with insertion losses below 0.05 dB per 90° bend for radii as small as 35 µm. By a proper design of the buried oxide layer thickness, grating couplers with efficiencies above 38% for the TE polarization have been obtained.

  10. CMOS-compatible InP/InGaAs digital photoreceiver

    DOEpatents

    Lovejoy, Michael L.; Rose, Benny H.; Craft, David C.; Enquist, Paul M.; Slater, Jr., David B.

    1997-01-01

    A digital photoreceiver is formed monolithically on an InP semiconductor substrate and comprises a p-i-n photodetector formed from a plurality of InP/InGaAs layers deposited by an epitaxial growth process and an adjacent heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifier formed from the same InP/InGaAs layers. The photoreceiver amplifier operates in a large-signal mode to convert a detected photocurrent signal into an amplified output capable of directly driving integrated circuits such as CMOS. In combination with an optical transmitter, the photoreceiver may be used to establish a short-range channel of digital optical communications between integrated circuits with applications to multi-chip modules (MCMs). The photoreceiver may also be used with fiber optic coupling for establishing longer-range digital communications (i.e. optical interconnects) between distributed computers or the like. Arrays of digital photoreceivers may be formed on a common substrate for establishing a plurality of channels of digital optical communication, with each photoreceiver being spaced by less than about 1 mm and consuming less than about 20 mW of power, and preferably less than about 10 mW. Such photoreceiver arrays are useful for transferring huge amounts of digital data between integrated circuits at bit rates of up to about 1000 Mb/s or more.

  11. CMOS-compatible InP/InGaAs digital photoreceiver

    DOEpatents

    Lovejoy, M.L.; Rose, B.H.; Craft, D.C.; Enquist, P.M.; Slater, D.B. Jr.

    1997-11-04

    A digital photoreceiver is formed monolithically on an InP semiconductor substrate and comprises a p-i-n photodetector formed from a plurality of InP/InGaAs layers deposited by an epitaxial growth process and an adjacent heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifier formed from the same InP/InGaAs layers. The photoreceiver amplifier operates in a large-signal mode to convert a detected photocurrent signal into an amplified output capable of directly driving integrated circuits such as CMOS. In combination with an optical transmitter, the photoreceiver may be used to establish a short-range channel of digital optical communications between integrated circuits with applications to multi-chip modules (MCMs). The photoreceiver may also be used with fiber optic coupling for establishing longer-range digital communications (i.e. optical interconnects) between distributed computers or the like. Arrays of digital photoreceivers may be formed on a common substrate for establishing a plurality of channels of digital optical communication, with each photoreceiver being spaced by less than about 1 mm and consuming less than about 20 mW of power, and preferably less than about 10 mW. Such photoreceiver arrays are useful for transferring huge amounts of digital data between integrated circuits at bit rates of up to about 1,000 Mb/s or more. 4 figs.

  12. CMOS compatible high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated with photolithography on silicon photonic platform.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Yuta; Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Fushimi, Akihiro; Yoshiki, Wataru; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2015-06-18

    Progress on the fabrication of ultrahigh-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities (PhC-NCs) has revealed the prospect for new applications including silicon Raman lasers that require a strong confinement of light. Among various PhC-NCs, the highest Q has been recorded with silicon. On the other hand, microcavity is one of the basic building blocks in silicon photonics. However, the fusion between PhC-NCs and silicon photonics has yet to be exploited, since PhC-NCs are usually fabricated with electron-beam lithography and require an air-bridge structure. Here we show that a 2D-PhC-NC fabricated with deep-UV photolithography on a silica-clad silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure will exhibit a high-Q of 2.2 × 10(5) with a mode-volume of ~ 1.7(λ/n)(3). This is the highest Q demonstrated with photolithography. We also show that this device exhibits an efficient thermal diffusion and enables high-speed switching. The demonstration of the photolithographic fabrication of high-Q silica-clad PhC-NCs will open possibility for mass-manufacturing and boost the fusion between silicon photonics and CMOS devices.

  13. CMOS compatible high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated with photolithography on silicon photonic platform

    PubMed Central

    Ooka, Yuta; Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Fushimi, Akihiro; Yoshiki, Wataru; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2015-01-01

    Progress on the fabrication of ultrahigh-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities (PhC-NCs) has revealed the prospect for new applications including silicon Raman lasers that require a strong confinement of light. Among various PhC-NCs, the highest Q has been recorded with silicon. On the other hand, microcavity is one of the basic building blocks in silicon photonics. However, the fusion between PhC-NCs and silicon photonics has yet to be exploited, since PhC-NCs are usually fabricated with electron-beam lithography and require an air-bridge structure. Here we show that a 2D-PhC-NC fabricated with deep-UV photolithography on a silica-clad silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure will exhibit a high-Q of 2.2 × 105 with a mode-volume of ~1.7(λ/n)3. This is the highest Q demonstrated with photolithography. We also show that this device exhibits an efficient thermal diffusion and enables high-speed switching. The demonstration of the photolithographic fabrication of high-Q silica-clad PhC-NCs will open possibility for mass-manufacturing and boost the fusion between silicon photonics and CMOS devices. PMID:26086849

  14. Step-gate polysilicon nanowires field effect transistor compatible with CMOS technology for label-free DNA biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wenga, G; Jacques, E; Salaün, A-C; Rogel, R; Pichon, L; Geneste, F

    2013-02-15

    Currently, detection of DNA hybridization using fluorescence-based detection technique requires expensive optical systems and complex bioinformatics tools. Hence, the development of new low cost devices that enable direct and highly sensitive detection stimulates a lot of research efforts. Particularly, devices based on silicon nanowires are emerging as ultrasensitive electrical sensors for the direct detection of biological species thanks to their high surface to volume ratio. In this study, we propose innovative devices using step-gate polycrystalline silicon nanowire FET (poly-Si NW FETs), achieved with simple and low cost fabrication process, and used as ultrasensitive electronic sensor for DNA hybridization. The poly-SiNWs are synthesized using the sidewall spacer formation technique. The detailed fabrication procedure for a step-gate NWFET sensor is described in this paper. No-complementary and complementary DNA sequences were clearly discriminated and detection limit to 1 fM range is observed. This first result using this nano-device is promising for the development of low cost and ultrasensitive polysilicon nanowires based DNA sensors compatible with the CMOS technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced Telecom Emission from Single Group-IV Quantum Dots by Precise CMOS-Compatible Positioning in Photonic Crystal Cavities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Efficient coupling to integrated high-quality-factor cavities is crucial for the employment of germanium quantum dot (QD) emitters in future monolithic silicon-based optoelectronic platforms. We report on strongly enhanced emission from single Ge QDs into L3 photonic crystal resonator (PCR) modes based on precise positioning of these dots at the maximum of the respective mode field energy density. Perfect site control of Ge QDs grown on prepatterned silicon-on-insulator substrates was exploited to fabricate in one processing run almost 300 PCRs containing single QDs in systematically varying positions within the cavities. Extensive photoluminescence studies on this cavity chip enable a direct evaluation of the position-dependent coupling efficiency between single dots and selected cavity modes. The experimental results demonstrate the great potential of the approach allowing CMOS-compatible parallel fabrication of arrays of spatially matched dot/cavity systems for group-IV-based data transfer or quantum optical systems in the telecom regime. PMID:28345012

  16. A reliable and controllable graphene doping method compatible with current CMOS technology and the demonstration of its device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seonyeong; Shin, Somyeong; Kim, Taekwang; Du, Hyewon; Song, Minho; Kim, Ki Soo; Cho, Seungmin; Lee, Sang Wook; Seo, Sunae

    2017-04-01

    The modulation of charge carrier concentration allows us to tune the Fermi level (E F) of graphene thanks to the low electronic density of states near the E F. The introduced metal oxide thin films as well as the modified transfer process can elaborately maneuver the amounts of charge carrier concentration in graphene. The self-encapsulation provides a solution to overcome the stability issues of metal oxide hole dopants. We have manipulated systematic graphene p-n junction structures for electronic or photonic application-compatible doping methods with current semiconducting process technology. We have demonstrated the anticipated transport properties on the designed heterojunction devices with non-destructive doping methods. This mitigates the device architecture limitation imposed in previously known doping methods. Furthermore, we employed E F-modulated graphene source/drain (S/D) electrodes in a low dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide field effect transistor (TMDFET). We have succeeded in fulfilling n-type, ambipolar, or p-type field effect transistors (FETs) by moving around only the graphene work function. Besides, the graphene/transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) junction in either both p- and n-type transistor reveals linear voltage dependence with the enhanced contact resistance. We accomplished the complete conversion of p-/n-channel transistors with S/D tunable electrodes. The E F modulation using metal oxide facilitates graphene to access state-of-the-art complimentary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  17. A new generation of CMOS-compatible high frequency micro-inductors with ferromagnetic cores: Theory, fabrication and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seemann, K.; Leiste, H.; Bekker, V.

    2006-07-01

    A new generation of CMOS-compatible micro-inductor prototypes with magnetic cores were realized, characterised as well as theoretically modelled in a frequency range up to 4 GHz, a frequency range where, e.g., mobile communication and global positioning systems (GPS) are operated. The micro-inductor's electrical magnitudes like inductance ( L) and quality factor ( Q) were theoretically described by means of an equivalent circuit model taking the frequency behaviour of the magnetic film core, expressed by the Landau-Lifschitz and Maxwell equations, into account. Six inch targets were used to deposit metallic layers (Al 99Si 0.5Cu 0.5), diffusion barriers (Si 3N 4), insulating layers (SiO 2) and magnetic films (Fe 39Co 30Ta 8N 23) by DC or reactive r.-f.-magnetron sputtering. All film materials were patterned by NUV-lithography (Near Ultra Violet), plasma beam milling and reactive ion etching to form the micro-inductors on 4-inch silicon wafers. The inductor windings are arranged in a way that they possess a low resistance and generate a quasi closed flux at the end of the cores to minimise eddy current losses in the silicon substrate. In order to diminish demagnetising effects in an efficient working core the magnetic films were patterned into micro squares with lateral dimensions of 20 and 100 μm with 100 nm in thickness. More magnetic volume and a higher micro-inductor cross-section was achieved by producing 100 nm magnetic double layers separated by a 800 nm thick Si 3N 4 inter-layer. To guarantee a sufficiently high cut-off frequency of the magnetic films, they were annealed in a static magnetic field at a temperature of 400 °C for uniaxial anisotropy induction. This represents a temperature treatment where aluminium CMOS processes take place. As a result of patterning, the magnetic film material exhibited a remarkable increase of the cut-off frequency from 2 GHz in laterally extended films up to 3.2 GHz which could be also observed in the measured frequency

  18. Label-free and rapid electrical detection of hTSH with CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire transistor arrays.

    PubMed

    Lu, Na; Dai, Pengfei; Gao, Anran; Valiaho, Jari; Kallio, Pasi; Wang, Yuelin; Li, Tie

    2014-11-26

    Now a human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) assay has been considered as a screening tool for thyroid disease. However, some existing methods employed for in-hospital diagnosis still suffer from labor-intensive experimental steps, and expensive instrumentation. It is of great significance to meet the ever growing demand for development of label-free, disposable, and low-cost productive hTSH detection biosensors. Herein, we demonstrate a novel sensing strategy for highly sensitive and selective immunodetection of hTSH by using a CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire field effect transistor (SiNW-FET) device. The SiNW chips were manufactured by a top-down approach, allowing for the possibility of low-cost and large-scale production. By using the antibody-functionalized SiNW-FET nanosensors, we performed the label-free and rapid electrical detection of hTSH without any nanoparticle conjugation or signal amplifications. The proposed SiNW biosensor could detect hTSH binding down to a concentration of at least 0.02 mIU/L (0.11 pM), which is more sensitive than other sensing techniques. We also investigated the influence of Debye screening with varied ionic strength on hTSH detection sensitivity, and real-time measurements on various concentrations of the diluted buffer. The simple, label-free, low-cost, and miniaturized SiNW-FET chip has a potential perspective in point-of-care diagnosis of thyroid disease.

  19. Direct ultrasensitive electrical detection of prostate cancer biomarkers with CMOS-compatible n- and p-type silicon nanowire sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Anran; Lu, Na; Dai, Pengfei; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Yuelin; Li, Tie

    2014-10-01

    Sensitive and quantitative analysis of proteins is central to disease diagnosis, drug screening, and proteomic studies. Here, a label-free, real-time, simultaneous and ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) sensor was developed using CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW FET). Highly responsive n- and p-type SiNW arrays were fabricated and integrated on a single chip with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible anisotropic self-stop etching technique which eliminated the need for a hybrid method. The incorporated n- and p-type nanowires revealed complementary electrical response upon PSA binding, providing a unique means of internal control for sensing signal verification. The highly selective, simultaneous and multiplexed detection of PSA marker at attomolar concentrations, a level useful for clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer, was demonstrated. The detection ability was corroborated to be effective by comparing the detection results at different pH values. Furthermore, the real-time measurement was also carried out in a clinically relevant sample of blood serum, indicating the practicable development of rapid, robust, high-performance, and low-cost diagnostic systems.Sensitive and quantitative analysis of proteins is central to disease diagnosis, drug screening, and proteomic studies. Here, a label-free, real-time, simultaneous and ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) sensor was developed using CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW FET). Highly responsive n- and p-type SiNW arrays were fabricated and integrated on a single chip with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible anisotropic self-stop etching technique which eliminated the need for a hybrid method. The incorporated n- and p-type nanowires revealed complementary electrical response upon PSA binding, providing a unique means of internal control for sensing signal verification. The highly

  20. Fabrication and Structural Characterization of Co-implanted Ultra Shallow Junctions for Integration in Piezoresistive Silicon Sensors Compatible with CMOS Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Mustafa, R.

    2013-12-01

    Fabrication and structural characterization of Indium and Carbon implanted n-type Silicon layers forming ultra-shallow junction for integration in piezoresistive sensors compatible with CMOS processing is studied in detail. The co-implantation technology together with medium range annealing temperature regimes seem to play an important role at atomistic level and provide a process control to engineer the strain and maintain the quality of surface/layer/active device region for further manufacturing process cycle. This is likely to impact the yield and reliability for the fabrication of these devices for diverse applications.

  1. A CMOS-compatible poly-Si nanowire device with hybrid sensor/memory characteristics for System-on-Chip applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Cheng; Chen, Hao-Yu; Lin, Chia-Yi; Chien, Chao-Hsin; Hsieh, Tsung-Fan; Horng, Jim-Tong; Qiu, Jian-Tai; Huang, Chien-Chao; Ho, Chia-Hua; Yang, Fu-Liang

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a versatile nano-sensor technology using "top-down" poly-silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) in the conventional Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible semiconductor process. The nanowire manufacturing technique reduced nanowire width scaling to 50 nm without use of extra lithography equipment, and exhibited superior device uniformity. These n type polysilicon nanowire FETs have positive pH sensitivity (100 mV/pH) and sensitive deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection ability (100 pM) at normal system operation voltages. Specially designed oxide-nitride-oxide buried oxide nanowire realizes an electrically V(th)-adjustable sensor to compensate device variation. These nanowire FETs also enable non-volatile memory application for a large and steady V(th) adjustment window (>2 V Programming/Erasing window). The CMOS-compatible manufacturing technique of polysilicon nanowire FETs offers a possible solution for commercial System-on-Chip biosensor application, which enables portable physiology monitoring and in situ recording.

  2. Ge quantum dot arrays grown by ultrahigh vacuum molecular-beam epitaxy on the Si(001) surface: nucleation, morphology, and CMOS compatibility.

    PubMed

    Yuryev, Vladimir A; Arapkina, Larisa V

    2011-09-05

    Issues of morphology, nucleation, and growth of Ge cluster arrays deposited by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy on the Si(001) surface are considered. Difference in nucleation of quantum dots during Ge deposition at low (≲600°C) and high (≳600°C) temperatures is studied by high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. The atomic models of growth of both species of Ge huts--pyramids and wedges-- are proposed. The growth cycle of Ge QD arrays at low temperatures is explored. A problem of lowering of the array formation temperature is discussed with the focus on CMOS compatibility of the entire process; a special attention is paid upon approaches to reduction of treatment temperature during the Si(001) surface pre-growth cleaning, which is at once a key and the highest-temperature phase of the Ge/Si(001) quantum dot dense array formation process. The temperature of the Si clean surface preparation, the final high-temperature step of which is, as a rule, carried out directly in the MBE chamber just before the structure deposition, determines the compatibility of formation process of Ge-QD-array based devices with the CMOS manufacturing cycle. Silicon surface hydrogenation at the final stage of its wet chemical etching during the preliminary cleaning is proposed as a possible way of efficient reduction of the Si wafer pre-growth annealing temperature.

  3. Ge quantum dot arrays grown by ultrahigh vacuum molecular-beam epitaxy on the Si(001) surface: nucleation, morphology, and CMOS compatibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Issues of morphology, nucleation, and growth of Ge cluster arrays deposited by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy on the Si(001) surface are considered. Difference in nucleation of quantum dots during Ge deposition at low (≲600°C) and high (≳600°C) temperatures is studied by high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. The atomic models of growth of both species of Ge huts--pyramids and wedges-- are proposed. The growth cycle of Ge QD arrays at low temperatures is explored. A problem of lowering of the array formation temperature is discussed with the focus on CMOS compatibility of the entire process; a special attention is paid upon approaches to reduction of treatment temperature during the Si(001) surface pre-growth cleaning, which is at once a key and the highest-temperature phase of the Ge/Si(001) quantum dot dense array formation process. The temperature of the Si clean surface preparation, the final high-temperature step of which is, as a rule, carried out directly in the MBE chamber just before the structure deposition, determines the compatibility of formation process of Ge-QD-array based devices with the CMOS manufacturing cycle. Silicon surface hydrogenation at the final stage of its wet chemical etching during the preliminary cleaning is proposed as a possible way of efficient reduction of the Si wafer pre-growth annealing temperature. PMID:21892938

  4. Small Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhnke, Falko; Musmann, Gunter; Glassmeier, K. H.; Tsurutani, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Small, lightweight, low-power magnetometer measures three-dimensional magnetic field. Includes three toroidal cores - one for each dimension. Exhibits high sensitivity, low zero-point drift, and low noise. Magnetometer circuit includes driver circuit and three analog signal-processing circuits. Output of analog signal-processing circuit proportional to one of components of external magnetic field.

  5. 1.2 kV GaN Schottky barrier diodes on free-standing GaN wafer using a CMOS-compatible contact material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinke; Liu, Qiang; Li, Chao; Wang, Jianfeng; Yu, Wenjie; Xu, Ke; Ao, Jin-Ping

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we report the formation of vertical GaN Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on a 2-in. free-standing (FS) GaN wafer, using CMOS-compatible contact material. By realizing an off-state breakdown voltage V BR of 1200 V and an on-state resistance R on of 7 mΩ·cm2, the FS-GaN SBDs fabricated in this work achieve a power device figure-of-merit V\\text{BR}2/R\\text{on} of 2.1 × 108 V2·Ω-1·cm-2 on a high quality GaN wafer. In addition, the fabricated FS-GaN SBDs show the highest I on/I off current ratio of ˜2.3 × 1010 among the GaN SBDs reported in the literature.

  6. Low-temperature crack-free Si3N4 nonlinear photonic circuits for CMOS-compatible optoelectronic co-integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casale, Marco; Kerdiles, Sebastien; Brianceau, Pierre; Hugues, Vincent; El Dirani, Houssein; Sciancalepore, Corrado

    2017-02-01

    In this communication, authors report for the first time on the fabrication and testing of Si3N4 non-linear photonic circuits for CMOS-compatible monolithic co-integration with silicon-based optoelectronics. In particular, a novel process has been developed to fabricate low-loss crack-free Si3N4 750-nm-thick films for Kerr-based nonlinear functions featuring full thermal budget compatibility with existing Silicon photonics and front-end Si optoelectronics. Briefly, differently from previous and state-of-the-art works, our nonlinear nitride-based platform has been realized without resorting to commonly-used high-temperature annealing ( 1200°C) of the film and its silica upper-cladding used to break N-H bonds otherwise causing absorption in the C-band and destroying its nonlinear functionality. Furthermore, no complex and fabrication-intolerant Damascene process - as recently reported earlier this year - aimed at controlling cracks generated in thick tensile-strained Si3N4 films has been used as well. Instead, a tailored Si3N4 multiple-step film deposition in 200-mm LPCVD-based reactor and subsequent low-temperature (400°C) PECVD oxide encapsulation have been used to fabricate the nonlinear micro-resonant circuits aiming at generating optical frequency combs via optical parametric oscillators (OPOs), thus allowing the monolithic co-integration of such nonlinear functions on existing CMOS-compatible optoelectronics, for both active and passive components such as, for instance, silicon modulators and wavelength (de-)multiplexers. Experimental evidence based on wafer-level statistics show nitride-based 112-μm-radius ring resonators using such low-temperature crack-free nitride film exhibiting quality factors exceeding Q >3 x 105, thus paving the way to low-threshold power-efficient Kerr-based comb sources and dissipative temporal solitons in the C-band featuring full thermal processing compatibility with Si photonic integrated circuits (Si-PICs).

  7. MAVEN Magnetometer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    MAVEN’s dual magnetometers will allow scientists to study the interactionbetween the solar wind and the Martian atmosphere, giving us a betterunderstanding of how Mars has evolved from a warm, ...

  8. A novel CMOS-compatible, monolithically integrated line-scan hyperspectral imager covering the VIS-NIR range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Pilar; Tack, Klaas; Geelen, Bert; Masschelein, Bart; Charle, Wouter; Vereecke, Bart; Lambrechts, Andy

    2016-05-01

    Imec has developed a process for the monolithic integration of optical filters on top of CMOS image sensors, leading to compact, cost-efficient and faster hyperspectral cameras. Different prototype sensors are available, most notably a 600- 1000 nm line-scan imager, and two mosaic sensors: a 4x4 VIS (470-620 nm range) and a 5x5 VNIR (600-1000 nm). In response to the users' demand for a single sensor able to cover both the VIS and NIR ranges, further developments have been made to enable more demanding applications. As a result, this paper presents the latest addition to imec's family of monolithically-integrated hyperspectral sensors: a line scan sensor covering the range 470-900 nm. This new prototype sensor can acquire hyperspectral image cubes of 2048 pixels over 192 bands (128 bands for the 600- 900 nm range, and 64 bands for the 470-620 nm range) at 340 cubes per second for normal machine vision illumination levels.

  9. CMOS-compatible synthesis of large-area, high-mobility graphene by chemical vapor deposition of acetylene on cobalt thin films.

    PubMed

    Ramón, Michael E; Gupta, Aparna; Corbet, Chris; Ferrer, Domingo A; Movva, Hema C P; Carpenter, Gary; Colombo, Luigi; Bourianoff, George; Doczy, Mark; Akinwande, Deji; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate the synthesis of large-area graphene on Co, a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible metal, using acetylene (C(2)H(2)) as a precursor in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-based method. Cobalt films were deposited on SiO(2)/Si, and the influence of Co film thickness on monolayer graphene growth was studied, based on the solubility of C in Co. The surface area coverage of monolayer graphene was observed to increase with decreasing Co film thickness. A thorough Raman spectroscopic analysis reveals that graphene films, grown on an optimized Co film thickness, are principally composed of monolayer graphene. Transport properties of monolayer graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of ∼1600 cm(2)/V s and ∼1000 cm(2)/V s, respectively, and a low trap density of ∼1.2 × 10(11) cm(-2).

  10. Imaging Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, Philip I.; Soll, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    Imaging magnetometer proposed for scientific, industrial, or military use in detecting underground structures containing magnetic materials and underground machines generating and/or altering magnetic fields. Includes electron-beam tube integrated with phosphor-coated charge-coupled device (CCD). Images formed by magnetic deflection of electron beam. Locations, magnitudes, and directions of identifiable features of magnetic field examined to extract data on locations, sizes, and types of magnetically detected objects.

  11. Atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter [Albuquerque, NM; Johnson, Cort N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

  12. Co-integrating plasmonics with Si3N4 photonics towards a generic CMOS compatible PIC platform for high-sensitivity multi-channel biosensors: the H2020 PlasmoFab approach (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiokos, Dimitris M.; Dabos, George; Ketzaki, Dimitra; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Giesecke, Anna Lena; Porschatis, Caroline; Chmielak, Bartos; Wahlbrink, Thorsten; Rochracher, Karl; Pleros, Nikos

    2017-05-01

    Silicon photonics meet most fabrication requirements of standard CMOS process lines encompassing the photonics-electronics consolidation vision. Despite this remarkable progress, further miniaturization of PICs for common integration with electronics and for increasing PIC functional density is bounded by the inherent diffraction limit of light imposed by optical waveguides. Instead, Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) waveguides can guide light at sub-wavelength scales at the metal surface providing unique light-matter interaction properties, exploiting at the same time their metallic nature to naturally integrate with electronics in high-performance ASPICs. In this article, we demonstrate the main goals of the recently introduced H2020 project PlasmoFab towards addressing the ever increasing needs for low energy, small size and high performance mass manufactured PICs by developing a revolutionary yet CMOS-compatible fabrication platform for seamless co-integration of plasmonics with photonic and supporting electronic. We demonstrate recent advances on the hosting SiN photonic hosting platform reporting on low-loss passive SiN waveguide and Grating Coupler circuits for both the TM and TE polarization states. We also present experimental results of plasmonic gold thin-film and hybrid slot waveguide configurations that can allow for high-sensitivity sensing, providing also the ongoing activities towards replacing gold with Cu, Al or TiN metal in order to yield the same functionality over a CMOS metallic structure. Finally, the first experimental results on the co-integrated SiN+plasmonic platform are demonstrated, concluding to an initial theoretical performance analysis of the CMOS plasmo-photonic biosensor that has the potential to allow for sensitivities beyond 150000nm/RIU.

  13. Electron-Tunneling Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Waltman, Steven B.

    1993-01-01

    Electron-tunneling magnetometer is conceptual solid-state device operating at room temperature, yet offers sensitivity comparable to state-of-art magnetometers such as flux gates, search coils, and optically pumped magnetometers, with greatly reduced volume, power consumption, electronics requirements, and manufacturing cost. Micromachined from silicon wafer, and uses tunneling displacement transducer to detect magnetic forces on cantilever-supported current loop.

  14. Aristoteles magnetometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Edward J.; Marquedant, Roy J.; Langel, Robert; Acuna, Mario

    1991-12-01

    A magnetometer system capable of meeting the stringent requirements of the Aristoteles mission is described. The system will comprise a three axis or Vector Flux gas Magnetometer (VFM) and a highly accurate resonance magnetometer, the Scalar Helium Magnetometer (SHM). Basic operational features of these instruments are described and their performance is related to the scientific objectives of the mission appropriate to the geomagnetic field measurements. The major requirements imposed on the spacecraft are summarized. Photographs and diagrams of both instruments are presented along with graphs of the sensitivity of the SHM to magnetic field orientation.

  15. The MASCOT Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herčík, David; Auster, Hans-Ulrich; Blum, Jürgen; Fornaçon, Karl-Heinz; Fujimoto, Masaki; Gebauer, Kathrin; Güttler, Carsten; Hillenmaier, Olaf; Hördt, Andreas; Liebert, Evelyn; Matsuoka, Ayako; Nomura, Reiko; Richter, Ingo; Stoll, Bernd; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2017-07-01

    The Mobile Asteroid Scout (MASCOT) is a small lander on board the Hayabusa2 mission of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency to the asteroid 162173 Ryugu. Among the instruments on MASCOT is a fluxgate magnetometer, the MASCOT Magnetometer (MasMag). The magnetometer is a lightweight (˜280 g) and low power (˜0.5 W) triaxial fluxgate magnetometer. Magnetic field measurements during the landing period and during the surface operational phase shall provide information about any intrinsic magnetic field of the asteroid and its remanent magnetization. This could provide important constraints on planet formation and the thermal and aqueous evolution of primitive asteroids.

  16. Tuned cavity magnetometer sensitivity.

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (magnetometer that utilizes a novel optical (interferometric) detection technique. Further miniaturization and low-power operation are key advantages of this magnetometer, when compared to systems using SQUIDs which require liquid Helium temperatures and associated overhead to achieve similar sensitivity levels.

  17. Magnetometer uses bismuth-selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollman, J. A.; Spain, I. L.; Beale, H.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of bismuth-selenide magnetometer are described. Advantages of bismuth-selenide magnetometer over standard magnetometers are stressed. Thermal stability of bismuth-selenide magnetometer is analyzed. Linearity of output versus magnetic field over wide range of temperatures is reported.

  18. The Giotto magnetometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, F. M.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Franke, B.; Gramkow, B.

    1987-01-01

    The Giotto magnetometer experiment employs a low-mass (1.357 kg), low-power (818 mW) instrument in a dual magnetometer configuration using flux gate sensors of the ring core type. It has provided accurate vector magnetic field measurements on its way to and near comet Halley, working flawlessly from switch-on on August 22, 1985 to the formal end of the mission on March 15, 1986.

  19. Hall effect magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A.; Beale, H. A.; Spain, I. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A magnetometer which uses a single crystal of bismuth selenide is described. The rhombohedral crystal structure of the sensing element is analyzed. The method of construction of the magnetometer is discussed. It is stated that the sensing crystal has a positive or negative Hall coefficient and a carrier concentration of about 10 to the 18th power to 10 to the 20th power per cubic centimeter.

  20. On the integration of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) with CMOS chip

    DOE PAGES

    Mi, Hongyi; Yuan, Hao -Chih; Seo, Jung -Hun; ...

    2017-03-27

    A low temperature deposition of high quality ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film onto a finished Si-based CMOS chip was performed to investigate the compatibility of the UNCD deposition process with CMOS devices for monolithic integration of MEMS on Si CMOS platform. DC and radio-frequency performances of the individual PMOS and NMOS devices on the CMOS chip before and after the UNCD deposition were characterized. Electrical characteristics of CMOS after deposition of the UNCD film remained within the acceptable ranges, namely showing small variations in threshold voltage Vth, transconductance gm, cut-off frequency fT and maximum oscillation frequency fmax. Finally, the results suggestmore » that low temperature UNCD deposition is compatible with CMOS to realize monolithically integrated CMOS-driven MEMS/NEMS based on UNCD.« less

  1. Cavity optomechanical magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Forstner, S; Prams, S; Knittel, J; van Ooijen, E D; Swaim, J D; Harris, G I; Szorkovszky, A; Bowen, W P; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H

    2012-03-23

    A cavity optomechanical magnetometer is demonstrated. The magnetic-field-induced expansion of a magnetostrictive material is resonantly transduced onto the physical structure of a highly compliant optical microresonator and read out optically with ultrahigh sensitivity. A peak magnetic field sensitivity of 400  nT  Hz(-1/2) is achieved, with theoretical modeling predicting the possibility of sensitivities below 1  pT  Hz(-1/2). This chip-based magnetometer combines high sensitivity and large dynamic range with small size and room temperature operation.

  2. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  3. A CMOS floating point multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uya, M.; Kaneko, K.; Yasui, J.

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes a 32-bit CMOS floating point multiplier. The chip can perform 32-bit floating point multiplication (based on the proposed IEEE Standard format) and 24-bit fixed point multiplication (two's complement format) in less than 78.7 and 71.1 ns, respectively, and the typical power dissipation is 195 mW at 10 million operations per second. High-speed multiplication techniques - a modified Booth's allgorithm, a carry save adder scheme, a high-speed CMOS full adder, and a modified carry select adder - are used to achieve the above high performance. The chip is designed for compatibility with 16-bit microcomputer systems, and is fabricated in 2 micron n-well CMOS technology; it contains about 23000 transistors of 5.75 x 5.67 sq mm in size.

  4. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Anderson, B. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Bromund, K. R.; Dearborn, D.; Fischer, D.; Le, G.; Leinweber, H. K.; Leneman, D.; Magnes, W.; Means, J. D.; Moldwin, M. B.; Nakamura, R.; Pierce, D.; Plaschke, F.; Rowe, K. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R.; Hagen, C.; Jernej, I.; Valavanoglou, A.; Richter, I.

    2016-03-01

    The success of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission depends on the accurate measurement of the magnetic field on all four spacecraft. To ensure this success, two independently designed and built fluxgate magnetometers were developed, avoiding single-point failures. The magnetometers were dubbed the digital fluxgate (DFG), which uses an ASIC implementation and was supplied by the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the analogue magnetometer (AFG) with a more traditional circuit board design supplied by the University of California, Los Angeles. A stringent magnetic cleanliness program was executed under the supervision of the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory. To achieve mission objectives, the calibration determined on the ground will be refined in space to ensure all eight magnetometers are precisely inter-calibrated. Near real-time data plays a key role in the transmission of high-resolution observations stored on board so rapid processing of the low-resolution data is required. This article describes these instruments, the magnetic cleanliness program, and the instrument pre-launch calibrations, the planned in-flight calibration program, and the information flow that provides the data on the rapid time scale needed for mission success.

  5. THOR Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Eastwood, Jonathan; Magnes, Werner; Valavanoglou, Aris; Carr, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Helen L.; Narita, Yasuhito; Delva, Magda; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Soucek, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The goal of the Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG) is to measure the DC to low frequency ambient magnetic field. The design of the magnetometer consists of two tri-axial sensors and the related magnetometer electronics; the electronics are hosted on printed circuit boards in the common electronics box of the fields and wave processor (FWP). A fully redundant two sensor system mounted on a common boom and the new miniaturized low noise design based on MMS and Solar Orbiter instruments enable accurate measurement throughout the region of interest for THOR science. The usage of the common electronics hosted by FWP guarantees to fulfill the required timing accuracy with other fields measurements. These improvements are important to obtain precise measurements of magnetic field, which is essential to estimate basic plasma parameters and correctly identify the spatial and temporal scales of the turbulence. Furthermore, THOR MAG provides high quality data with sufficient overlap with the Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM) in frequency space to obtain full coverage of the wave forms over all the frequencies necessary to obtain the full solar wind turbulence spectrum from MHD to kinetic range with sufficient accuracy.

  6. Simple Magnetometer for Autopilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    Simple, low-cost magnetometer is suitable for heading-reference applications in autopilots and other directional control systems. Sensing element utilizes commercially available transformer core; and supporting electronics consist of one transistor, two readily-available integrated-circuit chips, and associated resistors and capacitors.

  7. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Anderson, B. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Bromund, K. R.; Dearborn, D.; Fischer, D.; Le, G.; Leinweber, H. K.; Leneman, D.; Magnes, W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The success of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission depends on the accurate measurement of the magnetic field on all four spacecraft. To ensure this success, two independently designed and built fluxgate magnetometers were developed, avoiding single-point failures. The magnetometers were dubbed the digital fluxgate (DFG), which uses an ASIC implementation and was supplied by the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the analogue magnetometer (AFG) with a more traditional circuit board design supplied by the University of California, Los Angeles. A stringent magnetic cleanliness program was executed under the supervision of the Johns Hopkins University,s Applied Physics Laboratory. To achieve mission objectives, the calibration determined on the ground will be refined in space to ensure all eight magnetometers are precisely inter-calibrated. Near real-time data plays a key role in the transmission of high-resolution observations stored onboard so rapid processing of the low-resolution data is required. This article describes these instruments, the magnetic cleanliness program, and the instrument pre-launch calibrations, the planned in-flight calibration program, and the information flow that provides the data on the rapid time scale needed for mission success.

  8. CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators.

    PubMed

    Guha, Biswajeet; Kyotoku, Bernardo B C; Lipson, Michal

    2010-02-15

    We propose a new class of resonant silicon optical devices, consisting of a ring resonator coupled to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which is passively temperature compensated by tailoring the optical mode confinement in the waveguides. We demonstrate operation of the device over a wide temperature range of 80 degrees. The fundamental principle behind this work can be extended to other photonic devices based on resonators such as modulators, routers, switches and filters.

  9. Gradient magnetometer system balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Tsvetkov, Yury

    2005-08-01

    Earth's magnetic field study still remains one of the leading edges of experimental geophysics. Thus study is executed on the Earth surface, including ocean bottom, and on satellite heights using component, mostly flux-gate magnetometers. But balloon experiments with component magnetometers are very seldom, first of all because of great complexity of data interpretation. This niche still waits for new experimental ideology, which will allow to get the measurements results with high accuracy, especially in gradient mode. The great importance of precise balloon-borne component magnetic field gradient study is obvious. Its technical realization is based both on the available at the marked high-precision non-magnetic tiltmeters and on recent achievements of flux-gate magnetometry. The scientific goals of balloon-borne magnetic gradiometric experiment are discussed and its practical realization is proposed.

  10. Proton precession magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stager, R.

    1986-03-01

    The downhole proton precession magnetometer (DPPM) is designed to make total intensity magnetic field measurements in small bore exploratory wells. This manual describes the measurement procedure and discusses maintenance issues. The step-by-step description of the measurement procedure is suitable for use by an operator of the system, while the section on maintenance procedures and theory of operation is intended for use by someone with some experience in electronics. 7 figs.

  11. Optical atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  12. The IRM fluxgate magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luehr, H.; Kloecker, N.; Oelschlaegel, W.; Haeusler, B.; Acuna, M.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the three-axis fluxgate magnetometer instrument on board the AMPTE IRM spacecraft. Important features of the instrument are its wide dynamic range (0.1-60,000 nT), a high resolution (16-bit analog to digital conversion) and the capability to operate automatically or via telecommand in two gain states. In addition, the wave activity is monitored in all three components up to 50 Hz. Inflight checkout proved the nominal functioning of the instrument in all modes.

  13. THOR Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Eastwood, Jonathan; Magnes, Werner; Carr, Christopher, M.; O'Brien, Helen, L.; Narita, Yasuhito; K, Chen, Christopher H.; Berghofer, Gerhard; Valavanoglou, Aris; Delva, Magda; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Cupido, Emanuele; Soucek, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG) measures the background to low frequency magnetic field. The high sensitivity measurements of MAG enable to characterize the nature of turbulent fluctuations as well as the large-scale context. MAG will provide the reference system for determining anisotropy of field fluctuations, pitch-angle and gyro-phase of particles. The design of the magnetometer consists of two tri-axial sensors and the related magnetometer electronics; the electronics are hosted on printed circuit boards in the common electronics box of the fields and wave processor (FWP). A fully redundant two- sensor system mounted on a common boom and the new miniaturized low noise design based on MMS and Solar Orbiter instruments enable accurate measurement throughout the region of interest for THOR science. The usage of the common electronics hosted by FWP guarantees to fulfill the required timing accuracy with other fields measurements. These improvements are important to obtain precise measurements of magnetic field, which is essential to estimate basic plasma parameters and correctly identify the spatial and temporal scales of the turbulence. Furthermore, THOR MAG provides high quality data with sufficient overlap with the Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM) in frequency space to obtain full coverage of the wave forms over all the frequencies necessary to obtain the full solar wind turbulence spectrum from MHD to kinetic range with sufficient accuracy. We discuss the role of MAG in THOR key science questions and present the new developments during Phase A such as the finalised instrument design, MAG relevant requirement, and new calibraion schemes.

  14. Iterative Magnetometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative method for three-axis magnetometer (TAM) calibration that makes use of three existing utilities recently incorporated into the attitude ground support system used at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The method combines attitude-independent and attitude-dependent calibration algorithms with a new spinning spacecraft Kalman filter to solve for biases, scale factors, nonorthogonal corrections to the alignment, and the orthogonal sensor alignment. The method is particularly well-suited to spin-stabilized spacecraft, but may also be useful for three-axis stabilized missions given sufficient data to provide observability.

  15. Superconductive imaging surface magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Overton, Jr., William C.; van Hulsteyn, David B.; Flynn, Edward R.

    1991-01-01

    An improved pick-up coil system for use with Superconducting Quantum Interference Device gradiometers and magnetometers involving the use of superconducting plates near conventional pick-up coil arrangements to provide imaging of nearby dipole sources and to deflect environmental magnetic noise away from the pick-up coils. This allows the practice of gradiometry and magnetometry in magnetically unshielded environments. One embodiment uses a hemispherically shaped superconducting plate with interior pick-up coils, allowing brain wave measurements to be made on human patients. another embodiment using flat superconducting plates could be used in non-destructive evaluation of materials.

  16. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-13

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.

  17. Kinetic inductance magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Luomahaara, Juho; Vesterinen, Visa; Grönberg, Leif; Hassel, Juha

    2014-09-10

    Sensing ultra-low magnetic fields has various applications in the fields of science, medicine and industry. There is a growing need for a sensor that can be operated in ambient environments where magnetic shielding is limited or magnetic field manipulation is involved. To this end, here we demonstrate a new magnetometer with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The device is based on the current nonlinearity of superconducting material stemming from kinetic inductance. A further benefit of our approach is of extreme simplicity: the device is fabricated from a single layer of niobium nitride. Moreover, radio frequency multiplexing techniques can be applied, enabling the simultaneous readout of multiple sensors, for example, in biomagnetic measurements requiring data from large sensor arrays.

  18. Optically transduced MEMS magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N; Langlois, Eric

    2014-03-18

    MEMS magnetometers with optically transduced resonator displacement are described herein. Improved sensitivity, crosstalk reduction, and extended dynamic range may be achieved with devices including a deflectable resonator suspended from the support, a first grating extending from the support and disposed over the resonator, a pair of drive electrodes to drive an alternating current through the resonator, and a second grating in the resonator overlapping the first grating to form a multi-layer grating having apertures that vary dimensionally in response to deflection occurring as the resonator mechanically resonates in a plane parallel to the first grating in the presence of a magnetic field as a function of the Lorentz force resulting from the alternating current. A plurality of such multi-layer gratings may be disposed across a length of the resonator to provide greater dynamic range and/or accommodate fabrication tolerances.

  19. Optical fiber magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarzello, John F.; Finkel, Jack

    1991-08-01

    An optical fiber magnetometer having omnidirectional capability is disclosed herein for measuring a total magnetic field independent of its physical orientation or the direction of the field or fields. A relatively long optical fiber defining a sensing arm for exposure to a magnetic field is wound in the form of a spheroid (like rubber bands on a golf ball or yarn threads on a baseball) to provide optical lengths of substantially the same total length in every direction through the spheroid winding. The plane of polarization of light transmitted through the optical fiber winding is caused to rotate (Faraday effect) when the fiber or components thereof is exposed parallel to a magnetic field. The extent of plane rotation is determined, inter alia, by the total magnetic field passing through the spheroid winding.

  20. Miniature Laser Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert; Brown, Andy

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a miniature laser magnetometer (MLM) that will measure the scalar magnitude and vector components of near-Earth magnetic fields. The MLM incorporates a number of technical innovations to achieve high-accuracy and high-resolution performance while significantly reducing the size of the laser-pumped helium magnetometer for use on small satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). and electronics sections that has the capability of measuring both the scalar magnetic field magnitude and the vector magnetic field components. Further more, the high-accuracy scalar measurements are used to calibrate and correct the vector component measurements in order to achieve superior vector accuracy and stability. The correction algorithm applied to the vector components for calibration and the same cell for vector and scalar measurements are major innovations. The separate sensor and electronics section of the MLM instrument allow the sensor to be installed on a boom or otherwise located away from electronics and other noisy magnetic components. The MLM s miniaturization will be accomplished through the use of advanced miniaturized components and packaging methods for the MLM sensor and electronics. The MLM conceptual design includes three key innovations. The first is a new non-magnetic laser package that will allow the placement of the laser pump source near the helium cell sensing elements. The second innovation is the design of compact, nested, triaxial Braunbek coils used in the vector measurements that reduce the coil size by a factor of two compared to existing Helmholtz coils with similar field-generation performance. The third innovation is a compact sensor design that reduces the sensor volume by a factor of eight compared to MLM s predecessor.

  1. Polymer encapsulated microcavity optomechanical magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiangang; Zhao, Guangming; Savukov, Igor; Yang, Lan

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate a magnetometer using polymer encapsulated whispering-gallery-mode microcavity actuated by a micro-magnet. The magnetic field induces force on the micro-magnet causing deformation in the polymer around the microcavity. Subsequently the microcavity detects the change in the refractive index of the polymer resulted from the deformation. This magnetometer works in the frequency range of hertz-to-kilohertz range and achieves a sensitivity of 880 pT/Hz(1/2) at 200 Hz in a micro-scale sensor volume. Polymer encapsulation of the magnetometer and fiber optical connection ensures environmental robustness and practicality of the sensor.

  2. Polymer encapsulated microcavity optomechanical magnetometer

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Jiangang; Zhao, Guangming; Savukov, Igor; ...

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate a magnetometer using polymer encapsulated whispering-gallery-mode microcavity actuated by a micro-magnet. The magnetic field induces force on the micro-magnet causing deformation in the polymer around the microcavity. Subsequently the microcavity detects the change in the refractive index of the polymer resulted from the deformation. This magnetometer works in the frequency range of hertz-to-kilohertz range and achieves a sensitivity of 880 pT/Hz1/2 at 200 Hz in a micro-scale sensor volume. Polymer encapsulation of the magnetometer and fiber optical connection ensures environmental robustness and practicality of the sensor.

  3. Optical waveguide taps on silicon CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, Vincent E.; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2000-11-01

    As silicon CMOS circuit technology is scaled beyond the GHz range, both chipmakers and board makers face increasingly difficult challenges in implementing high speed metal interconnects. Metal traces are limited in density-speed performance due to the skin effect, electrical conductivity, and cross talk. Optical based interconnects have higher available bandwidth by virtue of the extremely high carrier frequencies of optical signals (> 100 THz). For this work, an effort has been made to determine an optimal optical tap receiver design for integration with commercial CMOS processes. Candidate waveguide tap technologies were considered in terms of optical loss, bandwidth, economy, and CMOS process compatibility. A new device, which is based on a variation of the multimode interference effect, has been found to be especially promising. BeamProp simulation results show nearly zero excess optical loss for the design, and up to 70% coupling into a 25 micrometer traveling wave CMOS photodetector device. Single-mode waveguides make the design readily compatible with wavelength multiplexing/demultiplexing elements. Polymer waveguide materials are targeted for fabrication due to planarization properties, low cost, broad index control, and poling abilities for modulation/tuning functions. Low cost, silicon CMOS based processing makes the new tap technology especially suitable for computer chip and board level interconnects, as well as metro fiber-to-the- home/desk telecommunications applications.

  4. Lunar surface magnetometer design review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Design and fabrication parameters of a lunar surface magnetometer are discussed. Drawings and requirements for mechanical design, electronic packaging design, thermal design, quality assurance and systems testing are included.

  5. Optical Magnetometer Incorporating Photonic Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; Florescu, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    According to a proposal, photonic crystals would be used to greatly increase the sensitivities of optical magnetometers that are already regarded as ultrasensitive. The proposal applies, more specifically, to a state-of-the-art type of quantum coherent magnetometer that exploits the electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) method for determining a small change in a magnetic field indirectly via measurement of the shift, induced by that change, in the hyperfine levels of resonant atoms exposed to the field.

  6. Optical addressing technique for a CMOS RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, W. H.; Bergman, L. A.; Allen, R. A.; Johnston, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Progress on optically addressing a CMOS RAM for a feasibility demonstration of free space optical interconnection is reported in this paper. The optical RAM chip has been fabricated and functional testing is in progress. Initial results seem promising. New design and SPICE simulation of optical gate cell (OGC) circuits have been carried out to correct the slow fall time of the 'weak pull down' OGC, which has been characterized experimentally. Methods of reducing the response times of the photodiodes and the associated circuits are discussed. Even with the current photodiode, it appears that an OGC can be designed with a performance that is compatible with a CMOS circuit such as the RAM.

  7. Magnetometer on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Sitting on the lunar surface, this magnetometer provided new data on the Moon's magnetic field. This was one of the instruments used during the Apollo 12 mission. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  8. A 128 x 128 CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensor for Highly Integrated Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendis, Sunetra K.; Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    A new CMOS-based image sensor that is intrinsically compatible with on-chip CMOS circuitry is reported. The new CMOS active pixel image sensor achieves low noise, high sensitivity, X-Y addressability, and has simple timing requirements. The image sensor was fabricated using a 2 micrometer p-well CMOS process, and consists of a 128 x 128 array of 40 micrometer x 40 micrometer pixels. The CMOS image sensor technology enables highly integrated smart image sensors, and makes the design, incorporation and fabrication of such sensors widely accessible to the integrated circuit community.

  9. Ganymede's magnetosphere: Magnetometer overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Warnecke, J.; Bennett, L.; Joy, S.; Khurana, K. K.; Linker, J. A.; Russell, C. T.; Walker, R. J.; Polanskey, C.

    1998-09-01

    Ganymede presents a unique example of an internally magnetized moon whose intrinsic magnetic field excludes the plasma present at its orbit, thereby forming a magnetospheric cavity. We describe some of the properties of this mini-magnetosphere, embedded in a sub-Alfvénic flow and formed within a planetary magnetosphere. A vacuum superposition model (obtained by adding the internal field of Ganymede to the field imposed by Jupiter) organizes the data acquired by the Galileo magnetometer on four close passes in a useful, intuitive fashion. The last field line that links to Ganymede at both ends extends to ~2 Ganymede radii, and the transverse scale of the magnetosphere is ~5.5 Ganymede radii. Departures from this simple model arise from currents flowing in the Alfvén wings and elsewhere on the magnetopause. The four passes give different cuts through the magnetosphere from which we develop a geometric model for the magnetopause surface as a function of the System III location of Ganymede. On one of the passes, Ganymede was located near the center of Jupiter's plasma disk. For this pass we identify probable Kelvin-Helmholtz surface waves on the magnetopause. After entering the relatively low-latitude upstream magnetosphere, Galileo apparently penetrated the region of closed field lines (ones that link to Ganymede at both ends), where we identify predominantly transverse fluctuations at frequencies reasonable for field line resonances. We argue that magnetic field measurements, when combined with flow measurements, show that reconnection is extremely efficient. Downstream reconnection, consequently, may account for heated plasma observed in a distant crossing of Ganymede's wake. We note some of the ways in which Ganymede's unusual magnetosphere corresponds to familiar planetary magnetospheres (viz., the magnetospheric topology and an electron ring current). We also comment on some of the ways in which it differs from familiar planetary magnetospheres (viz., relative

  10. A low energy electron magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Wood, G. M., Jr.; Rayborn, G. H.; White, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a highly sensitive magnetometer based on the deflection of low energy electron beams in magnetic fields is analyzed. Because of its extremely low mass and consequently high e/m ratio, a low energy electron is easily deflected in a magnetic field, thus providing a basis for very low field measurement. Calculations for a specific instrument design indicate that a low energy electron magnetometer (LEEM) can measure magnetic fields as low as 1000 nT. The anticipated performance of LEEM is compared with that of the existing high resolution magnetometers in selected applications. The fast response time of LEEM makes it especially attractive as a potential instrument for magnetic signature analysis in large engineering systems.

  11. Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

    2005-01-01

    A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

  12. Magnetogama: an open schematic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudi; Khakhim, Nurul; Kuntoro, Tri; Mardiatno, Djati; Rakhman, Afif; Setyo Handaru, Anas; Akhmad Mufaqih, Adien; Marwan Irnaka, Theodosius

    2017-09-01

    Magnetogama is an open schematic hand-assembled fluxgate magnetometer. Compared to another magnetometer, Magnetogama has more benefit concerning its price and its ease of use. Practically Magnetogama can be utilized either in land or attached to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Magnetogama was designed to give open access to a cheap and accurate alternative to magnetometer sensor. Therefore it can be used as a standard design which is directly applicable to the low-budget company or education purposes. Schematic, code and several verification tests were presented in this article ensuring its reproducibility. Magnetogama has been tested with two kind of tests: a comparison with two nearest observatories at Learmonth (LRM) and Kakadu (KDU) and the response of magnetic substance.

  13. Ultralow-Loss CMOS Copper Plasmonic Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I; Kirtaev, Roman V; Volkov, Valentyn S

    2016-01-13

    Surface plasmon polaritons can give a unique opportunity to manipulate light at a scale well below the diffraction limit reducing the size of optical components down to that of nanoelectronic circuits. At the same time, plasmonics is mostly based on noble metals, which are not compatible with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which can outperform gold plasmonic waveguides simultaneously providing long (>40 μm) propagation length and deep subwavelength (∼λ(2)/50, where λ is the free-space wavelength) mode confinement in the telecommunication spectral range. These results create the backbone for the development of a CMOS plasmonic platform and its integration in future electronic chips.

  14. CMOS-compatible spot-size converter for optical fiber to sub-μm silicon waveguide coupling with low-loss low-wavelength dependence and high tolerance to misalignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Marie-Josée.; Latrasse, Christine; Larouche, Carl; Painchaud, Yves; Poulin, Michel; Pelletier, François; Guy, Martin

    2016-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges of silicon photonics is the efficient coupling of light between the sub-micron SiP waveguides and a standard optical fiber (SMF-28). We recently proposed a novel approach based on a spot-size converter (SSC) that fulfills this need. The SSC integrates a tapered silicon waveguide and a superimposed structure made of a plurality of rods of high index material, disposed in an array-like configuration and embedded in a cladding of lower index material. This superimposed structure defines a waveguide designed to provide an efficient adiabatic transfer, through evanescent coupling, to a 220 nm thick Si waveguide tapered down to a narrow tip on one side, while providing a large mode overlap to the optical fiber on the other side. An initial demonstration was made using a SSC fabricated with post-processing steps. Great coupling to a SMF-28 fiber with a loss of 0.6 dB was obtained for TEpolarized light at 1550 nm with minimum wavelength dependence. In this paper, SSCs designed for operation at 1310 and 1550 nm for TE/TM polarizations and entirely fabricated in a CMOS fab are presented.

  15. Noiseless Coding Of Magnetometer Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses application of noiseless data-compression coding to digitized readings of spaceborne magnetometers for transmission back to Earth. Objective of such coding to increase efficiency by decreasing rate of transmission without sacrificing integrity of data. Adaptive coding compresses data by factors ranging from 2 to 6.

  16. An Arduino-Based Magnetometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughey, Mike

    2017-01-01

    An Arduino-based system with a triple axis magnetometer chip may be used to plot both the strength and direction of the magnetic field of a magnet directly on a sheet of paper. Before taking measurements, it is necessary either to correct for or to eliminate soft and hard iron effects. The same sensor may be used to determine the presence of soft…

  17. A subfemtotesla multichannel atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominis, I. K.; Kornack, T. W.; Allred, J. C.; Romalis, M. V.

    2003-04-01

    The magnetic field is one of the most fundamental and ubiquitous physical observables, carrying information about all electromagnetic phenomena. For the past 30 years, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) operating at 4K have been unchallenged as ultrahigh-sensitivity magnetic field detectors, with a sensitivity reaching down to 1fTHz-1/2 (1fT = 10-15T). They have enabled, for example, mapping of the magnetic fields produced by the brain, and localization of the underlying electrical activity (magnetoencephalography). Atomic magnetometers, based on detection of Larmor spin precession of optically pumped atoms, have approached similar levels of sensitivity using large measurement volumes, but have much lower sensitivity in the more compact designs required for magnetic imaging applications. Higher sensitivity and spatial resolution combined with non-cryogenic operation of atomic magnetometers would enable new applications, including the possibility of mapping non-invasively the cortical modules in the brain. Here we describe a new spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) atomic magnetometer, and demonstrate magnetic field sensitivity of 0.54fTHz-1/2 with a measurement volume of only 0.3cm3. Theoretical analysis shows that fundamental sensitivity limits of this device are below 0.01fTHz-1/2. We also demonstrate simple multichannel operation of the magnetometer, and localization of magnetic field sources with a resolution of 2mm.

  18. CAOS-CMOS camera.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; La Torre, Juan Pablo; Amin, M Junaid

    2016-06-13

    Proposed and experimentally demonstrated is the CAOS-CMOS camera design that combines the coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager platform with the CMOS multi-pixel optical sensor. The unique CAOS-CMOS camera engages the classic CMOS sensor light staring mode with the time-frequency-space agile pixel CAOS imager mode within one programmable optical unit to realize a high dynamic range imager for extreme light contrast conditions. The experimentally demonstrated CAOS-CMOS camera is built using a digital micromirror device, a silicon point-photo-detector with a variable gain amplifier, and a silicon CMOS sensor with a maximum rated 51.3 dB dynamic range. White light imaging of three different brightness simultaneously viewed targets, that is not possible by the CMOS sensor, is achieved by the CAOS-CMOS camera demonstrating an 82.06 dB dynamic range. Applications for the camera include industrial machine vision, welding, laser analysis, automotive, night vision, surveillance and multispectral military systems.

  19. Observational magnetometer calibration with the Hubble Space Telescope's new magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broude, Sidney M.

    1995-05-01

    The two magnetometers recently replaced on the Hubble Space Telescope during the STS-61 Servicing Mission are now being used successfully for Coarse Attitude Determination during spacecraft vehicle safemode recovery operation. The magnetometer alignments relative to the spacecraft's vehicle's reference frame and the magnetic coupling of the sensors to the four magnetic torquer bars were determined. Coarse Attitude determination errors are now reduced to an average of 0.6 deg. Magnetometer Sensing System calibration and Coarse Attitude determination testing with the new calibration parameters is a geometrical problem. Telemetered earth magnetic field data was collected at twenty-six different vehicle attitudes. The spacecraft attitudes selected were distributed as widely apart as possible throughout the Geocentric Inertial Coordinate reference frame. It is also desirable to sample the Earth's magnetic field over as many different locations of the spacecraft's passage over the Earth as possible, within the limitation of the +/- 28.5 deg orbital inclination. A full range of magnetic moment outputs from the torquer bars needs to be sampled, +/- 3600 ampmeters squared, as well as data when the torquer bars have zero current. Graphic utilities were also developed to visually aid in optimizing the data collection process. Finally, a brief discussion of a method for collecting data for future calibrations is suggested.

  20. Observational magnetometer calibration with the Hubble Space Telescope's new magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broude, Sidney M.

    1995-01-01

    The two magnetometers recently replaced on the Hubble Space Telescope during the STS-61 Servicing Mission are now being used successfully for Coarse Attitude Determination during spacecraft vehicle safemode recovery operation. The magnetometer alignments relative to the spacecraft's vehicle's reference frame and the magnetic coupling of the sensors to the four magnetic torquer bars were determined. Coarse Attitude determination errors are now reduced to an average of 0.6 deg. Magnetometer Sensing System calibration and Coarse Attitude determination testing with the new calibration parameters is a geometrical problem. Telemetered earth magnetic field data was collected at twenty-six different vehicle attitudes. The spacecraft attitudes selected were distributed as widely apart as possible throughout the Geocentric Inertial Coordinate reference frame. It is also desirable to sample the Earth's magnetic field over as many different locations of the spacecraft's passage over the Earth as possible, within the limitation of the +/- 28.5 deg orbital inclination. A full range of magnetic moment outputs from the torquer bars needs to be sampled, +/- 3600 ampmeters squared, as well as data when the torquer bars have zero current. Graphic utilities were also developed to visually aid in optimizing the data collection process. Finally, a brief discussion of a method for collecting data for future calibrations is suggested.

  1. Radiation source for helium magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation source (12) for optical magnetometers (10) which use helium isotopes as the resonance element (30) includes an electronically pumped semiconductor laser (12) which produces a single narrow line of radiation which is frequency stabilized to the center frequency of the helium resonance line to be optically pumped. The frequency stabilization is accomplished using electronic feedback (34, 40, 42, 44) to control a current sources (20) thus eliminating the need for mechanical frequency tuning.

  2. Improved Flux-Gate Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1987-01-01

    Simplified circuit drives heading indicator and senses magnetic field of Earth. Simple flux-gate magnetometer supplies digital readout of magnetic heading of vehicle, developed to drive heading indicator, or supply heading information to autopilot or to other navigational instruments. Important feature is core driven into saturation in one direction only by alternating drive voltage, which swings from zero to one polarity and back. Made in part of commercially available integrated circuits.

  3. CDSM - A New Scalar Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollinger, Andreas; Lammegger, Roland; Magnes, Werner; Ellmeier, Michaela; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Windholz, Laurentius

    2010-05-01

    There are potential advantages of flying a magnetometer sensor suite combining a vector fluxgate with a scalar absolute sensor. Absolute sensors offer superior stability over temperature and time, lower intrinsic noise and offset-free measurements; the latter is very useful for fluxgate calibration on a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. A space-adapted design of a new type of scalar magnetometer, called Coupled Dark State Magnetometer (CDSM), is under development jointly by the Institute of Experimental Physics of the Graz University of Technology and the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. The CDSM is based on two-photon spectroscopy of free alkali atoms using a multi chromatic laser field. The measurement is made completely independent of the sensor temperature by a clever coupling of several coherent population trapping resonances. The CDSM promises a less resource-demanding instrument design (500g, 1W) compared to previously flown scalar magnetometers. A significant advantage is the fact that the extended measurement range of 7 decades is covered by only one sensor cell filled with Rubidium atoms (and a buffer gas), making the sensor core small and compact. Neither a radio frequency-based excitation at the sensor unit (150g) is needed for the operation, nor is it necessary to implement motor driven moving parts or a double cell unit in order to guarantee isotropic measurements like for other scalar sensors. A noise floor of 70pTrms/√Hz was measured in a first configuration. It is worth to mention that there is no 1/f noise below the implemented corner frequency of 3Hz. By changing from Rubidium D2 to D1 excitation line we are able to reduce the noise by a factor of 10 to 7pT. The technology readiness level of the CDSM is 3 at the moment and it shall reach level 5 (breadboard validation in relevant environment) by beginning of 2011.

  4. The MJS-77 magnetometer actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stange, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A two-position (0 deg and 180 deg) actuating mechanism (flipper) driven by alternately-heated wax motors (pellets) will be used to rotate the low field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment on the 1977 Mariner Jupiter-Saturn spacecraft to its 0 deg and 180 deg positions. The magnetic field, power requirements, weight and volume of this device are very restrictive. The problems encountered in design and development of this mechanism are presented.

  5. The MJS-77 magnetometer actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stange, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A two-position (0 deg and 180 deg) actuating mechanism (flipper) driven by alternately-heated wax motors (pellets) used to rotate the low field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment on the 1977 Mariner Jupiter-Saturn spacecraft to its 0 deg and 180 deg positions is described. The magnetic field, power requirements, weight and volume of this device are discussed. The problems encountered in design and development of this mechanism are presented.

  6. An Arduino-Based Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, Mike

    2017-05-01

    An Arduino-based system with a triple axis magnetometer chip may be used to plot both the strength and direction of the magnetic field of a magnet directly on a sheet of paper. Before taking measurements, it is necessary either to correct for or to eliminate soft and hard iron effects. The same sensor may be used to determine the presence of soft iron effects.

  7. Atomic magnetometer for human magnetoencephalograpy.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwindt, Peter; Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (<5 fTesla/{radical}Hz), fiber-optically coupled magnetometer to detect magnetic fields produced by the human brain. This is the first demonstration of a noncryogenic sensor that could replace cryogenic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and is an important advance in realizing cost-effective MEG. Within the sensor, a rubidium vapor is optically pumped with 795 laser light while field-induced optical rotations are measured with 780 nm laser light. Both beams share a single optical axis to maximize simplicity and compactness. In collaboration with neuroscientists at The Mind Research Network in Albuquerque, NM, the evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer and a commercial SQUID-based MEG system with signals comparing favorably. Multi-sensor operation has been demonstrated with two AMs placed on opposite sides of the head. Straightforward miniaturization would enable high-density sensor arrays for whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  8. HTS magnetometers for fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wakai, R T; Paulson, D N; Schwartz, B

    2004-11-30

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID sensors have adequate magnetic field sensitivity for adult magnetocardiography (MCG) measurements, but it remains to be seen how well they perform for fetal MCG (fMCG), where the heart signals are typically ten times smaller than the adult signals. In this study, we assess the performance of a prototype HTS SQUID system; namely, a three-SQUID gradiometer formed from three vertically-aligned HTS dc-SQUID magnetometers integrated into a fiberglass liquid nitrogen dewar of diameter 12.5 cm and height 30 cm. Axial gradiometers with short or long baseline, as well as a second order gradiometer, can be formed out of these magnetometers via electronic subtraction. The calibrated magnetometer sensitivities at 1 kHz are 109 fT/square root of Hz, 155 fT/square root of Hz and 51 fT/square root of Hz. Direct comparison is made between the HTS SQUID system and a LTS SQUID system by making recordings with both systems during the same session on adult and fetal subjects. Although the fMCG could be resolved with the HTS SQUID system in most near-term subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio was relatively low and the system could not be operated outside of a shielded room.

  9. Miniature atomic scalar magnetometer for space based on the rubidium isotope (87)Rb.

    PubMed

    Korth, Haje; Strohbehn, Kim; Tejada, Francisco; Andreou, Andreas G; Kitching, John; Knappe, Svenja; Lehtonen, S John; London, Shaughn M; Kafel, Matiwos

    2016-08-01

    A miniature atomic scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope (87)Rb was developed for operation in space. The instrument design implements both Mx and Mz mode operation and leverages a novel microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabricated vapor cell and a custom silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The vapor cell has a volume of only 1 mm(3) so that it can be efficiently heated to its operating temperature by a specially designed, low-magnetic-field-generating resistive heater implemented in multiple metal layers of the transparent sapphire substrate of the SOS-CMOS chips. The SOS-CMOS chip also hosts the Helmholtz coil and associated circuitry to stimulate the magnetically sensitive atomic resonance and temperature sensors. The prototype instrument has a total mass of fewer than 500 g and uses less than 1 W of power, while maintaining a sensitivity of 15 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, comparable to present state-of-the-art absolute magnetometers.

  10. Miniature atomic scalar magnetometer for space based on the rubidium isotope 87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, Haje; Strohbehn, Kim; Tejada, Francisco; Andreou, Andreas G.; Kitching, John; Knappe, Svenja; Lehtonen, S. John; London, Shaughn M.; Kafel, Matiwos

    2016-08-01

    A miniature atomic scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope 87Rb was developed for operation in space. The instrument design implements both Mx and Mz mode operation and leverages a novel microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabricated vapor cell and a custom silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The vapor cell has a volume of only 1 mm3 so that it can be efficiently heated to its operating temperature by a specially designed, low-magnetic-field-generating resistive heater implemented in multiple metal layers of the transparent sapphire substrate of the SOS-CMOS chips. The SOS-CMOS chip also hosts the Helmholtz coil and associated circuitry to stimulate the magnetically sensitive atomic resonance and temperature sensors. The prototype instrument has a total mass of fewer than 500 g and uses less than 1 W of power, while maintaining a sensitivity of 15 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, comparable to present state-of-the-art absolute magnetometers.

  11. High speed CMOS/SOS standard cell notebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC high speed CMOS/SOS standard cell family, designed to be compatible with the PR2D (Place, Route in 2-Dimensions) automatic layout program, is described. Standard cell data sheets show the logic diagram, the schematic, the truth table, and propagation delays for each logic cell.

  12. NV Diamond Micro-Magnetometer Baseline Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-12

    30-Jun-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Final report -- NY diamond micro- magnetometer baseline studies W9llNF-08-l-0245 5b. GRANT... magnetometer gives a significant advantage. Most ofthe effort concentrated on improving the sensitivity of a single NY to the level where it could be used to...SUBJECT TERMS magnetometers diamond nitrogen-vacacny 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATIONOF 15. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT

  13. A Complete Cubesat Magnetometer System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zesta, Eftyhia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide the center with a fully tested, flexible, low cost, miniaturized science magnetometer system applicable to small satellite programs, like Cubesats, and to rides of opportunity that do not lend themselves to the high integration costs a science magnetometer on a boom necessitates.

  14. Construction of an alternating gradient magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Michael M.

    1988-01-01

    A magnetometer is described which was constructed to facilitate the study and characterization of the magnetic properties of high transition temperature superconductors. This instrument was used to measure the dc magnetic susceptibility of several superconducting compounds as a function of temperature. The construction of the magnetometer and the operating parameters are discussed in detail.

  15. High Sensitivity Optically Pumped Quantum Magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Tiporlini, Valentina; Alameh, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Quantum magnetometers based on optical pumping can achieve sensitivity as high as what SQUID-based devices can attain. In this paper, we discuss the principle of operation and the optimal design of an optically pumped quantum magnetometer. The ultimate intrinsic sensitivity is calculated showing that optimal performance of the magnetometer is attained with an optical pump power of 20 μW and an operation temperature of 48°C. Results show that the ultimate intrinsic sensitivity of the quantum magnetometer that can be achieved is 327 fT/Hz1/2 over a bandwidth of 26 Hz and that this sensitivity drops to 130 pT/Hz1/2 in the presence of environmental noise. The quantum magnetometer is shown to be capable of detecting a sinusoidal magnetic field of amplitude as low as 15 pT oscillating at 25 Hz. PMID:23766716

  16. High sensitivity optically pumped quantum magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Tiporlini, Valentina; Alameh, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Quantum magnetometers based on optical pumping can achieve sensitivity as high as what SQUID-based devices can attain. In this paper, we discuss the principle of operation and the optimal design of an optically pumped quantum magnetometer. The ultimate intrinsic sensitivity is calculated showing that optimal performance of the magnetometer is attained with an optical pump power of 20 μW and an operation temperature of 48°C. Results show that the ultimate intrinsic sensitivity of the quantum magnetometer that can be achieved is 327 fT/Hz(½) over a bandwidth of 26 Hz and that this sensitivity drops to 130 pT/Hz(½) in the presence of environmental noise. The quantum magnetometer is shown to be capable of detecting a sinusoidal magnetic field of amplitude as low as 15 pT oscillating at 25 Hz.

  17. Optical magnetometer array for fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Wyllie, Robert; Kauer, Matthew; Wakai, Ronald T; Walker, Thad G

    2012-06-15

    We describe an array of spin-exchange-relaxation-free optical magnetometers designed for detection of fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). The individual magnetometers are configured with a small volume with intense optical pumping, surrounded by a large pump-free region. Spin-polarized atoms that diffuse out of the optical pumping region precess in the ambient magnetic field and are detected by a probe laser. Four such magnetometers, at the corners of a 7 cm square, are configured for gradiometry by feeding back the output of one magnetometer to a field coil to null uniform magnetic field noise at frequencies up to 200 Hz. We present the first measurements of fMCG signals using an atomic magnetometer.

  18. Optical magnetometer array for fetal magnetocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyllie, Robert; Kauer, Matthew; Wakai, Ronald T.; Walker, Thad G.

    2012-06-01

    We describe an array of spin-exchange relaxation free optical magnetometers designed for detection of fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) signals. The individual magnetometers are configured with a small volume with intense optical pumping, surrounded by a large pump-free region. Spin-polarized atoms that diffuse out of the optical pumping region precess in the ambient magnetic field and are detected by a probe laser. Four such magnetometers, at the corners of a 7 cm square, are configured for gradiometry by feeding back the output of one magnetometer to a field coil to null uniform magnetic field noise at frequencies up to 200 Hz. Using this array, we present the first measurements of fMCG signals using an atomic magnetometer.

  19. Optical magnetometer array for fetal magnetocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Wyllie, Robert; Kauer, Matthew; Wakai, Ronald T.; Walker, Thad G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an array of spin-exchange-relaxation-free optical magnetometers designed for detection of fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). The individual magnetometers are configured with a small volume with intense optical pumping, surrounded by a large pump-free region. Spin-polarized atoms that diffuse out of the optical pumping region precess in the ambient magnetic field and are detected by a probe laser. Four such magnetometers, at the corners of a 7 cm square, are configured for gradiometry by feeding back the output of one magnetometer to a field coil to null uniform magnetic field noise at frequencies up to 200 Hz. We present the first measurements of fMCG signals using an atomic magnetometer. PMID:22739870

  20. Black silicon enhanced photodetectors: a path to IR CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, M. U.; Carey, J. E.; Homayoon, H.; Alie, S.; Sickler, J.; Li, X.; Jiang, J.; Miller, D.; Palsule, C.; McKee, J.

    2010-04-01

    SiOnyx has developed a novel silicon processing technology for CMOS sensors that will extend spectral sensitivity into the near/shortwave infrared (NIR/SWIR) and enable a full performance digital night vision capability comparable to that of current image-intensifier based night vision goggles. The process is compatible with established CMOS manufacturing infrastructure and has the promise of much lower cost than competing approaches. The measured thin layer quantum efficiency is as much as 10x that of incumbent imaging sensors with spectral sensitivity from 400 to 1200 nm.

  1. IR CMOS: ultrafast laser-enhanced silicon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, M. U.; Carey, J. E.; Homayoon, H.; Sickler, J.; Li, X.; Jiang, J.; Miller, D.; Palsule, C.; McKee, J.

    2011-06-01

    SiOnyx has developed a novel silicon processing technology for CMOS sensors that will extend spectral sensitivity into the near/shortwave infrared (NIR/SWIR) and enable a full performance digital night vision capability comparable to that of current image-intensifier based night vision goggles. The process is compatible with established CMOS manufacturing infrastructure and has the promise of much lower cost than competing approaches. The measured thin layer quantum efficiency is as much as 10x that of incumbent imaging sensors with spectral sensitivity from 400 to 1200 nm.

  2. Nuclear quantum-assisted magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Häberle, Thomas; Oeckinghaus, Thomas; Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Pfender, Matthias; de Oliveira, Felipe Fávaro; Momenzadeh, Seyed Ali; Finkler, Amit; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic sensing and imaging instruments are important tools in biological and material sciences. There is an increasing demand for attaining higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, with implementations using a single qubit offering potential improvements in both directions. In this article we describe a scanning magnetometer based on the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond as the sensor. By means of a quantum-assisted readout scheme together with advances in photon collection efficiency, our device exhibits an enhancement in signal to noise ratio of close to an order of magnitude compared to the standard fluorescence readout of the nitrogen-vacancy center. This is demonstrated by comparing non-assisted and assisted methods in a T1 relaxation time measurement.

  3. Noiseless coding for the magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji

    1987-01-01

    Future unmanned space missions will continue to seek a full understanding of magnetic fields throughout the solar system. Severely constrained data rates during certain portions of these missions could limit the possible science return. This publication investigates the application of universal noiseless coding techniques to more efficiently represent magnetometer data without any loss in data integrity. Performance results indicated that compression factors of 2:1 to 6:1 can be expected. Feasibility for general deep space application was demonstrated by implementing a microprocessor breadboard coder/decoder using the Intel 8086 processor. The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission will incorporate these techniques in a buffer feedback, rate-controlled configuration. The characteristics of this system are discussed.

  4. Nuclear quantum-assisted magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häberle, Thomas; Oeckinghaus, Thomas; Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Pfender, Matthias; de Oliveira, Felipe Fávaro; Momenzadeh, Seyed Ali; Finkler, Amit; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic sensing and imaging instruments are important tools in biological and material sciences. There is an increasing demand for attaining higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, with implementations using a single qubit offering potential improvements in both directions. In this article we describe a scanning magnetometer based on the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond as the sensor. By means of a quantum-assisted readout scheme together with advances in photon collection efficiency, our device exhibits an enhancement in signal to noise ratio of close to an order of magnitude compared to the standard fluorescence readout of the nitrogen-vacancy center. This is demonstrated by comparing non-assisted and assisted methods in a T1 relaxation time measurement.

  5. Optical fiber feedback SQUID magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, S.; Sampei, Y.; Takahashi, T. )

    1989-04-01

    This paper describes an optical fiber feedback superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer which was developed to improve electromagnetic interference characteristics. The SQUID consists of an RF SQUID probe, an RF amplifier, two multimode fibers, and a SQUID control unit. Phase-locked pulse width modulation (PWM) was used to construct a flux locked loop (FLL) circuit in the SQUID control unit. The operation of the optical fiber feedback SQUID is stable when a common mode voltage of ac 100 V/50 Hz is applied. It has an energy resolution of 1 x 10/sup -28/ J/Hz. This paper also describes the measurement of an auditory evoked field from the human brain in a magnetically shielded room using the fiber feedback SQUID with a gradiometer type pickup coil.

  6. A ocean bottom vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Teng, Yuntian; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jiemei

    2017-04-01

    The new development instrument with a compact spherical coil system and Overhauser magnetometer for measuring the total strength of the magnetic field and the vectors of strength, Delta inclination - Delta declination, meanwhile we also use a triaxial fluxgate instrument of the traditional instrument for geomagnetic vector filed measurement. The advantages of this method are be calibrated by each other and get good performances with automatic operation, good stability and high resolution. Firstly, a brief description of the instrument measurement principles and the key technologies are given. The instrument used a spherical coil system with 34 coils to product the homogeneous volume inside the coils which is large enough to accommodate the sensor of Overhauser total field sensor; the rest of the footlocker-sized ocean-bottom vector magnetometer consists of equipment to run the sensors and records its data (batteries and a data logger), weight to sink it to the sea floor, a remote-controlled acoustic release and flotation to bring the instrument back to the surface. Finally, the accuracy of the instrument was tested in the Geomagnetic station, and the measurement accuracies of total strength and components were better than 0.2nT and 1nT respectively. The figure 1 shows the development instrument structure. it includes six thick glass spheres which protect the sensor, data logger and batteries from the pressures of the deep sea, meanwhile they also provide recycling positive buoyancy; To cushion the glass, the spheres then go inside yellow plastic "hardhats". The triaxial fluxgate is inside No.1 glass spheres, data logger and batteries are inside No.2 glass spheres, the new vector sensor is inside No.3 glass spheres, acoustic communication unit is inside No.4 glass spheres, No.5 and No.6 glass spheres are empty which only provide recycling positive buoyancy. The figure 2 shows the development instrument Physical photo.

  7. Development of a New Magnetometer for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping Designed for Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Kawaharada, Yasushi; Ogawa, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Hajime; Kudo, Satoshi; Takashima, Shinogu; Saito, Yoshitaro; Atari, Maiko; Ito, Aki; Terata, Kaori; Yoshino, Kei; Sato, Yusuke; Motoyama, Satoru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    We previously developed a method for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), based on the magnetic force produced by a magnetite tracer already approved for use as a contrast material for magnetic resonance imaging. However, it is difficult to use that technique with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) because the sensing element of the magnetometer is large and thick. The purpose of the present study was to develop a smaller, thinner VATS-compatible magnetometer. The tracer employed was Ferucarbotran, a colloidal solution of superparamagnetic iron oxide coated with carbodextran. Fifteen patients with clinical stage I NSCLC were enrolled, and each received 1.6 mL of Ferucarbotran, injected intraoperatively at 5 points around the tumor. The magnetic force within the sampling lymph nodes was measured using the new VATS-compatible magnetometer. SLNs were detected in 11 (73.3%) of the 15 patients using the VATS-compatible magnetometer. The average number of SLNs identified per patient was 1.8 (range 0-4). No complications related to the SLN detection method were observed. The new VATS-compatible magnetometer appears to have substantial advantages over techniques using a radioisotope and our earlier magnetometer, as it can be inserted through the small VATS port site. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. A High Bandwidth Optically Pumped Atomic Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Martinez, Ricardo; Griffith, Clark W.; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John

    2009-10-01

    The measurement of magnetic fields has proved to be relevant in many realms of basic and applied science. Among the different techniques to measure magnetic fields, that of optically pumped atomic magnetometers has experienced considerable attention recently. This interest stems from the development of atomic magnetometers that achieve sensitivities in the sub-femto Tesla range, and the development of techniques that enable highly miniaturized, compact, with low-power consumption magnetometers. The sensitivity and bandwidth of atomic magnetometers is set by their spin coherence time, which in most magnetometers is limited by atomic collisions. Better sensitivities are achieved by suppressing the spin decoherence introduced by atomic collisions, but at a cost of lower bandwidth. For certain applications, a magnetometer with a high bandwidth is useful. Here we present a technique to achieve high bandwidth while preserving high sensitivity. We support the technique with table-top measurements showing that a bandwidth of 10 KHz and sensitivity of 10 pTrms/(Hz)^1/2 can be achieved in a compact device. We also highlight the current development of a miniature atomic magnetometer based on this technique.

  9. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554

  10. Theodolite-borne vector Overhauser magnetometer: DIMOVER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, V.; Rasson, J.; Denisov, A.; Saveliev, D.; Kiselev, S.; Denisova, O.; Podmogov, Y.; Khomutov, S.

    2006-06-01

    This report covers results of the long-term research directed at developing an absolute vector proton magnetometer based on the switching of bias magnetic fields. The distinctive feature is the attempt of the installation of a miniature Overhauser sensor and optimized Garret solenoid directly on the telescope of the theodolite. Thus this design (Declination Inclination Modulus Overhauser magnetometer: DIMOVER) will complement the universally recognised DIflux absolute device by adding full vector measurement capability. Preliminary designs, which also can be interesting to the experts in vector proton magnetometers, are presented.

  11. Multi-sensor magnetoencephalography with atomic magnetometers

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cort N; Schwindt, P D D; Weisend, M

    2014-01-01

    The authors have detected magnetic fields from the human brain with two independent, simultaneously operating rubidium spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometers. Evoked responses from auditory stimulation were recorded from multiple subjects with two multi-channel magnetometers located on opposite sides of the head. Signal processing techniques enabled by multi-channel measurements were used to improve signal quality. This is the first demonstration of multi-sensor atomic magnetometer magnetoencephalography and provides a framework for developing a non-cryogenic, whole-head magnetoencephalography array for source localization. PMID:23939051

  12. Fetal MCG with Atomic Magnetometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deland, Zack; Bulatowicz, Michael D.; Sulai, Ibrahim A.; Wahl, Colin P.; Wakai, Ronald T.; Walker, Thad G.

    2016-05-01

    We present results on the development of 87Rb atomic magnetometers for the detection of a fetal magnetocardiogram (fMCG). Operating in the spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) regime, the magnetometers' sensitivities are reported at the 1 fT /√{ Hz } level. Environmental common-mode noise, including the field from the maternal heart, can be suppressed by operating the magnetometers in a gradiometric configuration. We report on schemes from implementing such gradiometers along with recent fMCG measurements. This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health.

  13. Single particle detection in CMOS compatible photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

    PubMed

    Quan, Qimin; Floyd, Daniel L; Burgess, Ian B; Deotare, Parag B; Frank, Ian W; Tang, Sindy K Y; Ilic, Rob; Loncar, Marko

    2013-12-30

    We report the label-free detection of single particles using photonic crystal nanobeam cavities fabricated in silicon-on-insulator platform, and embedded inside microfluidic channels fabricated in poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Our system operates in the telecommunication wavelength band, thus leveraging the widely available, robust and tunable telecom laser sources. Using this approach, we demonstrated the detection of polystyrene nanoparticles with dimensions down to 12.5nm in radius. Furthermore, binding events of a single streptavidin molecule have been observed.

  14. Sensitivity of double-resonance alignment magnetometers

    SciTech Connect

    Di Domenico, Gianni; Saudan, Herve; Bison, Georg; Knowles, Paul; Weis, Antoine

    2007-08-15

    We present an experimental study of the intrinsic magnetometric sensitivity of an optical or rf-frequency double-resonance magnetometer in which linearly polarized laser light is used in the optical pumping and detection processes. We show that a semiempirical model of the magnetometer can be used to describe the magnetic resonance spectra. Then, we present an efficient method to predict the optimum operating point of the magnetometer, i.e., the light power and rf Rabi frequency providing maximum magnetometric sensitivity. Finally, we apply the method to investigate the evolution of the optimum operating point with temperature. The method is very efficient to determine relaxation rates and thus allowed us to determine the three collisional disalignment cross sections for the components of the alignment tensor. Both first and second harmonic signals from the magnetometer are considered and compared.

  15. Advanced helium magnetometer for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this effort was demonstration of the concepts for an advanced helium magnetometer which meets the demands of future NASA earth orbiting, interplanetary, solar, and interstellar missions. The technical effort focused on optical pumping of helium with tunable solid state lasers. We were able to demonstrate the concept of a laser pumped helium magnetometer with improved accuracy, low power, and sensitivity of the order of 1 pT. A number of technical approaches were investigated for building a solid state laser tunable to the helium absorption line at 1083 nm. The laser selected was an Nd-doped LNA crystal pumped by a diode laser. Two laboratory versions of the lanthanum neodymium hexa-aluminate (LNA) laser were fabricated and used to conduct optical pumping experiments in helium and demonstrate laser pumped magnetometer concepts for both the low field vector mode and the scalar mode of operation. A digital resonance spectrometer was designed and built in order to evaluate the helium resonance signals and observe scalar magnetometer operation. The results indicate that the laser pumped sensor in the VHM mode is 45 times more sensitive than a lamp pumped sensor for identical system noise levels. A study was made of typical laser pumped resonance signals in the conventional magnetic resonance mode. The laser pumped sensor was operated as a scalar magnetometer, and it is concluded that magnetometers with 1 pT sensitivity can be achieved with the use of laser pumping and stable laser pump sources.

  16. Noise characteristics research of Overhauser magnetometer sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tala; Gu, Lingjia; Zhang, Shuang; Fu, Haoyang

    2015-09-01

    Overhauser magnetometer, a kind of weak-magnetic measurement system based on the Overhauser effect, has been widely used in satellite magnetic survey, aeromagnetic survey and other engineering and environmental applications. Overhauser magnetometer plays an important role in the application of magnetic field measurement for its advantages of low power consumption and high accuracy. Weak field magnetic resonance is usually limited by the signal to noise ratio (SNR). In order to improve the SNR of Overhauser magnetometer, noise characteristics of Overhauser magnetometer sensor are investigated in this paper. A background noise model of Overhauser magnetometer sensor is presented. The calculated results indicate that the noise power spectral density shows a band-limited white noise characteristic. The maximum value of the noise power spectral density observed at the resonant frequency. The measured results coincide with the calculated results. The correlation between the SNR and the matched resistance is investigated by using the noise model. The calculated results demonstrate that large matched resistance is beneficial to improve the SNR of the sensor. When matched resistance is larger than 100kΩ, the SNR tends to be a constant. On the premise of stability, the sensor will achieve the optimal SNR when the matched resistance is around 100kΩ. This investigation is beneficial to improve noise performance of Overhauser magnetometer sensor.

  17. Silicon CMOS-based vertical multimode interference optical taps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, Vincent E.; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2001-12-01

    A compact, low loss, optical tap technology is critical for the incorporation of optical interconnects into mainstream CMOS processes. A recently introduced multimode interference effect based device has the potential for very high speed performance in a compact geometry and in a CMOS compatible process. For this work, 2-D and 3-D device simulations confirm a low excess optical loss on order of 0.1 dB, and a nominal 40% (2.2 dB) optical coupling into the CMOS circuitry over a wide range of guide to substrate distances. Simulated devices are on the order of 25micrometers in length and as narrow as 1 um. High temperature, hybrid polymer materials used for commercial CMOS inter-metal dielectric layers are targeted for tap fabrication and are incorporated into the models. Low cost, silicon CMOS based processing makes the new tap technology especially suitable for computer multi-chip module and board level interconnects, as well as for metro fiber to the home and desk telecommunications applications.

  18. Micromachined high-performance RF passives in CMOS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinxin; Ni, Zao; Gu, Lei; Wu, Zhengzheng; Yang, Chen

    2016-11-01

    This review systematically addresses the micromachining technologies used for the fabrication of high-performance radio-frequency (RF) passives that can be integrated into low-cost complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-grade (i.e. low-resistivity) silicon wafers. With the development of various kinds of post-CMOS-compatible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes, 3D structural inductors/transformers, variable capacitors, tunable resonators and band-pass/low-pass filters can be compatibly integrated into active integrated circuits to form monolithic RF system-on-chips. By using MEMS processes, including substrate modifying/suspending and LIGA-like metal electroplating, both the highly lossy substrate effect and the resistive loss can be largely eliminated and depressed, thereby meeting the high-performance requirements of telecommunication applications.

  19. Building strong partnerships with CMOs.

    PubMed

    Dye, Carson F

    2014-07-01

    CFOs and chief medical officers (CMOs) can build on common traits to form productive partnerships in guiding healthcare organizations through the changes affecting the industry. CFOs can strengthen bonds with CMOs by taking steps to engage physicians on their own turf--by visiting clinical locations and attending medical-executive committee meetings, for example. Steps CFOs can take to help CMOs become more acquainted with the financial operations of health systems include demonstrating the impact of clinical decisions on costs and inviting CMOs to attend finance-related meetings.

  20. Large-area low-temperature ultrananocrystaline diamond (UNCD) films and integration with CMOS devices for monolithically integrated diamond MEMD/NEMS-CMOS systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant, A.V.; Auciello, O.; Yuan, H.-C; Ma, Z.; Carpick, R. W.; Mancini, D. C.; Univ. of Wisconsin; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-05-01

    Because of exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties, diamond has a great potential to be used as a material for the development of high-performance MEMS and NEMS such as resonators and switches compatible with harsh environments, which involve mechanical motion and intermittent contact. Integration of such MEMS/NEMS devices with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microelectronics will provide a unique platform for CMOS-driven commercial MEMS/NEMS. The main hurdle to achieve diamond-CMOS integration is the relatively high substrate temperatures (600-800 C) required for depositing conventional diamond thin films, which are well above the CMOS operating thermal budget (400 C). Additionally, a materials integration strategy has to be developed to enable diamond-CMOS integration. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), a novel material developed in thin film form at Argonne, is currently the only microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) grown diamond film that can be grown at 400 C, and still retain exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties comparable to that of single crystal diamond. We have developed a process based on MPCVD to synthesize UNCD films on up to 200 mm in diameter CMOS wafers, which will open new avenues for the fabrication of monolithically integrated CMOS-driven MEMS/NEMS based on UNCD. UNCD films were grown successfully on individual Si-based CMOS chips and on 200 mm CMOS wafers at 400 C in a MPCVD system, using Ar-rich/CH4 gas mixture. The CMOS devices on the wafers were characterized before and after UNCD deposition. All devices were performing to specifications with very small degradation after UNCD deposition and processing. A threshold voltage degradation in the range of 0.08-0.44V and transconductance degradation in the range of 1.5-9% were observed.

  1. A phaseonium magnetometer: A new optical magnetometer based on index enhanced media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Marlan O.; Fleischauer, Michael; Graf, Martin

    1993-01-01

    An optical magnetometer based on quantum coherence and interference effects in atoms is proposed. The sensitivity of this device is potentially superior to the present state-of-the-art devices. Optimum operating conditions are derived, and a comparison to standard optical pumping magnetometers is made.

  2. Growth of carbon nanotubes on fully processed silicon-on-insulator CMOS substrates.

    PubMed

    Haque, M Samiul; Ali, S Zeeshan; Guha, P K; Oei, S P; Park, J; Maeng, S; Teo, K B K; Udrea, F; Milne, W I

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the growth of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) both aligned and non-aligned on fully processed CMOS substrates containing high temperature tungsten metallization. While the growth method has been demonstrated in fabricating CNT gas sensitive layers for high temperatures SOI CMOS sensors, it can be employed in a variety of applications which require the use of CNTs or other nanomaterials with CMOS electronics. In our experiments we have grown CNTs both on SOI CMOS substrates and SOI CMOS microhotplates (suspended on membranes formed by post-CMOS deep RIE etching). The fully processed SOI substrates contain CMOS devices and circuits and additionally, some wafers contained high current LDMOSFETs and bipolar structures such as Lateral Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors. All these devices were used as test structures to investigate the effect of additional post-CMOS processing such as CNT growth, membrane formation, high temperature annealing, etc. Electrical characterisation of the devices with CNTs were performed along with SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The CNTs were grown both at low and high temperatures, the former being compatible with Aluminium metallization while the latter being possible through the use of the high temperature CMOS metallization (Tungsten). In both cases we have found that there is no change in the electrical behaviour of the CMOS devices, circuits or the high current devices. A slight degradation of the thermal performance of the CMOS microhotplates was observed due to the extra heat dissipation path created by the CNT layers, but this is expected as CNTs exhibit a high thermal conductance. In addition we also observed that in the case of high temperature CNT growth a slight degradation in the manufacturing yield was observed. This is especially the case where large area membranes with a diameter in excess of 500 microns are used.

  3. A new optically pumped tandem magnetometer: principles and experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulz, E.; Jäckel, K.-H.; Linthe, H.-J.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper we describe a new design for an optically pumped tandem magnetometer situated at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. A tandem magnetometer combines the fast response of a self-oscillating vapour magnetometer with the accuracy of a narrow line Mz-type magnetometer. A newly patented method of coupling the two sensors avoids any stray magnetic fields and so allows a compact design of the instrument itself, as well as facilitating its operation in close proximity to other magnetometers. A prototype Cs-K tandem magnetometer for use in magnetic observatories is described. We then show typical results of a long-term comparison with both a second type of optically pumped magnetometer and an Overhauser proton magnetometer. Finally, a resuméis given of four years of continuous operation of this new type of magnetometer with respect to the data quality produced and its operational reliability.

  4. Automatic magnetometer calibration with small space coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahdan, Ahmed

    The use of a standalone Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has proved to be insufficient when navigating indoors or in urban canyons due to multipath or obstruction. Recent technological advances in low cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) -- based sensors (like accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers) enabled the development of sensor-based navigation systems. Although MEMS sensors are low-cost, lightweight, small size, and have low-power consumption, they have complex error characteristics. Accurate computation of the heading angle (azimuth) is one of the most important aspects of any navigation system. It can be computed either by gyroscopes or magnetometers. Gyroscopes are inertial sensors that can provide the angular rate from which the heading can be calculated, however, their outputs drift with time. Moreover, the accumulated errors due to mathematical integration, performed to obtain the heading angle, lead to large heading errors. On the other hand, magnetometers do not suffer from drift and the calculation of heading does not suffer from error accumulation. They can provide an absolute heading from the magnetic north by sensing the earth's magnetic field. However, magnetometer readings are usually affected by magnetic fields, other than the earth magnetic field, and by other error sources; therefore magnetometer calibration is required to use magnetometer as a reliable source of heading in navigation applications. In this thesis, a framework for fast magnetometer calibration is proposed. This framework requires little space coverage with no user involvement in the calibration process, and does not need specific movements to be performed. The proposed techniques are capable of performing both 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) calibration for magnetometers. They are developed to consider different scenarios suitable for different applications, and can benefit from natural device movements. Some applications involve tethering the

  5. Analytical balance-based Faraday magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riminucci, Alberto; Uhlarz, Marc; De Santis, Roberto; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a Faraday magnetometer based on an analytical balance in which we were able to apply magnetic fields up to 0.14 T. We calibrated it with a 1 mm Ni sphere previously characterized in a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The proposed magnetometer reached a theoretical sensitivity of 3 × 10-8 A m2. We demonstrated its operation on magnetic composite scaffolds made of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/iron-doped hydroxyapatite. To confirm the validity of the method, we measured the same scaffold properties in a SQUID magnetometer. The agreement between the two measurements was within 5% at 0.127 T and 12% at 24 mT. With the addition, for a small cost, of a permanent magnet and computer controlled linear translators, we were thus able to assemble a Faraday magnetometer based on an analytical balance, which is a virtually ubiquitous instrument. This will make simple but effective magnetometry easily accessible to most laboratories, in particular, to life sciences ones, which are increasingly interested in magnetic materials.

  6. Spaced-based search coil magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodarsky, George B.

    2016-12-01

    Search coil magnetometers are one of the primary tools used to study the magnetic component of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in space. Their relatively small size, mass, and power consumption, coupled with a good frequency range and sensitivity, make them ideal for spaceflight applications. The basic design of a search coil magnetometer consists of many thousands of turns of wire wound on a high permeability core. When a time-varying magnetic field passes through the coil, a time-varying voltage is induced due to Faraday's law of magnetic induction. The output of the coil is usually attached to a preamplifier, which amplifies the induced voltage and conditions the signal for transmission to the main electronics (usually a low-frequency radio receiver). Search coil magnetometers are usually used in conjunction with electric field antenna to measure electromagnetic plasma waves in the frequency range of a few hertz to a few tens of kilohertzs. Search coil magnetometers are used to determine the properties of waves, such as comparing the relative electric and magnetic field amplitudes of the waves, or to investigate wave propagation parameters, such as Poynting flux and wave normal vectors. On a spinning spacecraft, they are also sometimes used to determine the background magnetic field. This paper presents some of the basic design criteria of search coil magnetometers and discusses design characteristics of sensors flown on a number of spacecraft.

  7. Fluxgate Magnetometers for Space Technology 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Moldwin, M. B.; Slavin, J. A.; Le, G.

    2002-05-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission is a part of the NASA New Millenium Program, whose goal is the development of new space flight instrumentation and technology. ST5 consists of three spacecraft to be launched into geosynchronous transfer orbit. In addition to several new spacecraft system technologies, ST5 includes a fluxgate magnetometer as part of its payload. The ST5 fluxgate magnetometer takes the well established feedback compensated design, used for several decades in space, and advances the design to address the mass, power, and volume requirements of such upcoming missions as the Magnetospheric Constellation missions. Innovations in sensor design include combining all three axes into a single sensor, rather than the more traditional single-axis per sensor design. The magnetometer electronics rely on extended use of digital elements, not least of which is a 20 bit analog to digital converter, allowing for more than the 17 bits of precision required for a magnetometer that operates without saturation in ambient fields of ~60,000 nT magnitude, as well as below 1000 nT near apogee. Nominal mass, volume, and power characteristics of the magnetometer are 500~g, 8x10x12 cm, and 500 mW, respectively. We will discuss our progress in achieving these goals, as well as some of the difficulties inherent in such a low power design.

  8. A photovoltaic-driven and energy-autonomous CMOS implantable sensor.

    PubMed

    Ayazian, Sahar; Akhavan, Vahid A; Soenen, Eric; Hassibi, Arjang

    2012-08-01

    An energy-autonomous, photovoltaic (PV)-driven and MRI-compatible CMOS implantable sensor is presented. On-chip P+/N-well diode arrays are used as CMOS-compatible PV cells to harvest μW's of power from the light that penetrates into the tissue. In this 2.5 mm × 2.5 mm sub-μW integrated system, the in-vivo physiological signals are first measured by using a subthreshold ring oscillator-based sensor, the acquired data is then modulated into a frequency-shift keying (FSK) signal, and finally transmitted neuromorphically to the skin surface by using a pair of polarized electrodes.

  9. The Magnetometer Instrument on MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Acuña, Mario H.; Lohr, David A.; Scheifele, John; Raval, Asseem; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A.

    2007-08-01

    The Magnetometer (MAG) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission is a low-noise, tri-axial, fluxgate instrument with its sensor mounted on a 3.6-m-long boom. The boom was deployed on March 8, 2005. The primary MAG science objectives are to determine the structure of Mercury’s intrinsic magnetic field and infer its origin. Mariner 10 observations indicate a planetary moment in the range 170 to 350 nT R {M/3} (where R M is Mercury’s mean radius). The uncertainties in the dipole moment are associated with the Mariner 10 trajectory and variability of the measured field. By orbiting Mercury, MESSENGER will significantly improve the determination of dipole and higher-order moments. The latter are essential to understanding the thermal history of the planet. MAG has a coarse range, ±51,300 nT full scale (1.6-nT resolution), for pre-flight testing, and a fine range, ±1,530 nT full scale (0.047-nT resolution), for Mercury operation. A magnetic cleanliness program was followed to minimize variable and static spacecraft-generated fields at the sensor. Observations during and after boom deployment indicate that the fixed residual field is less than a few nT at the location of the sensor, and initial observations indicate that the variable field is below 0.05 nT at least above about 3 Hz. Analog signals from the three axes are low-pass filtered (10-Hz cutoff) and sampled simultaneously by three 20-bit analog-to-digital converters every 50 ms. To accommodate variable telemetry rates, MAG provides 11 output rates from 0.01 s-1 to 20 s-1. Continuous measurement of fluctuations is provided with a digital 1-10 Hz bandpass filter. This fluctuation level is used to trigger high-time-resolution sampling in eight-minute segments to record events of interest when continuous high-rate sampling is not possible. The MAG instrument will provide accurate characterization of the intrinsic planetary field, magnetospheric structure, and

  10. Dual channel self-oscillating optical magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Belfi, J.; Bevilacqua, G.; Biancalana, V.; Dancheva, Y.; Khanbekyan, K.; Moi, L.; Cartaleva, S.

    2009-05-15

    We report on a two-channel magnetometer based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in a Cs glass cell with buffer gas. The Cs atoms are optically pumped and probed by free running diode lasers tuned to the D{sub 2} line. A wide frequency modulation of the pump laser is used to produce both synchronous Zeeman optical pumping and hyperfine repumping. The magnetometer works in an unshielded environment, and a spurious signal from distant magnetic sources is rejected by means of differential measurement. In this regime the magnetometer simultaneously gives the magnetic field modulus and the field difference. Rejection of the common-mode noise allows for high-resolution magnetometry with a sensitivity of 2 pT/{radical}(Hz). This sensitivity, in conjunction with long-term stability and a large bandwidth, makes it possible to detect water proton magnetization and its free induction decay in a measurement volume of 5 cm{sup 3}.

  11. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  12. MAGDAS I and II Magnetometers in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choque, Ed.; Ishitsuka, J.; Yumoto, K.; Veliz, O.; Rosales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Car negie Institution of Washington founded in 1919 the Huancayo Observatory, in Peru (Lat. -12.060, Long - 75.210) and installed a classical magnetometer which has provided a long standing flow of data since March 1st, 1922. Today, there are 10 magnetometers in operation in Peru. On October 13th, 2006, Space Environment Research Center - SERC of Kyushu University installed a new Magnetic Dat a Acquisition System MAGDAS I (PI; Prof. K. Yumoto) at Ancon Observatory (Geographic Latitude: -11.790, Longitude: - 77.160 and Geomagnetic Latitude (2000): 3.100 and Longitude (2000): 354.660). On July 13th, 2011, SERC installed a MAGDAS II at Ica Solar Station (Geographic Latitude: - 140 04' Longitude: -750 44'). Details of the magnetometer that we are hosting will be explained in this presentation.

  13. Parametric modulation of an atomic magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhimin; Wakai, Ronald T.; Walker, Thad G.

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on a rubidium atomic magnetometer designed for use in a shielded environment. Operating in the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime, the magnetometer utilizes parametric modulation of the z-magnetic field to suppress noise associated with airflow through the oven and to simultaneously detect x- and y-field components, using a single probe beam, with minimal loss of sensitivity and bandwidth. A white noise level of 60 fT/(Hz)1/2 was achieved. PMID:22942436

  14. Vector Fluxgate Magnetometer (VMAG) Development for DSX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-03

    RV-HA-TR-2007-1077, AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2008-1108, AFRL- XX-YY-2009-XYZZ) for the initial development of the engineering unit. Other information regarding...precision of the magnetometer has grown even as its mass, size and power decreased. In this section we review the heritage upon which the UCLA ST5 design...UCLA magnetometer are manufactured using the latest low-noise ring-core technology. The ring bobbin is machined from Inconel X-750. The magnetic

  15. Aircraft attitude measurement using a vector magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peitila, R.; Dunn, W. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of a vector magnetometer system was investigated by developing a technique to determine attitude given magnetic field components. Sample calculations are then made using the earth's magnetic field data acquired during actual flight conditions. Results of these calculations are compared graphically with measured attitude data acquired simultaneously with the magnetic data. The role and possible implementation of various reference angles are discussed along with other pertinent considerations. Finally, it is concluded that the earth's magnetic field as measured by modern vector magnetometers can play a significant role in attitude control systems.

  16. Infrared focal plane array incorporating silicon IC process compatible bolometer

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Akio; Matsumoto, Shouhei; Tsukamoto, Nanao

    1996-11-01

    A 128 x 128 element bolometer infrared image sensor using thin film titanium is proposed. The device is a monolithically integrated structure with a titanium bolometer detector located over a CMOS circuit that reads out the bolometer`s signals. By employing a metallic material like titanium and refining the CMOS readout circuit, it is possible to minimize 1/f noise. It is demonstrated that the use of low 1/f noise materials will help increase bias current and improve the S/N ratio. Since the fabrication process is silicon-process compatible, costs can be kept low.

  17. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a seriesed combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided.

  18. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, J.D.

    1998-06-02

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

  19. Diffusive suppression of AC-Stark shifts in atomic magnetometers

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, I. A.; Wyllie, R.; Kauer, M.; Smetana, G. S.; Wakai, R. T.; Walker, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    In atomic magnetometers, the vector AC-Stark shift associated with circularly polarized light generates spatially varying effective magnetic fields, which limit the magnetometer response and serve as sources of noise. We describe a scheme whereby optically pumping a small subvolume of the magnetometer cell and relying on diffusion to transport polarized atoms allows a magnetometer to be operated with minimal sensitivity to the AC-Stark field. © 2013 Optical Society of America PMID:23503278

  20. Diffusive suppression of AC-Stark shifts in atomic magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulai, I. A.; Wyllie, R.; Kauer, M.; Smetana, G. S.; Wakai, R. T.; Walker, T. G.

    2013-03-01

    In atomic magnetometers, the vector AC-Stark shift associated with circularly polarized light generates spatially varying effective magnetic fields which limit the magnetometer response and serve as sources of noise. We describe a scheme whereby optically pumping a small sub-volume of the magnetometer cell and relying on diffusion to transport polarized atoms allows a magnetometer to be operated with minimal sensitivity to the AC-Stark field.

  1. Recent Progress in Optically Pumped Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, E. B.

    Optically pumped magnetometres (OPM) are known as the most precise instruments for scalar measurement of low magnetic fields, including those of the Earth's magnetic field. For a long time OPM could not compete, in absolute accuracy, with the proton precession magnetometers, being, at the same time, much more sensitive and fast. Nowadays, due to the considerable progress in the OPM performance, several types of OPM became much more accurate than the best proton magnetometer. During the last decade the main progress was associated with OPM of the following three types: (1) The narrow-line potassium Mx-OMP with the highest shot- noise-limited resolution (about 10 fT/Hz1/2) and with an absolute accuracy better than 0.1 nT; (2) The “tandem” Mx-Mz-type magnetometer with a narrow line potassium Mz unit of enhanced absolute accuracy (of about 10 pT); (3) The laser pumped 3He free-precession magnetometer of highest absolute accuracy and lowest energy consumption. Each of these three types has its own specific features, preferable in certain applications.

  2. The DE magnetometer preprocessor users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salter, L. M.; Byrnes, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A users guide for the Dynamics Explorer magnetometer preprocessor computer program is provided. This program is written in Xerox Extended FORTRAN IV and is used to process telemetry data in order to provide data files for use in analysis programs. This preprocessor is designed to operate on the Sigma 9 and the IBM 4341.

  3. Anatomical MRI with an atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Savukov, I; Karaulanov, T

    2013-06-01

    Ultra-low field (ULF) MRI is a promising method for inexpensive medical imaging with various additional advantages over conventional instruments such as low weight, low power, portability, absence of artifacts from metals, and high contrast. Anatomical ULF MRI has been successfully implemented with SQUIDs, but SQUIDs have the drawback of a cryogen requirement. Atomic magnetometers have sensitivity comparable to SQUIDs and can be in principle used for ULF MRI to replace SQUIDs. Unfortunately some problems exist due to the sensitivity of atomic magnetometers to a magnetic field and gradients. At low frequency, noise is also substantial and a shielded room is needed for improving sensitivity. In this paper, we show that at 85 kHz, the atomic magnetometer can be used to obtain anatomical images. This is the first demonstration of any use of atomic magnetometers for anatomical MRI. The demonstrated resolution is 1.1 mm×1.4 mm in about 6 min of acquisition with SNR of 10. Some applications of the method are discussed. We discuss several measures to increase the sensitivity to reach a resolution 1 mm×1 mm.

  4. Wireless, Acoustically Linked, Undersea, Magnetometer Sensor Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    85 dB greater than the noise floor of the He3 magnetometer in the mHz band. The gradiometer data shown in Figure 1 is generated by a time series...Comparison of ground coupled and uncoupled gradiometer power spectral density for a wired array system. TABLE I MODEM INTERFERENCE DURATION (SECS) 28 Byte

  5. Flux-gate magnetometer for Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hua; Zhu, G. W.; Yu, P.; Wang, J. D.; Yu, M. F.; Li, L.; Sun, Y. Q.; Chen, S. W.; Liao, H. Z.; Zhou, B.; Feng, Y. Y.

    2008-10-01

    A micro-satellite, Yinghuo-1, would be launched with Russian spacecraft, Phobos-Grunt in October, 2009 to investigate the space environment around Mars. YH-1 and Phobos-Grunt forms a two-point measurement configuration in the Martian space environment. YH-1 and Phobos-Grunt are equipped with similar magnetic field and plasma detecting payload on two spacecraft would give some coordinated exploration around Mars. YH-1 would orbit Mars with periapsis of 800 km above the Martian surface, and apoapsis about 80000km to the center of Mars. The orbit inclination is in the range of 0~7° to the Martian equator. A flux-gate type magnetometer, with two tri-axial sensors, is developed for YH-1 spacecraft. Two sensors are mounted on one-side of the deployable solar panel with a radial separation about 45cm to function as a gradiometer to minimize the affects of platform remanence. The dynamic range of the magnetometer is +/-256nT with a 16-bit ADC converter, and the noise level is better than 0.01nT/√Hz, to measure three-component magnetic field from DC to 10Hz. Flux-gate magnetometer would work together with the Plasma Package onboard of YH-1 to investigate the Martian bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetic pileup region (MPR). A detail description of the flux-gate magnetometer is presented in this paper, with test and calibration results.

  6. Method of performing MRI with an atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich; Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Espy, Michelle A; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Kraus, Jr., Robert Henry; Zotev, Vadim Sergeyevich

    2013-08-27

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing an in-situ magnetic resonance imaging of an object. The method includes the steps of providing an atomic magnetometer, coupling a magnetic field generated by magnetically resonating samples of the object through a flux transformer to the atomic magnetometer and measuring a magnetic resonance of the atomic magnetometer.

  7. Method of performing MRI with an atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich; Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Espy, Michelle A.; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Kraus, Jr., Robert Henry; Zotev, Vadim Sergeyevich

    2012-11-06

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing an in-situ magnetic resonance imaging of an object. The method includes the steps of providing an atomic magnetometer, coupling a magnetic field generated by magnetically resonating samples of the object through a flux transformer to the atomic magnetometer and measuring a magnetic resonance of the atomic magnetometer.

  8. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  9. Quantum magnetometers as a base for atomic clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagitov, E. A.; Ermak, S. V.; Petrenko, M. V.; Semenov, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of the atomic clock based on two quantum magnetometer system development is demonstrated. One of the magnetometers is self-oscillation type, another is Mz- type magnetometer based on end-state UHF resonance. The laser pumping of 87Rb atoms placed into antirelaxation coated sell is provided. The magnetometers frequency difference fluctuations experimental results are represented and Allan deviation is determined. The role of the radio-optical resonance frequency light shift different components is denoted for the determination of the quantum magnetometers optimal operation mode. The effect of the light shift compensation is demonstrated.

  10. A fully-integrated 12.5-Gb/s 850-nm CMOS optical receiver based on a spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung-Jae; Youn, Jin-Sung; Park, Kang-Yeob; Choi, Woo-Young

    2014-02-10

    We present a fully integrated 12.5-Gb/s optical receiver fabricated with standard 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. Our integrated optical receiver includes a newly proposed CMOS-compatible spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector, which provides larger photodetection bandwidth than previously reported CMOS-compatible photodetectors. The receiver also has high-speed CMOS circuits including transimpedance amplifier, DC-balanced buffer, equalizer, and limiting amplifier. With the fabricated optical receiver, detection of 12.5-Gb/s optical data is successfully achieved at 5.8 pJ/bit. Our receiver achieves the highest data rate ever reported for 850-nm integrated CMOS optical receivers.

  11. CMOS array design automation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, T.; Feller, A.

    1976-01-01

    The design considerations and the circuit development for a 4096-bit CMOS SOS ROM chip, the ATL078 are described. Organization of the ATL078 is 512 words by 8 bits. The ROM was designed to be programmable either at the metal mask level or by a directed laser beam after processing. The development of a 4K CMOS SOS ROM fills a void left by available ROM chip types, and makes the design of a totally major high speed system more realizable.

  12. Complete Tri-Axis Magnetometer Calibration with a Gyro Auxiliary

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deng; You, Zheng; Li, Bin; Duan, Wenrui; Yuan, Binwen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetometers combined with inertial sensors are widely used for orientation estimation, and calibrations are necessary to achieve high accuracy. This paper presents a complete tri-axis magnetometer calibration algorithm with a gyro auxiliary. The magnetic distortions and sensor errors, including the misalignment error between the magnetometer and assembled platform, are compensated after calibration. With the gyro auxiliary, the magnetometer linear interpolation outputs are calculated, and the error parameters are evaluated under linear operations of magnetometer interpolation outputs. The simulation and experiment are performed to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm. After calibration, the heading errors calculated by magnetometers are reduced to 0.5° (1σ). This calibration algorithm can also be applied to tri-axis accelerometers whose error model is similar to tri-axis magnetometers. PMID:28587115

  13. Complete Tri-Axis Magnetometer Calibration with a Gyro Auxiliary.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deng; You, Zheng; Li, Bin; Duan, Wenrui; Yuan, Binwen

    2017-05-26

    Magnetometers combined with inertial sensors are widely used for orientation estimation, and calibrations are necessary to achieve high accuracy. This paper presents a complete tri-axis magnetometer calibration algorithm with a gyro auxiliary. The magnetic distortions and sensor errors, including the misalignment error between the magnetometer and assembled platform, are compensated after calibration. With the gyro auxiliary, the magnetometer linear interpolation outputs are calculated, and the error parameters are evaluated under linear operations of magnetometer interpolation outputs. The simulation and experiment are performed to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm. After calibration, the heading errors calculated by magnetometers are reduced to 0.5° (1σ). This calibration algorithm can also be applied to tri-axis accelerometers whose error model is similar to tri-axis magnetometers.

  14. A back-illuminated megapixel CMOS image sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jones, Todd; Wrigley, Chris; Hancock, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the test and characterization results for a back-illuminated megapixel CMOS imager. The imager pixel consists of a standard junction photodiode coupled to a three transistor-per-pixel switched source-follower readout [1]. The imager also consists of integrated timing and control and bias generation circuits, and provides analog output. The analog column-scan circuits were implemented in such a way that the imager could be configured to run in off-chip correlated double-sampling (CDS) mode. The imager was originally designed for normal front-illuminated operation, and was fabricated in a commercially available 0.5 pn triple-metal CMOS-imager compatible process. For backside illumination, the imager was thinned by etching away the substrate was etched away in a post-fabrication processing step.

  15. All-optical vector atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Patton, B; Zhivun, E; Hovde, D C; Budker, D

    2014-07-04

    We demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer capable of measuring the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field using nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in cesium vapor. Vector capability is added by effective modulation of the field along orthogonal axes and subsequent demodulation of the magnetic-resonance frequency. This modulation is provided by the ac Stark shift induced by circularly polarized laser beams. The sensor exhibits a demonstrated rms noise floor of ∼65  fT/√[Hz] in measurement of the field magnitude and 0.5  mrad/√[Hz] in the field direction; elimination of technical noise would improve these sensitivities to 12  fT/√[Hz] and 10  μrad/√[Hz], respectively. Applications for this all-optical vector magnetometer would include magnetically sensitive fundamental physics experiments, such as the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  16. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  17. A Web Server for MACCS Magnetometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG5-3719 was provided to Augsburg College to support the development of a web server for the Magnetometer Array for Cusp and Cleft Studies (MACCS), a two-dimensional array of fluxgate magnetometers located at cusp latitudes in Arctic Canada. MACCS was developed as part of the National Science Foundation's GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) Program, which was designed in part to complement NASA's Global Geospace Science programs during the decade of the 1990s. This report describes the successful use of these grant funds to support a working web page that provides both daily plots and file access to any user accessing the worldwide web. The MACCS home page can be accessed at http://space.augsburg.edu/space/MaccsHome.html.

  18. Magnetometer Searches for Ultra Low Mass Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romalis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    New spin interactions arise in a variety of extensions to the Standard Model. Well-known spin-dependent effects, such as permanent electric dipole moments and violations of Lorentz and CPT symmetries, have been searched for in many experiments. The existence of low-mass axion-like particles would also generate spin-dependent effects that can be searched for in similar experiments, but often with unique signatures. Since particles with spin also have a magnetic moment, such experiments are automatically sensitive to ordinary magnetic fields and one of the challenges is to eliminate such effects, using for example, two different spin species in a co-magnetometer arrangement. I will describe several past and on-going experiments using co-magnetometers based on nuclear spin-polarized noble gases. These experiments are used to search for both axion-like dark matter and for axion-mediated forces that are independent of dark matter.

  19. Underwater Simultaneous EMl and Magnetometer System (USEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    the bow antenna is relative to the location of the stern antenna, thus making the heading measurement insensitive to momentary loss of base station... correlates the geophysical and positioning data, performs the geodetic calculation, notch-filters the magnetometer data, background-levels the...boom pitch and fish depth appear out of phase. Note that the major oscillation in the boom pitch data is correlated with the oscillation in the fish

  20. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Guedes , A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G...Edelstein, 2004; Burnette, 2008), we suggested a method for mitigating the problem of 1/f noise. We and others ( Guedes , 2008) have been utilizing...6. Guedes , A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - 3magnetoresistive/microelectromechanical devices for static field modulation and sensor 1/f noise

  1. Superconducting Nanobridge SQUID Magnetometers for Spin Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antler, Natania

    As the cutting edge of science and technology pushes towards smaller length scales, sensing technologies with nanoscale precision become increasingly important. In this thesis I will discuss the optimization and application of a 3D nanobridge SQUID magnetometer for studying solid state spin systems, in particular for sensing impurity spins in diamond. Solid state spins have proposed applications in memory and computation for both classical and quantum computing. Isolated spins typically have longer coherence times, making them attractive qubit candidates, but necessitating the development of very sensitive detectors for readout. This 3D nanobridge SQUID combines the exquisite spatial sensitivity of a traditional nanoSQUID with a large non-linearity on par with a tunnel junction SQUID. This allows us to build a highly sensitive magnetometer which can act as both an efficient flux transducer as well as a nearly quantum limited lumped Josephson Parametric Amplifier. We show that the device has a minimum flux noise of 17 +/- 0.9 nphi0/Hz1/2 with only a factor of ˜2.5 increase in flux noise up to 61 mT. A second generation device with a smaller capacitor achieves field tolerance up to 75 mT. The maximal bandwidth values range from 25-40 MHz in the parametric amplification regime to 70 MHz in the linear regime. This combination of large bandwidth, low flux noise, large flux coupling and field tolerance make this sensor a promising candidate for near-single-spin dynamics measurements. In the last part of this thesis we begin to demonstrate the utility of a nanobridge SQUID magnetometer for characterizing spin systems in the solid state. We use the magnetometer to measure the decay characteristics of P1 centers in diamond. We find that the spin-lattice relaxation time varies with temperature, with an order of magnitude decrease in the decay time between 25 mK and 370 mK.

  2. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  3. Calibration of Magnetometers with GNSS Receivers and Magnetometer-Aided GNSS Ambiguity Fixing

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Magnetometers provide compass information, and are widely used for navigation, orientation and alignment of objects. As magnetometers are affected by sensor biases and eventually by systematic distortions of the Earth magnetic field, a calibration is needed. In this paper, a method for calibration of magnetometers with three Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers is presented. We perform a least-squares estimation of the magnetic flux and sensor biases using GNSS-based attitude information. The attitude is obtained from the relative positions between the GNSS receivers in the North-East-Down coordinate frame and prior knowledge of these relative positions in the platform’s coordinate frame. The relative positions and integer ambiguities of the periodic carrier phase measurements are determined with an integer least-squares estimation using an integer decorrelation and sequential tree search. Prior knowledge on the relative positions is used to increase the success rate of ambiguity fixing. We have validated the proposed method with low-cost magnetometers and GNSS receivers on a vehicle in a test drive. The calibration enabled a consistent heading determination with an accuracy of five degrees. This precise magnetometer-based attitude information allows an instantaneous GNSS integer ambiguity fixing. PMID:28594369

  4. Calibration of Magnetometers with GNSS Receivers and Magnetometer-Aided GNSS Ambiguity Fixing.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Patrick

    2017-06-08

    Magnetometers provide compass information, and are widely used for navigation, orientation and alignment of objects. As magnetometers are affected by sensor biases and eventually by systematic distortions of the Earth magnetic field, a calibration is needed. In this paper, a method for calibration of magnetometers with three Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers is presented. We perform a least-squares estimation of the magnetic flux and sensor biases using GNSS-based attitude information. The attitude is obtained from the relative positions between the GNSS receivers in the North-East-Down coordinate frame and prior knowledge of these relative positions in the platform's coordinate frame. The relative positions and integer ambiguities of the periodic carrier phase measurements are determined with an integer least-squares estimation using an integer decorrelation and sequential tree search. Prior knowledge on the relative positions is used to increase the success rate of ambiguity fixing. We have validated the proposed method with low-cost magnetometers and GNSS receivers on a vehicle in a test drive. The calibration enabled a consistent heading determination with an accuracy of five degrees. This precise magnetometer-based attitude information allows an instantaneous GNSS integer ambiguity fixing.

  5. Large area CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetta, R.; Guerrini, N.; Sedgwick, I.

    2011-01-01

    CMOS image sensors, also known as CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) or Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), are today the dominant imaging devices. They are omnipresent in our daily life, as image sensors in cellular phones, web cams, digital cameras, ... In these applications, the pixels can be very small, in the micron range, and the sensors themselves tend to be limited in size. However, many scientific applications, like particle or X-ray detection, require large format, often with large pixels, as well as other specific performance, like low noise, radiation hardness or very fast readout. The sensors are also required to be sensitive to a broad spectrum of radiation: photons from the silicon cut-off in the IR down to UV and X- and gamma-rays through the visible spectrum as well as charged particles. This requirement calls for modifications to the substrate to be introduced to provide optimized sensitivity. This paper will review existing CMOS image sensors, whose size can be as large as a single CMOS wafer, and analyse the technical requirements and specific challenges of large format CMOS image sensors.

  6. Ground magnetometer survey in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trible, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    A reconnaissance magnetometer survey was conducted with both total- and vertical-field magnetometers. The large, sharp, narrow total magnetic anomalies observed over a zone of relict fumaroles in Broken Mountain Valley showed spectacular agreement with the surficial geology. Such a correlation is a strong indication that accumulations of magnetic minerals have been preserved along these fissure vents at shallow depths. Since large magnetic anomalies were measured near fumarolic markings along all of the traverses, it is proposed that the retention of sublimates along fumarolic vents is common throughout the Valley. The generally concentric contours of the vertical magnetic anomaly at the head of the Valley suggest that the dome of Novarupta is merely the surficial expression of a very massive conical-shaped intrusive centered just northeast of the dome. The magnetometer survey indicates that the pyroclastics in the Valley may be over 150 meters thick. Such an estimate is compatible with the volume of eruptive material needed to compensate for the subsidence surrounding Novarupta as well as a sizable amount of other regional subsidence.

  7. The MAGSAT vector magnetometer: A precision fluxgate magnetometer for the measurement of the geomagnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Scearce, C. S.; Seek, J.; Scheifele, J.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the precision triaxial fluxgate magnetometer to be flown aboard the MAGSAT spacecraft is presented. The instrument covers the range of + or - 64,000 nT with a resolution of + or - 0.5 nT, an intrinsic accuracy of + or - 0.001% of full scale and an angular alignment stability of the order of 2 seconds of arc. It was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and represents the state-of-the-art in precision vector magnetometers developed for spaceflight use.

  8. The atomic magnetometer: A new era in biomagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Wakai, Ronald T.

    2014-11-07

    The high cost and impracticality of SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) magnetometers has limited the expansion of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG), especially in countries where the cost of liquid helium is high. A recent breakthrough, however, has the potential to radically change this situation. In 2003, a group at Princeton University demonstrated an atomic magnetometer, known as the SERF (spin-exchange free relaxation) magnetometer, with unprecedented sensitivity. Since then, several research groups have utilized SERF magnetometers to record MEG, MCG, and fetal MCG signals. Despite some modest drawbacks, it now seems almost certain that SERF magnetometers can replace SQUIDs for many applications. With a price tag that is likely to be far less than that of SQUIDs, SERF magnetometers can propel the next wave of growth in biomagnetism.

  9. The atomic magnetometer: A new era in biomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakai, Ronald T.

    2014-11-01

    The high cost and impracticality of SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) magnetometers has limited the expansion of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG), especially in countries where the cost of liquid helium is high. A recent breakthrough, however, has the potential to radically change this situation. In 2003, a group at Princeton University demonstrated an atomic magnetometer, known as the SERF (spin-exchange free relaxation) magnetometer, with unprecedented sensitivity. Since then, several research groups have utilized SERF magnetometers to record MEG, MCG, and fetal MCG signals. Despite some modest drawbacks, it now seems almost certain that SERF magnetometers can replace SQUIDs for many applications. With a price tag that is likely to be far less than that of SQUIDs, SERF magnetometers can propel the next wave of growth in biomagnetism.

  10. A Merged Dataset for Solar Probe Plus FIELDS Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, T. A.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Bale, S. D.; Revillet, C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Sheppard, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Solar Probe Plus FIELDS experiment will observe turbulent magnetic fluctuations deep in the inner heliosphere. The FIELDS magnetometer suite implements a set of three magnetometers: two vector DC fluxgate magnetometers (MAGs), sensitive from DC- 100Hz, as well as a vector search coil magnetometer (SCM), sensitive from 10Hz-50kHz. Single axis measurements are additionally made up to 1MHz. To study the full range of observations, we propose merging data from the individual magnetometers into a single dataset. A merged dataset will improve the quality of observations in the range of frequencies observed by both magnetometers ( 10-100 Hz). Here we present updates on the individual MAG and SCM calibrations as well as our results on generating a cross-calibrated and merged dataset.

  11. Optimization of buffer gas pressure for Rb atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang; Liu, Xiaohu; Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong

    2015-08-01

    The optimization of buffer gas pressure is very important to improve the performance of the rubidium (Rb) atomic magnetometer. In this paper we briefly introduce the basic principle and the experimental method of the rubidium magnetometer based on Faraday rotation effect, and describe the factors affecting the magnetometer sensitivity, then analyze and summarize the mechanism of the influence of spin-exchange, spin-destruction collisions, radiation trapping and the spin diffusion on spin relaxation of Rb atoms. Based on this, the relationship between the rubidium magnetometer sensitivity, the spin relaxation rate and the gas chamber conditions (buffer gas pressure, the bubble radius, measuring temperature) is established. Doing calculations by the simulation software, how the magnetometer sensitivity and the relaxation rate vary with the gas chamber conditions can be seen; finally, the optimal values of the buffer gas pressure under certain gas chamber conditions are obtained. The work is significant for the engineering development of rubidium magnetometer.

  12. MonoColor CMOS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ynjiun P.

    2009-02-01

    A new breed of CMOS color sensor called MonoColor sensor is developed for a barcode reading application in AIDC industry. The RGBW color filter array (CFA) in a MonoColor sensor is arranged in a 8 x 8 pixels CFA with only 4 pixels of them are color (RGB) pixels and the rest of 60 pixels are transparent or monochrome. Since the majority of pixels are monochrome, MonoColor sensor maintains 98% barcode decode performance compared with a pure monochrome CMOS sensor. With the help of monochrome and color pixel fusion technique, the resulting color pictures have similar color quality in terms of Color Semantic Error (CSE) compared with a Bayer pattern (RGB) CMOS color camera. Since monochrome pixels are more sensitive than color pixels, a MonoColor sensor produces in general about 2X brighter color picture and higher luminance pixel resolution.

  13. International solar polar mission: The vector helium magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The functional requirements for the vector helium magnetometer (VHM) on the Solar Polar spacecraft are presented. The VHM is one of the two magnetometers on board that will measure the vector magnetic field along the Earth to Jupiter transfer trajectory, as well as in the vicinity of Jupiter and along the solar polar orbit following the Jupiter encounter. The interconnection between these two magnetometers and their shared data processing unit is illustrated.

  14. Laser magnetometer measurement of the natural remanent magnetization of rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Cotteverte, J.; Poirson, J.; Le Floch, A.; Bretenaker, F.; Chauvin, A.

    1997-06-01

    The ability of a laser magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of rocks is experimentally investigated. It is shown that the performance of such a magnetometer permits the rapid measurement of rock magnetizations of less than 1Am{sup {minus}1} in a laboratory without the need of any magnetic shielding or cryogenic facilities. Moreover, the laser magnetometer is experimentally shown to be able to measure the distribution of magnetization in spatially inhomogeneous samples. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Design and analysis of dual axis MEMS magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu, Aswathi M.; Aditi, Gopal, Ram

    2017-06-01

    Magnetometers are sensors used in magnetic field detection, which are often used in oceanographic, industrial and biomedical field. Present work deals with the design and analysis of dual axis MEMS Magnetometer based on Lorentz force principle, with a sensing range of 1uT to 1001uT. Designing of MEMS Magnetometer is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0. FEM analysis including model analysis, FEM Thermomechanical analysis, Frequency analysis for finding displacement sensitivity are carried out.

  16. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-05-23

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  17. Verilog-A Device Models for Cryogenic Temperature Operation of Bulk Silicon CMOS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akturk, Akin; Potbhare, Siddharth; Goldsman, Neil; Holloway, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Verilog-A based cryogenic bulk CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) compact models are built for state-of-the-art silicon CMOS processes. These models accurately predict device operation at cryogenic temperatures down to 4 K. The models are compatible with commercial circuit simulators. The models extend the standard BSIM4 [Berkeley Short-channel IGFET (insulated-gate field-effect transistor ) Model] type compact models by re-parameterizing existing equations, as well as adding new equations that capture the physics of device operation at cryogenic temperatures. These models will allow circuit designers to create optimized, reliable, and robust circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  18. A Compact, High Performance Atomic Magnetometer for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vishal K.; Wakai, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    We present a highly sensitive room-temperature atomic magnetometer (AM), designed for use in biomedical applications. The magnetometer sensor head is only 2×2×5 cm3 and is constructed using readily available, low-cost optical components. The magnetic field resolution of the AM is <10 fT/√Hz, which is comparable to cryogenically cooled superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. We present side-by-side comparisons between our AM and a SQUID magnetometer, and show that equally high quality magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) recordings can be obtained using our AM. PMID:24200837

  19. Autonomous navigation system based on GPS and magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julie, Thienel K. (Inventor); Richard, Harman R. (Inventor); Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention is drawn to an autonomous navigation system using Global Positioning System (GPS) and magnetometers for low Earth orbit satellites. As a magnetometer is reliable and always provides information on spacecraft attitude, rate, and orbit, the magnetometer-GPS configuration solves GPS initialization problem, decreasing the convergence time for navigation estimate and improving the overall accuracy. Eventually the magnetometer-GPS configuration enables the system to avoid costly and inherently less reliable gyro for rate estimation. Being autonomous, this invention would provide for black-box spacecraft navigation, producing attitude, orbit, and rate estimates without any ground input with high accuracy and reliability.

  20. A compact, high performance atomic magnetometer for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vishal K; Wakai, Ronald T

    2013-11-21

    We present a highly sensitive room-temperature atomic magnetometer (AM), designed for use in biomedical applications. The magnetometer sensor head is only 2 × 2 × 5 cm3 and is constructed using readily available, low-cost optical components. The magnetic field resolution of the AM is <10 fT Hz–1/2, which is comparable to cryogenically cooled superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. We present side-by-side comparisons between our AM and a SQUID magnetometer, and show that equally high quality magnetoencephalography and magnetocardiography recordings can be obtained using our AM.

  1. Compatible Lie Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Zhong; Bai, Cheng-Ming

    2015-06-01

    A compatible Lie algebra is a pair of Lie algebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie brackets is a Lie bracket. We construct a bialgebra theory of compatible Lie algebras as an analogue of a Lie bialgebra. They can also be regarded as a “compatible version” of Lie bialgebras, that is, a pair of Lie bialgebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie bialgebras is still a Lie bialgebra. Many properties of compatible Lie bialgebras as the “compatible version” of the corresponding properties of Lie bialgebras are presented. In particular, there is a coboundary compatible Lie bialgebra theory with a construction from the classical Yang-Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras as a combination of two classical Yang-Baxter equations in Lie algebras. Furthermore, a notion of compatible pre-Lie algebra is introduced with an interpretation of its close relation with the classical Yang-Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras which leads to a construction of the solutions of the latter. As a byproduct, the compatible Lie bialgebras fit into the framework to construct non-constant solutions of the classical Yang-Baxter equation given by Golubchik and Sokolov. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11271202, 11221091, 11425104 and Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20120031110022

  2. Magnetometer for the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Jin, H.; Kim, K. H.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Son, D.; Lee, S.; Lee, J. K.; Shin, J.; Jeong, S.; Kim, E.

    2016-12-01

    KPLO (Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter) is the first lunar exploration mission of the Korean Space program. KMAG (Kplo MAGnetometer) is the one of the scientific instruments on-board KPLO spacecraft. The main scientific targets are lunar crustal magnetic anomalies and the space environment around the moon. Global lunar magnetic field measurements have already been performed by the Lunar Prospector and SELENE missions. However, numerous questions about the nature and origin of lunar magnetism remain, and additional measurements would help answer them. For example, a greater number of measurements would help constrain inversions for characteristics of magnetized source bodies, and very low altitude measurements could observe complex field geometries at high-albedo locations known as "swirls". KMAG consists of three fluxgate magnetometers and control electronics. The sensor is a 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer and its measurement range is ±1000 nT, with a selectable gain function. One sensor is expected to be located inside of the spacecraft bus and the other two sensors will be operated inside of a 1.2-m-long boom. The total mass and average power consumption rate are estimated to be 3.5 kg and 2.8 W, respectively. KMAG will be operated with a 100% duty cycle in nominal phase ( 100±30 km altitude) and possibly during extended phase (<70 km altitude) after 1year mission period. The measurement campaign will finish just before impact. This paper describes the overall KMAG concept, design and operation scenario during the KPLO mission duration. KMAG is expected to provide lunar magnetic field data to supplement previous data sets, make new measurements at low altitudes, and improve our understanding of lunar magnetism.

  3. Estimating Conical Motion From Magnetometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Method of digital processing of outputs of magnetometer mounted on scientific instrument or other assembly provides estimates of parameters of slow oscillatory motion of assembly at constant or nearly constant frequency, in which motion one axis of assembly describes elliptical cone about nominal fixed or nearly fixed axis. Conceived for use in estimating rotational-and-vibrational motion of small instrumented satellite and 20-km-long tether anchored at lower end to Space Shuttle. Applicable to almost any situation in which assembly moves conically about known axis while measuring known vector.

  4. Magnetic-field-compensation optical vector magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Papoyan, Aram; Shmavonyan, Svetlana; Khanbekyan, Alen; Khanbekyan, Karen; Marinelli, Carmela; Mariotti, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    A concept for an optical magnetometer used for the measurement of magnitude and direction of a magnetic field (B-field) in two orthogonal directions is developed based on double scanning of a B-field to compensate the measured field to zero value, which is monitored by a resonant magneto-optical process in an unshielded atomic vapor cell. Implementation of the technique using the nonlinear Hanle effect on the D2 line of rubidium demonstrates viability and efficiency of the proposed concept. The ways to enhance characteristics of the suggested technique and optimize its performance, as well as the possible extension to three-axis magnetometry, are discussed.

  5. Magnetometer Based on Optoelectronic Microwave Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute; Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey

    2005-01-01

    proposed instrument, intended mainly for use as a magnetometer, would include an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) stabilized by an atomic cell that could play the role of a magnetically tunable microwave filter. The microwave frequency would vary with the magnetic field in the cell, thereby providing an indication of the magnetic field. The proposed magnetometer would offer a combination of high accuracy and high sensitivity, characterized by flux densities of less than a picotesla. In comparison with prior magnetometers, the proposed magnetometer could, in principle, be constructed as a compact, lightweight instrument: It could fit into a package of about 10 by 10 by 10 cm and would have a mass <0.5 kg. As described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, an OEO is a hybrid of photonic and electronic components that generates highly spectrally pure microwave radiation, and optical radiation modulated by the microwave radiation, through direct conversion between laser light and microwave radiation in an optoelectronic feedback loop. As used here, "atomic cell" signifies a cell containing a vapor, the constituent atoms of which can be made to undergo transitions between quantum states, denoted hyperfine levels, when excited by light in a suitable wavelength range. The laser light must be in this range. The energy difference between the hyperfine levels defines the microwave frequency. In the proposed instrument (see figure), light from a laser would be introduced into an electro-optical modulator (EOM). Amplitude-modulated light from the exit port of the EOM would pass through a fiber-optic splitter having two output branches. The light in one branch would be sent through an atomic cell to a photodiode. The light in the other branch would constitute the microwave-modulated optical output. Part of the light leaving the atomic cell could also be used to stabilize the laser at a frequency in the vicinity of the desired hyperfine or other quantum transition. The

  6. A pressure scanning Fabry-Perot magnetometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, T. D.; Wyller, A. A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of an oscillating magnetic analyzer (KDP crystal plus Glan-Thompson prism) coupled to an echelle-interferometer spectrograph, and of single-slit magnetometer which by pressure variations can be made to scan the entire profiles of the circularly and linearly polarized Zeeman components. Freon gas is used as the scanner gas with wavelength displacements of 0.02 A per 0.1 in. Hg pressure change at the NaD lines. The available scan range is 15 A in the visual spectral region.

  7. On Software Compatibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ershov, Andrei P.

    The problem of compatibility of software hampers the development of computer application. One solution lies in standardization of languages, terms, peripherais, operating systems and computer characteristics. (AB)

  8. On Software Compatibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ershov, Andrei P.

    The problem of compatibility of software hampers the development of computer application. One solution lies in standardization of languages, terms, peripherais, operating systems and computer characteristics. (AB)

  9. Reliability in CMOS IC processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreeve, R.; Ferrier, S.; Hall, D.; Wang, J.

    1990-01-01

    Critical CMOS IC processing reliability monitors are defined in this paper. These monitors are divided into three categories: process qualifications, ongoing production workcell monitors, and ongoing reliability monitors. The key measures in each of these categories are identified and prioritized based on their importance.

  10. Development of CMOS integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertino, F.; Feller, A.; Greenhouse, J.; Lombardi, T.; Merriam, A.; Noto, R.; Ozga, S.; Pryor, R.; Ramondetta, P.; Smith, A.

    1979-01-01

    Report documents life cycles of two custom CMOS integrated circuits: (1) 4-bit multiplexed register with shift left and shift right capabilities, and (2) dual 4-bit registers. Cycles described include conception as logic diagrams through design, fabrication, testing, and delivery.

  11. Continuous reading SQUID magnetometer and its applications.

    PubMed

    Janů, Zdeněk; Soukup, František

    2017-06-01

    We show a continuous reading superconducting quantum interference detector magnetometer used to measure the magnetic moment of small samples of materials as a function of an applied magnetic field, temperature, and time. A sample is held stationary while the magnetic field and sample temperature may be varied continuously in an arbitrary way, determined by the user. The applied field range is ±25 mT and the temperature range is 4.2-150 K. The advantage of a stationary sample technique is that the sample is not exposed to variations in the magnetic field or temperature, which may set in when the sample is moving. An evaluation of the measurements is not bound by the dipolar magnetic moment of the sample. High linearity of the detection system, low harmonic distortion of the applied time-varying magnetic field, and precise sample temperature control make this device suitable for studies of phase transitions, hysteretic phenomena, and nonlinear phenomena in magnetic materials and superconductors. The magnetometer's sensitivity (noise floor), i.e., magnetic moment noise spectral density, is 10 pA m(2) Hz(-1/2) in the white noise region.

  12. View of the Lunar Portable Magnetometer (LPM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-12-21

    S70-56721 (December 1970) --- A close-up view of the Lunar Portable Magnetometer (LPM), which will be used by the crew of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission during the second extravehicular activity (EVA). The LPM's components, a tripod-mounted flux-gate magnetometer sensor head and an electronics data package, connected by a 50-feet flat cable, function together to measure variations in the lunar magnetic field at several points on the geological traverse. Data gathered will be used to determine the location, strength and dimensions of magnetic sources, as well as knowledge of the local and total selenological structure. The LPM will be carried on the Modular Equipment Transporter (MET), and deployed by the lunar module pilot, who will align the sensor head at least 35 feet from the data package. The LM pilot will then return to the MET and verbally relay the LPM readouts to Earth. Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell is the lunar module pilot for the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission.

  13. Continuous reading SQUID magnetometer and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janů, Zdeněk; Soukup, František

    2017-06-01

    We show a continuous reading superconducting quantum interference detector magnetometer used to measure the magnetic moment of small samples of materials as a function of an applied magnetic field, temperature, and time. A sample is held stationary while the magnetic field and sample temperature may be varied continuously in an arbitrary way, determined by the user. The applied field range is ±25 mT and the temperature range is 4.2-150 K. The advantage of a stationary sample technique is that the sample is not exposed to variations in the magnetic field or temperature, which may set in when the sample is moving. An evaluation of the measurements is not bound by the dipolar magnetic moment of the sample. High linearity of the detection system, low harmonic distortion of the applied time-varying magnetic field, and precise sample temperature control make this device suitable for studies of phase transitions, hysteretic phenomena, and nonlinear phenomena in magnetic materials and superconductors. The magnetometer's sensitivity (noise floor), i.e., magnetic moment noise spectral density, is 10 pA m2 Hz-1/2 in the white noise region.

  14. Automated system for the calibration of magnetometers

    SciTech Connect

    Petrucha, Vojtech; Kaspar, Petr; Ripka, Pavel; Merayo, Jose M. G.

    2009-04-01

    A completely nonmagnetic calibration platform has been developed and constructed at DTU Space (Technical University of Denmark). It is intended for on-site scalar calibration of high-precise fluxgate magnetometers. An enhanced version of the same platform is being built at the Czech Technical University. There are three axes of rotation in this design (compared to two axes in the previous version). The addition of the third axis allows us to calibrate more complex devices. An electronic compass based on a vector fluxgate magnetometer and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer is one example. The new platform can also be used to evaluate the parameters of the compass in all possible variations in azimuth, pitch, and roll. The system is based on piezoelectric motors, which are placed on a platform made of aluminum, brass, plastic, and glass. Position sensing is accomplished through custom-made optical incremental sensors. The system is controlled by a microcontroller, which executes commands from a computer. The properties of the system as well as calibration and measurement results will be presented.

  15. Juno Magnetometer Observations in the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E.; Oliversen, R. J.; Espley, J. R.; MacDowall, R. J.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Odom, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Joergensen, J. L.; Joergensen, P. S.; Merayo, J. M.; Denver, T.; Bloxham, J.; Smith, E. J.; Murphy, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Juno spacecraft enjoyed a close encounter with Earth on October 9, 2013, en route to Jupiter Orbit Insertion (JOI) on July 5, 2016. The Earth Flyby (EFB) provided a unique opportunity for the Juno particles and fields instruments to sample mission relevant environments and exercise operations anticipated for orbital operations at Jupiter, particularly the period of intense activity around perijove. The magnetic field investigation onboard Juno is equipped with two magnetometer sensor suites, located at 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. Each contains a vector fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located non-magnetic star tracker camera heads which provide accurate attitude determination for the FGM sensors. This very capable magnetic observatory sampled the Earth's magnetic field at 64 vector samples/second throughout passage through the Earth's magnetosphere. We present observations of the Earth's magnetic field and magnetosphere obtained throughout the encounter and compare these observations with those of other Earth-orbiting assets, as available, and with particles and fields observations acquired by other Juno instruments operated during EFB.

  16. The Search Coil Magnetometer for THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, A.; Le Contel, O.; Coillot, C.; Bouabdellah, A.; de La Porte, B.; Alison, D.; Ruocco, S.; Vassal, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    THEMIS instruments incorporate a tri-axial Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM) designed to measure the magnetic components of waves associated with substorm breakup and expansion. The three search coil antennas cover the same frequency bandwidth, from 0.1 Hz to 4 kHz, in the ULF/ELF frequency range. They extend, with appropriate Noise Equivalent Magnetic Induction (NEMI) and sufficient overlap, the measurements of the fluxgate magnetometers. The NEMI of the searchcoil antennas and associated pre-amplifiers is smaller than 0.76 pT /sqrt{Hz} at 10 Hz. The analog signals produced by the searchcoils and associated preamplifiers are digitized and processed inside the Digital Field Box (DFB) and the Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU), together with data from the Electric Field Instrument (EFI). Searchcoil telemetry includes waveform transmission, FFT processed data, and data from a filter bank. The frequency range covered depends on the available telemetry. The searchcoils and their three axis structures have been precisely calibrated in a calibration facility, and the calibration of the transfer function is checked on board, usually once per orbit. The tri-axial searchcoils implemented on the five THEMIS spacecraft are working nominally.

  17. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  18. Internet Access to ISEE-1 and 2 Magnetometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    It is reported that the entire ISEE-1 and -2 magnetometer data are placed on-line, using an 8 Gbyte disk drive. The data are stored at 4-s and 60-s resolution. Also, an interactive world wide web page, which allows to plot, on request, any interval for which magnetometer data are available, is developed.

  19. Analysing Harmonic Motions with an iPhone's Magnetometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone's (or iPad's) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone's magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone's screen using the "Sensor Kinetics"…

  20. Analysing Harmonic Motions with an iPhone's Magnetometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone's (or iPad's) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone's magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone's screen using the "Sensor Kinetics"…

  1. Magnetic field satellite /MAGSAT/ spacecraft vector magnetometer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkal, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    The low-flying MAGSAT spacecraft, launched October 30, 1979, included a Vector Magnetometer to accurately map the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field of the earth. Calibration of the magnetometer included arc-second precision determination of the relative orientations of the three sensor axes in a coordinate system defined by optical references. This determination began with laboratory measurements of the relative alignments of optical components mounted with the magnetometer. The actual calibration procedure then consisted basically of accurate and repeatable positioning of the Vector Magnetometer within a unique magnetic test facility which nulls the earth's magnetic field, then generates magnetic fields of various orientations and strengths. Analysis of the magnetometer sensor outputs together with the position and alignment data then gave the axes orientations. We used precision theodolites and methods related to surveying techniques to achieve the accurate positioning and optical component alignment measurements. The final calibration accuracy exceeded results previously achieved in the facility.

  2. Detection of brain magnetic fields with an atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Hoffman, Dan; Baranga, Andrei; Romalis, Michael

    2006-05-01

    We report detection of magnetic fields generated by evoked brain activity with an atomic magnetometer. The measurements are performed with a high-density potassium magnetometer operating in a spin-exchange relaxation free regime. Compared to SQUID magnetometers which so far have been the only detectors capable of measuring the magnetic fields from the brain, atomic magnetometers have the advantages of higher sensitivity and spatial resolution, simple multi-channel recording, and no need for cryogenics. Using a multi-channel photodetector array we recorded magnetic fields from the brain correlated with an audio tone administered with a non-magnetic earphone. The spatial map of the magnetic field gives information about the location of the brain region responding to the auditory stimulation. Our results demonstrate the atomic magnetometer as an alternative and low cost technique for brain imaging applications, without using cryogenic apparatus.

  3. Integration of solid-state nanopores in a 0.5 μm CMOS foundry process.

    PubMed

    Uddin, A; Yemenicioglu, S; Chen, C-H; Corigliano, E; Milaninia, K; Theogarajan, L

    2013-04-19

    High-bandwidth and low-noise nanopore sensor and detection electronics are crucial in achieving single-DNA-base resolution. A potential way to accomplish this goal is to integrate solid-state nanopores within a CMOS platform, in close proximity to the biasing electrodes and custom-designed amplifier electronics. Here we report the integration of solid-state nanopore devices in a commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) potentiostat chip implemented in On-Semiconductor's 0.5 μm technology. Nanopore membranes incorporating electrodes are fabricated by post-CMOS micromachining utilizing the n+ polysilicon/SiO2/n+ polysilicon capacitor structure available in the aforementioned process. Nanopores are created in the CMOS process by drilling in a transmission electron microscope and shrinking by atomic layer deposition. We also describe a batch fabrication method to process a large of number of electrode-embedded nanopores with sub-10 nm diameter across CMOS-compatible wafers by electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition. The CMOS-compatibility of our fabrication process is verified by testing the electrical functionality of on-chip circuitry. We observe high current leakage with the CMOS nanopore devices due to the ionic diffusion through the SiO2 membrane. To prevent this leakage, we coat the membrane with Al2O3, which acts as an efficient diffusion barrier against alkali ions. The resulting nanopore devices also exhibit higher robustness and lower 1/f noise as compared to SiO2 and SiNx. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model for our low-capacitance CMOS nanopore devices, showing good agreement with the experimental value. In addition, experiments and theoretical models of translocation studies are presented using 48.5 kbp λ-DNA in order to prove the functionality of on-chip pores coated with Al2O3.

  4. Integration of solid-state nanopores in a 0.5 μm cmos foundry process

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, A; Yemenicioglu, S; Chen, C-H; Corigliano, E; Milaninia, K; Theogarajan, L

    2013-01-01

    High-bandwidth and low-noise nanopore sensor and detection electronics are crucial in achieving single-DNA base resolution. A potential way to accomplish this goal is to integrate solid-state nanopores within a CMOS platform, in close proximity to the biasing electrodes and custom-designed amplifier electronics. Here we report the integration of solid-state nanopore devices in a commercial complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) potentiostat chip implemented in On-Semiconductor’s 0.5 μm technology. Nanopore membranes incorporating electrodes are fabricated by post-CMOS micromachining utilizing the N+ polysilicon/SiO2/N+ polysilicon capacitor structure available in the aforementioned process. Nanopores are created in the CMOS process by drilling in a transmission electron microscope and shrinking by atomic layer deposition. We also describe a batch fabrication method to process a large of number of electrode-embedded nanopores with sub-10 nm diameter across CMOS-compatible wafers by electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition. The CMOS-compatibility of our fabrication process is verified by testing the electrical functionality of on-chip circuitry. We observe high current leakage with the CMOS nanopore devices due to the ionic diffusion through the SiO2 membrane. To prevent this leakage, we coat the membrane with Al2O3 which acts as an efficient diffusion barrier against alkali ions. The resulting nanopore devices also exhibit higher robustness and lower 1/f noise as compared to SiO2 and SiNx. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model for our low-capacitance CMOS nanopore devices, showing good agreement with the experimental value. In addition, experiments and theoretical models of translocation studies are presented using 48.5 kbp λ-DNA in order to prove the functionality of on-chip pores coated with Al2O3. PMID:23519330

  5. Approaches to Measuring Entanglement in Chemical Magnetometers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chemical magnetometers are radical pair systems such as solutions of pyrene and N,N-dimethylaniline (Py–DMA) that show magnetic field effects in their spin dynamics and their fluorescence. We investigate the existence and decay of quantum entanglement in free geminate Py–DMA radical pairs and discuss how entanglement can be assessed in these systems. We provide an entanglement witness and propose possible observables for experimentally estimating entanglement in radical pair systems with isotropic hyperfine couplings. As an application, we analyze how the field dependence of the entanglement lifetime in Py–DMA could in principle be used for magnetometry and illustrate the propagation of measurement errors in this approach. PMID:24372396

  6. Fetal Magnetocardiography with an Atomic Magnetometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulai, Ibrahim; Deland, Zack; Wahl, Colin; Wakai, Ronald; Walker, Thad

    2014-05-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is a powerful technique for analyzing the heartbeat patterns of inutero fetuses. We present results from our array of four Spin-Exchange Relaxation-Free (SERF) rubidium-87 atomic magnetometers which has been used to detect and create these magnetocardiograms. We have demonstrated a magnetic noise sensitivity of < 10 fT /√{ Hz} , limited by the Johnson noise of the magnetically-shielded room. We discuss new design features and experimental practices that have increased our sensitivity and allowed us to successfully measure an fMCG at a gestational age of only 21 weeks. We hope to eventually apply these techniques to the detection and diagnosis of heartbeat arrhythmias, which, if detected early enough, can be treated inutero . This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health.

  7. Free-Flying Magnetometer Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B.; Javadi, H.; Spencer, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Free-Flying Magnetometer (FFM) is an autonomous "sensorcraft" developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Enstrophy sounding rocket mission. This mission was a collaborative project between the University of New Hampshire, Cornell University and JPL. The science goal of the mission was the study of current filamentation phenomena in the northern auroral region through multipoint measurements of magnetic field. The technical objective of the mission was the proof of concept of the JPL FFM design and the demonstration of an in-situ multipoint measurement technique employing many free-flying spacecraft. Four FFMs were successfully deployed from a sounding rocket launched from Poker Flats, Alaska on February 11, 1999. These hockey-puck-sized (80 mm diameter, 38 mm. height, 250 gram mass) free flyers each carry a miniature 3-axis flux-gate magnetometer that output +/- 2 V signals corresponding to a +/- 60,000 nT measurement range for each axis. The FFM uses a synchronized four-channel Sigma(Delta) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) having a dynamic range of +/- 2.5V and converting at a rate of 279 samples/second/channel. Three channels are used to digitize the magnetometer signals to 17-bit (1.144 nT/bit) resolution. The fourth ADC channel is multiplexed for system monitoring of four temperature sensors and two battery voltages. The FFM also contains two sun sensors, a laser diode which emits a fan-shaped beam, a miniature S-band transmitter for direct communication to the ground station antennas, an ultra-stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) clock, an integrated data subsystem implemented in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a 4 Mbit Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) for data storage and Lithium Thionyl Chloride batteries for power. Communicating commands to the FFM prior to deployment is achieved with an infrared (IR) link. The FFM IR receiver responds to 9-bit pulse coded signals that are generated by an IR Light Emitting

  8. Free-Flying Magnetometer Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B.; Javadi, H.; Spencer, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Free-Flying Magnetometer (FFM) is an autonomous "sensorcraft" developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Enstrophy sounding rocket mission. This mission was a collaborative project between the University of New Hampshire, Cornell University and JPL. The science goal of the mission was the study of current filamentation phenomena in the northern auroral region through multipoint measurements of magnetic field. The technical objective of the mission was the proof of concept of the JPL FFM design and the demonstration of an in-situ multipoint measurement technique employing many free-flying spacecraft. Four FFMs were successfully deployed from a sounding rocket launched from Poker Flats, Alaska on February 11, 1999. These hockey-puck-sized (80 mm diameter, 38 mm. height, 250 gram mass) free flyers each carry a miniature 3-axis flux-gate magnetometer that output +/- 2 V signals corresponding to a +/- 60,000 nT measurement range for each axis. The FFM uses a synchronized four-channel Sigma(Delta) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) having a dynamic range of +/- 2.5V and converting at a rate of 279 samples/second/channel. Three channels are used to digitize the magnetometer signals to 17-bit (1.144 nT/bit) resolution. The fourth ADC channel is multiplexed for system monitoring of four temperature sensors and two battery voltages. The FFM also contains two sun sensors, a laser diode which emits a fan-shaped beam, a miniature S-band transmitter for direct communication to the ground station antennas, an ultra-stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) clock, an integrated data subsystem implemented in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a 4 Mbit Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) for data storage and Lithium Thionyl Chloride batteries for power. Communicating commands to the FFM prior to deployment is achieved with an infrared (IR) link. The FFM IR receiver responds to 9-bit pulse coded signals that are generated by an IR Light Emitting

  9. Integrated Inductors for RF Transmitters in CMOS/MEMS Smart Microsensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Wan; Takao, Hidekuni; Sawada, Kazuaki; Ishida, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the integration of an inductor by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes for integrated smart microsensor systems that have been developed to monitor the motion and vital signs of humans in various environments. Integration of radio frequency transmitter (RF) technology with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor/micro electro mechanical systems (CMOS/MEMS) microsensors is required to realize the wireless smart microsensors system. The essential RF components such as a voltage controlled RF-CMOS oscillator (VCO), spiral inductors for an LC resonator and an integrated antenna have been fabricated and evaluated experimentally. The fabricated RF transmitter and integrated antenna were packaged with subminiature series A (SMA) connectors, respectively. For the impedance (50 Ω) matching, a bonding wire type inductor was developed. In this paper, the design and fabrication of the bonding wire inductor for impedance matching is described. Integrated techniques for the RF transmitter by CMOS compatible processes have been successfully developed. After matching by inserting the bonding wire inductor between the on-chip integrated antenna and the VCO output, the measured emission power at distance of 5 m from RF transmitter was -37 dBm (0.2 μW).

  10. Digital-Centric RF CMOS Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, Akira

    Analog-centric RFCMOS technology has played an important role in motivating the change of technology from conventional discrete device technology or bipolar IC technology to CMOS technology. However it introduces many problems such as poor performance, susceptibility to PVT fluctuation, and cost increase with technology scaling. The most important advantage of CMOS technology compared with legacy RF technology is that CMOS can use more high performance digital circuits for very low cost. In fact, analog-centric RF-CMOS technology has failed the FM/AM tuner business and the digital-centric CMOS technology is becoming attractive for many users. It has many advantages; such as high performance, no external calibration points, high yield, and low cost. From the above facts, digital-centric CMOS technology which utilizes the advantages of digital technology must be the right path for future RF technology. Further investment in this technology is necessary for the advancement of RF technology.

  11. Portable design rules for bulk CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that for the past several years, one school of IC designers has used a simplified set of nMOS geometric design rules (GDR) which is 'portable', in that it can be used by many different nMOS manufacturers. The present investigation is concerned with a preliminary set of design rules for bulk CMOS which has been verified for simple test structures. The GDR are defined in terms of Caltech Intermediate Form (CIF), which is a geometry-description language that defines simple geometrical objects in layers. The layers are abstractions of physical mask layers. The design rules do not presume the existence of any particular design methodology. Attention is given to p-well and n-well CMOS processes, bulk CMOS and CMOS-SOS, CMOS geometric rules, and a description of the advantages of CMOS technology.

  12. Research on evaluation method of CMOS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaoqiang; Han, Weiqiang; Cui, Lanfang

    2014-09-01

    In some professional image application fields, we need to test some key parameters of the CMOS camera and evaluate the performance of the device. Aiming at this requirement, this paper proposes a perfect test method to evaluate the CMOS camera. Considering that the CMOS camera has a big fixed pattern noise, the method proposes the `photon transfer curve method' based on pixels to measure the gain and the read noise of the camera. The advantage of this method is that it can effectively wipe out the error brought by the response nonlinearity. Then the reason of photoelectric response nonlinearity of CMOS camera is theoretically analyzed, and the calculation formula of CMOS camera response nonlinearity is deduced. Finally, we use the proposed test method to test the CMOS camera of 2560*2048 pixels. In addition, we analyze the validity and the feasibility of this method.

  13. CMOS output buffer wave shaper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, L.; Whitaker, S.; Merrell, R.

    1990-01-01

    As the switching speeds and densities of Digital CMOS integrated circuits continue to increase, output switching noise becomes more of a problem. A design technique which aids in the reduction of switching noise is reported. The output driver stage is analyzed through the use of an equivalent RLC circuit. The results of the analysis are used in the design of an output driver stage. A test circuit based on these techniques is being submitted to MOSIS for fabrication.

  14. Integration of nanostructured planar diffractive lenses dedicated to near infrared detection for CMOS image sensors.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Thomas; Massenot, Sébastien; Estribeau, Magali; Magnan, Pierre; Pardo, Fabrice; Pelouard, Jean-Luc

    2016-04-18

    This paper deals with the integration of metallic and dielectric nanostructured planar lenses into a pixel from a silicon based CMOS image sensor, for a monochromatic application at 1.064 μm. The first is a Plasmonic Lens, based on the phase delay through nanoslits, which has been found to be hardly compatible with current CMOS technology and exhibits a notable metallic absorption. The second is a dielectric Phase-Fresnel Lens integrated at the top of a pixel, it exhibits an Optical Efficiency (OE) improved by a few percent and an angle of view of 50°. The third one is a metallic diffractive lens integrated inside a pixel, which shows a better OE and an angle of view of 24°. The last two lenses exhibit a compatibility with a spectral band close to 1.064 μm.

  15. High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dantsker, Eugene

    1997-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO3-YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room.

  16. A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff

    2015-06-19

    A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics.

  17. A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics. PMID:26102496

  18. High-sensitivity low-noise miniature fluxgate magnetometers using a flip chip conceptual design.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff; Chiu, Po-Kai; Chiu, Shih-Liang; Jeng, Jen-Tzong

    2014-07-30

    This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB) substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current "flip chip" concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. Principles and analysis of the fluxgate sensor are introduced first, and followed by FEA electromagnetic modeling and simulation for the proposed sensor. Comprehensive characteristic experiments of the miniature fluxgate device exhibit favorable results in terms of sensitivity (or "responsivity" for magnetometers) and field noise spectrum. The sensor is driven and characterized by employing the improved second-harmonic detection technique that enables linear V-B correlation and responsivity verification. In addition, the double magnitude of responsivity measured under very low frequency (1 Hz) magnetic fields is experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the maximum responsivity of 593 V/T occurs at 50 kHz of excitation frequency with the second harmonic wave of excitation; however, the minimum magnetic field noise is found to be 0.05 nT/Hz(1/2) at 1 Hz under the same excitation. In comparison with other miniature planar fluxgates published to date, the fluxgate magnetic sensor with flip chip configuration offers advances in both device functionality and fabrication simplicity. More importantly, the novel design can be further extended to a silicon-based micro-fluxgate chip manufactured by emerging CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus enriching its potential range of applications in modern engineering and the consumer electronics market.

  19. High-Sensitivity Low-Noise Miniature Fluxgate Magnetometers Using a Flip Chip Conceptual Design

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff; Chiu, Po-Kai; Chiu, Shih-Liang; Jeng, Jen-Tzong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB) substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current “flip chip” concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. Principles and analysis of the fluxgate sensor are introduced first, and followed by FEA electromagnetic modeling and simulation for the proposed sensor. Comprehensive characteristic experiments of the miniature fluxgate device exhibit favorable results in terms of sensitivity (or “responsivity” for magnetometers) and field noise spectrum. The sensor is driven and characterized by employing the improved second-harmonic detection technique that enables linear V-B correlation and responsivity verification. In addition, the double magnitude of responsivity measured under very low frequency (1 Hz) magnetic fields is experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the maximum responsivity of 593 V/T occurs at 50 kHz of excitation frequency with the second harmonic wave of excitation; however, the minimum magnetic field noise is found to be 0.05 nT/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz under the same excitation. In comparison with other miniature planar fluxgates published to date, the fluxgate magnetic sensor with flip chip configuration offers advances in both device functionality and fabrication simplicity. More importantly, the novel design can be further extended to a silicon-based micro-fluxgate chip manufactured by emerging CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus enriching its potential range of applications in modern engineering and the consumer electronics market. PMID:25196107

  20. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications.

    PubMed

    El-Desouki, Munir; Deen, M Jamal; Fang, Qiyin; Liu, Louis; Tse, Frances; Armstrong, David

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD) imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4∼5 μm) due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps).

  1. Search Coil vs. Fluxgate Magnetometer Measurements at Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L.B., III

    2012-01-01

    We present magnetic field observations at interplanetary shocks comparing two different sample rates showing significantly different results. Fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar supercritical shock transitions at roughly 11 samples/s. Search coil magnetometer measurements at 1875 samples/s, however, show large amplitude (dB/B as large as 2) fluctuations that are not resolved by the fluxgate magnetometer. We show that these fluctuations, identified as whistler mode waves, would produce a significant perturbation to the shock transition region changing the interpretation from laminar to turbulent. Thus, previous observations of supercritical interplanetary shocks classified as laminar may have been under sampled.

  2. Analysing harmonic motions with an iPhone’s magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone’s (or iPad’s) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone’s magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone’s screen using the Sensor Kinetics application. Data from this application was analysed with Eureqa software to establish the equation of the harmonic motion. Analyses show that the use of an iPhone’s magnetometer to analyse harmonic motion is a practical and effective method for small oscillations and frequencies less than 15-20 Hz.

  3. A note on signal enhancement for dual magnetometer systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Demonstration of the value of cross-correlation signal enhancement achieved by means of a dual magnetometer system. A unique feature of a dual magnetometer system is, as pointed out by Ness et al. (1971), the opportunity it allows for signal enhancement by using cross-correlation techniques developed in statistical communication theory. Their use is shown to make it possible to overcome the limitations that the intrinsic sensor ambient noise and the measurement-contaminating spacecraft field fluctuations impose upon the signal detection performance of a single magnetometer.

  4. CMOS/BICMOS Self-assembling and Electrothermal Microactuators for Tunable Capacitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    voltage of around 12 V maximum, which is compatible with IC technology and silicon substrates. Various micro-mover designs in four different CMOS...deflection is 1.57 kHz [18]. For the beam-bent actuators, designed by Gianchandani et al. [19] current is passed through the V -shaped beam anchored at two...power is consumed for switching operation, but only 10 V is needed for the electrostatic latch mechanism with close to zero continuous power. The

  5. A full optically operated magnetometer array: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ijsselsteijn, R; Kielpinski, M; Woetzel, S; Scholtes, T; Kessler, E; Stolz, R; Schultze, V; Meyer, H-G

    2012-11-01

    We show the operation of an optically pumped magnetometer array in a 50 μT magnetic field. The various components for a fully optical and non-magnetic detector unit were constructed and evaluated, from which a prototype unit was assembled with fiber coupled electronics. In this unit the magnetometers were operated using the intensity modulated method and heated with an off-resonant laser. Calculations on the temperature distribution were used to design the magnetometer array. Different magnetometers in such a detector unit were characterized and showed identical performance. Without applying noise reduction schemes, the obtained magnetic field resolution is a factor 2.5 above the shot noise level down to frequencies of about 7 Hz.

  6. Correcting GOES-R Magnetometer Data for Stray Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Delano; Freesland, Douglas; Tadikonda, Sivakumar; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Todirita, Monica; Dahya, Melissa; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Time-varying spacecraft magnetic fields, i.e. stray fields, are a problem for magnetometer systems. While constant fields can be removed by calibration, stray fields are difficult to distinguish from ambient field variations. Putting two magnetometers on a long boom and solving for both the ambient and stray fields can help, but this gradiometer solution is more sensitive to noise than a single magnetometer. As shown here for the R-series Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R), unless the stray fields are larger than the noise, simply averaging the two magnetometer readings gives a more accurate solution. If averaging is used, it may be worthwhile to estimate and remove stray fields explicitly. Models and estimation algorithms to do so are provided for solar array, arcjet and reaction wheel fields.

  7. Alignment of a vector magnetometer to an optical prism.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, M R; Bailey, K G; O'Connor, T P

    2017-05-01

    A method for alignment of a vector magnetometer to a rigidly attached prism is presented. This enables optical comparison of the magnetometer axes to physical surfaces in the apparatus, and thus an absolute determination of the magnetic field direction in space. This is in contrast with more common techniques, which focus on precise determination of the relative angles between magnetometer axes, and so are more suited to measuring differences in the direction of magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate precision better than 500 μrad on a fluxgate magnetometer, which also gives the coil orthogonality errors to a similar precision. The relative sensitivity of the three axes is also determined, with a precision of about 5 × 10(-4).

  8. Multi-channel atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography: a configuration study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiwoong; Begus, Samo; Xia, Hui; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Jazbinsek, Vojko; Trontelj, Zvonko; Romalis, Michael V

    2014-04-01

    Atomic magnetometers are emerging as an alternative to SQUID magnetometers for detection of biological magnetic fields. They have been used to measure both the magnetocardiography (MCG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. One of the virtues of the atomic magnetometers is their ability to operate as a multi-channel detector while using many common elements. Here we study two configurations of such a multi-channel atomic magnetometer optimized for MEG detection. We describe measurements of auditory evoked fields (AEF) from a human brain as well as localization of dipolar phantoms and auditory evoked fields. A clear N100m peak in AEF was observed with a signal-to-noise ratio of higher than 10 after averaging of 250 stimuli. Currently the intrinsic magnetic noise level is 4fTHz(-1/2) at 10Hz. We compare the performance of the two systems in regards to current source localization and discuss future development of atomic MEG systems. © 2013.

  9. Calibration of the Ørsted vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, N.; Tøffner-Clausen, L.; Sabaka, T. J.; Brauer, P.; Merayo, J. M. G.; Jörgensen, J. L.; Léger, J.-M.; Nielsen, O. V.; Primdahl, F.; Risbo, T.

    2003-01-01

    The vector fluxgate magnetometer of the Ørsted satellite is routinely calibrated by comparing its output with measurements of the absolute magnetic intensity from the Overhauser instrument, which is the second magnetometer of the satellite. We describe the method used for and the result obtained in that calibration. Using three years of data the agreement between the two magnetometers after calibration is 0.33 nT rms (corresponding to better than ±1 nT for 98% of the data, and better than ±2 nT for 99.94% of the data). We also report on the determination of the transformation between the magnetometer coordinate system and the reference system of the star imager. This is done by comparing the magnetic and attitude measurements with a model of Earth's magnetic field. The Euler angles describing this rotation are determined in this way with an accuracy of better than 4 arcsec.

  10. Alignment of a vector magnetometer to an optical prism

    DOE PAGES

    Dietrich, M. R.; Bailey, K. G.; O’Connor, T. P.

    2017-05-12

    A method for alignment of a vector magnetometer to a rigidly attached prism is presented. This enables optical comparison of the magnetometer axes to physical surfaces in the apparatus, and thus an absolute determination of the magnetic field direction in space. This is in contrast with more common techniques, which focus on precise determination of the relative angles between magnetometer axes, and so are more suited to measuring differences in the direction of magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate precision better than 500 μrad on a fluxgate magnetometer, which also gives the coil orthogonality errors to a similar precision. As amore » result, the relative sensitivity of the three axes is also determined, with a precision of about 5 ×10–4.« less

  11. Correcting GOES-R Magnetometer Data for Stray Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Delano R.; Freesland, Douglas C.; Tadikonda, Sivakumara K.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Todirita, Monica; Dahya, Melissa; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Time-varying spacecraft magnetic fields or stray fields are a problem for magnetometer systems. While constant fields can be removed with zero offset calibration, stray fields are difficult to distinguish from ambient field variations. Putting two magnetometers on a long boom and solving for both the ambient and stray fields can be a good idea, but this gradiometer solution is even more susceptible to noise than a single magnetometer. Unless the stray fields are larger than the magnetometer noise, simply averaging the two measurements is a more accurate approach. If averaging is used, it may be worthwhile to explicitly estimate and remove stray fields. Models and estimation algorithms are provided for solar array, arcjet and reaction wheel fields.

  12. Correcting GOES-R Magnetometer Data for Stray Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Delano; Freesland, Douglas; Tadikonda, Sivakumara K.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Todirita, Monica; Dahya, Melissa; Chu, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Time-varying spacecraft magnetic fields, i.e. stray fields, are a problem for magnetometer systems. While constant fields can be removed by calibration, stray fields are difficult to distinguish from ambient field variations. Putting two magnetometers on a long boom and solving for both the ambient and stray fields can help, but this gradiometer solution is more sensitive to noise than a single magnetometer. As shown here for the R-series Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R), unless the stray fields are larger than the noise, simply averaging the two magnetometer readings gives a more accurate solution. If averaging is used, it may be worthwhile to estimate and remove stray fields explicitly. Models and estimation algorithms to do so are provided for solar array, arcjet and reaction wheel fields.

  13. STS-61 crewmembers prepare covers for magnetometers on HST

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-08

    STS061-23-005 (8 Dec 1993) --- Three members of the STS-61 crew prepare covers to be placed on magnetometers near the top of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Left to right are Richard O. Covey, mission commander; Kenneth D. Bowersox, pilot and Claude Nicollier, mission specialist. On the following day, astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman and F. Story Musgrave placed the covers on the magnetometers as they wrapped up five days of servicing on HST.

  14. Optofluidic magnetometer developed in a microstructured optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Candiani, A; Konstantaki, M; Margulis, W; Pissadakis, S

    2012-11-01

    A directional, in-fiber optofluidic magnetometer based on a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) Bragg-grating infiltrated with a ferrofluidic defect is presented. Upon application of a magnetic field, the ferrofluidic defect moves along the length of the MOF Bragg grating, modifying its reflection spectrum. The magnetometer is capable of measuring magnetic fields from 317 to 2500 G. The operational principle of such in-fiber magnetic field probe allows the elaboration of directional measurements of the magnetic field flux.

  15. The Vector Field Proton Magnetometer for IGY Satellite Ground Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, I. R.; Stolarik, J. D.; Heppner, J. P.

    1960-01-01

    The application of homogeneous-bias fields to a proton precessional magnetometer allows the measurement of the vector field by measuring the absolute scalar field F, declination variations (Delta)D, and inclination variations (Delta)I. The absolute scalar field can be measured to an accuracy of +/- 1 gamma and absolute declination and inclination to an accuracy of +/- 2 minutes. This paper describes a vector proton magnetometer that has been in operation at nine Minitrack stations since the spring of 1958.

  16. Detection of J-coupling using atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Ledbetter, Micah P.; Crawford, Charles W.; Wemmer, David E.; Pines, Alexander; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John; Budker, Dmitry

    2015-09-22

    An embodiment of a method of detecting a J-coupling includes providing a polarized analyte adjacent to a vapor cell of an atomic magnetometer; and measuring one or more J-coupling parameters using the atomic magnetometer. According to an embodiment, measuring the one or more J-coupling parameters includes detecting a magnetic field created by the polarized analyte as the magnetic field evolves under a J-coupling interaction.

  17. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Atomic Magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Jin

    2015-08-19

    The PowerPoint presentation focused on research goals, specific information about the atomic magnetometer, response and resolution factors of the SERF magnetometer, FC+AM systems, tests of field transfer and resolution on FC, gradient cancellation, testing of AM performance, ideas for a multi-channel AM, including preliminary sensitivity testing, and a description of a 6 channel DAQ system. A few ideas for future work ended the presentation.

  18. Microfabricated Optically-Pumped Magnetometers for Biomagnetic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappe, Svenja; Alem, Orang; Sheng, Dong; Kitching, John

    2016-06-01

    We report on the progress in developing microfabricated optically-pumped magnetometer arrays for imaging applications. We have improved our sensitivities by several orders of magnitude in the last ten years. Now, our zero-field magnetometers reach noise values below 15 fT/Hz1/2. Recently, we have also developed gradiometers to reject ambient magnetic field noise. We have built several imaging arrays and validated them for biomedical measurements of brain and heart activity.

  19. Combined Electromagnetic and Magnetometer Data Acquisition and Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-27

    Mag1 Mag2 Mag3 Mag4 Mag5 Figure 33: 15 Hz noise on all five magnetometers, McKinley Test Range, acquired with system roughly 100 yards from a...ue , G am m a Mag1 Mag2 Mag3 Mag4 Mag5 Figure 34: 15 Hz noise on all five magnetometers, McKinley Test Range, acquired with system roughly 1000

  20. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometers Burst Mode Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coisson, P.; Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Crespo Grau, R.; Brocco, L.; Lalanne, X.; Sirol, O.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.

    2014-12-01

    Each of the three Swarm satellites embarks an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) to provide absolute scalar measurements of the magnetic field with high accuracy and stability. Nominal data acquisition of these ASMs is 1 Hz. But they can also run in a so-called "burst mode" and provide data at 250 Hz. During the commissioning phase of the mission, seven burst mode acquisition campaigns have been run simultaneously for all satellites, obtaining a total of ten days of burs-mode data. These campaigns allowed the identification of issues related to the operations of the piezo-electric motor and the heaters connected to the ASM, that do not impact the nominal 1 Hz scalar data. We analyze the burst mode data to identify high frequency geomagnetic signals, focusing the analysis in two regions: the low latitudes, where we seek signatures of ionospheric irregularities, and the high latitudes, to identify high frequency signals related to polar region currents. Since these campaigns have been conducted during the initial months of the mission, the three satellites where still close to each other, allowing to analyze the spatial coherency of the signals. Wavelet analysis have revealed 31 Hz signals appearing in the night-side in the equatorial region.

  1. The Search-Coil Magnetometer for MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Contel, O.; Leroy, P.; Roux, A.; Coillot, C.; Alison, D.; Bouabdellah, A.; Mirioni, L.; Meslier, L.; Galic, A.; Vassal, M. C.; Torbert, R. B.; Needell, J.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Ergun, R. E.; Westfall, J.; Summers, D.; Wallace, J.; Magnes, W.; Valavanoglou, A.; Olsson, G.; Chutter, M.; Macri, J.; Myers, S.; Turco, S.; Nolin, J.; Bodet, D.; Rowe, K.; Tanguy, M.; de la Porte, B.

    2016-03-01

    The tri-axial search-coil magnetometer (SCM) belongs to the FIELDS instrumentation suite on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission (Torbert et al. in Space Sci. Rev. (2014), this issue). It provides the three magnetic components of the waves from 1 Hz to 6 kHz in particular in the key regions of the Earth's magnetosphere namely the subsolar region and the magnetotail. Magnetospheric plasmas being collisionless, such a measurement is crucial as the electromagnetic waves are thought to provide a way to ensure the conversion from magnetic to thermal and kinetic energies allowing local or global reconfigurations of the Earth's magnetic field. The analog waveforms provided by the SCM are digitized and processed inside the digital signal processor (DSP), within the Central Electronics Box (CEB), together with the electric field data provided by the spin-plane double probe (SDP) and the axial double probe (ADP). On-board calibration signal provided by DSP allows the verification of the SCM transfer function once per orbit. Magnetic waveforms and on-board spectra computed by DSP are available at different time resolution depending on the selected mode. The SCM design is described in details as well as the different steps of the ground and in-flight calibrations.

  2. Magnetoencephalography with Optically Pumped Atomic Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwindt, Peter; Colombo, Anthony; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Carter, Tony; Berry, Christopher; Young, Amber; McKay, Jim; Weisend, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We are working to develop a 36-channel array of optically pumped atomic magnetometers (AMs) to perform magnetoencephalography (MEG) with the goal of localizing magnetic sources within the human brain. The 36-channel array will consist of nine 4-channel sensor modules where the channels within each sensor will be spaced by 18 mm and each sensor will cover a 40 mm by 40 mm area of the head. In a previous 4-channel AM prototype, we demonstrated the measurement of evoked responses in both the auditory and somatosensory cortexes. This prototype had a 5 fT/Hz1/2 sensitivity. In the current version of the AM under development we are maintaining the previous sensitivity while implementing several improvements, including increasing the bandwidth from 20 Hz to more than 100 Hz, reducing the separation of the active volume of the AM from exterior of the sensor from 25 mm to 10 mm or less, and reducing the active sensor volume by a factor >10 to ~15 mm3. We will present results on the performance of our most recent AM prototype and progress toward developing a complete MEG system including a person-sized magnetic shield to provide a low-noise magnetic environment for MEG measurements.

  3. Calibrating the Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lewis; Casini, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag) is a dual-channel, dual-beam, slit-scanning, full Stokes spectro-polarimeter designed by the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) for the study of the magnetism of solar prominences and filaments. It was deployed in August 2009 at the 40 cm coronagraph of the Evans Solar Facility (ESF) of the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP). In its standard mode of operation it acquires spectro-polarimetric maps of solar targets simultaneously in the two chromospheric lines of He I at 587.6 nm and 1083.0 nm. Since August 2011 ProMag has operated in “patrol mode” with a dedicated observer. We aim to routinely measure the vector magnetic field in prominences. The electro-optic modulator and polarization analyzer are integrated into a single mechanical unit located at the coude feed of the telescope. This location was necessary for proper co-alignment of the dual beams, but complicates the precise polarimeter calibration necessary to achieve the sensitivity required for prominence measurements (< 10^-3). At this sensitivity, small variations in optical alignment can become significant. We present a calibration method for ProMag, using a polarizer and retarder at coronagraph prime focus. Calibrations are recorded before and after observations. We discuss the success of this method and its limitations.

  4. Ultrasensitive Magnetometer using a Single Atom.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, I; Cai, J-M; Retzker, A; Plenio, M B; Wunderlich, Ch

    2016-06-17

    Precision sensing, and in particular high precision magnetometry, is a central goal of research into quantum technologies. For magnetometers, often trade-offs exist between sensitivity, spatial resolution, and frequency range. The precision, and thus the sensitivity of magnetometry, scales as 1/sqrt[T_{2}] with the phase coherence time T_{2} of the sensing system playing the role of a key determinant. Adapting a dynamical decoupling scheme that allows for extending T_{2} by orders of magnitude and merging it with a magnetic sensing protocol, we achieve a measurement sensitivity even for high frequency fields close to the standard quantum limit. Using a single atomic ion as a sensor, we experimentally attain a sensitivity of 4.6  pT/sqrt[Hz] for an alternating-current magnetic field near 14 MHz. Based on the principle demonstrated here, this unprecedented sensitivity combined with spatial resolution in the nanometer range and tunability from direct current to the gigahertz range could be used for magnetic imaging in as of yet inaccessible parameter regimes.

  5. Ultrasensitive Magnetometer using a Single Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, I.; Cai, J.-M.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.; Wunderlich, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    Precision sensing, and in particular high precision magnetometry, is a central goal of research into quantum technologies. For magnetometers, often trade-offs exist between sensitivity, spatial resolution, and frequency range. The precision, and thus the sensitivity of magnetometry, scales as 1 /√{T2 } with the phase coherence time T2 of the sensing system playing the role of a key determinant. Adapting a dynamical decoupling scheme that allows for extending T2 by orders of magnitude and merging it with a magnetic sensing protocol, we achieve a measurement sensitivity even for high frequency fields close to the standard quantum limit. Using a single atomic ion as a sensor, we experimentally attain a sensitivity of 4.6 pT /√{Hz } for an alternating-current magnetic field near 14 MHz. Based on the principle demonstrated here, this unprecedented sensitivity combined with spatial resolution in the nanometer range and tunability from direct current to the gigahertz range could be used for magnetic imaging in as of yet inaccessible parameter regimes.

  6. Monitoring space weather with the GOES magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Howard; Matheson, Lorne; Grubb, Richard; Newman, Ann; Bouwer, David

    1996-10-01

    Magnetic field measurements have been made form geosynchronous orbit for more than 20 years. These measurements are important for monitoring 'space weather' and for providing a unique data base that can be used for improving our knowledge of the Earth's magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial interactions. This paper will focus on the variety of products and services provided by these measurements--those currently available, and those under consideration for the future. The magnetic field assist forecasters in qualitatively assessing the level of geomagnetic disturbance, to interpret changes in energetic particle measurements, to provide data to the National Geophysical Data Center, to support in real-time scientific activities such as rocket launches, and to conduct research for a better understanding of the space environment. One important use of magnetometer data in the Space Environment Center is to alert customers when shocks occur in the solar wind. These shocks have the potential for energizing particles to multi-MeV levels, causing Single Event Upsets in spacecraft electronics, and at lower energy ranges causing deep-dielectric charging that produces spacecraft anomalies. Data from the new GOES-8 and GOES-9 spacecraft will be discussed along with prospects for future products and services.

  7. Plasmonic fiber-optic vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaochuan; Guo, Tuan; Zhang, Xuejun; Xu, Jian; Xie, Wenping; Nie, Ming; Wu, Qiang; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    A compact fiber-optic vector magnetometer based on directional scattering between polarized plasmon waves and ferro-magnetic nanoparticles is demonstrated. The sensor configuration reported in this work uses a short section of tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) coated with a nanometer scale gold film and packaged with a magnetic fluid (Fe3O4) inside a capillary. The transmission spectrum of the sensor provides a fine comb of narrowband resonances that overlap with a broader absorption of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The wavelength of the SPR attenuation in transmission shows high sensitivity to slight perturbations by magnetic fields, due to the strong directional scattering between the SPR attenuated cladding modes and the magnetic fluid near the fiber surface. Both the orientation (2 nm/deg) and the intensity (1.8 nm/mT) of magnetic fields can be determined unambiguously from the TFBG spectrum. Temperature cross sensitivity can be referenced out by monitoring the wavelength of the core mode resonance simultaneously.

  8. JPL CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present the JPL-developed complementary metal- oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology. The CMOS APS has achieved performance comparable to charge coupled devices, yet features ultra low power operation, random access readout, on-chip timing and control, and on-chip analog to digital conversion. Previously published open literature will be reviewed.

  9. An improved Overhauser magnetometer for Earth's magnetic field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shifang; Chen, Shudong; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Cao, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    Overhauser magnetometer is a kind of high-precision devices for magnetostatic field measurement. It is widely used in geological survey, earth field variations, UXO detection etc. However, the original Overhauser magnetometer JOM-2 shows great shortcomings of low signal to noise ratio (SNR) and high power consumption, which directly affect the performance of the device. In order to increase the sensitivity and reduce power consumption, we present an improved Overhauser magnetometer. Firstly, compared with the original power board which suffers from heavy noise for improper EMC design, an improved power broad with 20mV peak to peak noise is presented in this paper. Then, the junction field effect transistor (JFET) is used as pre-amplifier in our new design, to overcome the higher current noise produced by the original instrumentation amplifier. By adjusting the parameters carefully low noise factor down to 0.5 dB can be obtained. Finally, the new architecture of ARM + CPLD is adopted to replace the original one with DSP+CPLD. So lower power consumption and greater flash memory can be realized. With these measures, an improved Overhauser magnetometer with higher sensitivity and lower power consumption is design here. The experimental results indicate that the sensitivity of the improved Overhauser magnetometer is 0.071nT, which confirms that the new magnetometer is sensitive to earth field measurement.

  10. CMOS foveal image sensor chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Cesar (Inventor); Scott, Peter (Inventor); Sridhar, Ramalingam (Inventor); Xia, Shu (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A foveal image sensor integrated circuit comprising a plurality of CMOS active pixel sensors arranged both within and about a central fovea region of the chip. The pixels in the central fovea region have a smaller size than the pixels arranged in peripheral rings about the central region. A new photocharge normalization scheme and associated circuitry normalizes the output signals from the different size pixels in the array. The pixels are assembled into a multi-resolution rectilinear foveal image sensor chip using a novel access scheme to reduce the number of analog RAM cells needed. Localized spatial resolution declines monotonically with offset from the imager's optical axis, analogous to biological foveal vision.

  11. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    DOEpatents

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  12. Hybrid CMOS/Molecular Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, M. R.; Rose, G. S.; Ziegler, M. M.

    CMOS silicon technologies are likely to run out of steam in the next 10-15 years despite revolutionary advances in the past few decades. Molecular and other nanoscale technologies show significant promise but it is unlikely that they will completely replace CMOS, at least in the near term. This chapter explores opportunities for using CMOS and nanotechnology to enhance and complement each other in hybrid circuits. As an example of such a hybrid CMOS/nano system, a nanoscale programmable logic array (PLA) based on majority logic is described along with its supplemental CMOS circuitry. It is believed that such systems will be able to sustain the historical advances in the semiconductor industry while addressing manufacturability, yield, power, cost, and performance challenges.

  13. Design and Fabrication of High-Efficiency CMOS/CCD Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2007-01-01

    An architecture for back-illuminated complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device (CCD) ultraviolet/visible/near infrared- light image sensors, and a method of fabrication to implement the architecture, are undergoing development. The architecture and method are expected to enable realization of the full potential of back-illuminated CMOS/CCD imagers to perform with high efficiency, high sensitivity, excellent angular response, and in-pixel signal processing. The architecture and method are compatible with next-generation CMOS dielectric-forming and metallization techniques, and the process flow of the method is compatible with process flows typical of the manufacture of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. The architecture and method overcome all obstacles that have hitherto prevented high-yield, low-cost fabrication of back-illuminated CMOS/CCD imagers by use of standard VLSI fabrication tools and techniques. It is not possible to discuss the obstacles in detail within the space available for this article. Briefly, the obstacles are posed by the problems of generating light-absorbing layers having desired uniform and accurate thicknesses, passivation of surfaces, forming structures for efficient collection of charge carriers, and wafer-scale thinning (in contradistinction to diescale thinning). A basic element of the present architecture and method - the element that, more than any other, makes it possible to overcome the obstacles - is the use of an alternative starting material: Instead of starting with a conventional bulk-CMOS wafer that consists of a p-doped epitaxial silicon layer grown on a heavily-p-doped silicon substrate, one starts with a special silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer that consists of a thermal oxide buried between a lightly p- or n-doped, thick silicon layer and a device silicon layer of appropriate thickness and doping. The thick silicon layer is used as a handle: that is, as a mechanical support for the

  14. SOI CMOS Imager with Suppression of Cross-Talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Zheng, Xingyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sun, Chao

    2009-01-01

    A monolithic silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) image-detecting integrated circuit of the active-pixel-sensor type, now undergoing development, is designed to operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and to offer a combination of high quantum efficiency and low diffusion and capacitive cross-talk among pixels. The imager is designed to be especially suitable for astronomical and astrophysical applications. The imager design could also readily be adapted to general scientific, biological, medical, and spectroscopic applications. One of the conditions needed to ensure both high quantum efficiency and low diffusion cross-talk is a relatively high reverse bias potential (between about 20 and about 50 V) on the photodiode in each pixel. Heretofore, a major obstacle to realization of this condition in a monolithic integrated circuit has been posed by the fact that the required high reverse bias on the photodiode is incompatible with metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in the CMOS pixel readout circuitry. In the imager now being developed, the SOI structure is utilized to overcome this obstacle: The handle wafer is retained and the photodiode is formed in the handle wafer. The MOSFETs are formed on the SOI layer, which is separated from the handle wafer by a buried oxide layer. The electrical isolation provided by the buried oxide layer makes it possible to bias the MOSFETs at CMOS-compatible potentials (between 0 and 3 V), while biasing the photodiode at the required higher potential, and enables independent optimization of the sensory and readout portions of the imager.

  15. A CMOS silicon spin qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurand, R.; Jehl, X.; Kotekar-Patil, D.; Corna, A.; Bohuslavskyi, H.; Laviéville, R.; Hutin, L.; Barraud, S.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; de Franceschi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Silicon, the main constituent of microprocessor chips, is emerging as a promising material for the realization of future quantum processors. Leveraging its well-established complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology would be a clear asset to the development of scalable quantum computing architectures and to their co-integration with classical control hardware. Here we report a silicon quantum bit (qubit) device made with an industry-standard fabrication process. The device consists of a two-gate, p-type transistor with an undoped channel. At low temperature, the first gate defines a quantum dot encoding a hole spin qubit, the second one a quantum dot used for the qubit read-out. All electrical, two-axis control of the spin qubit is achieved by applying a phase-tunable microwave modulation to the first gate. The demonstrated qubit functionality in a basic transistor-like device constitutes a promising step towards the elaboration of scalable spin qubit geometries in a readily exploitable CMOS platform.

  16. A CMOS silicon spin qubit

    PubMed Central

    Maurand, R.; Jehl, X.; Kotekar-Patil, D.; Corna, A.; Bohuslavskyi, H.; Laviéville, R.; Hutin, L.; Barraud, S.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; De Franceschi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon, the main constituent of microprocessor chips, is emerging as a promising material for the realization of future quantum processors. Leveraging its well-established complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology would be a clear asset to the development of scalable quantum computing architectures and to their co-integration with classical control hardware. Here we report a silicon quantum bit (qubit) device made with an industry-standard fabrication process. The device consists of a two-gate, p-type transistor with an undoped channel. At low temperature, the first gate defines a quantum dot encoding a hole spin qubit, the second one a quantum dot used for the qubit read-out. All electrical, two-axis control of the spin qubit is achieved by applying a phase-tunable microwave modulation to the first gate. The demonstrated qubit functionality in a basic transistor-like device constitutes a promising step towards the elaboration of scalable spin qubit geometries in a readily exploitable CMOS platform. PMID:27882926

  17. A CMOS silicon spin qubit.

    PubMed

    Maurand, R; Jehl, X; Kotekar-Patil, D; Corna, A; Bohuslavskyi, H; Laviéville, R; Hutin, L; Barraud, S; Vinet, M; Sanquer, M; De Franceschi, S

    2016-11-24

    Silicon, the main constituent of microprocessor chips, is emerging as a promising material for the realization of future quantum processors. Leveraging its well-established complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology would be a clear asset to the development of scalable quantum computing architectures and to their co-integration with classical control hardware. Here we report a silicon quantum bit (qubit) device made with an industry-standard fabrication process. The device consists of a two-gate, p-type transistor with an undoped channel. At low temperature, the first gate defines a quantum dot encoding a hole spin qubit, the second one a quantum dot used for the qubit read-out. All electrical, two-axis control of the spin qubit is achieved by applying a phase-tunable microwave modulation to the first gate. The demonstrated qubit functionality in a basic transistor-like device constitutes a promising step towards the elaboration of scalable spin qubit geometries in a readily exploitable CMOS platform.

  18. W-CMOS blanking device for projection multibeam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurisch, Michael; Irmscher, Mathias; Letzkus, Florian; Eder-Kapl, Stefan; Klein, Christof; Loeschner, Hans; Piller, Walter; Platzgummer, Elmar

    2010-05-01

    As the designs of future mask nodes become more and more complex the corresponding pattern writing times will rise significantly when using single beam writing tools. Projection multi-beam lithography [1] is one promising technology to enhance the throughput compared to state of the art VSB pattern generators. One key component of the projection multi-beam tool is an Aperture Plate System (APS) to form and switch thousands of individual beamlets. In our present setup a highly parallel beam is divided into 43,008 individual beamlets by a Siaperture- plate. These micrometer sized beams pass through larger openings in a blanking-plate and are individually switched on and off by applying a voltage to blanking-electrodes which are placed around the blanking-plate openings. A charged particle 200x reduction optics demagnifies the beamlet array to the substrate. The switched off beams are filtered out in the projection optics so that only the beams which are unaffected by the blanking-plate are projected to the substrate with 200x reduction. The blanking-plate is basically a CMOS device for handling the writing data. In our work the blanking-electrodes are fabricated using CMOS compatible add on processes like SiO2-etching or metal deposition and structuring. A new approach is the implementation of buried tungsten electrodes for beam blanking.

  19. Si light-emitting device in integrated photonic CMOS ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kaikai; Snyman, Lukas W.; Aharoni, Herzl

    2017-07-01

    The motivation for integrated Si optoelectronics is the creation of low-cost photonics for mass-market applications. Especially, the growing demand for sensitive biochemical sensors in the environmental control or medicine leads to the development of integrated high resolution sensors. Here CMOS-compatible Si light-emitting device structures are presented for investigating the effect of various depletion layer profiles and defect engineering on the photonic transition in the 1.4-2.8 eV. A novel Si device is proposed to realize both a two-terminal Si-diode light-emitting device and a three-terminal Si gate-controlled diode light-emitting device in the same device structure. In addition to the spectral analysis, differences between two-terminal and three-terminal devices are discussed, showing the light emission efficiency change. The proposed Si optical source may find potential applications in micro-photonic systems and micro-optoelectro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) in CMOS integrated circuitry.

  20. IR CMOS: near infrared enhanced digital imaging (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Carey, James E.; Joy, Thomas; Vineis, Chris J.; Palsule, Chintamani

    2015-08-01

    SiOnyx has demonstrated imaging at light levels below 1 mLux (moonless starlight) at video frame rates with a 720P CMOS image sensor in a compact, low latency camera. Low light imaging is enabled by the combination of enhanced quantum efficiency in the near infrared together with state of the art low noise image sensor design. The quantum efficiency enhancements are achieved by applying Black Silicon, SiOnyx's proprietary ultrafast laser semiconductor processing technology. In the near infrared, silicon's native indirect bandgap results in low absorption coefficients and long absorption lengths. The Black Silicon nanostructured layer fundamentally disrupts this paradigm by enhancing the absorption of light within a thin pixel layer making 5 microns of silicon equivalent to over 300 microns of standard silicon. This results in a demonstrate 10 fold improvements in near infrared sensitivity over incumbent imaging technology while maintaining complete compatibility with standard CMOS image sensor process flows. Applications include surveillance, nightvision, and 1064nm laser see spot. Imaging performance metrics will be discussed. Demonstrated performance characteristics: Pixel size : 5.6 and 10 um Array size: 720P/1.3Mpix Frame rate: 60 Hz Read noise: 2 ele/pixel Spectral sensitivity: 400 to 1200 nm (with 10x QE at 1064nm) Daytime imaging: color (Bayer pattern) Nighttime imaging: moonless starlight conditions 1064nm laser imaging: daytime imaging out to 2Km

  1. A 50Mbit/Sec. CMOS Video Linestore System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeung, Yeun C.

    1988-10-01

    This paper reports the architecture, design and test results of a CMOS single chip programmable video linestore system which has 16-bit data words with 1024 bit depth. The delay is fully programmable from 9 to 1033 samples by a 10 bit binary control word. The large 16 bit data word width makes the chip useful for a wide variety of digital video signal processing applications such as DPCM coding, High-Definition TV, and Video scramblers/descramblers etc. For those applications, the conventional large fixed-length shift register or static RAM scheme is not very popular because of its lack of versatility, high power consumption, and required support circuitry. The very high throughput of 50Mbit/sec is made possible by a highly parallel, pipelined dynamic memory architecture implemented in a 2-um N-well CMOS technology. The basic cell of the programmable video linestore chip is an four transistor dynamic RAM element. This cell comprises the majority of the chip's real estate, consumes no static power, and gives good noise immunity to the simply designed sense amplifier. The chip design was done using Bellcore's version of the MULGA virtual grid symbolic layout system. The chip contains approximately 90,000 transistors in an area of 6.5 x 7.5 square mm and the I/Os are TTL compatible. The chip is packaged in a 68-pin leadless ceramic chip carrier package.

  2. Hydrazine-Compatible Elastomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markles, O., F.; Dye, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrazine hardly reacts with ethylene propylene diene monomer, even at high temperatures. According to report to tests, EPDM is most hydrazine-compatible material among elastomers. Has strong potential as valve-seat and O-ring seal with hydrazine, especially at high temperatures.

  3. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Accelerated life tests were performed on CMOS microcircuits to predict their long term reliability. The consistency of the CMOS microcircuit activation energy between the range of 125 C to 200 C and the range 200 C to 250 C was determined. Results indicate CMOS complexity and the amount of moisture detected inside the devices after testing influences time to failure of tested CMOS devices.

  4. Towed and Shipboard Vector Magnetometers in Marine Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barckhausen, U.; Engels, M.

    2011-12-01

    The use of vector magnetometer components in geomagnetics has many advantages compared to the use of total field magnetometers. However, in marine geophysics the robust and easy-to-use Proton Precession magnetometers are still the standard instruments. Most of the few vector magnetometers in use work on multi instrument deep submersible platforms. Here we present some new instrumental and methodological aspects of surface towed fluxgate vector magnetometers which we use in a combination with Overhauser sensors. Processed fluxgate total field data are practically identical to the Overhauser reference and even provide a reliable gradient when combined with one Overhauser.The vertical component derived from the vector data constrains 2-D modelling much better than the total field alone. Although towed vector magnetometers typically provide no independent estimate of yaw, we illustrate that a numerical yaw (bandpass filtered magnetic heading) can provide reasonable estimates of the horizontal field components. These component data open additional analysis tools: the strike direction of magnetic lineations can be estimated from single profiles by either magnetic boundary strike ellipses in the space domain or by coherences between vertical and horizontal components in the wavenumber domain. Auto power spectra of the total field provide an approximate depth to the anomaly source or, if in obvious contradiction to the bathymetric depth, allow the detection of distortions, for example, by external temporal geomagnetic variations. A more common application is the use of vector magnetometers as shipboard instruments where the sensor's orientation can easily be resolved with data from the ship's positioning systems. We present some comparisons of shipboard and towed vector data. The quality of the magnetic data recorded onboard the ship can be surprisingly good after a thorough compensation for the ship's magnetic field.

  5. Overhauser magnetometer sensor design for magnetic field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zan; Chen, Shudong; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Cao, Qiong

    2016-10-01

    The Overhauser magnetometer, with its unique set of advantages, such as low power consumption, high precision and fast recording ability has been widely used in geophysical mineral and oil exploration, archeology, environmental survey, ordnance and weapons detection (UXO) and other earth science applications. Compared with the traditional proton magnetometer, which suffers from high power consumption and low precision, the Overhauser magnetometer excite the free radical solution in a cavity with RF signal to enhance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Thus, RF resonator plays a crucial role in reducing power consumption and improving the accuracy of Overhauser magnetometer. There are a wide variety of resonators, but only two of them are chosen for Overhauser magnetometer: birdcage coil and coaxial resonator. In order to get the best RF cavity for Overhauser magnetometer sensor, both resonators are investigated here. Firstly, parameters of two RF resonators are calculated theoretically and simulated with Ansoft HFSS. The results indicate that birdcage coil is characterized by linear polarization while coaxial resonator is characterized by circular polarization. Besides, all RF fields are limited inside of the coaxial resonator while distributed both inside and outside of the birdcage coil. Then, the two resonators are practically manufactured based on the theoretical design. And the S-parameter and Smith chart of these resonators are measured with Agilent 8712ES RF network analyzer. The measured results indicate that the coaxial resonator has a much higher Q value(875) than the birdcage coil(70). All these results reveal a better performance for coaxial resonator. Finally, field experimental shows 0.074nT sensitivity for Overhauser magnetometer with coaxial resonator.

  6. Carbon nanotube integration with a CMOS process.

    PubMed

    Perez, Maximiliano S; Lerner, Betiana; Resasco, Daniel E; Pareja Obregon, Pablo D; Julian, Pedro M; Mandolesi, Pablo S; Buffa, Fabian A; Boselli, Alfredo; Lamagna, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the integration of a sensor based on carbon nanotubes using CMOS technology. A chip sensor (CS) was designed and manufactured using a 0.30 μm CMOS process, leaving a free window on the passivation layer that allowed the deposition of SWCNTs over the electrodes. We successfully investigated with the CS the effect of humidity and temperature on the electrical transport properties of SWCNTs. The possibility of a large scale integration of SWCNTs with CMOS process opens a new route in the design of more efficient, low cost sensors with high reproducibility in their manufacture.

  7. Spectrometry with consumer-quality CMOS cameras.

    PubMed

    Scheeline, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Many modern spectrometric instruments use diode arrays, charge-coupled arrays, or CMOS cameras for detection and measurement. As portable or point-of-use instruments are desirable, one would expect that instruments using the cameras in cellular telephones and tablet computers would be the basis of numerous instruments. However, no mass market for such devices has yet developed. The difficulties in using megapixel CMOS cameras for scientific measurements are discussed, and promising avenues for instrument development reviewed. Inexpensive alternatives to use of the built-in camera are also mentioned, as the long-term question is whether it is better to overcome the constraints of CMOS cameras or to bypass them.

  8. Bridging faults in BiCMOS circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Sankaran M.; Malaiya, Yashwant K.; Jayasumana, Anura P.

    1993-01-01

    Combining the advantages of CMOS and bipolar, BiCMOS is emerging as a major technology for many high performance digital and mixed signal applications. Recent investigations revealed that bridging faults can be a major failure mode in IC's. Effects of bridging faults in BiCMOS circuits are presented. Bridging faults between logical units without feedback and logical units with feedback are considered. Several bridging faults can be detected by monitoring the power supply current (I(sub DDQ) monitoring). Effects of bridging faults and bridging resistance on output logic levels were examined along with their effects on noise immunity.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Integration with a CMOS Process

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Maximiliano S.; Lerner, Betiana; Resasco, Daniel E.; Pareja Obregon, Pablo D.; Julian, Pedro M.; Mandolesi, Pablo S.; Buffa, Fabian A.; Boselli, Alfredo; Lamagna, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the integration of a sensor based on carbon nanotubes using CMOS technology. A chip sensor (CS) was designed and manufactured using a 0.30 μm CMOS process, leaving a free window on the passivation layer that allowed the deposition of SWCNTs over the electrodes. We successfully investigated with the CS the effect of humidity and temperature on the electrical transport properties of SWCNTs. The possibility of a large scale integration of SWCNTs with CMOS process opens a new route in the design of more efficient, low cost sensors with high reproducibility in their manufacture. PMID:22319330

  10. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-08-06

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces.

  11. An improved RF circuit for Overhauser magnetometer excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Di; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Fu, Haoyang

    2015-08-01

    Overhauser magnetometer is a high-precision device for magnetostatic field measurement, which can be used in a wide variety of purposes: UXO detection, pipeline mapping and other engineering and environmental applications. Traditional proton magnetometer adopts DC polarization, suffering from low polarization efficiency, high power consumption and low signal noise ratio (SNR). Compared with the traditional proton magnetometer, nitroxide free radicals are used for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to enhance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). RF excitation is very important for electron resonance in nitrogen oxygen free radical solution, and it is primarily significant for the obtention of high SNR signal and high sensitive field observation. Therefore, RF excitation source plays a crucial role in the development of Overhauser magnetometer. In this paper, an improved design of a RF circuit is discussed. The new RF excitation circuit consists of two parts: Quartz crystal oscillator circuit and RF power amplifier circuit. Simulation and optimization designs for power amplifier circuit based on software ADS are presented. Finally we achieve a continuous and stable sine wave of 60MHz with 1-2.5 W output power, and the second harmonic suppression is close to -20dBc. The improved RF circuit has many merits such as small size, low-power consumption and high efficiency, and it can be applied to Overhauser magnetometer to obtain high sensitive field observation.

  12. Towards ultimate low frequency air-core magnetometer sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Guridi, Ruben; Vogel, Michael W; Reutens, David C; Vegh, Viktor

    2017-05-23

    Air-core magnetometers are amongst the most commonly used magnetic field detectors in biomedical instruments. They offer excellent sensitivity, low fabrication complexity and a robust, cost-effective solution. However, air-core magnetometers must be tailored to the specific application to achieve high sensitivity, which can be decisive in the accuracy of the diagnoses and the time required for the examination. Existing methods proposed for the design of air-core magnetometers are based on simplified models and simulations using a reduced number of variables, potentially leading to sensitivity that is suboptimal. To circumvent this we chose a method with fewer assumptions and a larger number of decision variables which employed a genetic algorithm, a global optimisation method. Experimental validation shows that the model is appropriate for the design of highly sensitive air-core magnetometers. Moreover, our results support the suitability of a genetic algorithm for optimization in this context. The new method described herein will be made publicly available via our website to facilitate the development of less costly biomedical instruments using air-core magnetometers with unprecedented sensitivity.

  13. Noninvasive diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia using a SQUID magnetometer.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, W O; Garrard, C L; Allos, S H; Bradshaw, L A; Staton, D J; Wikswo, J P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the ability of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer to noninvasively detect mesenteric ischemia in a rabbit model. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Superconducting Quantum Interference Device magnetometers have been used to detect magnetic fields created by the basic electrical rhythm (BER) and to detect changes in BER of exteriorized bowel of anesthetized rabbits during mesenteric ischemia. METHODS: The BER of rabbit ileum was noninvasively measured transabdominally using a SQUID magnetometer and compared with the electrical activity recorded with surgically implanted serosal electrodes before, during, and after snare occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. RESULTS: Transabdominal SQUID recording of BER frequency was highly correlated to the measurements obtained with electrodes (R = 0.91). Basic electrical rhythm frequency decreased from 16.4 +/- 0.8 to 8.3 +/- 0.3 cpm (p < 0.001) after 25 minutes of ischemia. Reperfusion of ischemic bowel resulted in recovery of BER frequency to 14.3 +/- 0.4 cpm 10 minutes after blood flow was restored. CONCLUSIONS: A SQUID magnetometer is capable of noninvasively detecting mesenteric ischemia reliably and at an early stage by detecting a significant drop in BER frequency. These positive findings have encouraged the authors to continue development of clinically useful, noninvasive, detection of intestinal magnetic fields using SQUID magnetometers. Images Figure 5. PMID:7794074

  14. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  15. Human MCG measurements with a high-sensitivity potassium atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kamada, K; Ito, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2012-06-01

    Measuring biomagnetic fields, such as magnetocardiograms (MCGs), is important for investigating biological functions. To address to this need, we developed an optically pumped atomic magnetometer. In this study, human MCGs were acquired using a potassium atomic magnetometer without any modulating systems. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is comparable to that of high-T(c) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and is sufficient for acquiring human MCGs. The activity of a human heart estimated from the MCG maps agrees well with that measured with SQUID magnetometers. Thus, our magnetometer produces reliable results, which demonstrate the potential of our atomic magnetometer for biomagnetic measurements.

  16. Flexible-CMOS and biocompatible piezoelectric AlN material for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Nathan; Keeney, Lynette; Mathewson, Alan

    2013-11-01

    The development of a CMOS compatible flexible piezoelectric material is desired for numerous applications and in particular for biomedical MEMS devices. Aluminum nitride (AlN) is the most commonly used CMOS compatible piezoelectric material, which is typically deposited on Si in order to enhance the c-axis (002) crystal orientation which gives AlN its high piezoelectric properties. This paper reports on the successful deposition of AlN on polyimide (PI-2611) material. The AlN deposited has a FWHM (002) value of 5.1° and a piezoelectric d33 value of 1.12 pm V-1, and SEM images show high quality columnar grains. The highly crystalline AlN material is due to the semi-crystalline properties of the polyimide film used. Cytotoxicity testing showed the AlN/polyimide material to be non-toxic to 3T3 cells and primary neurons. Surface properties of the AlN/polyimide film were evaluated as they have a significant effect on the adhesion of cells to the film. The results show neurons adhering to the AlN surface. The results of this paper show the characterization of a new flexible-CMOS and biocompatible AlN/polyimide material for MEMS devices with improved crystallinity and piezoelectric properties.

  17. Compatibility: drugs and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Talita Muniz Maloni; Ferraresi, Andressa de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    Standardization and systematization of data to provide quick access to compatibility of leading injectable drugs used in hospitals for parenteral nutrition. We selected 55 injectable drugs analyzed individually with two types of parenteral nutrition: 2-in-1 and 3-in-1. The following variables were considered: active ingredient, compatibility of drugs with the parenteral nutrition with or without lipids, and maximum drug concentration after dilution for the drugs compatible with parenteral nutrition. Drugs were classified as compatible, incompatible and untested. After analysis, relevant information to the product's compatibility with parental nutrition was summarized in a table. Systematization of compatibility data provided quick and easy access, and enabled standardizing pharmacists work.

  18. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dahai; Wu, Lingqi; Yan, Meizhi; Cui, Mingyang; You, Zheng; Hu, Muzhi

    2009-01-01

    A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor's vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment.

  19. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Araujo, J F D F; Bruno, A C; Louro, S R W

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10(-8) Am(2) was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  20. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dahai; Wu, Lingqi; Yan, Meizhi; Cui, Mingyang; You, Zheng; Hu, Muzhi

    2009-01-01

    A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor’s vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment. PMID:22399981

  1. Assessing and Ensuring GOES-R Magnetometer Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Delano R.; Todirita, Monica; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R magnetometer subsystem accuracy requirement is 1.7 nanoteslas (nT). During quiet times (100 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 3 sigma. During storms (300 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 2 sigma. Error comes both from outside the magnetometers, e.g. spacecraft fields and misalignments, as well as inside, e.g. zero offset and scale factor errors. Because zero offset and scale factor drift over time, it will be necessary to perform annual calibration maneuvers. To predict performance before launch, we have used Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analysis. Both behave as expected, and their accuracy predictions agree within 30%. With the proposed calibration regimen, both suggest that the GOES-R magnetometer subsystem will meet its accuracy requirements.

  2. Rotating sample magnetometer for cryogenic temperatures and high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Eisterer, M; Hengstberger, F; Voutsinas, C S; Hörhager, N; Sorta, S; Hecher, J; Weber, H W

    2011-06-01

    We report on the design and implementation of a rotating sample magnetometer (RSM) operating in the variable temperature insert (VTI) of a cryostat equipped with a high-field magnet. The limited space and the cryogenic temperatures impose the most critical design parameters: the small bore size of the magnet requires a very compact pick-up coil system and the low temperatures demand a very careful design of the bearings. Despite these difficulties the RSM achieves excellent resolution at high magnetic field sweep rates, exceeding that of a typical vibrating sample magnetometer by about a factor of ten. In addition the gas-flow cryostat and the high-field superconducting magnet provide a temperature and magnetic field range unprecedented for this type of magnetometer. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Ørsted pre-flight magnetometer calibration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risbo, Torben; Brauer, Peter; Merayo, Jose M. G.; Nielsen, Otto V.; Petersen, Jan R.; Primdahl, Fritz; Richter, Ingo

    2003-05-01

    The compact spherical coil (CSC) vector-feedback magnetometer on the Danish Ørsted geomagnetic mapping satellite underwent extensive calibrations and verifications prior to integration and launch. The theory of the 'thin shell' calibration procedure is introduced. Spherical harmonic modelling was developed and tested over several years and used for Ørsted and other missions at test facilities in Europe, the United States and the Republic of South Africa. The verification of the test coil system using an Overhauser absolute scalar proton magnetometer is explained and the overall calibration results are given. The temperature calibrations are explained and reported on. The overall calibration model standard deviation is about 100 pT rms. Comparisons with the later in-flight calibrations show that, except for the unknown satellite offsets, an agreement within 4 nT was obtained. Finally an rf interference between the CSC and the Overhauser magnetometer is discussed, which may account for some of this discrepancy.

  4. Optimization of a rubidium magnetometer based on nonlinear optical rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Lok Fai; Jacome, L. R.; Guttikonda, Srikanth; Bahr, Eric; Kimball, Derek

    2009-11-01

    Atomic spin polarization of alkali atoms in the ground state can survive thousands of collisions with paraffin-coated cell walls. The resulting long spin-relaxation times achieved in evacuated, paraffin-coated cells enable precise measurement of atomic spin precession and energy shifts of ground-state Zeeman sublevels. In the present work, nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with frequency-modulated light (FM NMOR) is used to measure magnetic-field-induced spin precession for rubidium atoms contained in a paraffin-coated cell. We discuss optimization of the shot-noise-projected magnetometer sensitivity and practical implementation of the Rb magnetometer. The magnetometer will be applied to searches for anomalous spin-dependent interactions of the proton.

  5. NQR detection of explosive simulants using RF atomic magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a highly selective spectroscopic method that can be used to detect and identify a number of chemicals of interest to the defense, national security, and law enforcement community. In the past, there have been several documented attempts to utilize NQR to detect nitrogen bearing explosives using induction sensors to detect the NQR RF signatures. We present here our work on the NQR detection of explosive simulants using optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers. RF atomic magnetometers can provide an order of magnitude (or more) improvement in sensitivity versus induction sensors and can enable mitigation of RF interference, which has classically has been a problem for conventional NQR using induction sensors. We present the theory of operation of optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers along with the result of laboratory work on the detection of explosive simulant material. An outline of ongoing work will also be presented along with a path for a fieldable detection system.

  6. Assessing and ensuring GOES-R magnetometer accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Delano; Todirita, Monica; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Dahya, Melissa; Chu, Donald

    2016-05-01

    The GOES-R magnetometer subsystem accuracy requirement is 1.7 nanoteslas (nT). During quiet times (100 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 3 sigma error per axis. During storms (300 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 2 sigma error per axis. Error comes both from outside the magnetometers, e.g. spacecraft fields and misalignments, as well as inside, e.g. zero offset and scale factor errors. Because zero offset and scale factor drift over time, it will be necessary to perform annual calibration maneuvers. To predict performance before launch, we have used Monte Carlo simulations and covariance analysis. With the proposed calibration regimen, both suggest that the magnetometer subsystem will meet its accuracy requirements.

  7. Spin-Damping in an RF atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alem, Orang; Romalis, Michael V.; Sauer, Karen L.

    2009-05-01

    Optically pumped atomic magnetometers have demonstrated an improved sensitivity over standard tuned coils for frequencies less than 50 MHz, making these radio-frequency (RF) magnetometers attractive for low-field NMR (for example, Budker and Romalis, Nature Physics 3, April 2007). Such magnetometers are often plagued by transient effects resulting in decreased sensitivity. The decay time of these transients, or ringing, can last for milliseconds, which is particularly detrimental for rapidly decaying NMR signals. We have found that actively damping the ringing of the atomic spins can significantly reduce such dead time. This spin-damping of the atomic transients is achieved through a negative feedback mechanism in which part of the optical signal during ringing is used to apply an RF field forcing the realignment of the atomic spins with the static magnetic field. We have successfully implemented spin-damping in 100 μs and recovered our femto-Tesla signal previously obscured by the ringing.

  8. A multichannel portable SERF atomic magnetometer for biomagnetic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyllie, Robert; Kauer, Matthew; Smetana, Gregory; Wakai, Ronald; Walker, Thad

    2011-05-01

    We present a portable four-channel atomic magnetometer array operating in the spin exchange relaxation-free regime. Each channel was operated with a baseline sensitivity of 5-10 fT /√{ Hz } , at or near the expected Johnson noise limit of the mu-metal shielding. The magnetometer array has several design features intended to maximize its suitability for fetal magnetocardiography, such as a compact modular design, fiber coupled lasers, and magnetometer channel spacing adjustable from 5-10 cm. We present adult magnetocardiogram using this array in a magnetically shielded room. We also show the acquisition and analysis of phantom fetal signals with a peak QRS amplitude of ~1pt, using an advanced nonlinear denoising algorithm. Funding from the NIH.

  9. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10-8 Am2 was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  10. Determination of magnetometer offsets using mirror mode observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaschke, Ferdinand; Narita, Yasuhito; Mayer, Jo-Hannah; Frühauff, Dennis; Volwerk, Martin; Götz, Charlotte; Richter, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Magnetometers onboard spacecraft require regular inflight calibration activities, in particular to determine their outputs in vanishing ambient magnetic fields: the so-called magnetometer offsets. These offset (apart from the spin plane offsets of magnetometers mounted on spin-stabilitzed spacecraft) may be determined by analyzing Alfvénic magnetic field fluctuations, present in the pristine solar wind, or by cross-calibration with data from other instruments, if available. We present a novel, complementary method, by which these offsets are obtained from mirror mode observations: the mirror mode method. The method takes advantage of the compressional character of mirror modes so that the maximum variance in the magnetic field nearly coincides with its average direction. We apply the mirror mode method to measurements from THEMIS, MMS, and Rosetta and find that highly accurate results with uncertainties on the order of a few tenths of a nanotesla may be achieved.

  11. Participation in the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium for the Cluster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Prof. M. G. Kivelson (UCLA) and Dr. R. C. Elphic (LANL) are Co-investigators on the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium (CMC) that provided the fluxgate magnetometers and associated mission support for the Cluster Mission. The CMC designated UCLA as the site with primary responsibility for the inter-calibration of data from the four spacecraft and the production of fully corrected data critical to achieving the mission objectives. UCLA was also charged with distributing magnetometer data to the U.S. Co-investigators. UCLA also supported the Technical Management Team, which was responsible for the detailed design of the instrument and its interface. In this final progress report we detail the progress made by the UCLA team in achieving the mission objectives.

  12. Silicon-gate CMOS/SOS processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramondetta, P.

    1979-01-01

    Major silicon-gate CMOS/SOS processes are described. Sapphire substrate preparation is also discussed, as well as the following process variations: (1) the double epi process; and (2) ion implantation.

  13. CMOS analog switches for adaptive filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Adaptive active low-pass filters incorporate CMOS (Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) analog switches (such as 4066 switch) that reduce variation in switch resistance when filter is switched to any selected transfer function.

  14. Induction magnetometer for the RESONANCE project - parameters analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Santolik, Ondrej; Mogilevsky, Mihail; Dudkin, Denis; Jannet, Guillaume; Kolmasova, Ivana; Lan, Radek; Uhlir, Ludek

    2013-04-01

    The RESONANCE experiment focuses on the study of the processes in the inner magnetosphere of our planet. The objectives of the project include the investigation of interactions between waves and particles, and monitoring of the large-scale changes in the magnetosphere associated with geomagnetic activity and magnetic storms. The study of magnetic fields is of prime importance for RESONANCE project, taking into account that the special appeal of this mission is that four spacecrafts will be simultaneously launched at the specially designed path - the so-called "magnetosynchronous orbit" - when all the four spacecrafts will be some enough long time within the sole magnetic line. Thanks to its unique orbital configuration and instrumental composition, the RESONANCE project gives best opportunity for study of elongated structures in the magnetosphere of the Earth. The AC magnetic field will be measured by the three-component induction coil magnetometer LEMI-606, developed for the study of magnetic field fluctuations in space conditions in the frequency band 1-20000 Hz. It is known that the plasma parameters vary rapidly in space and time, so in the case of simultaneous measurements at four points special demand of high temporal resolution and low measurement error must be provided. To this, the identity of the parameters of all four devices that will be installed and operating simultaneously on all satellites becomes the major requirement. These all requirements were taken into account at the development of the LEMI-606 magnetometers. Another feature of these magnetometers is strongly nonsymmetric construction which is due to the general satellite design. Such an arrangement of the magnetometers leads to the increase of their cross-talk and nonorthogonality. The influence of the magnetometer construction on its parameters is analyzed. A comparison of the magnetometers parameters of symmetric and nonsymmetric design is carried out and experimental results are presented.

  15. Magnetoencephalography with a two-color pump probe atomic magnetometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-07-01

    The authors have detected magnetic fields from the human brain with a compact, fiber-coupled rubidium spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer. Optical pumping is performed on the D1 transition and Faraday rotation is measured on the D2 transition. The beams share an optical axis, with dichroic optics preparing beam polarizations appropriately. A sensitivity of <5 fT/{radical}Hz is achieved. Evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer. Recordings were validated by comparison with those taken by a commercial magnetoencephalography system. The design is amenable to arraying sensors around the head, providing a framework for noncryogenic, whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  16. Lunar physical properties from analysis of magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the lunar interior are discussed with emphasis on (1) bulk, crustal, and local anomalous conductivity; (2) bulk magnetic permeability measurements, iron abundance estimates, and core size limits; (3) lunar ionosphere and atmosphere; and (4) crustal magnetic remanence: scale size measurements and constraints on remanence origin. Appendices treat the phase relationship between the energetic particle flux modulation and current disc penetrations in the Jovian magnetosphere (Pioneer 10 inbound) theories for the origin of lunar magnetism; electrical conductivity anomalies associated with circular lunar maria; electromagnetic properties of the Moon; Mare Serenitatis conductivity anomaly detected by Apollo 16 and Lunokhod 2 magnetometers; and lunar properties from magnetometer data: effects of data errors.

  17. Electromagnetic induction imaging with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deans, Cameron; Marmugi, Luca; Hussain, Sarah; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-03-01

    We report on a compact, tunable, and scalable to large arrays imaging device, based on a radio-frequency optically pumped atomic magnetometer operating in magnetic induction tomography modality. Imaging of conductive objects is performed at room temperature, in an unshielded environment and without background subtraction. Conductivity maps of target objects exhibit not only excellent performance in terms of shape reconstruction but also demonstrate detection of sub-millimetric cracks and penetration of conductive barriers. The results presented here demonstrate the potential of a future generation of imaging instruments, which combine magnetic induction tomography and the unmatched performance of atomic magnetometers.

  18. A high-sensitivity push-pull magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Breschi, E.; Grujić, Z. D.; Knowles, P.; Weis, A.

    2014-01-13

    We describe our approach to atomic magnetometry based on the push-pull optical pumping technique. Cesium vapor is pumped and probed by a resonant laser beam whose circular polarization is modulated synchronously with the spin evolution dynamics induced by a static magnetic field. The magnetometer is operated in a phase-locked loop, and it has an intrinsic sensitivity below 20fT/√(Hz), using a room temperature paraffin-coated cell. We use the magnetometer to monitor magnetic field fluctuations with a sensitivity of 300fT/√(Hz)

  19. Microfabricated optically pumped magnetometer arrays for biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, A. R.; Sheng, D.; Krzyzewski, S. P.; Geller, S.; Knappe, S.

    2017-02-01

    Optically-pumped magnetometers have demonstrated magnetic field measurements as precise as the best superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers. Our group develops miniature alkali atom-based magnetic sensors using microfabrication technology. Our sensors do not require cryogenic cooling, and can be positioned very close to the sample, making these sensors an attractive option for development in the medical community. We will present our latest chip-scale optically-pumped gradiometer developed for array applications to image magnetic fields from the brain noninvasively. These developments should lead to improved spatial resolution, and potentially sensitive measurements in unshielded environments.

  20. Three-axis atomic magnetometer based on spin precession modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. C.; Dong, H. F. Hu, X. Y.; Chen, L.; Gao, Y.

    2015-11-02

    We demonstrate a three-axis atomic magnetometer with one intensity-modulated pump beam and one orthogonal probe beam. The main field component is measured using the resonance of the pumping light, while the transverse field components are measured simultaneously using the optical rotation of the probe beam modulated by the spin precession. It is an all-optical magnetometer without using any modulation field or radio frequency field. Magnetic field sensitivity of 0.8 pT/Hz{sup 1∕2} is achieved under a bias field of 2 μT.

  1. A low-power, high-sensitivity micromachined optical magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhaskar, R.; Knappe, S.; Kitching, J.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate an optical magnetometer based on a microfabricated 87Rb vapor cell in a micromachined silicon sensor head. The alkali atom density in the vapor cell is increased by heating the cell with light brought to the sensor through an optical fiber, and absorbed by colored filters attached to the cell windows. A second fiber-optically coupled beam optically pumps and interrogates the atoms. The magnetometer operates on 140 mW of heating power and achieves a sensitivity below 20 fT/√Hz throughout most of the frequency band from 15 Hz to 100 Hz. Such a sensor can measure magnetic fields from the human heart and brain.

  2. Electromagnetic induction imaging with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Deans, Cameron; Marmugi, Luca Hussain, Sarah; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-03-07

    We report on a compact, tunable, and scalable to large arrays imaging device, based on a radio-frequency optically pumped atomic magnetometer operating in magnetic induction tomography modality. Imaging of conductive objects is performed at room temperature, in an unshielded environment and without background subtraction. Conductivity maps of target objects exhibit not only excellent performance in terms of shape reconstruction but also demonstrate detection of sub-millimetric cracks and penetration of conductive barriers. The results presented here demonstrate the potential of a future generation of imaging instruments, which combine magnetic induction tomography and the unmatched performance of atomic magnetometers.

  3. Long-time temperature drift in a commercial SQUID magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelevich, Y.; Moehlecke, S.

    1995-02-01

    Temperature-calibration measurements using a Pt thermometer placed into a commercial SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design) instead of the sample have shown a long-time (⩾ 8 h) temperature drift occurring in a SQUID body. It is found, that the amplitude of this drift depends on the measuring set temperature. We present also results of the mixed-state magnetic-moment measurements as a function of time and field performed on Bi 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O 10 high- Tc superconductor, which illustrate that the magnetometer temperature drift essentially modifies the true magnetization behavior.

  4. MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Najar, Adel; Nambiar, Siddharth; Grosse, Philippe; Augendre, Emmanuel; Leroux, Charles; de Salvo, Barbara; de Lamaestre, Roch Espiau

    2012-06-18

    We study the electro optical properties of a Metal-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon (MNOS) stack for a use in CMOS compatible plasmonic active devices. We show that the insertion of an ultrathin stoichiometric Si(3)N(4) layer in a MOS stack lead to an increase in the electrical reliability of a copper gate MNOS capacitance from 50 to 95% thanks to a diffusion barrier effect, while preserving the low optical losses brought by the use of copper as the plasmon supporting metal. An experimental investigation is undertaken at a wafer scale using some CMOS standard processes of the LETI foundry. Optical transmission measurments conducted in a MNOS channel waveguide configuration coupled to standard silicon photonics circuitry confirms the very low optical losses (0.39 dB.μm(-1)), in good agreement with predictions using ellipsometric optical constants of Cu.

  5. Monolithic integration of GMR sensors for standard CMOS-IC current sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marcellis, A.; Reig, C.; Cubells-Beltrán, M.-D.; Madrenas, J.; Santos, J. D.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we report on the development of Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors for off-line current measurements in standard integrated circuits. An ASIC has been specifically designed and fabricated in the well-known AMS-0.35 μm CMOS technology, including the electronic circuitry for sensor interfacing. It implements an oscillating circuit performing a voltage-to-frequency conversion. Subsequently, a fully CMOS-compatible low temperature post-process has been applied for depositing the GMR sensing devices in a full-bridge configuration onto the buried current straps. Sensitivity and resolution of these sensors have been investigated achieving experimental results that show a detection sensitivity of about 100 Hz/mA, with a resolution of about 5 μA.

  6. Material compatibility with gaseous fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Harold G , Jr; Douglass, Howard W

    1957-01-01

    Static tests on the compatibility of fluorine with non-metals at atmospheric temperature eliminated many materials from further consideration for use in fluorine systems. Several materials were found compatible at atmospheric pressures. Only Teflon and ruby (aluminum oxide) were compatible at 1500 pounds per square inch gage.

  7. Elastomer Compatible With Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jon W.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial rubber resists ignition on impact and seals at low temperatures. Filled fluoroelastomer called "Katiflex" developed for use in seals of vessels holding cold liquid and gaseous oxygen. New material more compatible with liquid oxygen than polytetrafluoroethylene. Provides dynamic seal at -196 degrees C with only 4 times seal stress required at room temperature. In contrast, conventional rubber seals burn or explode on impact in high-pressure oxygen, and turn hard or even brittle at liquid-oxygen temperatures, do not seal reliably, also see (MFS-28124).

  8. From compatible factorization to near-compatible factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiabat, Raja'i.; Ibrahim, Haslinda

    2014-12-01

    A compatible factorization of order ν, is an ν× ν-1/2 array in which the entries in row i form a near-one-factor with focus i, and the triples associated with the rows contain no repetitions. In this paper, we aim to amend this compatible factorization so that we can display ν(ν-1)/2 - 2ν/3 triples with the minimum repeated triples. Throughout this paper we propose a new type of factorization called near-compatible factorization. First, we present the compatible factorization towards developing a near-compatible factorization. Second, we discuss briefly the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of near-compatible factorization. Then, we exemplify the construction for case ν = 9 as a groundwork in developing near-compatible factorization.

  9. Characteristics and performance of an intensity-modulated optically pumped magnetometer in comparison to the classical M(x) magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Schultze, Volkmar; Ijsselsteijn, Rob; Scholtes, Theo; Woetzel, Stefan; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2012-06-18

    We compare the performance of two methods for the synchronization of the atomic spins in optically pumped magnetometers: intensity modulation of the pump light and the classical M(x) method using B(1) field modulation. Both techniques use the same set-up and measure the resulting features of the light after passing a micro-fabricated Cs cell. The intensity-modulated pumping shows several advantages: better noise-limited magnetic field sensitivity, misalignment between pumping and spin synchronization is excluded, and magnetometer arrays without any cross-talk can be easily set up.

  10. Flexible packaging and integration of CMOS IC with elastomeric microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bowei; Dong, Quan; Korman, Can E.; Li, Zhenyu; Zaghloul, Mona E.

    2013-05-01

    We have demonstrated flexible packaging and integration of CMOS IC chips with PDMS microfluidics. Microfluidic channels are used to deliver both liquid samples and liquid metals to the CMOS die. The liquid metals are used to realize electrical interconnects to the CMOS chip. As a demonstration we integrated a CMOS magnetic sensor die and matched PDMS microfluidic channels in a flexible package. The packaged system is fully functional under 3cm bending radius. The flexible integration of CMOS ICs with microfluidics enables previously unavailable flexible CMOS electronic systems with fluidic manipulation capabilities, which hold great potential for wearable health monitoring, point-of-care diagnostics and environmental sensing.

  11. Spoked-ring microcavities: enabling seamless integration of nanophotonics in unmodified advanced CMOS microelectronics chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Mark T.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Ram, Rajeev J.; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Popovic, Milos A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the spoked-ring microcavity, a nanophotonic building block enabling energy-efficient, active photonics in unmodified, advanced CMOS microelectronics processes. The cavity is realized in the IBM 45nm SOI CMOS process - the same process used to make many commercially available microprocessors including the IBM Power7 and Sony Playstation 3 processors. In advanced SOI CMOS processes, no partial etch steps and no vertical junctions are available, which limits the types of optical cavities that can be used for active nanophotonics. To enable efficient active devices with no process modifications, we designed a novel spoked-ring microcavity which is fully compatible with the constraints of the process. As a modulator, the device leverages the sub-100nm lithography resolution of the process to create radially extending p-n junctions, providing high optical fill factor depletion-mode modulation and thereby eliminating the need for a vertical junction. The device is made entirely in the transistor active layer, low-loss crystalline silicon, which eliminates the need for a partial etch commonly used to create ridge cavities. In this work, we present the full optical and electrical design of the cavity including rigorous mode solver and FDTD simulations to design the Qlimiting electrical contacts and the coupling/excitation. We address the layout of active photonics within the mask set of a standard advanced CMOS process and show that high-performance photonic devices can be seamlessly monolithically integrated alongside electronics on the same chip. The present designs enable monolithically integrated optoelectronic transceivers on a single advanced CMOS chip, without requiring any process changes, enabling the penetration of photonics into the microprocessor.

  12. A deterministic method for estimating attitude from magnetometer data only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natanson, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    A new deterministic algorithm which estimates spacecraft attitude utilizing magnetometer data only is presented. This algorithm exploits the dynamic equations of motion to propagate attitude and thus requires knowledge of both internal and external torques, except in the special case of a spacecraft rotating with constant angular velocity. Preliminary results obtained for the uncontrolled Relay Mirror Experiment satellite utilizing real telemetry data are reported.

  13. A new algorithm for attitude-independent magnetometer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1994-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed for inflight magnetometer bias determination without knowledge of the attitude. This algorithm combines the fast convergence of a heuristic algorithm currently in use with the correct treatment of the statistics and without discarding data. The algorithm performance is examined using simulated data and compared with previous algorithms.

  14. Magnetometer Based on the Opto-Electronic Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B.; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically propose and discuss properties of two schemes of an all-optical self-oscillating magnetometer based on an opto-electronic oscillator stabilized with an atomic vapor cell. Proof of the principle DC magnetic field measurements characterized with 2 x 10(exp -7) G sensitivity and 1 - 1000 mG dynamic range in one of the schemes are demonstrated.

  15. STS-61 crewmembers prepare covers for magnetometers on HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Three members of the STS-61 crew prepare covers to be placed on magnetometers near the top of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Left to right are Richard O. Covey, mission commander; Kenneth D. Bowersox, pilot and Claude Nicollier, mission specialist.

  16. Position-Finding Instrument Built Around a Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    A coarse-positioning instrument is built around a three-axis magnetometer. The magnetometer is of a type that is made of inexpensive hardware and is suitable for use aboard spacecraft orbiting no more than 1,000 km above the surface of the Earth. A data processor programmed with suitable software and equipped with a central processing unit, random-access memory, programmable read-only memory, and interface circuitry for communication with external equipment are added to the basic magnetometer to convert it into a coarse-positioning instrument. Although the instrument was conceived for use aboard spacecraft, it could be useful for navigation on Earth under some circumstances. A major feature of the proposed instrument is an ability to generate a coarse estimate of its position in real time (that is, without start-up delay). Algorithms needed to solve the position equations have been developed. These include algorithms to work around gaps in measurement data that arise from a singularity near the minimum in the magnetic field of the Earth. Some work has been done to develop a prototype of this instrument incorporating a standard three-axis flux-gate magnetometer and a Pentium P-5 (or equivalent) processor with a clock frequency of 120 MHz. Alternatively, the processor could be of the 486 class. A computer model of the instrument has been completed and tested.

  17. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  18. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  19. Design and analysis of miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai

    2017-02-01

    The detection technology of weak magnetic field is widely used in Earth resource survey and geomagnetic navigation. Useful magnetic field information can be obtained by processing and analyzing the measurement data from magnetic sensors. A miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer is proposed in this paper. This miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer with ring-core structure has a dynamic range of the Earth’s field ±65,000 nT, resolution of several nT. It has three independent parts placed in three perpendicular planes for measuring three orthogonal magnetic field components, respectively. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to generate stimulation signal, analog-to-digital (A/D) convertor control signal, and feedback digital-to-analog (D/A) control signal. Design and analysis details are given to improve the dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and linearity. Our prototype was measured and compared with a commercial standard Magson fluxgate magnetometer as a reference. The results show that our miniature fluxgate magnetometer can follow the Magson’s change trend well. When used as a magnetic compass, our prototype only has ± 0.3∘ deviation compared with standard magnetic compass.

  20. Magnetometer Based on the Opto-Electronic Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B.; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically propose and discuss properties of two schemes of an all-optical self-oscillating magnetometer based on an opto-electronic oscillator stabilized with an atomic vapor cell. Proof of the principle DC magnetic field measurements characterized with 2 x 10(exp -7) G sensitivity and 1 - 1000 mG dynamic range in one of the schemes are demonstrated.

  1. Superconducting gradiometer-magnetometer array for magnetotelluric logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vozoff, K.

    1982-09-14

    A subsurface electromagnetic sensing device for use in boreholes and mine shafts which includes a sonde for lowering underground which is supercooled and contains squid gradiometers for measuring vector current density, and magnetometers for measuring vector magnetic fields. When these measured values are combined, information is obtained to construct a conductivity model of the underlying and surrounding subsurface region.

  2. Imaging of brain magnetic fields with an atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Amar Baranga, A.; Hoffman, D. E.; Romalis, M. V.

    2004-05-01

    Measurements of the magnetic fields generated by the brain (Magnetoencephalography or MEG) are widely used for non-invasive studies of the brain. They typically use arrays of hundreds of SQUID detectors operating in liquid Helium. We are developing a new multi-channel atomic magnetometer suitable for mapping of magnetic fields from a human brain. The magnetometer uses high-density K vapor and operates in a very low magnetic field, eliminating the broadening due to spin-exchange collisions. We have previously demonstrated a 7-channel magnetometer with magnetic field sensitivity exceeding the sensitivity of SQUID detectors [1]. Currently we are constructing a 256-channel magnetometer system operating in a human-size magnetic shield. The magnetic fields will be measured on a two-dimensional grid in a cubical cell approximately 7 cm on the side located about 2 cm away from a human head. Numerical simulations indicate that spatial localization of the magnetic field sources within the brain should be improved by more than one order of magnitude compared with traditional SQUID systems. [1] I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred and M. V. Romalis, Nature, 422, 596 (2003).

  3. Real-Time Attitude Independent Three Axis Magnetometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Lai, Kok-Lam; Harman, Richard R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper new real-time approaches for three-axis magnetometer sensor calibration are derived. These approaches rely on a conversion of the magnetometer-body and geomagnetic-reference vectors into an attitude independent observation by using scalar checking. The goal of the full calibration problem involves the determination of the magnetometer bias vector, scale factors and non-orthogonality corrections. Although the actual solution to this full calibration problem involves the minimization of a quartic loss function, the problem can be converted into a quadratic loss function by a centering approximation. This leads to a simple batch linear least squares solution. In this paper we develop alternative real-time algorithms based on both the extended Kalman filter and Unscented filter. With these real-time algorithms, a full magnetometer calibration can now be performed on-orbit during typical spacecraft mission-mode operations. Simulation results indicate that both algorithms provide accurate integer resolution in real time, but the Unscented filter is more robust to large initial condition errors than the extended Kalman filter. The algorithms are also tested using actual data from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE).

  4. Induction magnetometer using a high-Tc superconductor coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, Ichiro

    2010-05-01

    An induction magnetometer consisting of a search coil and an inverting operational amplifier is simple in structure and in signal transferring mechanism from the magnetic field input to the voltage output. Because this magnetometer is based on Faraday's law of induction, it has a lower cutoff frequency r/(2πL), where r is the resistance of the coil and L is its inductance. An attempt has been made to lower the cutoff frequency of the induction magnetometer by using a high-Tc superconductor coil. With a pancake coil (inner diameter ≈18 cm and outer diameter ≈23 cm, 92 turns, 3.23 mH) made of a Bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) superconductor tape of 5 mm in width and 0.23 mm in thickness, the cutoff frequency achieved was 1.7 Hz which is much lower than that obtained with a bulky copper search coil which is typically in the range of 10-20 Hz. In the experiment, an inverting amplifier was made with a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor operational amplifier and was immersed in liquid nitrogen together with a BSCCO high-Tc superconducting coil. Discussion is made on the resolution of the induction magnetometer using a high-Tc superconductor search coil.

  5. Determining Future Epicenters by Triangulation of Magnetometer Pulses in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraud, J. A.; Centa, V. A.; Bleier, T.; Dunson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The direction of arrival of magnetometer pulses have been observed in several cases and in several stations since April 2010 in Tacna, Peru. The azimuth can be obtained from the three-axis magnetometers but only a direction to the possible epicenter could be deduced and not the distance or location was really possible. Three earthquakes, Ml 4.1, 3.8, 4.8, that occurred on April 4, April 12 and June 18, 2013 respectively in Central Peru, were preceded by pulses, observed in magnetometer records between 10 and 18 days before the onset of the earthquakes. This time, three axis magnetometers in two stations situated 55 km apart and about 25-35 km from the future epicenter were ready to receive the pulses simultaneously. The azimuths were computed for both stations and the triangulation of simultaneous pulses rendered the position of possible release points of p-holes during several days, in approximately the two-week period until the onset of the earthquakes. The observations have been post, however the data has been analyzed and plotted in a sequential way, showing the sequence of events from the first pulses until the occurrence of the earthquakes, giving coincidental positions with the possible rupture zone for the seismic events. The animated videos obtained of these events will be shown.

  6. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  7. Beacon Position and Attitude Navigation Aided by a Magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    i · B . (12) When the scale and shift influences of the analog circuitry are considered, the actual measurement of the magnetometer is M = s...1350–1351. 22. Carta , D. G.; Lackowski, D. H. Estimation of Orthogonal Transformations in Strapdown Inertial Systems. IEEE Transactions on

  8. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  9. Magnetic induction measurements using an all-optical {sup 87}Rb atomic magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wickenbrock, Arne; Tricot, François; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2013-12-09

    In this work we propose, and experimentally demonstrate, the use of a self-oscillating all-optical atomic magnetometer for magnetic induction measurements. Given the potential for miniaturization of atomic magnetometers, and their extreme sensitivity, the present work shows that atomic magnetometers may play a key role in the development of instrumentation for magnetic induction tomography.

  10. Fundamental study on identification of CMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Kenji; Saitoh, Naoki

    2003-08-01

    In this study, we discussed individual camera identification of CMOS cameras, because CMOS (complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor) imaging detectors have begun to make their move into the CCD (charge-coupled-device) fields for recent years. It can be identified whether or not the given images have been taken with the given CMOS camera by detecting the imager's intrinsic unique fixed pattern noise (FPN) just like the individual CCD camera identification method proposed by the authors. Both dark and bright pictures taken with the CMOS cameras can be identified by the method, because not only dark current in the photo detectors but also MOS-FET amplifiers incorporated in each pixel may produce pixel-to-pixel nonuniformity in sensitivity. Each pixel in CMOS detectors has the amplifier, which degrades image quality of bright images due to the nonuniformity of the amplifier gain. Two CMOS cameras were evaluated in our experiments. They were WebCamGoPlus (Creative), and EOS D30 (Canon). WebCamGoPlus is a low-priced web camera, whereas EOS D30 is for professional use. Image of a white plate were recorded with the cameras under the plate's luminance condition of 0cd/m2 and 150cd/m2. The recorded images were multiply integrated to reduce the random noise component. From the images of both cameras, characteristic dots patterns were observed. Some bright dots were observed in the dark images, whereas some dark dots were in the bright images. The results show that the camera identification method is also effective for CMOS cameras.

  11. New package for CMOS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  12. Experience of 1-second magnetometer LEMI-025 use in the INTERMAGNET observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marusenkov, Andriy

    2014-05-01

    More than ten years ago INTERMAGNET community decided to commence producing filtered one-second data in addition to traditional one-minute data, hourly, daily, monthly, and annual means. This decision was inspired by the increasing demand of space physics scientists, investigating wave processes in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere of the Earth's. The first requirements for a geomagnetic data acquisition system capable to acquire 1-second data were compiled during the INTERMAGNET survey, conducted by Jeffrey Love in 2005, investigating the needs of the scientific community using geomagnetic time series data. The main consensus of the survey is as follows: geomagnetic data acquired at 1 Hz sampling should have 0.01 nT resolution at least, be filtered by a digital filter and be centred onto the UTC second within 0.01 s. Besides, the one-second magnetometer has to have much lower noise than that of 1-minute one, because the natural geomagnetic signals rapidly decay at the higher frequencies. And finally, the one-second instrument has to provide a sufficient level of immunity to manmade (industrial) noise, especially as produced by power lines. In order to meet these partly conflicting requirements to the frequency response, a new magnetometer functional diagram, which combines analogue and digital filters, was proposed in the Lviv Centre of Institute for Space Research. Basing on this approach the first model LEMI-025 was designed, built, successfully tested and installed in Dourbes geomagnetic observatory (Belgium) since 2008. Later, after considerable modifications, these first commercially available instruments compatible with one-second INTERMAGNET standard were installed in a number of geomagnetic observatories over the Globe. The experience of LEMI-025 operation during the past few years let us evaluate the baseline stability of the new one-second magnetometer (< 5 nT per year), as well as its other important parameters - the noise level (< 10 pT/rtHz @ 0

  13. Compatibility Assessment Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egbert, James Allen

    2016-01-01

    In support of ground system development for the Space Launch System (SLS), engineers are tasked with building immense engineering models of extreme complexity. The various systems require rigorous analysis of pneumatics, hydraulic, cryogenic, and hypergolic systems. There are certain standards that each of these systems must meet, in the form of pressure vessel system (PVS) certification reports. These reports can be hundreds of pages long, and require many hours to compile. Traditionally, each component is analyzed individually, often utilizing hand calculations in the design process. The objective of this opportunity is to perform these analyses in an integrated fashion with the parametric CADCAE environment. This allows for systems to be analyzed on an assembly level in a semi-automated fashion, which greatly improves accuracy and efficiency. To accomplish this, component specific parameters were stored in the Windchill database to individual Creo Parametric models based on spec control drawings. These parameters were then accessed by using the Prime Analysis within Creo Parametric. MathCAD Prime spreadsheets were created that automatically extracted these parameters, performed calculations, and generated reports. The reports described component compatibility based on local conditions such as pressure, temperature, density, and flow rates. The reports also determined component pairing compatibility, such as properly sizing relief valves with regulators. The reports stored the input conditions that were used to determine compatibility to increase traceability of component selection. The desired workflow for using this tool would begin with a Creo Schematics diagram of a PVS system. This schematic would store local conditions and locations of components. The schematic would then populate an assembly within Creo Parametric, using Windchill database parts. These parts would have their attributes already assigned, and the MathCAD spreadsheets could begin running

  14. Wavelength dependence of silicon avalanche photodiode fabricated by CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed Napiah, Zul Atfyi Fauzan; Hishiki, Takuya; Iiyama, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    Avalanche photodiodes fabricated by CMOS process (CMOS-APDs) have features of high avalanche gain below 10 V, wide bandwidth over 5 GHz, and easy integration with electronic circuits. In CMOS-APDs, guard ring structure is introduced for high-speed operation by canceling photo-generated carriers in the substrate at the sacrifice of the responsivity. We describe here wavelength dependence of the responsivity and the bandwidth of the CMOS-APDs with shorted and opened guard ring structure.

  15. Silicon MCM substrates for integration of 3-5 photonic devices and CMOS IC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigal, P.; Carson, R.; Flores, R.; Rose, B.

    The progress made in advanced packaging development at Sandia National Laboratories for integration of 3-5 photonic devices and CMOS IC's on Silicon MCM substrates for planar aid stacked applications will be reported. Studies to characterize precision alignment techniques using solder attach materials compatible with both silicon IC's and 3-5 devices will be discussed. Examples of the use of back-side alignment and IR through-wafer inspection will be shown along with the extra processing steps that are used. Under bump metallurgy considerations are also addressed.

  16. Silicon MCM substrates for integration of III-V photonic devices and CMOS IC`s

    SciTech Connect

    Seigal, P.; Carson, R.; Flores, R.; Rose, B.

    1993-07-01

    The progress made in advanced packaging development at Sandia National Laboratories for integration of III-V photonic devices and CMOS IC`s on Silicon MCM substrates for planar aid stacked applications will be reported. Studies to characterize precision alignment techniques using solder attach materials compatible with both silicon IC`s and III-V devices will be discussed. Examples of the use of back-side alignment and IR through-wafer inspection will be shown along with the extra processing steps that are used. Under bump metallurgy considerations are also addressed.

  17. Compatibility: drugs and parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Talita Muniz Maloni; Ferraresi, Andressa de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Standardization and systematization of data to provide quick access to compatibility of leading injectable drugs used in hospitals for parenteral nutrition. Methods We selected 55 injectable drugs analyzed individually with two types of parenteral nutrition: 2-in-1 and 3-in-1. The following variables were considered: active ingredient, compatibility of drugs with the parenteral nutrition with or without lipids, and maximum drug concentration after dilution for the drugs compatible with parenteral nutrition. Drugs were classified as compatible, incompatible and untested. Results After analysis, relevant information to the product’s compatibility with parental nutrition was summarized in a table. Conclusion Systematization of compatibility data provided quick and easy access, and enabled standardizing pharmacists work. PMID:27074235

  18. Experiments with synchronized sCMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Iain A.; Jermak, Helen; Copperwheat, Chris M.; Smith, Robert J.; Poshyachinda, Saran; Soonthorntham, Boonrucksar

    2016-07-01

    Scientific-CMOS (sCMOS) cameras can combine low noise with high readout speeds and do not suffer the charge multiplication noise that effectively reduces the quantum efficiency of electron multiplying CCDs by a factor 2. As such they have strong potential in fast photometry and polarimetry instrumentation. In this paper we describe the results of laboratory experiments using a pair of commercial off the shelf sCMOS cameras based around a 4 transistor per pixel architecture. In particular using a both stable and a pulsed light sources we evaluate the timing precision that may be obtained when the cameras readouts are synchronized either in software or electronically. We find that software synchronization can introduce an error of 200-msec. With electronic synchronization any error is below the limit ( 50-msec) of our simple measurement technique.

  19. CMOS detectors at Rome "Tor Vergata" University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrilli, F.; Cantarano, S.; Egidi, A.; Giordano, S.

    The new class of CMOS panoramic detectors represents an innovative tool for the experimental astronomy of the forthcoming years. While current charge-coupled device (CCD) technology can produce nearly ideal detectors for astronomical use, the scientific quality CMOS detectors made today have characteristics similar to those of CCD devices but a simpler electronics and a reduced cost. Moreover, the high frame rate capability and the amplification of each pixel - active pixel - in a CMOS detector, allows the implementation of a specific data management. So, it is possible to design cameras with very high dynamic range suitable for the imaging of solar active regions. In fact, in such regions, the onset of a flare can produce problems of saturation in a CCD-based camera. In this work we present the preliminary result obtained with the Tor Vergata C-Cam APS camera used at the University Solar Station.

  20. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J.; Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M. Chiaverini, J.

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  1. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces. PMID:27509529

  2. High-temperature Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the possibility of using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for high temperature electronics are presented. A CMOS test chip was specifically developed as the test bed. This test chip incorporates CMOS transistors that have no gate protection diodes; these diodes are the major cause of leakage in commercial devices.

  3. Low power, CMOS digital autocorrelator spectrometer for spaceborne applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Kumar; Wilson, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A 128-channel digital autocorrelator spectrometer using four 32 channel low power CMOS correlator chips was built and tested. The CMOS correlator chip uses a 2-bit multiplication algorithm and a full-custom CMOS VLSI design to achieve low DC power consumption. The digital autocorrelator spectrometer has a 20 MHz band width, and the total DC power requirement is 6 Watts.

  4. Resistor Extends Life Of Battery In Clocked CMOS Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, George H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of fixed resistor between battery and clocked complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) circuit reduces current drawn from battery. Basic idea to minimize current drawn from battery by operating CMOS circuit at lowest possible current consistent with use of simple, fixed off-the-shelf components. Prolongs lives of batteries in such low-power CMOS circuits as watches and calculators.

  5. End-of-fabrication CMOS process monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Allen, R. A.; Blaes, B. R.; Hannaman, D. J.; Lieneweg, U.; Lin, Y.-S.; Sayah, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    A set of test 'modules' for verifying the quality of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process at the end of the wafer fabrication is documented. By electrical testing of specific structures, over thirty parameters are collected characterizing interconnects, dielectrics, contacts, transistors, and inverters. Each test module contains a specification of its purpose, the layout of the test structure, the test procedures, the data reduction algorithms, and exemplary results obtained from 3-, 2-, or 1.6-micrometer CMOS/bulk processes. The document is intended to establish standard process qualification procedures for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's).

  6. CMOS sensor for face tracking and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginhac, Dominique; Prasetyo, Eri; Paindavoine, Michel

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the main principles of a vision sensor dedicated to the detecting and tracking faces in video sequences. For this purpose, a current mode CMOS active sensor has been designed using an array of pixels that are amplified by using current mirrors of column amplifier. This circuit is simulated using Mentor Graphics software with parameters of a 0.6 μm CMOS process. The circuit design is added with a sequential control unit which purpose is to realise capture of subwindows at any location and any size in the whole image.

  7. A high current gain gate-controlled lateral bipolar junction transistor with 90 nm CMOS technology for future RF SoC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuo-Mao; Fang, Yean-Kuen; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Lee, I. C.; Chiang, Yen-Ting

    2008-08-01

    A CMOS-compatible gate-controlled lateral BJT (GC-LBJT) was prepared with a conventional 90 nm CMOS technology for radio frequency system-on-chip (RF SoC) applications. The emitter injection efficiency and the doping profile in P-well were optimized by properly controlling source, drain, and well implants. Consequently, the GC-LBJT with a gate length of 0.15 μm can achieve a current gain over 2000 and 17/19 GHz for the fT/fmax, respectively, which are 1000%, 200%, and 60% improvements in current gain, fT and fmax, respectively as compared to the LBJT reported previously.

  8. Electro-magnetic compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, H.

    1980-05-01

    The historical background to the growth in problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in UK Military aircraft is reviewed and the present approach for minimizing these problems during development is discussed. The importance of using representative aircraft for final EMC assessments is stressed, and the methods of approach in planning and executing such tests are also outlined. The present equipment qualification procedures are based on assumptions regarding the electromagnetic fields present within the airframe, and the nature of the coupling mechanisms. These cannot be measured with any certainty in representative aircraft. Thus EMC assessments rely on practical tests. Avionics systems critical to flight safety, and systems vital to mission effectiveness require test methods that provide a measure of the safety and performance margins available to account for variations that occur in production and service use. Some proven methods are available, notably for detonator circuits, but in most other areas further work is required. Encouraging process has been made in the use of current probes for the measurement of interfering signals on critical signal lines, in conjunction with complementary test house procedures, as a means for obtaining the safety margins required in flight and engine control systems. Performance margins for mission systems using digital techniques are difficult to determine, and there is a need for improved test techniques. The present EMC qualification tests for equipment in the laboratory do not guarantee freedom from interference when installed, and the results are limited in value for correlating with aircraft tests.

  9. Hansteen's magnetometer and the origin of the magnetic crusade.

    PubMed

    Enebakk, Vidar

    2014-12-01

    In the early nineteenth century, Norwegian mathematician and astronomer Christopher Hansteen (1784-1873) contributed significantly to international collaboration in the study of terrestrial magnetism. In particular, Hansteen was influential in the origin and orientation of the magnetic lobby in Britain, a campaign which resulted in a global network of fixed geomagnetic observatories. In retrospect, however, his contribution was diminished, because his four-pole theory in Untersuchungen der Magnetismus der Erde (1819) was ultimately refuted by Carl Friedrich Gauss in Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus (1839). Yet Hansteen's main contribution was practical rather than theoretical. His major impact was related to the circulation of his instruments and techniques. From the mid-1820s, 'Hansteen's magnetometer' was distributed all over the British Isles and throughout the international scientific community devoted to studying terrestrial magnetism. Thus in the decades before the magnetic crusade, Hansteen had established an international system of observation, standardization and representation based on measurements with his small and portable magnetometers.

  10. Remote detection of rotating machinery with a portable atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Marmugi, Luca; Gori, Lorenzo; Hussain, Sarah; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2017-01-20

    We demonstrate remote detection of rotating machinery, using an atomic magnetometer at room temperature and in an unshielded environment. The system relies on the coupling of the AC magnetic signature of the target with the spin-polarized, precessing atomic vapor of a radio-frequency optical atomic magnetometer. The AC magnetic signatures of rotating equipment or electric motors appear as sidebands in the power spectrum of the atomic sensor, which can be tuned to avoid noisy bands that would otherwise hamper detection. A portable apparatus is implemented and experimentally tested. Proof-of-concept investigations are performed with test targets mimicking possible applications, and the operational conditions for optimum detection are determined. Our instrument provides comparable or better performance than a commercial fluxgate and allows detection of rotating machinery behind a wall. These results demonstrate the potential for ultrasensitive devices for remote industrial and usage monitoring, security, and surveillance.

  11. Space magnetometer based on an anisotropic magnetoresistive hybrid sensor.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Whiteside, B J; Beek, T J; Fox, P; Horbury, T S; Oddy, T M; Archer, M O; Eastwood, J P; Sanz-Hernández, D; Sample, J G; Cupido, E; O'Brien, H; Carr, C M

    2014-12-01

    We report on the design and development of a low resource, dual sensor vector magnetometer for space science applications on very small spacecraft. It is based on a hybrid device combining an orthogonal triad of commercial anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensors with a totem pole H-Bridge drive on a ceramic substrate. The drive enables AMR operation in the more sensitive flipped mode and this is achieved without the need for current spike transmission down a sensor harness. The magnetometer has sensitivity of better than 3 nT in a 0-10 Hz band and a total mass of 104 g. Three instruments have been launched as part of the TRIO-CINEMA space weather mission, inter-calibration against the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model makes it possible to extract physical signals such as field-aligned current deflections of 20-60 nT within an approximately 45,000 nT ambient field.

  12. On-chip magnetometer for characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun Woo; Reddy, Venu; Torati, Sri Ramulu; Hu, Xing Hao; Sandhu, Adarsh; Kim, Cheol Gi

    2015-02-07

    An on-chip magnetometer was fabricated by integrating a planar Hall magnetoresistive (PHR) sensor with microfluidic channels. The measured in-plane field sensitivities of an integrated PHR sensor with NiFe/Cu/IrMn trilayer structure were extremely high at 8.5 μV Oe(-1). The PHR signals were monitored during the oscillation of 35 pL droplets of magnetic nanoparticles, and reversed profiles for the positive and negative z-fields were measured, where magnitudes increased with the applied z-field strength. The measured PHR signals for 35 pL droplets of magnetic nanoparticles versus applied z-fields showed excellent agreement with magnetization curves measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) of 3 μL volume, where a PHR voltage of 1 μV change is equivalent to 0.309 emu cc(-1) of the volume magnetization with a magnetic moment resolution of ~10(-10) emu.

  13. Laser pumped (4)He magnetometer with light shift suppression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zaisheng; Wang, He; Peng, Xiang; Wu, Teng; Guo, Hong

    2016-11-01

    We report a laser-pumped (4)He atomic magnetometer with light shift suppression through the atomic sensor itself. A linearly polarized light is used to optically align the (4)He metastable atoms and we monitor the magneto-optical double resonance (MODR) signals produced by the left- and right-circularly orthogonal components. It is shown that light shift leads to the atomic alignment to orientation conversion effect, and thus, the difference between the two MODR signals. One of these two MODR signals is locked at the Larmor frequency and is used to measure the ambient magnetic field, while the differential signal is, simultaneously, fed back to suppress the light shift. The scheme could be of the advantage to the design of compact magnetometers by reducing the systematic errors due to light shift.

  14. Attitude and Trajectory Determination using Magnetometers and Estimated Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schierman, J. D.; Schmidt, D. K.; Deutschmann, J.

    1997-01-01

    A simultaneous attitude and orbit determination algorithm which uses magnetometer measurements and estimated attitude rates is presented. This is an extension of an algorithm which uses magnetometer and rate gyro measurements. The new algorithm is intended for gyroless spacecraft, or in the case of gyro failures/saturation. Torque control input data is used in forming the rate estimates. Simulation tests of the algorithm are presented. First, tests were performed using the 'true' rate values at each time step. This simulated using accurate gyro measurements. Then, tests were performed estimating the rates. Using estimated rates rather than 'gyro measurements' did not significantly degrade the algorithm's performance if accurate estimates of the initial rates were available. An initial Root-Sum-Square (RSS) position error of 1,400 km was reduced to an average error of approximately 100 km within the first two minutes. The RSS attitude error converged to less than 1.5 degrees within three orbits.

  15. Assessing and Ensuring GOES-R Magnetometer Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenwetter, Jeffrey; Carter, Delano R.; Todirita, Monica; Chu, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R magnetometer accuracy requirement is 1.7 nanoteslas (nT). During quiet times (100 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 3 sigma. During storms (300 nT), accuracy is defined as absolute mean plus 2 sigma. To achieve this, the sensor itself has better than 1 nT accuracy. Because zero offset and scale factor drift over time, it is also necessary to perform annual calibration maneuvers. To predict performance, we used covariance analysis and attempted to corroborate it with simulations. Although not perfect, the two generally agree and show the expected behaviors. With the annual calibration regimen, these predictions suggest that the magnetometers will meet their accuracy requirements.

  16. Proton magnetometers for measurement of the Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrvoic, Ivan

    1990-02-01

    Proton magnetometers are an excellent example of nuclear physics phenomena brought into and exploited in our normal, macroscopic world. Relatively easy and efficient manipulation of nuclear precession phenomena is possible and very often done even without proper understanding of the underlying physics. Overhauser effect is based on the same nuclear physics phenomena, although marginally more complex and again macroscopically engineered to improve on simple proton precession effects in order to achieve much better precession signals from smaller sensors and using less power. Since the polarization of protons (generation of proton precession signal) does not require strong static magnetic fields but uses strong radio frequency magnetic field transparent to protons, measurements can be done concurrently with it. Furthermore, in the ultimate triumph of the method, one can produce a stationary, nondecaying proton precession signal, in vague similarity to alkali vapor magnetometers using simple feedback techniques. The underlying physics of the two methods are examined.

  17. Data Acquisition System for Russian Arctic Magnetometer Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzhura, A.; Troshichev, O. A.; Takahashi, K.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring of magnetic activity in the auroral zone is very essential for space weather problem. The big part of northern auroral zone lies in the Russian sector of Arctica. The Russian auroral zone stations are located far from the proper infrastructure and communications, and getting the data from the stations is complicated and nontrivial task. To resolve this problem a new acquisition system for magnetometers was implemented and developed in last few years, with the magnetic data transmission in real time that is important for many forecasting purpose. The system, based on microprocessor modules, is very reliable in hush climatic conditions. The information from the magnetic sensors transmits to AARI data center by satellite communication system and is presented at AARI web pages. This equipment upgrading of Russian polar magnetometer network is supported by the international RapidMag program.

  18. Combined alternating gradient force magnetometer and susceptometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, M.; Mendizábal Vázquez, I. de; Aroca, C.

    2015-01-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a new system that combines the performances of two different types of magnetic characterization systems, Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometers (AGFM) and susceptometers. The flexibility of our system is demonstrated by its capability to be used as any of them, AGFM or susceptometer, without any modification in the experimental set-up because of the electronics we have developed. Our system has a limit of sensitivity lower than 5 × 10{sup −7} emu. Moreover, its main advantage is demonstrated by the possibility of measuring small quantities of materials under DC or AC magnetic fields that cannot properly be measured with a commercial vibrating sample magnetometers or AGFM.

  19. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-15

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer’s sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10{sup −8} Am{sup 2} was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  20. Specimen size and improved precision with the Molspin spinner magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, G. J.; Almqvist, B. S.; Lucas, K.

    2006-01-01

    Manual reorientation of traditional 10.5 cm 3 paleomagnetic cores between successive spins in Molspin-type magnetometers produces some operator error that may be significantly reduced if smaller core (5.1 cm 3) is used instead. The smaller core may be locked into a cubical holder that ensures its precise angular alignment between successive spins of the magnetometer. This significantly improves precision of the mean vector direction for replicate measurements, or for a suite of specimens, provided that the magnetic mineralogy of the rock is sufficiently homogenous to be meaningfully characterized in the smaller (5.1 cm 3) core. The smaller core is more quickly measured and less expensive to drill.

  1. Performance characteristics of a three-axis superconducting rock magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienert, B. R.

    1977-01-01

    A series of measurements are carried out with the purpose of quantitatively determining the characteristics of a commercial 6.8 cm access superconducting rock magnetometer located in the magnetic properties laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The measurements show that although a considerable improvement in measurement speed and signal to noise ratios can be obtained using such an instrument, a number of precautions are necessary to obtain accuracies comparable with more conventional magnetometers. These include careful calibration of the sensor outputs, optimum positioning of the sample within the detection region and quantitatively establishing the degree of cross-coupling between the detector coils. In order to examine the uniformity of response for each detector, the responses are mapped as a function of position, using a small dipole.

  2. Construction of an AMR magnetometer for car detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fúra, V.; Petrucha, V.; Platil, A.

    2016-03-01

    A new construction of magnetometer with commercially available AMR (anisotropic magnetoresistive) sensors intended for vehicle detection experiments is presented. Initial experiments with simple AMR gradiometer indicated viability of the approach in a real- world setup. For further experiments and acquisition of representative data, a new design of precise multi-channel magnetometer was developed. The design supports two models of commercial AMR sensors: the proven and reliable, but obsolete Honeywell HMC1021-series sensors and newly available Sensitec AFF755B sensors. In the comparison the two types are similar in most achieved parameters, except offset stability in flipped operation regime. Unfortunately, the new AFF755B sensors seem to have perhaps inferior coupling of the flipping (set/reset) coil to the ferromagnetic core that causes insufficient saturation of the AMR material. The issue is being solved by Sensitec, current deliverables of the AFF755B have “product sample” status (September 2015).

  3. Space magnetometer based on an anisotropic magnetoresistive hybrid sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.; Whiteside, B. J.; Beek, T. J.; Fox, P.; Horbury, T. S.; Oddy, T. M.; Archer, M. O.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sanz-Hernández, D.; Sample, J. G.; Cupido, E.; O'Brien, H.; Carr, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the design and development of a low resource, dual sensor vector magnetometer for space science applications on very small spacecraft. It is based on a hybrid device combining an orthogonal triad of commercial anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensors with a totem pole H-Bridge drive on a ceramic substrate. The drive enables AMR operation in the more sensitive flipped mode and this is achieved without the need for current spike transmission down a sensor harness. The magnetometer has sensitivity of better than 3 nT in a 0-10 Hz band and a total mass of 104 g. Three instruments have been launched as part of the TRIO-CINEMA space weather mission, inter-calibration against the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model makes it possible to extract physical signals such as field-aligned current deflections of 20-60 nT within an approximately 45 000 nT ambient field.

  4. Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an inverse-cubed distance law associated with any simple dipole model. Contributions from higher-order multipoles are significant, with the quadrupole and octupole being 24 and 21 percent of the dipole moment, respectively. Implications of the results for the study of trapped particles, planetary radio emission, and planetary interiors are discussed. Major conclusions are that the deviation of the main planetary magnetic field from a simple dipole leads to distortion of the L shells of the charged particles and to warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Amalthea and Io are predicted.

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of magnetometer array data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, A. D.; Baumjohann, W.

    1984-01-01

    A technique is developed for mapping magnetic variation fields in three dimensions using data from an array of magnetometers, based on the theory of optimal linear estimation. The technique is applied to data from the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array. Estimates of the spatial power spectra for the internal and external magnetic variations are derived, which in turn provide estimates of the spatial autocorrelation functions of the three magnetic variation components. Statistical errors involved in mapping the external and internal fields are quantified and displayed over the mapping region. Examples of field mapping and of separation into external and internal components are presented. A comparison between the three-dimensional field separation and a two-dimensional separation from a single chain of stations shows that significant differences can arise in the inferred internal component.

  6. CMOS-Compatible SOI MESFETS for Radiation-Hardened DC-to-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Trevor; Lepkowski, William; Wilk, Seth

    2013-01-01

    A radiation-tolerant transistor switch has been developed that can operate between 196 and +150 C for DC-to-DC power conversion applications. A prototype buck regulator component was demonstrated to be performing well after a total ionizing dose of 300 krad(Si). The prototype buck converters showed good efficiencies at ultra-high switching speeds in the range of 1 to 10 MHz. Such high switching frequency will enable smaller, lighter buck converters to be developed as part of the next project. Switching regulators are widely used in commercial applications including portable consumer electronics.

  7. Pulse area dependent gradual resistance switching characteristics of CMOS compatible SiNx-based resistive memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Hwi; Kim, Sungjun; Bang, Suhyun; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Lee, Dong Keun; Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Jong-Ho; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we investigated the gradual resistance switching phenomenon of our fabricated silicon nitride-based bipolar RRAM. By positive (set) and negative (reset) pulses applied between top electrode (TE) and bottom electrode (BE), the resistance state of the RRAM cell was delicately controlled. We checked the effect of pulse width, rise and fall time and pulse amplitude on the change of the resistance state. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that change of resistance state is determined by applied pulse area above a certain threshold voltage. The memory cell and gradual resistance change characteristics would be used to implement accurate and reliable synaptic devices in low power neuromorphic system.

  8. CMOS-compatible ruggedized high-temperature Lamb wave pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropelnicki, P.; Muckensturm, K.-M.; Mu, X. J.; Randles, A. B.; Cai, H.; Ang, W. C.; Tsai, J. M.; Vogt, H.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel ruggedized high-temperature pressure sensor operating in lateral field exited (LFE) Lamb wave mode. The comb-like structure electrodes on top of aluminum nitride (AlN) were used to generate the wave. A membrane was fabricated on SOI wafer with a 10 µm thick device layer. The sensor chip was mounted on a pressure test package and pressure was applied to the backside of the membrane, with a range of 20-100 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. By using the modified Butterworth-van Dyke model, coupling coefficients and quality factor were extracted. Temperature-dependent Young's modulus of composite structure was determined using resonance frequency and sensor interdigital transducer (IDT) wavelength which is mainly dominated by an AlN layer. Absolute sensor phase noise was measured at resonance to estimate the sensor pressure and temperature sensitivity. This paper demonstrates an AlN-based pressure sensor which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications.

  9. Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bob Y; Wang, Yumin; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2014-09-01

    A color-selective, band-engineered photodetector is demonstrated. The device uses two Schottky junctions to accumulate charge in an energy well, which results in photocurrent gain and a plasmonic aluminum grating for photocurrent enhancement and red-green-blue color selectivity. This work provides a more intelligent way to design imaging sensors by integrating amplifiers and color filters directly into pixels. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High Electron Mobility Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates Using CMOS Compatible Processing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl; Alterovitz, Samuel; Croke, Edward; Ponchak, George

    2004-01-01

    System-on-a-chip (SOC) processes are under intense development for high-speed, high frequency transceiver circuitry. As frequencies, data rates, and circuit complexity increases, the need for substrates that enable high-speed analog operation, low-power digital circuitry, and excellent isolation between devices becomes increasingly critical. SiGe/Si modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFETs) with high carrier mobilities are currently under development to meet the active RF device needs. However, as the substrate normally used is Si, the low-to-modest substrate resistivity causes large losses in the passive elements required for a complete high frequency circuit. These losses are projected to become increasingly troublesome as device frequencies progress to the Ku-band (12 - 18 GHz) and beyond. Sapphire is an excellent substrate for high frequency SOC designs because it supports excellent both active and passive RF device performance, as well as low-power digital operations. We are developing high electron mobility SiGe/Si transistor structures on r-plane sapphire, using either in-situ grown n-MODFET structures or ion-implanted high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures. Advantages of the MODFET structures include high electron mobilities at all temperatures (relative to ion-implanted HEMT structures), with mobility continuously improving to cryogenic temperatures. We have measured electron mobilities over 1,200 and 13,000 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature and 0.25 K, respectively in MODFET structures. The electron carrier densities were 1.6 and 1.33 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm at room and liquid helium temperature, respectively, denoting excellent carrier confinement. Using this technique, we have observed electron mobilities as high as 900 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature at a carrier density of 1.3 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm. The temperature dependence of mobility for both the MODFET and HEMT structures provides insights into the mechanisms that allow for enhanced electron mobility as well as the processes that limit mobility, and will be presented.

  11. CMOS-compatible method for doping of buried vertical polysilicon structures by solid phase diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Turkulets, Yury; Silber, Amir; Ripp, Alexander; Sokolovsky, Mark; Shalish, Ilan

    2016-03-28

    Polysilicon receives attention nowadays as a means to incorporate 3D-structured photonic devices into silicon processes. However, doping of buried layers of a typical 3D structure has been a challenge. We present a method for doping of buried polysilicon layers by solid phase diffusion. Using an underlying silicon oxide layer as a dopant source facilitates diffusion of dopants into the bottom side of the polysilicon layer. The polysilicon is grown on top of the oxide layer, after the latter has been doped by ion implantation. Post-growth heat treatment drives in the dopant from the oxide into the polysilicon. To model the process, we studied the diffusion of the two most common silicon dopants, boron (B) and phosphorus (P), using secondary ion mass spectroscopy profiles. Our results show that shallow concentration profiles can be achieved in a buried polysilicon layer using the proposed technique. We present a quantitative 3D model for the diffusion of B and P in polysilicon, which turns the proposed method into an engineerable technique.

  12. Wavelength conversion of QAM signals in a low loss CMOS compatible spiral waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Morandotti, Roberto; Galili, Michael; Moss, David J.; Oxenløwe, Leif K.

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate wavelength conversion of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals, including 32-GBd quadrature phase-shift keying and 10-GBd 16-QAM, in a 50-cm long high index doped glass spiral waveguide. The quality of the generated idlers for up to 20 nm of wavelength shift is sufficient to achieve a BER performance below the hard decision forward error correction threshold BER performance (<3.8 × 103), with an optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty of less than 0.3 dB compared to the original signal. Our results confirm that this is a promising platform for nonlinear optical signal processing, as a result of both very low linear propagation loss (<0.07 dB/cm) and a large material bandgap, which in turn ensures negligible nonlinear loss at telecom wavelengths.

  13. Feasibility study of optical parametric amplification using CMOS compatible ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazayerifar, Mahmoud; Namdari, Meysam; Hamerly, Ryan; Gray, Dodd; Rogers, Christopher; Jamshidi, Kambiz

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we analytically describe the parametric amplification in ring resonators using silicon and silicon nitride waveguides. Achievable gain and bandwidth of the ring-based amplifiers are studied taking into account the Kerr nonlinearity for silicon nitride and Kerr nonlinearity as well as two photon absorption and free carrier absorption for silicon waveguides. Both telecom and 2-μm wavelengths are investigated in case of silicon. An approach for obtaining the optimum amplifier design without initiating the comb generation has been introduced. It is shown that there is a trade-off between the input pump and amplifier bandwidth. It is estimated that using optimum designs an amplifier with a gain and bandwidth of 10 dB and 10 GHz could be feasible with silicon ring resonators in 2 μm.

  14. Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect modulators for CMOS compatible photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lever, Leon; Ikonić, Zoran; Valavanis, Alex; Kelsall, Robert W.

    2010-02-01

    A simulation technique for modeling optical absorption in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well (MQW) heterostructures is described, based on a combined 6 × 6 k • p hole wave-function a one-band effective mass electron wavefunction calculation. Using this model, we employ strain engineering to target a specific applications-oriented wavelength, namely 1310 nm, and arrive at a design for a MQW structure to modulate light at this wavelength. The modal confinement in a proposed device is then found using finite-element modeling, and we estimate the performance of a proposed waveguide-integrated electroabsorption modulator.

  15. Demonstration of a 10 GHz CMOS-Compatible Integrated Photonic Analog-to-Digital Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-30

    recommendations and conclu sions arc those of the authors and are not necessari ly endorsed by the United States Gove rnment. Optica l pulses In ==:> Off chip...avai lable at 1575 nm and on-chip optica l losses. The second- and th ird- hannollic distonion s (H2 and H3, respectively) lim ited thc raw SFDR

  16. A computer control system for the alternating gradient magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Michael M.

    1989-01-01

    An alternating gradient magnetometer was interfaced to a computer for the automation of data taking. Using a fast Fourier transform analysis system data can be acquired and processed in real time. Data are stored on disk and can be recalled for plotting and further analysis. With the addition of a simple liquid nitrogen cryostat, magnetization measurements can be performed in the range from 300 to 77 K. Results are reported on three different types of piezoelectric transducers.

  17. An Automated Home Made Low Cost Vibrating Sample Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Nath, T. K.

    2011-07-01

    The design and operation of a homemade low cost vibrating sample magnetometer is described here. The sensitivity of this instrument is better than 10-2 emu and found to be very efficient for the measurement of magnetization of most of the ferromagnetic and other magnetic materials as a function of temperature down to 77 K and magnetic field upto 800 Oe. Both M(H) and M(T) data acquisition are fully automated employing computer and Labview software.

  18. Using Redundancy To Reduce Errors in Magnetometer Readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail

    2004-01-01

    A method of reducing errors in noisy magnetic-field measurements involves exploitation of redundancy in the readings of multiple magnetometers in a cluster. By "redundancy"is meant that the readings are not entirely independent of each other because the relationships among the magnetic-field components that one seeks to measure are governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism as expressed by Maxwell's equations. Assuming that the magnetometers are located outside a magnetic material, that the magnetic field is steady or quasi-steady, and that there are no electric currents flowing in or near the magnetometers, the applicable Maxwell 's equations are delta x B = 0 and delta(raised dot) B = 0, where B is the magnetic-flux-density vector. By suitable algebraic manipulation, these equations can be shown to impose three independent constraints on the values of the components of B at the various magnetometer positions. In general, the problem of reducing the errors in noisy measurements is one of finding a set of corrected values that minimize an error function. In the present method, the error function is formulated as (1) the sum of squares of the differences between the corrected and noisy measurement values plus (2) a sum of three terms, each comprising the product of a Lagrange multiplier and one of the three constraints. The partial derivatives of the error function with respect to the corrected magnetic-field component values and the Lagrange multipliers are set equal to zero, leading to a set of equations that can be put into matrix.vector form. The matrix can be inverted to solve for a vector that comprises the corrected magnetic-field component values and the Lagrange multipliers.

  19. A computer control system for the alternating gradient magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Michael M.

    1989-12-01

    An alternating gradient magnetometer was interfaced to a computer for the automation of data taking. Using a fast Fourier transform analysis system data can be acquired and processed in real time. Data are stored on disk and can be recalled for plotting and further analysis. With the addition of a simple liquid nitrogen cryostat, magnetization measurements can be performed in the range from 300 to 77 K. Results are reported on three different types of piezoelectric transducers.

  20. Search for plant biomagnetism with a sensitive atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, Eric; Acosta, Victor; Baddour, Nicolas; Higbie, James; Lester, Brian; Licht, Paul; Patton, Brian; Prouty, Mark; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-04-01

    We report what we believe is the first experimental limit placed on plant biomagnetism. Measurements with a sensitive atomic magnetometer were performed on the Titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum) inflorescence, known for its fast biochemical processes while blooming. We find that the magnetic field from these processes, projected along the Earth's magnetic field, and measured at the surface of the plant, is ≲ 0.6 μG.

  1. Search for plant biomagnetism with a sensitive atomic magnetometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Mimosa pudica ) or the Sacred Lotus (Nelumbo nuci- fera). A smaller plant size would facilitate the complete cov- erage of the thermogenic zones...minute intervals. This would give a sensitivity better than 100 nG per point using the atomic magnetometer (described in Sec. III), which is more than...bidirectional ionic currents in the model may instead be dis- tributed in a more complex geometry than the two parallel wire model used in this

  2. Theory of double resonance magnetometers based on atomic alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, Antoine; Bison, Georg; Pazgalev, Anatoly S.

    2006-09-15

    We present a theoretical study of the spectra produced by optical-radio-frequency double resonance devices, in which resonant linearly polarized light is used in the optical pumping and detection processes. We extend previous work by presenting algebraic results which are valid for atomic states with arbitrary angular momenta, arbitrary rf intensities, and arbitrary geometries. The only restriction made is the assumption of low light intensity. The results are discussed in view of their use in optical magnetometers.

  3. Analog CMOS Nonlinear Cells and Their Applications in VLSI Signal and Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachab, Nabil Ibrahim

    1990-01-01

    The development of reconfigurable analog CMOS building blocks and their applications in analog VLSI is discussed and introduced in much the same way a logic gate is used in digital VLSI. They simultaneously achieve four -quadrant multiplication and division. These applications include multiplication, signal squaring, division, signal inversion, amplitude modulation. New all MOS implementations of the Hopfield like neural networks are developed by using the new cells. In addition new and novel techniques for sensor linearization and for MOSFET-C programmable-Q and omega_{n} filters are introduced. The new designs are simple, versatile, programmable and make effective use of analog CAD tools. Moreover, they are easily extendable to other technologies such as GaAs and BiCMOS. The objective of these designs is to achieve reduction in Silicon area and power consumption and reduce the interconnections between cells. It is also sought to provide a robust design that is CAD-compatible and make effective use of the standard cell library approach. This will offer more versatility and flexibility for analog signal processing systems and neural networks. Some of these new cells and a 3-neuron neural system are fabricated in a 2mum CMOS process. Experimental results of these circuits verify the validity of this new design approach.

  4. Improving manufacturability of an rf graded channel CMOS process for wireless applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamey, Daniel J.; Mackie, Troy; Liang, Han-Bin; Ma, Jun; Robert, Georges; Jasper, Craig; Ngo, David; Papworth, Ken; Cheng, Sunny; Wilcock, Christy; Gurrola, Rosemary; Spears, Edward; Yeung, Bruce

    1998-09-01

    Motorola's Graded Channel CMOS (GCMOS) provides a low cost and highly integrated solution for mixed-mode and RF applications. The GCMOS transistor has demonstrated performance advantages over standard CMOS processes with the same physical gate length. The graded channel, fabricated using lateral diffusion, provides a deep submicron Leff even with a gate length of 0.6 micrometer. The technology is constructed using a process that is fully compatible with standard CMOS manufacturing. However, in order to assure adequate threshold control, the lateral diffusions must be well-behaved. This means that both the channel implant and the source/drain implant must be truly self-aligned, requiring good control of the implants as well as the gate electrode profile. For aggressively designed GCMOS devices, small deviations of the implant beam from normal incidence can lead to unacceptable shifts in threshold. The sources of such error, and current industry standard machine tolerances for each, are discussed. Strategies for ensuring adequate control include a regimen of in-line process monitors, approximate error cancellation of the channel and source/drain implants, and the use of quadrature implants. By using these strategies a manufacturable process has been achieved.

  5. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and DigitalFluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, LosAngeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since thesuccessful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the groundcalibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluatetwelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers usingalgorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF,UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tonesand harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA.IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolutegains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS andgive examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  6. Results of the Magnetometer Navigation (MAGNAV) Inflight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Harman, Rick; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    2004-01-01

    The Magnetometer Navigation (MAGNAV) algorithm is currently running as a flight experiment as part of the Wide Field Infrarad Explorer Post-Science Engineer- ing Testbed. Initialization of MAGNAV occured on September 4, 2004. MAGNAV is designed to autonomously estimate the spacecraft orbit, attitude, and rate using magnetometer and sun sensor data. Since the earth s magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed magnetic field and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometer throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors are used to estimate both trajec- tory and attitude. In addition, the time rate of change of the magnetic field vector is used to estimate the spacecraft rotation rate. The estimation of the attitude and tra- jectory is augmented with the rate estimation into an Extended Kalman filter blended with a pseudc-linear Kalman filter. Sun sensor data is also used to improve the accu- racy and observability of the attitude and rate estimates. This test serves to validate MAGNAV as a single low cost navigation system which utilizes reliable, flight qualified sensors. MAGNAV is intended as a backup algorithm, an initialization algorithm, or possibly a prime navigation algorithm for a mission with coarse constraints.

  7. GPS/Magnetometer Based Satellite Navigation and Attitude Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack; Harman, Rick; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In recent years algorithms were developed for orbit, attitude and angular-rate determination of Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites. Those algorithms rely on measurements of magnetometers, which are standard, relatively inexpensive, sensors that are normally installed on every LEO satellite. Although magnetometers alone are sufficient for obtaining the desired information, the convergence of the algorithms to the correct values of the satellite orbital parameters, position, attitude and angular velocity is very slow. The addition of sun sensors reduces the convergence time considerably. However, for many LEO satellites the sun data is not available during portions of the orbit when the spacecraft (SC) is in the earth shadow. It is here where the GPS space vehicles (SV) can provide valuable support. This is clearly demonstrated in the present paper. Although GPS measurements alone can be used to obtain SC position, velocity, attitude and angular-rate, the use of magnetometers improve the results due to the synergistic effect of sensor fusion. Moreover, it is possible to obtain these results with less than three SVs. In this paper we introduce an estimation algorithm, which is a combination of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and a Pseudo Linear Kalman Filter (PSELIKA).

  8. A YBCO RF-SQUID magnetometer and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luwei, Zhou; Jingwu, Qiu; Xienfeng, Zhang; Zhiming, Tank; Yongjia, Qian

    1990-01-01

    An applicable RF-superconducting quantum interference detector (SQUID) magnetometer was made using a bulk sintered yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO). The temperature range of the magnetometer is 77 to 300 K and the field range 0 to 0.1T. At 77 K, the equivalent flux noise of the SQUID is 5 x 10 to minus 4 power theta sub o/square root of Hz at the frequency range of 20 to 200 Hz. The experiments show that the SQUID noise at low-frequency end is mainly from 1/f noise. A coil test shows that the magnetic moment sensitivity delta m is 10 to the minus 6th power emu. The RF-SQUID is shielded in a YBCO cylinder with a shielding ability B sub in/B sub ex of about 10 to the minus 6th power when external dc magnetic field is about a few Oe. The magnetometer is successfully used in characterizing superconducting thin films.

  9. Results of the Magnetometer Navigation (MAGNAV)lnflight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Lambertson, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The Magnetometer Navigation (MAGNAV) algorithm is currently running as a flight experiment as part of the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) Post-Science Engineering Testbed. Initialization of MAGNAV occurred on September 4, 2003. MAGNAV is designed to autonomously estimate the spacecraft orbit, attitude, and rate using magnetometer and sun sensor data. Since the Earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed magnetic field and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometer throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors are used to estimate both trajectory and attitude. In addition, the time rate of change of the magnetic field vector is used to estimate the spacecraft rotation rate. The estimation of the attitude and trajectory is augmented with the rate estimation into an Extended Kalman filter blended with a pseudo-linear Kalman filter. Sun sensor data is also used to improve the accuracy and observability of the attitude and rate estimates. This test serves to validate MAGNAV as a single low cost navigation system which utilizes reliable, flight qualified sensors. MAGNAV is intended as a backup algorithm, an initialization algorithm, or possibly a prime navigation algorithm for a mission with coarse requirements. Results from the first six months of operation are presented.

  10. Swarm Optimization-Based Magnetometer Calibration for Personal Handheld Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdelrahman; Siddharth, Siddharth; Syed, Zainab; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2012-01-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a processor that generates position and orientation solutions by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the user heading based on Earth's magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are usually corrupted by several errors, including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometers. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can help in the development of Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with inertial sensors and GPS/Wi-Fi for indoor navigation and Location Based Services (LBS) applications.

  11. Through-barrier electromagnetic imaging with an atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Deans, Cameron; Marmugi, Luca; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2017-07-24

    We demonstrate the penetration of thick metallic and ferromagnetic barriers for imaging of conductive targets underneath. Our system is based on an (85)Rb radio-frequency atomic magnetometer operating in electromagnetic induction imaging modality in an unshielded environment. Detrimental effects, including unpredictable magnetic signatures from ferromagnetic screens and variations in the magnetic background, are automatically compensated by active compensation coils controlled by servo loops. We exploit the tunability and low-frequency sensitivity of the atomic magnetometer to directly image multiple conductive targets concealed by a 2.5 mm ferromagnetic steel shield and/or a 2.0 mm aluminium shield, in a single scan. The performance of the atomic magnetometer allows imaging without any prior knowledge of the barriers or the targets, and without the need of background subtraction. A dedicated edge detection algorithm allows automatic estimation of the targets' size within 3.3 mm and of their position within 2.4 mm. Our results prove the feasibility of a compact, sensitive and automated sensing platform for imaging of concealed objects in a range of applications, from security screening to search and rescue.

  12. A method of determining attitude from magnetometer data only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natanson, G. A.; Mclaughlin, S. F.; Nicklas, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a new algorithm to determine attitude using only magnetometer data under the following conditions: (1) internal torques are known and (2) external torques are negligible. Torque-free rotation of a spacecraft in thruster firing acquisition phase and its magnetic despin in the B-dot mode give typical examples of such situations. A simple analytical formula has been derived in the limiting case of a spacecraft rotating with constant angular velocity. The formula has been tested using low-frequency telemetry data for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) under normal conditions. Observed small oscillation of body-fixed components of the angular velocity vector near their mean values result in relatively minor errors of approximately 5 degrees. More significant errors come from processing digital magnetometer data. Higher resolution of digitized magnetometer measurements would significantly improve the accuracy of this deterministic scheme. Tests of the general version of the developed algorithm for a free-rotating spacecraft and for the B-dot mode are in progress.

  13. AC Circuit Measurements with a Differential Hall Element Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Matthew W.; Nicks, B. Scott; Quintero, Pedro A.; Meisel, Mark W.

    2013-03-01

    As the biomedical field grows, there is an increasing need to quickly and efficiently characterize more samples at room temperature. An automated magnetometer was commissioned to do these room temperature magnetic characterizations. This magnetometer, which is inspired by a Differential Hall Element Magnetometer,[2] uses two commercially available Hall elements wired in series. One Hall element measures the external magnetic field of a 9 T superconducting magnet and the other measures the same external field plus the field due to the magnetization of the sample that sits on top of the Hall element. The difference between these two Hall elements is taken while a linear stepper motor sweeps through the external magnetic field. The linear motor and data acquisition are controlled by a LabVIEW program. Recently, the system was outfitted for AC circuit measurements and these data will be compared to DC circuit data. In addition, the lowest signal to noise ratio will be found in order to deduce the smallest amount of sample needed to register an accurate coercive field. Supported by the NSF via NHMFL REU (DMR-0654118), a single investigator grant (DMR-1202033 to MWM) and by the UF Undergraduate Scholars Program.

  14. Particle swarm optimization algorithm based low cost magnetometer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. S.; Siddharth, S., Syed, Z., El-Sheimy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a microprocessor provide inertial digital data from which position and orientation is obtained by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the absolute user heading based on Earth's magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are corrupted by several errors including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometer. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. The estimated bias and scale factor errors from the proposed algorithm improve the heading accuracy and the results are also statistically significant. Also, it can help in the development of the Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with the INS and GPS/Wi-Fi especially in the indoor environments

  15. Polarization enhanced Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance with an atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Michael W.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Espy, Michelle A.; Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) has been demonstrated for the detection of 14-N in explosive compounds. Application of a material specific radio-frequency (RF) pulse excites a response typically detected with a wire- wound antenna. NQR is non-contact and material specific, however fields produced by NQR are typically very weak, making demonstration of practical utility challenging. For certain materials, the NQR signal can be increased by transferring polarization from hydrogen nuclei to nitrogen nuclei using external magnetic fields. This polarization enhancement (PE) can enhance the NQR signal by an order of magnitude or more. Atomic magnetometers (AM) have been shown to improve detection sensitivity beyond a conventional antenna by a similar amount. AM sensors are immune to piezo-electric effects that hamper conventional NQR, and can be combined to form a gradiometer for effective RF noise cancellation. In principle, combining polarization enhancement with atomic magnetometer detection should yield improvement in signal-to-noise ratio that is the product of the two methods, 100-fold or more over conventional NQR. However both methods are even more exotic than traditional NQR, and have never been combined due to challenges in operating a large magnetic field and ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensor in proximity. Here we present NQR with and without PE with an atomic magnetometer, demonstrating signal enhancement greater than 20-fold for ammonium nitrate. We also demonstrate PE for PETN using a traditional coil for detection with an enhancement factor of 10. Experimental methods and future applications are discussed.

  16. Noise characterization for the FID signal from proton precession magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Dong, H.; Liu, Z.; Ge, J.; Bai, B.; Zhang, C.

    2017-07-01

    Proton precession magnetometer is a high-precision device for weak magnetostatic field measurement. The measurement accuracy depends on the frequency measurement of free induction decay (FID) signal, while the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is an important factor affecting the results. Many signal processing methods have been proposed to improve the SNR of FID signal. However, the theoretical analysis of different types of noises for FID signal has not be conducted yet. In addition, the relationship between the frequency measurement accuracy and SNR has not been explicitly established and quantified. This paper first proposes a background noise model based on the extracted features from the FID signal. With this model, background noises, such as white noise, narrow-band noise, and phase noise etc., can be calculated and estimated. Secondly, the relationship between the frequency measurement accuracy and SNR is identified. We also built a prototype proton magnetometer for field tests and validation purpose. Experiments were conducted to investigate this relation through simulation. Different values for frequency accuracy were obtained with different SNRs from the acquired FID signals from field tests. The consistence between the measurement and computational results is observed. When SNR is larger than 30 dB, the absolute frequency accuracy becomes constant which is about 0.04 Hz. With the stability taken into account, the accuracy can be better even when the SNR is higher than 30 dB. This study provides a reference to optimize the design of proton precession magnetometer and the frequency calculation for FID signal.

  17. Compatibility Conditions of Structural Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    The theory of elasticity has camouflaged a deficiency in the compatibility formulation since 1860. In structures the ad hoc compatibility conditions through virtual "cuts" and closing "gaps" are not parallel to the strain formulation in elasticity. This deficiency in the compatibility conditions has prevented the development of a direct stress determination method in structures and in elasticity. We have addressed this deficiency and attempted to unify the theory of compatibility. This work has led to the development of the integrated force method for structures and the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation for elasticity. The improved accuracy observed in the solution of numerical examples by the integrated force method can be attributed to the compliance of the compatibility conditions. Using the compatibility conditions allows mapping of variables and facile movement among different structural analysis formulations. This paper reviews and illustrates the requirement of compatibility in structures and in elasticity. It also describes the generation of the conditions and quantifies the benefits of their use. The traditional analysis methods and available solutions (which have been obtained bypassing the missed conditions) should be verified for compliance of the compatibility conditions.

  18. Exploring Interpersonal Compatibility in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyton, Joann

    This study investigated William Schutz's three-dimensional theory of interpersonal behavior and compatibility (FIRO) to determine its validity as a group measure of compatibility. Data were collected from 248 students enrolled in a multi-section course in small group communications at a large midwestern university. Subjects self-selected…

  19. MEMS compatible illumination and imaging micro-optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer, A.; Dannberg, P.; Duparré, J.; Höfer, B.; Schreiber, P.; Scholles, M.

    2007-01-01

    The development of new MOEMS demands for cooperation between researchers in micromechanics, optoelectronics and microoptics at a very early state. Additionally, microoptical technologies being compatible with structured silicon have to be developed. The microoptical technologies used for two silicon based microsystems are described in the paper. First, a very small scanning laser projector with a volume of less than 2 cm 3, which operates with a directly modulated lasers collimated with a microlens, is shown. The laser radiation illuminates a 2D-MEMS scanning mirror. The optical design is optimized for high resolution (VGA). Thermomechanical stability is realized by design and using a structured ceramics motherboard. Secondly, an ultrathin CMOS-camera having an insect inspired imaging system has been realized. It is the first experimental realization of an artificial compound eye. Micro-optical design principles and technology is used. The overall thickness of the imaging system is only 320 μm, the diagonal field of view is 21°, and the f-number is 2.6. The monolithic device consists of an UV-replicated microlens array upon a thin silica substrate with a pinhole array in a metal layer on the back side. The pitch of the pinholes differs from that of the lens array to provide individual viewing angle for each channel. The imaging chip is directly glued to a CMOS sensor with adapted pitch. The whole camera is less than 1mm thick. New packaging methods for these systems are under development.

  20. Materials and processing approaches for foundry-compatible transient electronics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jan-Kai; Fang, Hui; Bower, Christopher A; Song, Enming; Yu, Xinge; Rogers, John A

    2017-07-11

    Foundry-based routes to transient silicon electronic devices have the potential to serve as the manufacturing basis for "green" electronic devices, biodegradable implants, hardware secure data storage systems, and unrecoverable remote devices. This article introduces materials and processing approaches that enable state-of-the-art silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundries to be leveraged for high-performance, water-soluble forms of electronics. The key elements are (i) collections of biodegradable electronic materials (e.g., silicon, tungsten, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide) and device architectures that are compatible with manufacturing procedures currently used in the integrated circuit industry, (ii) release schemes and transfer printing methods for integration of multiple ultrathin components formed in this way onto biodegradable polymer substrates, and (iii) planarization and metallization techniques to yield interconnected and fully functional systems. Various CMOS devices and circuit elements created in this fashion and detailed measurements of their electrical characteristics highlight the capabilities. Accelerated dissolution studies in aqueous environments reveal the chemical kinetics associated with the underlying transient behaviors. The results demonstrate the technical feasibility for using foundry-based routes to sophisticated forms of transient electronic devices, with functional capabilities and cost structures that could support diverse applications in the biomedical, military, industrial, and consumer industries.

  1. Materials and processing approaches for foundry-compatible transient electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jan-Kai; Fang, Hui; Bower, Christopher A.; Song, Enming; Yu, Xinge; Rogers, John A.

    2017-07-01

    Foundry-based routes to transient silicon electronic devices have the potential to serve as the manufacturing basis for “green” electronic devices, biodegradable implants, hardware secure data storage systems, and unrecoverable remote devices. This article introduces materials and processing approaches that enable state-of-the-art silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundries to be leveraged for high-performance, water-soluble forms of electronics. The key elements are (i) collections of biodegradable electronic materials (e.g., silicon, tungsten, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide) and device architectures that are compatible with manufacturing procedures currently used in the integrated circuit industry, (ii) release schemes and transfer printing methods for integration of multiple ultrathin components formed in this way onto biodegradable polymer substrates, and (iii) planarization and metallization techniques to yield interconnected and fully functional systems. Various CMOS devices and circuit elements created in this fashion and detailed measurements of their electrical characteristics highlight the capabilities. Accelerated dissolution studies in aqueous environments reveal the chemical kinetics associated with the underlying transient behaviors. The results demonstrate the technical feasibility for using foundry-based routes to sophisticated forms of transient electronic devices, with functional capabilities and cost structures that could support diverse applications in the biomedical, military, industrial, and consumer industries.

  2. Materials and processing approaches for foundry-compatible transient electronics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jan-Kai; Fang, Hui; Bower, Christopher A.; Song, Enming; Yu, Xinge; Rogers, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Foundry-based routes to transient silicon electronic devices have the potential to serve as the manufacturing basis for “green” electronic devices, biodegradable implants, hardware secure data storage systems, and unrecoverable remote devices. This article introduces materials and processing approaches that enable state-of-the-art silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundries to be leveraged for high-performance, water-soluble forms of electronics. The key elements are (i) collections of biodegradable electronic materials (e.g., silicon, tungsten, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide) and device architectures that are compatible with manufacturing procedures currently used in the integrated circuit industry, (ii) release schemes and transfer printing methods for integration of multiple ultrathin components formed in this way onto biodegradable polymer substrates, and (iii) planarization and metallization techniques to yield interconnected and fully functional systems. Various CMOS devices and circuit elements created in this fashion and detailed measurements of their electrical characteristics highlight the capabilities. Accelerated dissolution studies in aqueous environments reveal the chemical kinetics associated with the underlying transient behaviors. The results demonstrate the technical feasibility for using foundry-based routes to sophisticated forms of transient electronic devices, with functional capabilities and cost structures that could support diverse applications in the biomedical, military, industrial, and consumer industries. PMID:28652373

  3. Integrated Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Temperature Sensor for CMOS Photonics.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sandro; Pangallo, Giovanni; Della Corte, Francesco Giuseppe

    2016-01-06

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shows interesting optoelectronic and technological properties that make it suitable for the fabrication of passive and active micro-photonic devices, compatible moreover with standard microelectronic devices on a microchip. A temperature sensor based on a hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diode integrated in an optical waveguide for silicon photonics applications is presented here. The linear dependence of the voltage drop across the forward-biased diode on temperature, in a range from 30 °C up to 170 °C, has been used for thermal sensing. A high sensitivity of 11.9 mV/°C in the bias current range of 34-40 nA has been measured. The proposed device is particularly suitable for the continuous temperature monitoring of CMOS-compatible photonic integrated circuits, where the behavior of the on-chip active and passive devices are strongly dependent on their operating temperature.

  4. CMOS and sCMOS imaging performance comparison by digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Moreno, Jorge Mauricio; De la Torre Ibarra, Manuel H.; del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Perez Lopez, Carlos; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

    2016-12-01

    We use a digital holographic interferometric setup to assess, as a proof of concept, two state-of-the-art sensors (CMOS and sCMOS cameras) that are widely used in nondestructive testing (NDT). This interferometric study is intended to evaluate the image quality recorded by any camera used in NDT. The assessing relies on the quantification of the optical phase information recovered by the cameras used for this study. For this, we calculate the signal-to-noise ratio, correlation coefficient, and quality index (Q-index) as main figures-of-merit. As far as we know, the Q-index has not been used for evaluation of the optical phase coming from image holograms. The CMOS and sCMOS sensors used record the same deformation event under the same experimental conditions. The experiment involves the inspection of a large sample (>1 m2 of area) which implies low illumination conditions for the imaging sensors. The retrieved CMOS optical phase shows artifacts that are not observed in the sCMOS. An analysis of these two groups of interferometric images is presented and discussed. The methodology set forth here can be applied to evaluate other sensors such as CCDs and EM-CCDs.

  5. Design and realization of CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Xiao, Zexin

    2008-02-01

    A project was presented that instrumental design of an economical CMOS microscope image sensor. A high performance, low price, black-white camera chip OV5116P was used as the core of the sensor circuit; Designing and realizing peripheral control circuit of sensor; Through the control on dial switch to realize different functions of the sensor chip in the system. For example: auto brightness level descending function on or off; gamma correction function on or off; auto and manual backlight compensation mode conversion and so on. The optical interface of sensor is designed for commercialization and standardization. The images of sample were respectively gathered with CCD and CMOS. Result of the experiment indicates that both performances were identical in several aspects as follows: image definition, contrast control, heating degree and the function can be adjusted according to the demand of user etc. The imperfection was that the CMOS with smaller field and higher noise than CCD; nevertheless, the maximal advantage of choosing the CMOS chip is its low cost. And its imaging quality conformed to requirement of the economical microscope image sensor.

  6. A Hybrid CMOS-Memristor Neuromorphic Synapse.

    PubMed

    Azghadi, Mostafa Rahimi; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Abbott, Derek; Leong, Philip H W

    2017-04-01

    Although data processing technology continues to advance at an astonishing rate, computers with brain-like processing capabilities still elude us. It is envisioned that such computers may be achieved by the fusion of neuroscience and nano-electronics to realize a brain-inspired platform. This paper proposes a high-performance nano-scale Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)-memristive circuit, which mimics a number of essential learning properties of biological synapses. The proposed synaptic circuit that is composed of memristors and CMOS transistors, alters its memristance in response to timing differences among its pre- and post-synaptic action potentials, giving rise to a family of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP). The presented design advances preceding memristive synapse designs with regards to the ability to replicate essential behaviours characterised in a number of electrophysiological experiments performed in the animal brain, which involve higher order spike interactions. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid device CMOS area is estimated as [Formula: see text] in a [Formula: see text] process-this represents a factor of ten reduction in area with respect to prior CMOS art. The new design is integrated with silicon neurons in a crossbar array structure amenable to large-scale neuromorphic architectures and may pave the way for future neuromorphic systems with spike timing-dependent learning features. These systems are emerging for deployment in various applications ranging from basic neuroscience research, to pattern recognition, to Brain-Machine-Interfaces.

  7. Low energy CMOS for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Alkalaj, Leon

    1992-01-01

    The current focus of NASA's space flight programs reflects a new thrust towards smaller, less costly, and more frequent space missions, when compared to missions such as Galileo, Magellan, or Cassini. Recently, the concept of a microspacecraft was proposed. In this concept, a small, compact spacecraft that weighs tens of kilograms performs focused scientific objectives such as imaging. Similarly, a Mars Lander micro-rover project is under study that will allow miniature robots weighing less than seven kilograms to explore the Martian surface. To bring the microspacecraft and microrover ideas to fruition, one will have to leverage compact 3D multi-chip module-based multiprocessors (MCM) technologies. Low energy CMOS will become increasingly important because of the thermodynamic considerations in cooling compact 3D MCM implementations and also from considerations of the power budget for space applications. In this paper, we show how the operating voltage is related to the threshold voltage of the CMOS transistors for accomplishing a task in VLSI with minimal energy. We also derive expressions for the noise margins at the optimal operating point. We then look at a low voltage CMOS (LVCMOS) technology developed at Stanford University which improves the power consumption over conventional CMOS by a couple of orders of magnitude and consider the suitability of the technology for space applications by characterizing its SEU immunity.

  8. Low power SEU immune CMOS memory circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, M. N.; Whitaker, Sterling

    1992-01-01

    The authors report a design improvement for CMOS static memory circuits hardened against single event upset (SEU) using a recently proposed logic/circuit design technique. This improvement drastically reduces static power consumption, reduces the number of transistors required in a D flip-flop design, and eliminates the possibility of capturing an upset state in the slave section during a clock transition.

  9. SEU hardening of CMOS memory circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Canaris, J.; Liu, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to harden CMOS memory circuits against Single Event Upset (SEU) in the space environment. A RAM cell and Flip Flop design are presented to demonstrate the method. The Flip Flop was used in the control circuitry for a Reed Solomon encoder designed for the Space Station.

  10. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  11. Radiation Tolerance of 65nm CMOS Transistors

    DOE PAGES

    Krohn, M.; Bentele, B.; Christian, D. C.; ...

    2015-12-11

    We report on the effects of ionizing radiation on 65 nm CMOS transistors held at approximately -20°C during irradiation. The pattern of damage observed after a total dose of 1 Grad is similar to damage reported in room temperature exposures, but we observe less damage than was observed at room temperature.

  12. CMOS preamplifiers for detectors large and small

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1997-12-31

    We describe four CMOS preamplifiers developed for multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) and silicon drift detectors (SDD) covering a capacitance range from 150 pF to 0.15 pF. Circuit techniques to optimize noise performance, particularly in the low-capacitance regime, are discussed.

  13. Low-Power SOI CMOS Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene (Technical Monitor); Cheruiyot, K.; Cothern, J.; Huang, D.; Singh, S.; Zencir, E.; Dogan, N.

    2003-01-01

    The work aims at developing a low-power Silicon on Insulator Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (SOI CMOS) Transceiver for deep-space communications. RF Receiver must accomplish the following tasks: (a) Select the desired radio channel and reject other radio signals, (b) Amplify the desired radio signal and translate them back to baseband, and (c) Detect and decode the information with Low BER. In order to minimize cost and achieve high level of integration, receiver architecture should use least number of external filters and passive components. It should also consume least amount of power to minimize battery cost, size, and weight. One of the most stringent requirements for deep-space communication is the low-power operation. Our study identified that two candidate architectures listed in the following meet these requirements: (1) Low-IF receiver, (2) Sub-sampling receiver. The low-IF receiver uses minimum number of external components. Compared to Zero-IF (Direct conversion) architecture, it has less severe offset and flicker noise problems. The Sub-sampling receiver amplifies the RF signal and samples it using track-and-hold Subsampling mixer. These architectures provide low-power solution for the short- range communications missions on Mars. Accomplishments to date include: (1) System-level design and simulation of a Double-Differential PSK receiver, (2) Implementation of Honeywell SOI CMOS process design kit (PDK) in Cadence design tools, (3) Design of test circuits to investigate relationships between layout techniques, geometry, and low-frequency noise in SOI CMOS, (4) Model development and verification of on-chip spiral inductors in SOI CMOS process, (5) Design/implementation of low-power low-noise amplifier (LNA) and mixer for low-IF receiver, and (6) Design/implementation of high-gain LNA for sub-sampling receiver. Our initial results show that substantial improvement in power consumption is achieved using SOI CMOS as compared to standard CMOS

  14. ULF wave interaction with the ionosphere: radar and magnetometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Fedorov, Evgeniy; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Belakhovsky, Vladimir; Teramoto, Mariko

    Combined usage of SuperDARN/EISCAT radars and magnetometers, supported by an adequate theory of ULF wave interaction with the multi-layer system magnetosphere - ionosphere - atmosphere - ground, is an effective way to reveal a physical mechanism of ULF disturbances. Many notions derived only from satellite or ground observations may be challenged by additional information from radars (e.g., association of ULF phenomena with magnetospheric domains, ULF wave spatial structure, etc.). To identify the physical nature of global Pc5 pulsations at the recovery phase of strong magnetic storms and to determine relative contributions of different MHD modes into their structure, the method of apparent impedance can be applied. These Pc5 pulsations are considered using the IMAGE magnetometer data and EISCAT radar data from Tromso-Kiruna-Sodankyla system. An approximate analytical relationship derived from the theory of ULF wave transmission through the thin ionosphere has been compared with the measured ratio between the simultaneous ionospheric electric and ground magnetic fields. The impedances of Alfven and compressional modes are to be essentially distinct. From these observations we conclude that the global Pc5 pulsations above the ionosphere are predominantly composed from Alfven waves with a small contribution of fast compressional mode. Combined SuperDARN Hokkaido radar and magnetometer observations of mid-latitude Pi2 pulsations showed that the concept of a pure cavity mode is not sufficient to explain these observations, and that the contribution of an Alfvén waves must be taken in account. ULF waves are not just sounding signals, but an active factor of the near-Earth environment. The comparison of magnetometer data with the ionospheric parameters shows a significant modulation of the electron density, ionospheric height-integrated conductance, and ion temperature by Pc5 pulsations, even in the absence of quasi-periodic electron precipitation. The mechanisms

  15. Compatible quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedberg, R.; Hohenberg, P. C.

    2014-09-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call ‘compatible quantum theory (CQT)’, consists of a ‘microscopic’ part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a ‘macroscopic’ part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths (‘c-truths’), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The

  16. Compatible quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C

    2014-09-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call 'compatible quantum theory (CQT)', consists of a 'microscopic' part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a 'macroscopic' part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths ('c-truths'), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The completion of the theory

  17. Compatibility of segmented thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J.; Ursell, T.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that power generation efficiency improves when materials with appropriate properties are combined either in a cascaded or segmented fashion across a temperature gradient. Past methods for determining materials used in segmentation weremainly concerned with materials that have the highest figure of merit in the temperature range. However, the example of SiGe segmented with Bi2Te3 and/or various skutterudites shows a marked decline in device efficiency even though SiGe has the highest figure of merit in the temperature range. The origin of the incompatibility of SiGe with other thermoelectric materials leads to a general definition of compatibility and intrinsic efficiency. The compatibility factor derived as = (Jl+zr - 1) a is a function of only intrinsic material properties and temperature, which is represented by a ratio of current to conduction heat. For maximum efficiency the compatibility factor should not change with temperature both within a single material, and in the segmented leg as a whole. This leads to a measure of compatibility not only between segments, but also within a segment. General temperature trends show that materials are more self compatible at higher temperatures, and segmentation is more difficult across a larger -T. The compatibility factor can be used as a quantitative guide for deciding whether a material is better suited for segmentation orcascading. Analysis of compatibility factors and intrinsic efficiency for optimal segmentation are discussed, with intent to predict optimal material properties, temperature interfaces, and/or currentheat ratios.

  18. Compatibility of segmented thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J.; Ursell, T.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that power generation efficiency improves when materials with appropriate properties are combined either in a cascaded or segmented fashion across a temperature gradient. Past methods for determining materials used in segmentation weremainly concerned with materials that have the highest figure of merit in the temperature range. However, the example of SiGe segmented with Bi2Te3 and/or various skutterudites shows a marked decline in device efficiency even though SiGe has the highest figure of merit in the temperature range. The origin of the incompatibility of SiGe with other thermoelectric materials leads to a general definition of compatibility and intrinsic efficiency. The compatibility factor derived as = (Jl+zr - 1) a is a function of only intrinsic material properties and temperature, which is represented by a ratio of current to conduction heat. For maximum efficiency the compatibility factor should not change with temperature both within a single material, and in the segmented leg as a whole. This leads to a measure of compatibility not only between segments, but also within a segment. General temperature trends show that materials are more self compatible at higher temperatures, and segmentation is more difficult across a larger -T. The compatibility factor can be used as a quantitative guide for deciding whether a material is better suited for segmentation orcascading. Analysis of compatibility factors and intrinsic efficiency for optimal segmentation are discussed, with intent to predict optimal material properties, temperature interfaces, and/or currentheat ratios.

  19. Electron lithography STAR design guidelines. Part 3: The mosaic transistor array applied to custom microprocessors. Part 4: Stores logic arrays, SLAs implemented with clocked CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trotter, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    The Mosaic Transistor Array is an extension of the STAR system developed by NASA which has dedicated field cells designed to be specifically used in semicustom microprocessor applications. The Sandia radiation hard bulk CMOS process is utilized in order to satisfy the requirements of space flights. A design philosophy is developed which utilizes the strengths and recognizes the weaknesses of the Sandia process. A style of circuitry is developed which incorporates the low power and high drive capability of CMOS. In addition the density achieved is better than that for classic CMOS, although not as good as for NMOS. The basic logic functions for a data path are designed with compatible interface to the STAR grid system. In this manner either random logic or PLA type structures can be utilized for the control logic.

  20. UV lithography-based protein patterning on silicon: Towards the integration of bioactive surfaces and CMOS electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenci, S.; Tedeschi, L.; Pieri, F.; Domenici, C.

    2011-08-01

    A simple and fast methodology for protein patterning on silicon substrates is presented, providing an insight into possible issues related to the interaction between biological and microelectronic technologies. The method makes use of standard photoresist lithography and is oriented towards the implementation of biosensors containing Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) conditioning circuitry. Silicon surfaces with photoresist patterns were prepared and hydroxylated by means of resist- and CMOS backend-compatible solutions. Subsequent aminosilane deposition and resist lift-off in organic solvents resulted into well-controlled amino-terminated geometries. The discussion is focused on resist- and CMOS-compatibility problems related to the used chemicals. Some samples underwent gold nanoparticle (Au NP) labeling and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation, in order to investigate the quality of the silane layer. Antibodies were immobilized on other samples, which were subsequently exposed to a fluorescently labeled antigen. Fluorescence microscopy observation showed that this method provides spatially selective immobilization of protein layers onto APTES-patterned silicon samples, while preserving protein reactivity inside the desired areas and low non-specific adsorption elsewhere. Strong covalent biomolecule binding was achieved, giving stable protein layers, which allows stringent binding conditions and a good binding specificity, really useful for biosensing.

  1. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Pei-Yung; Cheng, Hsien-Chein; Huang, Shih-Shinh; Fu, Li-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 × 2,389.8 μm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP). The pixel cell size is 18.45 × 21.8 μm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 × 9.6 μm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  2. A Proton Magnetometer Survey of Borrow Areas Along Cut-Off Lake: L-246,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    ABSTRACT A proton magnetometer survey of borrow areas along the north shore of Cut-Off Lake was performed using a GEOMETRICS proton precession ...AD-A127 252 A PROTON MAGNETOMETER SURVEY OF BORROW AREAS ALONG / CUT-OFF LAKE: L-246(U) NORTHEAST MISSOURI STATE UNIV KIRKSVILLE L GRANTHAM ET AL... PROTON MAGNETOMETER SURVEY OF BORROW AREAS ALONG CUT-OFF LAKE: L-246 Prepared by Larry Grantham Research Ins tructor Northeast Missouri State University

  3. Influence of magnetic field variations on measurements by magnetometers using averaging algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, O.; Sapunov, V.; Denisov, A.

    2006-06-01

    The article is devoted to features of modulus magnetic field measurements by means of proton magnetometers. Inertial characteristics of the magnetometers and dynamic errors of variable magnetic field measurements are discussed. Three basic magnetometers averaging algorithms, processing zero crossing times of free precession, are compared. Theoretical and some numerical estimations of the algorithms work are presented for the linear, square and harmonic variations of magnetic field.

  4. Proton Magnetometer Survey of Site 3MS105, Eaker Air Force Base, Arkansas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-06

    Techniques The total magnetic field over Site 3MS105 was measured by a proton precession magnetometer (Geometrics Model G856). The apparatus consists of a...DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Unrestricted 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) Proton Magnetometer Report No. 1 6a...Classification) Proton Magnetometer Survey of Site 3MS105, Eaker Air Force Base, Arkansas I 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Linda Wadleiqh and Kevin W. Thompson 13a

  5. Graphene/Si CMOS Hybrid Hall Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Le; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Chengying; Jiang, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaomeng; Chen, Bingyan; Li, Zishen; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-07-01

    Graphene/silicon CMOS hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) should provide powerful functions which combines the ultra-high carrier mobility of graphene and the sophisticated functions of silicon CMOS ICs. But it is difficult to integrate these two kinds of heterogeneous devices on a single chip. In this work a low temperature process is developed for integrating graphene devices onto silicon CMOS ICs for the first time, and a high performance graphene/CMOS hybrid Hall IC is demonstrated. Signal amplifying/process ICs are manufactured via commercial 0.18 um silicon CMOS technology, and graphene Hall elements (GHEs) are fabricated on top of the passivation layer of the CMOS chip via a low-temperature micro-fabrication process. The sensitivity of the GHE on CMOS chip is further improved by integrating the GHE with the CMOS amplifier on the Si chip. This work not only paves the way to fabricate graphene/Si CMOS Hall ICs with much higher performance than that of conventional Hall ICs, but also provides a general method for scalable integration of graphene devices with silicon CMOS ICs via a low-temperature process.

  6. Graphene/Si CMOS hybrid hall integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Huang, Le; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Chengying; Jiang, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaomeng; Chen, Bingyan; Li, Zishen; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-07-07

    Graphene/silicon CMOS hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) should provide powerful functions which combines the ultra-high carrier mobility of graphene and the sophisticated functions of silicon CMOS ICs. But it is difficult to integrate these two kinds of heterogeneous devices on a single chip. In this work a low temperature process is developed for integrating graphene devices onto silicon CMOS ICs for the first time, and a high performance graphene/CMOS hybrid Hall IC is demonstrated. Signal amplifying/process ICs are manufactured via commercial 0.18 um silicon CMOS technology, and graphene Hall elements (GHEs) are fabricated on top of the passivation layer of the CMOS chip via a low-temperature micro-fabrication process. The sensitivity of the GHE on CMOS chip is further improved by integrating the GHE with the CMOS amplifier on the Si chip. This work not only paves the way to fabricate graphene/Si CMOS Hall ICs with much higher performance than that of conventional Hall ICs, but also provides a general method for scalable integration of graphene devices with silicon CMOS ICs via a low-temperature process.

  7. COMPATIBILITY OF BENTONITE AND DNAPLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compatibility of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (MC), and creosote with commercially available sodium bentonite pellets was evaluated using stainless steel, double-ring, falling-head permeameters. The Hydraulic conductiv...

  8. COMPATIBILITY OF BENTONITE AND DNAPLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compatibility of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (MC), and creosote with commercially available sodium bentonite pellets was evaluated using stainless steel, double-ring, falling-head permeameters. The Hydraulic conductiv...

  9. SOI-CMOS-MEMS electrothermal micromirror arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgunn, Peter J.

    A fabrication technology called SOI-CMOS-MEMS is developed to realize arrays of electrothermally actuated micromirror arrays with fill factors up to 90% and mechanical scan ranges up to +/-45°. SOI-CMOS-MEMS features bonding of a CMOS-MEMS folded electrothermal actuator chip with a SOI mirror chip. Actuators and micromirrors are separately released using Bosch-type and isotropic Si etch processes. A 1-D, 3 x 3 SOI-CMOS-MEMS mirror array is characterized at a 1 mm scale that meets fill factor and scan range targets with a power sensitivity of 1.9 deg·m W-1 and -0.9 deg·m W-1 on inner and outer actuator legs, respectively. Issues preventing fabrication of SOI-CMOS-MEMS micromirror arrays designed for 1-D and 3-D motion at scales from 500 microm to 50 microm are discussed. Electrothermomechanical analytic models of power response of a generic folded actuator topology are developed that provide insight into the trends in actuator behavior for actuator design elements such as beam geometry and heater type, among others. Adverse power and scan range scaling and favorable speed scaling are demonstrated. Mechanical constraints on device geometry are derived. Detailed material, process, test structure and device characterization is presented that demonstrates the consistency of measured device behavior with analytic models. A unified model for aspect ratio dependent etch modulation is developed that achieves depth prediction accuracy of better than 10% up to 160 microm depth over a range of feature shapes and dimensions. The technique is applied extensively in the SOI-CMOS-MEMS process to produce deep multi-level structures in Si with a single etch mask and to control uniformity and feature profiles. TiW attack during release etch is shown to be the driving factor in mirror coplanarity loss. The effect is due to thermally accelerated etching caused by heating of released structures by the exothermic reaction of Si and F. The effect is quantified using in situ infrared

  10. The analysis and system design for MCG measurement based on optically pumped cesium magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhang; Chong, Kang; Wang, Qingtao; Lei, Cheng; Zheng, Caiping

    2010-11-01

    At present, laser optical pumping magnetometer of sensitivity is continuous improved and can measure the range from Earth magnetic field to the bio-magnetic field. In the bio-magnetic field, magnetocardiography (MCG) is paid also more and more attention. In this paper, we will discuss cesium optically pumped magnetometer theoretical analysis, system design, the magnetic field gradient measuring principle. On this basis, we build optically pumped magnetometer in a gradient structure for the cardiac magnetic measurements and filter through the wavelet transform. Based on optical pumping magnetometer measuring MCG will be applied in life science, clinical medicine and other fields.

  11. High-Tc SQUID Magnetometers for Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diiorio, Mark; Yang, Kai-Yueh; Yoshizumi, Shozo; Haupt, Steven; Haran, Don; Koch, Roger; Lathrop, Dan; Trammel, Hoke

    1998-03-01

    We have developed high-Tc SQUID magnetometers for use in a variety of industrial applications. Relatively inexpensive direct-coupled magnetometers have been developed for low-frequency applications including fetal-magnetocardiography. A manufacturable process has been developed to reproducibly fabricate high-resistance (up to 6 Ω) SNS step-edge junctions with YBa_2Cu_3O_7-x as the superconductor and Ag-Au alloy as the normal metal. Magnetic field sensitivities at 77K of 22 ft/Hz^1/2 at 1 KHz and 32 ft/Hz^1/2 at 1 Hz have been achieved in a well-shielded laboratory environment. Current effort is focused on operation in an unshielded environment using flux dams(Milliken et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 1857 (1997)) in conjunction with narrow superconducting pickup coils placed in parallel. An integrated magnetometer process has also been optimized for use in high-frequency applications. The integrated megnetometer utilizes two layers of YBa_2Cu_3O_7-x and one layer of deposited SrTiO_3, all on the same 24 mm x 5 mm substrate. The applications under development include the detection of the explosive material in non-metallic land mines using nuclear quadrupole resonance as well as the non-destructive evaluation of non-metallic composites using nuclear magnetic resonance. For operation in the MHz regime, these applications demand a high quality insulator layer and a robust SQUID that can withstand high current transients.

  12. Russian auroral and polar ionospheric disturbance magnetometers (RapidMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Meng, C. I.; Barnes, R. J.; Zetzer, J.; Troshichev, O.; Janzhura, A.; Kunitake, M.; Watari, S.; Iyemori, T.; Nosé, M.; Keiling, A.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2007-12-01

    Since their introduction by Davis and Sugiura in 1966, the auroral electrojet indices AE, AU, and AL have been widely used to study ionospheric and magnetospheric phenomena associated with substorms as well as input to magnetospheric and ionospheric models. While rapid delivery of the indices is highly desirable in the context of both ongoing scientific observations and space weather applications, production of near-real-time AE indices remains a difficult task. A major challenge is acquisition of near-real-time magnetometer data from Russian auroral zone stations, some of which are at remote locations with harsh natural environment and without well- established infrastructure for data transmission. The stations cover approximately 6 time zones, and missing data from the stations means a serious degradation of the AE indices. The Russian auroral and polar ionospheric disturbance Magnetometer (RapidMag) project is an international collaboration to enable rapid and stable acquisition of ground magnetometer data from Russian stations in the auroral zone for production of near- real-time AE indices as well as for distribution of data from individual stations to the science community. The six RapidMag stations are Amderma (65.1N, 138.1E, degrees, geomagnetic), Dikson Island (68.5N, 156.2E), Norilsk (64.6N, 161.9E), Cape Chelyuskin (71.8N, 175.6E), Tixie (65.9°N, 196.9°E), and Pebek (65.3°N, 228.8E). The RapidMag project is entering a new phase with recent funding from NSF and NASA. We present the current status of the project and our plan for the next 5 years.

  13. Opportunity Science Using the Juno Magnetometer Investigation Star Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joergensen, J. L.; Connerney, J. E.; Bang, A. M.; Denver, T.; Oliversen, R. J.; Benn, M.; Lawton, P.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetometer experiment onboard Juno is equipped with four non-magnetic star tracker camera heads, two of which reside on each of the magnetometer sensor optical benches. These are located 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. The star tracker, collectively referred to as the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), provides high accuracy attitude information for the magnetometer sensors throughout science operations. The star tracker camera heads are pointed +/- 13 deg off the spin vector, in the anti-sun direction, imaging a 13 x 20 deg field of view every ¼ second as Juno rotates at 1 or 2 rpm. The ASC is a fully autonomous star tracker, producing a time series of attitude quaternions for each camera head, utilizing a suite of internal support functions. These include imaging capabilities, autonomous object tracking, automatic dark-sky monitoring, and related capabilities; these internal functions may be accessed via telecommand. During Juno's cruise phase, this capability can be tapped to provide unique science and engineering data available along the Juno trajectory. We present a few examples of the JUNO ASC opportunity science here. As the Juno spacecraft approached the Earth-Moon system for the close encounter with the Earth on October 9, 2013, one of the ASC camera heads obtained imagery of the Earth-Moon system while the other three remained in full science (attitude determination) operation. This enabled the first movie of the Earth and Moon obtained by a spacecraft flying past the Earth in gravity assist. We also use the many artificial satellites in orbit about the Earth as calibration targets for the autonomous asteroid detection system inherent to the ASC autonomous star tracker. We shall also profile the zodiacal dust disk, using the interstellar image data, and present the outlook for small asteroid body detection and distribution being performed during Juno's passage from Earth flyby to Jovian orbit

  14. Post-CMOS selective electroplating technique for the improvement of CMOS-MEMS accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Ming-Han; Tang, Tsung-Lin; Fang, Weileun

    2011-10-01

    This study presents a simple approach to improve the performance of the CMOS-MEMS capacitive accelerometer by means of the post-CMOS metal electroplating process. The metal layer can be selectively electroplated on the MEMS structures at low temperature and the thickness of the metal layer can be easily adjusted by this process. Thus the performance of the capacitive accelerometer (i.e. sensitivity, noise floor and the minimum detectable signal) can be improved. In application, the proposed accelerometers have been implemented using (1) the standard CMOS 0.35 µm 2P4M process by CMOS foundry, (2) Ti/Au seed layers deposition/patterning by MEMS foundry and (3) in-house post-CMOS electroplating and releasing processes. Measurements indicate that the sensitivity is improved 2.85-fold, noise is decreased near 1.7-fold and the minimum detectable signal is improved from 1 to 0.2 G after nickel electroplating. Moreover, unwanted structure deformation due to the temperature variation is significantly suppressed by electroplated nickel.

  15. Four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Anthony P.; Carter, Tony R.; Borna, Amir; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Johnson, Cort N.; Dagel, Amber L.; Schwindt, Peter D. D.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) that incorporates a passive diffractive optical element (DOE). The DOE allows us to achieve a long, 18-mm gradiometer baseline in a compact footprint on the head. Using gradiometry, the sensitivities of the channels are < 5 fT/Hz1/2, and the 3-dB bandwidths are approximately 90 Hz, which are both sufficient to perform MEG. Additionally, the channels are highly uniform, which offers the possibility of employing standard MEG post-processing techniques. This module will serve as a building block of an array for magnetic source localization. PMID:27410816

  16. Four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Anthony P; Carter, Tony R; Borna, Amir; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Johnson, Cort N; Dagel, Amber L; Schwindt, Peter D D

    2016-07-11

    We have developed a four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) that incorporates a passive diffractive optical element (DOE). The DOE allows us to achieve a long, 18-mm gradiometer baseline in a compact footprint on the head. Using gradiometry, the sensitivities of the channels are < 5 fT/Hz1/2, and the 3-dB bandwidths are approximately 90 Hz, which are both sufficient to perform MEG. Additionally, the channels are highly uniform, which offers the possibility of employing standard MEG post-processing techniques. This module will serve as a building block of an array for magnetic source localization.

  17. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Swarupananda

    2016-09-01

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  18. Reconstructing tethered satellite skiprope motion by bandpass filtering magnetometer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a unique scheme for reconstructing tethered satellite skiprope motion by ground processing satellite magnetometer measurements. The measurements are modified based on ground knowledge of the earth's magnetic field and passed through bandpass filters tuned to the skiprope frequency. Skiprope motion is then deduced from the steady-state outputs of the filters. Simulation results are presented which verify the scheme and show it to be robust. The concept is not just limited to tethered satellites. Indeed, it can be applied whenever there is a need to reconstruct the coning motion of a body about a known axis, given measurements of a known vector in body-fixed axes.

  19. Measurement quality estimation of proton-precession magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, A. Y.; Denisova, O. V.; Sapunov, V. A.; Khomutov, S. Y.

    2006-06-01

    A method for calculating quality estimation of the magnetic field value measured by proton-precession magnetometers from data of single measurement is presented. This method is appropriate for frequency measurement algorithms which process time-series of signal's zero crossing. Expressions for measurement error estimation are obtained taking into account signal decay and correlated noise. Presented formulas allow a result reliability to be estimated immediately in single measurement and give an opportunity for complex control of a device performance. Correlation and relaxation corrections are given. It was experimentally tested that the standard deviation of measurements is in a good qualitative agreement with presented error estimation.

  20. Stray magnetic field compensation with a scalar atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfi, J.; Bevilacqua, G.; Biancalana, V.; Cecchi, R.; Dancheva, Y.; Moi, L.

    2010-06-01

    We describe a system for the compensation of time-dependent stray magnetic fields using a dual channel scalar magnetometer based on nonlinear Faraday rotation in synchronously optically pumped Cs vapor. We detail the active control strategy, with an emphasis on the electronic circuitry, based on a simple phase-locked-loop integrated circuit. The performance and limits of the system developed are tested and discussed. The system was applied to significantly improve the detection of free induction decay signals from protons of remotely magnetized water precessing in an ultralow magnetic field.